Wilson loops in warped resolved deformed conifolds
Bennett, Stephen
2011-11-15
We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the relationship between the expectation value of the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. In particular, we examine the possibility of there being a minimum separation for probe strings which do not penetrate close to the origin of the bulk space, and derive a condition which determines whether this is the case. We then apply these considerations to the flavoured resolved deformed conifold background of Gaillard et al. (2010) . We suggest that the unusual behaviour that we observe in this solution is likely to be related to the IR singularity which is not present in the unflavoured case. - Highlights: > We calculate quark-antiquark potentials using the Wilson loop and the action of a probe string in the string dual. > We review and categorise the possible forms of the dependence of the energy on the separation between the quarks. > We look in particular at the flavoured resolved deformed conifold. > There appears to be unusual behaviour which seems likely to be related to the IR singularity introduced by flavours.
Closed Loop System Identification with Genetic Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whorton, Mark S.
2004-01-01
High performance control design for a flexible space structure is challenging since high fidelity plant models are di.cult to obtain a priori. Uncertainty in the control design models typically require a very robust, low performance control design which must be tuned on-orbit to achieve the required performance. Closed loop system identi.cation is often required to obtain a multivariable open loop plant model based on closed-loop response data. In order to provide an accurate initial plant model to guarantee convergence for standard local optimization methods, this paper presents a global parameter optimization method using genetic algorithms. A minimal representation of the state space dynamics is employed to mitigate the non-uniqueness and over-parameterization of general state space realizations. This control-relevant system identi.cation procedure stresses the joint nature of the system identi.cation and control design problem by seeking to obtain a model that minimizes the di.erence between the predicted and actual closed-loop performance.
A hybrid genetic algorithm for resolving closely spaced objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbott, R. J.; Lillo, W. E.; Schulenburg, N.
1995-01-01
A hybrid genetic algorithm is described for performing the difficult optimization task of resolving closely spaced objects appearing in space based and ground based surveillance data. This application of genetic algorithms is unusual in that it uses a powerful domain-specific operation as a genetic operator. Results of applying the algorithm to real data from telescopic observations of a star field are presented.
A worm algorithm for the fully-packed loop model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wei; Garoni, Timothy M.; Deng, Youjin
2009-06-01
We present a Markov-chain Monte Carlo algorithm of worm type that correctly simulates the fully-packed loop model with n=1 on the honeycomb lattice, and we prove that it is ergodic and has uniform stationary distribution. The honeycomb-lattice fully-packed loop model with n=1 is equivalent to the zero-temperature triangular-lattice antiferromagnetic Ising model, which is fully frustrated and notoriously difficult to simulate. We test this worm algorithm numerically and estimate the dynamic exponent z=0.515(8). We also measure several static quantities of interest, including loop-length and face-size moments. It appears numerically that the face-size moments are governed by the magnetic dimension for percolation.
Mapping nested loop algorithms into multidimensional systolic arrays
Lee, P.Z. ); Kedem, Z.M. )
1990-01-01
This paper is concerned with transforming depth p-nested for loop algorithms into q-dimensional systolic VLSI arrays where 1 {le} q {le} p {minus} 1. Previously there existed complete characterizations of correct transformations only for the cases when q = p {minus} 1 or q = 1. The authors fill in this gap by giving formal necessary and sufficient conditions for correct transformation of a p-nested loop algorithm into a q-dimensional systolic array for any q, 1 {le} q {le} p {minus} 1. They also provide practical methods to derive optimal or suboptimal systolic array implementations. They apply the techniques developed by us to the automatic design of special purpose and programmable systolic arrays. The author's results also contribute towards automatic compilation onto more general purpose programmable arrays. Synthesis of linear and planar systolic array implementations for a three-dimensional cube-graph algorithm and a reindexed Warshall-Floyd pathfinding algorithm is used to illustrate our method.
Some Algorithms For Simulating Size-resolved Aerosol Dynamics Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debry, E.; Sportisse, B.
The objective of this presentation is to show some algorithms used to solve aerosol dynamics in 3D dispersion models. INTRODUCTION The gas phase pollution has been widely studied and some models are now available . The situation is quite different with respect to atmospheric aerosols . However at- mospheric particulate matter significantly influences atmospheric properties such as radiative balance, cloud formation, gas pollutants concentrations ( gas to particle con- version ), and has an impact on man health. As aerosols properties ( optical, hygroscopic, noxiousness ) depend mainly on their size, it appears important to be able to follow the aerosol ( or particle ) size distribution (PSD) during time. This former is modified by physical processes as coagulation, condensation or evaporation, nucleation and removal. Aerosol dynamics is usually modelized by the well-known General Dynamics Equation (GDE) [1]. MODELS Several models already exist to solve this equation. Multi-modal models are widely used [2] [3] because of the few parameters needed, but the GDE is solved only on its moments and the PSD is assumed to remain in a log-normal form. On the contrary, size-resolved models implies a discretization of the aerosol size spec- trum into several bins and to solve the GDE within each one. This step can be per- formed either by resolving each process separately ( splitting ), for example coagula- tion can be resolved by the well-known "size-binning" algorithms [4] and condensa- tion leads to an advection equation on the PSD [5], or by coupling all processes, what the finite elements [6] and stochastic methods [7] allows. Stochastic algorithms may not be competitive compared to deterministic ones with respect to the computation time, but they provide reference solutions useful to validate more operational codes on realistic cases, as analytic solutions of the GDE exist only for academic cases. REFERENCES [1] Seinfeld, J.H. and Pandis,S.N. Atmospheric chemistry and
RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.
2016-02-01
We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Seung-Han; Cho, Young Man; Hahn, Jin-Oh
2013-04-01
This study presents a component-level failure detection and identification (FDI) algorithm for a cascade mechanical system subsuming a plant driven by an actuator unit. The novelty of the FDI algorithm presented in this study is that it is able to discriminate failure occurring in the actuator unit, the sensor measuring the output of the actuator unit, and the plant driven by the actuator unit. The proposed FDI algorithm exploits the measurement of the actuator unit output together with its estimates generated by open-loop (OL) and closed-loop (CL) estimators to enable FDI at the component's level. In this study, the OL estimator is designed based on the system identification of the actuator unit. The CL estimator, which is guaranteed to be stable against variations in the plant, is synthesized based on the dynamics of the entire cascade system. The viability of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS), which shows that it can detect and identify target failures reliably in the presence of plant uncertainties.
The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley
In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with
A genetic algorithm based molecular modeling technique for RNA stem-loop structures.
Ogata, H; Akiyama, Y; Kanehisa, M
1995-01-01
A new modeling technique for arriving at the three dimensional (3-D) structure of an RNA stem-loop has been developed based on a conformational search by a genetic algorithm and the following refinement by energy minimization. The genetic algorithm simultaneously optimizes a population of conformations in the predefined conformational space and generates 3-D models of RNA. The fitness function to be optimized by the algorithm has been defined to reflect the satisfaction of known conformational constraints. In addition to a term for distance constraints, the fitness function contains a term to constrain each local conformation near to a prepared template conformation. The technique has been applied to the two loops of tRNA, the anticodon loop and the T-loop, and has found good models with small root mean square deviations from the crystal structure. Slightly different models have also been found for the anticodon loop. The analysis of a collection of alternative models obtained has revealed statistical features of local variations at each base position. Images PMID:7533901
Phase Reconstruction from FROG Using Genetic Algorithms[Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating
Omenetto, F.G.; Nicholson, J.W.; Funk, D.J.; Taylor, A.J.
1999-04-12
The authors describe a new technique for obtaining the phase and electric field from FROG measurements using genetic algorithms. Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) has gained prominence as a technique for characterizing ultrashort pulses. FROG consists of a spectrally resolved autocorrelation of the pulse to be measured. Typically a combination of iterative algorithms is used, applying constraints from experimental data, and alternating between the time and frequency domain, in order to retrieve an optical pulse. The authors have developed a new approach to retrieving the intensity and phase from FROG data using a genetic algorithm (GA). A GA is a general parallel search technique that operates on a population of potential solutions simultaneously. Operators in a genetic algorithm, such as crossover, selection, and mutation are based on ideas taken from evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Feifei; Simpson, Angus R.; Zecchin, Aaron C.
2011-08-01
This paper proposes a novel optimization approach for the least cost design of looped water distribution systems (WDSs). Three distinct steps are involved in the proposed optimization approach. In the first step, the shortest-distance tree within the looped network is identified using the Dijkstra graph theory algorithm, for which an extension is proposed to find the shortest-distance tree for multisource WDSs. In the second step, a nonlinear programming (NLP) solver is employed to optimize the pipe diameters for the shortest-distance tree (chords of the shortest-distance tree are allocated the minimum allowable pipe sizes). Finally, in the third step, the original looped water network is optimized using a differential evolution (DE) algorithm seeded with diameters in the proximity of the continuous pipe sizes obtained in step two. As such, the proposed optimization approach combines the traditional deterministic optimization technique of NLP with the emerging evolutionary algorithm DE via the proposed network decomposition. The proposed methodology has been tested on four looped WDSs with the number of decision variables ranging from 21 to 454. Results obtained show the proposed approach is able to find optimal solutions with significantly less computational effort than other optimization techniques.
A self-adaptive genetic algorithm to estimate JA model parameters considering minor loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Hai-liang; Wen, Xi-shan; Lan, Lei; An, Yun-zhu; Li, Xiao-ping
2015-01-01
A self-adaptive genetic algorithm for estimating Jiles-Atherton (JA) magnetic hysteresis model parameters is presented. The fitness function is established based on the distances between equidistant key points of normalized hysteresis loops. Linearity function and logarithm function are both adopted to code the five parameters of JA model. Roulette wheel selection is used and the selection pressure is adjusted adaptively by deducting a proportional which depends on current generation common value. The Crossover operator is established by combining arithmetic crossover and multipoint crossover. Nonuniform mutation is improved by adjusting the mutation ratio adaptively. The algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of one kind of silicon-steel sheet's hysteresis loops, and the results are in good agreement with published data.
Ravari, Alireza Norouzzadeh; Taghirad, Hamid D
2014-10-01
In this paper the problem of loop closing from depth or camera image information in an unknown environment is investigated. A sparse model is constructed from a parametric dictionary for every range or camera image as mobile robot observations. In contrast to high-dimensional feature-based representations, in this model, the dimension of the sensor measurements' representations is reduced. Considering the loop closure detection as a clustering problem in high-dimensional space, little attention has been paid to the curse of dimensionality in the existing state-of-the-art algorithms. In this paper, a representation is developed from a sparse model of images, with a lower dimension than original sensor observations. Exploiting the algorithmic information theory, the representation is developed such that it has the geometrically transformation invariant property in the sense of Kolmogorov complexity. A universal normalized metric is used for comparison of complexity based representations of image models. Finally, a distinctive property of normalized compression distance is exploited for detecting similar places and rejecting incorrect loop closure candidates. Experimental results show efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method in comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms and some recently proposed methods. PMID:24968363
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Carson, John M., III
2006-01-01
A robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed that guarantees resolvability. With resolvability, initial feasibility of the finite-horizon optimal control problem implies future feasibility in a receding-horizon framework. The control consists of two components; (i) feed-forward, and (ii) feedback part. Feed-forward control is obtained by online solution of a finite-horizon optimal control problem for the nominal system dynamics. The feedback control policy is designed off-line based on a bound on the uncertainty in the system model. The entire controller is shown to be robustly stabilizing with a region of attraction composed of initial states for which the finite-horizon optimal control problem is feasible. The controller design for this algorithm is demonstrated on a class of systems with uncertain nonlinear terms that have norm-bounded derivatives and derivatives in polytopes. An illustrative numerical example is also provided.
Design and analysis of closed-loop decoder adaptation algorithms for brain-machine interfaces.
Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L; Moorman, Helene G; Carmena, Jose M
2013-07-01
Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for achieving rapid performance improvements in online brain-machine interface (BMI) operation. Designing an effective CLDA algorithm requires making multiple important decisions, including choosing the timescale of adaptation, selecting which decoder parameters to adapt, crafting the corresponding update rules, and designing CLDA parameters. These design choices, combined with the specific settings of CLDA parameters, will directly affect the algorithm's ability to make decoder parameters converge to values that optimize performance. In this article, we present a general framework for the design and analysis of CLDA algorithms and support our results with experimental data of two monkeys performing a BMI task. First, we analyze and compare existing CLDA algorithms to highlight the importance of four critical design elements: the adaptation timescale, selective parameter adaptation, smooth decoder updates, and intuitive CLDA parameters. Second, we introduce mathematical convergence analysis using measures such as mean-squared error and KL divergence as a useful paradigm for evaluating the convergence properties of a prototype CLDA algorithm before experimental testing. By applying these measures to an existing CLDA algorithm, we demonstrate that our convergence analysis is an effective analytical tool that can ultimately inform and improve the design of CLDA algorithms. PMID:23607558
Learning tensegrity locomotion using open-loop control signals and coevolutionary algorithms.
Iscen, Atil; Caluwaerts, Ken; Bruce, Jonathan; Agogino, Adrian; SunSpiral, Vytas; Tumer, Kagan
2015-01-01
Soft robots offer many advantages over traditional rigid robots. However, soft robots can be difficult to control with standard control methods. Fortunately, evolutionary algorithms can offer an elegant solution to this problem. Instead of creating controls to handle the intricate dynamics of these robots, we can simply evolve the controls using a simulation to provide an evaluation function. In this article, we show how such a control paradigm can be applied to an emerging field within soft robotics: robots based on tensegrity structures. We take the model of the Spherical Underactuated Planetary Exploration Robot ball (SUPERball), an icosahedron tensegrity robot under production at NASA Ames Research Center, develop a rolling locomotion algorithm, and study the learned behavior using an accurate model of the SUPERball simulated in the NASA Tensegrity Robotics Toolkit. We first present the historical-average fitness-shaping algorithm for coevolutionary algorithms to speed up learning while favoring robustness over optimality. Second, we use a distributed control approach by coevolving open-loop control signals for each controller. Being simple and distributed, open-loop controllers can be readily implemented on SUPERball hardware without the need for sensor information or precise coordination. We analyze signals of different complexities and frequencies. Among the learned policies, we take one of the best and use it to analyze different aspects of the rolling gait, such as lengths, tensions, and energy consumption. We also discuss the correlation between the signals controlling different parts of the tensegrity robot. PMID:25951199
Algorithms for a Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas: The Case for Model Predictive Control
Bequette, B. Wayne
2013-01-01
The relative merits of model predictive control (MPC) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control are discussed, with the end goal of a closed-loop artificial pancreas (AP). It is stressed that neither MPC nor PID are single algorithms, but rather are approaches or strategies that may be implemented very differently by different engineers. The primary advantages to MPC are that (i) constraints on the insulin delivery rate (and/or insulin on board) can be explicitly included in the control calculation; (ii) it is a general framework that makes it relatively easy to include the effect of meals, exercise, and other events that are a function of the time of day; and (iii) it is flexible enough to include many different objectives, from set-point tracking (target) to zone (control to range). In the end, however, it is recognized that the control algorithm, while important, represents only a portion of the effort required to develop a closed-loop AP. Thus, any number of algorithms/approaches can be successful—the engineers involved in the design must have experience with the particular technique, including the important experience of implementing the algorithm in human studies and not simply through simulation studies. PMID:24351190
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sochi, Taha
2016-09-01
Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton and global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of computational fluid dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Liu, Haiguang; Spence, John C.H.
2014-01-01
Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these ‘stills’. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity), the method is validated. PMID:25485120
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spurr, Robert J. D.
1997-01-01
Global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) level 2 products of total ozone column amounts have been generated on a routine operational basis since July 1996. These products and the level 1 radiance products are the major outputs from the ERS-2 ground segment GOME data processor (GDP) at DLR in Germany. Off-line scientific work has already shown the feasibility of ozone profile retrieval from GOME. It is demonstrated how the retrievals can be performed in an operational context. Height-resolved retrieval is based on the optimal estimation technique, #and cloud-contaminated scenes are treated in an equivalent reflecting surface approximation. The prototype must be able to handle GOME measurements routinely on a global basis. Requirements for the major components of the algorithm are described: this incorporates an overall strategy for operational height-resolved retrieval from GOME.
Battery algorithm verification and development using hardware-in-the-loop testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yongsheng; Liu, Wei; Koch, Brain J.
Battery algorithms play a vital role in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs), and electric vehicles (EVs). The energy management of hybrid and electric propulsion systems needs to rely on accurate information on the state of the battery in order to determine the optimal electric drive without abusing the battery. In this study, a cell-level hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system is used to verify and develop state of charge (SOC) and power capability predictions of embedded battery algorithms for various vehicle applications. Two different batteries were selected as representative examples to illustrate the battery algorithm verification and development procedure. One is a lithium-ion battery with a conventional metal oxide cathode, which is a power battery for HEV applications. The other is a lithium-ion battery with an iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) cathode, which is an energy battery for applications in PHEVs, EREVs, and EVs. The battery cell HIL testing provided valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms, to accelerate battery algorithm future development and improvement, and to reduce hybrid/electric vehicle system development time and costs.
Closed loop, DM diversity-based, wavefront correction algorithm for high contrast imaging systems.
Give'on, Amir; Belikov, Ruslan; Shaklan, Stuart; Kasdin, Jeremy
2007-09-17
High contrast imaging from space relies on coronagraphs to limit diffraction and a wavefront control systems to compensate for imperfections in both the telescope optics and the coronagraph. The extreme contrast required (up to 10(-10) for terrestrial planets) puts severe requirements on the wavefront control system, as the achievable contrast is limited by the quality of the wavefront. This paper presents a general closed loop correction algorithm for high contrast imaging coronagraphs by minimizing the energy in a predefined region in the image where terrestrial planets could be found. The estimation part of the algorithm reconstructs the complex field in the image plane using phase diversity caused by the deformable mirror. This method has been shown to achieve faster and better correction than classical speckle nulling. PMID:19547602
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Behcet A.; Carson, John M., III
2005-01-01
A robustly stabilizing MPC (model predictive control) algorithm for uncertain nonlinear systems is developed that guarantees the resolvability of the associated finite-horizon optimal control problem in a receding-horizon implementation. The control consists of two components; (i) feedforward, and (ii) feedback part. Feed-forward control is obtained by online solution of a finite-horizon optimal control problem for the nominal system dynamics. The feedback control policy is designed off-line based on a bound on the uncertainty in the system model. The entire controller is shown to be robustly stabilizing with a region of attraction composed of initial states for which the finite-horizon optimal control problem is feasible. The controller design for this algorithm is demonstrated on a class of systems with uncertain nonlinear terms that have norm-bounded derivatives, and derivatives in polytopes. An illustrative numerical example is also provided.
Scott, Daniel R.; Vardeman, Charles F.; Corcelli, Steven A.; Baker, Brian M.
2012-01-01
Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TRFA) has a rich history in evaluating protein dynamics. Yet as often employed, TRFA assumes that the motional properties of a covalently tethered fluorescent probe accurately portray the motional properties of the protein backbone at the probe attachment site. In an extensive survey using TRFA to study the dynamics of the binding loops of a αβ T cell receptor, we observed multiple discrepancies between the TRFA data and previously published results that led us to question this assumption. We thus simulated several of the experimentally probed systems using a protocol that permitted accurate determination of probe and protein time correlation functions. We found excellent agreement in the decays of the experimental and simulated correlation functions. However, the motional properties of the probe were poorly correlated with those of the backbone of both the labeled and unlabeled protein. Our results warrant caution in the interpretation of TRFA data and suggest further studies to ascertain the extent to which probe dynamics reflect those of the protein backbone. Meanwhile, the agreement between experiment and computation validates the use of molecular dynamics simulations as an accurate tool for exploring the molecular motion of T cell receptors and their binding loops. PMID:23260055
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajaram, Vignesh; Subramanian, Shankar C.
2016-07-01
An important aspect from the perspective of operational safety of heavy road vehicles is the detection and avoidance of collisions, particularly at high speeds. The development of a collision avoidance system is the overall focus of the research presented in this paper. The collision avoidance algorithm was developed using a sliding mode controller (SMC) and compared to one developed using linear full state feedback in terms of performance and controller effort. Important dynamic characteristics such as load transfer during braking, tyre-road interaction, dynamic brake force distribution and pneumatic brake system response were considered. The effect of aerodynamic drag on the controller performance was also studied. The developed control algorithms have been implemented on a Hardware-in-Loop experimental set-up equipped with the vehicle dynamic simulation software, IPG/TruckMaker®. The evaluation has been performed for realistic traffic scenarios with different loading and road conditions. The Hardware-in-Loop experimental results showed that the SMC and full state feedback controller were able to prevent the collision. However, when the discrepancies in the form of parametric variations were included, the SMC provided better results in terms of reduced stopping distance and lower controller effort compared to the full state feedback controller.
Synthetic line-of-sight algorithms for hardware-in-the-loop simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richard, Henri; Lowman, Alan; Ballard, Gary
2005-05-01
During the flight of guided submunitions, translation of the missile with respect to the designated aimpoint causes a rotation of the Line-of-Sight (LOS) in inertial space. Large transmit arrays or 5 axis CARCO tables are used to perform True LOS (TLOS) for in-band simulations. Both of these TLOS approaches have cost or fidelity issues for RF seekers. Typically RF Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulations of these guided submunitions are mounted on a Three Axes Rotational Flight Simulator (TARFS), which is not capable of translation, and utilize a 2 to 3 seeker beam width transmit array. This necessitates using a Synthetic Line-of-Sight (SLOS) algorithm with the TARFS in order to maintain the proper line-of-sight orientation during all phases of flight which typically includes largely varying LOS motion. This paper presents a simple explanation depicting TLOS and SLOS (TARFS) geometry and the seamless boresight/target SLOS algorithm utilized in AMRDEC's RF4 facility for a test article flight profile. In conclusion this paper will summarize the current state of SLOS algorithms utilized at AMRDEC and challenges and possible solutions envisioned in the near future.
Pre-Hardware Optimization and Implementation Of Fast Optics Closed Control Loop Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kizhner, Semion; Lyon, Richard G.; Herman, Jay R.; Abuhassan, Nader
2004-01-01
One of the main heritage tools used in scientific and engineering data spectrum analysis is the Fourier Integral Transform and its high performance digital equivalent - the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The FFT is particularly useful in two-dimensional (2-D) image processing (FFT2) within optical systems control. However, timing constraints of a fast optics closed control loop would require a supercomputer to run the software implementation of the FFT2 and its inverse, as well as other image processing representative algorithm, such as numerical image folding and fringe feature extraction. A laboratory supercomputer is not always available even for ground operations and is not feasible for a night project. However, the computationally intensive algorithms still warrant alternative implementation using reconfigurable computing technologies (RC) such as Digital Signal Processors (DSP) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), which provide low cost compact super-computing capabilities. We present a new RC hardware implementation and utilization architecture that significantly reduces the computational complexity of a few basic image-processing algorithm, such as FFT2, image folding and phase diversity for the NASA Solar Viewing Interferometer Prototype (SVIP) using a cluster of DSPs and FPGAs. The DSP cluster utilization architecture also assures avoidance of a single point of failure, while using commercially available hardware. This, combined with the control algorithms pre-hardware optimization, or the first time allows construction of image-based 800 Hertz (Hz) optics closed control loops on-board a spacecraft, based on the SVIP ground instrument. That spacecraft is the proposed Earth Atmosphere Solar Occultation Imager (EASI) to study greenhouse gases CO2, C2H, H2O, O3, O2, N2O from Lagrange-2 point in space. This paper provides an advanced insight into a new type of science capabilities for future space exploration missions based on on-board image processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weston, Joseph; Waintal, Xavier
2016-04-01
We report on a "source-sink" algorithm which allows one to calculate time-resolved physical quantities from a general nanoelectronic quantum system (described by an arbitrary time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian) connected to infinite electrodes. Although mathematically equivalent to the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, the approach is based on the scattering wave functions of the system. It amounts to solving a set of generalized Schrödinger equations that include an additional "source" term (coming from the time-dependent perturbation) and an absorbing "sink" term (the electrodes). The algorithm execution time scales linearly with both system size and simulation time, allowing one to simulate large systems (currently around 106 degrees of freedom) and/or large times (currently around 105 times the smallest time scale of the system). As an application we calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a Josephson junction for both short and long junctions, and recover the multiple Andreev reflection physics. We also discuss two intrinsically time-dependent situations: the relaxation time of a Josephson junction after a quench of the voltage bias, and the propagation of voltage pulses through a Josephson junction. In the case of a ballistic, long Josephson junction, we predict that a fast voltage pulse creates an oscillatory current whose frequency is controlled by the Thouless energy of the normal part. A similar effect is found for short junctions; a voltage pulse produces an oscillating current which, in the absence of electromagnetic environment, does not relax.
Wang, Libing; Mao, Chengxiong; Wang, Dan; Lu, Jiming; Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Xun
2014-01-01
In order to control the cascaded H-bridges (CHB) converter with staircase modulation strategy in a real-time manner, a real-time and closed-loop control algorithm based on artificial neural network (ANN) for three-phase CHB converter is proposed in this paper. It costs little computation time and memory. It has two steps. In the first step, hierarchical particle swarm optimizer with time-varying acceleration coefficient (HPSO-TVAC) algorithm is employed to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) and generate the optimal switching angles offline. In the second step, part of optimal switching angles are used to train an ANN and the well-designed ANN can generate optimal switching angles in a real-time manner. Compared with previous real-time algorithm, the proposed algorithm is suitable for a wider range of modulation index and results in a smaller THD and a lower calculation time. Furthermore, the well-designed ANN is embedded into a closed-loop control algorithm for CHB converter with variable direct voltage (DC) sources. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed closed-loop control algorithm is able to quickly stabilize load voltage and minimize the line current's THD (<5%) when subjecting the DC sources disturbance or load disturbance. In real design stage, a switching angle pulse generation scheme is proposed and experiment results verify its correctness. PMID:24772025
A real-time pressure estimation algorithm for closed-loop combustion control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Durra, Ahmed; Canova, Marcello; Yurkovich, Stephen
2013-07-01
The cylinder pressure is arguably the most important variable characterizing the combustion process in internal combustion engines. In light of the recent advances in combustion technologies and in engine control, the use of cylinder pressure is now frequently considered as a feedback signal for closed-loop combustion control algorithms. In order to generate an accurate pressure trace for real-time combustion control and diagnostics, the output of the in-cylinder pressure transducer must be conditioned with signal processing methods to mitigate the well-known issues of offset and noise. While several techniques have been proposed for processing the cylinder pressure signal with limited computational burden, most of the available methods still require one to apply low-pass filters or moving average windows in order to mitigate the noise. This ultimately limits the opportunity of exploiting the in-cylinder pressure feedback for a cycle-by-cycle control of the combustion process. To this extent, this paper presents an estimation algorithm that extracts the pressure signal from the in-cylinder sensor in real-time, allowing for estimating the 50% burn rate location and IMEP on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The proposed approach relies on a model-based estimation algorithm whose starting point is a crank-angle based engine combustion model that predicts the in-cylinder pressure from the definition of a burn rate function. Linear parameter varying (LPV) techniques are then used to expand the region of estimation to cover the engine operating map, as well as allowing for real-time cylinder estimation during transients. The estimator is tested on the experimental data collected on an engine dynamometer as well as on a high-fidelity engine simulator. The results obtained show the effectiveness of the estimator in reconstructing the cylinder pressure on a crank-angle basis and in rejecting measurement noise and modeling errors, with considerably low computation effort.
Hamilton, Lei; McConley, Marc; Angermueller, Kai; Goldberg, David; Corba, Massimiliano; Kim, Louis; Moran, James; Parks, Philip D; Sang Chin; Widge, Alik S; Dougherty, Darin D; Eskandar, Emad N
2015-08-01
A fully autonomous intracranial device is built to continually record neural activities in different parts of the brain, process these sampled signals, decode features that correlate to behaviors and neuropsychiatric states, and use these features to deliver brain stimulation in a closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we describe the sampling and stimulation aspects of such a device. We first describe the signal processing algorithms of two unsupervised spike sorting methods. Next, we describe the LFP time-frequency analysis and feature derivation from the two spike sorting methods. Spike sorting includes a novel approach to constructing a dictionary learning algorithm in a Compressed Sensing (CS) framework. We present a joint prediction scheme to determine the class of neural spikes in the dictionary learning framework; and, the second approach is a modified OSort algorithm which is implemented in a distributed system optimized for power efficiency. Furthermore, sorted spikes and time-frequency analysis of LFP signals can be used to generate derived features (including cross-frequency coupling, spike-field coupling). We then show how these derived features can be used in the design and development of novel decode and closed-loop control algorithms that are optimized to apply deep brain stimulation based on a patient's neuropsychiatric state. For the control algorithm, we define the state vector as representative of a patient's impulsivity, avoidance, inhibition, etc. Controller parameters are optimized to apply stimulation based on the state vector's current state as well as its historical values. The overall algorithm and software design for our implantable neural recording and stimulation system uses an innovative, adaptable, and reprogrammable architecture that enables advancement of the state-of-the-art in closed-loop neural control while also meeting the challenges of system power constraints and concurrent development with ongoing scientific research designed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao
2016-08-01
We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao
2016-07-01
We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blain, Célia; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Bradley, Colin; Clergeon, Christophe
2012-07-01
Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) deformable mirrors (DMs) are widely utilized in astronomical Adaptive Optics (AO) instrumentation. High precision open-loop control of MEMS DMs has been achieved by developing a high accuracy DM model, the Fast Iterative Algorithm (FIA), a physics-based model allowing precise control of the DM shape. Accurate open-loop control is particularly critical for the wavefront control of High- Contrast Imaging (HCI) instruments to create a dark hole area free of most slow and quasi-static speckles which remain the limiting factor for direct detection and imaging of exoplanets. The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system is one of these high contrast imaging instruments and uses a 1024-actuator MEMS deformable mirror (DM) both in closed-loop and open-loop. The DM is used to modulate speckles in order to distinguish (i) speckles due to static and slow-varying residual aberrations from (ii) speckles due to genuine structures, such as exoplanets. The FIA has been fully integrated into the SCExAO wavefront control software and we report the FIA’s performance for the control of speckles in the focal plane.
Nie, Haitao; Long, Kehui; Ma, Jun; Yue, Dan; Liu, Jinguo
2015-01-01
Partial occlusions, large pose variations, and extreme ambient illumination conditions generally cause the performance degradation of object recognition systems. Therefore, this paper presents a novel approach for fast and robust object recognition in cluttered scenes based on an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm and a fuzzy closed-loop control method. First, a fast SIFT algorithm is proposed by classifying SIFT features into several clusters based on several attributes computed from the sub-orientation histogram (SOH), in the feature matching phase only features that share nearly the same corresponding attributes are compared. Second, a feature matching step is performed following a prioritized order based on the scale factor, which is calculated between the object image and the target object image, guaranteeing robust feature matching. Finally, a fuzzy closed-loop control strategy is applied to increase the accuracy of the object recognition and is essential for autonomous object manipulation process. Compared to the original SIFT algorithm for object recognition, the result of the proposed method shows that the number of SIFT features extracted from an object has a significant increase, and the computing speed of the object recognition processes increases by more than 40%. The experimental results confirmed that the proposed method performs effectively and accurately in cluttered scenes. PMID:25714094
A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew
2016-04-01
The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.
Lapierre-Landry, Maryse; Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M.; Skala, Melissa C.
2016-01-01
Photothermal OCT (PT-OCT) is an emerging molecular imaging technique that occupies a spatial imaging regime between microscopy and whole body imaging. PT-OCT would benefit from a theoretical model to optimize imaging parameters and test image processing algorithms. We propose the first analytical PT-OCT model to replicate an experimental A-scan in homogeneous and layered samples. We also propose the PT-CLEAN algorithm to reduce phase-accumulation and shadowing, two artifacts found in PT-OCT images, and demonstrate it on phantoms and in vivo mouse tumors. PMID:27446693
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katsuda, Satoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Ohira, Yutaka; Yatsu, Yoichi; Mori, Koji; Aoki, Wako; Morihana, Kumiko; Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Lee, Jae-Joon; Shimoda, Jiro; Yamazaki, Ryo
2016-03-01
We present high-resolution long-slit spectroscopy of a Balmer-dominated shock in the northeastern limb of the Cygnus Loop with the Subaru high dispersion spectrograph. By setting the slit angle along the shock normal, we investigate variations of the flux and profile of the Hα line from preshock to postshock regions with a spatial resolution of ˜4 × 1015 cm. The Hα line profile can be represented by a narrow (28.9 ± 0.7 km s-1) Gaussian in a diffuse region ahead of the shock, i.e., a photoionization precursor, and narrow (33.1 ± 0.2 km s-1) plus broad (130-230 km s-1) Gaussians at the shock itself. We find that the width of the narrow component abruptly increases up to 33.1 ± 0.2 km s-1, or 38.8 ± 0.4 km s-1 if we eliminate projected emission originating from the photoionization precursor, in an unresolved thin layer (≲4 × 1015 cm at a distance of 540 pc) at the shock. We show that the sudden broadening can be best explained by heating via damping of Alfvén waves in a thin cosmic-ray (CR) precursor, although other possibilities are not fully ruled out. The thickness of the CR precursor in the Cygnus Loop (a soft gamma-ray emitter) is an order of magnitude thinner than that in Tycho’s Knot g (a hard gamma-ray emitter), which may be caused by the different energy distribution of accelerated particles between the two sources. In this context, systematic studies might reveal a positive correlation between the thickness of the CR precursor and the hardness of the CR energy distribution.
Wen, Shuhuan; Zhu, Jinghai; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Shengyong
2014-09-01
Robot force control is an essential issue in robotic intelligence. There is much high uncertainty when robot end-effector contacts with the environment. Because of the environment stiffness effects on the system of the robot end-effector contact with environment, the adaptive generalized predictive control algorithm based on quantitative feedback theory is designed for robot end-point contact force system. The controller of the internal loop is designed on the foundation of QFT to control the uncertainty of the system. An adaptive GPC algorithm is used to design external loop controller to improve the performance and the robustness of the system. Two closed loops used in the design approach realize the system׳s performance and improve the robustness. The simulation results show that the algorithm of the robot end-effector contacting force control system is effective. PMID:24973336
Effective followership: A standardized algorithm to resolve clinical conflicts and improve teamwork.
Sculli, Gary L; Fore, Amanda M; Sine, David M; Paull, Douglas E; Tschannen, Dana; Aebersold, Michelle; Seagull, F Jacob; Bagian, James P
2015-01-01
In healthcare, the sustained presence of hierarchy between team members has been cited as a common contributor to communication breakdowns. Hierarchy serves to accentuate either actual or perceived chains of command, which may result in team members failing to challenge decisions made by leaders, despite concerns about adverse patient outcomes. While other tools suggest improved communication, none focus specifically on communication skills for team followers, nor do they provide techniques to immediately challenge authority and escalate assertiveness at a given moment in real time. This article presents data that show one such strategy, called the Effective Followership Algorithm, offering statistically significant improvements in team communication across the professional continuum from students and residents to experienced clinicians. PMID:26227290
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boiko, I. M.
2012-01-01
The modified second-order sliding mode algorithm is used for controller tuning. Namely, the modified suboptimal algorithm-based test (modified SOT) and non-parametric tuning rules for proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are presented in this article. In the developed method of test and tuning, the idea of coordinated selection of the test parameters and the controller tuning parameters is introduced. The proposed approach allows for the formulation of simple non-parametric tuning rules for PID controllers that provide desired amplitude or phase margins exactly. In the modified SOT, the frequency of the self-excited oscillations can be generated equal to either the phase crossover frequency or the magnitude crossover frequency of the open-loop system frequency response (including a future PID controller) - depending on the tuning method choice. The first option will provide tuning with specification on gain margin, and the second option will ensure tuning with specification on phase margin. Tuning rules for a PID controller and simulation examples are provided.
Su, Chun-Kuei; Chiang, Chia-Hsun; Lee, Chia-Ming; Fan, Yu-Pei; Ho, Chiu-Ming; Shyu, Liang-Yu
2013-01-01
Sympathetic nerves conveying central commands to regulate visceral functions often display activities in synchronous bursts. To understand how individual fibers fire synchronously, we establish “oligofiber recording techniques” to record “several” nerve fiber activities simultaneously, using in vitro splanchnic sympathetic nerve–thoracic spinal cord preparations of neonatal rats as experimental models. While distinct spike potentials were easily recorded from collagenase-dissociated sympathetic fibers, a problem arising from synchronous nerve discharges is a higher incidence of complex waveforms resulted from spike overlapping. Because commercial softwares do not provide an explicit solution for spike overlapping, a series of custom-made LabVIEW programs incorporated with MATLAB scripts was therefore written for spike sorting. Spikes were represented as data points after waveform feature extraction and automatically grouped by k-means clustering followed by principal component analysis (PCA) to verify their waveform homogeneity. For dissimilar waveforms with exceeding Hotelling's T2 distances from the cluster centroids, a unique data-based subtraction algorithm (SA) was used to determine if they were the complex waveforms resulted from superimposing a spike pattern close to the cluster centroid with the other signals that could be observed in original recordings. In comparisons with commercial software, higher accuracy was achieved by analyses using our algorithms for the synthetic data that contained synchronous spiking and complex waveforms. Moreover, both T2-selected and SA-retrieved spikes were combined as unit activities. Quantitative analyses were performed to evaluate if unit activities truly originated from single fibers. We conclude that applications of our programs can help to resolve synchronous sympathetic nerve discharges (SND). PMID:24198782
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Tao; Mu, Shengjing; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shing, Katherine
2009-05-01
Atomistic simulation of protein adsorption on a solid surface in aqueous environment is computationally demanding, therefore the determination of preferred protein orientations on the solid surface usually serves as an initial step in simulation studies. We have developed a hybrid multi-loop genetic-algorithm/simplex/spatial-grid method to search for low adsorption-energy orientations of a protein molecule on a solid surface. In this method, the surface and the protein molecule are treated as rigid bodies, whereas the bulk fluid is represented by spatial grids. For each grid point, an effective interaction region in the surface is defined by a cutoff distance, and the possible interaction energy between an atom at the grid point and the surface is calculated and recorded in a database. In searching for the optimum position and orientation, the protein molecule is translated and rotated as a rigid body with the configuration obtained from a previous Molecular Dynamic simulation. The orientation-dependent protein-surface interaction energy is obtained using the generated database of grid energies. The hybrid search procedure consists of two interlinked loops. In the first loop A, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to identify promising regions for the global energy minimum and a local optimizer with the derivative-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is used to search for the lowest-energy orientation within the identified regions. In the second loop B, a new population for GA is generated and competitive solution from loop A is improved. Switching between the two loops is adaptively controlled by the use of similarity analysis. We test the method for lysozyme adsorption on a hydrophobic hydrogen-terminated silicon (110) surface in implicit water (i.e., a continuum distance-dependent dielectric constant). The results show that the hybrid search method has faster convergence and better solution accuracy compared with the conventional genetic algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welch, Bryan W.; Schrage, Dean S.; Piasecki, Marie T.
2015-01-01
The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed project completed installation and checkout testing of a new S-Band ground station at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio in 2015. As with all ground stations, a key alignment process must be conducted to obtain offset angles in azimuth (AZ) and elevation (EL). In telescopes with AZ-EL gimbals, this is normally done with a two-star alignment process, where telescope-based pointing vectors are derived from catalogued locations with the AZ-EL bias angles derived from the pointing vector difference. For an antenna, the process is complicated without an optical asset. For the present study, the solution was to utilize the gimbal control algorithms closed-loop tracking capability to acquire the peak received power signal automatically from two distinct NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) spacecraft, without a human making the pointing adjustments. Briefly, the TDRS satellite acts as a simulated optical source and the alignment process proceeds exactly the same way as a one-star alignment. The data reduction process, which will be discussed in the paper, results in two bias angles which are retained for future pointing determination. Finally, the paper compares the test results and provides lessons learned from the activity.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Determination of the optical properties from intact biological materials based on diffusion approximation theory is a complicated inverse problem, and it requires proper implementation of inverse algorithm, instrumentation, and experiment. This work was aimed at optimizing the procedure of estimatin...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naasz, Bo J.; Burns, Richard D.; Gaylor, David; Higinbotham, John
2004-01-01
A sample mission sequence is defined for a low earth orbit demonstration of Precision Formation Flying (PFF). Various guidance navigation and control strategies are discussed for use in the PFF experiment phases. A sample PFF experiment is implemented and tested in a realistic Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation using the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.
SU-E-J-85: Leave-One-Out Perturbation (LOOP) Fitting Algorithm for Absolute Dose Film Calibration
Chu, A; Ahmad, M; Chen, Z; Nath, R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To introduce an outliers-recognition fitting routine for film dosimetry. It cannot only be flexible with any linear and non-linear regression but also can provide information for the minimal number of sampling points, critical sampling distributions and evaluating analytical functions for absolute film-dose calibration. Methods: The technique, leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation, is often used for statistical analyses on model performance. We used LOO analyses with perturbed bootstrap fitting called leave-one-out perturbation (LOOP) for film-dose calibration . Given a threshold, the LOO process detects unfit points (“outliers”) compared to other cohorts, and a bootstrap fitting process follows to seek any possibilities of using perturbations for further improvement. After that outliers were reconfirmed by a traditional t-test statistics and eliminated, then another LOOP feedback resulted in the final. An over-sampled film-dose- calibration dataset was collected as a reference (dose range: 0-800cGy), and various simulated conditions for outliers and sampling distributions were derived from the reference. Comparisons over the various conditions were made, and the performance of fitting functions, polynomial and rational functions, were evaluated. Results: (1) LOOP can prove its sensitive outlier-recognition by its statistical correlation to an exceptional better goodness-of-fit as outliers being left-out. (2) With sufficient statistical information, the LOOP can correct outliers under some low-sampling conditions that other “robust fits”, e.g. Least Absolute Residuals, cannot. (3) Complete cross-validated analyses of LOOP indicate that the function of rational type demonstrates a much superior performance compared to the polynomial. Even with 5 data points including one outlier, using LOOP with rational function can restore more than a 95% value back to its reference values, while the polynomial fitting completely failed under the same conditions
Tufvesson, Jane; Hedström, Erik; Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar
2015-01-01
Introduction. Manual delineation of the left ventricle is clinical standard for quantification of cardiovascular magnetic resonance images despite being time consuming and observer dependent. Previous automatic methods generally do not account for one major contributor to stroke volume, the long-axis motion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for time-resolved segmentation covering the whole left ventricle, including basal slices affected by long-axis motion. Methods. Ninety subjects imaged with a cine balanced steady state free precession sequence were included in the study (training set n = 40, test set n = 50). Manual delineation was reference standard and second observer analysis was performed in a subset (n = 25). The automatic algorithm uses deformable model with expectation-maximization, followed by automatic removal of papillary muscles and detection of the outflow tract. Results. The mean differences between automatic segmentation and manual delineation were EDV −11 mL, ESV 1 mL, EF −3%, and LVM 4 g in the test set. Conclusions. The automatic LV segmentation algorithm reached accuracy comparable to interobserver for manual delineation, thereby bringing automatic segmentation one step closer to clinical routine. The algorithm and all images with manual delineations are available for benchmarking. PMID:26180818
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian
2014-01-01
Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Petralia, A.; Testa, P.
2016-01-01
Evidence of small amounts of very hot plasma has been found in active regions and might be an indication of impulsive heating released at spatial scales smaller than the cross-section of a single loop. We investigate the heating and substructure of coronal loops in the core of one such active region by analyzing the light curves in the smallest resolution elements of solar observations in two EUV channels (94 and 335 Å) from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We model the evolution of a bundle of strands heated by a storm of nanoflares by means of a hydrodynamic 0D loop model (EBTEL). The light curves obtained from a random combination of those of single strands are compared to the observed light curves either in a single pixel or in a row of pixels, simultaneously in the two channels, and using two independent methods: an artificial intelligent system (Probabilistic Neural Network) and a simple cross-correlation technique. We explore the space of the parameters to constrain the distribution of the heat pulses, their duration, their spatial size, and, as a feedback on the data, their signatures on the light curves. From both methods the best agreement is obtained for a relatively large population of events (1000) with a short duration (less than 1 minute) and a relatively shallow distribution (power law with index 1.5) in a limited energy range (1.5 decades). The feedback on the data indicates that bumps in the light curves, especially in the 94 Å channel, are signatures of a heating excess that occurred a few minutes before.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Wang, K. N.; Garrison, J. L.; Adhikari, L.; Xie, F.
2015-12-01
The development of hurricane Karl in 2010 was investigated with dropsonde and airborne radio occultation (ARO) measurements from the stage of tropical disturbance within an easterly wave through to genesis of the tropical storm. Infrared imagery showed deep convection with extensive cold cloud tops on 11 September however the storm failed to develop until 3 days later. One possible explanation is the horizontal offset of the mid and lower level circulation centers. We illustrate with airborne radio occultation measurements additional information on the moisture distribution during this stage of development that indicates that average mid-level moisture was lower the following day and then increased again over the next two days prior to development. High sample rate RF data recorded by the GNSS instrument system for multistatic and occultation sensing (GISMOS) was analyzed with a version of the Purdue Software Receiver that has open-loop tracking implemented. Open loop tracking eliminates the feedback loop of conventional receivers that fails in the complex signal propagation environment typical of atmosphere with sharp moisture gradients. The open-loop excess phase profiles routinely sample below 4 km, with half of the profiles extending below 2 km. We retrieve slanted vertical profiles of atmospheric refractivity that can be considered a proxy for moisture in this tropical environment. We illustrate that in the mid to upper troposphere, ARO refractivity profiles sampling different areas within the tropical wave showed characteristics that were consistent with (~150 to 200 km scale) horizontal moisture gradients present in the NWP model representation of the developing tropical storm. Variation in refractivity preceding the development of the pre-Karl system is consistent with increasing moisture near the storm center. The ARO observations almost double the amount of thermodynamic data over that provided by the dropsondes. They provide interesting complementary
Platform for Real-Time Simulation of Dynamic Systems and Hardware-in-the-Loop for Control Algorithms
de Souza, Isaac D. T.; Silva, Sergio N.; Teles, Rafael M.; Fernandes, Marcelo A. C.
2014-01-01
The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems. PMID:25320906
de Souza, Isaac D T; Silva, Sergio N; Teles, Rafael M; Fernandes, Marcelo A C
2014-01-01
The development of new embedded algorithms for automation and control of industrial equipment usually requires the use of real-time testing. However, the equipment required is often expensive, which means that such tests are often not viable. The objective of this work was therefore to develop an embedded platform for the distributed real-time simulation of dynamic systems. This platform, called the Real-Time Simulator for Dynamic Systems (RTSDS), could be applied in both industrial and academic environments. In industrial applications, the RTSDS could be used to optimize embedded control algorithms. In the academic sphere, it could be used to support research into new embedded solutions for automation and control and could also be used as a tool to assist in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching related to the development of projects concerning on-board control systems. PMID:25320906
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myszkiewicz, Grzegorz; Meerts, W. Leo; Ratzer, Christian; Schmitt, Michael
2005-07-01
The structure of 4-methylphenol (p-cresol) and its binary water cluster have been elucidated by rotationally resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The electronic origins of the monomer and the cluster are split into four sub-bands by the internal rotation of the methyl group and of the hydroxy group in case of the monomer, and the water moiety in case of the cluster. From the rotational constants of the monomer the structure in the S1 state could be determined to be distorted quinoidally. The structure of the p-cresol-water cluster is determined to be trans linear, with a O-O hydrogen bond length of 290pm in the electronic ground state and of 285pm in the electronically excited state. The S1-state lifetime of p-cresol, p-cresol-d1, and the binary water cluster have been determined to be 1.6, 9.7, and 3.8ns, respectively.
Ghaheri, Salehe; Masoum, Saeed; Gholami, Ali
2016-01-15
Analysis of fragrance composition is very important for both the fragrance producers and consumers. Unraveling of fragrance formulation is necessary for quality control, competitor and trace analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been introduced as the most appropriate analytical technique for this type of analysis, which is based on Kovats index and MS database. The most straightforward method to analyze a GC-MS dataset is to integrate those peaks that can be recognized by their mass profiles. But, because of common problems of chromatographic data such as spectral background, baseline offset and specially overlapped peaks, accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis could be failed. Some chemometric modeling techniques such as bilinear multivariate curve resolution (MCR) methods have been introduced to overcome these problems and obtained well resolved chromatographic profiles. The main drawback of these methods is rotational ambiguity or nonunique solution that is represented as area of feasible solutions (AFS). Polygonal inflation algorithm (PIA) is an automatic and simple to use algorithm for numerical computation of AFS. In this study, the extent of rotational ambiguity in curve resolution methods is calculated by MCR-BAND toolbox and the PIA. The ability of the PIA in resolving GC-MS data sets is evaluated by simulated GC-MS data in comparison with other popular curve resolution methods such as multivariate curve resolution alternative least square (MCR-ALS), multivariate curve resolution objective function minimization (MCR-FMIN) by different initial estimation methods and independent component analysis (ICA). In addition, two typical challenging area of total ion chromatogram (TIC) of commercial fragrances with overlapped peaks were analyzed by the PIA to investigate the possibility of peak deconvolution analysis. PMID:26711156
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Martin, Lynne
2012-01-01
A recent human-in-the-loop simulation in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at NASA's Ames Research Center investigated the robustness of Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) operations. CMS refers to AOL-developed controller tools and procedures for enabling arrivals to conduct efficient Optimized Profile Descents with sustained high throughput. The simulation provided a rich data set for examining how a traffic management supervisor and terminal-area controller participants used the CMS tools and coordinated to respond to off-nominal events. This paper proposes quantitative measures for characterizing the participants responses. Case studies of go-around events, replicated during the simulation, provide insights into the strategies employed and the role the CMS tools played in supporting them.
Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jung Joo; Hwang, Chang Mo; Choi, Jaesoon; Choi, Hyuk; Choi, Seong Wook; Sun, Kyung
2009-12-01
The closed air space-type of extracorporeal pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD) developed by the Korea Artificial Organ Center utilizes a bellows-transforming mechanism to generate the air pressure required to pump blood. This operating mechanism can reduce the size and weight of the driving unit; however, the output of the blood pump can be affected by the pressure loading conditions of the blood sac. Therefore, to guarantee a proper pump output level, regardless of the pressure loading conditions that vary over time, automatic pump output regulation of the blood pump is required. We describe herein a pump output regulation algorithm that was developed to maintain pump output around a reference level against various afterload pressures, and verified the pump performance in vitro. Based on actual operating conditions in animal experiments, the pumping rate was limited to 40-84 beats per minute, and the afterload pressure was limited to 80-150 mm Hg. The tested reference pump output was 4.0 L/min. During experiments, the pump output was successfully and automatically regulated within the preset area regardless of the varying afterload conditions. The results of this preliminary experiment can be used as the basis for an automatic control algorithm that can enhance the stability and reliability of the applied VAD. PMID:19604228
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, C. J.; Li, Y.; Nabighian, M.
2004-12-01
One of the outstanding problems in managing water resources in geologically complex aquifers is to develop improved techniques for mapping compartmentalization due to faulting. And although the role of faults in aquifer dynamics can vary considerably, knowledge of their location is key to understanding aquifer recharge and developing a sensible model for predicting aquifer response due to anthropogenic loads. We have explored the application of time--domain electromagnetic methods for mapping shallow aquifer faults on the western flanks of the Estancia Basin, central New Mexico. The field site is underlain by massive Pennsylvanian limestones (Madera Group) subsequently faulted by Laramide tectonics of the Ancestral Rockies and Neogene extension of the Rio Grande Rift. Two experimental configurations were deployed: a large 50 × 40 m transmitter loop with receiver stations located on a 5 m grid over the loop's interior; and an azimuthal survey consisting of a smaller fixed transmitter with receiver stations at ˜2 m intervals along a 30 m radius circle centered on the transmitter. Three--component transients of magnetic field due to a fast linear ramp--off in the transmitter were recorded at each station. As a rapid reconnaisance tool, the azimuthal experiment is well--suited for identification of subsurface fault planes since symmetry constraints require a vanishing azimuthal ̂ φ component of magnetic field when the electrical strike, or fault plane, lies in the ̂ φ direction. However, each of the experimental configurations revealed that the site's electrical structure is far more three--dimensional than previously believed and is not dominated by the response of a previously identified fault plane. Instead, we have observed spatially coherent transient signals which may indicate compartmentalization over length scales as small as a few tens of meters. Sections of this work were performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multi--program laboratory
Regulative Loops, Step Loops and Task Loops
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VanLehn, Kurt
2016-01-01
This commentary suggests a generalization of the conception of the behavior of tutoring systems, which the target article characterized as having an outer loop that was executed once per task and an inner loop that was executed once per step of the task. A more general conception sees these two loops as instances of regulative loops, which…
Automatic one-loop calculations with Sherpa+OpenLoops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cascioli, F.; Höche, S.; Krauss, F.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Siegert, F.
2014-06-01
We report on the OpenLoops generator for one-loop matrix elements and its application to four-lepton production in association with up to one jet. The open loops algorithm uses a numerical recursion to construct the numerator of one-loop Feynman diagrams as functions of the loop momentum. In combination with tensor integrals this results in a highly efficient and numerically stable matrix element generator. In order to obtain a fully automated setup for the simulation of next-to-leading order scattering processes we interfaced OpenLoops to the Sherpa Monte Carlo event generator.
Automatic blocking of nested loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schreiber, Robert; Dongarra, Jack J.
1990-01-01
Blocked algorithms have much better properties of data locality and therefore can be much more efficient than ordinary algorithms when a memory hierarchy is involved. On the other hand, they are very difficult to write and to tune for particular machines. The reorganization is considered of nested loops through the use of known program transformations in order to create blocked algorithms automatically. The program transformations used are strip mining, loop interchange, and a variant of loop skewing in which invertible linear transformations (with integer coordinates) of the loop indices are allowed. Some problems are solved concerning the optimal application of these transformations. It is shown, in a very general setting, how to choose a nearly optimal set of transformed indices. It is then shown, in one particular but rather frequently occurring situation, how to choose an optimal set of block sizes.
Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-07-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n+1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n+1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n+1 dimensional model and the 3+1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology.
Fast loop modeling for protein structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jiong; Nguyen, Son; Shang, Yi; Xu, Dong; Kosztin, Ioan
2015-03-01
X-ray crystallography is the main method for determining 3D protein structures. In many cases, however, flexible loop regions of proteins cannot be resolved by this approach. This leads to incomplete structures in the protein data bank, preventing further computational study and analysis of these proteins. For instance, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of structure-function relationship require complete protein structures. To address this shortcoming, we have developed and implemented an efficient computational method for building missing protein loops. The method is database driven and uses deep learning and multi-dimensional scaling algorithms. We have implemented the method as a simple stand-alone program, which can also be used as a plugin in existing molecular modeling software, e.g., VMD. The quality and stability of the generated structures are assessed and tested via energy scoring functions and by equilibrium MD simulations. The proposed method can also be used in template-based protein structure prediction. Work supported by the National Institutes of Health [R01 GM100701]. Computer time was provided by the University of Missouri Bioinformatics Consortium.
Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )
1992-01-01
This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thériault Lauzier, Pascal; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong
2012-05-01
C-arm cone-beam CT could replace preoperative multi-detector CT scans in the cardiac interventional setting. However, cardiac gating results in view angle undersampling and the small size of the detector results in projection data truncation. These problems are incompatible with conventional tomographic reconstruction algorithms. In this paper, the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) reconstruction method was adapted to solve these issues. The performance of the proposed method was compared to that of FDK, FDK with extrapolated projection data (E-FDK), and total variation-based compressed sensing. A canine projection dataset acquired using a clinical C-arm imaging system supplied realistic cardiac motion and anatomy for this evaluation. Three different levels of truncation were simulated. The relative root mean squared error and the universal image quality index were used to quantify the reconstruction accuracy. Three main conclusions were reached. (1) The adapted version of the PICCS algorithm offered the highest image quality and reconstruction accuracy. (2) No meaningful variation in performance was observed when the amount of truncation was changed. (3) This study showed evidence that accurate interior tomography with an undersampled acquisition is possible for realistic objects if a prior image with minimal artifacts is available.
Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald
2012-05-01
This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.
RCD+: Fast loop modeling server
López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo
2016-01-01
Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. PMID:27151199
RCD+: Fast loop modeling server.
López-Blanco, José Ramón; Canosa-Valls, Alejandro Jesús; Li, Yaohang; Chacón, Pablo
2016-07-01
Modeling loops is a critical and challenging step in protein modeling and prediction. We have developed a quick online service (http://rcd.chaconlab.org) for ab initio loop modeling combining a coarse-grained conformational search with a full-atom refinement. Our original Random Coordinate Descent (RCD) loop closure algorithm has been greatly improved to enrich the sampling distribution towards near-native conformations. These improvements include a new workflow optimization, MPI-parallelization and fast backbone angle sampling based on neighbor-dependent Ramachandran probability distributions. The server starts by efficiently searching the vast conformational space from only the loop sequence information and the environment atomic coordinates. The generated closed loop models are subsequently ranked using a fast distance-orientation dependent energy filter. Top ranked loops are refined with the Rosetta energy function to obtain accurate all-atom predictions that can be interactively inspected in an user-friendly web interface. Using standard benchmarks, the average root mean squared deviation (RMSD) is 0.8 and 1.4 Å for 8 and 12 residues loops, respectively, in the challenging modeling scenario in where the side chains of the loop environment are fully remodeled. These results are not only very competitive compared to those obtained with public state of the art methods, but also they are obtained ∼10-fold faster. PMID:27151199
Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M
2011-02-01
Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging
Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary
2016-01-01
Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.
LE Guen, Morgan; Liu, Ngai; Chazot, Thierry; Fischler, Marc
2016-05-01
Automated anesthesia which may offer to the physician time to control hemodynamic and to supervise neurological outcome and which may offer to the patient safety and quality was until recently consider as a holy grail. But this field of research is now increasing in every component of general anesthesia (hypnosis, nociception, neuromuscular blockade) and literature describes some successful algorithms - single or multi closed-loop controller. The aim of these devices is to control a predefined target and to continuously titrate anesthetics whatever the patients' co morbidities and surgical events to reach this target. Literature contains many randomized trials comparing manual and automated anesthesia and shows feasibility and safety of this system. Automation could quickly concern other aspects of anesthesia as fluid management and this review proposes an overview of closed-loop systems in anesthesia. PMID:26554614
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheer, D.; Sheer, A.; Lebherz, S.
2009-12-01
Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti are two sizeable, culturally and economically important lakes on the North Island of New Zealand. Rotorua outflows traverse the short Ohau Channel before entering Lake Rotoiti. Ohau channel flows are partially controlled by a stoplog structure. Rotoiti outflows to the Kaituna River are fully controlled by the Okere Gate structure. The structures are managed by Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP), a government agency. Management objectives include maintaining minimum lake levels to support recreational boating, restricting maximum lake levels to avoid residential flooding, minimum instream flows below the lower lake to maintain aquatic ecosystems, limits on maximum releases to control erosion and prevent flooding. In addition, management seeks to provide for a minimum annual variation in lake levels to control the growth of aquatic plants in the littoral zone and to periodically expose beaches with important cultural value to the indigenous Maori population. The levels necessary to expose beaches may be lower than the minimum levels desired to support boating. Records of beach exposure are scant; the existence of beaches may depend on climate cycles. There is flow dependent recreational rafting below Okere Gates. This rafting is economically valuable, but is also contentious because the reach of Kaituna River flows through important Maori cultural areas, including grave sites. The Maoris have expressed a preference for replacing the Okere Gates with a fixed stepped weir, although the existing gates can be relatively easily operated to reproduce the flows over any of the fixed weir designs so far proposed. HydroLogics created a model of the two-lake system using its OASIS software system. The inflows to the lakes were estimated based on available historical flow and lake level data and on flow estimates derived from Mike-11 modeling of historical lake outlet configurations. A custom genetic algorithm (GA) was created to “wrap” the
Manchester transition tracking loop (MTTL)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cellier, A.; Ma, L. N.; Huey, D. C.
1977-01-01
In new tracking loop, separate phase detection algorithm is incorporated for acquisition; programmed acquisition-to-track sequence includes automatic bandwidth switching. Additionally, system has very effective phase detection signal-to-noise ratio and can operate at any rate by changing master clock frequency. All system parameters remain constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreetto, P.; Bauce, M.; Bertocco, S.; Capannini, F.; Cecchi, M.; Compostella, G.; Dorigo, A.; Frizziero, E.; Giacomini, F.; Gianelle, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Monforte, S.; Prelz, F.; Molinari, E.; Rebatto, D.; Sgaravatto, M.; Zangrando, L.
2011-12-01
The High Throughput Computing paradigm typically involves a scenario whereby a given, estimated processing power is made available and sustained by the computing environment over a medium/long period of time. As a consequence, the performance goals are in general targeted at maximizing resource utilization to obtain the expected throughput, rather than minimizing run time for individual jobs. This does not mean that optimal resource selection through adequate workload management is not desired nor effective, nonetheless, relatively small and pre-assessed percentages of suboptimal choices or unexpected events can be tolerated. However, there are use-cases, among the HEP community, for which the described model does not immediately fit. This paper deals with the workload needs primarily driven by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experimental collaboration. In particular, the CDF analysis facility (CAF) typically operates by splitting its computations into so-called sections, which can be seen as sets of uniform and independent jobs. Processing a section cannot be considered completed until all _its jobs have been successfully executed, thus requiring a Minimum Completion Time (MCT) dynamic scheduling policy where not even a single job should lay in non-terminal Grid states. A significant part of the CDF analysis is processed on the European Grid infrastructure through the gLite Workload Management System (WMS) [2]. This paper describes the design enhancements and ranking algorithms the WMS has been provided with to implement an adaptive scheduling policy to minimise MCT. Case study, outlined approach and first results are presented.
Thermal Analysis of CDS Coronal Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimble, J. A.; Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Rightmire, L. A.; Andrews, J. M.; Cirtain, J. W.
2008-05-01
The coronal loop data used for this analysis was obtained using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory on 2003 January 17 at 14:24:43 UT. We use the Chianti atomic physics database and the hybrid coronal abundances to determine temperatures and densities for positions along several loops. We chose six pixels along each loop as well as background pixels. The intensities of the background pixels are subtracted from each loop pixel to isolate the emission from the loop pixel, and then spectral lines with significant contributions to the loop intensities are selected. The loops were then analyzed with a forward folding process to produce differential emission measure (DEM) curves. Emission measure loci plots and DEM automatic inversions are then used to verify those conclusions. We find different results for each of these loops. One appears to be isothermal at each loop position, and the temperature does not change with height. The second appears to be multithermal at each position and the third seems to be consistent with two DEM spikes, which might indicate that there are two isothermal loops so close together, that they are not resolved by CDS. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.
Efficient Tiled Loop Generation: D-Tiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Daegon; Rajopadhye, Sanjay
Tiling is an important loop optimization for exposing coarse-grained parallelism and enhancing data locality. Tiled loop generation from an arbitrarily shaped polyhedron is a well studied problem. Except for the special case of a rectangular iteration space, the tiled loop generation problem has been long believed to require heavy machinery such as Fourier-Motzkin elimination and projection, and hence to have an exponential complexity. In this paper we propose a simple and efficient tiled loop generation technique similar to that for a rectangular iteration space. In our technique, each loop bound is adjusted only once, syntactically and independently. Therefore, our algorithm runs linearly with the number of loop bounds. Despite its simplicity, we retain several advantages of recent tiled code generation schemes - unified generation for fixed, parameterized and hybrid tiled loops, scalability for multi-level tiled loop generation with the ability to separate full tiles at any levels, and compact code. We also explore various schemes for multi-level tiled loop generation. We formally prove the correctness of our scheme and experimentally validate that the efficiency of our technique is comparable to existing parameterized tiled loop generation approaches. Our experimental results also show that multi-level tiled loop generation schemes have an impact on performance of generated code. The fact that our scheme can be implemented without sophisticated machinery makes it well suited for autotuners and production compilers.
Ekpyrotic loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2013-08-01
We consider the ekpyrotic paradigm in the context of loop quantum cosmology. In loop quantum cosmology the classical big-bang singularity is resolved due to quantum gravity effects, and so the contracting ekpyrotic branch of the universe and its later expanding phase are connected by a smooth bounce. Thus, it is possible to explicitly determine the evolution of scalar perturbations, from the contracting ekpyrotic phase through the bounce and to the post-bounce expanding epoch. The possibilities of having either one or two scalar fields have been suggested for the ekpyrotic universe, and both cases will be considered here. In the case of a single scalar field, the constant mode of the curvature perturbations after the bounce is found to have a blue spectrum. On the other hand, for the two scalar field ekpyrotic model where scale-invariant entropy perturbations source additional terms in the curvature perturbations, the power spectrum in the post-bounce expanding cosmology is shown to be nearly scale-invariant and so agrees with observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Ray; Coan, Mary; Cryderman, Kate; Captain, Janine
2013-01-01
The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize component and integrated system performance. Testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments was done. Test procedures were developed to guide experimental tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, knowledge and experience was gained with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis conducted include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WDD's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, the near-infrared spectrometer and GC-MS instruments will be tested during the ETU testing phase.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2005-01-01
Many modern rollercoasters feature loops. Although textbook loops are often circular, real rollercoaster loops are not. In this paper, we look into the mathematical description of various possible loop shapes, as well as their riding properties. We also discuss how a study of loop shapes can be used in physics education.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pendrill, Ann-Marie
2005-11-01
Many modern rollercoasters feature loops. Although textbook loops are often circular, real rollercoaster loops are not. In this paper, we look into the mathematical description of various possible loop shapes, as well as their riding properties. We also discuss how a study of loop shapes can be used in physics education.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, Ray O.
2012-01-01
The RESOLVE project is a lunar prospecting mission whose primary goal is to characterize water and other volatiles in lunar regolith. The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem is comprised of a fluid subsystem that transports flow to the gas chromatograph- mass spectrometer (GC-MS) instruments that characterize volatiles and the Water Droplet Demonstration (WDD) that will capture and display water condensation in the gas stream. The LAVA Engineering Test Unit (ETU) is undergoing risk reduction testing this summer and fall within a vacuum chamber to understand and characterize C!Jmponent and integrated system performance. Ray will be assisting with component testing of line heaters, printed circuit heaters, pressure transducers, temperature sensors, regulators, and valves in atmospheric and vacuum environments. He will be developing procedures to guide these tests and test reports to analyze and draw conclusions from the data. In addition, he will gain experience with preparing a vacuum chamber with fluid and electrical connections. Further testing will include integrated testing of the fluid subsystem with the gas supply system, near-infrared spectrometer, WDD, Sample Delivery System, and GC-MS in the vacuum chamber. This testing will provide hands-on exposure to a flight forward spaceflight subsystem, the processes associated with testing equipment in a vacuum chamber, and experience working in a laboratory setting. Examples of specific analysis Ray will conduct include: pneumatic analysis to calculate the WOO's efficiency at extracting water vapor from the gas stream to form condensation; thermal analysis of the conduction and radiation along a line connecting two thermal masses; and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) heater control analysis. In this Research and Technology environment, Ray will be asked to problem solve real-time as issues arise. Since LAVA is a scientific subsystem, Ray will be utilizing his chemical engineering background to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jefimenko, Oleg
1974-01-01
Discusses the design of a modified loop-the-loop apparatus in which a water stream is used to illustrate centripetal forces and phenomena of high-velocity hydrodynamics. Included are some procedures of carrying out lecture demonstrations. (CC)
Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reale, Fabio
2014-07-01
Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent loops and their confined plasma are considered and, therefore, topics such as loop oscillations and flaring loops (except for non-solar ones, which provide information on stellar loops) are not specifically addressed here. The observational section discusses the classification, populations, and the morphology of coronal loops, its relationship with the magnetic field, and the loop stranded structure. The section continues with the thermal properties and diagnostics of the loop plasma, according to the classification into hot, warm, and cool loops. Then, temporal analyses of loops and the observations of plasma dynamics, hot and cool flows, and waves are illustrated. In the modeling section, some basics of loop physics are provided, supplying fundamental scaling laws and timescales, a useful tool for consultation. The concept of loop modeling is introduced and models are divided into those treating loops as monolithic and static, and those resolving loops into thin and dynamic strands. More specific discussions address modeling the loop fine structure and the plasma flowing along the loops. Special attention is devoted to the question of loop heating, with separate discussion of wave (AC) and impulsive (DC) heating. Large-scale models including atmosphere boxes and the magnetic field are also discussed. Finally, a brief discussion about stellar coronal loops is followed by highlights and open questions.
Algorithms and Algorithmic Languages.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veselov, V. M.; Koprov, V. M.
This paper is intended as an introduction to a number of problems connected with the description of algorithms and algorithmic languages, particularly the syntaxes and semantics of algorithmic languages. The terms "letter, word, alphabet" are defined and described. The concept of the algorithm is defined and the relation between the algorithm and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro; Wang, Tianheng
2011-11-01
We extend the Operator Product Expansion for Null Polygon Wilson loops to the Mason-Skinner-Caron-Huot super loop dual to non MHV gluon amplitudes. We explain how the known tree level amplitudes can be promoted into an infinite amount of data at any loop order in the OPE picture. As an application, we re-derive all one loop NMHV six gluon amplitudes by promoting their tree level expressions. We also present some new all loops predictions for these amplitudes.
The preprocessed doacross loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saltz, Joel H.; Mirchandaney, Ravi
1990-01-01
Dependencies between loop iterations cannot always be characterized during program compilation. Doacross loops typically make use of a-priori knowledge of inter-iteration dependencies to carry out required synchronizations. A type of doacross loop is proposed that allows the scheduling of iterations of a loop among processors without advance knowledge of inter-iteration dependencies. The method proposed for loop iterations requires that parallelizable preprocessing and postprocessing steps be carried out during program execution.
Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.
2002-09-10
A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.
Hot topic, warm loops, cooling plasma? Multithermal analysis of active region loops
Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Brooks, D. H.
2014-11-10
We have found indications of a relationship between the differential emission measure (DEM) weighted temperature and the cross-field DEM width for coronal loops. The data come from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. These data show that cooler loops tend to have narrower DEM widths. If most loops observed by these instruments are composed of bundles of unresolved magnetic strands and are only observed in their cooling phase, as some studies have suggested, then this relationship implies that the DEM of a coronal loop narrows as it cools. This could imply that fewer strands are seen emitting in the later cooling phase, potentially resolving the long standing controversy of whether the cross-field temperatures of coronal loops are multithermal or isothermal.
Parametric Multi-Level Tiling of Imperfectly Nested Loops
Hartono, Albert; Baskaran, Muthu M.; Bastoul, Cedric; Cohen, Albert; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Norris, Boyana; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy
2009-05-18
Tiling is a critical loop transformation for generating high-performance code on modern architectures. Efficient generation of multilevel tiled code is essential to exploit several levels of parallelism and/or to maximize data reuse in deep memory hierarchies. Tiled loops with parameterized tile sizes (not compile time constants) facilitate runtime feedback and dynamic optimizations used in iterative compilation and automatic tuning. The existing parametric multilevel tiling approach has focused on transformation for perfectly nested loops, where all assignment statements are contained inside the innermost loop of a loop nest. Previous solutions to tiling for imperfect loop nests are limited to the case where tile sizes are fixed. In this paper, we present an approach to parameterized multilevel tiling for imperfectly nested loops. Our tiling algorithm generates loops that iterate over full rectangular tiles that are amenable for potential compiler optimizations such as register tiling. Experimental results using a number of computational benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of our tiling approach.
The Statistical Loop Analyzer (SLA)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindsey, W. C.
1985-01-01
The statistical loop analyzer (SLA) is designed to automatically measure the acquisition, tracking and frequency stability performance characteristics of symbol synchronizers, code synchronizers, carrier tracking loops, and coherent transponders. Automated phase lock and system level tests can also be made using the SLA. Standard baseband, carrier and spread spectrum modulation techniques can be accomodated. Through the SLA's phase error jitter and cycle slip measurements the acquisition and tracking thresholds of the unit under test are determined; any false phase and frequency lock events are statistically analyzed and reported in the SLA output in probabilistic terms. Automated signal drop out tests can be performed in order to trouble shoot algorithms and evaluate the reacquisition statistics of the unit under test. Cycle slip rates and cycle slip probabilities can be measured using the SLA. These measurements, combined with bit error probability measurements, are all that are needed to fully characterize the acquisition and tracking performance of a digital communication system.
Blind loop syndrome occurs when digested food slows or stops moving through part of the intestines. This ... The name of this condition refers to the "blind loop" formed by part of the intestine that ...
An efficient algorithm for planar drawing of RNA structures with pseudoknots of any type.
Byun, Yanga; Han, Kyungsook
2016-06-01
An RNA pseudoknot is a tertiary structural element in which bases of a loop pair with complementary bases are outside the loop. A drawing of RNA secondary structures is a tree, but a drawing of RNA pseudoknots is a graph that has an inner cycle within a pseudoknot and possibly outer cycles formed between the pseudoknot and other structural elements. Visualizing a large-scale RNA structure with pseudoknots as a planar drawing is challenging because a planar drawing of an RNA structure requires both pseudoknots and an entire structure enclosing the pseudoknots to be embedded into a plane without overlapping or crossing. This paper presents an efficient heuristic algorithm for visualizing a pseudoknotted RNA structure as a planar drawing. The algorithm consists of several parts for finding crossing stems and page mapping the stems, for the layout of stem-loops and pseudoknots, and for overlap detection between structural elements and resolving it. Unlike previous algorithms, our algorithm generates a planar drawing for a large RNA structure with pseudoknots of any type and provides a bracket view of the structure. It generates a compact and aesthetic structure graph for a large pseudoknotted RNA structure in O([Formula: see text]) time, where n is the number of stems of the RNA structure. PMID:26932273
The adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN deconvolution of radio interferometric images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Liu, X.
2016-05-01
CLEAN algorithms are a class of deconvolution solvers which are widely used to remove the effect of the telescope Point Spread Function (PSF). Loop gain is one important parameter in CLEAN algorithms. Currently the parameter is fixed during deconvolution, which restricts the performance of CLEAN algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new deconvolution algorithm with an adaptive loop gain scheme, which is referred to as the adaptive-loop-gain adaptive-scale CLEAN (Algas-Clean) algorithm. The test results show that the new algorithm can give a more accurate model with faster convergence.
Loop transformations to prevent false sharing
Granston, E.D.; Montaut, T.; Bodin, F.
1995-08-01
To date, page management in shared virtual memory (SVM) systems has been primarily the responsibility of the run-time system. However, there are some problems that are difficult to resolve efficiently at run time. Chief among these is false sharing. In this paper, a loop transformation theory is developed for identifying and eliminating potential sources of multiple-writer false sharing and other sources of page migration resulting from regular references in numerical applications. Loop nests of one and two dimensions (before blocking) with single-level, DOALL-style parallelism are covered. The potential of these transformations is demonstrated experimentally.
Kinematic calibration of manipulators with closed loop actuated joints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everett, Louis J.; Lin, C. Y.
1988-01-01
A method for performing forward kinematic calibration of manipulators having one or more closed-loop-actuated joints is presented. The technique is an extension of algorithms designed for open-loop jointed manipulators. The calibration is equivalent to minimizing an objective function subject to constraints. The objective function is taken as the integral of end-effector position and orientation error. The constraints arise from the closed-loop mechanisms present in the manipulator.
Fontana, W.
1990-12-13
In this paper complex adaptive systems are defined by a self- referential loop in which objects encode functions that act back on these objects. A model for this loop is presented. It uses a simple recursive formal language, derived from the lambda-calculus, to provide a semantics that maps character strings into functions that manipulate symbols on strings. The interaction between two functions, or algorithms, is defined naturally within the language through function composition, and results in the production of a new function. An iterated map acting on sets of functions and a corresponding graph representation are defined. Their properties are useful to discuss the behavior of a fixed size ensemble of randomly interacting functions. This function gas'', or Turning gas'', is studied under various conditions, and evolves cooperative interaction patterns of considerable intricacy. These patterns adapt under the influence of perturbations consisting in the addition of new random functions to the system. Different organizations emerge depending on the availability of self-replicators.
Loop Invariants, Exploration of Regularities, and Mathematical Games.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ginat, David
2001-01-01
Presents an approach for illustrating, on an intuitive level, the significance of loop invariants for algorithm design and analysis. The illustration is based on mathematical games that require the exploration of regularities via problem-solving heuristics. (Author/MM)
Robust tuning of two-loop automatic control systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, N. I.; Sabanin, V. R.; Repin, A. I.
2007-07-01
We propose a solution to the problem of finding trade-off robust tuning parameters for two-loop automatic control systems by means of a numerical simulation method using the authors’ version of the Optim-MGA evolutionary optimization algorithm. Results from calculating and analyzing a two-loop superheated steam temperature control system employing a PI controller and a differentiator are presented.
Resolving thermoelectric "paradox" in superconductors.
Shelly, Connor D; Matrozova, Ekaterina A; Petrashov, Victor T
2016-02-01
For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing "paradox," and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caron-Huot, S.
2011-05-01
We investigate relations between loop and tree amplitudes in quantum field theory that involve putting on-shell some loop propagators. This generalizes the so-called Feynman tree theorem which is satisfied at 1-loop. Exploiting retarded boundary conditions, we give a generalization to ℓ-loop expressing the loops as integrals over the on-shell phase space of exactly ℓ particles. We argue that the corresponding integrand for ℓ > 2 does not involve the forward limit of any physical tree amplitude, except in planar gauge theories. In that case we explicitly construct the relevant physical amplitude. Beyond the planar limit, abandoning direct integral representations, we propose that loops continue to be determined implicitly by the forward limit of physical connected trees, and we formulate a precise conjecture along this line. Finally, we set up technology to compute forward amplitudes in supersymmetric theories, in which specific simplifications occur.
Improved multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms
Newman, I.A.; Stallard, R.P.; Woodward, M.C.
1983-01-01
Outlines the results of an investigation of existing multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms and introduces two new algorithms which significantly improve some aspects of the performance of their predecessors. The two algorithms arise from different starting assumptions. One considers the case where the algorithm will terminate successfully whatever list structure is being processed and assumes that the extra data space should be minimised. The other seeks a very fast garbage collection time for list structures that do not contain loops. Results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms. 7 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danisch, Lee A.
1996-10-01
BEAM sensors include treated loops of optical fiber that modulate optical throughput with great sensitivity and linearity, in response to curvature of the loop out of its plane. This paper describes BEAM sensors that have two loops treated in opposed fashion, hermetically sealed in flexible laminations. The sensors include an integrated optoelectronics package that extracts curvature information from the treated portion of the loops while rejecting common mode errors. The laminated structure is used to sense various parameters including displacement, force, pressure, flow, and acceleration.
Observational Evidence for Loop-Loop Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guiping, W.; Guangli, H.; Yuhua, T.; Aoao, X.
2004-01-01
Through analysis of the data including the hard x-ray(BASTE) microwave(NoRP) and magnetogram(MDI from SOHO) as well as the images of soft x-ray(YHKOH) and EIT(SOHO) on Apr. 151998 solar flare in the active region 8203(N30W12) we found: (1) there are similar quasi period oscillation in the profile of hard x-ray flux (25-5050-100keV) and microwave flux(1GHz) with duration of 85+/-25s every peak includes two sub-peak structures; (2) in the preheat phase of the flare active magnetic field changes apparently and a s-pole spot emerges ; (3) several EIT and soft x-ray loops exist and turn into bright . All of these may suggest that loop-loop interaction indeed exist. Through reconnection the electrons may be accelerated and the hard x-ray and microwave emission take place.
Generalized directed loop method for quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Alet, Fabien; Wessel, Stefan; Troyer, Matthias
2005-03-01
Efficient quantum Monte Carlo update schemes called directed loops have recently been proposed, which improve the efficiency of simulations of quantum lattice models. We propose to generalize the detailed balance equations at the local level during the loop construction by accounting for the matrix elements of the operators associated with open world-line segments. Using linear programming techniques to solve the generalized equations, we look for optimal construction schemes for directed loops. This also allows for an extension of the directed loop scheme to general lattice models, such as high-spin or bosonic models. The resulting algorithms are bounce free in larger regions of parameter space than the original directed loop algorithm. The generalized directed loop method is applied to the magnetization process of spin chains in order to compare its efficiency to that of previous directed loop schemes. In contrast to general expectations, we find that minimizing bounces alone does not always lead to more efficient algorithms in terms of autocorrelations of physical observables, because of the nonuniqueness of the bounce-free solutions. We therefore propose different general strategies to further minimize autocorrelations, which can be used as supplementary requirements in any directed loop scheme. We show by calculating autocorrelation times for different observables that such strategies indeed lead to improved efficiency; however, we find that the optimal strategy depends not only on the model parameters but also on the observable of interest. PMID:15903632
Intrinsic flexibility of snRNA hairpin loops facilitates protein binding.
Rau, Michael; Stump, W Tom; Hall, Kathleen B
2012-11-01
Stem-loop II of U1 snRNA and Stem-loop IV of U2 snRNA typically have 10 or 11 nucleotides in their loops. The fluorescent nucleobase 2-aminopurine was used as a substitute for the adenines in each loop to probe the local and global structures and dynamics of these unusually long loops. Using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, we find that, while the bases in the loops are stacked, they are able to undergo significant local motion on the picosecond/nanosecond timescale. In addition, the loops have a global conformational change at low temperatures that occurs on the microsecond timescale, as determined using laser T-jump experiments. Nucleobase and loop motions are present at temperatures far below the melting temperature of the hairpin stem, which may facilitate the conformational change required for specific protein binding to these RNA loops. PMID:23012481
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisdom, Jack
2015-10-01
The Wisdom-Holman mapping method and its variations have become a mainstay of research in solar system dynamics. But the method is not without its limitations. Rauch & Holman noted that at large eccentricities sufficiently small steps must be taken to resolve the pericenter. In this paper, I explore in more detail what it means to resolve the pericenter.
Structure Prediction of RNA Loops with a Probabilistic Approach
Li, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
The knowledge of the tertiary structure of RNA loops is important for understanding their functions. In this work we develop an efficient approach named RNApps, specifically designed for predicting the tertiary structure of RNA loops, including hairpin loops, internal loops, and multi-way junction loops. It includes a probabilistic coarse-grained RNA model, an all-atom statistical energy function, a sequential Monte Carlo growth algorithm, and a simulated annealing procedure. The approach is tested with a dataset including nine RNA loops, a 23S ribosomal RNA, and a large dataset containing 876 RNAs. The performance is evaluated and compared with a homology modeling based predictor and an ab initio predictor. It is found that RNApps has comparable performance with the former one and outdoes the latter in terms of structure predictions. The approach holds great promise for accurate and efficient RNA tertiary structure prediction. PMID:27494763
Structure Prediction of RNA Loops with a Probabilistic Approach.
Li, Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei
2016-08-01
The knowledge of the tertiary structure of RNA loops is important for understanding their functions. In this work we develop an efficient approach named RNApps, specifically designed for predicting the tertiary structure of RNA loops, including hairpin loops, internal loops, and multi-way junction loops. It includes a probabilistic coarse-grained RNA model, an all-atom statistical energy function, a sequential Monte Carlo growth algorithm, and a simulated annealing procedure. The approach is tested with a dataset including nine RNA loops, a 23S ribosomal RNA, and a large dataset containing 876 RNAs. The performance is evaluated and compared with a homology modeling based predictor and an ab initio predictor. It is found that RNApps has comparable performance with the former one and outdoes the latter in terms of structure predictions. The approach holds great promise for accurate and efficient RNA tertiary structure prediction. PMID:27494763
Loops and multiple edges in modularity maximization of networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cafieri, Sonia; Hansen, Pierre; Liberti, Leo
2010-04-01
The modularity maximization model proposed by Newman and Girvan for the identification of communities in networks works for general graphs possibly with loops and multiple edges. However, the applications usually correspond to simple graphs. These graphs are compared to a null model where the degree distribution is maintained but edges are placed at random. Therefore, in this null model there will be loops and possibly multiple edges. Sharp bounds on the expected number of loops, and their impact on the modularity, are derived. Then, building upon the work of Massen and Doye, but using algebra rather than simulation, we propose modified null models associated with graphs without loops but with multiple edges, graphs with loops but without multiple edges and graphs without loops nor multiple edges. We validate our models by using the exact algorithm for clique partitioning of Grötschel and Wakabayashi.
Resolution of curvature singularities from quantum mechanical and loop perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tahamtan, T.; Svítek, O.
2014-08-01
We analyze the persistence of curvature singularities when analyzed using quantum theory. First, quantum test particles obeying the Klein-Gordon and Chandrasekhar-Dirac equation are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularity. We show that the classical singularity is felt even by our quantum probes. Next, we use loop quantization to resolve a singularity hidden beneath the horizon. The singularity is resolved in this case.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gottschlich, Joseph M.; Richter, Robert
1991-01-01
The concept of a thermal power loop (TPL) to transport thermal power over relatively large distances is presented as an alternative to heat pipes and their derivatives. The TPL is compared to heat pipes, and capillary pumped loops with respect to size, weight, conservation of thermal potential, start-up, and 1-g testing capability. Test results from a proof of feasibility demonstrator at the NASA JPL are discussed. This analysis demonstrates that the development of specific thermal power loops will result in substantial weight and cost savings for many spacecraft.
Whisker weaving: Invalid connectivity resolution and primal construction algorithm
Tautgas, T.J.; Mitchell, S.A.
1995-11-01
This paper describes the techniques used to resolve invalid connectivity created as a natural part of the whisker weaving algorithm. These techniques rely on the detection of {open_quotes}repeated hexes{close_quotes} in the STC data, which indicate face pairs which share two edges. The {open_quotes}repeated hex{close_quotes} case is described in detail, including the resolution technique by which a self-intersecting whisker sheet with two independent face loops are created. The algorithm used to construct the primal of an all-hexahedral mesh (i.e. the actual nodes and hex elements) from the connectivity data contained in the STC is also described. The primal is constructed using a {open_quotes}gift-wrapping{close_quotes} algorithm, where all the mesh edges and hexes containing a particular node are found by traversing between hexes already known to share the node. This algorithm is implemented inside the CUBIT code and is used to generate meshes for several example problems.
Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr
Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan
2015-03-27
Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less
Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr
Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan
2015-03-27
Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.
Natively Unstructured Loops Differ from Other Loops
Schlessinger, Avner; Liu, Jinfeng; Rost, Burkhard
2007-01-01
Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions) differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%–70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein–protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested that long
Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung
2015-01-01
This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.
Modeling of protein loops by simulated annealing.
Collura, V.; Higo, J.; Garnier, J.
1993-01-01
A method is presented to model loops of protein to be used in homology modeling of proteins. This method employs the ESAP program of Higo et al. (Higo, J., Collura, V., & Garnier, J., 1992, Biopolymers 32, 33-43) and is based on a fast Monte Carlo simulation and a simulated annealing algorithm. The method is tested on different loops or peptide segments from immunoglobulin, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, and bovine trypsin. The predicted structure is obtained from the ensemble average of the coordinates of the Monte Carlo simulation at 300 K, which exhibits the lowest internal energy. The starting conformation of the loop prior to modeling is chosen to be completely extended, and a closing harmonic potential is applied to N, CA, C, and O atoms of the terminal residues. A rigid geometry potential of Robson and Platt (1986, J. Mol. Biol. 188, 259-281) with a united atom representation is used. This we demonstrate to yield a loop structure with good hydrogen bonding and torsion angles in the allowed regions of the Ramachandran map. The average accuracy of the modeling evaluated on the eight modeled loops is 1 A root mean square deviation (rmsd) for the backbone atoms and 2.3 A rmsd for all heavy atoms. PMID:8401234
Conformational Sampling in Template-Free Protein Loop Structure Modeling: An Overview
Li, Yaohang
2013-01-01
Accurately modeling protein loops is an important step to predict three-dimensional structures as well as to understand functions of many proteins. Because of their high flexibility, modeling the three-dimensional structures of loops is difficult and is usually treated as a “mini protein folding problem” under geometric constraints. In the past decade, there has been remarkable progress in template-free loop structure modeling due to advances of computational methods as well as stably increasing number of known structures available in PDB. This mini review provides an overview on the recent computational approaches for loop structure modeling. In particular, we focus on the approaches of sampling loop conformation space, which is a critical step to obtain high resolution models in template-free methods. We review the potential energy functions for loop modeling, loop buildup mechanisms to satisfy geometric constraints, and loop conformation sampling algorithms. The recent loop modeling results are also summarized. PMID:24688696
A Mirnov loop array for field-reversed configurations
Tuszewski, M.
1990-01-01
An array of 64 magnetic pick-up loops has been used for stability studies of large field-reversed configurations in the FRX-C/LSM device. This array proved reliable, could resolve signals of a few Gauss, and allowed the detection of several plasma instabilities. 3 refs., 4 figs.
A Robustly Stabilizing Model Predictive Control Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ackmece, A. Behcet; Carson, John M., III
2007-01-01
A model predictive control (MPC) algorithm that differs from prior MPC algorithms has been developed for controlling an uncertain nonlinear system. This algorithm guarantees the resolvability of an associated finite-horizon optimal-control problem in a receding-horizon implementation.
The Fundamental Structure of Coronal Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winebarger, Amy; Warren, Harry; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly; Golub, Leon; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DePontieu, Bart; Title, Alan; Weber, Mark
2012-01-01
During the past ten years, solar physicists have attempted to infer the coronal heating mechanism by comparing observations of coronal loops with hydrodynamic model predictions. These comparisons often used the addition of sub ]resolution strands to explain the observed loop properties. On July 11, 2012, the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi ]C) was launched on a sounding rocket. This instrument obtained images of the solar corona was 0.2 ]0.3'' resolution in a narrowband EUV filter centered around 193 Angstroms. In this talk, we will compare these high resolution images to simultaneous density measurements obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on Hinode to determine whether the structures observed with Hi ]C are resolved.
Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild black hole.
Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2013-05-24
We quantize spherically symmetric vacuum gravity without gauge fixing the diffeomorphism constraint. Through a rescaling, we make the algebra of Hamiltonian constraints Abelian, and therefore the constraint algebra is a true Lie algebra. This allows the completion of the Dirac quantization procedure using loop quantum gravity techniques. We can construct explicitly the exact solutions of the physical Hilbert space annihilated by all constraints. New observables living in the bulk appear at the quantum level (analogous to spin in quantum mechanics) that are not present at the classical level and are associated with the discrete nature of the spin network states of loop quantum gravity. The resulting quantum space-times resolve the singularity present in the classical theory inside black holes. PMID:23745855
IRIS Resolving Unresolved Structure
NASA’s IRIS, which is able to look at a low layer of the sun’s atmosphere in unprecedented resolution, reveals details in the bright loops seen over the sun’s limb that have never been witnessed be...
Efficient static scheduling of loops on synchronous multiprocessors
Zaky, A.M.
1989-01-01
This dissertation investigates efficient compile-time scheduling techniques for exploiting parallelism on synchronous multiprocessors. Synchronous multiprocessors, e.g. Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) machines, are very effective in utilizing unstructured fine-grained parallelism in programs. The effectiveness of such machines is crucially dependent on the static compile-time analysis and detection of potential parallelism. The first part of the dissertation focuses on scheduling sequential loops on multiprocessors with multiple identical processor units. The problem of determining the maximal initiation rate for the execution of a sequential loop with uniform dependence distances on a synchronous multiprocessor is addressed and cast as an eigenvalue problem in a path algebra. A low-order polynomial algorithm for the determination of the optimal loop initiation rate is developed, and a schedule that exploits fine-grained parallelism and achieves the optimal initiation rate is developed under an idealized unbounded processor model. Next, the concepts developed above are extended to deal with perfectly-nested loops with uniform dependences. A strategy is developed to identify both the loop level and fine-grained expression level parallelism in nested loops, and to efficiently schedule such loops on synchronous multiprocessors. Loop scheduling techniques such as Do-Across, Wavefront scheduling, and fine-grained scheduling techniques such as loop unfolding are shown to be derivable within the presented framework.
Zisser, Howard; Renard, Eric; Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Avogaro, Angelo; Nimri, Revital; Magni, Lalo; Buckingham, Bruce A.; Chase, H. Peter; Doyle, Francis J.; Lum, John; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig; Dassau, Eyal; Farret, Anne; Place, Jerome; Breton, Marc; Anderson, Stacey M.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Phillip, Moshe; Atlas, Eran; Muller, Ido; Miller, Shahar; Toffanin, Chiara; Raimondo, Davide Martino; De Nicolao, Giuseppe
2014-01-01
Abstract Background: The Control to Range Study was a multinational artificial pancreas study designed to assess the time spent in the hypo- and hyperglycemic ranges in adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes while under closed-loop control. The controller attempted to keep the glucose ranges between 70 and 180 mg/dL. A set of prespecified metrics was used to measure safety. Research Design and Methods: We studied 53 individuals for approximately 22 h each during clinical research center admissions. Plasma glucose level was measured every 15–30 min (YSI clinical laboratory analyzer instrument [YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH]). During the admission, subjects received three mixed meals (1 g of carbohydrate/kg of body weight; 100 g maximum) with meal announcement and automated insulin dosing by the controller. Results: For adults, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 159 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values 71–180 mg/dL was 66% overall (59% daytime and 82% overnight). For adolescents, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 166 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values in range was 62% overall (53% daytime and 82% overnight). Whereas prespecified criteria for safety were satisfied by both groups, they were met at the individual level in adults only for combined daytime/nighttime and for isolated nighttime. Two adults and six adolescents failed to meet the daytime criterion, largely because of postmeal hyperglycemia, and another adolescent failed to meet the nighttime criterion. Conclusions: The control-to-range system performed as expected: faring better overnight than during the day and performing with variability between patients even after individualization based on patients' prior settings. The system had difficulty preventing postmeal excursions above target range. PMID:25003311
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.
1987-01-01
Wilson-loop symmetry breaking is considered on a space-time of the form M4 x K, where M4 is a four-dimensional space-time and K is an internal space with nontrivial and finite fundamental group. It is shown in a simple model that the different vacua obtained by breaking a non-Abelian gauge group by Wilson loops are separated in the space of gauge potentials by a finite energy barrier. An interpolating gauge configuration is then constructed between these vacua and shown to have minimum energy. Finally some implications of this construction are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nardi, Jerry
The Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (Sarsat) is designed to detect and locate distress beacons using satellite receivers. Algorithms used for calculating the positions of 406 MHz beacons and 121.5/243 MHz beacons are presented. The techniques for matching, resolving and averaging calculated locations from multiple satellite passes are also described along with results pertaining to single pass and multiple pass location estimate accuracy.
HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA
Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.
2013-08-01
Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.
Resolving Problems through Mediation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Notar, Susan
1997-01-01
Examines state variations in use of mediation to resolve domestic relations disputes. Mediation may be optional or mandatory, requested by the parties or the judge. Mediator qualifications vary considerably. Child support is less likely than custody and visitation to be the sole topic for mediation. More states are likely to use mediation in…
Has Abstractness Been Resolved?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al-Omoush, Ahmad
1989-01-01
A discussion focusing on the abstractness of analysis in phonology, debated since the 1960s, describes the issue, reviews the literature on the subject, cites specific natural language examples, and examines the extent to which the issue has been resolved. An underlying representation is said to be abstract if it is different from the derived one,…
Livermore Compiler Analysis Loop Suite
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2013-03-01
LCALS is designed to evaluate compiler optimizations and performance of a variety of loop kernels and loop traversal software constructs. Some of the loop kernels are pulled directly from "Livermore Loops Coded in C", developed at LLNL (see item 11 below for details of earlier code versions). The older suites were used to evaluate floating-point performances of hardware platforms prior to porting larger application codes. The LCALS suite is geared toward assissing C++ compiler optimizationsmore » and platform performance related to SIMD vectorization, OpenMP threading, and advanced C++ language features. LCALS contains 20 of 24 loop kernels from the older Livermore Loop suites, plus various others representative of loops found in current production appkication codes at LLNL. The latter loops emphasize more diverse loop constructs and data access patterns than the others, such as multi-dimensional difference stencils. The loops are included in a configurable framework, which allows control of compilation, loop sampling for execution timing, which loops are run and their lengths. It generates timing statistics for analysis and comparing variants of individual loops. Also, it is easy to add loops to the suite as desired.« less
Livermore Compiler Analysis Loop Suite
Hornung, R. D.
2013-03-01
LCALS is designed to evaluate compiler optimizations and performance of a variety of loop kernels and loop traversal software constructs. Some of the loop kernels are pulled directly from "Livermore Loops Coded in C", developed at LLNL (see item 11 below for details of earlier code versions). The older suites were used to evaluate floating-point performances of hardware platforms prior to porting larger application codes. The LCALS suite is geared toward assissing C++ compiler optimizations and platform performance related to SIMD vectorization, OpenMP threading, and advanced C++ language features. LCALS contains 20 of 24 loop kernels from the older Livermore Loop suites, plus various others representative of loops found in current production appkication codes at LLNL. The latter loops emphasize more diverse loop constructs and data access patterns than the others, such as multi-dimensional difference stencils. The loops are included in a configurable framework, which allows control of compilation, loop sampling for execution timing, which loops are run and their lengths. It generates timing statistics for analysis and comparing variants of individual loops. Also, it is easy to add loops to the suite as desired.
Projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography
Zhang, Miao; Hwang, Thomas S.; Campbell, J. Peter; Bailey, Steven T.; Wilson, David J.; Huang, David; Jia, Yali
2016-01-01
Shadowgraphic projection artifacts from superficial vasculature interfere with the visualization of deeper vascular networks in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). We developed a novel algorithm to remove this artifact by resolving the ambiguity between in situ and projected flow signals. The algorithm identifies voxels with in situ flow as those where intensity-normalized decorrelation values are higher than all shallower voxels in the same axial scan line. This “projection-resolved” (PR) algorithm effectively suppressed the projection artifact on both en face and cross-sectional angiograms and enhanced depth resolution of vascular networks. In the human macula, the enhanced angiograms show three distinct vascular plexuses in the inner retina and no vessels in the outer retina. We demonstrate that PR OCT-A cleanly removes flow projection from the normally avascular outer retinal slab while preserving the density and continuity of the intermediate and deep retinal capillary plexuses. PMID:27231591
NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor
2013-07-24
NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.
NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor
None
2014-06-26
NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walsh, R. W.
2004-01-01
Loop-like structures are the fundamental magnetic building blocks of the solar atmosphere. Recent space-based EUV and X-ray satellite observations (from Yohkoh SOHO and TRACE) have challenged the view that these features are simply static gravitationally stratified plasma pipes. Rather it is now surmised that each loop may consist of a bundle of fine plasma threads that are twisted around one another and can brighten independently. This invited review will outline the latest developments in ""untangling"" the topology of these features through three dimensional magnetohydrodynamic modelling and how their properties are being deduced through spectroscopic observations coupled to theoretical scaling laws. In particular recent interest has centred on how the observed thermal profile along loops can be employed as a tool to diagnose any localised energy input to the structure and hence constrain the presence of a particular coronal heating mechanism. The dynamic nature of loops will be highlighted and the implications of superior resolution plasma thread observations (whether spatial temporal or spectral) from future space missions (SolarB STEREO SDO and Solar Orbiter) will be discussed.
Kung, Johnny T.Y.; Lee, Jeannie T.
2013-01-01
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in a variety of biological roles, particularly as cis or trans gene expression regulators. Reporting recently in Nature, Lai et al. (2013) show that a class of gene-activating lncRNAs combines two gene regulation paradigms: enhancer-directed chromosomal looping and RNA-mediated protein effector recruitment. PMID:23537627
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.
Closing the Loop (CTL) is a science curriculum designed to introduce students to integrated waste management through awareness. This document presents five lesson plans focusing on developing an understanding of natural resources, solid wastes, conservation, and the life of landfills. Contents include: (1) "What Are Natural Resources?"; (2)…
[Prediction of short loops in the proteins with internal disorder].
Deriusheva, E I; Galzitskaia, O V; Serdiuk, I N
2008-01-01
New possibility of the FoldUnfold program for prediction of short disordered regions (loops), which appears by using the short window width (3 amino acid residues), was described. For three representatives of the proteins G family the FoldUnfold program predicted almost all short loops and yield results are well compatible with the X-ray structure data. We have classified the loops predicted in the protein Ras-p21 structure in two types. In the first type, loops have high values of the Debye-Waller factor typical of the so-called functional loops (flexible loops). In the other type, loops have lower values of the Debye-Waller factor and can be considered as loops connecting secondary structure elements (rigid loops). When the results of prediction with the use of our program are compared with the results of other programs (PONDR, RONN, DisEMBL, PreLINK, IUPred, GlobPlot 2, FoldIndex), it is seen that the first enables far better prediction of short loop positions. Use of FoldUnfold for ubiquitin-like domain h-PLIC-2 allows to resolve such task as definition of boundary between the structured and unstructured regions in proteins with a big portion of disordered regions. The FoldUnfold program defines a clear boundary between the structured and unstructured regions at amino acid residues 30-31,whereas each of the other programs outlines the boundary from the 28-th amino acid residues through the 70th. PMID:19140328
3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2004-01-01
Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.
Inferring Flare Loop Parameters with Measurements of Standing Sausage Modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui
2016-03-01
Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility of inverting the measured periods P and damping times τ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfvén time R/v_{Ai}, density contrast ρi/ρe, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, whether the measurements are spatially resolved or unresolved. While R/v_{Ai} can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an additional mode is present, it is possible to deduce self-consistently ρi/ρe, the profile steepness, and the internal Alfvén speed v_{Ai}. We show that at least for a recent QPP event that involves a fundamental kink mode in addition to a sausage one, flare loop parameters are well constrained even if the specific form of the transverse density distribution remains unknown. We conclude that spatially resolved, multi-mode QPP measurements need to be pursued to infer flare loop parameters.
COLD TEST LOOP INTEGRATED TEST LOOP RESULTS
Abraham, TJ
2003-10-22
A testing facility (Cold Test Loop) was constructed and operated to demonstrate the efficacy of the Accelerated Waste Retrieval (AWR) Project's planned sluicing approach to the remediation of Silos 1 and 2 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati, Ohio. The two silos contain almost 10,000 tons of radium-bearing low-level waste, which consists primarily of solids of raffinates from processing performed on ores from the Democratic Republic of Congo (commonly referred to as ''Belgium Congo ores'') for the recovery of uranium. These silos are 80 ft in diameter, 36 ft high to the center of the dome, and 26.75 ft to the top of the vertical side walls. The test facility contained two test systems, each designed for a specific purpose. The first system, the Integrated Test Loop (ITL), a near-full-scale plant including the actual equipment to be installed at the Fernald Site, was designed to demonstrate the sluicing operation and confirm the selection of a slurry pump, the optimal sluicing nozzle operation, and the preliminary design material balance. The second system, the Component Test Loop (CTL), was designed to evaluate many of the key individual components of the waste retrieval system over an extended run. The major results of the initial testing performed during July and August 2002 confirmed that the AWR approach to sluicing was feasible. The ITL testing confirmed the following: (1) The selected slurry pump (Hazleton 3-20 type SHW) performed well and is suitable for AWR application. However, the pump's motor should be upgraded to a 200-hp model and be driven by a 150-hp variable-frequency drive (VFD). A 200-hp VFD is not much more expensive and would allow the pump to operate at full speed. (2) The best nozzle performance was achieved by using 15/16-in. nozzles operated alternately. This configuration appeared to most effectively mine the surrogate. (3) The Solartron densitometer, which was tested as an alternative mass flow measurement
Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Christian, G. M.; Fair, C. B.
2014-11-10
We have tested three controversial properties for a target loop observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly: (1) overdense loops; (2) long-lifetime loops; and (3) multithermal loops. Our loop is overdense by a factor of about 10 compared to results expected from steady uniform heating models. If this were the only inconsistency, our loop could still be modeled as a single strand, but the density mismatch would imply that the heating must be impulsive. Moving on to the second observable, however, we find that the loop lifetime is at least an order of magnitude greater than the predicted cooling time. This implies that the loop cannot be composed of a single flux tube, even if the heating were dynamic, and must be multi-stranded. Finally, differential emission measure analysis shows that the cross-field temperature of the target loop is multithermal in the early and middle phases of its lifetime, but effectively isothermal before it fades from view. If these multithermal cooling results are found to be widespread, our results could resolve the original coronal loop controversy of 'isothermal' versus 'multithermal' cross-field temperatures. That is, the cross-field temperature is not always 'multithermal' nor is it always 'isothermal', but might change as the loop cools. We find that the existence and evolution of this loop is consistent with predictions of nanoflare heating.
Adaptive Inner-Loop Rover Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulkarni, Nilesh; Ippolito, Corey; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Al-Ali, Khalid M.
2006-01-01
Adaptive control technology is developed for the inner-loop speed and steering control of the MAX Rover. MAX, a CMU developed rover, is a compact low-cost 4-wheel drive, 4-wheel steer (double Ackerman), high-clearance agile durable chassis, outfitted with sensors and electronics that make it ideally suited for supporting research relevant to intelligent teleoperation and as a low-cost autonomous robotic test bed and appliance. The design consists of a feedback linearization based controller with a proportional - integral (PI) feedback that is augmented by an online adaptive neural network. The adaptation law has guaranteed stability properties for safe operation. The control design is retrofit in nature so that it fits inside the outer-loop path planning algorithms. Successful hardware implementation of the controller is illustrated for several scenarios consisting of actuator failures and modeling errors in the nominal design.
Molecular motor driven transportation on microtubule loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sikora, Aurelien; Federici, Filippo; Kim, Kyongwan; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried
2015-03-01
Molecular motors such as kinesin are naturally fitted for the transport of cargo. By offering an unlimited path, microtubule loops allow the study of kinesin motility on distances exceeding that offered by a single microtubule. Moreover, the periodicity of the path allows the comparisons of trajectories between laps. Here we study the motility of quantum dot labeled kinesin on microtubule loops. Motility of kinesins over multiple laps is observed and their trajectories are extracted from kymograph using a custom algorithm. Distribution of velocities at given locations do not vary randomly but show a correlation with the presence of obstacles. Possible mechanisms responsible for the long range transport are discussed in the context of available theories.
Portable Health Algorithms Test System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.
2010-01-01
A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreuzer, Alexander
1998-01-01
K-loops have their origin in the theory of sharply 2-transitive groups. In this paper a proof is given that K-loops and Bruck loops are the same. For the proof it is necessary to show that in a (left) Bruck loop the left inner mappings L(b)L(a) L(ab)[minus sign]1 are automorphisms. This paper generalizes results of Glauberman [3], Kist [8] and Kreuzer [9].
Control algorithm implementation for a redundant degree of freedom manipulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cohan, Steve
1991-01-01
This project's purpose is to develop and implement control algorithms for a kinematically redundant robotic manipulator. The manipulator is being developed concurrently by Odetics Inc., under internal research and development funding. This SBIR contract supports algorithm conception, development, and simulation, as well as software implementation and integration with the manipulator hardware. The Odetics Dexterous Manipulator is a lightweight, high strength, modular manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. It has seven fully active degrees of freedom, is electrically powered, and is fully operational in 1 G. The manipulator consists of five self-contained modules. These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly/disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. Each joint incorporates a unique drive train design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. The sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. Although the initial prototype is not space qualified, the design is well-suited to meeting space qualification requirements. The control algorithm design approach is to develop a hierarchical system with well defined access and interfaces at each level. The high level endpoint/configuration control algorithm transforms manipulator endpoint position/orientation commands to joint angle commands, providing task space motion. At the same time, the kinematic redundancy is resolved by controlling the configuration (pose) of the manipulator, using several different optimizing criteria. The center level of the hierarchy servos the joints to their commanded trajectories using both linear feedback and model-based nonlinear control techniques. The lowest control level uses sensed joint torque to close torque servo loops, with the goal of improving the manipulator dynamic behavior
Loop Heat Pipes and Capillary Pumped Loops: An Applications Perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Dan; Ku, Jentung; Swanson, Theodore; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Capillary pumped loops (CPLS) and loop heat pipes (LHPS) are versatile two-phase heat transfer devices which have recently gained increasing acceptance in space applications. Both systems work based on the same principles and have very similar designs. Nevertheless, some differences exist in the construction of the evaporator and the hydro-accumulator, and these differences lead to very distinct operating characteristics for each loop. This paper presents comparisons of the two loops from an applications perspective, and addresses their impact on spacecraft design, integration, and test. Some technical challenges and issues for both loops are also addressed.
Cygnus Loop Supernova Blast Wave
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This is an image of a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, which marks the edge of a bubble-like, expanding blast wave from a colossal stellar explosion, occurring about 15,000 years ago. The HST image shows the structure behind the shock waves, allowing astronomers for the first time to directly compare the actual structure of the shock with theoretical model calculations. Besides supernova remnants, these shock models are important in understanding a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, from winds in newly-formed stars to cataclysmic stellar outbursts. The supernova blast is slamming into tenuous clouds of insterstellar gas. This collision heats and compresses the gas, causing it to glow. The shock thus acts as a searchlight revealing the structure of the interstellar medium. The detailed HST image shows the blast wave overrunning dense clumps of gas, which despite HST's high resolution, cannot be resolved. This means that the clumps of gas must be small enough to fit inside our solar system, making them relatively small structures by interstellar standards. A bluish ribbon of light stretching left to right across the picture might be a knot of gas ejected by the supernova; this interstellar 'bullet' traveling over three million miles per hour (5 million kilometres) is just catching up with the shock front, which has slowed down by ploughing into interstellar material. The Cygnus Loop appears as a faint ring of glowing gases about three degrees across (six times the diameter of the full Moon), located in the northern constellation, Cygnus the Swan. The supernova remnant is within the plane of our Milky Way galaxy and is 2,600 light-years away. The photo is a combination of separate images taken in three colors, oxygen atoms (blue) emit light at temperatures of 30,000 to 60,000 degrees Celsius (50,000 to 100,000 degrees Farenheit). Hydrogen atoms (green) arise throughout the region of shocked gas. Sulfur atoms (red) form when the gas cools to
Verification of Loop Diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.
2014-01-01
Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.
Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics
Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya
2009-03-31
One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Opolski, Antoni
2014-12-01
Professor Antoni Opolski was actively interested in astronomy after his retirement in 1983. He especially liked to study the works of the famous astronomer Copernicus getting inspiration for his own work. Opolski started his work on planetary loops in 2011 continuing it to the end of 2012 . During this period calculations, drawings, tables, and basic descriptions of all the planets of the Solar System were created with the use of a piece of paper and a pencil only. In 2011 Antoni Opolski asked us to help him in editing the manuscript and preparing it for publication. We have been honored having the opportunity to work on articles on planetary loops with Antoni Opolski in his house for several months. In the middle of 2012 the detailed material on Jupiter was ready. However, professor Opolski improved the article by smoothing the text and preparing new, better drawings. Finally the article ''Loops of Jupiter'', written by the 99- year old astronomer, was published in the year of his 100th birthday.
Mapping algorithms on regular parallel architectures
Lee, P.
1989-01-01
It is significant that many of time-intensive scientific algorithms are formulated as nested loops, which are inherently regularly structured. In this dissertation the relations between the mathematical structure of nested loop algorithms and the architectural capabilities required for their parallel execution are studied. The architectural model considered in depth is that of an arbitrary dimensional systolic array. The mathematical structure of the algorithm is characterized by classifying its data-dependence vectors according to the new ZERO-ONE-INFINITE property introduced. Using this classification, the first complete set of necessary and sufficient conditions for correct transformation of a nested loop algorithm onto a given systolic array of an arbitrary dimension by means of linear mappings is derived. Practical methods to derive optimal or suboptimal systolic array implementations are also provided. The techniques developed are used constructively to develop families of implementations satisfying various optimization criteria and to design programmable arrays efficiently executing classes of algorithms. In addition, a Computer-Aided Design system running on SUN workstations has been implemented to help in the design. The methodology, which deals with general algorithms, is illustrated by synthesizing linear and planar systolic array algorithms for matrix multiplication, a reindexed Warshall-Floyd transitive closure algorithm, and the longest common subsequence algorithm.
Semi-numerical evaluation of one-loop corrections
Ellis, R.K.; Giele, W.T.; Zanderighi, G.; /Fermilab
2005-08-01
We present a semi-numerical algorithm to calculate one-loop virtual corrections to scattering amplitudes. The divergences of the loop amplitudes are regulated using dimensional regularization. We treat in detail the case of amplitudes with up to five external legs and massless internal lines, although the method is more generally applicable. Tensor integrals are reduced to generalized scalar integrals, which in turn are reduced to a set of known basis integrals using recursion relations. The reduction algorithm is modified near exceptional configurations to ensure numerical stability. To test the procedure we apply these techniques to one-loop corrections to the Higgs to four quark process for which analytic results have recently become available.
FORTE hardware-in-loop simulation
Ruud, K.K.; Murray, H.S.; Moore, T.K.
1997-12-01
Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) is a small, low Earth orbit satellite scheduled for launch in August 1997. FORTE is a momentum-biased, gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. This paper describes the use of a hardware-in-loop simulator, developed by Ithaco Inc. and Los Alamos National Laboratory, in performing FORTE mission simulations. Scenarios studied include separation, acquisition on orbit, control system parameter sensitivity studies, sensor noise simulations, antenna deployment and momentum desaturation. Use of the simulator to refine control algorithms and sequences is also described.
Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds
Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V
2004-12-16
Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.
Loops in Reeb Graphs of 2-Manifolds
Cole-McLaughlin, K; Edelsbrunner, H; Harer, J; Natarajan, V; Pascucci, V
2003-02-11
Given a Morse function f over a 2-manifold with or without boundary, the Reeb graph is obtained by contracting the connected components of the level sets to points. We prove tight upper and lower bounds on the number of loops in the Reeb graph that depend on the genus, the number of boundary components, and whether or not the 2-manifold is orientable. We also give an algorithm that constructs the Reeb graph in time O(n log n), where n is the number of edges in the triangulation used to represent the 2-manifold and the Morse function.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carson, John M., III; Ackmese, A. Behcet
2005-01-01
The guidance and control (G&C) algorithms for enabling small-body proximity operations are developed by using a model predictive control approach along with a convexification of the governing dynamics, control constraints, and trajectory/state constraints. The open-loop guidance is solved ahead of time or in a resolvable, real-time manner through the use of PWG (Pseudo Way-point Generation), a technique developed in this research. The PWG scheme ensures required thruster silent times during trajectory maneuvers. The feedback control is implemented to track the PWG trajectories in a manner that guarantees the resolvability for the open-loop problem, enabling the ability to update the G&C in a model-predictive manner. The schemes incorporate gravity models and thruster ring times into discrete dynamics that are solved as a optimal control problem to minimize fuel consumption or thruster energy expenditure. The optimal control problem is cast as an LMI (Linear Matrix Inequality) and then solved through Semi-Definite Programming techniques in a computationally efficient manner that provides convergence and constraint guarantees.
Resource Prospector: The RESOLVE Payload
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; J., Captain; Paz, A.; Colaprete, A.; Elphic, R.; Zacny, K.
2015-10-01
NASA has been developing a lunar volatiles exploration payload named RESOLVE. Now the primary science payload on-board the Resource Prospector (RP) mission, RESOLVE, consists of several instruments that evaluate lunar volatiles.
Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Doncker, E.; Yuasa, F.; Kato, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Olagbemi, O.
2015-05-01
We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities.
Semi-Infinite Cohomology of Loop Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutler, Paul Maurice Edmund
Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis attempts to construct a de Rham model for the Floer homology of the space of free loops on a symplectic manifold. It derives its inspiration principally from the work of Witten on topological quantum field theories. Chapter 1 consist of a review of background material followed by a number of elementary results. It is seen how Floer homology should naturally be representable by a semi-infinite generalisation of the ordinary de Rham theory associated to a manifold. In Chapter 2 the main attempt at constructing such a semi-infinite theory is made by defining an exterior derivative. Two different kinds of divergences are encountered and resolved. A suitable space of semi-infinite forms is constructed and some remarks are made about the likelihood that this model captures the Floer homology. In Chapter 3 the obstruction to the existence of a chiral factorisation of the bundle of fermionic Fock spaces over the loop space of the two-sphere is computed. For this purpose the ordinary cohomology ring of the loop space is calculated, also the action of the deck transformation on the cohomology of the simply connected covering space. In Chapter 4 the supersymmetric path integral approach to quantising topological field theories is developed formally. The semi-infinite dimensionality of the differential forms involved emerges naturally. The Floer homology of loop space is shown to be a ring. Its structure is calculated for the simple case of complex projective space. Chapter 5 concludes the thesis with some remarks about the action of the super-Virasoro algebra on the space of ordinary and semi-infinite differential forms respectively. Two short appendices are included describing a polynomial generating function for spherical harmonics and the spectrum of curl on vector fields on the three -sphere.
A quadratic weight selection algorithm. [for optimal flight control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broussard, J. R.
1981-01-01
A new numerical algorithm is presented which determines a positive semi-definite state weighting matrix in the linear-quadratic optimal control design problem. The algorithm chooses the weighting matrix by placing closed-loop eigenvalues and eigenvectors near desired locations using optimal feedback gains. A simplified flight control design example is used to illustrate the algorithms capabilities.
Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, David E. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.
Tomasz Plawski, J. Hovater
2010-09-01
A digital low level radio frequency (RF) system typically incorporates either a heterodyne or direct sampling technique, followed by fast ADCs, then an FPGA, and finally a transmitting DAC. This universal platform opens up the possibilities for a variety of control algorithm implementations. The foremost concern for an RF control system is cavity field stability, and to meet the required quality of regulation, the chosen control system needs to have sufficient feedback gain. In this paper we will investigate the effectiveness of the regulation for three basic control system algorithms: I&Q (In-phase and Quadrature), Amplitude & Phase and digital SEL (Self Exciting Loop) along with the example of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV cavity field control system.
HEATING OF FLARE LOOPS WITH OBSERVATIONALLY CONSTRAINED HEATING FUNCTIONS
Qiu Jiong; Liu Wenjuan; Longcope, Dana W.
2012-06-20
We analyze high-cadence high-resolution observations of a C3.2 flare obtained by AIA/SDO on 2010 August 1. The flare is a long-duration event with soft X-ray and EUV radiation lasting for over 4 hr. Analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection and formation of new loops continue for more than 2 hr. Furthermore, the UV 1600 Angstrom-Sign observations show that each of the individual pixels at the feet of flare loops is brightened instantaneously with a timescale of a few minutes, and decays over a much longer timescale of more than 30 minutes. We use these spatially resolved UV light curves during the rise phase to construct empirical heating functions for individual flare loops, and model heating of coronal plasmas in these loops. The total coronal radiation of these flare loops are compared with soft X-ray and EUV radiation fluxes measured by GOES and AIA. This study presents a method to observationally infer heating functions in numerous flare loops that are formed and heated sequentially by reconnection throughout the flare, and provides a very useful constraint to coronal heating models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo
2007-01-01
One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with cloud-resolving models (CRMs). CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (with sizes ranging from about 2-200 km). CRMs also allow for explicit interaction between clouds, outgoing longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation, and ocean and land surface processes. Observations are required to initialize CRMs and to validate their results. This paper provides a brief discussion and review of the main characteristics of CRMs as well as some of their major applications. These include the use of CRMs to improve our understanding of: (1) convective organization, (2) cloud temperature and water vapor budgets, and convective momentum transport, (3) diurnal variation of precipitation processes, (4) radiative-convective quasi-equilibrium states, (5) cloud-chemistry interaction, (6) aerosol-precipitation interaction, and (7) improving moist processes in large-scale models. In addition, current and future developments and applications of CRMs will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Captain, J.; Quinn, J.; Moss, T.; Weis, K.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the field tests conducted in 2010 of the Regolith Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE). The Resolve program consist of several mechanism: (1) Excavation and Bulk Regolith Characterization (EBRC) which is designed to act as a drill and crusher, (2) Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) which is a reactor and does gas analysis,(3) Lunar Water Resources Demonstration (LWRD) which is a fluid system, water and hydrogen capture device and (4) the Rover. The scientific goal of this test is to demonstrate evolution of low levels of hydrogen and water as a function of temperature. The Engineering goals of this test are to demonstrate:(1) Integration onto new rover (2) Miniaturization of electronics rack (3) Operation from battery packs (elimination of generator) (4) Remote command/control and (5) Operation while roving. Views of the 2008 and the 2010 mechanisms, a overhead view of the mission path, a view of the terrain, the two drill sites, and a graphic of the Master Events Controller Graphical User Interface (MEC GUI) are shown. There are descriptions of the Gas chromatography (GC), the operational procedure, water and hydrogen doping of tephra. There is also a review of some of the results, and future direction for research and tests.
Resolving thermoelectric “paradox” in superconductors
Shelly, Connor D.; Matrozova, Ekaterina A.; Petrashov, Victor T.
2016-01-01
For almost a century, thermoelectricity in superconductors has been one of the most intriguing topics in physics. During its early stages in the 1920s, the mere existence of thermoelectric effects in superconductors was questioned. In 1944, it was demonstrated that the effects may occur in inhomogeneous superconductors. Theoretical breakthrough followed in the 1970s, when the generation of a measurable thermoelectric magnetic flux in superconducting loops was predicted; however, a major crisis developed when experiments showed puzzling discrepancies with the theory. Moreover, different experiments were inconsistent with each other. This led to a stalemate in bringing theory and experiment into agreement. With this work, we resolve this stalemate, thus solving this long-standing “paradox,” and open prospects for exploration of novel thermoelectric phenomena predicted recently. PMID:26933688
Coupled dual loop absorption heat pump
Sarkisian, Paul H.; Reimann, Robert C.; Biermann, Wendell J.
1985-01-01
A coupled dual loop absorption system which utilizes two separate complete loops. Each individual loop operates at three temperatures and two pressures. This low temperature loop absorber and condenser are thermally coupled to the high temperature loop evaporator, and the high temperature loop condenser and absorber are thermally coupled to the low temperature generator.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2010-08-15
The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.
What's in the loop? The anatomy of double Higgs production
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawson, S.; Ismail, A.; Low, Ian
2015-06-01
Determination of Higgs self-interactions through the double Higgs production from gluon fusion is a major goal of current and future collider experiments. We point out this channel could help disentangle and resolve the nature of ultraviolet contributions to Higgs couplings to two gluons. Analytic properties of the double Higgs amplitudes near kinematic threshold are used to study features resulting from scalar and fermionic loop particles mediating the interaction. Focusing on the h h invariant mass spectrum, we consider the effect from anomalous top and bottom Yukawa couplings, as well as from scalar and fermionic loop particles. In particular, the spectrum at high h h invariant mass is sensitive to the spin of the particles in the loop.
Accelerating the loop expansion
Ingermanson, R.
1986-07-29
This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi/sup 4/ theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs.
Georges Bank conflict resolved
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robb, David W.
1984-04-01
The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.
Reduction of One-Loop Amplitudes at the Integrand Level -- NLO QCD Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossola, G.; Papadopoulos, C. G.; Pittau, R.
2008-07-01
The recently proposed method (OPP) to extract the coefficients of the scalar one-loop integrals to any multi-particle (sub)-amplitude is described. Within this method no analytical information on the structure of the amplitude is needed, allowing for a purely numerical, but still algebraic, implementation of the algorithm. The algorithm can be used to automatically perform one-loop calculation both in QCD and in the EW Theory. As an application, we give QCD one-loop results for the process p p to ZZZ at the LHC.
The double loop mattress suture
Biddlestone, John; Samuel, Madan; Creagh, Terry; Ahmad, Tariq
2014-01-01
An interrupted stitch type with favorable tissue characteristics will reduce local wound complications. We describe a novel high-strength, low-tension repair for the interrupted closure of skin, cartilage, and muscle, the double loop mattress stitch, and compare it experimentally with other interrupted closure methods. The performance of the double loop mattress technique in porcine cartilage and skeletal muscle is compared with the simple, mattress, and loop mattress interrupted sutures in both a novel porcine loading chamber and mechanical model. Wound apposition is assessed by electron microscopy. The performance of the double loop mattress in vivo was confirmed using a series of 805 pediatric laparotomies/laparoscopies. The double loop mattress suture is 3.5 times stronger than the loop mattress in muscle and 1.6 times stronger in cartilage (p ≤ 0.001). Additionally, the double loop mattress reduces tissue tension by 66% compared with just 53% for the loop mattress (p ≤ 0.001). Wound gapping is equal, and wound eversion appears significantly improved (p ≤ 0.001) compared with the loop mattress in vitro. In vivo, the double loop mattress performs as well as the loop mattress and significantly better than the mattress stitch in assessments of wound eversion and dehiscence. There were no episodes of stitch extrusion in our series of patients. The mechanical advantage of its intrinsic pulley arrangement gives the double loop mattress its favorable properties. Wound dehiscence is reduced because this stitch type is stronger and exerts less tension on the tissue than the mattress stitch. We advocate the use of this novel stitch wherever a high-strength, low-tension repair is required. These properties will enhance wound repair, and its application will be useful to surgeons of all disciplines. PMID:24698436
The Seasonality Of The Loop Current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, Cody Alan
A total of 20 Loop Current eddy separation event dates were derived from Seasat and ERS-1 satellite altimetry, Coastal Zone Color Scanner chlorophyll-a images, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sea surface temperature images, Horizon Marine, Inc. EddyWatch(TM) reports, and Climatology and Simulation of Eddies Eddy Joint Industry Project Gulf Eddy Model analyses spanning mid-1978 - 1992. There were many inconsistencies between the new "pre-altimetry" reanalysis dates derived from mostly non-altimeter data and dates published in past literature based on earlier versions of the pre-altimetry record. The reanalysis dates were derived from a larger compilation of data types and, consequently, were not as affected by intermittent and seasonal data outages common with past records. Therefore, the reanalysis dates are likely more accurate. About 30 Loop Current eddy separation dates were derived from altimetry data spanning 1993 -- 2012. The pre-altimetry and altimetry reanalysis dates along with similar altimetry dates published in other literature exhibit statistically significant seasonality. Eddy separation events are more likely in the months March, August, and September, and less likely in December. Reanalysis event dates were objectively divided into "spring" and "fall" seasons using a k-means clustering algorithm. The estimated spring and fall season centers are March 2nd and August 23 rd, respectively, with seasonal boundaries on May 22nd and December 3rd. The altimetry data suggest that Loop Current intrusion/retreat is dominantly an annual process. Loop Current metrics such as maximum northern boundary latitude and area are relatively high from January through about July and low in September and October. February metrics are statistically different than metrics in either October or November or both. This annual process is primarily driven by and dynamically linked to geostrophic currents seaward of the Campeche Bank shelf break forced by Kelvin waves
Improved Speech Coding Based on Open-Loop Parameter Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin; Longman, Richard W.
2000-01-01
A nonlinear optimization algorithm for linear predictive speech coding was developed early that not only optimizes the linear model coefficients for the open loop predictor, but does the optimization including the effects of quantization of the transmitted residual. It also simultaneously optimizes the quantization levels used for each speech segment. In this paper, we present an improved method for initialization of this nonlinear algorithm, and demonstrate substantial improvements in performance. In addition, the new procedure produces monotonically improving speech quality with increasing numbers of bits used in the transmitted error residual. Examples of speech encoding and decoding are given for 8 speech segments and signal to noise levels as high as 47 dB are produced. As in typical linear predictive coding, the optimization is done on the open loop speech analysis model. Here we demonstrate that minimizing the error of the closed loop speech reconstruction, instead of the simpler open loop optimization, is likely to produce negligible improvement in speech quality. The examples suggest that the algorithm here is close to giving the best performance obtainable from a linear model, for the chosen order with the chosen number of bits for the codebook.
Modeling of compact loop antennas
Baity, F.W.
1987-01-01
A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).
Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung
2016-01-01
A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.
Heating Profiles of Coronal Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plowman, Joseph; Kankelborg, Charles C.; Martens, Petrus C.
2016-05-01
We analyze the temperature and density profiles of coronal loops, as a function of their length, using data from SDO/AIA and Hinode/EIS. The analysis considers the location of the heating along the loop's length, and we conduct a more throrough investigation of our previous preliminary result that heating is concentrated near the loop footpoints. The work now features a larger selection of coronal loops, compared to our previous presentations, and examines their scale-height temperatures to ascertain the extent to which they are hydrostatic.
Modeling of compact loop antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baity, F. W.
A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT).
Unstable anisotropic loop quantum cosmology
Nelson, William; Sakellariadou, Mairi
2009-09-15
We study stability conditions of the full Hamiltonian constraint equation describing the quantum dynamics of the diagonal Bianchi I model in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Our analysis has shown robust evidence of an instability in the explicit implementation of the difference equation, implying important consequences for the correspondence between the full loop quantum gravity theory and loop quantum cosmology. As a result, one may question the choice of the quantization approach, the model of lattice refinement, and/or the role of the ambiguity parameters; all these should, in principle, be dictated by the full loop quantum gravity theory.
Generalized effective description of loop quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh
2015-10-01
The effective description of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) has proved to be a convenient platform to study phenomenological implications of the quantum bounce that resolves the classical big bang singularity. Originally, this description was derived using Gaussian quantum states with small dispersions. In this paper we present a generalization to incorporate states with large dispersions. Specifically, we derive the generalized effective Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and propose a generalized effective Hamiltonian which are being used in an ongoing study of the phenomenological consequences of a broad class of quantum geometries. We also discuss an interesting interplay between the physics of states with larger dispersions in standard LQC, and of sharply peaked states in (hypothetical) LQC theories with larger area gap.
Covariant entropy bound and loop quantum cosmology
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2008-09-15
We examine Bousso's covariant entropy bound conjecture in the context of radiation filled, spatially flat, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. The bound is violated near the big bang. However, the hope has been that quantum gravity effects would intervene and protect it. Loop quantum cosmology provides a near ideal setting for investigating this issue. For, on the one hand, quantum geometry effects resolve the singularity and, on the other hand, the wave function is sharply peaked at a quantum corrected but smooth geometry, which can supply the structure needed to test the bound. We find that the bound is respected. We suggest that the bound need not be an essential ingredient for a quantum gravity theory but may emerge from it under suitable circumstances.
Negative Selection Algorithm for Aircraft Fault Detection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.
2004-01-01
We investigated a real-valued Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA) for fault detection in man-in-the-loop aircraft operation. The detection algorithm uses body-axes angular rate sensory data exhibiting the normal flight behavior patterns, to generate probabilistically a set of fault detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults and damages) in the behavior pattern of the aircraft flight. We performed experiments with datasets (collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions) using the NASA Ames man-in-the-loop high-fidelity C-17 flight simulator. The paper provides results of experiments with different datasets representing various failure conditions.
Loop-the-Loop: Bringing Theory into Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suwonjandee, N.; Asavapibhop, B.
2012-01-01
During the Thai high-school physics teacher training programme, we used an aluminum loop-the-loop system built by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) to demonstrate a circular motion and investigate the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy. There were 27 high-school teachers from three provinces,…
Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.
2013-11-15
We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry.
Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.; /Fermilab
2011-06-01
The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.
Fluctuations in closed-loop fluorescent particle tracking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berglund, Andrew J.; McHale, Kevin; Mabuchi, Hideo
2007-06-01
We present a comprehensive theory of closed-loop particle tracking for calculating the statistics of a diffusing fluorescent particle’s motion relative to the tracking lock point. A detailed comparison is made between the theory and experimental results, with excellent quantitative agreement found in all cases. A generalization of the theory of (open-loop) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is developed, and the relationship to previous results is discussed. Two applications of the statistical techniques are given: a method for determining a tracked particle’s localization and an algorithm for rapid particle classification based on real-time analysis of the tracking control signal.
Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L
2008-10-01
The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}), uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4}), and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6})] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF{sub 6} product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study
Loop-the-Loop: An Easy Experiment, A Challenging Explanation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asavapibhop, B.; Suwonjandee, N.
2010-07-01
A loop-the-loop built by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST) was used in Thai high school teachers training program to demonstrate a circular motion and investigate the concept of the conservation of mechanical energy. We took videos using high speed camera to record the motions of a spherical steel ball moving down the aluminum inclined track at different released positions. The ball then moved into the circular loop and underwent a projectile motion upon leaving the track. We then asked the teachers to predict the landing position of the ball if we changed the height of the whole loop-the-loop system. We also analyzed the videos using Tracker, a video analysis software. It turned out that most teachers did not realize the effect of the friction between the ball and the track and could not obtain the correct relationship hence their predictions were inconsistent with the actual landing positions of the ball.
Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howard, David E. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
This invention relates to dual analog angular rate sensors which are implemented without the use of mechanical brushes. A resolver rate sensor which includes two brushless resolvers which are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft is provided with inputs which are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. Novelty and advantages of the invention reside in the excitation of a resolver with a DC signal and in the utilization of two resolvers and the trigonometric identity of cos(exp 2)(theta) + sin(exp 2)(theta) = 1 to provide an accurate rate sensor which is sensitive to direction and accurate through zero rate.
Research on Signal Processing Algorithms in GPS Receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Fan; Yin, Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Zhong
2007-03-01
The modern standard satellite navigation receivers are commonly based on ASICs for signal processing and fast microprocessors for application calculations. The software satellite navigation receiver is also developed in recent years. The research on software receivers becomes one trend of satellite navigation receiver. For algorithms on signal processing play an important role in satellite navigation receivers, the paper illuminates the signal processing algorithms in detail. The GPS receiver is widely used at present. So the paper places emphasis on signal processing algorithms about GPS receiver. Signal processing algorithms include three aspects: the algorithm on signal acquisition, the algorithm on carrier tracking and the algorithm on PRN (pseudo random noise) code tracking. In the part of signal acquisition, the method of using FFT to get the result of circular correlation is introduced. The paper carefully researches the method and discusses the derivation process of the method. In the part of carrier tracking, the paper describes the principle of frequency locked loop (FLL) and phase locked loop (PLL) and analyzes the principle of loop filter. The method of transition from s-domain to z-domain is introduced. The computation of noise bandwidth of the loop filter are expatiated and the structures of one-step digital loop filter, two-step digital loop filter and three step are given. Other parameters of loop filters are also given. In the part of code tracking, delay-early locked loop (DLL) is introduced. Theoretical analysis and experiment results demonstrate the algorithms in the paper. Through the simulation testing, the performance of combination of PLL and FLL can be acknowledged.
Causal Loop Analysis of coastal geomorphological systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Payo, Andres; Hall, Jim W.; French, Jon; Sutherland, James; van Maanen, Barend; Nicholls, Robert J.; Reeve, Dominic E.
2016-03-01
As geomorphologists embrace ever more sophisticated theoretical frameworks that shift from simple notions of evolution towards single steady equilibria to recognise the possibility of multiple response pathways and outcomes, morphodynamic modellers are facing the problem of how to keep track of an ever-greater number of system feedbacks. Within coastal geomorphology, capturing these feedbacks is critically important, especially as the focus of activity shifts from reductionist models founded on sediment transport fundamentals to more synthesist ones intended to resolve emergent behaviours at decadal to centennial scales. This paper addresses the challenge of mapping the feedback structure of processes controlling geomorphic system behaviour with reference to illustrative applications of Causal Loop Analysis at two study cases: (1) the erosion-accretion behaviour of graded (mixed) sediment beds, and (2) the local alongshore sediment fluxes of sand-rich shorelines. These case study examples are chosen on account of their central role in the quantitative modelling of geomorphological futures and as they illustrate different types of causation. Causal loop diagrams, a form of directed graph, are used to distil the feedback structure to reveal, in advance of more quantitative modelling, multi-response pathways and multiple outcomes. In the case of graded sediment bed, up to three different outcomes (no response, and two disequilibrium states) can be derived from a simple qualitative stability analysis. For the sand-rich local shoreline behaviour case, two fundamentally different responses of the shoreline (diffusive and anti-diffusive), triggered by small changes of the shoreline cross-shore position, can be inferred purely through analysis of the causal pathways. Explicit depiction of feedback-structure diagrams is beneficial when developing numerical models to explore coastal morphological futures. By explicitly mapping the feedbacks included and neglected within a
Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Bobak, Martin J; Garris, Paul A; Mohseni, Pedram
2016-06-01
This paper presents a 3.3×3.2 mm(2) system-on-chip (SoC) fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm 2P/4M CMOS for closed-loop regulation of brain dopamine. The SoC uniquely integrates neurochemical sensing, on-the-fly chemometrics, and feedback-controlled electrical stimulation to realize a "neurochemostat" by maintaining brain levels of electrically evoked dopamine between two user-set thresholds. The SoC incorporates a 90 μW, custom-designed, digital signal processing (DSP) unit for real-time processing of neurochemical data obtained by 400 V/s fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM). Specifically, the DSP unit executes a chemometrics algorithm based upon principal component regression (PCR) to resolve in real time electrically evoked brain dopamine levels from pH change and CFM background-current drift, two common interferents encountered using FSCV with a CFM in vivo. Further, the DSP unit directly links the chemically resolved dopamine levels to the activation of the electrical microstimulator in on-off-keying (OOK) fashion. Measured results from benchtop testing, flow injection analysis (FIA), and biological experiments with an anesthetized rat are presented. PMID:26390501
Modeling of hysteresis loops by Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nehme, Z.; Labaye, Y.; Sayed Hassan, R.; Yaacoub, N.; Greneche, J. M.
2015-12-01
Recent advances in MC simulations of magnetic properties are rather devoted to non-interacting systems or ultrafast phenomena, while the modeling of quasi-static hysteresis loops of an assembly of spins with strong internal exchange interactions remains limited to specific cases. In the case of any assembly of magnetic moments, we propose MC simulations on the basis of a three dimensional classical Heisenberg model applied to an isolated magnetic slab involving first nearest neighbors exchange interactions and uniaxial anisotropy. Three different algorithms were successively implemented in order to simulate hysteresis loops: the classical free algorithm, the cone algorithm and a mixed one consisting of adding some global rotations. We focus particularly our study on the impact of varying the anisotropic constant parameter on the coercive field for different temperatures and algorithms. A study of the angular acceptation move distribution allows the dynamics of our simulations to be characterized. The results reveal that the coercive field is linearly related to the anisotropy providing that the algorithm and the numeric conditions are carefully chosen. In a general tendency, it is found that the efficiency of the simulation can be greatly enhanced by using the mixed algorithm that mimic the physics of collective behavior. Consequently, this study lead as to better quantified coercive fields measurements resulting from physical phenomena of complex magnetic (nano)architectures with different anisotropy contributions.
Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.
Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A
2013-01-01
The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap. PMID:23143103
Temperature and Density Analysis of a Coronal Loop Using EIS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garst, J. W.; Schmelz, J. T.
2008-05-01
The temperature analysis of coronal loops has produced contradictory results. Image ratios from TRACE show substantially smaller temperature gradients than predicted by standard models for loops in hydrodynamic equilibrium. TRACE has state-of-the-art spatial resolution but limited temperature coverage. On the other hand, the pixels of the Coronal Diagnostics Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO are larger but its temperature resolution is state-of-the-art. Loop results from differential emission measure analyses from CDS data have been questioned due to the resolving power. Loop analysis could benefit greatly from observations by an instrument with the spatial resolution of TRACE and the temperature coverage of CDS. A spectrometer with (almost) these characteristics was launched in September 2006 on the Japanese/USA/UK Hinode mission. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) is similar to CDS, observing emission lines originating from the solar corona and upper transition region at wavelength intervals in the extreme ultraviolet, but with a spatial resolution that is almost as good as TRACE. Differential emission measure and density analysis is done on the coronal loop data observed by EIS on 01 June 2007. Results from CDS and TRACE analysis are compared and discussed qualitatively. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type I models
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2009-04-15
The ''improved dynamics'' of loop quantum cosmology is extended to include anisotropies of the Bianchi type I model. As in the isotropic case, a massless scalar field serves as a relational time parameter. However, the extension is nontrivial because one has to face several conceptual subtleties as well as technical difficulties. These include a better understanding of the relation between loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology, handling novel features associated with the nonlocal field strength operator in presence of anisotropies, and finding dynamical variables that make the action of the Hamiltonian constraint manageable. Our analysis provides a conceptually complete description that overcomes limitations of earlier works. We again find that the big-bang singularity is resolved by quantum geometry effects but, because of the presence of Weyl curvature, Planck scale physics is now much richer than in the isotropic case. Since the Bianchi I models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture on the nature of generic spacelike singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies is likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of generic spacelike singularities in quantum gravity. Finally, we show that the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies projects down exactly to that of the Friedmann model. This opens a new avenue to relate more complicated models to simpler ones, thereby providing a new tool to relate the quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity to that of loop quantum cosmology.
Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type I models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2009-04-01
The “improved dynamics” of loop quantum cosmology is extended to include anisotropies of the Bianchi type I model. As in the isotropic case, a massless scalar field serves as a relational time parameter. However, the extension is nontrivial because one has to face several conceptual subtleties as well as technical difficulties. These include a better understanding of the relation between loop quantum gravity and loop quantum cosmology, handling novel features associated with the nonlocal field strength operator in presence of anisotropies, and finding dynamical variables that make the action of the Hamiltonian constraint manageable. Our analysis provides a conceptually complete description that overcomes limitations of earlier works. We again find that the big-bang singularity is resolved by quantum geometry effects but, because of the presence of Weyl curvature, Planck scale physics is now much richer than in the isotropic case. Since the Bianchi I models play a key role in the Belinskii, Khalatnikov, Lifshitz conjecture on the nature of generic spacelike singularities in general relativity, the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies is likely to provide considerable intuition about the fate of generic spacelike singularities in quantum gravity. Finally, we show that the quantum dynamics of Bianchi I cosmologies projects down exactly to that of the Friedmann model. This opens a new avenue to relate more complicated models to simpler ones, thereby providing a new tool to relate the quantum dynamics of loop quantum gravity to that of loop quantum cosmology.
Inverse problem for the current loop model: Possibilities and restrictions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demina, I. M.; Farafonova, Yu. G.
2016-07-01
The possibilities of determining arbitrary current loop parameters based on the spatial structures of the magnetic field components generated by this loop on a sphere with a specified radius have been considered with the use of models. The model parameters were selected such that anomalies created by current loops on a sphere with a radius of 6378 km would be comparable in value with the different-scale anomalies of the observed main geomagnetic field (MGF). The least squares method was used to solve the inverse problem. Estimates close to the specified values were obtained for all current loop parameters except the current strength and radius. The radius determination error can reach ±120 km; at the same time, the magnetic moment value is determined with an accuracy of ±1%. The resolvability of the current force and radius can to a certain degree be improved by decreasing the observation sphere radius such that the ratio of the source distance to the current loop radius would be at least smaller than eight, which can be difficult to reach when modeling MGF.
Standing Kink modes in three-dimensional coronal loops
Pascoe, D. J.; De Moortel, I.
2014-04-01
So far, the straight flux tube model proposed by Edwin and Roberts is the most commonly used tool in practical coronal seismology, in particular, to infer values of the (coronal) magnetic field from observed, standing kink mode oscillations. In this paper, we compare the period predicted by this basic model with three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of standing kink mode oscillations, as the period is a crucial parameter in the seismological inversion to determine the magnetic field. We perform numerical simulations of standing kink modes in both straight and curved 3D coronal loops and consider excitation by internal and external drivers. The period of oscillation for the displacement of dense coronal loops is determined by the loop length and the kink speed, in agreement with the estimate based on analytical theory for straight flux tubes. For curved coronal loops embedded in a magnetic arcade and excited by an external driver, a secondary mode with a period determined by the loop length and external Alfvén speed is also present. When a low number of oscillations is considered, these two periods can result in a single, non-resolved (broad) peak in the power spectrum, particularly for low values of the density contrast for which the two periods will be relatively similar. In that case (and for this particular geometry), the presence of this additional mode would lead to ambiguous seismological estimates of the magnetic field strength.
Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory (N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.
Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.
1984-01-01
The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.
Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung
2014-01-01
A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The start-up transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe start-up behaviors. Topics include the four start-up scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the start-up scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power start-up, and methods to enhance the start-up success. Also addressed are the thermodynamic constraint between the evaporator and reservoir in the loop heat pipe operation, the superheat requirement for nucleate boiling, pressure spike and pressure surge during the start-up transient, and repeated cycles of loop start-up andshutdown under certain conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, K.; Phillips, T. G.; Knapp, G. R.
1993-01-01
We have examined the IRAS 60 and 100 micron survey data covering 512 evolved stars and young planetary nebulae for evidence of spatially resolved structure. A simple model, consisting of a central unresolved source surrounded by a resolved isothermal shell, was fitted to the data for each star. Seventy-six stars were found to be resolved in the 60 micron data. Tests have been performed to verify that the extended structure seen is not an artifact of the data-processing algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Adler, R.; Hou, A.; Li, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Olson, W.; Kummerow, C.
2003-01-01
Over the past twenty years, rainfall retrieval algorithms have been developed to retrieve rainfall and vertical hydrometeor structures from passive microwave observations by making use of the fact that weighting functions for various frequencies peak at different levels within a rainy atmosphere. GPROF is one of two TMI rainfall algorithms. It is physically based retrieval that finds the vertical hydrometeor profile that best fits the brightness temperatures in the available passive radiometer channels. Matching is achieved using a library of hydrometeor profiles generated by cloud-resolving models (CRMs). The hydrometeor profiles have a corresponding surface precipitation rate. The algorithm retrieves the hydrometeor profiles and associated surface rainfall using a Bayesian approach that gives the estimated expected values. The ability of CRMs to produce cloud structures that are reliable and representative of observed storms is crucial for the success of GPROF. The cloud mycrophysics are one of the keys to achieving this. In addition, CRMs have been a very useful tool for GPM-algorithm developers through Cloud-Radiation Simulations (CRS), one of the nine GPM disciplinary research themes. This paper will discuss how to generate consistent and comprehensive 4D cloud datasets from an improved (i.e., in regard to bulk and multi-moment microphysics) CRM for TRMM and GPM rainfall retrieval algorithm developers. These cloud datasets include CRM-simulated clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations in the tropics and midlatitudes. By linking the CRM with a passive microwave radiative-transfer model and using satellite and airborne data, the performance of the "cloud physics" can be assessed and in turn modified and improved. This paper will also address how to assess and improve the performance of various latent and diabatic heating algorithms and develop an algorithm to retrieve the vertical structure of apparent moistening (Q2). Considering that the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abrams, Daniel S.
This thesis describes several new quantum algorithms. These include a polynomial time algorithm that uses a quantum fast Fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Fast algorithms for simulating many body Fermi systems are also provided in both first and second quantized descriptions. An efficient quantum algorithm for anti-symmetrization is given as well as a detailed discussion of a simulation of the Hubbard model. In addition, quantum algorithms that calculate numerical integrals and various characteristics of stochastic processes are described. Two techniques are given, both of which obtain an exponential speed increase in comparison to the fastest known classical deterministic algorithms and a quadratic speed increase in comparison to classical Monte Carlo (probabilistic) methods. I derive a simpler and slightly faster version of Grover's mean algorithm, show how to apply quantum counting to the problem, develop some variations of these algorithms, and show how both (apparently distinct) approaches can be understood from the same unified framework. Finally, the relationship between physics and computation is explored in some more depth, and it is shown that computational complexity theory depends very sensitively on physical laws. In particular, it is shown that nonlinear quantum mechanics allows for the polynomial time solution of NP-complete and #P oracle problems. Using the Weinberg model as a simple example, the explicit construction of the necessary gates is derived from the underlying physics. Nonlinear quantum algorithms are also presented using Polchinski type nonlinearities which do not allow for superluminal communication. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Identification of system, observer, and controller from closed-loop experimental data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh
1992-01-01
This paper considers the identification problem of a system operating in closed-loop with an existing feedback controller. The closed-loop system is excited by a known excitation signal, and the resulting time histories of the closed-loop system response and the feedback signal are measured. From the time history data, the algorithm computes the Markov parameters of a closed-loop observer, from which the Markov parameters of the individual open-loop plant, observer, and controller are recovered. A state space model of the open-loop plant and the gain matrices for the controller and the observer are then realized. The results of the paper are demonstrated by an example using actual aircraft flutter test data.
A study of digital gyro compensation loops. [data conversion routines and breadboard models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The feasibility is discussed of replacing existing state-of-the-art analog gyro compensation loops with digital computations. This was accomplished by designing appropriate compensation loops for the dry turned TDF gyro, selecting appropriate data conversion and processing techniques and algorithms, and breadboarding the design for laboratory evaluation. A breadboard design was established in which one axis of a Teledyne turned-gimbal TDF gyro was caged digitally while the other was caged using conventional analog electronics. The digital loop was designed analytically to closely resemble the analog loop in performance. The breadboard was subjected to various static and dynamic tests in order to establish the relative stability characteristics and frequency responses of the digital and analog loops. Several variations of the digital loop configuration were evaluated. The results were favorable.
Resolvent mode identification in a turbulent boundary layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, Kevin; McKeon, Beverley
2014-11-01
The resolvent analysis developed by McKeon and Sharma (J. Fluid Mechanics, 2010) has demonstrated a connection between the most amplified disturbances in wavenumber/frequency space and observed structures in wall turbulence. Three simultaneous hotwire measurements are made across a zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer to identify the resolvent modes associated with these structures. A resolvent mode is designated by a streamwise wavenumber, a spanwise number, and a temporal frequency (k, n, ω respectively) and physically represents a travelling wave. The three wires are aligned in the wall normal direction and spaced in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The signals are filtered at the frequency corresponding to the resolvent mode of interest and ensemble averaged over a single period; the resulting phase differences between wires and their respective separation distances allows for the calculation of the spatial wavenumbers. The eventual goal is to sense these modes in real time as this will provide an important first step towards the development of closed-loop control schemes, specifically within the context of the resolvent framework. The support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant # FA 9550-12-1-0469 (P.M. Doug Smith) is gratefully acknowledged.
Closed-loop real-time infrared scene generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.; Garbo, Dennis L.; Olson, Eric M.
1998-07-01
A computer program has been developed to provide closed-loop infrared imagery of composite targets and backgrounds in real- time. This program operates on parametric databases generated off-line by computationally intensive first principle physics codes such as the Composite Hardbody and Missile Plume (CHAMP) program, Synthetic Scene Generation Model (SSGM), and Multi- Spectral Modeling and Analysis (MSMA/Irma program. The parametric databases allow dynamic variations in flight and engagement scenarios to be modeled as closed-loop guidance and control algorithms modify the operational dynamics. The program is tightly coupled with the parametric databases to produce infrared radiation results in real-time and OpenGL graphic libraries to interface with high performance graphic hardware. The program is being sponsored for development by the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator facility of the Air Force Research Laboratory Munitions Directorate located at Eglin AFB, Florida.
VERSATILE TWO-AXIS OPEN-LOOP SOLAR TRACKER CONTROLLER*
Ward, Christina D; Maxey, L Curt; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Lapsa, Melissa Voss
2008-01-01
A versatile single-board controller for two-axis solar tracking applications has been developed and tested on operating solar tracking systems with over two years of field experience. The operating experience gained from the two systems and associated modifications are discussed as representative examples of the practical issues associated with implementing a new two-axis solar tracker design. In this research, open and closed loop control methods were evaluated; however, only the open loop method met the 0.125 tracking accuracy requirement and the requirement to maintain pointing accuracy in hazy and scattered cloudy skies. The open loop algorithm was finally implemented in a microcontroller-based tracking system. Methods of applying this controller hardware to different tracker geometries and hardware are discussed along with the experience gained to date.
Sobel, E.; Lange, K.; O`Connell, J.R.
1996-12-31
Haplotyping is the logical process of inferring gene flow in a pedigree based on phenotyping results at a small number of genetic loci. This paper formalizes the haplotyping problem and suggests four algorithms for haplotype reconstruction. These algorithms range from exhaustive enumeration of all haplotype vectors to combinatorial optimization by simulated annealing. Application of the algorithms to published genetic analyses shows that manual haplotyping is often erroneous. Haplotyping is employed in screening pedigrees for phenotyping errors and in positional cloning of disease genes from conserved haplotypes in population isolates. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cliff, R. A. (Inventor)
1975-01-01
An digital phase-locked loop is provided for deriving a loop output signal from an accumulator output terminal. A phase detecting exclusive OR gate is fed by the loop digital input and output signals. The output of the phase detector is a bi-level digital signal having a duty cycle indicative of the relative phase of the input and output signals. The accumulator is incremented at a first rate in response to a first output level of the phase detector and at a second rate in response to a second output level of the phase detector.
An Environment for Hardware-in-the-Loop Formation Navigation and Control Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Rich
2004-01-01
Recent interest in formation flying satellite systems has spurred a considerable amount of research in the relative navigation and control of satellites. Development in this area has included new estimation and control algorithms as well as sensor and actuator development specifically geared toward the relative control problem. This paper describes a simulation facility, the Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, which allows engineers to test new algorithms for the formation flying problem with relevant GN&C hardware in a closed loop simulation. The FFTB currently supports the injection of GPS receiver hardware into the simulation loop, and support for satellite crosslink ranging technology is at a prototype stage. This closed-loop, hardware inclusive simulation capability permits testing of navigation and control software in the presence of the actual hardware with which the algorithms must interact. This capability provides the navigation or control developer with a perspective on how the algorithms perform as part of the closed-loop system. In this paper, the overall design and evolution of the FFTB are presented. Each component of the FFTB is then described in detail. Interfaces between the components of the FFTB are shown and the interfaces to and between navigation and control software are described in detail. Finally, an example of closed-loop formation control with GPS receivers in the loop is presented and results are analyzed.
An Environmental for Hardware-in-the-Loop Formation Navigation and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Rich; Naasz, Bo; Gaylor, Dave; Higinbotham, John
2004-01-01
Recent interest in formation flying satellite systems has spurred a considerable amount of research in the relative navigation and control of satellites. Development in this area has included new estimation and control algorithms as well as sensor and actuator development specifically geared toward the relative control problem. This paper describes a simulation facility, the Formation Flying Test Bed (FFTB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which allows engineers to test new algorithms for the formation flying problem with relevant GN&C hardware in a closed loop simulation. The FFTB currently supports the inclusion of GPS receiver hardware in the simulation loop. Support for satellite crosslink ranging technology is at a prototype stage. This closed-loop, hardware inclusive simulation capability permits testing of navigation and control software in the presence of the actual hardware with which the algorithms must interact. This capability provides the navigation or control developer with a perspective on how the algorithms perform as part of the closed-loop system. In this paper, the overall design and evolution of the FFTB are presented. Each component of the FFTB is then described. Interfaces between the components of the FFTB are shown and the interfaces to and between navigation and control software are described. Finally, an example of closed-loop formation control with GPS receivers in the loop is presented.
RESOLVE and ECO: Survey Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannappan, Sheila; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A.; Eckert, Kathleen D.; Stark, David; Berlind, Andreas A.; Snyder, Elaine M.; Norman, Dara J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; RESOLVE Team
2016-01-01
The REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey is a volume-limited census of stellar, gas, and dynamical mass as well as star formation and galaxy interactions within >50,000 cubic Mpc of the nearby cosmic web, reaching down to dwarf galaxies of baryonic mass ~10^9 Msun and spanning multiple large-scale filaments, walls, and voids. RESOLVE is surrounded by the ~10x larger Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with matched custom photometry and environment metrics enabling analysis of cosmic variance with greater statistical power. For the ~1500 galaxies in its two equatorial footprints, RESOLVE goes beyond ECO in providing (i) deep 21cm data with adaptive sensitivity ensuring HI mass detections or upper limits <10% of the stellar mass and (ii) 3D optical spectroscopy including both high-resolution ionized gas or stellar kinematic data for each galaxy and broad 320-725nm spectroscopy spanning [OII] 3727, Halpha, and Hbeta. RESOLVE is designed to complement other radio and optical surveys in providing diverse, contiguous, and uniform local/global environment data as well as unusually high completeness extending into the gas-dominated dwarf galaxy regime. RESOLVE also offers superb reprocessed photometry including full, deep NUV coverage and synergy with other equatorial surveys as well as unique northern and southern facilities such as Arecibo, the GBT, and ALMA. The RESOLVE and ECO surveys have been supported by funding from NSF grants AST-0955368 and OCI-1156614.
Automated Coronal Loop Identification Using Digital Image Processing Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Jong K.; Gary, G. Allen; Newman, Timothy S.
2003-01-01
The results of a master thesis project on a study of computer algorithms for automatic identification of optical-thin, 3-dimensional solar coronal loop centers from extreme ultraviolet and X-ray 2-dimensional images will be presented. These center splines are proxies of associated magnetic field lines. The project is pattern recognition problems in which there are no unique shapes or edges and in which photon and detector noise heavily influence the images. The study explores extraction techniques using: (1) linear feature recognition of local patterns (related to the inertia-tensor concept), (2) parametric space via the Hough transform, and (3) topological adaptive contours (snakes) that constrains curvature and continuity as possible candidates for digital loop detection schemes. We have developed synthesized images for the coronal loops to test the various loop identification algorithms. Since the topology of these solar features is dominated by the magnetic field structure, a first-order magnetic field approximation using multiple dipoles provides a priori information in the identification process. Results from both synthesized and solar images will be presented.
The Future of Seizure Prediction and Intervention: Closing the loop
Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro; Netoff, Theoden
2014-01-01
The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss 1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, 2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and 3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy while minimizing side-effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672
Future of seizure prediction and intervention: closing the loop.
Nagaraj, Vivek; Lee, Steven T; Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Soltesz, Ivan; Benquet, Pascal; Irazoqui, Pedro P; Netoff, Theoden I
2015-06-01
The ultimate goal of epilepsy therapies is to provide seizure control for all patients while eliminating side effects. Improved specificity of intervention through on-demand approaches may overcome many of the limitations of current intervention strategies. This article reviews the progress in seizure prediction and detection, potential new therapies to provide improved specificity, and devices to achieve these ends. Specifically, we discuss (1) potential signal modalities and algorithms for seizure detection and prediction, (2) closed-loop intervention approaches, and (3) hardware for implementing these algorithms and interventions. Seizure prediction and therapies maximize efficacy, whereas minimizing side effects through improved specificity may represent the future of epilepsy treatments. PMID:26035672
Closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance for reusable launch vehicle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Hongsheng
This dissertation focuses on the development of a closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance algorithm for the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle. Special attention has been given to the issues that impact on viability, complexity and reliability in on-board implementation. The algorithm is called once every guidance update cycle to recalculate the optimal solution based on the current flight condition, taking into account atmospheric effects and path constraints. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode inside atmosphere, and later switch to a closed-loop vacuum ascent guidance scheme. The classical finite difference method is shown to be well suited for fast solution of the constrained optimal three-dimensional ascent problem. The initial guesses for the solutions are generated using an analytical vacuum optimal ascent guidance algorithm. Homotopy method is employed to gradually introduce the aerodynamic forces to generate the optimal solution from the optimal vacuum solution. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body reusable launch vehicle. To verify the algorithm presented in this dissertation, a series of open-loop and closed-loop tests are performed for three different missions. Wind effects are also studied in the closed-loop simulations. For comparison, the solutions for the same missions are also obtained by two independent optimization softwares. The results clearly establish the feasibility of closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance of rocket-powered launch vehicles. ATO cases are also tested to assess the adaptability of the algorithm to autonomously incorporate the abort modes.
Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS
Li, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Qiu, J.
2014-02-01
We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.
SDO Sees Brightening Magnetic Loops
Two active regions sprouted arches of bundled magnetic loops in this video from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory taken on Nov. 11-12, 2015. Charged particles spin along the magnetic field, tracing...
SDO Sees Flourishing Magnetic Loops
A bright set of loops near the edge of the sun’s face grew and shifted quickly after the magnetic field was disrupted by a small eruption on Nov. 25, 2015. Charged particles emitting light in extre...
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
... that acts like a scalpel (surgical knife). An electric current is passed through the loop, which cuts away ... A procedure in which an instrument works with electric current to destroy tissue. Local Anesthesia: The use of ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Metcalf, Thomas R.
1994-01-01
I present a robust algorithm that resolves the 180-deg ambiguity in measurements of the solar vector magnetic field. The technique simultaneously minimizes both the divergence of the magnetic field and the electric current density using a simulated annealing algorithm. This results in the field orientation with approximately minimum free energy. The technique is well-founded physically and is simple to implement.
Observations of loops and prominences
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strong, Keith T.
1994-01-01
We review recent observations by the Yohkoh-SXT (Soft X-ray Telescope) in collaboration with other spacecraft and ground-based observatories of coronal loops and prominences. These new results point to problems that SoHO will be able to address. With a unique combination of rapid-cadence digital imaging (greater than or equal to 32 s full-disk and greater than or equal to 2 s partial-frame images), high spatial resolution (greater than or equal to 2.5 arcsec pixels), high sensitivity (EM less than or equal to 10(exp 42) cm(exp -3)), a low-scatter mirror, and large dynamic range, SXT can observe a vast range of targets on the Sun. Over the first 21 months of Yohkoh operations SXT has taken over one million images of the corona and so is building up an invaluable long-term database on the large-scale corona and loop geometry. The most striking thing about the SXT images is the range of loop sizes and shapes. The active regions are a bright tangle of magnetic field lines, surrounded by a network of large-scale quiet-Sun loops stretching over distances in excess of 105 km. The cross-section of most loops seems to be constant. Loops displaying significant Gamma's are the exception, not the rule, implying the presence of widespread currents in the corona. All magnetic structures show changes. Time scales range from seconds to months. The question of how these structures are formed, become filled with hot plasma, and are maintained is still open. While we see the propagation of brightenings along the length of active-region loops and in X-ray jets with velocities of several hundred km/s, much higher velocities are seen in the quiet Sun. In XBP flares, for example, velocities of over 1000 km/s are common. Active-region loops seem to be in constant motion, moving slowly outward, carrying plasma with them. During flares, loops often produce localized brightenings at the base and later at the apex of the loop. Quiescent filaments and prominences have been observed regularly
Dynamical behaviour in coronal loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haisch, Bernhard M.
1986-01-01
Rapid variability has been found in two active region coronal loops observed by the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) and the Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS) onboard the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). There appear to be surprisingly few observations of the short-time scale behavior of hot loops, and the evidence presented herein lends support to the hypothesis that coronal heating may be impulsive and driven by flaring.
Large scale tracking algorithms.
Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry
2015-01-01
Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.
Hinode XRT and EIS Multithermal Analysis of a Coronal Loop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmelz, Joan T.; Saar, S.; Kashyap, V.
2010-05-01
Data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode were used to investigate the spatial and thermal properties of an isolated quiescent coronal loop. We constructed Differential Emission Measure (DEM) curves using Monte Carlo based reconstruction algorithms. We studied the loop as a whole, in segments, in transverse cuts, and point-by-point, always with some form of background subtraction, and find that the loop DEM is neither isothermal nor extremely broad, with 96% of the EM between 6.2 < log T < 6.7, and an EM weighted average temperature of log T = 6.48 +/- 0.16. We find evidence for a gradual change in temperature along the loop, with log T increasing by 0.1 from the footpoints to the peak. The combined XRT-EIS data can do a good job of constraining the temperature distribution for coronal loop plasma, but strong high- and low- temperature constraints are crucial. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.
Visualizations of coherent center domains in local Polyakov loops
Stokes, Finn M. Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.
2014-09-15
Quantum Chromodynamics exhibits a hadronic confined phase at low to moderate temperatures and, at a critical temperature T{sub C}, undergoes a transition to a deconfined phase known as the quark–gluon plasma. The nature of this deconfinement phase transition is probed through visualizations of the Polyakov loop, a gauge independent order parameter. We produce visualizations that provide novel insights into the structure and evolution of center clusters. Using the HMC algorithm the percolation during the deconfinement transition is observed. Using 3D rendering of the phase and magnitude of the Polyakov loop, the fractal structure and correlations are examined. The evolution of the center clusters as the gauge fields thermalize from below the critical temperature to above it are also exposed. We observe deconfinement proceeding through a competition for the dominance of a particular center phase. We use stout-link smearing to remove small-scale noise in order to observe the large-scale evolution of the center clusters. A correlation between the magnitude of the Polyakov loop and the proximity of its phase to one of the center phases of SU(3) is evident in the visualizations. - Highlights: • We produce visualizations of center clusters in Polyakov loops. • The evolution of center clusters with HMC simulation time is examined. • Visualizations provide novel insights into the percolation of center clusters. • The magnitude and phase of the Polyakov loop are studied. • A correlation between the magnitude and center phase proximity is evident.
ArchDB 2014: structural classification of loops in proteins
Bonet, Jaume; Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Garcia-Garcia, Javier; Marín-López, Manuel A.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Oliva, Baldo
2014-01-01
The function of a protein is determined by its three-dimensional structure, which is formed by regular (i.e. β-strands and α-helices) and non-periodic structural units such as loops. Compared to regular structural elements, non-periodic, non-repetitive conformational units enclose a much higher degree of variability—raising difficulties in the identification of regularities, and yet represent an important part of the structure of a protein. Indeed, loops often play a pivotal role in the function of a protein and different aspects of protein folding and dynamics. Therefore, the structural classification of protein loops is an important subject with clear applications in homology modelling, protein structure prediction, protein design (e.g. enzyme design and catalytic loops) and function prediction. ArchDB, the database presented here (freely available at http://sbi.imim.es/archdb), represents such a resource and has been an important asset for the scientific community throughout the years. In this article, we present a completely reworked and updated version of ArchDB. The new version of ArchDB features a novel, fast and user-friendly web-based interface, and a novel graph-based, computationally efficient, clustering algorithm. The current version of ArchDB classifies 149,134 loops in 5739 classes and 9608 subclasses. PMID:24265221
Quantifying the Significance of Substructure in Coronal Loops
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeough, K. B. D.; Kashyap, V.; McKillop, S.
2014-12-01
A method to infer the presence of small-scale substructure in SDO/AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory) images of coronal loops is developed. We can classify visible loop structure based on this propensity to show substructure which puts constraints on contemporary solutions to the coronal heating problem. The method uses the Bayesian algorithm Low-count Image Reconstruction and Analysis (LIRA) to infer the multi-scale component of the loops which describes deviations from a smooth model. The increase in contrast of features in this multi-scale component is determined using a statistic that estimates the sharpness across the image. Regions with significant substructure are determined using p-value upper bounds. We are able to locate substructure visible in Hi-C (High-Resolution Coronal Imager) data that are not salient features in the corresponding AIA image. Looking at coronal loops at different regions of the Sun (e.g., low-lying structure and loops in the upper corona) we are able to map where detectable substructure exists and thus the influence of the nanoflare heating process. We acknowledge support from AIA under contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO.
Resolving Conflicts in Middle Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eddings, Evyonne
1992-01-01
Describes a lesson plan that explains the role of compromise as a method of resolving conflicts for use in a sixth-grade world cultures class. Includes activities, assessment, reteaching activities, and an extension project involving student skits. (DK)
The Coronal Loop Inventory Project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Christian, G. M.; Dhaliwal, R. S. S.; Paul, K. S.
2015-11-01
Most coronal physicists now seem to agree that loops are composed of tangled magnetic strands and have both isothermal and multithermal cross-field temperature distributions. As yet, however, there is no information on the relative importance of each of these categories, and we do not know how common one is with respect to the other. In this paper, we investigate these temperature properties for all loop segments visible in the 171-Å image of AR 11294, which was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on 2011 September 15. Our analysis revealed 19 loop segments, but only 2 of these were clearly isothermal. Six additional segments were effectively isothermal, that is, the plasma emission to which AIA is sensitive could not be distinguished from isothermal emission, within measurement uncertainties. One loop had both isothermal transition region and multithermal coronal solutions. Another five loop segments require multithermal plasma to reproduce the AIA observations. The five remaining loop segments could not be separated reliably from the background in the crucial non-171-Å AIA images required for temperature analysis. We hope that the direction of coronal heating models and the efforts modelers spend on various heating scenarios will be influenced by these results.
The Structure of Coronal Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Antiochos, Spiro K.
2009-01-01
It is widely believed that the simple coronal loops observed by XUV imagers, such as EIT, TRACE, or XRT, actually have a complex internal structure consisting of many (perhaps hundreds) of unresolved, interwoven "strands". According to the nanoflare model, photospheric motions tangle the strands, causing them to reconnect and release the energy required to produce the observed loop plasma. Although the strands, themselves, are unresolved by present-generation imagers, there is compelling evidence for their existence and for the nanoflare model from analysis of loop intensities and temporal evolution. A problem with this scenario is that, although reconnection can eliminate some of the strand tangles, it cannot destroy helicity, which should eventually build up to observable scales. we consider, therefore, the injection and evolution of helicity by the nanoflare process and its implications for the observed structure of loops and the large-scale corona. we argue that helicity does survive and build up to observable levels, but on spatial and temporal scales larger than those of coronal loops. we discuss the implications of these results for coronal loops and the corona, in general .
Tang, Tao; Tian, Jing; Zhong, Daijun; Fu, Chengyu
2016-01-01
A rate feed forward control-based sensor fusion is proposed to improve the closed-loop performance for a charge couple device (CCD) tracking loop. The target trajectory is recovered by combining line of sight (LOS) errors from the CCD and the angular rate from a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG). A Kalman filter based on the Singer acceleration model utilizes the reconstructive target trajectory to estimate the target velocity. Different from classical feed forward control, additive feedback loops are inevitably added to the original control loops due to the fact some closed-loop information is used. The transfer function of the Kalman filter in the frequency domain is built for analyzing the closed loop stability. The bandwidth of the Kalman filter is the major factor affecting the control stability and close-loop performance. Both simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27347970
Tang, Tao; Tian, Jing; Zhong, Daijun; Fu, Chengyu
2016-01-01
A rate feed forward control-based sensor fusion is proposed to improve the closed-loop performance for a charge couple device (CCD) tracking loop. The target trajectory is recovered by combining line of sight (LOS) errors from the CCD and the angular rate from a fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG). A Kalman filter based on the Singer acceleration model utilizes the reconstructive target trajectory to estimate the target velocity. Different from classical feed forward control, additive feedback loops are inevitably added to the original control loops due to the fact some closed-loop information is used. The transfer function of the Kalman filter in the frequency domain is built for analyzing the closed loop stability. The bandwidth of the Kalman filter is the major factor affecting the control stability and close-loop performance. Both simulations and experiments are provided to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed algorithm. PMID:27347970
Resolving local ambiguity using semantics of shape.
Diegert, Carl F.
2010-05-01
We demonstrate a new semantic method for automatic analysis of wide-area, high-resolution overhead imagery to tip and cue human intelligence analysts to human activity. In the open demonstration, we find and trace cars and rooftops. Our methodology, extended to analysis of voxels, may be applicable to understanding morphology and to automatic tracing of neurons in large-scale, serial-section TEM datasets. We defined an algorithm and software implementation that efficiently finds all combinations of image blobs that satisfy given shape semantics, where image blobs are formed as a general-purpose, first step that 'oversegments' image pixels into blobs of similar pixels. We will demonstrate the remarkable power (ROC) of this combinatorial-based work flow for automatically tracing any automobiles in a scene by applying semantics that require a subset of image blobs to fill out a rectangular shape, with width and height in given intervals. In most applications we find that the new combinatorial-based work flow produces alternative (overlapping) tracings of possible objects (e.g. cars) in a scene. To force an estimation (tracing) of a consistent collection of objects (cars), a quick-and-simple greedy algorithm is often sufficient. We will demonstrate a more powerful resolution method: we produce a weighted graph from the conflicts in all of our enumerated hypotheses, and then solve a maximal independent vertex set problem on this graph to resolve conflicting hypotheses. This graph computation is almost certain to be necessary to adequately resolve multiple, conflicting neuron topologies into a set that is most consistent with a TEM dataset.
Resolving conflicts in water sharing: A systemic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandalal, K. D. W.; Simonovic, S. P.
2003-12-01
With industrial development and economic growth, conflicts over use and allocation of water have been increasing. Though diverse efforts have been made toward resolving conflicts through computer-based models, its clear understanding is prerequisite for models to be effective. A systems view illuminates how people think and consequences of their thoughts and actions on results and thus helps to achieve sustainable solutions. This paper presents a systemic approach to assist stakeholders in two different jurisdictions in a hypothetical water resource system to resolve a potential water-sharing conflict. A causal loop diagram developed provides an understanding of the conflict dynamics and feedback nature. A system dynamics simulation model developed fitting the causal diagram offers a significant opportunity to explore conflict's behavior and resolution with respect to final water allocations and time necessary to reach an agreement. The impact of initial aspiration, influence on system and struggle of stakeholders is discussed in detail.
Algorithms for computing the multivariable stability margin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tekawy, Jonathan A.; Safonov, Michael G.; Chiang, Richard Y.
1989-01-01
Stability margin for multiloop flight control systems has become a critical issue, especially in highly maneuverable aircraft designs where there are inherent strong cross-couplings between the various feedback control loops. To cope with this issue, we have developed computer algorithms based on non-differentiable optimization theory. These algorithms have been developed for computing the Multivariable Stability Margin (MSM). The MSM of a dynamical system is the size of the smallest structured perturbation in component dynamics that will destabilize the system. These algorithms have been coded and appear to be reliable. As illustrated by examples, they provide the basis for evaluating the robustness and performance of flight control systems.
Approximate inference on planar graphs using loop calculus and belief progagation
Chertkov, Michael; Gomez, Vicenc; Kappen, Hilbert
2009-01-01
We introduce novel results for approximate inference on planar graphical models using the loop calculus framework. The loop calculus (Chertkov and Chernyak, 2006b) allows to express the exact partition function Z of a graphical model as a finite sum of terms that can be evaluated once the belief propagation (BP) solution is known. In general, full summation over all correction terms is intractable. We develop an algorithm for the approach presented in Chertkov et al. (2008) which represents an efficient truncation scheme on planar graphs and a new representation of the series in terms of Pfaffians of matrices. We analyze in detail both the loop series and the Pfaffian series for models with binary variables and pairwise interactions, and show that the first term of the Pfaffian series can provide very accurate approximations. The algorithm outperforms previous truncation schemes of the loop series and is competitive with other state-of-the-art methods for approximate inference.
Loop quantum cosmology with self-dual variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2015-12-01
Using the complex-valued self-dual connection variables, the loop quantum cosmology of a closed Friedmann space-time coupled to a massless scalar field is studied. It is shown how the reality conditions can be imposed in the quantum theory by choosing a particular inner product for the kinematical Hilbert space. While holonomies of the self-dual Ashtekar connection are not well defined in the kinematical Hilbert space, it is possible to introduce a family of generalized holonomylike operators of which some are well defined; these operators in turn are used in the definition of the Hamiltonian constraint operator where the scalar field can be used as a relational clock. The resulting quantum theory is closely related, although not identical, to standard loop quantum cosmology constructed from the Ashtekar-Barbero variables with a real Immirzi parameter. Effective Friedmann equations are derived which provide a good approximation to the full quantum dynamics for sharply peaked states whose volume remains much larger than the Planck volume, and they show that for these states quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang and big-crunch singularities and replace them by a nonsingular bounce. Finally, the loop quantization in self-dual variables of a flat Friedmann space-time is recovered in the limit of zero spatial curvature and is identical to the standard loop quantization in terms of the real-valued Ashtekar-Barbero variables.
Global far-ultraviolet properties of the Cygnus Loop
Kim, Il-Joong; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Dae-Hee; Han, Wonyong; Lim, Yeo-Myeong; Min, Kyoung-Wook; Edelstein, Jerry
2014-03-20
We present the C III λ977, O VI λλ1032, 1038 and N IV] λ1486 emission line maps of the Cygnus Loop, obtained with the newly processed data of the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR; also known as FIMS) mission. In addition, the Si IV+O IV] line complexes around 1400 Å are resolved into two separate emission lines whose intensity demonstrates a relatively high Si IV region that was predicted in the previous study. The morphological similarity between the O VI and X-ray images, as well as a comparison of the O VI intensity with the value expected from the X-ray results, indicates that large portions of the observed O VI emissions could be produced from X-ray emitting gas. Comparisons of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) images with the optical and H I 21 cm images reveal spatial variations of shock-velocity populations and high FUV extinction in the direction of a previously identified H I cloud. By calculating the FUV line ratios for several subregions of the Cygnus Loop, we investigate the spatial variation of the population of radiative shock velocities as well as the effects of resonance scattering, X-ray emitting gas, and nonradiative shocks. The FUV and X-ray luminosity comparisons between the Cygnus Loop and the Vela supernova remnant suggest that the fraction of shocks in the early evolutionary stages is much larger in the Cygnus Loop.
Modeling and image reconstruction in spectrally resolved bioluminescence tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Patterson, Michael S.
2007-02-01
Recent interest in modeling and reconstruction algorithms for Bioluminescence Tomography (BLT) has increased and led to the general consensus that non-spectrally resolved intensity-based BLT results in a non-unique problem. However, the light emitted from, for example firefly Luciferase, is widely distributed over the band of wavelengths from 500 nm to 650 nm and above, with the dominant fraction emitted from tissue being above 550 nm. This paper demonstrates the development of an algorithm used for multi-wavelength 3D spectrally resolved BLT image reconstruction in a mouse model. It is shown that using a single view data, bioluminescence sources of up to 15 mm deep can be successfully recovered given correct information about the underlying tissue absorption and scatter.
Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections
DeLong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R. ); Kohler, B.; Wilson, K. )
1994-12-15
We use the algorithmic method of generalized projections (GP's) to retrieve the intensity and phase of an ultrashort laser pulse from the experimental trace in frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). Using simulations, we show that the use of GP's improves significantly the convergence properties of the algorithm over the basic FROG algorithm. In experimental measurements, the GP-based algorithm achieves significantly lower errors than previous algorithms. The use of GP's also permits the inclusion of an arbitrary material response function in the FROG problem.