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Sample records for alicyclic mono di

  1. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  2. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  3. Mono- and di-cationic hydrido boron compounds.

    PubMed

    Ghadwal, Rajendra S; Schürmann, Christian J; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-08-28

    Brønsted acid HNTf2 (Tf = SO2CF3) mediated dehydrogenative hydride abstraction from (L(1))BH3 () and (L(2))BH3 () (L(1) = IPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-methylidene (); L(2) = SIPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-methylidiene ()) affords thermally stable hydride bridged mono-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) () and [{(L(2))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) (). Furthermore, hydride abstraction yields di-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 () and [{(L(2))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 (). Unique cationic boron compounds with CH2BH2(μ-H)BH2CH2 ( and ) and CH2BH(μ-H)2BHCH2 ( and ) moieties feature a 3c-2e bond and have been fully characterized. Interesting electronic and structural features of compounds are analysed using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational methods. PMID:26200103

  4. DECHLORINATION ACTIVITY (CROSS-ACCLIMATION) OF FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS ADAPTED TO MONO- AND DI-CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediment slurries (10% solids) adapted to dechlorinate mono- and di-CPs (DCP) was investigated to define the regiospecificity of the dechlorination reaction. nadapted sediment slurries amended with various ortho-substituted C...

  5. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor. PMID:411486

  6. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  7. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Earl Gray, L; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6-C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), and other oxidative products. The urinary levels of one of these oxidative metabolites, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), were about 560-fold higher than MnOP in Sprague-Dawley rats dosed with DnOP by gavage. Furthermore, MCPP was also found in the urine of rats dosed with di-isooctyl phthalate (DiOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), although at concentrations considerably lower than in rats given similar concentrations of DnOP. The comparatively much higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than of the hydrolytic monoesters of the high-molecular-weight phthalates DiOP, DiNP, and DiDP in the exposed rats suggest that these monoesters may be poor biomarkers of exposure to their precursor phthalates and may explain the relatively low frequency of detection of these monoester metabolites in human populations. MCPP and MnOP were also measured in 267 human urine samples. The frequent detection and higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than MnOP suggest that exposure to DnOP might be higher than previously thought based on the measurements of MnOP alone. However, because MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DBP and other phthalates in rats, and the metabolism of phthalates in rodents and humans may differ, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MCPP are needed to completely understand the extent of human exposure to DnOP from the urinary concentrations of MCPP. PMID:16263692

  8. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  9. Strength and nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in mono- and di-hydrated formamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Angelina, Emilio L; Peruchena, Nélida M

    2011-05-12

    In this work, mono- and di-hydrated complexes of the formamide were studied. The calculations were performed at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation. The atoms in molecules theory (AIM), based on the topological properties of the electronic density distribution, was used to characterize the different types of bonds. The analysis of the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) in the most stable mono- and di-hydrated formamide complexes shows a mutual reinforcement of the interactions, and some of these complexes can be considered as "bifunctional hydrogen bonding hydration complexes". In addition, we analyzed how the strength and the nature of the interactions, in mono-hydrated complexes, are modified by the presence of a second water molecule in di-hydrated formamide complexes. Structural changes, cooperativity, and electron density redistributions demonstrate that the H-bonds are stronger in the di-hydrated complexes than in the corresponding mono-hydrated complexes, wherein the σ- and π-electron delocalization were found. To explain the nature of such interactions, we carried out the atoms in molecules theory in conjunction with reduced variational space self-consistent field (RVS) decomposition analysis. On the basis of the local Virial theorem, the characteristics of the local electron energy density components at the bond critical points (BCPs) (the 1/4∇ (2)ρ(b) component of electron energy density and the kinetic energy density) were analyzed. These parameters were used in conjunction with the electron density and the Laplacian of the electron density to analyze the characteristics of the interactions. The analysis of the interaction energy components for the systems considered indicates that the strengthening of the hydrogen bonds is manifested by an increased contribution of the electrostatic energy component represented by the kinetic energy density at the BCP. PMID:21506592

  10. Novel mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine membrane lipids in northern wetland planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli K; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Villanueva, Laura; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Wienk, Hans; Schoutsen, Frans; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2013-11-01

    Northern peatlands represent a significant global carbon store and commonly originate from Sphagnum moss-dominated wetlands. These ombrotrophic ecosystems are rain fed, resulting in nutrient-poor, acidic conditions. Members of the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes are highly abundant and appear to play an important role in the decomposition of Sphagnum-derived litter in these ecosystems. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRAM/MS) analysis of lipid extracts of four isolated planctomycetes from wetlands of European north Russia revealed novel ornithine membrane lipids (OLs) that are mono-, di-, and trimethylated at the ε-nitrogen position of the ornithine head group. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the isolated trimethylornithine lipid confirmed the structural identification. Similar fatty acid distributions between mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine lipids suggest that the three lipid classes are biosynthetically linked, as in the sequential methylation of the terminal nitrogen in phosphatidylethanolamine to produce phosphatidylcholine. The mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine lipids described here represent the first report of methylation of the ornithine head groups in biological membranes. Various bacteria are known to produce OLs under phosphorus limitation or fatty-acid-hydroxylated OLs under thermal or acid stress. The sequential methylation of OLs, leading to a charged choline-like moiety in the trimethylornithine lipid head group, may be an adaptation to provide membrane stability under acidic conditions without the use of scarce phosphate in nutrient-poor ombrotrophic wetlands. PMID:23995937

  11. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  12. Separation of mono- and di-PEGylate of exenatide and resolution of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates by preparative ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh Thi; Lee, Jae Sun; Yun, Soi; Lee, E K

    2016-07-29

    Exenatide is a synthetic version of the 39-mer peptide of Exendin-4, which is an FDA-approved therapeutic against Type II diabetes mellitus. However, exenatide has a very short in-serum half-life and PEGylation have been performed to improve its in-serum stability. PEGylation often yields multivalent binding to non-specific residues, and the desired species should be carefully separated by chromatographies. In this study, we first devised an aqueous-phase, two-step PEGylation process. This consists of thiolation of Lys 12 and 27 residues followed by attachment of PEG-maleimide (10kD) to thiol groups. This process yields various species: mono-PEGylates with positional isomers, di-PEGylate, and other higher MW substances. A prep-grade cationic exchange chromatography (HiTrap SP) at pH 3.0 partially separated mono- and di-PEGylates based on the molar ratio of conjugated PEG and peptide and thus molecular weight of the conjugates. To further investigate the chromatographic separation of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates, we prepared two kinds of exenatide analogs by point mutation; K12C and K27C. Each analog was mono-PEGylated with very high yield (>95%). When a mixture of the two positional isomers of mono-PEGylates was applied to HiTrap SP chromatography, K12C-PEGylate and K27C-PEGylate eluted separately at 0.22M and 0.33M NaCl, respectively. When the proportions of acid and its conjugate base of the amino acid residues adjacent to the PEGylation site at pH 3.0 were analyzed, K27C-PEGylate shows stronger positive charge than K12C-PEGylate, and we propose the residence time difference between the two mono-PEGylates could be due to the charge difference. ELISA result shows that the immuno-binding activity of both analogs and their mono-PEGylates are well maintained. Furthermore, both mono-PEGylates of the analogs show higher than 50-fold improved anti-trypsin stability. We expect that mono-PEGylates of the exenatide analogs are alternatives to the conventional C40

  13. The action of mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards on the ribonucleic acid-containing bacteriophage μ2

    PubMed Central

    Shooter, K. V.; Edwards, P. A.; Lawley, P. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacteriophage μ2 is inactivated by both mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards at relatively low extents of alkylation. No degradation of alkylated RNA was detected. Cross-linking of RNA to protein was observed with the difunctional agent, but this reaction was only a minor contribution to the inactivation. Analyses of the reaction products in bacteriophage RNA showed that, at the mean lethal doses, more than one mono-alkylation of guanine had occurred but the sum total of other types of RNA alkylation was close to a single event. The results therefore suggest that inactivation results from the mono-alkylation of adenine or cytosine. In experiments with the difunctional agent cross-linking of RNA bases or of RNA to protein also prevented replication, the existence of these reactions accounting for the greater sensitivity of the bacteriophage to this agent. PMID:5145907

  14. π–π Interaction Energies as Determinants of the Photodimerization of Mono-, Di-, and Triazastilbenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the quantitative [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of crystalline trans-2,4-dichloro-6-styrylpyrimidine to produce the corresponding htt r-ctt cyclobutane dimer, and we present 1H NMR analysis of the photolysis of this and six other mono-, di-, and triazastilbenes in solid and solution states. Density functional (M06-2X) and correlated ab initio (MP2) calculations were used to obtain interaction energies between two monomers of each azastilbene. These energies mirror the relative polarization of the stilbene moieties and can be quantitatively correlated with the rate of reaction and selective formation of the htt r-ctt dimers. In the solid state, poor correlation is observed between interaction energy and reactivity/selectivity. This lack of correlation is explained through X-ray analysis of the azastilbene monomers and is shown to be in accordance with the principles of Schmidt’s topochemical postulate. Conversely, in solution there is a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.96) between interaction energies and formation of the htt r-ctt dimer. These results are the first to show this correlation and to demonstrate the utility of calculated interaction energies as a tool for the prediction of stereo- and regioselectivity in solution-state stilbene-type photocycloadditions. PMID:24837276

  15. Comparative Study of Low-temperature PECVD of Amorphous Silicon using Mono-, Di-, Trisilane and Cyclohexasilane

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantin Pokhodnya; Joseph Sandstrom; Xuliang Dai; Philip Boudjouk; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    The hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H films were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using liquid cyclohexasilane Si{sub 6}H{sub 12} (CHS). The growth rate of a-Si:H was studied as a function of substrate temperatures in the range of 30 C < T < 450 C using deposition conditions that were optimized for monosilane SiH{sub 4}. The same parameters were used for a-Si:H films grown using disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and trisilane (Si{sub 3}H{sub 8}) precursors. It was found that the a-Si:H film growth rate for CHS is lower with respect to those for mono-, di- and trisilane in an Ar plasma. Addition of {approx}10% of H{sub 2} dramatically increases the deposition rate for CHS-based films to {_}nm/min - a 700% increase. The as-deposited films were characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to probe the hydrogen content and local bonding environment. It was found that the films grown using Ar/H{sub 2} mixtures as carrier gas have a reduced hydrogen content relative to polysilane fragments indicating higher quality amorphous silicon.

  16. Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Hurtz, Donald; Malek, Nicole A; Needham, Larry L; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Barr, Dana B; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, the urinary MEHP levels in the NHANES samples were lower than the monoester metabolites of phthalates less commonly used than DEHP, suggesting metabolic differences between phthalates. We measured MEHP and two oxidative DEHP metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) to verify whether these other metabolites account for a greater proportion of DEHP metabolic products in 127 paired human urine and serum samples. We found that the urinary levels of MEHHP and MEOHP were 10-fold higher than levels of MEHP; concentrations of urinary MEOHP and MEHHP were strongly correlated (r = 0.928). We also found that the serum levels of MEOHP and MEHHP were comparatively lower than those in urine. Furthermore, the glucuronide-bound conjugates of the oxidative metabolites were the predominant form in both urine and serum. MEOHP and MEHHP cannot be formed by serum enzymes from the hydrolysis of any contamination from DEHP potentially introduced during blood collection and storage. Therefore, concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP in serum may be a more selective measure of DEHP exposure than is MEHP. However, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these oxidative metabolites are needed to completely understand the extent of DEHP exposure from the serum concentrations of oxidative DEHP metabolites. PMID:14998748

  17. Environmental occurrence and potential toxicity of planar, mono-, and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in the biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C.S.; Xiao, J.; Bush, B.

    1995-12-31

    Coplanar PCBs without ortho-chlorine substituents and semicoplanar PCBs with one ortho-chlorination are stereochemically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and, because of this similarity, exert biochemical activity and toxicity to biota comparable to that of TCDD. Four non-ortho-, eight mono-ortho-, and two di-ortho-chlorinated congeners have been determined in insect larvae, fresh water and salt water mussels, fish, mallard duck, seals, and in human milk and adipose tissue. The PCB congeners are separated from the remainder of PCBs by activated carbon chromatography or HPLC on porous graphitic carbon followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCB toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) (1) recommended by WHO for 3 non-ortho, 8 mono-ortho and 2 di-ortho PCBs and a TEF for congener 81 (3,4,4{prime},5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) suggested by Harris et al. from AHH induction in rainbow trout (2) were used for calculation of the contribution to dioxin-like toxicity to each life form. In all the biota examined, PCB congener number 126 was the major contributor to PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs), followed by congener numbers 118, 114, 156, and 105. The ability to separate out planar PCBs from the majority of PCBs has allowed the use of TCDD toxicity equivalence to compare the relative dioxin-like potency of PCB residues in various species from 12 different locations.

  18. Effect of Mono and Di-rhamnolipids on Biofilms Pre-formed by Bacillus subtilis BBK006.

    PubMed

    De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Martin, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Different microbial inhibition strategies based on the planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilms communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms. In this work, we explore the aspects of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 biofilms and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (rhamnolipids) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006. The ability of mono-rhamnolipids (Rha-C10-C10) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and the di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C14-C14) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis E264, and phosphate-buffered saline to disrupt biofilm of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was evaluated. The biofilm produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was more sensitive to the di-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis than the mono-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Rhamnolipids are biologically produced compounds safe for human use. This makes them ideal candidates for use in new generations of bacterial dispersal agents and useful for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. PMID:27113589

  19. INCLUSION OF 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS IN U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290

    EPA Science Inventory

    13C12-labeled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and -chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-C...

  20. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  1. The migration of propylene glycol, mono-, di-, and triethylene glycols from regenerated cellulose film into food.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Cloke, H R; Crews, C; Gilbert, J

    1988-11-01

    Chocolates, boiled sweets, toffees, cakes and meat pies were wrapped in regenerated cellulose films (with or without coatings) that contained various mixtures of glycol softeners and which had been specially formulated for particular food applications. Samples were unwrapped at intervals (up to the end of the usual maximum shelf-life for the food) and analysed for their glycol content. Analysis involved homogenization of the food in hot water, removal of fats with hexane, precipitation of sugars with calcium hydroxide and analysis of the glycols by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) after trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization. Triethylene glycol was analysed by selected ion monitoring GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as interference problems occurred with the GC/FID approach. The results of the study showed that higher levels of migration occurred for propylene glycol than for triethylene glycol and the presence of a coating reduced the migration of both softeners. Generally, mono- and diethylene glycol levels in the food samples were below 10 mg/kg, although some samples wrapped in polyethylene glycol-softened films contained levels approaching the current statutory limit of 50 mg/kg. PMID:3206944

  2. Sieving di-branched from mono-branched and linear alkanes using ZIF-8: experimental proof and theoretical explanation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; Granato, Miguel Angelo; Martins, Vanessa F Duarte; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2013-06-14

    We study the adsorption equilibrium isotherms and differential heats of adsorption of hexane isomers on the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. The studies are carried out at 373 K using a manometric set-up combined with a micro-calorimeter. We see that the Langmuir model describes well the isotherms for all four isomers (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane). The linear and mono-branched isomers adsorb well, but 2,2-dimethylbutane is totally excluded. Plotting the differential heat of adsorption against the loading shows an initial plateau for n-hexane and 2-methylpentane. This is followed by a slow rise, indicating adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. For the di-branched isomers the differential heat of adsorption decreases with loading. To gain further insight, we ran molecular simulations using the grand-canonical Monte Carlo approach. Comparing the simulation and the experimental results shows that the ZIF framework model requires blocking of the cages, since 2,2-dimethylbutane cannot fit through the sodalite-type windows. Practically speaking, this means that ZIF-8 is a highly promising candidate for enhancing gasoline octane numbers at 373 K, as it can separate 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane from 2-methylpentane. Our results prove the potential of ZIF-8 as a new adsorbent that can be employed in the upgrade of the Total Isomerization Process for the production of high octane number gasoline, by blending di-branched alkanes in the gasoline. PMID:23640581

  3. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-06-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P < 0.01. The IBS-QoL solely changed significantly during the LFD period, median: 67 (37-120), P < 0.01. The significant reduction in disease activity during the control period shows a positive effect of the web-application on IBS symptoms when presented as a "traffic light". However adding the diet reduced IBS-SSS to < 150, inactive to mild symptoms. In the future results from larger scale trials are awaited. PMID:24914395

  4. 6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R.; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4′,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment. PMID:25790236

  5. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P < 0.01. The IBS-QoL solely changed significantly during the LFD period, median: 67 (37-120), P < 0.01. The significant reduction in disease activity during the control period shows a positive effect of the web-application on IBS symptoms when presented as a “traffic light”. However adding the diet reduced IBS-SSS to < 150, inactive to mild symptoms. In the future results from larger scale trials are awaited. PMID:24914395

  6. Measurement of Intracellular Ribavirin Mono-, Di- and Triphosphate Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Jimmerson, Leah C.; Ray, Michelle L.; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.; Klein, Brandon; Rower, Joseph E.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a nucleoside analog used to treat a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. RBV undergoes intracellular phosphorylation to a mono- (MP), di- (DP), and triphosphate (TP). The phosphorylated forms have been associated with the mechanisms of antiviral effect observed in vitro, but the intracellular pharmacology of the drug has not been well characterized in vivo. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of intracellular RBV MP, DP, and TP in multiple cell matrix types. For this method, the individual MP, DP, and TP fractions were isolated from lysed intracellular matrix using strong anion exchange solid phase extraction, dephosphorylated to parent RBV, desalted and concentrated and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The method utilized a stable labeled internal standard (RBV-13C5) which facilitated accuracy (% deviation within ±15%) and precision (coefficient of variation of ≤15%). The quantifiable linear range for the assay was 0.50 to 200 pmol/sample. The method was applied to the measurement of RBV MP, DP, and TP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), and dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from patients taking RBV for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:25555148

  7. Equilibrium binding studies of mono, di and triisocyanide ligands on Au powder surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ontko, A.

    1997-10-08

    The author`s group has previously shown that isocyanides are readily adsorbed from solutions to Au powder and bind to the Au surface in an end-on fashion through the terminal carbon. Later work demonstrated that the equilibrium constants for the reversible adsorption of electronically inequivalent isocyanides could be obtained using the Langmuir isotherm technique. This dissertation describes two projects completed which complement the initial findings of this group. Initially, several alkylisocyanides were synthesized to examine the effect of tail length on Au powder adsorption. It was observed that the length of the alkyl chain affected not only the Au surface binding affinity, but also the rate of surface saturation and saturation coverage values. Direct competition studies were also studied using a {sup 13}C-labeled isocyanide. These studies demonstrated the stabilization afforded by substrate-substrate packing forces in SAM`s formed by the longer chain isocyanides. In a second study, di and triisocyanides were synthesized to determine the effect that the length of the connecting link and the number of isocyanide groups (as points of attachment) have on Au adsorption stability. The work in this area describes the binding modes, relative binding affinities and surface coverage values for a series of flexible alkyl and xylyldiisocyanides on Au powder surfaces. This report contains only the introductory material, and general summary. Two chapters have been processed separately. 56 refs.

  8. Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Scales, Nicholas; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2014-11-15

    Four dysprosium (Dy) single carboxylates, a formate, a propionate, a butyrate and an oxalate have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of Dy(HCO{sub 2}){sub 3} (1) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra in perfect tricapped trigonal prisms. They are linked through trigonal O atoms forming 1D pillars which are further linked together through tricapped O atoms into a 3D pillared metal organic framework. The network structure is stable up to 360 °C. The structure of [Dy{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·2.5H{sub 2}O (2) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra linking together through μ{sub 2}-bridging oxalate anions into a 2D hexagonal layered structure. Both [Dy{sub 2}(Pr){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·(HPr){sub 0.5} (3) [Pr=(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] and [Dy{sub 2}(Bu){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (4) [Bu=(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] have similar di-nuclear structures. The Raman vibration modes of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four dysprosium (Dy) complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The Dy formato complex has a 3D pillared metal organic framework and the structure is stable up to 360 °C whilst the complexes with longer alkyl chained mono-carboxylates possess similar di-nuclear structures. The Dy oxalato complex has a 2D hexagonal (honeycomb-type) structure. Their Raman vibration modes have been investigated. - Highlights: • New Dysprosium complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands. • Crystal structures range from dimers to two and three dimensional frameworks. • Vibrational modes have been investigated and correlated to the structures. • The complexes are thermal robust and stable to over 300 °C.

  9. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities. PMID:22336628

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-15

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 mug/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 mug/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  11. Synthesis of mono-, di-, and triaminobismuthanes and observation of C-C coupling of aromatic systems with bismuth(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Hering-Junghans, Christian; Schulz, Axel; Thomas, Max; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-04-14

    The reaction of lithium N-trimethylsilyl-amides of the type RN(SiMe3)Li with bismuth(iii) chloride yielded mono-, di- or triaminobismuthanes depending on the sterical demand of the anilide ligand R and the used stoichiometry. For the bulky Mes* substituent the reaction with BiCl3 resulted in the formation of a C-C coupling product as the main product besides a small amount of the expected Mes*N(SiMe3)BiCl2. PMID:26911990

  12. (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-Mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines and their incorporation into hormaomycin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhushkov, Sergei I; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Grosse, Christian; Kaiser, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Efficient and scalable syntheses of enantiomerically pure (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines 9a–c, as well as allo-D-threonine (4) and (2S,3R)-β-methylphenylalanine (3), using the Belokon' approach with (S)- and (R)-2-[(N-benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone [(S)- and (R)-10] as reusable chiral auxiliaries have been developed. Three new fluoromethyl analogues of the naturally occurring octadepsipeptide hormaomycin (1) with (fluoromethylcyclopropyl)alanine moieties have been synthesized and subjected to preliminary tests of their antibiotic activity. PMID:25550751

  13. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examination of bromine incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern

  14. Modified interactions among globular proteins below isoelectric point in the presence of mono-, di- and tri-valent ions: A small angle neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kaushik; Kundu, Sarathi; Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-02-01

    Both short range attraction and long range electrostatic repulsion exist among globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin in solution below its isoelectric point (pI ≈ 4.8). At pD ≈ 4.0, below pI, protein has a net positive surface charge although local charge inhomogeneity presents. Small angle neutron scattering study reveals that in the presence of both mono-(Na+) and di-(Ni2+) valent ions attractive interaction increases and repulsive interaction decreases with the increase of salt concentration. However, for tri-valent (Fe3+) ions, both attractive and repulsive interaction increases with increasing salt concentration but the relative strength of repulsion is more than the attraction.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation for the Level of Conjugation in Carbazole-Based Precursors and Their Mono-, Di-, and Polynuclear Pt(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Al-Balushi, Rayya A; Haque, Ashanul; Jayapal, Maharaja; Al-Suti, Mohammed K; Husband, John; Khan, Muhammad S; Koentjoro, Olivia F; Molloy, Kieran C; Skelton, Jonathan M; Raithby, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    A series of trimethylsilyl-protected monoalkynes (Me3SiC≡C-R) and bis-alkynes (Me3 SiC≡C-R-C≡CSiMe3) incorporating carbazole spacer groups (R = carbazole-2-yl, carbazole-3-yl, carbazole-2,7-diyl, N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole-2,7-diyl, carbazole-3,6-diyl, N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole-3,6-diyl), together with the corresponding terminal monoalkynes (H-C≡C-R) and bis-alkynes (H-C≡C-R-C≡C-H), have been synthesized and characterized. The CuI-catalyzed dehydrohalogenation reaction between trans-[(Ph)(Et3P)2PtCl], trans-[(Et3P)2PtCl2], and trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2PtCl2] and the terminal alkynes in (i)Pr2NH/CH2Cl2 affords a series of Pt(II) mono- and diynes, while the dehydrohalogenation polycondensation reactions with trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2PtCl2] under similar reaction conditions yields four Pt(II) poly-ynes of the form trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2Pt-C≡C-R-C≡C-]n. The acetylide-functionalized carbazole ligands and the mono-, di-, and polynuclear Pt(II) σ-acetylide complexes have been characterized spectroscopically, with a subset analyzed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Pt(II) mono-, di-, and poly-ynes incorporating the carbazole spacers are soluble in common organic solvents, and solution absorption spectra show a consistent red-shift between the 2- and 2,7- as well as 3- and 3,6-carbazole complexes. Computational modeling is used to explain the observed spectral shifts, which are related to the enhanced electronic delocalization in the latter systems. These results also indicate that the inclusion of carbazole-2,7-diyl units into rigid-rod organometallic polymers should enhance electronic transport along the chains. PMID:27284807

  16. Effects of route of administration and repetitive dosing on the disposition kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its mono-de-esterified metabolite in rats.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G M; Li, R C; Ermer, J C; Shen, D D

    1985-06-30

    The disposition kinetics of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its biologically active metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) were studied in rats following single or multiple administration of DEHP by various routes. Following a single intraarterial (ia) injection, a large apparent volume of distribution (5390 ml/kg) and a high rate of clearance (21.5 ml/min/kg) were observed for DEHP. The systemic availability of DEHP was low following both single po (13.6%) and ip (5.2%) administration. A marked route-dependency in the formation of MEHP from DEHP was observed. The circulating concentrations of MEHP were substantially higher than those of DEHP (i.e., area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of approximately 7) after po administration, whereas concentrations of the mono-de-esterified metabolite were much lower relative to the parent diester concentration after ia or ip administration (i.e., AUC ratio less than 0.4). Pharmacokinetic calculations revealed that approximately 80% of a po dose of DEHP undergoes mono-de-esterification, as compared to only about 1% of the dose following either ia or ip administration. Hence, the low po systemic availability of DEHP may be largely attributed to presystemic hydrolysis of DEHP to MEHP in the gut, whereas slow and/or incomplete absorption is the likely cause of the poor bioavailability of DEHP after ip administration. No significant accumulation in the circulating concentrations of DEHP or derived MEHP were observed following 7 days of repetitive administration of DEHP. However, multiple ip injections resulted in an apparent decrease in the rate and/or extent of DEHP absorption from the peritoneal cavity, while no significant change in the po absorption of the diester was observed. The striking difference in the MEHP to DEHP AUC ratio between po and ip routes was still evident after multiple dosing. These data suggest that previously reported differences in the biologic effects of

  17. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  19. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mono? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mono? Print A ...

  20. Linear and branched alkyl-esters and amides of gallic acid and other (mono-, di- and tri-) hydroxy benzoyl derivatives as promising anti-HCV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Carrero, Paula; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Madrona, Andrés; Quesada, Ernesto; Camarasa, María José; Peréz-Pérez, María Jesús; Leyssen, Pieter; Paeshuyse, Jan; Balzarini, Jan; Neyts, Johan; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Linear and branched compounds that contain two, three or five units of galloyl (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) or its isomer 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl, as well as other mono- or dihydroxybenzoyl moieties have been synthesized. These molecules have been evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effects against a wide panel of viruses showing preferential activity against HIV and HCV. Our structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl moiety provides better antiviral activities than the galloyl (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) moiety that is present in natural green tea catechins. This observation can be of interest for the further rational exploration of compounds with anti-HCV/HIV properties. The most notable finding with respect to HIV is that the tripodal compounds 43 and 45, with three 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl moieties, showed higher activities than linear compounds with only one or two. With respect to HCV, the linear compounds, 52 and 41, containing a 12 polymethylene chain and two 2,3 di- or 2,3,4 tri-hydroxybenzoyl groups respectively at the ends of the molecule showed good antiviral efficiency. Furthermore, the anti-HCV activity of both compounds was observed at concentrations well below the cytotoxicity threshold. A representative member of these compounds, 41, showed that the anti-HCV activity was largely independent of the genetic make-up of the HCV subgenomic replicon and cell lines used. PMID:25617695

  1. Design, synthesis and in vitro bactericidal/fungicidal screening of some vanadyl(IV)complexes with mono- and di-substituted ONS donor triazoles.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2015-01-01

    A new series of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal mono- and di-substituted triazoles (L(1))-(L(6)) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. The ligands (L(1))-(L(6)) on reaction with vanadyl(IV) sulphate led to the formation of vanadyl(IV) metal complexes (1)-(4). The structure of the complexes has been established on the basis of their physical, spectral and elemental analyses data. The synthesized ligands and their vanadyl(IV) complexes have been screened in vitro for anti-bacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and for in vitro anti-fungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. The screening results showed the vanadyl complexes to be more bactericidal/fungicidal against one or more bacterial/fungal species. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to brine shrimp bioassay for scrutinizing their cytotoxicity. PMID:25716124

  2. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    PubMed

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments. PMID:26634977

  3. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  4. Copper-incorporated mono- and di-TeRu5 metal carbonyl complexes: syntheses, structures, and an unusual skeletal arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Minghuey; Miu, Chia-Yeh; Hsing, Kai-Jieah; Jang, Li-Fing; Lin, Chien-Nan

    2015-04-14

    Two sandwich-type Cu3Cl- or Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}-bridging di-TeRu5 clusters, [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu3Cl](2-) () and [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}](4-) (), were obtained from the reaction of [TeRu5(CO)14](2-) with 1 equiv. of [Cu(MeCN)4][BF4] in CH2Cl2 or THF at 0 °C, respectively, depending on the solvents. The chloride-abstracted was structurally characterized to have two TeRu5 cores that were linked by a Cu3Cl moiety with two Cu-Cu bonds. If the reaction was carried out in a molar ratio of 1 : 2 at 0 or 30 °C in CH2Cl2, the structural isomers [TeRu5(μ-CO)2(CO)12(CuMeCN)2] () and [TeRu5(μ-CO)3(CO)11Cu2(MeCN)2] () were produced, respectively, as the major product. Cluster displayed a TeRu5 core with two adjacent Ru3 triangles each capped by a μ3-Cu(MeCN) fragment, while contained a TeRu5 core with one triangle Ru3 plane capped by a Cu2(MeCN)2 fragment with two Cu atoms covalently bonded. Upon heating, the isomerization of into proceeded to undergo an unusual skeletal arrangement of Cu(MeCN) and migration of CO, with the TeRu5 core remaining intact. An electrochemical study revealed that and each exhibited only one oxidation while cluster had two consecutive oxidations, suggesting significant electronic communication between the two TeRu5 metal cores in via the Cu3 moiety. This work describes the facile synthesis of a series of semiconducting Cux-bridging Te-Ru carbonyl clusters, in which the incorporation of the Cux fragments has significantly influenced their resulting structures, rearrangements, and electronic properties, which was further elucidated by DFT calculations. PMID:25757103

  5. ArF photoresist system using alicyclic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Seong-Ju; Park, Sun-Yi; Lee, Hosull; Jung, Jae Chang; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Baik, Ki-Ho

    1997-07-01

    We have developed a chemically amplified photoresist for use in ArF lithography based on alicyclic polymer. 3- Bicyclo(2,2,1)hept-2-yl-3-(2-methyl allyoxy)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (BHPE) was prepared as a new kind of protected acid-labile monomer. Terpolymer, poly(BHPE-NBO-MAL), was prepared with BHPE, 5-norbornen-2-ol (NBO), and maleic anhydride (MAL) monomers by radical polymerization. Photoresist of poly(BHPE-NBO-MAL) displayed good adhesion, dry-etch resistance, and development. As a result, we obtained 0.16 micrometer line-and-space positive patterns with 2.38 wt% TMAH aqueous solution using an ArF exposure system.

  6. Occurrence of non-ortho-, mono-ortho- and di-ortho- substituted PCB congeners in different organs and tissues of polecats (Mustela putorius L. ) from the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, B. Van; Cofino, W.P. . Inst. for Environmental Studies); Brinkman, U.A. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    The presence and concentrations of non-ortho-, mono-ortho-, and di-ortho--substituted PCB congeners in the pole-cat (n = 7), were investigated. PCBs were extracted with a Soxhlet apparatus. After cleanup the non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners were separated from the other PCBs by HPLC. Determinations were accomplished with GC-ECD or GC-MSD. Patterns of PCBs were examined in different organs and tissues: liver, kidney, muscle, anal gland secretion, mesenteric fat, and subcutaneous fat. Using a multivariate statistical method for data analysis (SIMCA), a significant difference of PCB patterns between anal gland secretion and the other organs and tissues was revealed. Lesser concentrations of congeners with seven and eight chlorine atoms in anal gland secretion were mainly responsible for this phenomenon. A more or less organ- and tissue-specific PCB pattern was observed in all animals. PCB patterns were not dependent on prey choice, which ranged from terrestrial (small rodents) to aquatic (amphibians). This finding implies that PCB patterns in the pole-cat seem to be controlled by metabolic processes rather than diet factors. The total concentration of PCBs in polecats varies widely, two orders of magnitude, from 1 to 3,700 [mu]g/g lipid. In some animals, PCBs exceeded the experimentally determined reproduction effect concentrations of mink and ferrets. Using the toxic equivalent approach, it was observed that planar PCB 126 accounts for 63 to 98% of the toxic equivalents. The results showed that juvenile animals contain greater PCB levels than adult males and females, which might be related to an increased elimination of PCBs in adult animals due to anal gland secretion. High concentrations of PCBs were observed in such secretion. A preliminary model for concentration of PCBs in polecats including this effect is proposed.

  7. Determination of lipophilicity of chlorinated alicyclic compounds by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Coats, J.R. . Dept. of Entomology); Chambers, J.E. . Coll. of Veterinary Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    A RP-HPLC procedure has been developed for measuring the capacity factor (k[prime]) of a series of chlorinated alicyclic compounds. The chromatographic behavior measured on a 4.5 mm i.d. [times] 3.3 cm C-18 column with methanol/water as the mobile phase was related to the volume fraction of methanol ([phi]). A linear relationship was found between log k[prime] and [phi], showing the correlation coefficient [lambda] > 0.99, for each of the 15 chlorinated alicyclic compounds tested. The log k[sub w], the capacity factor obtained by extrapolation of the retention data from binary effluents to 100% water, was chosen as a measure of the solute lipophilicity. Since log k[sub w] is considered as a valuable index of the lipophilicity of a compound, the determined values will be used for the quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the chlorinated alicyclic compounds.

  8. Mono Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  9. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Topczewski, Joseph J; Cabrera, Pablo J; Saper, Noam I; Sanford, Melanie S

    2016-03-10

    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline. PMID:26886789

  10. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Cabrera, Pablo J.; Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-03-01

    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline.

  11. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim; Csanády, György A.; Pütz, Christian; and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  12. Stable TeV Black Hole Remnants at the Lhc:. Discovery Through Di-Jet Suppression, Mono-Jet Emission and a Supersonic Boom in the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, H.

    The production of large extra dimension (LXD) black holes (BHs), with a new, fundamental mass scale of Mf = 1 TeV, has been predicted to occur at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, with the formidable rate of 108 per year in p-p collisions at full energy, 14 TeV, and at full luminosity. We show that such LXD-BH formation will be experimentally observable at the LHC by the complete disappearance of all very high pt (> 500 GeV) back-to-back correlated Di-Jets of total mass M > Mf = 1 TeV, in the large detectors ALICE, ATLAS and CMS. We suggest complementing this clear cut-off signal at M > 2*500 GeV in the di-jet-correlation function by detecting the subsequent, Hawking-decay products of the LXD-BHs, namely either multiple high energy (> 100 GeV) SM Mono-Jets (i.e. away-side jet missing), sprayed off the evaporating BHs isentropically into all directions or the thermalization of the multiple overlapping Hawking-radiation in a Heckler-Kapusta-plasma: The extreme energy density of the Hawking Radiation may yield a Heckler-Kapusta-Hawking quark-gluon plasma of SM — and SUSY — particles at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition, which hydrodynamically (isentropically) evolves and cools until the quark-hadron phasetransition and chemical freezeout at T ~ 100 MeV is reached. Microcanonical quantum statistical calculations of the Hawking evaporation process for these LXD-BHs show that cold black hole remnants (BHRs) of mass ~ Mf remain leftover as the ashes of these spectacular di-jet-suppressed events. The BHRs are charged and can be detected as a track in the Central TPC of ALICE. Strong di-jet suppression is also expected with heavy ion beams at the LHC, due to quark-gluon-plasma induced jet attenuation at medium to low jet energies, pt < 200 GeV. The (mono-) jets in these events can be used to trigger tsunami-emission of secondary compressed QCD-matter at well defined Mach-angles, both at the trigger side and at the awayside (missing) jet. The Machshock

  13. Production of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols as a factor obstacle to the successful ozonation-assisted biodegradation of ethoxylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2015-10-01

    Ozonation is believed to improve the biodegradability of organic compounds. In the present study, degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was monitored in hybrid treatment systems consisting of ozonation and microbial degradation processes. We found that ozonation of NPEOs decreased, rather than increased, the biodegradability under certain conditions. The timing of ozonation was a definitive factor in determining whether ozonation increased or decreased the biodegradation rates of NPEOs. Initial ozonation of NPEOs prior to biodegradation reduced the rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal during the subsequent 14 d of biodegradation, whereas intermediate ozonation at the 9th day of biodegradation improved subsequent DOC removal during 14 d of NPEO biodegradation. Furthermore, reduction of DOC removal was also observed, when initial ozonation prior to biodegradation was subjected to cetyl alcohol ethoxylates. The production of less biodegradable intermediates, such as mono- and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (MCPEGs and DCPEGs), was responsible for the negative effect of ozonation on biodegradability of NPEOs. DCPEGs and MCPEGs were produced by biodegradation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) that were ozonolysis products of the NPEOs, and the biodegradability of DCPEGs and MCPEGs was less than that of the precursor PEGs. The results indicate that, if the target chemicals contain ethoxy chains, production of PEGs may be one of the important factors when ozonation is considered. PMID:25985303

  14. The role of substituents in the molecular and crystal structure of 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(mono)- and 3,3-(di) substituted thioureas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Flörke, Ulrich; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2014-05-01

    Three novel 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl) thioureas were synthesized by the reaction of adamantyl isothiocyante with corresponding amines and fully characterized by spectroscopy methods. Two isomeric species, i.e. 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)thiourea (1) and 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)thiourea (2), are structurally characterized and a third related compound, namely 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3,3-(methyl-phenyl)thiourea (3) has been also included for assessing the role of the nitrogen substitution on the structural properties. As determined by X-ray analysis, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit the S conformation with the CO and CS double bonds in a pseudo-antiperiplanar orientation, whereas the U form is found for compound 3. These conformational features are mainly dictated by the substitution degree on the thiourea core and the ability of forming an intra-molecular NH⋯OC hydrogen bond for mono-substituted analogues 1 and 2. These dissimilar interactions affect the vibrational properties, which have been determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies and quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of approximation.

  15. Mono-Schiff-base or di-Schiff-base? Synthesis, spectroscopic, X-ray structural and DFT study of a series of Schiff-bases derived from benzil dihydrazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xue-Jie; Hao, Xiu-Qi; Zhao, Qing-Zhe; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Xie, Wen-Long; Xing, Dian-Xiang; Liu, Yun; Song, Lai-Zhou

    2015-11-01

    A series of mono- and di-Schiff-bases based on Benzil Dihydrazone (BDH) were designed and synthesized to be set as the model compounds to explain which one should be the advanced product and which parameters will determine the end-product. As the first step of a series of investigations, this article presents the syntheses and characterization of five new Schiff-bases plus one preliminary reported Schiff-base, all derived from BDH. The compounds were characterized by single crystal (or conventional powder) X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis, m.p., 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis. Structural features of the five new Schiff-bases are similar. For instance, all molecules are nonsymmetrical/symmetrical double helix with the torsion angle of two "half-parts" about 72-97°. The Ph-Cdbnd N-Ndbnd C-Ph moiety all exists in planar and anti form, indicating significant conjugation. The crystal structures appear to be stabilized by π-stacking between the aromatic rings, as well as by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C-H … π stacking interactions. DFT calculations have been performed to explain the trend of the experimentally measured reaction yields. In the case of the studied systems by us, the type of Schiff-bases exhibits a clear dependence on the molar ratio of reactants if the products have similar stabilities. Otherwise the importance of reaction conditions will be weakened and the most stable product will be favored.

  16. Human biofluid concentrations of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in chimeric mice with humanized liver administered with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Koichiro; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a reproductive toxicant in male rodents. The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP, a primary metabolite of DEHP) in humans by using data from oral administration of DEHP to chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. MEHP and its glucuronide were detected in plasma from control mice and chimeric mice after single oral doses of 250mg DEHP/kg body weight. Biphasic plasma concentration-time curves of MEHP and its glucuronide were seen only in control mice. MEHP and its glucuronide were extensively excreted in urine within 24h in mice with humanized liver. In contrast, fecal excretion levels of MEHP glucuronide were high in control mice compared with those with humanized liver. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated urine MEHP concentrations in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. This research illustrates how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of the primary or secondary metabolites of DEHP. PMID:25867688

  17. Comparative Tumor Imaging and PDT Efficacy of HPPH Conjugated in the Mono- and Di-Forms to Various Polymethine Cyanine Dyes: Part - 2

    PubMed Central

    James, Nadine S.; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Zheng, Xiang; Goswami, Lalit N.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2013-01-01

    efficacy. Among the conjugates investigated, the bifunctional agent in which two HPPH moieties were linked to the benzoindole-based cyanine dye 11 showed superiority over the lead candidate 9 (mono HPPH-cyanine dye). PMID:24019855

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damaging effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on MA-10 Leydig cells and protection by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Rachidi, Walid; Giray, Belma; Favier, Alain; Hincal, Filiz

    2010-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundantly used phthalate derivative, inevitable environmental exposure of which is suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in germ cells are suggested to contribute to phthalate-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in rodents, and Leydig cells are one of the main targets of phthalates' testicular toxicity. Selenium is known to be involved in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium, and plays a critical role in testis, sperm, and reproduction. This study was aimed to investigate the oxidative stress potential of DEHP and its consequences in testicular cells, and examine the possible protective effects of selenium using the MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell line as a model. In the presence and absence of selenium compounds [30 nM sodium selenite (SS), and 10 {mu}M selenomethionine (SM)], the effects of exposure to DEHP and its main metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on the cell viability, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, ROS production, p53 expression, and DNA damage by alkaline Comet assay were investigated. The overall results of this study demonstrated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of DEHP, where MEHP was found to be more potent than the parent compound. SS and SM produced almost the same level of protection against antioxidant status modifying effects, ROS and p53 inducing potentials, and DNA damaging effects of the two phthalate derivatives. It was thus shown that DEHP produced oxidative stress in MA-10 cells, and selenium supplementation appeared to be an effective redox regulator in the experimental conditions used in this study, emphasizing the critical importance of the appropriate selenium status.

  19. Differential Degradation of Bicyclics with Aromatic and Alicyclic Rings by Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Choi, Ki Young; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Tai Kyoung; Hong, Soon Gyu; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

    2011-01-01

    The metabolically versatile Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to grow on tetralin and indan but cannot use their respective desaturated counterparts, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and indene, as sole carbon and energy sources. Metabolite analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that (i) the meta-cleavage dioxygenase mutant strain DK180 accumulates 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol, 1,2-indene diol, and 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-1,2-diol from tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, respectively, and (ii) when expressed in Escherichia coli, the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase transforms tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene into tetralin cis-dihydrodiol, indan-1,2-diol, and cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, respectively. Tetralin, which is activated by aromatic hydroxylation, is degraded successfully via the ring cleavage pathway to support growth of DK17. Indene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene do not serve as growth substrates because DK17 hydroxylates them on the alicyclic ring and further metabolism results in a dead-end metabolite. This study reveals that aromatic hydroxylation is a prerequisite for proper degradation of bicyclics with aromatic and alicyclic rings by DK17 and confirms the unique ability of the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase to perform distinct regioselective hydroxylations. PMID:21965391

  20. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP. PMID:26514348

  1. Toxicology of mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Leung, H W; Stott, W T; Busch, J; Bilsky, J

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity, and industrial use of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are reviewed. The dual function groups, amino and hydroxyl, make them useful in cutting fluids and as intermediates in the production of surfactants, soaps, salts, corrosion control inhibitors, and in pharmaceutical and miscellaneous applications. In 1995, the annual U.S. production capacity for ethanolamines was 447,727 metric tons. The principal route of exposure is through skin, with some exposure occurring by inhalation of vapor and aerosols. MEA, DEA, and TEA in water penetrate rat skin at the rate of 2.9 x 10(-3), 4.36 x 10(-3) and 18 x 10(-3) cm/hr, respectively. MEA, DEA, and TEA are water-soluble ammonia derivatives, with pHs of 9-11 in water and pHa values of 9.3, 8.8, and 7.7, respectively. They are irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, with MEA being the worst irritant, followed by DEA and TEA. The acute oral LD50s are 2.74 g/kg for MEA, 1.82 g/kg for DEA, and 2.34 g/kg for TEA (of bw), with most deaths occurring within 4 d of administration. MEA is present in nature as a nitrogenous base in phospholipids. These lipids, composed of glycerol, two fatty acid esters, phosphoric acid, and MEA, are the building blocks of biomembranes in animals. MEA is methylated to form choline, another important nitrogenous base in phospholipids and an essential vitamin. The rat dietary choline requirement is 10 mg kg-1 d-1; 30-d oral administration of MEA (160-2670 mg kg-1 d-1) to rats produced "altered" liver and kidney weights in animals ingesting 640 mg kg-1 d-1 or greater. Death occurred at dosages of 1280 mg kg-1 d-1. No treatment-related effects were noted in dogs administered as much as 22 mg kg-1 d-1 for 2 yr. DEA is not metabolized or readily eliminated from the liver or kidneys. At high tissue concentrations, DEA substitutes for MEA in phospholipids and is methylated to form phospholipids composed of N-methyl and N, N-dimethyl DEA. Dietary intake of DEA by rats for 13 wk at levels greater than 90 mg kg-1 d-1 resulted in degenerative changes in renal tubular epithelial cells and fatty degeneration of the liver. Similar effects were noted in drinking water studies. The findings are believed to be due to alterations in the structure and function of biomembranes brought about by the incorporation of DEA and methylated DEA in headgroups. TEA is not metabolized in the liver or incorporated into phospholipids. TEA, however, is readily eliminated in urine. Repeated oral administration to rats (7 d/wk, 24 wk) at dose levels up to and including 1600 mg kg-1 d-1 produced histopathological changes restricted to kidney and liver. Lesions in the liver consisted of cloudy swelling and occasional fatty changes, while cloudy swelling of the convoluted tubules and loop of Henle were observed in kidneys. Chronic administration (2 yr) of TEA in drinking water (0, 1%, or 2% w/v; 525 and 1100 mg kg-1 d-1 in males and 910 and 1970 mg kg-1 d-1 in females) depressed body and kidney weights in F-344 rats. Histopathological findings consisted of an "acceleration of so-called chronic nephropathy" commonly found in the kidneys of aging F-344 rats. In B6C3F1 mice, chronic administration of TEA in drinking water (0, 1%, or 2%) produced no significant change in terminal body weights between treated and control animals or gross pathological changes. TEA was not considered to be carcinogenic. Systemic effects in rats chronically administered TEA dermally (0, 32, 64, or 125 mg kg-1 d-1 in males; 0, 63, 125, or 250 mg kg-1 d-1 in females) 5 d/wk for 2 yr were primarily limited to hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium and small microscopic adenomas. In a companion mouse dermal study, the most significant change was associated with nonneoplastic changes in livers of male mice consistent with chronic bacterial hepatitis. PMID:8956558

  2. Analysis of the HNO and NO donating properties of alicyclic amine diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Benini, Patricia G.Z.; Basudhar, Debashree; Ramos-Colon, Cyf N.; Johnson, Gail M.; Larriva, Marti M.; Keefer, Larry K.; Andrei, Daniela; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2014-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) donors have been shown to elicit a variety of pharmacological responses, ranging from tumoricidal effects to treatment of heart failure. Isopropylamine-based diazeniumdiolates have been shown to produce HNO on decomposition under physiological conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis and HNO release profiles of primary alicyclic amine-based diazeniumdiolates. These compounds extend the range of known diazeniumdiolate-based HNO donors. Acetoxymethyl ester-protected diazeniumdiolates were also synthesized to improve purification and cellular uptake. The acetoxymethyl derivative of cyclopentylamine diazeniumdiolate not only showed higher cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to the parent anion but was also effective in combination with tamoxifen for targeting estrogen receptor α-negative breast cancer cells. PMID:25192820

  3. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  4. B3LYP/6-311++G** STUDIES ON HYDRATES OF CARBOHYDRATES:EFFECT OF EXPLICIT WATER MOLECULES ON THE CONFORMATION AND ENERGIES OF SELECTED MONO- AND DI-SACCHARIDES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geometry/energy optimzation of cellobiose hydrates, and mono-, penta-, deca-hydrates of glucose were carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Energetically favored hydration sites were found and the molecular stress energies associated with the interaction of the water molecules obtaine...

  5. Synthesis and Pharmacology of Mono-, Di-, and Trialkyl-Substituted 7-Chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides Combined with X-ray Structure Analysis to Understand the Unexpected Structure-Activity Relationship at AMPA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anja Probst; Francotte, Pierre; Frydenvang, Karla; Tapken, Daniel; Goffin, Eric; Fraikin, Pierre; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Lestage, Pierre; Danober, Laurence; Pirotte, Bernard; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2016-03-16

    Positive allosteric modulators of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors are promising compounds for treatment of neurological disorders, for example, Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of mono-, di-, or trialkyl-substituted 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides, comprising in total 16 new modulators. The trisubstituted compounds 7b, 7d, and 7e revealed potent activity (EC2× = 2.7-4.3 μM; concentration of compound responsible for a 2-fold increase of the AMPA mediated response) as AMPA receptor potentiators in an in vitro cellular fluorescence assay (FLIPR). The 4-cyclopropyl compound 7f was found to be considerably less potent (EC2× = 60 μM), in contrast to previously described 4-monoalkyl-substituted benzothiadiazine dioxides for which the cyclopropyl group constitutes the best choice of substituent. 7b was subjected to X-ray structural analysis in complex with the GluA2 ligand-binding domain. We propose an explanation of the unexpected structure-activity relationship of this new series of mono-, di-, and trialkyl-substituted 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide compounds. The methyl substituent in the 3-position directs the binding mode of the 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BTD) scaffold. When a methyl substituent is present in the 3-position of the BTD, additional methyl substituents in both the 2- and 4-positions increase potency, whereas introduction of a 4-cyclopropyl group does not enhance potency of 2,3,4-alkyl-substituted BTDs. A hydrogen bond donor in the 2-position of the BTD is not necessary for modulator potency. PMID:26771108

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of mono- and disaccharides in D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Di-D-fructose dianhydrides as tracers of caramel authenticity.

    PubMed

    Ratsimba, V; García Fernández, J M; Defaye, J; Nigay, H; Voilley, A

    1999-06-01

    The monosaccharide (D-fructose, D-glucose, anhydrosugars), disaccharide (glucobioses) and pseudodisaccharide (di-D-fructose dianhydrides) content of D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels has been determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) or TMS-oxime derivatives. The chromatographic profiles revealed significant differences in the disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide distribution depending on the caramel source: a D-fructose caramel contains prominent proportions of di-D-fructose dianhydrides, a D-glucose caramel mainly D-glucobioses, and a sucrose caramel similar proportions of both disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide series. It is noteworthy that di-D-fructose dianhydrides are found in all three types of caramels and might then be used as specific tracers of the authenticity of caramel, i.e., a product resulting from the controlled heat treatment of food-grade carbohydrates for use as food additives. PMID:10399331

  7. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? How Long Is Mono Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Long Is Mono Contagious? Print A A A Text ... so lots of people are confused about how long it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the ...

  8. Elucidation of the upper pathway of alicyclic musk Romandolide degradation in OECD screening tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Ohleyer, E; Chaintreau, A

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of Romandolide ([1-(3',3'-dimethyl-1'-cyclohexyl)ethoxycarbonyl] methyl propanoate), a synthetic alicyclic musk, by activated sludge inocula was investigated using both the manometric respirometry test OECD 301F and the CO₂ evolution test. In addition to measuring its biodegradability, key steps of the upper part of the metabolic pathway responsible for Romandolide degradation were identified using extracts at different time points of incubation. Early metabolism of Romandolide yielded ester hydrolysis products, including Cyclademol (1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethanol). The principal metabolites after 31 days were identified as 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone and 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl acetate. Formation of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone from Cyclademol by sludge was confirmed in subsequent experiments using Cyclademol as a substrate, indicating the involvement of an oxygen insertion reminiscent of a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Further mineralization of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone was also confirmed in subsequent studies. Three steps were thus required for complete biodegradation of the alicyclic musk: (1) successive ester hydrolyses leading to the formation of Cyclademol with concomitant degradation of the resulting acids, (2) conversion of Cyclademol into 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone, and (3) further mineralization via ring cleavage. PMID:24277432

  9. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity. PMID:24927145

  10. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP. PMID:24742305

  11. Crystal structure of 4-(3,4-di­cyano­phen­oxy)-N-[3-(di­methyl­amino)­prop­yl]benzamide mono­hydrate: a phen­oxy­phthalo­nitrile derivative

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Senem; Yıldız, Salih Zeki; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Pişkin, Hasan; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H20N4O2·H2O, the planes of the phen­oxy and phthalo­nitrile rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.39 (5)°. The 3-(di­­methyl­amino)­propyl chain has an extended conformation and is cis with respect to the phthalo­nitrile ring. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules to form slabs parallel to (100). There are also C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions present within the slabs. The slabs are linked by a pair of inversion-related C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, involving phthalo­nitrile rings, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:26396843

  12. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  13. Decarboxylative dearomatization and mono-α-arylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Shehani N; Tunge, Jon A

    2016-06-01

    We report the first example of a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative dearomatization reaction that occurs via Pd-π-benzyl intermediates. In fact, the Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reaction of benzyl enol carbonates can lead to either the dearomatized alicyclic ketones or α-monoarylated ketone products depending on the catalyst and ligand employed. PMID:27229656

  14. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  15. The impact of rubbing fabric type on surface roughness and tribological properties of some semi-alicyclic polyimides evaluated from atomic force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of some polyimides (PI) prepared from a flexible and alicyclic dianhydride, in combination with aromatic diamines was investigated in detail before and after rubbing with two types of fabric: cotton velvet (CV) and cellulose diacetate velvet (CDV). Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the correlation between rubbing-induced grooves in PI film and size/flexibility of textile fibers. For both samples surface isotropy decreased appreciatively with 91% after patterning since the appearance of ordered nanostructures in the direction of rubbing. The angular spectra reveal the generation of a surface anisotropy after rubbing process and a higher surface regularity and uniformity when using CV. This result is confirmed by decrease of texture direction index with 75% and of surface texture aspect ratio with 89%. These parameters together with the rubbing fiber characteristics are key factors in controlling liquid crystal alignment on patterned PI surfaces.

  16. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  17. Digital Bathymetric Model of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raumann, Christian G.; Stine, Scott; Evans, Alexander; Wilson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987, Pelagos Corporation of San Diego (now Racal Pelagos) undertook a bathymetric survey of Mono Lake in eastern California for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP). The result of that survey was a series of maps at various scales and contour intervals. From these maps, the DWP hoped to predict consequences of the drop in lake level that resulted from their diversion of streams in the Mono Basin. No digital models, including shaded-relief and perspective-view renderings, were made from the data collected during the survey. With the permission of Pelagos Corporation and DWP, these data are used to produce a digital model of the floor of Mono Lake. The model was created using a geographic information system (GIS) to incorporate these data with new observations and measurements made in the field. This model should prove to be a valuable tool for enhanced visualization and analyses of the floor of Mono Lake.

  18. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand. PMID:25592733

  19. Direct synthesis of C3-mono-functionalized oxindoles from N-unprotected 2-oxindole and their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Angela; Cordaro, Massimiliano; Grassi, Giovanni; Piperno, Anna; Barberi, Giuseppina; Cascio, Antonio; Risitano, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach for the synthesis of unprecedented C3-mono-functionalized indolin-2-ones is reported, starting from 2-oxindole and chalcones. The reactions proceed regioselectively under mild conditions, without di- and tri-alkylated side products. The new compounds have been evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative effects against the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Interestingly, they appear able to kill L. infantum promastigotes and amastigotes, without significant cytotoxic effects. PMID:24433962

  20. Resonant mono Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the production of a SM particle with large missing transverse momentum, dubbed mono-X searches, have gained increasing attention. After the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the run-II of the LHC will now scrutinise its properties, looking for BSM physics. In particular, one could search for mono-Higgs signals, that are typically studied in models addressing dark matter. However, this signal can appear also in models addressing the neutrino masses, if additional heavier neutrinos with masses at the electroweak scale are present. The latter will couple to the SM neutrinos and the Higgs boson, yielding a type of mono-Higgs signal not considered for dark matter: the resonant production of a Higgs boson and missing energy. In this paper, we address the LHC exclusion power of the latter with dedicated detector simulations, and reinterpret it in a benchmark scenario for neutrino mass generation.

  1. Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain, Mono Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pera, A. A.; Ponce, D. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Battaglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Mono Inyo volcanic chain is a 25-km long, north-south trending series of domes and craters extending southward from Mono Lake and into the west moat of Long Valley Caldera. Based on the Holocene history of eruptions in the area, the chain appears to hold the greatest potential for renewed magmatic activity (Hildreth, 2004). To better characterize the geometry and structure of Mono Basin for future dynamic modeling of the Mono Inyo volcanic chain a new gravity and magnetic survey was conducted. We collected gravity data at over 320 stations in and around the northern and central region of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain and around Mono Lake in the summer of 2010. Regional gravity data was collected at one-mile spacing and data collected on profile lines was collected at quarter-mile intervals. We collected magnetic data on major roads along several transects across Mono Basin that include one coincident with a seismic refraction line (Hill and others, 1985). Rock samples were collected for analysis of density and magnetic susceptibility. The new gravity and magnetic data will be compiled with pre-existing data from studies dating back to the 1960’s (Pakiser and others, 1960, 1976; Christensen, 1969) to produce new isostatic gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Preliminary isostatic gravity and magnetic maps from pre-existing data show the presence of gravity and magnetic lows in Mono Lake and Long Valley Caldera where low density volcanic sediments are prevalent; gravity highs were observed to the east and west of Mono Lake and to the east of Long Valley Caldera. A region with a high magnetic anomaly lies to the east of the volcanic chain. Two-dimensional forward modeling of potential field data along profiles that extend across Mono Basin will constrain the density and magnetization distribution, stratification and structural geology of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. These efforts are critical to improve dynamic modeling of Sierran range-front faulting and dike

  2. Mono versus Stereo: Bilingualism's Double Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grutman, Rainier

    1993-01-01

    Offers an application of Mikhail Bakhtin's heteroglossia model, describing literature from a diversified point of view. Analyzes two examples to show nevertheless that Bakhtin unilaterally celebrates "stereo" qualities of language blending, and leaves no room for "mono" texts, which use polyglot devices as borders much more than as bridges between…

  3. Educational and Demographic Profile: Mono County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Mono County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  4. Fetotoxic effects of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, I; Nakamura, Y; Yagi, Y; Tutikawa, K

    1986-01-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), exerted embryo/fetotoxic effects similar to those of DEHP at lower doses. Oral administration of MEHP (1 mL/kg) to the mice of 8 days gestation resulted in less than 32% of live fetuses, all of which were deformed. When DEHP (10 mL/kg) was given to the pregnant mice of 8 days gestation, approximately 0.03% and 0.003% of the administered dose was found in fetuses as DEHP and MEHP, respectively, after 12 hr. The presence of the MEHP in fetuses is probably due to the transplacental crossing of the MEHP formed in the maternal body, since the fetuses of mice up to day 9 of pregnancy showed no hydrolytic activity of DEHP to MEHP. Crossing of MEHP through the placenta was proven by an experiment in which MEHP was administered in pregnant mice. A single injection of MEHP (25 or 50 mg/kg), but not DEHP (500 mg/kg) into pregnant mice, induced a significantly high incidence of somatic mutations in the coat hair of offspring of mice (KYG, female X PW, male; C57BL/6Crj, female X PW, male). All these data suggest that MEHP could be responsible for the embryotoxic/fetotoxic effects observed with DEHP. PMID:3709449

  5. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  7. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  8. Arsenic speciation in Mono Lake, California: Response to seasonal stratification and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollibaugh, James T.; Carini, Steve; Gürleyük, Hakan; Jellison, Robert; Joye, Samantha B.; LeCleir, Gary; Meile, Christof; Vasquez, Lydia; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2005-04-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin, alkaline, hypersaline lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin in eastern California. We studied the distribution of arsenic (As) species in the water column of Mono Lake between February and November, 2002. This period captured the seasonal progression from winter mixing, through summer thermal stratification, to autumn overturn. Arsenic speciation was determined by ion chromatography-inductively coupled-plasma-mass spectrometry of samples preserved in the field by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. We found that arsenic speciation was dominated (>90%) by arsenate when oxygen was detectable. Once levels fell below 6 μmol/L O 2, arsenic speciation shifted to dominance by reduced species. Arsenate and arsenite co-occurred in a transition zone immediately below the base of the oxycline and low but significant concentrations of arsenate were occasionally detected in sulfidic hypolimnion samples. Thio-arsenic species were the dominant form of As found in sulfidic waters. Maxima of thio-arsenic species with stoichiometries consistent with mono-, di- and trithio-arsenic occurred in succession as sulfide concentration increased. A compound with a stoichiometry consistent with trithio-arsenic was the dominant As species (˜50% of total As) in high sulfide (2 mmol/L) bottom water. Lower concentrations of total As in bottom water relative to surface water suggest precipitation of As/S mineral phases in response to sulfide accumulation during prolonged anoxia.

  9. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R

    2012-04-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure-function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  10. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A.; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure–function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis–Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO DI-N-BUTYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DBTC): IMMUNOTOXIC AND NEUROTOXIC EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are incorporated as stabilizers in PVC water supply pipe. Particularly when new, mono- and di-substituted methyl- and butyltins leach from the pipe and are thus of regulatory concern to EPA. These contaminants have adverse effects on both the immune and nervous systems...

  12. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply. PMID:17735740

  13. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  14. Biological in vitro and in vivo studies of a series of new asymmetrical cationic [99mTc(N)(DTC-Ln)(PNP)]+ complex (DTC-Ln = alicyclic dithiocarbamate and PNP = diphosphinoamine).

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Cavazza-Ceccato, Mario; Agostini, Stefania; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Yamamichi, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Shinji; Carta, Davide; Salvarese, Nicola; Bernardini, Daniele; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2010-05-19

    (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 is a cationic mixed compound under clinical investigation as potential myocardial imaging agent. In spite of this, analogously to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents, presents a relatively low first-pass extraction. Thus, modification of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) direct to increase its first-pass extraction keeping unaltered the favorable imaging properties would be desirable. This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel cationic (99m)Tc-nitrido complexes, of general formula [(99m)TcN(DTC-Ln)(PNP)](+) (DTC-Ln= alicyclic dithiocarbamates; PNP = diphosphinoamine), as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-(N)-complexes were accomplished in two steps. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats and compared with the distribution profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. The metabolisms of the most promising compounds were evaluated by HPLC methods. Biological studies revealed that most of the complexes have a high initial and persistent heart uptake with rapid clearance from nontarget tissues. Among tested compounds, 2 and 12 showed improved heart uptake with respect to the gold standard (99m)Tc-complexes with favorable heart-to-liver and slightly lower heart-to-lung ratios. Chromatographic profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-radioactivity extracted from tissues and fluids were coincident with the native compound evidencing remarkable in vivo stability of these agents. This study shows that the incorporation of alicyclic dithiocarbamate in the [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)](+) building block yields to a significant increase of the heart uptake at early injection point suggesting that the first-pass extraction fraction of these novel complexes may be increased with respect to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents keeping almost unaltered the favorable target/nontarget ratios. PMID:20402465

  15. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Ulrich; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-09-01

    The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artifact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  16. Mono- to Octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in stack gas from typical waste incinerators and their implications on emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Haifeng; Xie, Huiting; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Tang, Chen; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-09-01

    Mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (mono- to octa-CDD/Fs) were determined in 14 stack gas samples from two municipal solid waste incinerators and two medical waste incinerators. The total PCDD/F concentrations were 5.1-390 ng/Nm(3), and the mono- to trichlorinated homologues contributed 53.2-94.5% of the total concentrations. The homologue profiles were dominated by the MoCDF, ranged from 1.51 to 113.1 ng/Nm(3), and the proportion that each PCDF homologue group contributed to the total concentration decreased with increasing chlorination level. The toxic equivalent concentrations (I-TEQs) were 0.01-2.81 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF being the biggest contributor, at 30.6-60.0%. Correlations were found among the PCDD/PCDF ratios (D/F ratios), the degree of chlorination, and the TEQ. Stack gases with low I-TEQs had higher proportions of the less chlorinated homologues and lower D/F ratios, which could be attributed to the removal of the more chlorinated isomers by the air pollution control systems used by the incinerators. 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, DiCDF, and TrCDF can be used as TEQ indicators for monitoring PCDD/Fs. 2,8-DiCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF correlated well with the TEQ because they strongly correlated with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, implying possible correlations in their formation mechanisms. PMID:23906316

  17. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  1. Viscoelasticity of mono- and polydisperse inverse ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Saldivar-Guerrero, Ruben; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo; Aksel, Nuri; Heymann, Lutz; Rodriguez-Fernández, Oliverio S

    2006-08-28

    We report on measurements of a magnetorheological model fluid created by dispersing nonmagnetic microparticles of polystyrene in a commercial ferrofluid. The linear viscoelastic properties as a function of magnetic field strength, particle size, and particle size distribution are studied by oscillatory measurements. We compare the results with a magnetostatic theory proposed by De Gans et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4518 (1999)] for the case of gap spanning chains of particles. We observe these chain structures via a long distance microscope. For monodisperse particles we find good agreement of the measured storage modulus with theory, even for an extended range, where the linear magnetization law is no longer strictly valid. Moreover we compare for the first time results for mono- and polydisperse particles. For the latter, we observe an enhanced storage modulus in the linear regime of the magnetization. PMID:16965057

  2. Mono Lake's Radiocarbon Budget: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace; Stine, Scott

    Mono Lake occupies a semiarid basin just east of the central Sierra Nevada in California. During the past 4 decades, diversion of the lake's tributary streams by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has caused the lake to shrink dramatically. This shrinkage has concentrated the salts that occur naturally in the lake, forcing the salinity to rise toward levels that will cause the extinction of the resident brine shrimp and brine flies that provide food for many hundreds of thousands of migratory waterfowl. The lake is now the focus of a pitched battle between conservationists who want to curtail diversions before serious ecological consequences occur and the LADWP, whose responsibility is to supply the city with water.

  3. Gaylussite formation at mono lake, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Herbst, D.B.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50%. to about 90%. due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2 ?? 5H2O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80%., and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite. ?? 1991.

  4. Mono-cadmium vs Mono-mercury Doping of Au25 Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuanhao; Lin, Yue-jian; Yuan, Jinyun; Liao, Lingwen; Zhu, Min; Weng, Lin-hong; Yang, Jinlong; Wu, Zhikun

    2015-12-16

    Controlling the dopant type, number, and position in doped metal nanoclusters (nanoparticles) is crucial but challenging. In the work described herein, we successfully achieved the mono-cadmium doping of Au25 nanoclusters, and revealed using X-ray crystallography in combination with theoretical calculations that one of the inner-shell gold atoms of Au25 was replaced by a Cd atom. The doping mode is distinctly different from that of mono-mercury doping, where one of the outer-shell Au atoms was replaced by a Hg atom. Au24Cd is readily transformed to Au24Hg, while the reverse (transformation from Au24Hg to Au24Cd) is forbidden under the investigated conditions. PMID:26595532

  5. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  6. Thio-arsenic species in alkaline, hypersaline, meromictic Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollibaugh, J. T.; Carini, S.; Gürleyük, H.; Jellison, R.; Joye, S. B.; Lecleir, G.; Meile, C.; Vasquez, L.; Wallschläger, D.

    2004-12-01

    Mono Lake had been meromictic for 8 years when sampled (Feb-Nov, 2002). Arsenic speciation was determined by IC-ASRS-ICP-MS of samples preserved in the field by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Arsenic speciation was dominated by arsenate when oxygen was detectable, but shifted to dominance by reduced species once oxygen was no longer detectable. Thio-arsenic species were the dominant form of As found in sulfidic waters. Maxima of thio-arsenic species with stoichiometries consistent with mono-, di- and tri-thio-arsenic occurred in succession as sulfide concentration increased. A compound with a stoichiometry consistent with tri-thio-arsenic was the dominant As species (>50% of total As) in high sulfide (>2 mM) bottom water. Comparison of the data with a simple equilibrium model suggested that the distributions do not represent simple chemical equilibria driven by sulfide concentration. Lower concentrations of total As in bottom water relative to surface water suggest precipitation of As/S mineral phases in response to sulfide accumulation during prolonged anoxia.

  7. Three Dimensional Visualization of Mono Basin, California from Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Matson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, is an area of great interest not only because of recent volcanic activity, but also as a region of geothermal potential. Not surprisingly, most of the geophysical data collected in the region has been focused on Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain due to recent seismic activity in the south moat, uplift of a central resurgent dome in the Caldera, and enhanced CO2 emissions near Mammoth Mountain. Consequently, there is a void of geophysical information on the Mono-Inyo Craters, a chemically distinct volcanic chain north of Long Valley. The Mono-Inyo chain is nominally two parts but volcanically similar; the Inyo Craters form a north trending linear chain and the Mono craters form an arcuate chain concave towards the west, bounding the east side of Mono Basin. In the last two years, gravity, high-resolution aeromagnetic, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and magnetotelluric (MT) data have been collected around Mono Craters. The focus of this study is the Mono Basin, where interesting features have been found from 3D visualization of these geophysical data. One prominent feature is a large circular magnetic anomaly with a diameter of 10~km stretching from Mono Craters to the base of the Sierra Nevada, where the geometry of Mono Craters follow the eastern part of this anomaly. This circular anomaly has been suggested to be a ring fracture, but sparse surface data leaves this theory unconstrained. Another feature is an interpreted deep (~ 600 m) fault (previously unmapped) just west of Mono Craters inside the circular magnetic anomaly. This structure correlates with a conductive high in the 3D resistivity model found from the AMT data and 2D resistivity model from newly collected MT data, a gravity gradient, and a positive magnetic anomaly in the aeromagnetic data. Moreover, this fault may be an important structural constraint on the formation of Mono Craters, because it may explain why the Mono Craters form an arcuate

  8. MONO FOR CROSS-PLATFORM CONTROL SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris

    2006-10-19

    Mono is an independent implementation of the .NET Frameworkby Novell that runs on multiple operating systems (including Windows,Linux and Macintosh) and allows any .NET compatible application to rununmodified. For instance Mono can run programs with graphical userinterfaces (GUI) developed with the C# language on Windows with VisualStudio (a full port of WinForm for Mono is in progress). We present theresults of tests we performed to evaluate the portability of our controlssystem .NET applications from MS Windows to Linux.

  9. Self-excited mono-ion oscillator.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H; Nagourney, W; Sandberg, J

    1986-08-01

    We propose self-excitation as a potentially more sensitive technique for studying a mono-ion oscillator of frequency v(z) approximately 0.1-100 MHz. This technique also makes only low demands on the harmonicity of the ion oscillation. It should therefore work with inexpensive, easily constructed rf traps. In our analysis, the bound ion between the trap electrodes is represented by an effective circuit resembling that of a piezoelectric quartz crystal. The feedback circuit developed, when operated below self-excitation threshold, may also make efficient electronic cooling of the ion possible, particularly in conjunction with a heterodyne feedback scheme. In the super-regenerative mode, the apparatus might function as a powerful atomic amplifier of the ion oscillation for an energy as low as a fraction of hv(z). These techniques may prove especially useful in conjunction with attempts to synthesize in an rf trap a loosely bound anti-hydrogen atom from a positron and antiproton. PMID:16593742

  10. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  11. Modeling the kinetics of UV/hydrogen peroxide oxidation of some mono-, di-, and trichlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Hugül, M; Apak, R; Demirci, S

    2000-10-01

    The decomposition of a number of chlorophenols (CPs), namely 2-CP, 2, 4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, has been studied in aqueous solution by UV-catalyzed oxidation with H(2)O(2) under UV radiation emitted by a 125-W medium pressure Hg lamp in an immersion well-type quartz photoreactor, and the organic-bound chlorine has been converted into the environmentally harmless inorganic chloride. For oxidant/CP mole ratios between 1:1 and 16:1, the reaction kinetics were modeled and the corresponding rate constants found by periodically measuring the remaining CP, hydrogen peroxide and converted chloride in solution. A theoretical model for the degradation pathway is proposed expressing the rate as a linear function of the concentrations of CP and oxidant. The rate constants for the pseudo-first order approximation of the CP degradation were compared. H(2)O(2), when combined with UV, is an effective photoactivated oxidant. The photodegradation order in terms of the initial rate of CPs destruction was: Cl(3).Ph>/=Cl(2).Ph>Cl.Ph. PMID:10946128

  12. Geometric and electronic structures of mono- and di-vacancies in phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Dong, Jinming

    2015-02-13

    The geometric structures, stabilities and diffusions of the monovacancy (MV) and divacancy (DV) in two-dimensional phosphorene, as well as their influences on their vibrational and electronic properties have been studied by first-principles calculations. Two possible MVs and 14 possible DVs have been found in phosphorene, in which the MV-(5|9) with a pair of pentagon-nonagon is the ground state of MVs, and the DV-(5|8|5) with a pentagon-octagon-pentagon structure is the most stable DV. All 14 DVs could be divided into four basic types based upon their topological structures and transform between different configurations via bond rotations. The diffusion of MV-(5|9) is found to exhibit an anisotropic character, preferring to migrate along the zigzag direction in the same half-layer. The introduction of MV and DV in phosphorene influences its vibrational properties, inducing the localized defect modes, which could be used to distinguish different vacancy structures. The MVs and DVs also have a significant influence on the electronic properties of phosphorene. It is found that the phosphorene with MV-(5|9) is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with the magnetic moment of 1.0 μB and a band gap of about 0.211 eV, while the DV induces a direct-indirect band gap transition. Our calculation results on the MV and DV in phosphorene are important for the promising application of the phosphorene in the nanoelectronics. PMID:25597897

  13. Resistivity Imaging of the Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain, Mono Basin, California Using the Audiomagnetotelluric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Ponce, D. A.; Pera McDonell, A.; Chuchel, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) models of data collected in Mono Basin, California show significant structure within the upper kilometer of the basin and image a shallow resistor that may be related to a shallow basement feature. The Mono-Inyo volcanic chain is a 25-km long, north-south trending series of domes and craters extending southward from Mono Lake and into the western part of the Long Valley Caldera. Gravity and magnetic modeling in the region, prompted by a volcano hazards study, show a basement high associated with an apparent circular magnetic anomaly. AMT data are used to further investigate this potential field anomaly and image the geoelectric structure within the volcanic rocks in Mono Basin. We collected AMT data along two profiles in Pumice Valley and along the western margin of the domes. Profile A runs approximately east-west, perpendicular to the regional geologic strike, and extends 2.5 km from the southern edge of North Coulee into the basin. Profile B is a north-south trending 6 km-long profile within the basin and was located several hundred meters away from the volcanic chain. Both profiles perpendicularly intersect the circular magnetic feature. We computed both one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) inverse models along each profile. 2D models were computed using the conjugate gradient, finite-difference method of Rodi and Mackie (2001) and a 100 ohm-m half-space, starting model. One-dimensional model sensitivity and various 2D starting models indicate a depth of investigation of about 1 km. Preliminary models show a relatively conductive (~20 ohm-m) volcanic basin fill likely associated with the Bishop Tuff, a voluminous pyroclastic flow, whose eruption resulted in formation of the Long Valley caldera 760 Ka ago. Resistivity variations within the basin fill may be related to the porosity or amount of fracturing of individual flows. A resistive (> 200 ohm-m) feature at roughly 600-800 m depth coincides with the magnetic high and relative

  14. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  15. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  16. Identification of di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP) metabolites using human liver microsomes for biomonitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manori J; Samandar, Ella; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-06-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is used in food packaging and medical devices, among other applications, and is a potential replacement for DEHP and other ortho-phthalate plasticizers. Identifying sensitive and specific biomarkers of DEHTP is necessary to assess humans' background exposure to DEHTP. Using mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of DEHTP by human liver microsomes to identify in vitro DEHTP metabolites. We unequivocally identified terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono-2-ethylhydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP), using authentic standards, and tentatively identified mono-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (MEHTP) and two other oxidative metabolites of DEHTP: mono-2-ethyloxohexyl terephthalate (MEOHTP), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) from their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. We also evaluated the formation of in vitro metabolites of DEHP. DEHTP and DEHP produced similar metabolites, but their metabolite profiles differed considerably. DEHTP metabolized to form TPA, a metabolite of several terephthalates, as the major in vitro metabolite, followed by MEHTP, MEHHTP, MEOHTP and MECPTP. MEHTP, MEHHTP, MEOHTP and MECPTP, which are specific metabolites of DEHTP, may be suitable biomarkers for assessing exposure to DEHTP. Nonetheless, data on the urinary excretion fraction and temporal stability of these metabolites, among other considerations, are needed to demonstrate their utility as exposure biomarkers. PMID:25687528

  17. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  18. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  19. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  20. Effect of Mono- and Poly-CH/P Exchange(s) on the Aromaticity of the Tropylium Ion.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ankita; Gupta, Raakhi

    2016-01-01

    In view of the fact that the phosphorus atom in its low co-ordination state (coordination numbers 1 and 2) has been termed as the carbon copy, there have been attempts to investigate, theoretically as well as experimentally, the effect of the exchange(s) of CH- moiety with phosphorus atom(s) (CH/P) on the structural and other aspects of the classical carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. Tropylium ion is a well-known non-benzenoid aromatic system and has been studied extensively for its aromatic character. We have now investigated the effect of mono- and poly-CH/P exchange(s) on the aromaticity of the tropylium ion. For this purpose, the parameters based on the geometry and magnetic properties, namely bond equalization, aromatic stabilization energies (ASE), Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values, (NICS(0), NICS(1), NICS(1)zz), proton nucleus magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) chemical shifts, magnetic susceptibility exaltation and magnetic anisotropic values of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions have been determined at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) level. Geometry optimization reveals bond length equalization. ASEs range from -46.3 kcal/mol to -6.2 kcal/mol in mono- and diphospha-analogues which are planar. However, the ions having three and four phosphorus atoms lose planarity and their ASE values approach the values typical for non-aromatic structures. Of the three NICS values, the NICS(1)zz is consistently negative showing aromatic character of all the systems studied. It is also supported by the magnetic susceptibility exaltations and magnetic anisotropic values. Furthermore, ¹H-NMR chemical shifts also fall in the aromatic region. The conclusion that mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions are aromatic in nature has been further corroborated by determining the energy gap between the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) (HOMO - LUMO gap), which falls in the

  1. Structural characterization and surface-active properties of a new glycolipid biosurfactant, mono-acylated mannosylerythritol lipid, produced from glucose by Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from glucose as the sole carbon source, P. antarctica was found to produce unknown glycolipids more hydrophilic than conventional "di-acylated MELs," which have two fatty acyl esters on the mannose moiety. Based on a detailed characterization, the most hydrophilic one was identified as 4-O-(3'-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl)-D: -erythritol namely, "mono-acylated MEL." The mono-acylated MEL reduced the surface tension of water to 33.8 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 3.6 x 10(-4) M, and its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was tentatively calculated to be 12.15. The observed CMC was 100-fold higher than that of the MELs hitherto reported. Interestingly, of the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, only P. antarctica and P. parantarctica gave the mono-acylated MEL from glucose, despite a great diversity of di-acylated MEL producers in the genus. These strains produced MELs including the mono-acylated one at a rate of 20-25%. From these results, the new MEL is likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water-type emulsifiers and washing detergents because of its higher water solubility compared to conventional MELs and will thus contribute to facilitating a broad range of applications for the environmentally advanced surfactants. PMID:17607573

  2. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  3. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:25620856

  4. Degradation of mono-fluorophenols by an acclimated activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chaojie, Zhang; Qi, Zhou; Ling, Chen; Yuan, Yuan; Hui, Yu

    2007-02-01

    Acclimated activated sludge was examined for its ability to degrade mono-fluorophenols as the sole carbon source in aerobic batch cultures. The acclimated activated sludge degraded fluorophenol efficiently. It degraded 100 mg/l 3-fluoropheno and 4-fluorophenol in 16 h with, respectively, 99.85% and 99.91% fluoride anion release and it degraded 50 mg/l 2-fluorophenol in 15 h with 99.26% fluoride anion release. The aerobic biodegradability of the mono-fluorophenols decreased in the order: 4-fluorophenol > 3-fluorophenol > 2-fluorophenol, resulting mainly from a different octanol/water partition coefficient and different steric parameter of the fluorophenols. The mechanism study revealed that the initial step in the aerobic biodegradation of mono-fluorophenols by the activated sludge was their transformation to fluorocatechol. Following transformation of the fluorophenol to fluorocatechol, ring cleavage by catechol 1, 2-dioxygenases proceeded via an ortho-cleavage pathway, then defluorination occurred. PMID:16819592

  5. FT-IR study of the proton polarizability of hydrogen bonds and of the hydrogen-bonded systems in a di-Mannich base of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Bogumil; Wojciechowski, Grzegorz; Urjasz, Hanna; Zundel, Georg

    1998-10-01

    The mono- as well as the di-Mannich bases of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol are studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in these bases the protons remain localized at the phenol O atom. This result is in contrast to those obtained earlier for more acidic biphenols in which the protons are not localized but fluctuate and the relevant hydrogen bonds show large polarizability. An intense infrared continuum in the FT-IR spectrum of the mono-protonated di-Mannich base of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol demonstrates that the intramolecular hydrogen bond in this compound shows large proton polarizability.

  6. [Immediately loaded MonoType implants in the edentulous mandible].

    PubMed

    Gfeller, F; Zitzmann, N U; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Results of immediately loaded implants are presented. 34 patients with 136 interforaminal MonoType implants (Straumann,Basel, Switzerland) were included in the study. The bar retention was manufactured fter the operation, inserted and covered with a hybrid prosthesis. 28 patients showed up for the follow-up study, the average time range was three years. Five implants were rated as failures, the cumulative six-year success rate being 94%. Interforaminal immediately loaded MonoType implants in edentulous patients showed very good results, comparable to similar studies with different systems. PMID:21560796

  7. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  8. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  9. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  10. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  11. Geophysical studies of Mono Lake, east-central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, N. D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake, California to study regional crustal structures and to aid understanding the geologic framework of Mono Lake, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Recent geophysical surveys included over 600 line-kilometers of high-resolution ship-borne magnetometer data that augmented existing airborne data, 22 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data that were collected along six traverses across Paoha Island, 56 gravity stations that were collected on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples that were collected for physical property data. Magnetic highs in the study area occur to the east and west of Mono Lake, where pre-Tertiary basement is exposed. Magnetic data indicate that Mono Lake itself is dominated by three prominent magnetic anomalies that are from west to east: a magnetic high along the northwest part of the lake associated with the moderately magnetic basalt cinder cone at Black Point, a magnetic high associated with the young volcanic centers at Paoha and Negit Islands, and a broad magnetic high along the eastern margin of the lake probably associated with moderately magnetic granitic basement rocks at depth. Because volcanic rocks exposed at the surface of Paoha and Negit Islands are only weakly magnetic, magnetic data suggest that more mafic volcanic rocks probably occur at depth and are the source of the anomaly. The linear and steep magnetic gradient across the eastern part of the lake may reflect a fault. A fault may also be imaged in the northeastern part of the lake, where a possible laterally offset magnetic anomaly may be present. Within Mono Lake, gravity station control is poor because land-based gravity stations are limited to Paoha and Negit Islands. The gravity low in the basin reflects a moderately deep sedimentary basin filled with low density lacustrine and volcanic deposits. Isostatic gravity data indicate the central

  12. Stability and Analgesic Efficacy of Di-acetyl Morphine (Diamorphine) Compared with Morphine in Implanted Intrathecal Pumps In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jon H; Palfrey, Stephen M; Rayen, Arasu; Southall, Jane L; Labib, Maurad H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate di-acetyl morphine as an alternative opioid analgesic for use in implanted intrathecal drug delivery systems because of its greater solubility through evaluation of its stability in vivo and analgesic efficacy in the period between pump refills. Contents of intrathecal drug delivery system reservoirs (SynchroMed, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) that had been filled with di-acetyl morphine dissolved in saline (21), bupivacaine (9), or in both bupivacaine and clonidine (19) were sampled in vivo between 1 and 125 days after refill. The samples were assayed for di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Prospective daily numerical pain scores between pump refills, using 11-point Likert scales, on 24 patients with implanted SynchroMed pumps (12 delivering di-acetyl morphine in saline, 12 were delivering morphine in saline) were collected. Results showed that di-acetyl morphine immediately started to decay to mono-acetyl morphine in implanted Synchromed pumps with half-life of 50 days. Mono-acetyl morphine decayed to morphine with a maxima estimated at 125 days. There was no clinically significant change in average weekly pain scores for up to ten weeks in either group (range, 2.5 to 2.8 for diamorphine and 2.7 to 3.1 for morphine) (2-way repeated ANOVA, F(9,220) = 0.98, n.s.). We conclude that di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products, 6 mono-acetyl morphine and morphine, provide similar analgesia to morphine alone when administered by intrathecal pump for a period of at least ten weeks and may be a useful alternative when a more soluble agent is favored. PMID:22151270

  13. Quaternary Eruptions of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M. I.; Pouget, S.; Mangan, M.; Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive products of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain include the tephra and associated volcanic rocks of Black Point, islands of Mono Lake, Mono Craters, Inyo Craters, late eruptions of Mammoth Mountain and Red Cones. Most of the eruptions were explosive, and generated numerous pyroclastic flows, surges and falls as well as the prominent domes and lava flows that now cover vents. The eruptions range in age from several hundred years to at least 60,000 yr BP. The Mono-Inyo tephras are dispersed throughout the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, providing key time-stratigraphic marker layers. Recent work has not only resulted in high-precision radiometric dating of many of the tephras, but also detailed geochemical data that for the first time provides fingerprinting sufficiently precise to discriminate among the tephras. Lithostratigraphy of many of the layers is herein described for the first time, based on careful sampling and description in the field, and laboratory grain size, grain shape and componentry analyses of the late Pleistocene tephras of the Wilson Creek Formation. Most of the Wilson Creek volcanic layers are fall deposits accumulated within paleolake Russell, which were generated by eruptions of variable intensity and influenced by paleowinds of different orientation. Prevailing winds were generally to the North and East, but often the Pleistocene layers less than 25 ka were dispersed to the West. Many of the fall layers show evidence of wave reworking, generally near the top, although in some cases it is pervasive. Only near the vent do some layers of apparent debris flow origin occur. Maximum pumice sizes range up to nearly 3 cm, and lithics range up to 1 cm in the rhyolitic fall beds, while thicknesses range up to c. 30 cm. These data are consistent with relatively low volume, subplinian style eruptive behavior for most of the life of the Mono-Inyo Craters.

  14. Design and syntheses of mono and multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates for targeted liposomal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Adela; Cvitaš, Jelena Trmčić; Frkanec, Leo; Vugrek, Oliver; Frkanec, Ruža

    2016-09-10

    Multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates may be of interest for glycosylation of liposomes and targeted drug delivery because the mannose specifically binds to C-type lectin receptors on the particular cells. In this paper syntheses of two types of novel O-mannosides are presented. Conjugates 1 and 2 with a COOH- and NH2-functionalized spacer and the connection to a lysine and FmocNH-PEG-COOH, are described. The coupling reactions of prepared intermediates 6 and 4 with a PEGylated-DSPE or palmitic acid, respectively, are presented. Compounds 5, mono-, 8, di- and 12, tetravalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates, were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were incorporated into liposomes and liposomal preparations featuring exposed mannose units were characterized. Carbohydrate liposomal quartz crystal microbalance based assay has been established for studying carbohydrate-lectin binding. It was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated mannosyl-lipoconjugates were effectively recognized by Con A and have great potential to be used for targeted liposomal drug delivery systems. PMID:27363934

  15. The effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Keqiang; Yuan, Haitao; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Guangyan; Xie, Jingli; Fu, Songpo; Guo, Kun; Ye, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is considered to be a reproductive toxicant. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of MEHP on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells and explore potential mechanism. Granulosa cells were treated with MEHP (0, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/l). Inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis rate were observed in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups. CASPASE3 activity and BAX expression were significantly raised in all MEHP-treated groups; BCL2 expression was elevated in 25 μmol/l group, while inhibited in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups; BAX/BCL2 ratio was increased in a typical dose-effect relationship. In conclusion, this study showed that MEHP exposure induced cell viability decrease and apoptosis, associated with increase of CASPASE3 activity and BAX/BCL2 ratio. Moreover, CASPASE3 activity showed a reversed dose-dependent effect in MEHP-treated groups, indicating there might exist other CASPASE-independent pathway involved in MEHP-induced apoptosis. PMID:25681707

  16. Sponge Phases and Nanoparticle Dispersions in Aqueous Mixtures of Mono- and Diglycerides.

    PubMed

    Valldeperas, Maria; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Ram-On, Maor; Kesselman, Ellina; Danino, Dganit; Nylander, Tommy; Barauskas, Justas

    2016-08-30

    The lipid liquid crystalline sponge phase (L3) has the advantages that it is a nanoscopically bicontinuous bilayer network able to accommodate large amounts of water and it is easy to manipulate due to its fluidity. This paper reports on the detailed characterization of L3 phases with water channels large enough to encapsulate bioactive macromolecules such as proteins. The aqueous phase behavior of a novel lipid mixture system, consisting of diglycerol monooleate (DGMO), and a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides (Capmul GMO-50) was studied. In addition, sponge-like nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by Polysorbate 80 (P80) were prepared based on the DGMO/GMO-50 system, and their structure was correlated with the phase behavior of the corresponding bulk system. These NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to determine their size, shape, and inner structure as a function of the DGMO/GMO-50 ratio. In addition, the effect of P80 as stabilizer was investigated. We found that the NPs have aqueous pores with diameters up to 13 nm, similar to the ones in the bulk phase. PMID:27482838

  17. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate targets glycogen debranching enzyme and affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kuramori, Chikanori; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Watanabe, Keiko; Nishi, Takeyuki; Hishiki, Takako; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Kabe, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Hajime; Kataoka, Kohsuke; Suematsu, Makoto; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    Phthalate esters are commonly used plasticizers; however, some are suspected to cause reproductive toxicity. Administration of high doses of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induces germ cell death in male rodents. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), a hydrolyzed metabolite of DEHP, appears to be responsible for this testicular toxicity; however, the underlying mechanism of this chemical's action remains unknown. Here, using a one-step affinity purification procedure, we identified glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) as a phthalate-binding protein. GDE has oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase and amylo-1,6-glucosidase activities, which are responsible for the complete degradation of glycogen to glucose. Our findings demonstrate that MEHP inhibits the activity of oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase, but not of amylo-1,6-glucosidase. Among various phthalate esters tested, MEHP specifically binds to and inhibits GDE. We also show that DEHP administration affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis. Thus, inhibition of GDE by MEHP may play a role in germ cell apoptosis in the testis. PMID:19240039

  18. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts neurulation and modifies the embryonic redox environment and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Sartor, Maureen A; Harris, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Mono-2-ethylhexl phthalate (MEHP) is the primary metabolite of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous contaminant in plastics. This study sought to determine how structural defects caused by MEHP in mouse whole embryo culture were related to temporal and spatial patterns of redox state and gene expression. MEHP reduced morphology scores along with increased incidence of neural tube defects. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) concentrations fluctuated spatially and temporally in embryo (EMB) and visceral yolk sac (VYS) across the 24h culture. Redox potentials (Eh) for GSSG/GSH were increased by MEHP in EMB (12h) but not in VYS. CySS/CyS Eh in EMB and VYS were significantly increased at 3h and 24h, respectively. Gene expression at 6h showed that MEHP induced selective alterations in EMB and VYS for oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism pathways. Overall, MEHP affects neurulation, alters Eh, and spatially alters the expression of metabolic genes in the early organogenesis-stage mouse conceptus. PMID:27167697

  19. The endocrine disruptor mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes adipocyte differentiation and induces obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chanjuan; Cheng, Xuejia; Xia, Hongfei; Ma, Xu

    2012-12-01

    The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental 'window' contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate], a metabolite of the widespread plasticizer DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate], has been found in exposed organisms and identified as a selective PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) modulator. However, implication of MEHP on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we show the dose-dependent effects of MEHP on adipocyte differentiation and GPDH (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity in the murine 3T3-L1 cell model. MEHP induced the expression of PPARγ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. Moreover, MEHP perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to a low dose of MEHP significantly increased b.w. (body weight) and fat pad weight in male offspring at PND (postnatal day) 60. In addition, serum cholesterol, TAG (triacylglycerol) and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to MEHP may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. PMID:22953781

  20. Inhibition of human platelet phospholipase A/sub 2/ by mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Labow, R.S.; Meek, E.; Adams, G.A.; Rock, G.

    1988-06-01

    There is evidence that the carcinogenic and teratogenic effects attributed to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are due to its major metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP). MEHP is also formed ex vivo by a plasma enzyme in blood products stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DEHP plastic containers. People who receive large amounts of blood products, such as hemophiliacs or patients undergoing hemodialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass, or massive transfusion, are exposed to significant levels of plasticizer. In this study, the platelet was used to show that MEHP inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), one of the enzymes important in the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. PLA/sub 2/ was measured by the liberation of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid from 1-stearoyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine. MEHP inhibits PLA/sub 2/ activity noncompetitively in intact human platelets and lysates with a K/sub i/ of 3.7 x 10/sup -4/ M. DEHP does not inhibit PLA/sub 2/ in whole platelets. Inhibition of PLA/sub 2/ by MEHP occurs at only three times the circulating level of MEHP measured in neonates undergoing exchange transfusion and 20-fold the levels experienced by patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, infants and adult patients with multisystem failure who accumulate MEHP in their blood may be at risk for decreased platelet function.

  1. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to...

  2. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  3. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  4. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides... groups of glycerin has been esterified by diacetyl tartaric acid and by fatty acids. The ingredient...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. The Magma Transport System of the Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Putirka, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Mono Craters are a series of 28 volcanic domes, coulees, and craters, just 16 km north of Long Valley. The magmatic products of the Mono Craters include mostly small magmatic bodies, sills, and dikes set in a transtensional tectonic setting. New high-density sampling of the domes reveals a wider range of magma compositions than heretofore recognized, and thus reveals what is likely a more complex magmatic system, involving a greater number of batches of magma and a more complex magma storage/delivery system. Here, we present a model for the magma plumbing system based on space-composition patterns and preliminary estimates of crystallization temperatures and pressures based on olivine-, feldspar- and clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria. Whole rock analyses show three compositionally distinct batches of magma within the Mono Craters proper: a felsic (73-78.4% SiO2), intermediate (64.4-68% SiO2) and mafic (52.7-61% SiO2) group. The Mono Lake Islands (Paoha and Negit) fall into the intermediate group, but contain distinctly lower TiO2 and Fe2O3 at a given SiO2 compared to all other Mono Craters; on this basis, we surmise that the Paoha and Negit eruptions represent a distinct episode of magmatism that is not directly related to the magmatic activity that created the Mono Craters proper. The discontinuous nature of the three groups indicates that magma mixing, while evident to some degree within and between certain domes, did not encompass the entire range of compositions at any given time. The three groups, however, do form a rough linear trend, and some subsets of domes have compositions that fall on distinctly linear (if still discontinuous) trends that cannot be reproduced by fractional crystallization, but rather are indicative of magma mixing. Our high-density sampling also reveals interesting geographical patterns: for example, felsic magmas erupt throughout the entire Mono Craters chain, erupting at a wide range of temperatures, ranging from 650-995°C, but

  9. Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma is a non-profit institute dedicated to astrophysical research. It was founded in the early nineteenth century, and moved to its present residence, the ancient Villa Mellini, not far from St Peter's Cathedral, in 1935....

  10. Unusual 2:3:2 complex of DABCO mono-betaine with HCl and H 2O studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Perdoch, W.; Szafran, M.

    2009-12-01

    DABCO mono-betaine (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) forms a complex with HCl and water in the ratio 2:3:2. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1¯. Two non-equivalent molecules of protonated DABCO mono-betaines form a homoconjugated cation through the short and asymmetric O·H·O hydrogen bond of 2.470(3) Å. Two chloride anions are involved in the N-H···Cl hydrogen bonds of 3.049(2) and 3.023(3) Å. The third chloride anion is solvated by the water molecules. The molecules of bis(1,4-diazoniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) trihydrochloride dihydrate are linked into comb-like chains by the hydrogen bond formed between water molecules of the neighboring complexes; the O(W)-H···O(W) distance is 2.920(5) Å. FTIR spectrum shows several broad bands attributed to the νO-H, νN-H and νO·H·O vibrations. The structure of three bis(1,4-diazoniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) hydrochlorides are optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory and a theoretical IR spectrum is calculated. The values of p Ka of DABCO, DABCO mono- and di-betaines are determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  11. Mono- and tetra-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines containing morpholinyl moieties: Synthesis, antifungal photodynamic activities, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Lan, Wen-Liang; Hou, Lu; Guo, Jun; Wan, Dong-Hua; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-05-23

    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) mono-substituted and tetra-substituted with morpholinyl moieties and their quaternized derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal photodynamic activities toward Candida albicans. The α-substituted, quaternized, and mono-substituted ZnPcs are found to have higher antifungal photoactivity than β-substituted, neutral, and tetra-substituted counterparts. The cationic α-mono-substituted ZnPc (6a) exhibits the highest photocytotoxicity. Moreover, it is more potent than axially di-substituted analogue. The different photocytotoxicities of these compounds have also been rationalized by investigating their spectroscopic and photochemical properties, aggregation trend, partition coefficients, and cellular uptake. The IC90 value of 6a against C. albicans cells is as low as 3.3 μM with a light dose of 27 J cm(-2), meaning that 6a is a promising candidate as the antifungal photosensitizer for future investigations. PMID:27046231

  12. Permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byon, C.; Kim, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media is considered. The effects of the particle size distribution and the packing structure of particles on the permeability are investigated experimentally and analytically. Both experimental and analytic results suggest that the particlesize distribution is close to the log-normal distribution, and the permeability of the mono-dispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of the particle size distribution increases. On the other hand, the effect of packing structure of particles on the permeability is shown to be negligible.The permeability of the bidispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of cluster size increases, and nearly independent of the particle size distribution. The present model is valid over the range of parameters typically found in heat transfer applications.

  13. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  14. Volcanic Geology of Negit Island, Mono Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M.; Kobs, S.; Jayko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Negit Island, located in Mono Lake, eastern California, is a dacitic cumulodome with seven distinct lava flows emanating from at least four separate vent areas. Vent areas are dominated by en echelon northeast-trending fissures, indicating strong tectonic control. Neptunian(?) pyroclastic deposits on the north end of the island indicate an explosive subaqueous eruption early in island history. Northwestern shorelands, as well as a former landbridge to the island, retain a localized cap of rotated Pleistocene lake bottom sediment blocks, suggesting that proto-Negit was similar to modern Paoha Island, a nearby young structural dome draped with rotated lake bed blocks and explosive ejecta. In analogy with Paoha, the pyroclastic ejecta and blocks may thus indicate sublacustrine block landsliding with attendant eruption as an initial magmatic-structural dome grew, on which later lava domes and flows were superposed. What may be the oldest lava flow, in the center-west, is overlain by a deep orange-red soil, and three Mono Craters tephras. The well-developed soil indicates an extended period of chemical weathering before overlying tephra deposition. The southwestern end of the island is dominated by young lava flows and a prominent dome, which are not overlain by the most recent North Mono Craters tephra of 1350 A.D., consistent with earlier work indicating that parts of the island are younger than any eruption of the Mono Craters. The history of early structural doming with little or minimal eruptive activity at both Negit and Paoha Islands may have important implications for the current episode of noneruptive unrest and doming at nearby Long Valley caldera.

  15. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  16. Bartonella henselae inhibits apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Volkhard A J; Schairer, Annette; Neumann, Diana; Grassl, Guntram A; Lauber, Kirsten; Lebiedziejewski, Maria; Schaller, Martin; Kyme, Pierre; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis probably resulting from the release of vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) from infected epithelial or monocytic host cells. Here we demonstrate that B. henselae in addition to VEGF induction was also capable of inhibiting the endogenous sucide programme of monocytic host cells. Our results show that B. henselae inhibits pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-induced apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells. B. henselae was observed to be present in a vacuolic compartment of Mono Mac 6 cells. Direct contact of B. henselae with Mono Mac 6 cells was crucial for inhibition of apoptosis as shown by the use of a two-chamber model. Inhibition of apoptosis was paralleled by diminished caspase-3 activity which was significantly reduced in PDTC-stimulated and B. henselae-infected cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of B. henselae was accompanied by (i) the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and (ii) the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP-1, -2). Our results suggest a new synergistic mechanism in B. henselae pathogenicity by (i) inhibition of host cell apoptosis via activation of NF-kappaB and (ii) induction of host cell VEGF secretion. PMID:15617526

  17. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry; Liddicoat, Joseph; Smoot, Joseph; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei; Negrini, Robert; Lund, Steve

    2003-02-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash ♯15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620±300 14C yr BP (˜32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash ♯15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  18. Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2014-04-01

    A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.

  19. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  20. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, T.L.; Joye, S.B.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the water column of Mono Lake, CA, was studied by measuring the formation of H14CO3 from [14C]MeBr. Potential oxidation was detected throughout the water column, with highest rates occurring in the epilimnion (5-12 m depth). The oxidation of MeBr was eliminated by filter-sterilization, thereby demonstrating the involvement of bacteria. Vertical profiles of MeBr activity differed from those obtained for nitrification and methane oxidation, indicating that MeBr oxidation is not simply a co-oxidation process by either nitrifiers or methanotrophs. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of methane oxidation and/or nitrification (e.g., methyl fluoride, acetylene, allyl sulfide) had no effect upon the rate of MeBr oxidation in live samples. Of a variety of potential electron donors added to Mono Lake water, only trimethylamine resulted in the stimulation of MeBr oxidation. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the oxidation of MeBr in Mono Lake waters is attributable to trimethylamine-degrading methylotrophs. Neither methyl chloride nor methanol inhibited the oxidation of [14C]MeBr in live samples, indicating that these bacteria directly oxidized MeBr rather than the products of MeBr nucleophilic substitution reactions.

  1. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-01-01

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category-other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse. PMID:17996066

  2. Synthesis, spectral and magnetic studies of mono- and bi-nuclear metal complexes of a new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and ethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy

    2009-07-01

    A new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand, H4L, was prepared by the reaction of the bifunctional carbonyl compound; 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) with ethanolamine. The ligand reacted with iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), cerium(III) and uranyl(VI) ions, in absence and in presence of LiOH, to yield mono- and bi-nuclear complexes with different coordinating sites. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. In absence of LiOH, mononuclear complexes (2, 3 and 5-9) as well as binuclear complexes (1 and 4) were obtained. In mononuclear complexes, the ligand acted as a neutral, mono- and di-basic/bi- and tetra-dentate ligand while in binuclear complexes (1 and 4), the ligand acted as a bis(mono- or di-basic/tridentate) ligand. On the other hand, in presence of LiOH, only binuclear complexes (10-15) were obtained in which the ligand acted as a bis(dibasic tridentate) ligand. The metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral, tetrahedral, square planar, square pyramidal and pentagonal bipyramidal arrangements.

  3. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  4. Mono- and bis-thiazolium salts have potent antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Hamzé, Abdallah; Rubi, Eric; Arnal, Pascal; Boisbrun, Michel; Carcel, Carole; Salom-Roig, Xavier; Maynadier, Marjorie; Wein, Sharon; Vial, Henri; Calas, Michèle

    2005-05-19

    Three new series comprising 24 novel cationic choline analogues and consisting of mono- or bis (N or C-5-duplicated) thiazolium salts have been synthesized. Bis-thiazolium salts showed potent antimalarial activity (much superior to monothiazoliums). Among them, bis-thiazolium salts 12 and 13 exhibited IC(50) values of 2.25 nM and 0.65 nM, respectively, against P. falciparum in vitro. These compounds also demonstrated good in vivo activity (ED(50)

  5. New mono- and diethynylsiloxysilsesquioxanes--efficient procedures for their synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dudziec, Beata; Rzonsowska, Monika; Marciniec, Bogdan; Brząkalski, Dariusz; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2014-09-21

    Ethynyl-substituted siloxysilsesquioxanes are promising building blocks for a wide range of substances based on a POSS/DDSQ core, especially for (oligo-)polymer syntheses and modifications (the formation of hybrid materials with interesting photophysical and mechanical properties). In this study, we report on a series of new mono- and diethynylsiloxysilsesquioxanes formed via an efficient and highly selective one-pot process from silsesquioxanes with reactive Si-OH groups based on sequential condensation, hydrolysis, chlorination and substitution reactions. All newly synthesized compounds were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. PMID:25047114

  6. The metal centres of particulate methane mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-12-01

    pMMO (particulate methane mono-oxygenase) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol. The pMMO metal active site has not been identified, precluding detailed investigation of the reaction mechanism. Models for the metal centres proposed by various research groups have evolved as crystallographic and spectroscopic data have become available. The present review traces the evolution of these active-site models before and after the 2005 Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) pMMO crystal structure determination. PMID:19021511

  7. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsberg, Jochen Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-08-15

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

  8. Re-characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate hydrolase belonging to the serine hydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Makoto; Imaoka, Takuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao

    2016-08-01

    A novel bacterium assimilating di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate as a sole carbon source was isolated, and identified as a Rhodococcus species and the strain was named EG-5. The strain has a mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase (EG-5 MehpH), which exhibits some different enzymatic features when compared with the previously reported MEHP hydrolase (P8219 MehpH) from Gordonia sp. These differences include different pH optimum activity, maximal reaction temperature and heat stability. The Km and Vmax values of EG-5 MehpH were significantly higher than those of P8219 MehpH. The primary structure of EG-5 MehpH showed the highest sequence identity to that of P8219 MehpH (39%) among hydrolases. The phylogenetic tree suggested that EG-5 MehpH and P8219 MehpH were categorized in different groups of the novel MEHP hydrolase family. Mutation of a conserved R(109) residue of EG-5 MehpH to a hydrophobic residue resulted in a dramatic reduction in the Vmax value towards MEHP without affecting the Km value. These results indicate that this residue may neutralize the negative charge of a carboxylate anion of MEHP, and thus inhibit the catalytic nucleophile from attacking the ester bond. In other words, the R residue blocks inhibition from the carboxylate anion of MEHP. Recently, registered hypothetical proteins exhibiting 98% or 99% identities for EG-5 MehpH or for P8219 MehpH were found from some pathogens belonging to Actinomycetes. The protein may have other activities besides MEHP hydrolysis and function in other physiological reactions in some Actinomycetes. PMID:26868518

  9. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wenhui; Huang, Zhigang; Chen, Li; Feng, Cong; Li, Bei; Li, Tanshi

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L) from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab) might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8) and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG). However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR) was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity. PMID:24658602

  10. Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Induces Oxidative Stress Responses in Human Placental Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Lauren M; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23360888

  11. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Tetz, Lauren M.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  12. Digital Map of Tephra Deposits of the Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogova, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Sieh, K. E.; Meltzner, A. J.; Dennen, R. L.; Collins, R.; Dahn, N.; Lagamba, M.; Shufelt, C.; Weinerth, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Mono-Inyo Craters have erupted numerous times in the Holocene. Radiocarbon dating suggests eruption sequences < 1302-1356 calBP (2 sigma; Southern Mono Craters), < 1520-1628 calBP (Northern Mono Craters), > 1405-1528 calBP (Northwest Negit Island), < 1611-1710 calBP (Wilson's Butte), < 1987-2212 calBP (Central(?) Mono Craters), < 3395-3632 calBP (Southern Mono Craters), < 5039-5297 calBP (Southern Mono -- Inyo Craters) and < 9282-9635 calBP (Mono Craters). These eruptions are in addition to those already known and previously dated from the North Mono area, Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain Craters, and the islands of Mono Lake. Data on spatial position, age, thickness, grain size, componentry, geochemistry, etc., have been entered into a spatially enabled, PostgreSQL relational database. These data are searchable, and retrievable through-the-web as either spreadsheets or shapefiles. Algorithms for layer matching by geochemistry or lithology, isopaching and grain-size isoplething allow the downloaded data to be investigated for possible correlation, volume calculation and other analysis. Use of the digital database and associated tools has already allowed us to determine provenance of certain tephra layers, cluster tephra sources by geochemistry, correlate previously uncategorized tephra occurrences to known layers and automatically estimate tephra volume.

  13. Selective Mono-reduction of Pyrrole-2,5 and 2,4-Dicarboxylates.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Eiko; Tsuda, Jyunpei; Ohnuki, Satoshi; Nagumo, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxylates were rapidly and selectively reduced to the corresponding mono-alcohol using 3 eq of diisobutylaluminum hydride at 0°C. Pyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate showed the same reactivity; however, the selectivity decreased with pyrrole-3,4-dicarboxylate. When the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxylate is protected with a benzyl group, selective mono-reduction does not occur. Considering that furan-2,5-dicarboxylates did not give the corresponding mono-alcohol under the same conditions, the unprotected nitrogen atom of pyrrole apparently plays an important role in this selective mono-reduction. PMID:27581630

  14. Crustal structure between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lane R.

    1964-01-01

    Interpretation of a reversed seismic-refraction profile between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California, indicates velocities of 6.15 km/sec for the upper layer of the crust, 7.10 km/sec for an intermediate layer, and 7.80 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Phases interpreted to be reflections from the top of the intermediate layer and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were used with the refraction data to calculate depths. The depth to the Moho increases from about 30 km near Lake Mead to about 40 km near Mono Lake. Variations in arrival times provide evidence for fairly sharp flexures in the Moho. Offsets in the Moho of 4 km at one point and 2 1/2 km at another correspond to large faults at the surface, and it is suggested that fracture zones in the upper crust may displace the Moho and extend into the upper mantle. The phase P appears to be an extension of the reflection from the top of the intermediate layer beyond the critical angle. Bouguer gravity, computed for the seismic model of the crust, is in good agreement with the measured Bouguer gravity. Thus a model of the crustal structure is presented which is consistent with three semi-independent sources of geophysical data: seismic-refraction, seismic-reflection, and gravity.

  15. Characterization of Mono- and Mixed-Culture Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ica, Tuba; Caner, Vildan; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Ahmed, Bulbul; Call, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis, is a thermophilic and microaerophilic bacterium. These characteristics make it a fastidious organism, which limits its ability to survive outside animal hosts. Nevertheless, C. jejuni can be transmitted to both humans and animals via environmental pathways, especially through contaminated water. Biofilms may play a crucial role in the survival of the bacterium under unfavorable environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to investigate survival strategies of C. jejuni in mono- and mixed-culture biofilms. We grew monoculture biofilms of C. jejuni and mixed-culture biofilms of C. jejuni with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that mono- and mixed-culture biofilms had significantly different structures and activities. Monoculture C. jejuni biofilms did not consume a measurable quantity of oxygen. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), we found that cells from monoculture biofilms were alive according to live/dead staining but that these cells were not culturable. In contrast, in mixed-culture biofilms, C. jejuni remained in a culturable physiological state. Monoculture C. jejuni biofilms could persist under lower flow rates (0.75 ml/min) but were unable to persist at higher flow rates (1 to 2.5 ml/min). In sharp contrast, mixed-culture biofilms were more robust and were unaffected by higher flow rates (2.5 ml/min). Our results indicate that biofilms provide an environmental refuge that is conducive to the survival of C. jejuni. PMID:22179238

  16. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera. PMID:17431302

  17. Three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin (California): finite element analysis of the interaction between the Hartley Spring Fault and the Mono Dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; McDonnell, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward-trending structural depression lying immediately east of the central Sierra Nevada (California) that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the center of Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a prominent 17-km-long arcuate ridge within the Mono Basin. Recent studies have proposed that the volcanism and tectonism in this area is likely interrelated. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of 1350 A.D. Geological data are consistent with rupture of the Hartley Springs fault during the eruption sequence. The temporal proximity of these events suggests the possibility of a causal relationship. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to generate a three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. First we combine the potential of the FEM with the Okada (1992) analytical solution for a homogeneous elastic flat half-space to validate our model. Then, to better simulate a geodynamic model of the Mono Basin, we implement more realistic dynamics that include gravity forces, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, and topography. We evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo dike intrusion on the Hartley Springs fault and how slip along the fault may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. We employ the Coulomb stress change as a failure criterion on the Hartley Springs fault. Preliminary results indicate that slip along the Hartley Springs fault may have encouraged the intrusion of the Mono Dike.

  18. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  19. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  20. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  1. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  4. Synthesis and physical properties of mono-estolides with varying chain lengths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated mono-estolide methyl esters and enriched saturated mono-estolide 2-EH esters were synthesized from oleic and different saturated fatty acids under three different synthetic routes. Estolide numbers (EN), the average number of fatty acid units added to a base fatty acid, varied with synthe...

  5. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  6. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  7. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  8. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  9. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  10. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  11. Synthesis, purification, and time-dependent disposition studies of 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid and 9- and 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the potential use of radiolabeled 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine as a perfusion and metabolic imaging agent for the heart. Radiochemical purity was achieved and determined by the use of silica gel and/or anion exchange resin chromatography. Radiochemical yields of 45-63 and 4% were obtained for the fatty acid and carnitine ester, respectively. Male albino mice were sacrificed at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 minutes post-injection with either /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid or 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl (-) carnitine. The lungs, liver heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, stomach, thyroid, blood, fat, and skeletal muscle tissue were excised and assayed for levels of radioactivity in a NaI crystal well counter. The very low target-to-nontarget ratios obtained with /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine in mice strongly suggest that radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine is not suitable for use as a myocardial imaging agent. However, radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid showed promise as a myocardial imaging agent and may warrant further investigation.

  12. The radiocarbon budget for Mono Lake: an unsolved mystery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broecker, W.S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Mathieu, G.; Peng, T.-H.; Stine, S.; Robinson, S.; Herczeg, A.; Stuiver, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1957 the 14C C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon in Mono Lake has risen by about 60???. The magnitude of this increase is about four times larger than that expected from the invasion of bomb-produced 14C from the atmosphere. We have eliminated the following explanations: (1) measurement error, (2) an unusually high physical exchange rate for non-reactive gases, (3) inorganic enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate, and (4) biological enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate. Clandestine disposal of waste radiocarbon remains a dark-horse explanation. In the course of our investigations we have uncovered evidence for at least one episodic input of radiocarbon-free carbon to the lake over the last 1000 years. We speculate that this injection was related to a hydrothermal event resulting from sublacustrine volcanic activity. ?? 1988.

  13. Mono-Higgs detection of dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the Higgs boson, we investigate the possibility that a missing energy plus Higgs final state is the dominant signal channel for dark matter at the LHC. We consider examples of higher-dimension operators where a Higgs and dark matter pair are produced through an off-shell Z or γ, finding potential sensitivity at the LHC to cutoff scales of around a few hundred GeV. We generalize this production mechanism to a simplified model by introducing a Z' as well as a second Higgs doublet, where the pseudoscalar couples to dark matter. Resonant production of the Z' which decays to a Higgs plus invisible particles gives rise to a potential mono-Higgs signal. This may be observable at the 14 TeV LHC at low tan β and when the Z' mass is roughly in the range 600 GeV to 1.3 TeV.

  14. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  15. Synthesis of mono- and dideoxygenated α,α-trehalose analogs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fiona L.; van Halbeek, Herman; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we describe the synthesis and NMR characterization of four mono- and four dideoxygenated analogs of α,α-d-trehalose. The symmetrical (2,2′-, 3,3′-, 4,4′- and 6,6′-) dideoxy analogs were obtained via selective protection and subsequent radical deoxygenation of the desired hydroxyl group set. The unsymmetrical (2′-, 3′-, 4′- and 6′-) monodeoxy analogs were synthesized by desymmetrization of α,α-trehalose and subsequent deoxygenation under radical conditions. Complete assignment of all 1H and 13C resonances in the spectra of these deoxytrehaloses was achieved through the extensive use of 2D {1H,1H} and {1H,13C} correlation NMR experiments. The synthesis of these trehalose analogs sets the stage for future biochemical and NMR-based studies to probe the substrate interactions of trehalose with the recently identified mycobacterial sulfotransferase Stf0. PMID:17559818

  16. Tetrabenzoporphyrin and -mono-, -cis-di- and Tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin Derivatives: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Implications of meso CH Group Replacement with Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    van As, Adele; Joubert, Chris C; Buitendach, Blenerhassitt E; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Conradie, Jeanet; Cammidge, Andrew N; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J; Swarts, Jannie C

    2015-06-01

    Nonperipherally hexyl-substituted metal-free tetrabenzoporphyrin (2H-TBP, 1a) tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin (2H-TBMAP, 2a), tetrabenzo-cis-diazaporphyrin (2H-TBDAP, 3a), tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (2H-TBTAP, 4a), and phthalocyanine (2H-Pc, 5a), as well as their copper complexes (1b-5b), were synthesized. As the number of meso nitrogen atoms increases from zero to four, λmax of the Q-band absorption peak becomes red-shifted by almost 100 nm, and extinction coefficients increased at least threefold. Simultaneously the blue-shifted Soret (UV) band substantially decreased in intensity. These changes were related to the relative electron-density of each macrocycle expressed as the group electronegativity sum of all meso N and CH atom groups, ∑χR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy differentiated between the three different types of macrocyclic nitrogen atoms (the Ninner, (NH)inner, and Nmeso) in the metal-free complexes. Binding energies of the Nmeso and Ninner,Cu atoms in copper chelates could not be resolved. Copper insertion lowered especially the cathodic redox potentials, while all four observed redox processes occurred at larger potentials as the number of meso nitrogens increased. Computational chemical methods using density functional theory confirmed 1b to exhibit a Cu(II) reduction prior to ring-based reductions, while for 2b, Cu(II) reduction is the first reductive step only if the nonperipheral substituents are hydrogen. When they are methyl groups, it is the second reduction process; when they are ethyl, propyl, or hexyl, it becomes the third reductive process. Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed redox processes were associated with a substantial change in intensity of at least two main absorbances (the Q and Soret bands) in the UV spectra of these compounds. PMID:25970004

  17. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has shown that bromine incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...

  18. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (in general) appear to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the chlorinated species, and some of the dihalogenated species are more toxic than the trihalogenated analogues; however, many of the more toxic species are not routinely measur...

  19. The identification of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetragalactosyl-diacylglycerols and their natural estolides in oat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat kernels were extracted with methanol, and glycolipid-enriched fractions were prepared using silica solid phase extraction. Using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), HPLC-ESI-MS, and HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, we confirmed pr...

  20. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are used as wetting agents in shampoos, lotions, creams, and other cosmetics. DEA is widely used to provide lather in shampoos and maintain a favorable consistency in lotions and creams. Although DEA is not harmful, it may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula after extended storage periods to form an extremely potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA), which is readily absorbed through the skin and has been linked to the development of stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous quantification method for measurement of MEA, DEA, and TEA in cosmetic products. Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column with isocratic elution containing acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate in water (88:12, v/v). Identification and quantification of alkanolamines were performed using MS/MS monitoring to assess the transition from precursor to product ion of MEA (m/z, 61.1 → 44.0), DEA (m/z, 106.1 → 88.0), TEA (m/z, 150.1 → 130.0), and the internal standard triethylamine (m/z, 102.2 → 58.0). Alkanolamines extractions were simplified using a single extraction with acetonitrile in the cosmetic matrix. Performance of the method was evaluated with quality parameters such as specificity, carry-over, linearity and calibration, correlation of determination (R(2)), detection limit, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Calibration curves of MEA (2.9-1000 ppb), DEA (1-1000 ppb), and TEA (1-1000 ppb) were constructed by plotting concentration versus peak-area ratio (analyte/internal standard with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay accuracy ranged from 92.92 to 101.15 % for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay precision for MEA, DEA, and TEA showed all coefficients of variance were less than 9.38 % for QC samples. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 2.00 and 15.63 ppb for MEA, 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for DEA, and 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for TEA, respectively. This novel quantification method simplified sample preparation and allowed accurate and reproducible quantification of alkanolamines in the ng/g cosmetic weight (ppb) range for several cosmetic products. PMID:26578210

  1. Collide and conquer: constraints on simplified dark matter models using mono- X collider searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, A. J.; McDonald, M. F.; Gramling, J.; Jacques, T. D.

    2016-05-01

    The use of simplified models as a tool for interpreting dark matter collider searches has become increasingly prevalent, and while early Run II results are beginning to appear, we look to see what further information can be extracted from the Run I dataset. We consider three `standard' simplified models that couple quarks to fermionic singlet dark matter: an s-channel vector mediator with vector or axial-vector couplings, and a t-channel scalar mediator. Upper limits on the couplings are calculated and compared across three alternate channels, namely mono-jet, mono- Z (leptonic) and mono- W/Z (hadronic). The strongest limits are observed in the mono-jet channel, however the computational simplicity and absence of significant t-channel model width effects in the mono-boson channels make these a straightforward and competitive alternative. We also include a comparison with relic density and direct detection constraints.

  2. Myosin di-phosphorylation and peripheral actin bundle formation as initial events during endothelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Mayumi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain (MLC) and actin filament formation play a key role in endothelial barrier disruption. MLC is either mono- or di-phosphorylated (pMLC and ppMLC) at T18 or S19. The present study investigated whether there are any distinct roles of pMLC and ppMLC in barrier disruption induced by thrombin. Thrombin induced a modest bi-phasic increase in pMLC and a robust mono-phasic increase in ppMLC. pMLC localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm during the initial phase, while ppMLC localized in the cell periphery, where actin bundles were formed. Later, the actin bundles were rearranged into stress fibers, where pMLC co-localized. Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited thrombin-induced barrier disruption and peripheral localization of ppMLC and actin bundles. The double, but not single, mutation of phosphorylation sites abolished the formation of peripheral actin bundles and the barrier disruption, indicating that mono-phosphorylation of MLC at either T18 or S19 is functionally sufficient for barrier disruption. Namely, the peripheral localization, but not the degree of phosphorylation, is suggested to be essential for the functional effect of ppMLC. These results suggest that MLC phosphorylation and actin bundle formation in cell periphery are initial events during barrier disruption. PMID:26863988

  3. Systematic comparison of the mono-, dimethyl- and trimethyl 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones - Attempted optimization of the orally active iron chelator, deferiprone.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Zidong; Kong, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Tao; Bansal, Sukhi; Hider, Robert

    2016-06-10

    A range of close analogues of deferiprone have been synthesised. The group includes mono-, di- and tri-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones. These compounds were found to possess similar pFe(3+) values to that of deferiprone, with the exception of the 2.5-dimethylated derivatives. Surprisingly the NH-containing hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones were found to be marginally more lipophilic than the corresponding N-Me containing analogues. This same group are also metabolised less efficiently by Phase 1 hydroxylating enzymes than the corresponding N-Me analogues. As result of this study, three compounds have been identified for further investigation centred on neutropenia and agranulocytosis. PMID:27014847

  4. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  5. Synthesis and structural investigation of mono- and polynuclear copper complexes of 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, M. M.; Gabr, I. M.; Abdel-Rhman, M. H.; El-Asmy, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between 2-hydrazinopyridine and ethylisothiocyanate produced 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide (HEPTS). Its reaction with copper fluoride, chloride, bromide, acetate, nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate, carbonate, hydroxide and copper metal produced 15 Cu(II) complexes. The copper metal is easily oxidized in aqueous-ethanol solution of HEPTS giving [Cu 2(EPTS)(H 2O) 3(OH) 3]EtOH. Different complexes for the same anion were synthesized by controlling the heating time. Characterization by elemental, thermal, magnetic and spectral (electronic, IR, mass and ESR) studies showed the formation of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra nuclear complexes. The room temperature solid state ESR spectra of the complexes show an axial spectrum with dx2-y ground state, suggesting distorted tetragonal geometry around Cu(II) center. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in the complexes were calculated. HEPTS and its Cu(II) complexes showed high activity against gram negative bacteria; [Cu 3(EPTS) 2(EtOH) 2Br 4] has more activity.

  6. An electron spin polarization study of the interaction of photoexcited triplet molecules with mono- and polynitroxyl stable free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Turro, N.J.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Bossmann, S.H. ); Dwyer, D.W. )

    1993-02-11

    Time-resolved electron spin resonance (TR ESR) has been used to investigate the chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP) generated by the interaction of stable free radicals with the triplet states of benzophenone, benzil, and 2-acetylnaphthalene. The stable radicals were mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranitroxyl free radicals possessing the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl moiety. All of the stable radical systems investigated were found to be emissively polarized by interaction with the triplet states, and the phase of polarization was independent of the sign of zero-field splitting (D) of the interacting triple molecule. Possible and likely mechanisms of polarization transfer (creation) resulting from the interaction of photoexcited triplet molecules with nitroxyls in the strong electron exchange are discussed. The emissive CIDEP of nitroxyls observed in the interactions with triplet benzil, which has D > 0, provides strong support for the operation of the radical-triplet pair mechanism. Within the time scale of TR ESR experiments ([approximately]10[sup [minus]7]--10[sup [minus]6] s) no significant variation in the shape of the CIDEP spectra of the nitroxyls was observed, either in viscous media or in micelles. It is concluded that intramolecular spin exchange (or conformational change) of polynitroyls occurs much faster than the time resolution of the experiment. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Formation Pathways of Mono- to Octa-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Main Organochemical Industries.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Tian, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mengjing; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    The concentrations and formation pathways of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in main organochemical industries. High levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were detected. The total concentrations of 27 PCDD/F congeners in chloranil, 2,4-D, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 5302397 ± 8944449, 20963 ± 15908, and 242 ± 67 pg g(-1), respectively, and the less-chlorinated PCDD/F levels were 12006 ± 20155, 9536 ± 5594, and 195 ± 94 pg g(-1), respectively. The distribution trends of less and more chlorinated PCDD/Fs were similar in different chemical plants because of their similar formation pathways, which may also be related to the degree of chlorination of chemical products and purification processes. 1,2,3,4-TeCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF were selected as model molecules to calculate the bond dissociation energy, showing that 2-MCDF, 3-MCDF, and 2,8-DCDF are more easily formatted as shown by the analytical results. The formation pathways of less to more chlorinated PCDFs are proposed to explain why 2-MoCDF, 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF are the dominant congeners and to explain why 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor of I-TEQs in most studies. PMID:26301518

  8. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  11. Dose Reconstruction of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Using a Simple Pharmacokinetic Model

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), used primarily as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, is found in a variety of products. Previous studies have quantified human exposure by back calculating intakes based on DEHP metabolite concentrations in urine and by determining concentrations of DEHP in exposure media (e.g., air, food, dust). Objectives: To better understand the timing and extent of DEHP exposure, we used a simple pharmacokinetic model to “reconstruct” the DEHP dose responsible for the presence of DEHP metabolites in urine. Methods: We analyzed urine samples from eight adults for four DEHP metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate]. Participants provided full volumes of all voids over 1 week and recorded the time of each void and information on diet, driving, and outdoor activities. Using a model previously calibrated on a single person self-dosed with DEHP in conjunction with the eight participants’ data, we used a simple trial-and-error method to determine times and doses of DEHP that resulted in a best fit of predicted and observed urinary concentrations of the metabolites. Results: The average daily mean and median reconstructed DEHP doses were 10.9 and 5.0 µg/kg-day, respectively. The highest single modeled dose of 60 µg/kg occurred when one study participant reported consuming coffee and a bagel with egg and sausage that was purchased at a gas station. About two-thirds of all modeled intake events occurred near the time of reported food or beverage consumption. Twenty percent of the modeled DEHP exposure occurred between 2200 hours and 0500 hours. Conclusions: Dose reconstruction using pharmacokinetic models—in conjunction with biomonitoring data, diary information, and other related data—can provide a powerful means to define timing, magnitude, and possible sources of exposure to a given contaminant. PMID

  12. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of mono-chloronitrobenzene as cathode material for magnesium reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunakaran, R.; Vasudevan, S.; Sivashanmugam, A.; Gopukumar, S.

    Mono-chloronitrobenzene (MCNB) is investigated as a cathode material for magnesium reserve batteries that use a magnesium anode and a 2 M magnesium perchlorate aqueous electrolyte. The composition of the conducting material (acetylene black) in the cathode mix is optimized to obtain better electrochemical performance. The reduction mechanism of mono-chloronitrobenzene is examined by means of cyclic voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode. Discharge studies at different current drains indicate that Mg-MCNB cells exhibit the highest Coulombic efficiency (86%) at a current drain of 100 mA. The reduction of MCNB to mono-chloroaniline is irreversible and diffusion-controlled.

  14. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers. PMID:19712427

  15. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  16. Laser System for Livermore's Mono Energetic Gamma-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D; Albert, F; Bayramian, A; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Ebbers, C; Hartemann, F

    2011-03-14

    A Mono-energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source, based on Compton scattering of a high-intensity laser beam off a highly relativistic electron beam, requires highly specialized laser systems. To minimize the bandwidth of the {gamma}-ray beam, the scattering laser must have minimal bandwidth, but also match the electron beam depth of focus in length. This requires a {approx}1 J, 10 ps, fourier-transform-limited laser system. Also required is a high-brightness electron beam, best provided by a photoinjector. This electron source requires a second laser system with stringent requirements on the beam including flat transverse and longitudinal profiles and fast rise times. Furthermore, these systems must be synchronized to each other with ps-scale accuracy. Using a novel hyper-dispersion compressor configuration and advanced fiber amplifiers and diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, we have designed laser systems that meet these challenges for the X-band photoinjector and Compton-scattering source being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. On the mono-exponential fitting of phosphorescence decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods for mono-exponential fitting of decay curves are presented and compared among each other in terms of precision, accuracy and computational time. Simulated noisy data sets are generated and evaluated in order to determine the main contributors to a loss in performance. The influence of the temporal discretization of the decay curve on the precision of the fitting methods is discussed. Correlations between the background offset and the decay time are analyzed. Variations of the signal-to-noise ratio are shown, allowing for evaluation of systematic errors and precision in the presence of noise. Finally, the algorithms are applied to experimental data, and the computational efforts for the different algorithms are compared. The results of this latter investigation confirm the conclusions drawn from the simulated data and the following conclusions are drawn: The frequently applied method of performing a linear regression to the logarithm of a background-corrected decay showed systematic errors in the presence of noise. Best results in terms of precision and accuracy were obtained by a nonlinear least-squares approximation and a method denoted as the linear regression of the sum. Additionally, this latter method required the lowest computational time and is finally recommended for determining decay times from experimental data.

  18. Mono-THF ring annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa.

    PubMed

    Hopp, D C; Alali, F Q; Gu, Z M; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-03-01

    Continuing work on the bark of Annona squamosa Rich. (Annonaceae), directed by the brine shrimp lethality test (BST), has resulted in the isolation of three new Annonaceous acetogenins, 4-deoxyannoreticuin, cis-4-deoxyannoreticuin, and (2,4-cis and trans)-squamoxinone. The first two are additional examples of acetogenins isolated from this plant species which contain the unusual feature of an oxygen functionality at the C-9 position. They have a hydroxylated mono-THF ring with respective threo/trans/threo and threo/cis/threo relative stereochemistries. The latter compound is a ketolactone mixture which has the same relative stereochemistry around the THF ring and the same spatial relationship between the THF ring and the hydroxyl group along the aliphatic chain as 4-deoxyannoreticuin, but is two methylene units longer. Additionally, the isolated hydroxyl group is at C-11, while the THF ring starts at C-17, instead of at C-9 and C-15, respectively, as for the first two compounds. All three compounds showed moderate, but significant, cytotoxicities against a panel of six human tumor cell lines with (2,4 cis and trans)-squamoxinone showing promising selectivity against the pancreatic cell line (PACA-2). PMID:9542173

  19. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6. PMID:26471575

  20. Glass liquid glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-González, P. E.; Vizcarra-Rendón, A.; Guevara-Rodríguez, F. de J.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and fs(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  1. Neutrino Mass Measurement Using a Directed Mono-Energetic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifrinovich, Vladimir; Folan, Lorcan

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a directed mono-energetic neutrino beam can be generated by electron capture beta-decay in a sample with a strong hyperfine field at the radioactive nuclei. We study the conditions required to measure the neutrino rest mass using the recoil force produced by a directed neutrino beam. We consider the displacement of an atomic force microscope cantilever due to such a recoil force. We find the change in the cantilever displacement associated with the non-zero neutrino mass, as a function of nuclear half-life T1 / 2, cantilever spring constant, and temperature. We consider the opportunity to increase the sensitivity of the neutrino mass measurement using averaging of the measurement signal. We show that the optimal time for the signal accumulation is, approximately, 1.8T1 / 2. We compute the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for 119Sb nuclei decaying to 119Sn with a decrease in the nuclear spin from I = 5/2 to I = 3/2, and T1 / 2 = 38.2 hours. Finally, we present the parameters values required for detection of sub-eV neutrino rest mass, and estimate the angular distribution of neutrino radiation as a function of temperature.

  2. Mono- and bimetallic zwitterionic chromium(0) and tungsten(0) allenyls.

    PubMed

    Giner, Elena A; Santiago, Alicia; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Ramírez de Arellano, Carmen; Poulten, Rebecca C; Whittlesey, Michael K; Sierra, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    A series of stable chiral (racemic), formally neutral, zwitterionic mono- and bimetallic M(CO)5[C(OEt)═C═CR(NHC)] (M = Cr, W) σ-allenyls are ready available by the addition of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) to Cr(0) and W(0) alkynyl Fischer carbene complexes. Different classes of NHCs, (e.g., 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene, and their six- and seven-membered analogues and 1,3-bis(dimethyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) were employed as nucleophiles in these C-C bond-forming reactions yielding the novel complexes in essentially quantitative yields. A systematic experimental and computational study of the electronic properties of the Cr- and W-allenyls shows that their UV-vis spectra are directly influenced by the structure of the heterocyclic moiety derived from the NHC (ring size, substituents on the N atoms) and by the nature of the metal fragment (Cr/W). The electron-releasing nature of these complexes allows them to participate in electron-transfer reactions in the ground state, leading to a type of charged α,β-unsaturated Fischer carbenes that incorporate an NHC fragment in their structure. PMID:25952749

  3. Adding Mono- and Multivalent Ions to Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, Luana; Park, Heung-Shik; Antion, Kelly; Woolwerton, Chris; Finotello, Daniele; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2006-03-01

    Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals (LCLCs) are a distinct class of liquid crystals formed in aqueous solutions by molecules with rigid polyaromatic cores and ionic groups at the periphery [1-4]. The phase diagrams of these materials should depend on entropic factors (as in the Onsager model) and electrostatic interactions. Using optical polarizing microscopy, we studied the effects of mono- and multivalent ions on the phase diagrams of Blue 27 [3] and Sunset Yellow [2]. The monovalent ions change the temperatures of phase transitions, as described in [4], while the effect of multivalent ions is more dramatic and, in addition to the changed temperatures of phase transitions by tens of degrees, it often involves condensation of LCLC aggregates into domains with birefringence much higher than that in a normal nematic phase. Work supported by OBR B-7844. [1]J. Lydon, Current Opin. Colloid & Interface Sci. 3, 458 (1998);8, 480-489 (2004); [2]V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. J. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, 2005, Phys. Rew. E 72, 041710; [3]Yu. A. Nastishin, H. Liu, T. Schneider, T., V. Nazarenko, R. Vasyuta, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, 2005, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041711; [4]A.F. Kostko, B. H. Cipriano, O. A. Pinchuk, L. Ziserman, M. A. Anisimov, D. Danino, and S. R. Raghavan. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 19126-19133 (2005)

  4. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  5. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-11-14

    TGF-{beta} activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-{beta} enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-{beta} type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes.

  6. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-04-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher. PMID:26901373

  7. The biosynthesis of allelopathic di-C-glycosylflavones from the roots of Desmodium incanum (G. Mey.) DC.

    PubMed

    Hao, Bing; Caulfield, John C; Hamilton, Mary L; Pickett, John A; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R; Wang, Junru R; Hooper, Antony M

    2015-12-28

    The allelopathic root exudate of the drought-tolerant subsistence cereal intercrop D. incanum, protecting against the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, comprises a number of di-C-glycosylflavones specifically containing C-glucosyl, C-galactosyl and C-arabinosyl moieties. Here we demonstrate that the biosynthesis of all compounds containing a C-glucose involves C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxynaringenin with subsequent C-galactosylation, C-glucosylation or C-arabinosylation. In addition, the crude soluble enzyme extract converts two fluorinated 2-hydroxyflavanone analogues to corresponding mono- and di-C-glycosylflavones demonstrating that some differences in C-ring substitution can be tolerated by the plant enzymes. Elucidating the biosynthesis of these C-glycosylflavones (CGFs) has the potential to open up opportunities for transferring the enzymic and genetic basis for the S. hermonthica inhibiting allelopathic trait to food crop plants. PMID:26478440

  8. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. PMID:26862199

  9. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Antolak, A. J.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.

    2009-03-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,γ)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,γ)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 μs long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  10. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  11. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB{sub 6} tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 {mu}s long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  12. Mono- and multistatic polarimetric sparse aperture 3D SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraaf, Stuart; Twigg, Charles; Phillips, Louis

    2008-04-01

    SAR imaging at low center frequencies (UHF and L-band) offers advantages over imaging at more conventional (X-band) frequencies, including foliage penetration for target detection and scene segmentation based on polarimetric coherency. However, bandwidths typically available at these center frequencies are small, affording poor resolution. By exploiting extreme spatial diversity (partial hemispheric k-space coverage) and nonlinear bandwidth extrapolation/interpolation methods such as Least-Squares SuperResolution (LSSR) and Least-Squares CLEAN (LSCLEAN), one can achieve resolutions that are commensurate with the carrier frequency (λ/4) rather than the bandwidth (c/2B). Furthermore, extreme angle diversity affords complete coverage of a target's backscatter, and a correspondingly more literal image. To realize these benefits, however, one must image the scene in 3-D; otherwise layover-induced misregistration compromises the coherent summation that yields improved resolution. Practically, one is limited to very sparse elevation apertures, i.e. a small number of circular passes. Here we demonstrate that both LSSR and LSCLEAN can reduce considerably the sidelobe and alias artifacts caused by these sparse elevation apertures. Further, we illustrate how a hypothetical multi-static geometry consisting of six vertical real-aperture receive apertures, combined with a single circular transmit aperture provide effective, though sparse and unusual, 3-D k-space support. Forward scattering captured by this geometry reveals horizontal scattering surfaces that are missed in monostatic backscattering geometries. This paper illustrates results based on LucernHammer UHF and L-band mono- and multi-static simulations of a backhoe.

  13. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  14. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  15. 238U-230Th crystallization ages for the oldest domes of the Mono Craters, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mono Craters volcanic chain is one of the youngest areas of rhyolitic volcanism in the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. Located just south of Mono Lake, the Mono Craters comprise at least 28 individual domes and flows (numbered 3-30, north to south); however, the timing and frequency of eruptions remain poorly resolved. The earliest signs of volcanic activity are preserved as numerous tephra layers (Ashes 1-19, top to bottom) in the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake, which indicate that rhyolitic volcanism from Mono Craters began by at least ca. 62 ka [1]. Although the current chronology indicates that most of the Mono Craters are younger than ca. 20 ka [2-4], similar compositions of titanomagnetite from both pumice and lava potentially correlate several Wilson Creek tephras to porphyritic biotite-bearing domes 11, 24, and 19 of the Mono Craters [5], suggesting that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism older than ca. 20 ka. Ash 3 is correlated to dome 11 based on similar ca. 20 ka ages and titanomagnetite compositions [6]. More recently, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished rims of allanite and zircon from domes 24 and 19, yielding isochron ages of ca. 38 ka and ca. 42 ka, respectively. The age of dome 24 is consistent with the ca. 38 ka age of its potential correlative tephra layers [1, 5], indicating that dome 24 is likely the extrusive equivalent of Ashes 9-10. Dome 19 has titanomagnetite crystals with similar bimodal chemistry to titanomagnetites from Ash 15 [5]. The age of dome 19 is indistinguishable from the 238U-230Th age of Ash 15 [1], which erupted during a prominent geomagnetic excursion, originally designated as the "Mono Lake" excursion. Combining geochronological and titanomagnetite compositional data confirms that Ash 15 and its extrusive equivalent, dome 19, erupted during the Laschamp excursion. [1] Vazquez, J.A. and Lidzbarski, M.I. (2012) EPSL 357

  16. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  17. Kinetics of the phthalate metabolites mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in male subjects after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Astrid; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2016-06-11

    Humans have been exposed to dialkyl ortho-phthalates for decades. Due to degradation the phthalate monoesters, responsible for the toxic effects, are additionally found in environmental media as well as food samples. Nevertheless, the toxicokinetic properties of the monoesters are not known. Therefore, metabolism of the phthalate monoesters mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was studied in four male volunteers (23-58 years of age) after ingestion of a single dose of 50μg/kg bw D4-MEHP or 10μg/kg bw D4-MnBP. The main metabolites in urine were determined up to 46h after administration. In the MEHP-study, more than 90% of each metabolite appeared in the urine within the first 22h, and the average excreted amount of D4-MEHP and its four secondary metabolites was 62% of the administered dose. The highest value of 15% was observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl phthalate (D4-5cx-MEPP). The mean elimination half-life of D4-MEHP was estimated to be 3.5±1.4h. In the MnBP-study, the total recovered values of D4-MnBP and its secondary metabolites ranged from 52% to 130%. The monoester itself, with a half-life of 1.9±0.5h, accounted for the majority of the ingested dose (92%), while the secondary metabolites D4-mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (D4-3OH-MnBP) and D4-3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (D4-3cx-MPP) represented only 7.1% and 1.0% of the ingested dose, respectively. Overall, this study determined that the kinetics of the phthalate monoesters MEHP and MnBP after oral dosage are comparable to the properties of their diesters. PMID:27091076

  18. Apiose and mono-O-methyl sugars as minor constituents of the leaves of deciduous trees and various other species

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, J. S. D.; Cheshire, M. V.

    1971-01-01

    1. Leaves of a number of species were hydrolysed with aqueous sulphuric acid and the resulting mixtures of sugars were fractionated by chromatography on activated charcoal. Paper chromatography of the fractions showed the presence in all the hydrolysates of minor constituents with RF values similar to or greater than those of the common hexoses and pentoses. 2. Two of these were identified as 2-O-methylxylose and 2-O-methylfucose. Estimates of the amounts present in whole leaves, and in fractions prepared from them, showed that they were associated with the hemicelluloses. 3. A third constituent was identified, by the formation of its di-isopropylidene derivative, as apiose. It also was associated chiefly with the hemicellulose fraction; none could be found in aqueous extracts from leaves of Tilia vulgaris, nor in aqueous extracts of Zostera marina, in which apiose is a major constituent of the water-insoluble polysaccharide. 4. A further constituent, after further purification by preparative paper chromatography, was tentatively identified, by gas–liquid chromatography of derivatives, as 3-O-methylgalactose, and was probably accompanied by small amounts of 4-O-methylgalactose. 5. These observations confirm the widespread occurrence of 2-O-methylxylose, 2-O-methylfucose and apiose, but 3-O-methylgalactose was hitherto known only in slippery-elm mucilage, and 4-O-methylgalactose in soil polysaccharides. Some experiments on the digestion of leaf hemicellulose fractions by snail crop-juice suggested that the mono-O-methyl sugars might confer resistance to enzymic degradation. PMID:5135242

  19. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates early folliculogenesis and inhibits steroidogenesis in cultured mouse whole ovaries and antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Brannick, Katherine E; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-05-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2-20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) for 24-96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  20. Mono(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Accelerates Early Folliculogenesis and Inhibits Steroidogenesis in Cultured Mouse Whole Ovaries and Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2–20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1–10 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  1. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) regulates glucocorticoid metabolism through 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in murine gonadotrope cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Li, Xing-Wang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Lamba, Pankaj; Bernard, Daniel J.; Hardy, Dianne O.; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2009-11-13

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) have been classified as toxicants to the reproductive system at the testis level and DEHP may also impair reproductive axis function at the pituitary levels. However, MEHP is 10-fold more potent than DEHP in toxicity and little is known about the toxicological effect of MEHP on pituitary. In this study, we demonstrated that 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11{beta}-HSD2), not 11{beta}-HSD1, is strongly expressed in murine gonadotrope L{beta}T2 cells. Interestingly, MEHP inhibited Hsd11b2 mRNA level and 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity in L{beta}T2 cells at as low as 10{sup -7} M. Corticosterone (CORT) at a concentration of 10{sup -6} M significantly inhibited L{beta}T2 cell proliferation after 2-day culture, and 10{sup -6} M RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reversed this inhibition. However, in the presence of 10{sup -5} or 10{sup -4} M MEHP, the minimal concentration of CORT to inhibit the proliferation of L{beta}T2 cells was lowered to 10{sup -7} M, and 10{sup -6} M RU486 was not able to completely reverse the CORT effect. In conclusion, along with the regulation of GR, 11{beta}-HSD2 may have a key role in glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells. MEHP may participate in the glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells through inhibition of 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity. Such perturbation may be of pathological significance as MEHP may interfere with the reproductive system at pituitary level through regulation of glucocorticoid metabolism, especially in neonates with higher risk of phthalates exposure.

  2. High resolution seismic reflection profiles of Holocene volcanic and tectonic features, Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.; Moore, J. C.; Boyle, M.; Childs, J. R.; Novick, M.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Roeske, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Inyo-Mono Craters of Long Valley and Mono Basin, California are the youngest eruptive vents of the Great Basin, USA and the second youngest in California. They are one of two seismically active volcanic centers with geothermal power production in the Walker Lane, western Great Basin, the other being the Coso Volcanic Field to the south. High resolution seismic reflection data collected from the northern tip of the Mono Craters eruptive centers in Mono Lake delinates two structural zones proximal to the active volcanic centers in Mono Lake. A growth structure drapped by ~30 m or more of bedded sediment shows increasing deformation and offset of clastic deposits on the northwest margin of the basin. Coherent thin-bedded stratigraphic sections with strong reflectors to 30-100m depth are preserved on the western and northern margins of the basin. The southern and southeastern areas of the lake are generally seismically opaque, due to extensive ash and tephra deposits as well as widespread methane. Thin pockets of well-bedded, poorly consolidated sediment of probable Holocene and last glacial age are present within intrabasin depressions providing some local age constraints on surfaces adjacent to volcanic vents and volcanically modified features.

  3. Review of the recording and age of the Mono Lake Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Among the brief departures from gradual, long-term behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field in the Brunhes Normal Chron that reached opposite polarity or have a Virtual Geomagnetic Pole deep in the southern hemisphere, the first to be reported is the Laschamp Excursion (LE) in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central in France (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). They originally believed it occurred between about 9,000 to 20,000 years before present, but it is now assigned an age of about 40,000 years B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). Denham and Cox (1971) unsuccessfully sought the LE in exposed lake sediments that seemed to span that interval in the Mono Basin in the western Great Basin of the U.S., but instead encountered anomalous field behaviour that is called the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). As a tribute to Norbert Bonhommet, who assisted us in our initial field work in the Mono Basin and shared a long-standing interest in the LE and MLE, we will review the palaeomagnetic behaviour and age of the MLE in the Mono Basin and elsewhere, for which there are nearly 20 reports of its occurrence globally, and evaluate the recent suggestion that the excursion at Mono Lake and the LE are the same.

  4. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  5. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential. PMID:24117906

  6. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  7. Crystal structure of a mono-bridged calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Shimelis T; Butcher, Ray J; Hudrlik, Paul F; Hudrlik, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, 5(2)-[(5-bromo-pent-yl)-oxy]-1(2),1(14),3(5),5(5)-tetra-tert-butyl-1(7),1(8),1(9),1(10)-tetra-hydro-1(6) H,1(16) H-1(4,12)-dibenzo[b,e][1,7]dioxa-cyclo-dodecina-3,5(1,3)-dibenzena-cyclo-hexa-phan-3(2)-ol, C54H73BrO4, was synthesized from the reaction of tert-butyl-calix[4]arene with 1,5-di-bromo-pentane using K2CO3 in CH3CN. The structure consists of a calixarene unit with a five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms, and with a bromo-pent-oxy chain on one of the remaining phenolic O atoms. The calixarene unit was found to have a flattened cone conformation with no solvent (or other guest) mol-ecule observed in the cavity. Two of the opposite phenyl rings lean outwards with fold angles of 136.2 (1) and 133.0 (1)° between the rings and the plane of the bridging methyl-ene C atoms, while the other two opposite rings form fold angles of 83.27 (9) and 105.46 (9)°. There is considerable disorder in this mol-ecule. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.527 (5) and 0.473 (5). The bromo-pent-oxy chain is disordered over three configurations with occupancies of 0.418, 0.332 and 0.250. The five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.537 (7) and 0.463 (7). PMID:26279864

  8. Crystal structure of a mono-bridged calix[4]arene

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Shimelis T.; Butcher, Ray J.; Hudrlik, Paul F.; Hudrlik, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, 52-[(5-bromo­pent­yl)­oxy]-12,114,35,55-tetra-tert-butyl-17,18,19,110-tetra­hydro-16 H,116 H-1(4,12)-dibenzo[b,e][1,7]dioxa­cyclo­dodecina-3,5(1,3)-dibenzena­cyclo­hexa­phan-32-ol, C54H73BrO4, was synthesized from the reaction of tert-butyl­calix[4]arene with 1,5-di­bromo­pentane using K2CO3 in CH3CN. The structure consists of a calixarene unit with a five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms, and with a bromo­pent­oxy chain on one of the remaining phenolic O atoms. The calixarene unit was found to have a flattened cone conformation with no solvent (or other guest) mol­ecule observed in the cavity. Two of the opposite phenyl rings lean outwards with fold angles of 136.2 (1) and 133.0 (1)° between the rings and the plane of the bridging methyl­ene C atoms, while the other two opposite rings form fold angles of 83.27 (9) and 105.46 (9)°. There is considerable disorder in this mol­ecule. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.527 (5) and 0.473 (5). The bromo­pent­oxy chain is disordered over three configurations with occupancies of 0.418, 0.332 and 0.250. The five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.537 (7) and 0.463 (7). PMID:26279864

  9. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor in a single run, mono- to triterpenoid compounds distribution in resinous plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, Zaineb; Chartier, Agnes; Elfakir, Claire

    2016-04-22

    A new procedure based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of mono- to triterpenoid compounds in resinous materials. Given the difference of volatility and polarity of the studied compounds some critical steps in this methodology had to be identified and investigated. The recovery of volatile compounds after sample extraction was studied. A recovery range from 30% to 100% from the more volatile monoterpene to the least one was observed. Then the mandatory derivatization step for the analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes bearing hydroxyl and carboxyl groups was optimized. Results showed that derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (22:13:65 v/v/v) for 2h at 30 °C was the most efficient method of derivatizing all the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups contained in the triterpene structures. After choosing the best injection parameters for these compounds, the selectivity of the GC column towards the separation of these terpenoids was investigated using statistical tools (principal component analysis and desirability functions). A separation with a good resolution was achieved on an HP-5ms column using a programmed temperature vaporizing injector (PTV). The method was pre-validated in terms of detection limits (LOD from 100 μg L(-1) to 200 μg L(-1) depending on the compound), linearity and repeatability using seven compounds representative of mono- and triterpenoid classes. An exhaustive characterization of various types of resins (di-, triterpenic and oleo-gum resins) was achieved. PMID:27018190

  10. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.

  11. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  12. DABCO mono-betaine hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Perdoch, W.; Szafran, M.

    2009-09-01

    A new DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt) has been synthesized. It crystallizes as monohydrate in orthorhombic space group Pmn2 1. The DABCO mono-betaine and water molecules are located on a mirror plane. The water molecules link DABCO mono-betaine into linear chains through the H-O-H⋯OOC and H-O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds of 2.709(2) and 2.875(2) Å. The structure of the title compound optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory is consistent with X-ray diffraction. The absorption bands in the FTIR spectrum have been assigned. The calculated magnetic isotropic shielding tensors confirm the assignments of the 13C NMR resonance signals.

  13. Second- and third-order nonlinear optical properties of unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Fonseca, Ruben D.; Santos, Francisco A.; Souza, Gabriela B.; Barreiros, André Luis B. S.; Barreiros, Marizeth L.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Mendonça, Cleber R.; Silva, Daniel L.; De Boni, Leonardo; Rodrigues, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the second and third orders of nonlinear optics properties of unsubstituted chalcone (C15H12O) and mono-substituted chalcone (C16H14O2) in solution, using hyper-Rayleigh scattering and Z-Scan techniques to determine the first molecular hyperpolarizability (β) and the two-photon absorption (2PA) cross section respectively. β Values of 25.4 × 10-30 esu and 31.6 × 10-30 esu, for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively, dissolved in methanol have been obtained. The highest values of 2PA cross-sections obtained were 9 GM and 14 GM for unsubstituted and mono-substituted chalcone, respectively. The experimental 2PA cross sections obtained for each chalcone are in good agreement with theoretical results.

  14. A Coupled Meshless Technique/Molecular Dynamics Approach for Deformation Characterization of Mono-crystalline Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y. T.; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a multiscale study using the coupled Meshless technique/Molecular Dynamics (M{sup 2}) for exploring the deformation mechanism of mono-crystalline metal (focus on copper) under uniaxial tension. In M{sup 2}, an advanced transition algorithm using transition particles is employed to ensure the compatibility of both displacements and their gradients, and an effective local quasi-continuum approach is also applied to obtain the equivalent continuum strain energy density based on the atomistic potentials and Cauchy-Born rule. The key parameters used in M{sup 2} are firstly investigated using a benchmark problem. Then, M{sup 2} is applied to the multiscale simulation for a mono-crystalline copper bar. It has found that the mono-crystalline copper has very good elongation property, and the ultimate strength and Young's modulus are much higher than those obtained in macro-scale.

  15. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-28

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus. PMID:27131521

  16. Comparative structure analysis of non-polar organic ferrofluids stabilized by saturated mono-carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Avdeev, M V; Bica, D; Vékás, L; Aksenov, V L; Feoktystov, A V; Marinica, O; Rosta, L; Garamus, V M; Willumeit, R

    2009-06-01

    The structure of ferrofluids (magnetite in decahydronaphtalene) stabilized with saturated mono-carboxylic acids of different chain lengths (lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids) is studied by means of magnetization analysis and small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that in case of saturated acid surfactants, magnetite nanoparticles are dispersed in the carrier approximately with the same size distribution whose mean value and width are significantly less as compared to the classical stabilization with non-saturated oleic acid. The found thickness of the surfactant shell around magnetite is analyzed with respect to stabilizing properties of mono-carboxylic acids. PMID:19376524

  17. Pro-apoptotic activity and mono-/diubiquitylation of Xenopus Bid in egg extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Tomohiro; Tsuchiya, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Itoh, Motohiro; Yamashita, Shigeru

    2009-07-10

    Apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts is carried out by maternally stockpiled materials, but the contributions of endogenous apoptosis regulators are still poorly characterized. Here we examined the physiological role of Xenopus Bid (xBid), a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family proteins. We found that endogenous xBid was a physiological accelerator of apoptosis in egg extracts. Interestingly, xBid was mono-/diubiquitylated but not degraded by proteasome in egg extracts, and we identified three ubiquitylated Lys residues in the N-terminal propeptide region. Comparison with human Bid suggested that mono-/diubiquitylation is a specific feature of xBid.

  18. Aza-Michael Mono-addition Using Acidic Alumina under Solventless Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosica, Giovanna; Abdilla, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    Aza-Michael reactions between primary aliphatic and aromatic amines and various Michael acceptors have been performed under environmentally-friendly solventless conditions using acidic alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to selectively obtain the corresponding mono-adducts in high yields. Ethyl acrylate was the main acceptor used, although others such as acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and acrylamide were also utilized successfully. Bi-functional amines also gave the mono-adducts in good to excellent yields. Such compounds can serve as intermediates for the synthesis of anti-cancer and antibiotic drugs. PMID:27338336

  19. Communication: Linking the dielectric Debye process in mono-alcohols to density fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-04-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-state theory. The spectral shape of the dynamical bulk modulus of the two studied mono-alcohols, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, is nearly identical to that of their corresponding shear modulus, and thus the supramolecular structures believed to be responsible for the slow dielectric Debye process are manifested in the bulk modulus in the same way as in the shear modulus.

  20. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  1. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  3. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  4. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  5. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  7. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  8. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4505 - Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming acids. 582.4505 Section 582.4505 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Emulsifying Agents § 582.4505 Mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  10. Three-Dimensional Analysis of dike/fault interaction at Mono Basin (California) using the Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Battaglia, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin is a north-trending graben that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley caldera towards the Bodie Hills and is bounded by the Cowtrack Mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada on the west. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a north-trending zone of volcanic vents extending from the west moat of the Long Valley caldera to Mono Lake. The Hartley Springs fault transects the southern Mono Craters-Inyo Domes area between the western part of the Long Valley caldera and June Lake. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D. The spatial and temporal proximity between Hartley Springs Fault motion and the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence suggests a possible relation between seismic events and eruptions. We investigate the interactions between slip along the Hartley Springs fault and dike intrusion beneath the Mono-Inyo craters using a three-dimensional finite element model of the Mono Basin. We employ a realistic representation of the Basin that includes topography, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, contact relations between fault planes, and a physical model of the pressure required to propagate the dike. We estimate (a) the distribution of Coulomb stress changes to study the influence of dike intrusion on Hartley Springs fault, and (b) the local stress and volumetric dilatation changes to understand how fault slip may influence the propagation of a dike towards the surface.

  11. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  18. Cyclic di-AMP mediates biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xian; Zhang, Yang; Bai, Guangchun; Zhou, Xuedong; Wu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is an emerging second messenger in bacteria. It has been shown to play important roles in bacterial fitness and virulence. However, transduction of c-di-AMP signaling in bacteria and the role of c-di-AMP in biofilm formation are not well understood. The level of c-di-AMP is modulated by activity of di-adenylyl cyclase that produces c-di-AMP and phosphodiesterase (PDE) that degrades c-di-AMP. In this study, we determined that increased c-di-AMP levels by deletion of the pdeA gene coding for a PDE promoted biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans. Deletion of pdeA upregulated expression of gtfB, the gene coding for a major glucan producing enzyme. Inactivation of gtfB blocked the increased biofilm by the pdeA mutant. Two c-di-AMP binding proteins including CabPA (SMU_1562) and CabPB (SMU_1708) were identified. Interestingly, only CabPA deficiency inhibited both the increased biofilm formation and the upregulated expression of GtfB observed in the pdeA mutant. In addition, CabPA but not CabPB interacted with VicR, a known transcriptional factor that regulates expression of gtfB, suggesting that a signaling link between CabPA and GtfB through VicR. Increased biofilm by the pdeA deficiency also enhanced bacterial colonization of Drosophila in vivo. Taken together, our studies reveal a new role of c-di-AMP in mediating biofilm formation through a CabPA/VicR/GtfB signaling network in S. mutans. PMID:26564551

  19. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. PMID:25280042

  20. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    PubMed

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  1. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  3. State of the art of protein mono-ADP-ribosylation: biological role and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Gaia; Scarpa, Emanuele Salvatore; Di Girolamo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification that was discovered more than five decades ago, and it consists of the enzymatic transfer of ADP-ribose from NAD⁺ to acceptor proteins. In viruses and prokaryotes, mono-ADP-ribosylation is mainly, but not exclusively, a mechanism used to take control of the host cell. In mammals, mono-ADP-ribosylation serves to regulate protein functions, and it is catalysed by two families of toxin-related cellular ADP-ribosyltransferases: ecto-enzymes that modify various cell-surface proteins, like integrins and receptors, and intracellular enzymes that act on a variety of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These two families have been recently renamed the ARTCs (clostridia toxin like) and ARTDs (diphtheria toxin like), depending on their conserved structural features, and in terms of their relationships to the bacterial toxins. In addition, two members of the structurally non-related sirtuin family can also modify cellular proteins by mono-ADP-ribosylation. Recently, new examples of ADP-ribosylation of proteins involved in signal transduction and intracellular trafficking have been discovered, thus opening the route to the better molecular understanding of this reaction and of its role in human cell physiology and pathology. PMID:25553458

  4. Health Disparities and Relational Well-Being between Multi- and Mono-Ethnic Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on Hawaii, a state with 21.3% of the population being multi-racial according to the 2010 U.S. Census, this study aims to examine the existence and nature of health disparities between mono- and multi-ethnic Asian Americans and the importance of Relational Well-Being in affecting the health of Asian Americans. A series of ordinary least…

  5. One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Byun, Eunyoung; Hong, Bomi; De Castro, Kathlia A; Lim, Minkyung; Rhee, Hakjune

    2007-12-01

    One-pot reductive mono-N-alkylation of aniline and nitroarene derivatives using various aldehydes by Pd/C catalyst in aqueous 2-propanol solvent with ammonium formate as in situ hydrogen donor is illustrated. The reaction proceeded smoothly and selectively with excellent yield at room temperature. Our protocol presents a facile, economical, and environmentally benign alternative for reductive amination. PMID:17997570

  6. The Effects of Operational Parameters on a Mono-wire Cutting System: Efficiency in Marble Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmazkaya, Emre; Ozcelik, Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5255 - 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs. 721.5255 Section 721.5255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5255...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5255 - 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Naphthalenol, mono and dioctyl derivs. 721.5255 Section 721.5255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5255...

  9. Performance limits of tunnel transistors based on mono-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiang-Wei Li, Shu-Shen

    2014-05-12

    Performance limits of tunnel field-effect transistors based on mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated through numerical quantum mechanical simulations. The atomic mono-layer nature of the devices results in a much smaller natural length λ, leading to much larger electric field inside the tunneling diodes. As a result, the inter-band tunneling currents are found to be very high as long as ultra-thin high-k gate dielectric is possible. The highest on-state driving current is found to be close to 600 μA/μm at V{sub g} = V{sub d} = 0.5 V when 2 nm thin HfO{sub 2} layer is used for gate dielectric, outperforming most of the conventional semiconductor tunnel transistors. In the five simulated transition-metal dichalcogenides, mono-layer WSe{sub 2} based tunnel field-effect transistor shows the best potential. Deep analysis reveals that there is plenty room to further enhance the device performance by either geometry, alloy, or strain engineering on these mono-layer materials.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1101 Section 184.1101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  13. Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus opacus Strain R7, a Biodegrader of Mono- and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Zampolli, J.; Presti, I.; Cappelletti, M.; D’Ursi, P.; Orro, A.; Mezzelani, A.; Milanesi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus opacus strain R7 (CIP107348) degrades several mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of strain R7, consisting of 10,118,052 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0%, 9,602 protein-coding genes, and 62 RNAs genes. PMID:25146139

  14. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  15. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  16. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... substance known to cause cancer in laboratory animals. The mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid has... to cause cancer. This product is designed to be used without nitrites. (iii) The first work of...

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (EGBE) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessme...

  18. Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice protein, a byproduct of rice syrup production, is abundant but, its lack of functionality prevents its wide use as a food ingredient. Maillard reaction products of (MRPs) hydrolysates from the limited hydrolysis of rice protein (LHRP) and various mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides were evaluat...

  19. Some properties of a soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1976-01-01

    Soluble extracts of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), obtained by centrifugation of crude extracts at 160000g for 1h, catalyse the NAD(P)H- and O2-dependent disappearance of bromomethane, and also the formation of methanol from methane. Soluble methane mono-oxygenase is not inhibited by chelating agents or by most electron-transport inhibitors, and is a multicomponent enzyme. PMID:962879

  20. One-step selection of Vaccinia virus-binding DNA aptamers by MonoLEX

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Andreas; Kurth, Andreas; Dunkhorst, Anna; Pänke, Oliver; Sielaff, Hendrik; Junge, Wolfgang; Muth, Doreen; Scheller, Frieder; Stöcklein, Walter; Dahmen, Claudia; Pauli, Georg; Kage, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background As a new class of therapeutic and diagnostic reagents, more than fifteen years ago RNA and DNA aptamers were identified as binding molecules to numerous small compounds, proteins and rarely even to complete pathogen particles. Most aptamers were isolated from complex libraries of synthetic nucleic acids by a process termed SELEX based on several selection and amplification steps. Here we report the application of a new one-step selection method (MonoLEX) to acquire high-affinity DNA aptamers binding Vaccinia virus used as a model organism for complex target structures. Results The selection against complete Vaccinia virus particles resulted in a 64-base DNA aptamer specifically binding to orthopoxviruses as validated by dot blot analysis, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and real-time PCR, following an aptamer blotting assay. The same oligonucleotide showed the ability to inhibit in vitro infection of Vaccinia virus and other orthopoxviruses in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The MonoLEX method is a straightforward procedure as demonstrated here for the identification of a high-affinity DNA aptamer binding Vaccinia virus. MonoLEX comprises a single affinity chromatography step, followed by subsequent physical segmentation of the affinity resin and a single final PCR amplification step of bound aptamers. Therefore, this procedure improves the selection of high affinity aptamers by reducing the competition between aptamers of different affinities during the PCR step, indicating an advantage for the single-round MonoLEX method. PMID:17697378

  1. Synthesis of heterocyclic systems based on mono- and dicarbonyl adamantane derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon'kov, S. A.; Moiseev, I. K.; Zemtsova, M. N.; Bormasheva, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Examples of the synthesis of various heterocycles containing an adamantane moiety based on mono- and dicarbonyl adamantane derivatives are considered. Systems in which the adamantane cage is spiro-connected to a heterocyclic ring or is a part of substituent in the heterocycle are presented. Data on the biological activities of such derivatives are given. The bibliography includes 85 references.

  2. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions. PMID:24998780

  3. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10360 - 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene glycol mono-(branched tridecyl) ether (generic). 721.10360... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10360 1-Substituted propane, 3-(triethoxysilyl)-, reaction products with polyethylene...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1101 Section 184.1101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  7. Hoops and Mono-Slopes: What We Have Learned About Management and Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past ten years, Iowa beef feedlots have striven to improve environmental management. To reduce the potential for feedlot run-off, there has been increased interest in feeding animals in deep-bedded enclosed facilities. Two types of deep-bedded facilities – hoop barns and mono-slope barns – ...

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUOTOXICITY EVALUATION OF MIXTURES OF MONO- AND DIMETHYL TIN IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Mixtures of Mono- and Dimethyl Tin in Drinking Water of Rats

    V.C. Moser, K.L. McDaniel, P.M. Phillips

    Neurotoxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA

    Organotins, especially monomethyl (MMT) and dimethyl (D...

  9. Water miscible mono alcohols' effect on the proteolytic performance of Bacillus clausii serine alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Duman, Yonca Avci; Kazan, Dilek; Denizci, Aziz Akin; Erarslan, Altan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, our investigations showed that the increasing concentrations of all examined mono alcohols caused a decrease in the Vm, kcat and kcat/Km values of Bacillus clausii GMBE 42 serine alkaline protease for casein hydrolysis. However, the Km value of the enzyme remained almost the same, which was an indicator of non-competitive inhibition. Whereas inhibition by methanol was partial non-competitive, inhibition by the rest of the alcohols tested was simple non-competitive. The inhibition constants (KI) were in the range of 1.32-3.10 M, and the order of the inhibitory effect was 1-propanol>2-propanol>methanol>ethanol. The ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased at increasing concentrations of all alcohols examined, but the ΔG(≠)ES value of the enzyme remained almost the same. The constant Km and ΔG(≠)ES values in the presence and absence of mono alcohols indicated the existence of different binding sites for mono alcohols and casein on enzyme the molecule. The kcat of the enzyme decreased linearly by increasing log P and decreasing dielectric constant (D) values, but the ΔG(≠) and ΔG(≠)E-T values of the enzyme increased by increasing log P and decreasing D values of the reaction medium containing mono alcohols. PMID:24092453

  10. Finite Element Analysis Of Structural And Magmatic Interactions At Mono Basin (California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward trending graben situated east of the Sierra Nevada and west of Cowtrack Mountains, extending from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the Bodie Hills. From a hydrographic perspective, the Mono Basin is defined by all streams that drain into Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters forms a prominent 25-km-long volcanic complex from the NW corner of Long Valley caldera to the southern edge of Mono Lake. The late Quaternary Hartley Springs fault occurs along the Sierran range front between June Lake and the northern border of Long Valley Caldera. Recently it has been proposed that the manifestation of the volcanic and of the tectonic activity in this area is likely interrelated. According to Bursik et al (2003), stratigraphic data suggest that during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D., a series of strong earthquakes occurred across the end of the North Mono explosive phase and the beginning of the Inyo explosive phase. Moreover, geological and geomorphic features of the Hartley Springs fault are consistent with rupture of the fault during the eruption sequence. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate a three-dimensional model and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. We first validate our numerical model against the Okada (1985) analytical solution for a homogeneous and elastic flat half-space. Subsequently, we evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo Dike intrusion in ~1350 A.D. on Hartley Springs fault, and how the fault slip may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. To this end, we considered the standard Coulomb stress change as failure criterion. Finally, we analyze the effects of the topography and of vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust on the distribution of local and regional stress changes. In this presentation, we highlight the preliminary results of our analysis

  11. Assessment of SRTM for studies of deformed lake terraces, Mono Basin, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, P.; Bursik, M.; Webb, F.

    2003-04-01

    Mono Lake lies east of the Sierra Nevada, central California, USA. Late Quaternary transgressions and regressions of Mono Lake have produced well-defined terraces within the active and relict shorelands of Mono Basin, as well as on the islands within the lake, including the largest, Paoha Island. To assess the ability of SRTM data to resolve the terraces, we compared the SRTM data to TOPSAR data along topographic profiles. The accuracy of the profiles was assessed by visual and statistical comparison. Information was then extracted from the profiles to determine whether the terraces showed any evidence of warping or offset. Perhaps the most prominent terraces within the basin lie on the eastern and western sides of Paoha Island. When compared with the TOPSAR profiles across these terraces, SRTM profiles are systematically smoother and higher. Comparison of a running average of the TOPSAR data as well as TOPSAR data decimated to 30 m with the SRTM data suggests that much of the SRTM smoothness is the result of the 30 m spacing of the SRTM data as opposed to the 5 m spacing of the TOPSAR data. There is however a mean vertical difference observed between the SRTM and TOPSAR datasets that averages approximately 5 m over a large part of the basin. Near the tops of hills and ridges, the difference between the datasets is less than it is over depressions or areas of low relief. We are investigating the potential causes of the systematic difference. We are exploring the SRTM and TOPSAR data to understand their suitability for determination of deformation of shoreline features. In particular, we are interested in whether magmatic activity beneath the Mono Craters, a volcanic chain on the southern margin of Mono Lake, may be responsible for deformation of a latest Pleistocene(?) terrace at a nominal elevation of 1990 m. The elevation of the bluff-berm break in slope for this terrace was estimated to be at the point of maximum curvature in topographic profiles crossing the

  12. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  13. Structural and functional analysis of two di-domain aromatase/cyclases from type II polyketide synthases

    PubMed Central

    Caldara-Festin, Grace; Jackson, David R.; Barajas, Jesus F.; Valentic, Timothy R.; Patel, Avinash B.; Aguilar, Stephanie; Nguyen, MyChi; Vo, Michael; Khanna, Avinash; Sasaki, Eita; Liu, Hung-wen; Tsai, Shiou-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic polyketides make up a large class of natural products with diverse bioactivity. During biosynthesis, linear poly-β-ketone intermediates are regiospecifically cyclized, yielding molecules with defined cyclization patterns that are crucial for polyketide bioactivity. The aromatase/cyclases (ARO/CYCs) are responsible for regiospecific cyclization of bacterial polyketides. The two most common cyclization patterns are C7–C12 and C9–C14 cyclizations. We have previously characterized three monodomain ARO/CYCs: ZhuI, TcmN, and WhiE. The last remaining uncharacterized class of ARO/CYCs is the di-domain ARO/CYCs, which catalyze C7–C12 cyclization and/or aromatization. Di-domain ARO/CYCs can further be separated into two subclasses: “nonreducing” ARO/CYCs, which act on nonreduced poly-β-ketones, and “reducing” ARO/CYCs, which act on cyclized C9 reduced poly-β-ketones. For years, the functional role of each domain in cyclization and aromatization for di-domain ARO/CYCs has remained a mystery. Here we present what is to our knowledge the first structural and functional analysis, along with an in-depth comparison, of the nonreducing (StfQ) and reducing (BexL) di-domain ARO/CYCs. This work completes the structural and functional characterization of mono- and di-domain ARO/CYCs in bacterial type II polyketide synthases and lays the groundwork for engineered biosynthesis of new bioactive polyketides. PMID:26631750

  14. Products and intermediates of the beta-oxidation of [U-14C]hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA by rat liver peroxisomes and mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Pourfarzam, M; Bartlett, K

    1991-01-01

    1. The synthesis of [U-14C]hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA is described. 2. The beta-oxidation of [U-14C]hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA by purified rat liver peroxisomes and mitochondria is demonstrated. 3. The products of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of [U-14C]hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA include ketone bodies, citrate and acetylcarnitine. 4. Tetradecadionoyl-mono-CoA, hexadec-2-enedionyl-mono-CoA and hexadionoyl-mono-CoA were the only detectable intermediates formed by mitochondrial beta-oxidation, whereas acetyl-CoA and all saturated even-numbered intermediates of chain length C6-C16 were generated by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. 5. Hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA and hexadecanoyl-CoA were equally effective substrates for peroxisomal beta-oxidation, but hexadecanedionoyl-mono-CoA was a relatively poorer substrate for the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:1989582

  15. Surfactant-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed cubic BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hai, Chunxi; Inukai, Koji; Takahashi, Yosuke; Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Itoh, Toshio; Shin, Woosuck

    2014-09-15

    Mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been prepared via the assistance of capping agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). - Highlights: • BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with single cubic crystal structure. • Poor dispersibility of nanoparticles has been overcome by in situ modification way. • Growth competition between BaTiO3 core and polymer shell. - Abstract: In this study, poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-assisted synthesis of mono-dispersed BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles have been reported. The various processing parameters, namely, refluxing temperature, KOH concentration, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) concentration, have been varied, and the effects on the growth of BaTiO{sub 3} particles have been analyzed systematically. X-ray diffraction studies indicated that poly(vinylpyrrolidone) did not affect the crystal structure, but rather influenced the crystal lattice structure. In addition, the use of surfactant poly(vinylpyrrolidone) hindered the agglomeration of the nanoparticles, and facilitated the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposite. Furthermore, the mineralizer KOH promoted the dissolution of reactants and promoted the crystallization of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. Accordingly, the dissolution-precipitation scheme was believed to be the mechanism underlying the formation of BaTiO{sub 3} particles. This was further substantiated by the experimental observations, which indicated that the nucleation and crystallization of the particles was affected by the KOH concentration in the reaction system. Finally, the formation of mono-dispersed core–shell nanocomposites proceeded via reaction limited cluster aggregation. We believe that the method proposed in this study could be extended for the synthesis of mono-dispersed nanoparticles for industrial applications.

  16. Drainage reversals in Mono Basin during the late pliocene and Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Stine, S.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Mono Basin, on the eastern flank of the central Sierra Nevada, is the highest of the large hydrographically closed basins in the Basin and Range province. We use geomorphic features, shoreline deposits, and basalt-filled paleochannels to reconstruct an early to middle Pleistocene record of shorelines and changing spillways of Lake Russell in Mono Basin. During this period of time, Lake Russell repeatedly attained altitudes between 2205 and 2280 m-levels far above the present surface of Mono Lake (~1950 m) and above its last overflow level (2188 m). The spill point of Lake Russell shifted through time owing to late Tertiary and Quaternary faulting and volcanism. During the early Pleistocene, the lake periodically discharged through the Mount Hicks spillway on the northeastern rim of Mono Basin and flowed northward into the Walker Lake drainage basin via the East Walker River. Paleochannels recording such discharge were incised prior to 1.6 Ma, possibly between 1.6 and 1.3 Ma, and again after 1.3 Ma (ages of basaltic flows that plugged the paleochannels). Faulting in the Adobe Hills on the southeastern margin of the basin eventually lowered the rim in this area to below the altitude of the Mount Hicks spillway. Twice after 0.76 Ma, and possibly as late as after 0.1 Ma, Lake Russell discharged southward through the Adobe Hills spillway into the Owens-Death Valley system of lakes. This study supports a pre-Pleistocene aquatic connection through Mono Basin between the hydrologically distinct Lahontan and Owens-Death Valley systems, as long postulated by biologists, and also confirms a probable link during the Pleistocene for species adapted to travel upstream in fast-flowing water.

  17. Peptide-based Inhibitors of Plk1 Polo-box Domain Containing Mono-anionic Phosphothreonine Esters and Their Pivaloyloxymethyl Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wen-Jian; Park, Jung-Eun; Lim, Dan; Park, Suk-Youl; Lee, Ki -Won; Yaffe, Michael B.; Lee, Kyung S.; Burke, Terrence R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Binding of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo-box domains (PBDs) to phosphothreonine (pThr)/phosphoserine (pSer)-containing sequences is critical for the proper function of Plk1. Although high affinity synthetic pThr-containing peptides may be used to disrupt PBD function, the efficacy of such peptides in whole cell assays has been poor. This potentially reflects limited cell membrane permeability arising in part from the di-anionic nature of the phosphoryl group. In our current paper we report five-mer peptides containing mono-anionic pThr phosphoryl esters that exhibit single-digit nanomolar PBD binding affinities in extracellular assays and improved antimitotic efficacies in whole cell assays. The cellular efficacies of these peptides have been further enhanced by the first application of bio-reversible pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) phosphoryl protection to a pThr-containing polypeptide. Our findings may redefine structural parameters for the development of PBD-binding peptides and peptide mimetics. PMID:24120332

  18. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  1. Radiocarbon constraints on fossil thinolite tufa formation in the Mono Basin, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. L.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hemming, S. R.; Stine, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2009-12-01

    Mono Lake is a terminal lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin, and is famous for its tufa towers. Thinolite, which is thought to be a CaCO3 pseudomorph of ikaite, is found around the Mono Basin in many fossil tufa towers, particularly at elevations above 2000 meters. The subaqueous parent mineral ikaite forms at low temperatures (< 6 °C) (Bischoff et al., 1993) and requires specific water chemistry. Previous radiocarbon dating of fossil tufa towers around the Mono Basin has yielded a rather small range of ages for the highest elevation towers, between 11.8 and 14.1 14C kyr BP (no corrections for reservoir effects have been made). A thinolite fan collected from outcrops in Mill Creek, just north of the current Mono Lake yielded an age of 10,690 ± 45 14C yr BP (12,750 ± 80 cal yr BP), consistent with a ca. 1000 year reservoir age and coincidence with thinolite crystals found in a core from the northwestern embayment of Mono Lake (Davis, 1999, QR), and thus correlating with the Younger Dryas cooling event as exhibited in the GISP2 δ18O record. While most of the thinolite textures are found at high elevations, we sampled a mound at 1955 meters (near the current shoreline, north of the lake and just east of Black Point) that has many concentric layers, some containing thinolite textures. Although tufa mounds can form very rapidly, the location at low elevation and the presence of at least 19 distinct layers led us to consider that this mound might represent a long term record of Mono Lake’s chemistry. The new data confirm that the mound formed over a long period within the last glacial cycle, with ages ranging beyond the current limits of measurement (>34 kyr) to as young as 15.5 14C kyr BP. In general there is a consistent stratigraphic trend of ages within the mound, but the thinolite ages are anomalously young and one thinolite sample shows a large age reversal. The best estimate of the age of the precipitation of this tufa mound is given by the

  2. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California with magnetotellurics in three--dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peacock, Jared R.; Mangan, Margaret T.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Ponce, David A.

    2015-01-01

    A three–dimensional (3D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid–filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric (MT) stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3–10 Ω·m) that underlie the southeast and north-eastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal–melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east–dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc–like structure (< 0.9 Ω·m) links the northernmost mush column at 10 km depth to just below vents near Panum Crater, where the high conductivity suggests the presence of hydrothermal fluids. The connection from the southernmost mush column at 10 km depth to below South Coulée is less obvious with higher resistivity (200 Ω·m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4–10 Ω·m) 15 km deep extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment, and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long–period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103–105 Ω·m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model

  3. Three-Dimensional Resistivity Model of the Mono Craters Region in Eastern California from Magnetotellurics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Long Valley volcanic region in eastern California contains three magmatic foci; Long Valley Caldera (760-50 ka), Mammoth Mountain (120-8 ka), and Mono-Inyo Craters (60-0.3 ka). Zones of partial melt and/or hydrothermal fluids are known to exist under all three systems, but are not well constrained. In 2013-2014, we collected 110 magnetotelluric stations within a 40km x 45km grid, from Mono Craters through Long Valley Caldera. To date, a 3-D resistivity model has been created for Mono Craters showing three distinct features. Best constrained is a 150±50 km3, near vertical conductive anomaly (0.1-3 Ω·m) located under the southeast margin of Mono Craters at depths from 10km to >35km, which may reflect the deep, partially molten source region for Holocene eruptions. Electrical resistivity calculations suggest temperatures of 775°C±50 and a partial melt fraction 0.2 ±0.1. The location, melt fraction, and volume estimated in this study are consistent with those from teleseismic experiments conducted by Archauer (1986) and Dawson et al. (1990). A second conductive anomaly (0.5-5 Ω·m) at 12km to >35km depths was found 10km west of the Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada. This anomaly coincides with a zone of sporadic, long-period earthquakes interpreted as "fluid-driven" by Pitt et al. (1994). This anomaly may reflect a zone of hydrothermal fluid infiltration originating from the aforementioned magmatic region. The third feature identified in this study is a resistive anomaly (103-104 Ω·m) under Aeolian Buttes, a Cretaceous quartz monzanite outcropping within the Bishop Tuff between Mono Craters and the Sierran front. The anomaly, which fills a crustal volume of 1500 ±500 km3, balloons upward from a deep root at >30 km to within 2 km of the surface and is interpreted as a cold, granitic pluton as supported by gravity and magnetic data. Future work will extend our three-dimensional resistivity model southwards to Inyo Craters and Long

  4. Imaging the magmatic system of Mono Basin, California, with magnetotellurics in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J. R.; Mangan, M. T.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of Mono Basin in eastern California, unveils a complex subsurface filled with zones of partial melt, fluid-filled fracture networks, cold plutons, and regional faults. In 2013, 62 broadband magnetotelluric stations were collected in an array around southeastern Mono Basin from which a 3-D electrical resistivity model was created with a resolvable depth of 35 km. Multiple robust electrical resistivity features were found that correlate with existing geophysical observations. The most robust features are two 300 ± 50 km3 near-vertical conductive bodies (3-10 Ω m) that underlie the southeast and northeastern margin of Mono Craters below 10 km depth. These features are interpreted as magmatic crystal-melt mush zones of 15 ± 5% interstitial melt surrounded by hydrothermal fluids and are likely sources for Holocene eruptions. Two conductive east dipping structures appear to connect each magma source region to the surface. A conductive arc-like structure (< 0.9 Ω m) links the northernmost mush column at 10 km depth to just below vents near Panum Crater, where the high conductivity suggests the presence of hydrothermal fluids. The connection from the southernmost mush column at 10 km depth to below South Coulée is less obvious with higher resistivity (200 Ω m) suggestive of a cooled connection. A third, less constrained conductive feature (4-10 Ω m) 15 km deep, extending to 35 km is located west of Mono Craters near the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada escarpment and is coincident with a zone of sporadic, long-period earthquakes that are characteristic of a fluid-filled (magmatic or metamorphic) fracture network. A resistive feature (103-105 Ω m) located under Aeolian Buttes contains a deep root down to 25 km. The eastern edge of this resistor appears to structurally control the arcuate shape of Mono Craters. These observations have been combined to form a new conceptual model of the magmatic system beneath

  5. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  6. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    SciTech Connect

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  7. Hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions in the 1:1 complex of DABCO di-betaine with squaric acid: Crystallographic, theoretical and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-06-01

    The molecular structure of the 1:1 complex of DABCO di-betaine (1,4-dicarboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt) with squaric acid (1) has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Crystals 1 are monoclinic, space group P21/c. One proton of squaric acid is transferred to one of the carboxylate groups of DABCO di-betaine. The mono-protonated DABCO di-betaine cation is further engaged in the COOH⋯OOC hydrogen bond of 2.526(2) Å with the neighboring cations, linking them into a zigzag chain. The hydrogen squarate anion interacts with the oxygen atom of the carboxylate group of DABCO di-betaine cation, through the Osbnd H⋯Odbnd C hydrogen bonds of 2.600(2) Å. The structures of monomer 1a, dimer 2 and cation 3 have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The FTIR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The second-derivative spectrum of 1 and calculated frequencies for the optimized structure 1a are used to explain the frequencies in the experimental FTIR spectrum.

  8. High-efficiency graphene nanomesh magnets realized by controlling mono-hydrogenation of pore edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.; Kamijyo, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Yagi, Y.; Haruyama, J.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate a drastic improvement in the efficiency of rare-element-free graphene nanomesh (GNM) magnets with saturation magnetization values as large as ∼10{sup −4 }emu/mm{sup 2}, which are 10–100 times greater than those in previous GNM magnets hydrogenated by only annealing under a hydrogen molecule (H{sub 2}) atmosphere, even at room temperature. This improvement is realized by a significant increase in the area of the mono-H-terminated pore edges by using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist treatment with electron beam irradiation, which can produce mono-H by detaching H-silicon (Si) bonds. This result must open the door for industrial applications of graphene magnets to rare-element-free magnetic and spintronic systems.

  9. Effect of benthic boundary layer transport on the productivity of Mono Lake, California

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Louise C; Jellison, Robert; Imberger, Jörg; Melack, John M

    2008-01-01

    The significance of the transport of nutrient-rich hypolimnetic water via the benthic boundary layer (BBL) to the productivity of Mono Lake was studied using a coupled hydrodynamic and ecological model validated against field data. The coupled model enabled us to differentiate between the role of biotic components and hydrodynamic forcing on the internal recycling of nutrients necessary to sustain primary productivity. A 4-year period (1991–1994) was simulated in which recycled nutrients from zooplankton excretion and bacterially-mediated mineralization exceeded sediment fluxes as the dominant source for primary productivity. Model outputs indicated that BBL transport was responsible for a 53% increase in the flux of hypolimnetic ammonium to the photic zone during stratification with an increase in primary production of 6% and secondary production of 5%. Although the estimated impact of BBL transport on the productivity of Mono Lake was not large, significant nutrient fluxes were simulated during periods when BBL transport was most active. PMID:18710583

  10. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S.; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  11. Detection and Quantification of Crack in Composite Mono Leaf Spring by Vibration Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamadar, Nagendra Iranna; Kivade, Sangshetty Bheemanna; Pedada, Sudhakara Rao

    2016-06-01

    Automobile industries focus for the components alternative to conventional materials with composites. There is high demand for enhanced performance and light weight. The emphasis is given for composite mono leaf spring as potential item as it is made up of glass fibre reinforced plastics despite they are sensitive to damages such as crack, delamination, de-bonding etc., occurred during either manufacturing or in service condition. These damages grow in progression and results in catastrophic failure. This work aims to deal with structural health monitoring to study and analyse the damage levels in composite mono leaf spring such as detection, location and quantification of damage. An experimental investigation has been carried out to evaluate presence and severity of damage by vibration parameters and validated with simulation.

  12. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  13. Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rachit; Thomas, Manuel S; Yadav, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal. PMID:26430310

  14. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a patient with MonoMAC syndrome/GATA2 haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Koegel, Ashley K; Hofmann, Inga; Moffitt, Kristin; Degar, Barbara; Duncan, Christine; Tubman, Venée N

    2016-10-01

    Patients with GATA2 haploinsufficiency have a significant predisposition to developing cytopenias, unique infectious manifestations, and myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). We report a unique case of a patient who presented with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and was subsequently diagnosed with monocytopenia and mycobacterium avium complex (MonoMAC) syndrome/GATA2 haploinsufficiency. The development of MDS/AML in patients with GATA2 haploinsufficiency is well described, however, the development of ALL has not been reported in the literature. ALL may be associated with GATA2 haploinsufficiency. Clinicians should be attuned to the features of the MonoMAC syndrome in patients with ALL that would prompt additional testing and alter treatment. PMID:27232273

  15. Effect of strain on the electronic transport properties of mono- and bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Fen; Du, Xu

    It has been theoretically proposed that strain can have a significant impact on the electronic and charge transport properties of mono- and bilayer graphene. Experimental study of such ''strain engineering'' in field effect devices has been limited, mainly due to the challenge in creating an effective tuning knob of strain. Here we report the fabrication and characterization of suspended graphene field effect transistor (FET) on a Polyimide substrate, where uniaxial strain is applied by bending the substrate. Magnetotransport measurement of both mono- and bilayer graphene FETs are carried out with variable strain, from compressive to tensile, over wide range of temperature (4.2-300K). The impact of the strain on the conductivity of graphene will be discussed and compared to the theoretical predictions on strain-induced gauge field and flexural phonon scatterings.

  16. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-05-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness.

  17. Electronic band gaps and transport properties in periodically alternating mono- and bi-layer graphene superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiong; Huang, Wenjun; Ma, Tianxing; Wang, Li-Gang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the electronic band structure and transport properties of periodically alternating mono- and bi-layer graphene superlattices (MBLG SLs). In such MBLG SLs, there exists a zero-averaged wave vector (zero-\\overline{k} ) gap that is insensitive to the lattice constant. This zero-\\overline{k} gap can be controlled by changing both the ratio of the potential widths and the interlayer coupling coefficient of the bilayer graphene. We also show that there exist extra Dirac points; the conditions for these extra Dirac points are presented analytically. Lastly, we demonstrate that the electronic transport properties and the energy gap of the first two bands in MBLG SLs are tunable through adjustment of the interlayer coupling and the width ratio of the periodic mono- and bi-layer graphene.

  18. Electronic band gaps and transport properties in periodically alternating mono- and bi-layer graphene superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiong; Huang, Wenjun; Ma, Tianxing; Wang, Li-Gang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    We investigated electronic band structure and transport properties of periodically alternating mono- and bi-layer graphene superlattices (MBLG SLs). In such MBLG SLs, there exists the zero-averaged wave vector (zero- k) gap, which is insensitive to the lattice constant, and this zero- k gap can be controlled via changing both the ratio of potentials' widths and the interlayer coupling coefficient of bilayer graphene. It is also found that there exist the extra Dirac points and their conditions are analytically presented. Lastly, it shows that the electronic transport properties and the energy gap (Eg) of the first two bands in MBLG SLs are tunable by the interlayer coupling and the widths' ratio of the periodic mono- and bi-layer graphene.

  19. Numerical simulation of stresses and dislocations in quasi-mono silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadzis, K.; Behnken, H.; Bähr, T.; Oriwol, D.; Sylla, L.; Richter, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Alexander-Haasen model is applied for the analysis of dislocation dynamics in quasi-mono crystalline silicon. Model constants are re-calibrated using stress-strain measurements on small silicon samples under uniaxial compression. It is observed that the activation energy may decrease at low temperatures and the hardening parameter generally increases due to the presence of grown-in dislocation clusters. The calibrated model is applied to an idealized cooling process which allows for a discussion of the basic physical mechanisms leading to residual stresses in quasi-mono ingots. Residual stresses can be reduced by minimizing thermal stresses during the elastic-plastic transition, which was observed approximately between 1100 °C and 750 °C in the present case.

  20. Photo-modulation of the spin Hall conductivity of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    We report on a possible optical tuning of the spin Hall conductivity in mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides. Light beams of frequencies much higher than the energy scale of the system (the off-resonant condition) do not excite electrons but rearrange the band structure. The rearrangement is quantitatively established using the Floquet formalism. For such a system of mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides, the spin Hall conductivity (calculated with the Kubo expression in presence of disorder) exhibits a drop at higher frequencies and lower intensities. Finally, we compare the spin Hall conductivity of the higher spin-orbit coupled WSe2 to MoS2; the spin Hall conductivity of WSe2 was found to be larger.

  1. Absorption of THz electromagnetic wave in two mono-layers of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Cole B.; Shoufie Ukhtary, M.; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 100% absorption of an electromagnetic (EM) wave in terahertz (THz) frequency is proposed for a system consisting of two mono-layers of graphene. Here, we demonstrate that the system can almost perfectly absorb an EM wave with frequency of 2 THz, even though we have a low electron mobility of roughly 1000 cm2  Vs‑1. The absorption probability is calculated by using the transfer matrix method. We show that the two mono-layers of the graphene system is needed to obtain nearly 100% absorption when the graphene has a relatively low Fermi energy. The absorption dependence on the distance between the graphene layers is also discussed.

  2. Systematic Behavior of the Non-dipole Magnetic Field during the 32 ka Mono Lake Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, R. M.; McCuan, D.; Cassata, W. S.; Channell, J. E.; Verosub, K. L.; Liddicoat, J. C.; Knott, J. R.; Coe, R. S.; Benson, L. V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Lund, S.; Horton, R.; Lopez, J.

    2012-12-01

    Paleomagnetic excursions are enigmatic phenomena that reveal geodynamo behavior in its transitional state and provide important refinements in age control for the late Pleistocene, a critical time period for the study of paleoclimate and human evolution. We report here on two widely separated, unusually detailed records of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) from sedimentary sequences dated at 32 ka. One of the records is from Summer Lake, Oregon. The vector components of this new record faithfully reproduce the principle features of the MLE as recorded at the type localities around Mono Lake, CA, though with greater detail and higher amplitude. Radiocarbon dates on bulk organics in the Summer Lake record confirm the 32 ka age of the MLE. The other record is from the marine Irminger Basin off of eastern Greenland and is based on the measurement of discrete samples rather than u-channels. The associated VGP paths of the two records strongly suggest systematic field behavior that includes three loci of nondipole flux whose relative dominance oscillates through time. The staggered sequence followed by the two paths through each flux locus further suggests that both the demise and return of the main field floods zonally during the excursion. The composite path is also compatible with the VGPs of a 32 ka set of lavas from New Zealand and, notably, it does not include VGPs associated with the 40 ka Laschamp excursion. This confirms that these two excursions are distinct events and, more specifically, shows that it is the 32 ka Mono Lake excursion that is recorded in the sediments surrounding Mono Lake rather than the ~40 ka Laschamp excursion.

  3. Super spin dimensionality of a mono-dispersed and densely packed magnetic nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. S.; De Toro, J. A.; Lee, S. S.; Mathieu, R.; Nordblad, P.

    2014-06-01

    The dynamics of a dense near mono-dispersed assembly of maghemite nanoparticles is investigated by measurements of the temperature dependence of the isothermal remnant magnetization induced by temporal application of weak magnetic fields at constant temperature. The results suggest that the dimensionality of the super spins of the particles is of Heisenberg character at high temperatures but crossover to become Ising like at lower temperatures.

  4. Relative performance of a vibratory energy harvester in mono- and bi-stable potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by the need for broadband vibratory energy harvesting, many research studies have recently proposed energy harvesters with nonlinear characteristics. Based on the shape of their potential function, such devices are classified as either mono- or bi-stable energy harvesters. This paper aims to investigate the relative performance of these two classes under similar excitations and electric loading conditions. To achieve this goal, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. This permits operation in the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. For the purpose of performance comparison, the axial load is used to tune the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in the mono- and bi-stable configurations. The harvester is subjected to harmonic base excitations of different magnitudes and a slowly varying frequency spanning a wide band around the tuned oscillation frequency. The output voltage measured across a purely resistive load is compared over the frequency range considered. Two cases are discussed; the first compares the performance when the bi-stable harvester has deep potential wells, while the second treats a bi-stable harvester with shallow wells. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the essential role that the potential shape plays in conjunction with the base acceleration to determine whether the bi-stable harvester can outperform the mono-stable one and for what range of frequencies. Results also illustrate that, for a bi-stable harvester with shallow potential wells, super-harmonic resonances can activate the inter-well dynamics even for a small base acceleration, thereby producing large voltages in the low frequency range.

  5. Prediction of virologic response to tenofovir mono-rescue therapy for multidrug resistant chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangheun; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Song, Kijun; Ku, Hye Jin; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Ahn, Sang Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Most guidelines suggest combination therapy including nucleoside and nucleotide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with multidrug resistance (MD-R). However, long-term combination treatment can evoke high costs and safety problems. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) mono-rescue therapy for viral suppression in patients with CHB exhibiting MD-R. We reviewed patients with CHB exhibiting antiviral drug resistance treated by TDF mono-rescue therapy from December 2012 to June 2014. The patients were categorized into three groups: lamivudine-resistance (LAM-R) group (n = 290), and LAM-R + adefovir-resistance (ADV-R) group (n = 43), and LAM-R + entecavir-resistance (ETV-R) group (n = 113). We compared the virologic response rate according to the multiplicity of resistance and investigated the predictive factors of a virologic response. For a median of 15 months (range, 6-24 months) of TDF mono-rescue therapy, the cumulative virologic response rates were 82.8, 81.4, and 84.1% in the LAM-R, LAM-R + ADV-R, and LAM-R + ETV-R groups, respectively (P = 0.239). Multivariate analysis revealed that multiplicity of resistance did not influence the achievement of a virologic response (P = 0.218). However, the baseline HBV DNA level significantly influenced the achievement of a virologic response for the treatment of CHB with MD-R (P < 0.001). TDF mono-rescue therapy is an appropriate treatment for CHB with MD-R, and the baseline HBV DNA level is a significant predictive factor for a virologic response. These factors should be considered before treating CHB with MD-R. J. Med. Virol. 88:1027-1034, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26538234

  6. IR and ESR studies on novel Cu(II) theophyllinato complexes containing mono- or bidentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forizs, Edit; David, L.; Cozar, O.; Chiş, V.; Damian, G.; Csibi, Jolán

    1999-05-01

    Three mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing theophylline and mono- or bidentate N-donor ligands (2,2'-bipyridine, 4-fluoraniline and 1,10-phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and ESR spectra. According to IR and ESR data the Cu(II) complexes exhibit a distorted tetrahedral coordination of copper by two nitrogen atoms of the monodentate or bidentate ligands and the two monodentate theophyllinate anion bonded through N(7) atom.

  7. Novel carboranyl derivatives of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates: a synthetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Vyakaranam, Kamesh; Hosmane, Narayan S

    2004-01-01

    A number of nucleoside mono- and diphosphites and phosphonates containing 1,2-dicarbadodecaborane (12) (la-6b) at 5'-position of the sugar moiety have been synthesized in good yields. Experimental details along with the spectroscopic and analytical data, supporting the formation of the title compounds, are presented. These constitute a new generation of boron compounds that are envisioned to be useful in cancer treatment via Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). PMID:18365067

  8. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26–0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76–77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  9. Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage-long-term process stability and requirements.

    PubMed

    Lebuhn, M; Liu, F; Heuwinkel, H; Gronauer, A

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production from mono-digestion of maize silage was studied for more than one year in six continuously stirred, daily fed 36 L fermenters. Chemical and microbiological parameters were analysed concomitantly. The reactors acidified already after 8 months of operation at a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g VS*(L*d)(-1). The TVA/TAC ratio was the most reliable parameter to indicate early process instabilities leading to acidification. A TVA/TAC threshold of 0.5 should not be exceeded. After acidification and recovery of the fermenters, propionic acid was no reliable parameter anymore to indicate process failure, since values far below the threshold of 1 g*L(-1) were obtained although the process had collapsed.The acidified reactors recovered better, showed greatly improved stability and allowed a higher OLR when a trace element (TE) cocktail was supplemented. Hydrolysis was obviously not process-limiting, results indicated that methanogens were affected. The most limiting element in long-term mono-digestion of maize silage turned out to be cobalt, but data obtained suggest that molybdenum and selenium should also be provided. TE supplementation should be designed specifically in order to meet the actual needs. TE availability for the biocenosis appears to be a key issue in biogas production, not only in mono-but also in co-digestion processes. PMID:19001720

  10. The Torsional Spectrum of Mono-Deuterated Methanol CH_2DOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hilali, A.; Coudert, L. H.; Klee, S.

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the isotopic specie of methanol with a symmetrical CH_3 or CD_3 methyl group, in the mono-deuterated species CH_2DOH the hindering potential no longer displays 3-fold symmetry and all moments of inertia depend on the angle of internal rotation. For this reason, this mono-deuterated species displays a fairly dense torsional spectrum difficult to compute and to assign. In this paper an analysis of the torsional spectrum of mono-deuterated methanol is presented. More than 40 torsional subbands have been assigned in the 20 to 800 cm-1 region. The body of data available for CH_2DOH consists of these newly assigned subbands and of the already available ones. The observed torsional subbands are characterized by K ≤ 10 and v_t ≤ 10. For 23 subbands, the rotational structure could be analyzed and this provides us with a mean to check their torsional assignment. The positions of the subband centers were analyzed with a theoretical approach accounting for the dependence of the inertia tensor on the angle of internal rotation. This allowed us to reproduce 58 experimental wavenumbers with an RMS value of 0.12 cm-1. The spectroscopic parameters corresponding to the hindering potential and to the inertia tensor were also retrieved. Quade and Lin, J. Chem. Phys. 38 (1963) 54. Lauvergnat, Coudert, Klee, and Smirnov, J. Mol. Spec. 239 (2009) 204.

  11. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography for purification of monoPEGylated RNase A.

    PubMed

    Mayolo-Deloisa, Karla; Lienqueo, Ma Elena; Andrews, Barbara; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Asenjo, Juan A

    2012-06-15

    The chromatographic methods used for the purification of PEGylated proteins are mainly Size Exclusion (SEC) and Ion Exchange Chromatography (IEX). Although the PEGylation affects the protein hydrophobicity, Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) has not been extensively applied for the separation of these proteins. Purification of monoPEGylated Ribonuclease A (RNase A) using HIC is studied in this work. The products of the PEGylation reaction of RNase A with 20 kDa methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) were separated using three resins with different degrees of hydrophobicity: Butyl, Octyl and Phenyl sepharose. The effects of resin type, concentration and salt type (ammonium sulphate or sodium chloride), and gradient length on the separation performance were evaluated. Yield and purity were calculated using the plate model. Under all conditions assayed the native protein was completely separated from PEGylated species. The best conditions for the purification of monoPEGylated RNase A were: Butyl sepharose, 1 M ammonium sulphate and 35 column volumes (CVs); this resulted in a yield as high as 85% with a purity of 97%. The purity of monoPEGylated RNase A is comparable to that obtained when the separation is performed using SEC, but the yield increases from 65% with SEC to ~85% with HIC. This process represents a viable alternative for the separation of PEGylated proteins. PMID:22579360

  12. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, California) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Bursik, Marcus; Lidzbarski, Marsha I.

    2014-03-01

    Nineteen tephra layers within the Wilson Creek formation near Mono Lake provide a record of late Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic activity from the nearby Mono Craters and are important chronostratigraphic markers for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. These stratigraphically important tephra deposits can be geochemically identified using compositions of their titanomagnetite phenocrysts. Titanomagnetite compositions display a broad range (XUsp 0.26-0.39), which allow the tephra layers to be distinguished despite the indistinguishable major-element glass compositions (76-77 wt% SiO2) of their hosts. The concentrations of Ti and Fe in titanomagnetite display geochemical and stratigraphic groupings that allow clear discrimination between older (> 57 ka) and younger (< 41 ka) tephras. Some individual tephra layers can be uniquely identified on the basis of titanomagnetite MgO, MnO, and Al2O3 contents. In addition, a few tephra layers can be correlated to their source vents by their titanomagnetite compositions. The unique geochemical fingerprint of the Mono Craters-sourced titanomagnetites also allows the discrimination of two tephra layers apparently sourced from nearby Mammoth Mountain volcano in Long Valley.

  13. Effects of membranotropic agents on mono- and multilayer structures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Lisetski, L N; Vashchenko, O V; Tolmachev, A V; Vodolazhskiy, K B

    2002-12-01

    We have studied the action of some membranotropic agents (MTAs) on the parameters of mono- and multilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The MTAs used included an antimicrobial drug, decamethoxinum, the model amphiphilic agent stearoyl-L-alpha-alanine, and cholesterol as a reference substance. Using differential scanning calorimetry and the Langmuir monolayer technique, we measured the temperature and enthalpy of the main phase transition of DPPC, the mean molecular area, the collapse pressure and the free energy of the mixed monolayers of DPPC and MTA. A good correlation has been obtained between the structure of the MTA used and changes in the parameters of both mono- and multilayers. Thus, for cholesterol, its well-known condensing effect in the L alpha phase correlates with its behavior in the mixed monolayers. The disturbing action of decamethoxinum (depression of the phase transition in DPPC multilayers and relatively high free energy of mixing in monolayers) is presumably connected with interaction of its charged ammonium moieties with polar phospholipid heads. At the same time, stearoyl-L-alpha- alpha-alanine condensed the lipid layers and increased the melting point of DPPC, owing to its interaction with both polar and non-polar lipid moieties. One can conclude that the three MTAs used can really be considered as representative examples of three different types of behavior in mono- and multilayers. PMID:12602341

  14. Symptoms and Immune Markers in Plasmodium/Dengue Virus Co-infection Compared with Mono-infection with Either in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Eric S.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Sihuincha, Moises; Lescano, Andres G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are two of the most common vector-borne diseases in the world, but co-infection is rarely described, and immunologic comparisons of co-infection with mono-infection are lacking. Methodology and Principal Findings We collected symptom histories and blood specimens from subjects in a febrile illness surveillance study conducted in Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado, Peru, between 2002–2011. Nineteen symptoms and 18 immune markers at presentation were compared among those with co-infection with Plasmodium/dengue virus (DENV), Plasmodium mono-infection, and DENV mono-infection. Seventeen subjects were identified as having Plasmodium/DENV co-infection and were retrospectively matched with 51 DENV mono-infected and 44 Plasmodium mono-infected subjects. Those with Plasmodium mono-infection had higher levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-γ, and MIP1-α/CCL3 compared with DENV mono-infection or co-infection; those with Plasmodium mono-infection had more cough than those with DENV mono-infection. Subjects with DENV mono-infection had higher levels of TGF-β1 and more myalgia than those with Plasmodium mono-infection. No symptom was more common and no immune marker level was higher in the co-infected group, which had similar findings to the DENV mono-infected subjects. Conclusions/Significance Compared with mono-infection with either pathogen, Plasmodium/DENV co-infection was not associated with worse disease and resembled DENV mono-infection in both symptom frequency and immune marker level. PMID:27128316

  15. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Adam J; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-12-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a recently recognized bacterial signaling molecule. In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed using a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP). With this method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. PMID:25239824

  16. Serum adiponectin in HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus mono- and co-infected Kenyan injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727

  17. Developmental changes in the conversion rates of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate to monoethylhexyl phthalate in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gollamudi, R.; Hanumantha, R.; Lawrence, W.H.; Autian, J.

    1985-01-01

    The activities of liver, lung, and kidney of rats of various age groups and that of placenta in hydrolyzing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate have been measured. Male and female rats of 45 d of age, neonatal rats within 12 h of parturition, and fetuses and placenta on d 19 of gestation were used. The liver was most active in all age groups; however, the lung and the kidney also had considerable activity. The tissues of the fetuses and the neonate had significant activity. The k/sub m/ values of the enzyme were 4mM in the neonatal liver and 5.9 mM in the adult liver.

  18. Decreased Serum Free Testosterone in Workers Exposed to High Levels of Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP): A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guowei; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Yoshimura, Mariko; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Ping; Tsukino, Hiromasa; Inoue, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Background Observations of adverse developmental and reproductive effects in laboratory animals and wildlife have fueled increasing public concern regarding the potential for various chemicals to impair human fertility. Objective Our objective in this study was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to high levels of phthalate esters on the balance of gonadotropin and gonadal hormones including luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone (fT), and estradiol. Methods We examined urine and blood samples of 74 male workers at a factory producing unfoamed polyvinyl chloride flooring exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and compared them with samples from 63 male workers from a construction company, group matched for age and smoking status. Results Compared to the unexposed workers, the exposed workers had substantially and significantly elevated concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP; 644.3 vs. 129.6 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.001) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP; 565.7 vs. 5.7 μg/g creatinine, p < 0.001). fT was significantly lower (8.4 vs. 9.7 μg/g creatinine, p = 0.019) in exposed workers than in unexposed workers. fT was negatively correlated to MBP (r = −0.25, p = 0.03) and MEHP (r = −0.19, p = 0.095) in the exposed worker group. Regression analyses revealed that fT decreases significantly with increasing total phthalate ester score (the sum of quartiles of MBP and MEHP; r = −0.26, p = 0.002). Conclusion We observed a modest and significant reduction of serum fT in workers with higher levels of urinary MBP and MEHP compared with unexposed workers. PMID:17107847

  19. Possible Recording of the Hilina Pali Excursion in the Mono Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Inclination of about negative 40˚ in basalt from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (Teanby et al., 2002), that is assigned an age of about 18,000 radiocarbon years (uncorrected)(Coe et al., 1978, after Rubin and Berthold, 1961) and an excursion in northeastern China at Changbaishan Volcano of similar age from Ar40/Ar39 dates (Singer et al., 2011) that was interpreted to be the Blake Subchron (Zhu et al., 2000) using K/Ar (Liu, 1987) and Ar40/39 dates (Lin, 1999), might be recorded as shallow positive inclination in lacustrine siltstone in the bank of Wilson Creek in the Mono Basin, CA. The siltstone was deposited in Pleistocene Lake Russell, of which Mono Lake is the remnant, and was exposed when Wilson Creek was incised as the shoreline of Mono Lake receded (Lajoie, 1968). Basaltic and rhyolitic volcanic ash layers exposed in the bank of the creek are stratigraphic markers that have been important for studies of the Mono Lake Excursion (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and Pleistocene climate in the U.S. Great Basin (Zimmerman et al., 2006). Those ash layers likewise are useful for locating paleomagnetic directions along strike that might be the negative inclination in Hawaii named the Hilina Pali Excursion (Teanby et al., 2002). The portion of the lacustine section exposed along Wilson Creek that is of interest records waveform Delta in Lund et al. (1988) in Subunit E of Lajoie (1993) that is bracketed by ash layers 12 and 13; in Lajoie (1968), those ash layers are numbered 8 and 7, respectively. About midway in Subunit E, which has a thickness of 1.1 m, the inclination is about 15˚ in four back-to-back horizons that span 8 cm. The subsamples, each 2 cm thick, were treated by either alternating field or thermal demagnetization. The Virtual Geomagnetic Pole (VGP) for the horizon with the shallowest inclination (14.9˚) is 53.8˚ N, 22.7˚ E (n = 6, Alpha-95 = 2.3˚), and the VGPs within waveform Delta when followed

  20. Mono Lake Excursion in Cored Sediment from the Eastern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Iorio, Marina; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Incoronato, Alberto

    2013-04-01

    A search for the Laschamp and Mono Lake excursions in cored marine and lacustrine sediment younger than 50,000 years resulted in the discovery of both excursions in the Greenland Sea (73.3˚ N, 351.0˚ E, Nowaczyk and Antanow, 1997), in the North Atlantic Ocean (62.7˚ N, 222.5˚ E, Channell, 2006), in Pyramid Lake in the Lahontan Basin, NV, USA (40.1˚ N, 240.2˚ E, Benson et al., 2008), and in the Black Sea (43.2˚ N, 36.5˚ E, Nowaczyk et al., 2012). The inclination, declination, and relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in the Black Sea sediment matches well the behaviour of the excursion in the Mono Basin, CA, in that a reduction in inclination during westerly declination is soon followed by steep positive inclination when declination is easterly, and relative field intensity increases after a low at the commencement of the excursion (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). A large clockwise loop of Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at the Black Sea when followed from old to young patterns very well the VGP loop formed by the older portion of the MLE in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). We also searched for the MLE in cored sediment from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (40.1˚ N, 14.7˚ E) where the age of the sediment is believed to be about 32,000 years when comparing the susceptibility in the core with the susceptibility in a nearby one that is dated by palaeomagnetic secular variation records, Carbon-14, and numerous tephra layers in the Tyrrhenian Sea sediment (Iorio et al., 2011). In the Tyrrhenian Sea core, called C1067, closely spaced samples demagnetized in an alternating field to100 mT record a shallowing of positive inclination to 48˚ that is followed by steep positive inclination of 82˚ when declination moves rapidly to the southeast. The old to young path of the VGPs in C1067 forms a narrow counter-clockwise loop that reaches 30.3˚ N, 30.8˚ E and that is centered at about 55˚ N, 15˚ E. Although descending to a latitude that is

  1. Anomalous Raman scattering and lattice dynamics in mono- and few-layer WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younghee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides. First-principles calculation validates experimental results and reveals that anomalous lattice vibrations in WTe2 are attributed to the formation of tungsten chains that make WTe2 structurally one-dimensional.Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A17 mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides

  2. Fuel economy and emissions evaluation of BMW hydrogen 7 mono-fuel demonstration vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Wallner, T.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Gurski, S.; Duoba, M.; Thiel, W.; Martin, D.; Korn, T.; Energy Systems; BMW Group Munich Germany; BMW Group Oxnard USA

    2008-12-01

    This article summarizes the testing of two BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF). The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles are derived from the BMW Hydrogen 7 bi-fuel vehicles and based on a BMW 760iL. The mono-fuel as well as the bi-fuel vehicle(s) is equipped with cryogenic hydrogen on-board storage and a gaseous hydrogen port fuel injection system. The BMW Hydrogen 7 Mono-Fuel demonstration vehicles were tested for fuel economy as well as emissions on the Federal Test Procedure FTP-75 cold-start test as well as the highway test. The results show that these vehicles achieve emissions levels that are only a fraction of the Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (SULEV) standard for nitric oxide (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. For non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions the cycle-averaged emissions are actually 0 g/mile, which require the car to actively reduce emissions compared to the ambient concentration. The fuel economy numbers on the FTP-75 test were 3.7 kg of hydrogen per 100 km, which, on an energy basis, is equivalent to a gasoline fuel consumption of 17 miles per gallon (mpg). Fuel economy numbers for the highway cycle were determined to be 2.1 kg of hydrogen per 100 km or 30 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (GGE). In addition to cycle-averaged emissions and fuel economy numbers, time-resolved (modal) emissions as well as air/fuel ratio data is analyzed to further investigate the root causes of the remaining emissions traces. The BMW Hydrogen 7 vehicles employ a switching strategy with lean engine operation at low engine loads and stoichiometric operation at high engine loads that avoids the NO{sub x} emissions critical operating regime with relative air/fuel ratios between 1 < {lambda} < 2. The switching between these operating modes was found to be a major source of the remaining NO{sub x} emissions. The emissions results collected

  3. Mono Lake Excursion as a Chronologic Marker in the U.S. Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.; Knott, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    Nevada, Utah, and California east of the Sierra Nevada are in the Great Basin physiographic province of western North America. During periods of the Pleistocene, Lake Bonneville and Lake Lahontan covered valleys in Utah and Nevada, respectively, and other lakes such as Lake Russell in east-central California did likewise (Feth, 1964). Now dry except for its remnant, Mono Lake, Lake Russell provides an opportunity to study behavior of Earth's past magnetic field in lacustrine sediments that are exposed in natural outcrops. The sediments record at least 30,000 years of paleomagnetic secular variation (Liddicoat, 1976; Zimmerman et al., 2006) and have been of particular interest since the discovery of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) by Denham and Cox (1971) because the field behavior can be documented at numerous sites around Mono Lake (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979, Liddicoat, 1992; Coe and Liddicoat, 1994) and on Paoha Island in the lake. Moreover, there have been recent attempts to date the excursion (Kent et al., 2002, Benson et al., 2003) more accurately and use the age and relative field intensity in paleoclimate research (Zimmerman et al., 2006). It has been proposed that the excursion in the Mono Basin might be older than originally believed (Denham and Cox, 1971; Liddicoat and Coe, 1979) and instead be the Laschamp Excursion (LE), ~ 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004), on the basis of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and the relative paleointensity record (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the excursion in the Mono Basin. On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the excursion, ~ 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity at the Mono and Lahontan basins and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2003). The age of ~ 32,000 yrs B.P. is in accord with the age (32,000-34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the MLE at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin in the North Atlantic Ocean, which contains as well an

  4. Exclusive e+e-, di-photon and di-jet production at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Terashi, Koji; /Rockefeller U.

    2007-05-01

    Results from studies on exclusive production of electron-position pair, di-photon, and dijet production at CDF in proton-antiproton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented. THe first observation and cross section measurements of exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and di-jet production in hadron-hadron collisions are emphasized.

  5. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Treatment Outcomes of Isoniazid- and Rifampicin- Mono-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Leonela; Huaman, Moises A.; Van der Stuyft, Patrick; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Seas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoniazid and rifampicin are the two most efficacious first-line agents for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. We assessed the prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance, associated risk factors, and the association of mono-resistance on treatment outcomes. Methods A prospective, observational cohort study enrolled adults with a first episode of smear-positive pulmonary TB from 34 health facilities in a northern district of Lima, Peru, from March 2010 through December 2011. Participants were interviewed and a sputum sample was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) media. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method. Medication regimens were documented for each patient. Our primary outcomes were treatment outcome at the end of treatment. The secondary outcome included recurrent episodes among cured patients within two years after completion of the treatment. Results Of 1292 patients enrolled, 1039 (80%) were culture-positive. From this subpopulation, isoniazid mono-resistance was present in 85 (8%) patients and rifampicin mono-resistance was present in 24 (2%) patients. In the multivariate logistic regression model, isoniazid mono-resistance was associated with illicit drug use (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1–4.1), and rifampicin mono-resistance was associated with HIV infection (aOR = 9.43; 95%CI: 1.9–47.8). Isoniazid mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes including treatment failure (2/85, 2%, p-value<0.01) and death (4/85, 5%, p<0.02). Rifampicin mono-resistant patients had a higher risk of death (2/24, 8%, p<0.01). Conclusion A high prevalence of isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance was found among TB patients in our low HIV burden setting which were similar to regions with high HIV burden. Patients with isoniazid and rifampicin mono-resistance had an increased risk of poor treatment outcomes. PMID:27045684

  6. Organic Osmolytes in Aerobic Bacteria from Mono Lake, an Alkaline, Moderately Hypersaline Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ciulla, R. A.; Diaz, M. R.; Taylor, B. F.; Roberts, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    The identity and concentrations of intracellular organic solutes were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for two strains of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria isolated from Mono Lake, Calif., an alkaline, moderately hypersaline lake. Ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was the major endogenous solute in both organisms. Concentrations of ectoine varied with external NaCl levels in strain ML-D but not in strain ML-G, where the level was high but invariant from 1.5 to 3.0 M NaCl. Hydroxyectoine also occurred in strain ML-D, especially at elevated NaCl concentrations (2.5 and 3.0 M), but at levels lower than those of ectoine. Exogenous organic solutes that might occur in Mono Lake were examined for their effects on the de novo synthesis of ectoine. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) (0.1 or 1 mM) did not significantly lower ectoine levels in either isolate, and only strain ML-G showed any capacity for DMSP accumulation. With nitrogen limitation, however, DMSP (0.1 mM) substituted for ectoine in strain ML-G and became the main organic solute. Glycine betaine (GB) was more effective than DMSP in affecting ectoine levels, principally in strain ML-D. Strain ML-D accumulated GB to 50 or 67% of its organic solute pool at 2.5 M NaCl, at an external level of 0.1 or 1 mM GB, respectively. Strain ML-D also accumulated arsenobetaine. The methylated zwitterionic compounds, probably metabolic products of phytoplankton (DMSP and GB) or brine shrimps (arsenobetaine) in Mono Lake, may function as osmolytes for indigenous bacteria when present at high concentrations or under conditions of nitrogen limitation or salt stress. PMID:16535487

  7. Spectral Variation Across the Mono-Inyo Craters Chain, Weathering of a Young Volcanic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, N.; Calvin, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HYSPIRI) preparation mission, the Airborne Visual Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has over flown the Mono-Inyo Craters chain located in Mono County, California to study the geothermal potential of the area. Data was taken at a spatial scale of 15m, similar to that of the highest resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) data. The Mono-Inyo Craters is a geologically young volcanic chain of 40 eruptive events, with the oldest eruptions dating to 40 Ka and the latest 200 years ago. Today 23 craters show exposure on the surface and vary from a more rhyolitic composition to a more basaltic composition in the north. This data shows spectral variability in the 1.0μm and 2.21μm absorption bands between volcanic centers. The 1.0μm absorption is attributed to iron and iron oxides and the 2.21μm to the Si-OH stretch likely due to the opalization of silica rich of volcanic materials. Such variation can be attributed to weathering of the exposed surface material within each crater. Older volcanic centers show a much deeper 2.21μm than younger volcanic centers. One exception to this is a volcanic dome known as the South Coulee. South Coulee is the location of a pumice mine that has exposed a fresh surface that has little to no weathering, and therefore a smaller 2.21μm band. We will show a correlation between crater exposure age and the 2.21μm band depth. On Mars weathering will take place at a slower pace, due to less water, but with much longer timescales such differences could still exist and be used to determine relative weathering and exposure ages of surfaces.

  8. Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV+/HCV+), HCV mono-infected (HIV−/HCV+), HIV mono-infected (HIV+/HCV−) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV−/HCV−) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV+/HCV+ women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV+/HCV+ and HIV+/HCV− women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV+/HCV+ group compared with HIV−/HCV+ and HIV+/HCV− groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV+/HCV+ individuals. PMID:24955730

  9. Systemic cytokine and interferon responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV mono and co-infections.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-11-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(+)), HCV mono-infected (HIV(-)/HCV(+)), HIV mono-infected (HIV(+)/HCV(-)) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV(-)/HCV(-)) who had enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). HIV(+)/HCV(+) women had higher plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as caspase-1 compared with other groups. Both HIV(+)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) women had significantly higher sCD14 levels compared with other groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV mono-infected patients had reduced levels of phosphorylation of STAT1 compared with other groups as well as lower basal levels of expression of the IFN-stimulated genes, OAS1, ISG15, and USP18 (UBP43). Basal expression of USP18, a functional antagonist of ISG15, as well as USP18/ISG15 ratios were increased in the HIV(+)/HCV(+) group compared with HIV(-)/HCV(+) and HIV(+)/HCV(-) groups. A more pronounced systemic inflammatory profile as well as increased expression ratios of USP18 to ISG15 may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease in HIV(+)/HCV(+) individuals. PMID:24955730

  10. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering—volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture.

  11. A stopped-flow kinetic study of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1989-01-01

    1. The roles of the three protein components of soluble methane mono-oxygenase were investigated by the use of rapid-reaction techniques. The transfer of electrons through the enzyme complex from NADH to methane/O2 was also investigated. 2. Electron transfer from protein C, the reductase component, to protein A, the hydroxylase component, was demonstrated. Protein C was shown to undergo a three-electron--one-electron catalytic cycle. The interaction of protein C with NADH was investigated. Reduction of protein C was shown to be rapid, and a charge-transfer interaction between reduced FAD and NAD+ was observed; this intermediate was also found in static titration experiments. Thus the binding of NADH, the reduction of protein C and the intramolecular transfer of electrons through protein C were shown to be much more rapid than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. 3. The rate of transfer of electrons from protein C to protein A was shown to be lower than the reduction of protein C but higher than the turnover rate of methane mono-oxygenase. Association of the proteins was not rate-limiting. The amount of protein A present in the system had a small effect on the rate of reduction of protein C, indicating some co-operativity between the two proteins. 4. Protein B was shown to prevent electron transfer between protein C and protein A in the absence of methane. On addition of saturating concentrations of methane electron transfer was restored. With saturating concentrations of methane and O2 the observed rate constant for the conversion of methane into methanol was 0.26 s-1 at 18 degrees C. 5. By the use of [2H4]methane it was demonstrated that C-H-bond breakage is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the conversion of methane into methanol. PMID:2497729

  12. High Resolution Seismic Imaging of the Trench Canyon Fault Zone, Mono Lake, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, M. W.; Jayko, A. S.; Roeske, S.; McClain, J. S.; Hart, P. E.; Boyle, M.

    2009-12-01

    High resolution seismic imaging of Mono Lake, located in northeastern California, has revealed an approximately northwest striking fault in the area to the west of aerially exposed Negit Volcano. This fault, henceforth referred to as the Trench Canyon Fault (TCF), has also been mapped onshore along a correlating strike as far north as Cedar Hill Volcano, located to the northeast of the lake on the California/Nevada border. Onshore, the TCF was mapped for approximately 10 kilometers using air photos, DEM images, and standard geologic pace and compass mapping techniques. The TCF post- dates the last glacial maximum, evidenced by the cutting of wave cut benches along Cedar Hill Volcano. Relict, non-historic shorelines, left by the steady evaporation of Mono Lake beginning approximately 13k, are also repeatedly cut by the fault. Additional evidence of fault presence includes sag ponds, pressure ridges, tectonically fractured rocks, and normal fault scarps found along strike. Offshore, DEM images show a northeast striking structure to the northwest of Negit Volcano, which is co-linear with the onshore TCF. High resolution seismic imaging of the structure, using an applied acoustic/SIG mini-sparker system, reveals steeply dipping Holocene sediments, as well as volcanic deposits from active vents which have erupted in the last 1000 years, offset by the fault. Detailed structural analysis of the previously unstudied Trench Canyon Fault (TFC) and faults in the Cedar Hill region of northern California, along with seismic studies of sediments beneath Mono Lake not only allow for a better comprehension of this minor fault system, but provide greater understanding of the larger and more complex Walker Lane Shear Zone. Fault analyses, combined and correlated with those from CHV, give a better understanding of how slip is transferred into the complicated Mina defection to the east, from the dextral and normal faults along the Sierra Nevada Range front.

  13. Seed mediated synthesis of highly mono-dispersed gold nanoparticles in the presence of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Mutreja, Isha; Sykes, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are being studied for several biomedical applications, including drug delivery, biomedical imaging, contrast agents and tumor targeting. The synthesis of nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is critical for these applications. We report the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed AuNPs by a seed mediated approach, in the presence of tri-sodium citrate and hydroquinone (HQ). AuNPs with an average size of 18 nm were used for the synthesis of highly mono-dispersed nanocrystals of an average size 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm; but the protocol is not limited to these sizes. The colloidal gold was subjected to UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, showing a red shift in lambda max wavelength, peaks at 518.47 nm, 526.37 nm, 535.73 nm, 546.03 nm and 556.50 nm for AuNPs seed (18 nm), 40 nm, 60 nm, 80 nm and ∼100 nm respectively. The analysis was consistent with dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Hydrodynamic diameters measured were 17.6 nm, 40.8 nm, 59.8 nm, 74.1 nm, and 91.4 nm (size by dynamic light scattering-volume %); with an average poly dispersity index value of 0.088, suggesting mono-dispersity in the size distribution, which was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The advantage of a seed mediated approach is a multi-step growth of nanoparticle size that enables us to control the number of nanoparticles in the suspension, for size ranging from 24.5 nm to 95.8 nm. In addition, the HQ-based synthesis of colloidal nanocrystals allowed control of the particle size and size distribution by tailoring either the number of seeds, amount of gold precursor or reducing agent (HQ) in the final reaction mixture. PMID:27454145

  14. Effects of molecular weight-dependent physicochemical heterogeneity of natural organic matter on the aggregation of fullerene nanoparticles in mono- and di-valent electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mo-Hai; Yin, Yong-Guang; Booth, Andy; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2015-03-15

    Given the wide presence of heterogeneous natural organic matter (NOM) and metal ions (Na(+)/Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)), as well as their significant role in governing nanoparticle stability in aqueous environments, it is of great importance to understand how the molecular weight (MW)-dependent physicochemical properties of NOM impact fundamental transportation processes like the aggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in the presence of Na(+)/Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). Here, we report on the aggregation behavior of a model ENP, fullerene nanoparticles (nC60) in the presence of five MW fractions of Suwannee River NOM (Mf-SRNOMs, separated by ultrafiltration techniques) and three electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2). We found that in all NaCl treatments and low concentration CaCl2/MgCl2 treatments, the enhancement of nC60 stability positively correlated with the MW of Mf-SRNOMs. Whereas, the stability efficiency of identical Mf-SRNOM in different electrolytes followed an order of NaCl > MgCl2 > CaCl2, and the enhanced attachment of nC60-SRNOM associations was observed in high MW Mf-SRNOM (SRNOM>100 kD and SRNOM 30-100 kD) at high concentration CaCl2/MgCl2. Our results indicate that although the high MW NOM with large humic-like material is the key component for stabilizing nC60 in monovalent electrolyte, it could play a reversed role in promoting the attachment of nC60, especially in long term aggregations and at high concentrations of divalent cations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the effects of heterogeneous NOM on the aggregation of ENPs should be highly valued, and properly assessed against different cation species and concentrations. PMID:25577691

  15. Design, RNA cleavage and antiviral activity of new artificial ribonucleases derived from mono-, di- and tripeptides connected by linkers of different hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Tamkovich, Nikolay; Koroleva, Lyudmila; Kovpak, Mikhail; Goncharova, Elena; Silnikov, Vladimir; Vlassov, Valentin; Zenkova, Marina

    2016-03-15

    A novel series of metal-free artificial ribonucleases (aRNases) was designed, synthesized and assessed in terms of ribonuclease activity and ability to inactivate influenza virus WSN/A33/H1N1 in vitro. The compounds were built of two short peptide fragments, which include Lys, Ser, Arg, Glu and imidazole residues in various combinations, connected by linkers of different hydrophobicity (1,12-diaminododecane or 4,9-dioxa-1,12-diaminododecane). These compounds efficiently cleaved different RNA substrates under physiological conditions at rates three to five times higher than that of artificial ribonucleases described earlier and displayed RNase A-like cleavage specificity. aRNases with the hydrophobic 1,12-diaminododecane linker displayed ribonuclease activity 3-40 times higher than aRNases with the 4,9-dioxa-1,12-diaminododecane linker. The assumed mechanism of RNA cleavage was typical for natural ribonucleases, that is, general acid-base catalysis via the formation of acid/base pairs by functional groups of amino acids present in the aRNases; the pH profile of cleavage confirmed this mechanism. The most active aRNases under study exhibited high antiviral activity and entirely inactivated influenza virus A/WSN/33/(H1N1) after a short incubation period of viral suspension under physiological conditions. PMID:26899594

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A HUMAN PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODEL FOR INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ITS MONO- AND DI-METHYLATED METABOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to estimate levels of arsenic and its metabolites in human tissues and urine after oral exposure to either arsenate (AsV) or arsnite (AsIII). The model consists of interconnected individual ...

  17. Relative rates of coke formation from hydrocarbons in steam cracking of naphtha. 2. Paraffins, naphthenes, mono-, di-, and cycloolefins, and acetylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kopinke, F.D. ); Zimmermann, G. ); Reyniers, G.C.; Froment, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Relative rate constants of coke formation from saturated hydrocarbons, olefins, and acetylenes during steam cracking of naphtha at 810 C were determined by application of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. The range of hydrocarbons investigated comprises 20 representatives of paraffins, from methane to hexadecane, and of naphthenes, from cyclopentane to hydroanthracene, and 20 olefins from ethene to styrene, including cyclo- and diolefins, and five acetylenes. Carbonaceous deposits in pyrolysis reactors from steel and quartz as well as in the transfer line exchange (TLE) section were determined separately.

  18. Quenching of triplet states of phenazine and its mono-, di-,and tetrabenzo derivatives and of their triplet exciplexes with dimethylaniline by oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.V.; Dilung, I.I.; Usacheva, M.N.

    1986-05-01

    This paper studies the quenching of triplet states of phenazine and its benzo derivatives, as well as of their triplet exciplexes with dimethylaniline, by oxygen. A method which permits the quantitative evaluation of the concentration of the dissolved oxygen has been described. The calculated values of the rate constants of the quenching of the T states of the azines studied and their exiplexes have been presented. The role of donor-acceptor interactions in the quenching mechanism has been discussed.

  19. A Tephra Database With an Intelligent Correlation System, Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M.; Rogova, G.

    2004-12-01

    We are assembling a web-accessible, relational database of information on past eruptions of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain, eastern California. The PostgreSQL database structure follows the North American Data Model and CordLink. The database allows us to extract the features diagnostic of particular pyroclastic layers, as well as lava domes and flows. The features include depth in the section, layer thickness and internal stratigraphy, mineral assemblage, major and trace element composition, tephra componentry and granulometry, and radiocarbon age. Our working hypotheses are that 1) the database will prove useful for unraveling the complex recent volcanic history of the Mono-Inyo chain 2) aided by the use of an intelligent correlation system integrated into the database system. The Mono-Inyo chain consists of domes, craters and flows that stretch for 50 km north-south, subparallel to the Sierran range front fault system. Almost all eruptions within the chain probably occurred less than 50,000 years ago. Because of the variety of magma and eruption types, and the migration of source regions in time and space, it is nontrivial to discern patterns of behaviour. We have explored the use of multiple artificial neural networks combined within the framework of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to construct a hybrid information processing system as an aid in the correlation of Mono-Inyo pyroclastic layers. It is hoped that such a system could provide information useful to discerning eruptive patterns that would otherwise be difficult to sort and categorize. In a test case on tephra layers at known sites, the intelligent correlation system was able to categorize observations correctly 96% of the time. In a test case with layers at one unknown site, and using a pairwise comparison of the unknown site with the known sites, a one-to-one correlation between the unknown site and the known sites was found to sometimes be poor. Such a result could be used to aid a

  20. Leachable Li and Mg Evidence for Hydrological Changes in the Mono Basin, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahajpal, R.; Hemming, N.; Zimmerman, S. R.; Hemming, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology in closed basin lakes, such as Mono Lake of the US western Great Basin, is sensitive to regional climate changes. Lake level history of the Mono Basin has been put into a precise age framework using the paleomagnetic intensity of the Wilson Creek Formation sediments to North Atlantic records, and accordingly Greenland's GISP2 oxygen isotope record (Zimmerman et al., 2006, EPSL, v. 252, pp. 94- 106). This allows correlation of the lake level indicators and Greenland climate at high resolution. The physical evidence for lake level, based on the association of strata in near shore terraces, can be confidently correlated to proxies of lake chemistry preserved in the strata. We have tested the application of leachable Li, following the procedure developed by Bischoff et al. (1997, Quaternary Research, v. 48, pp. 313-325) for Owens Lake. At Owens Lake there is a positive correlation between salinity based on diatoms with leachable Li concentrations. In contrast, at Mono Lake the leachable Li concentration follows the bulk carbonate concentration, generally correlating low lake levels (high salinity) with low leachable Li concentrations. Our preferred explanation for both the carbonate and leachable Li concentrations is based on the fact that the Mono Basin rarely overflows, and therefore precipitation of minerals during evaporation leads to chemical divides (Garrels and Mackenzie., 1967, in "Equilibrium Concepts in Natural Water Systems", W. Stumm, Ed., pp. 222-242). As Li behaves conservatively compared to elements like Ca2+ and Mg2+, it might be expected that the leachable Li would be higher when lake level is lower. However, the host for the Li appears to be Mg-smectite. Therefore, the concentration of leachable Li in the sediment is controlled by the concentration of Mg-smectite, as well as the Li/Mg of the water from which the Mg- smectite precipitated and the Kd of the Li into the Mg-smectite. We are studying the Li and Mg systematics of these samples in

  1. High-resolution seismic imaging, Mono Lake fault zone, eastern Sierra region, Walker Lane, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Childs, J. R.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Multiple strands of the Mono Lake fault zone (MLfz), a segment of the Sierra Nevada frontal fault zone, have been imaged on several high-resolution seismic reflection profiles collected during 2009 and 2011 at Mono Lake. The profiles show coherent reflectors to about 30-40 ms depth below the lake bottom (~30 m thick section) in nearshore areas north of the Lee Vining delta. The MLfz is well imaged on 8 lines including 4 lines ~normal to the trend of the fault zone. The fault zone is ~ 0.75 km wide. Deep reflection horizons appear gently tilted and rotated into the fault zone with a prominent clastic wedge overlying the west-tilted horizons. Shallow reflectors above the clastic wedge are generally east-sloping, but noticeably less inclined above the fault zone. At least two ruptures offset Holocene deposits, with ~0.5-1.8 m dip-slip offset around 2.5 ka and ~3.6-6.13 m dip-slip offset around 4.7 to 6.25 ka. The ages of reflection horizons are estimated using published Holocene and late Pleistocene sedimentation rates, as well as correlation with a published nearby shallow core. The short term fault slip rate based on the timing of the most recent event and multiple events in the profile lines suggests fault slip rates of about 0.26 to 0.55 m/ka using ages based only on sedimentation rate and of about 0.31 to 0.34 m/ka using correlation ages from nearby shallow core. This offshore dip-slip rate is significantly lower than previous published 1.0-2.0 m/ka dip-slip rates estimated using cosmogenic dating of Tioga glacial moraines in Lundy Canyon and offset older moraines. The offset on the large scarp in Lundy Canyon (~20 m) decreases both north and south of the canyon and flanking lateral moraines where the scarp is on the order of only ~4-7 m high. A possible explanation for the apparent difference in MLfz slip rates onshore and offshore in this part of Mono Basin may be soft sediment deformation of saturated glacial-deltaic sediment within Lundy Canyon that causes

  2. Correlation of lacustrine paleoclimate records from Mono Lake with the North Atlantic using paleomagnetic intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Hemming, S. R.; Kent, D. V.

    2003-04-01

    The Wilson Creek Formation of Mono Lake, CA is a Late Pleistocene lacustrine sequence that records major shifts in the paleoenvironment of the lake. It has also been shown to be an excellent recorder of the past variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, and is important as the type section of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE). As with many terrestrial records, however, it has proven to be very challenging to date the Wilson Creek Fm. at high resolution. Radiocarbon dating has been shown to be vulnerable to contamination with modern carbon, while 40Ar/39Ar dating of the rhyolitic ashes is complicated by inclusion of older xenocrysts. Benson et al. (1998; QR, v. 49, 1-10 ) suggested a correlation to North Atlantic records using paleomagnetic inclination and intensity combined with radiocarbon ages. They argued that δ18O of the Wilson Creek sediments represents variations in lake level, with prominent dry periods (high δ18O) correlating to the North Atlantic Heinrich events. We generated a relative paleointensity record for the Wilson Creek section and propose an alternative correlation to the North Atlantic Paleomagnetic Intensity Stack (NAPIS-75; Laj et al. 2000, Phil. Trans. R. Soc., v. 358, 1009-1025) and the GISP2 age model. It was recently demonstrated by Stoner et al. (2002, QSR v. 21, 1141-1151) that variations in the Earth’s paleomagnetic field intensity are correlative both at high-resolution (10^3 yr) and over long distances (10^4 km). Assuming that the MLE is equivalent to the Laschamp Excursion and that the lake expanded early in Marine Isotope Stage 4, a simple correlation of the major features of the NAPIS-75 and Mono records places the Wilson Creek Fm. on the GISP2 age model, and allows correlation of that paleoclimate record to other records also on that time scale. We also interpret the major δ18O excursions as Heinrich correlatives; however, our correlation equates the three older excursions to H4, H5, and H6 (rather than H3, no correl., and H4

  3. Third order nonlinear optical response exhibited by mono- and few-layers of WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Torres, Carlos; Perea-López, Néstor; Elías, Ana Laura; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.; Cullen, David A.; Berkdemir, Ayse; López-Urías, Florentino; Terrones, Humberto; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, strong third order nonlinear optical properties exhibited by WS2 layers are presented. Optical Kerr effect was identified as the dominant physical mechanism responsible for these third order optical nonlinearities. An extraordinary nonlinear refractive index together with an important contribution of a saturated absorptive response was observed to depend on the atomic layer stacking. Comparative experiments performed in mono- and few-layer samples of WS2 revealed that this material is potentially capable of modulating nonlinear optical processes by selective near resonant induced birefringence. We envision applications for developing all-optical bidimensional nonlinear optical devices.

  4. Effects of spin-orbit interaction on the electronic structure of mono-layer quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Ghaffari, A.

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous effects of spin-orbit interaction, external electric and magnetic fields and dimension on the electronic structure of a mono-layer quantum wire are investigated in this paper. Due to the direct effects of external electric field on the structure's symmetries and spin-orbit interaction, energy eigenvalues and functions of the system are calculated with axial or in-plane electric field. It is shown that spin-orbit interaction modifies energy eigenvalues and functions of the system with regard to external factors.

  5. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  6. Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Mono- and Few-Layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Klein, J; Wierzbowski, J; Regler, A; Becker, J; Heimbach, F; Müller, K; Kaniber, M; Finley, J J

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate electrical control of the A-exciton interband transition in mono- and few-layer MoS2 crystals embedded into photocapacitor devices via the DC Stark effect. Electric field-dependent low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals a significant tuneability of the A-exciton transition energy up to ∼ 16 meV from which we extract the mean DC exciton polarizability ⟨β̅N⟩ = (0.58 ± 0.25) × 10(-8) Dm V(-1). The exciton polarizability is shown to be layer-independent, indicating a strong localization of both electron and hole wave functions in each individual layer. PMID:26845085

  7. Methods and spatial extent of geophysical Investigations, Mono Lake, California, 2009 to 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.; Hart, P.E.; Childs, J. R.; Cormier, M.-H.; Ponce, D.A.; Athens, N.D.; McClain, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods and spatial extent of geophysical surveys conducted on Mono Lake and Paoha Island by U.S. Geological Survey during 2009 and 2011. The surveys include acquisition of new high resolution seismic reflection data, shipborne high resolution magnetic data, and ground magnetic and gravity data on Paoha Island. Several trials to acquire swath bathymetry and side scan sonar were conducted, but were largely unsuccessful likely due to physical properties of the water column and (or) physical properites of the highly organic bottom sediment.

  8. Primary studies of trace quantities of green vegetation in Mono Lake area using 1990 AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Zhi-Kang; Elvidge, Chris D.; Groeneveld, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Our primary results in Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve indicate that high spectral resolution Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data may provide a substantial advantage in vegetation, based on the chlorophyll red edge feature from 700-780 nm. The chlorophyll red edge was detected for green vegetation cover as low as 4.8 percent. The objective of our studies in Mono Lake area is to continue the experiments performed in Jasper Ridge and to examine the persistence of red edge feature of trace quantities of green vegetation for different plant communities with non-uniform soil backgrounds.

  9. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-01

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process. PMID:25695626

  10. Rheumatologic manifestations of the "MonoMAC" syndrome. a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer A; Yu, Steven S; Elist, Michael; Arkfeld, Daniel; Panush, Richard S

    2015-09-01

    MonoMAC syndrome is characterized by monocytopenia with susceptibility to nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. First recognized in 2011, it is caused by GATA2 mutations and can manifest as disseminated mycobacterial, fungal, and viral infections. While mortality rates for this disorder have been high, it has recently been successfully treated with haploidentical allogeneic stem cell transplant. Since approximately one third of patients may have rheumatologic symptoms, such as erythema nodosum, panniculitis, or arthralgias, rheumatologists may expect to encounter this newly described entity with increasing frequency. PMID:25739845

  11. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells via activation of both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Qin, Qizhi; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Hongyan; Xiong, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The evidence shows that DEHP may exert its toxic effects primarily via MEHP, which is 10-fold more potent than its parent compound in toxicity in vitro. MEHP-induced apoptosis is mediated by either p53-dependent or -independent pathway. However, the detailed mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. In this study, immortalized normal human liver cell line L02 was chosen, as an in vitro model of nonmalignant liver, to elucidate the role of p53 in MEHP-induced apoptosis. The cells were treated with MEHP (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00, and 100.00 μM) for 24 and 36 h, then small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to specifically silence p53 gene of L02 cells. The results indicated that MEHP caused oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in L02 cells were associated with the p53 signaling pathway. Further study found that MEHP (50.00 and 100.00 μM) induced apoptosis in p53-silenced L02 cells, along with the up-regulations of Fas and FasL proteins as well as increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Caspase 3, 8, and 9 activities. Additionally, both FasL inhibitor (AF-016) and Caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp- fluoromethylketone (Z-VAD-FMK) could prevent the cell apoptosis induced by MEHP. The findings suggested that MEHP-induced apoptosis in L02 cells involving a Caspases-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway and/or death receptor pathway. p53 was not absolutely necessary for MEHP-induced L02 cell apoptosis. PMID:24706461

  12. Di-leptons at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Matis, H.S.

    1988-03-01

    Recent results on the production of di-leptons measured by the Di-Lepton-Spectrometer (DLS) collaboration are discussed. Results are reported from observations made on p /plus/ Be collisions with proton beams from 1.0 to 4.9 GeV and on Ca collisions with calcium beams of 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/A. The shape of the distributions are similar to that at higher energies. The low mass cross section appears to be explained by ..pi..-..pi.. annihilation, but detailed calculations are needed to substantiate that hypothesis. (LEN)

  13. Charge separated states and singlet oxygen generation of mono and bis adducts of C60 and C70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Rogers, Gregory; Reid, Ben; Taylor, Robert A.; Shinohara, Hisanori; Briggs, G. Andrew D.; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos

    2016-02-01

    We present a series of fullerene derivatives and a study on their photoluminescence properties, complete with their efficiency as singlet oxygen generation photosensitizers. We demonstrate the intramolecular charge transfer between pyrene donor and fullerene acceptor. The opposite effect in decay lifetime measurements is observed for the mono and bis adducts of C60 and C70 for the first time, indicating an interplay between charge-separation and locally excited states. A monoexponential decay was observed for the mono adduct of C60 and the bis adduct of C70, while a biexponential decay was observed for the bis adduct of C60 and the mono adduct of C70. The effect of these molecules as sensitizers of the singlet oxygen radical was tested using detailed 3D excitation photoluminescence maps. A quenching of the singlet oxygen for the C60-mono and C70-bis adducts was observed while a strong photosensitizing effect was observed for the C60-bis and C70-mono adducts.

  14. Photo-induced poly-domain to mono-domain switching in ultrathin PbTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vailionis, A.; Meyer, R.; McIntyre, P. C.

    2010-03-01

    Ferroelectric (FE) domain structures play a crucial role in polarization switching dynamics, ferroelectric random access memory (FRAM) data retention and polarization fatigue and it is therefore of practical importance to gain a more fundamental understanding of the origin of the transition between poly-domain and mono-domain states. Methods that promote the mono-domain state in the FE films are also of interest for model studies of ferroelectricity and its dimensional scaling. We investigate a novel poly-domain to mono-domain (P-M) switching mechanism in thin ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PTO) films induced by ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The switching occurs within minutes if a sample is irradiated with light of wavelength < 390 nm which corresponds to a photon energy that is roughly equivalent to the band gap of PbTiO3 (3.2 eV). Based on a developed electrostatic model, we show that the observed phenomenon is related to photo generation of free carriers at the PbTiO3/SrTiO3 interface which effectively screens the PTO polarization charge at the interface and therefore promotes the transition of the ferroelectric film from a poly-domain to a mono-domain state. The model successfully describes not only the observed illumination effects on PTO stripe domain patterns but also a longer-term poly-domain to mono-domain (P-M) transition that occurs without intentional illumination.

  15. [Study on biodegradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Ling; Ji, Jun-Ping; Xia, Si-Qing

    2007-06-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the treatability of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) by anaerobic granular sludge which was acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP). The characteristic of degradation of 2,4-DCP by anaerobic sludge acclimated by mixed mono-chlorphenols was investigated through shake flask study and performance of continuous flow anaerobic bioreactors. The difference of degradation of 2,4-DCP by acclimated and unacclimated sludge was also compared. 2,4-DCP was degraded at 50 h and 180 h respectively for acclimated and unacclimated sludge, which testified that acclimated sludge could more effectively degrade 2,4-DCP. Although the intermediate product 4-MCP was present in both reaction system, 4-MCP could be degraded completely after 400 h in the acclimated sludge but accumulated in the unacclimated sludge. Therefore, acclimation by the mixed mono-chlorphenols (2-CP, 4-MCP) could enhance the ability of para- and meta-dechlorination for anaerobic sludge and increase the treatability of 2,4-DCP. The results of continuous anaerobic sludge-suspended carrier bioreactor (ASSCB) indicate that inoculation of the acclimated sludge by mixed mono-chlorphenols can degrade two mono-chlorphenols simultaneously, shorten the setup period, and increase the efficiency of degrading 2,4-DCP. 2-CP was easily degraded with removal rate of over 80% . While the removal rate of 4-MCP was fluctuating within 30% - 80% with changes of its influent concentration. PMID:17674731

  16. Detection of cyclic di-AMP using a competitive ELISA with a unique pneumococcal cyclic di-AMP binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam J.; Zhang, Yang; Metzger, Dennis W.; Bai, Guangchun

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is a signaling molecule that has been shown to play important roles in bacterial physiology and infections. Currently, c-di-AMP detection and quantification relies mostly on the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In this study, a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of c-di-AMP was developed, which utilizes a novel pneumococcal c-di-AMP binding protein (CabP) and a newly commercialized c-di-AMP derivative. With this new method, c-di-AMP concentrations in biological samples can be quickly and accurately quantified. Furthermore, this assay is much more efficient than current methods as it requires less overall cost and training while processing many samples at once. Therefore, this assay can be extensively used in research into c-di-AMP signaling. PMID:25239824

  17. URINARY BIOMARKERS OF DI-ISONONYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) is a mixture of various branched-chain dialkyl phthalates mainly containing ninecarbon alkyl isomers. At high doses in rodents, DiNP is a carcinogen, and a developmental toxicant. After exposure, the diester isomers are de-esterified to for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1852 - Di-alkyl borane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Di-alkyl borane (generic). 721.1852... Substances § 721.1852 Di-alkyl borane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as di-alkyl borane (PMN P-00-1087) is...

  19. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

    PubMed Central

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Perbellini, Ezio; Ramires, Francesca A.; Grieco, Francesco; Cappello, Maria S.; De Domenico, Stefania; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2014-01-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono, and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days), while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol), styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days) and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days). PMID:25389422

  20. Increased Enterocyte Production in Gnotobiotic Rats Mono-Associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    PubMed Central

    Banasaz, M.; Norin, E.; Holma, R.; Midtvedt, T.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing scientific and commercial interest in using beneficial microorganisms (i.e., probiotics) to enhance intestinal health. Of the numerous microbial strains examined, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been most extensively studied. Daily intake of L. rhamnosus GG shortens the course of rotavirus infection by mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. Comparative studies with germfree and conventional rats have shown that the microbial status of an animal influences the intestinal cell kinetics and morphology. The present study was undertaken to study whether establishment of L. rhamnosus GG as a mono-associate in germfree rats influences intestinal cell kinetics and morphology. L. rhamnosus GG was easily established in germfree rats. After 3 days of mono-association, the rate of mitoses in the upper part of the small intestine (jejunum 1) increased as much as 14 and 22% compared to the rates in germfree and conventional counterparts, respectively. The most striking alteration in morphology was an increase in the number of cells in the villi. We hypothesis that the compartmentalized effects of L. rhamnosus GG may represent a reparative event for the mucosa. PMID:12039764

  1. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure: ammonia inhibition and recirculation of the digestate.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hong; Jacobi, H Fabian; Strach, Katrin; Xu, Chunming; Zhou, Hongjun; Liebetrau, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of ammonia concentration on the performance and stability of mono-fermentation of chicken manure were investigated in a lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactor at 40 °C. Technical stripping was performed to remove ammonia from the liquid fraction of digestate, and the entire product was recycled to the fermenter to control ammonia concentration in the fermenter. Organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.3 gVS/(L d) was achieved with an average free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) concentration of 0.77 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.39 L/gVS. When OLR was increased to 6.0 gVS/(L d), stable operation could be obtained with an average FAN concentration of 0.86 g/L and a specific gas yield of 0.27 L/gVS. Mono-fermentation of chicken manure was successfully carried out at high ammonia concentrations. Controlled recirculation of treated liquid fraction of digestate could be a solution in large-scale application for both: to avoid ammonia inhibition and minimize digestate. PMID:25266688

  2. Interactions of antimicrobial peptide from C-terminus of myotoxin II with phospholipid mono- and bilayers.

    PubMed

    Won, Amy; Ianoul, Anatoli

    2009-10-01

    Comparative studies of the effect of a short synthetic cationic peptide, pEM-2 (KKWRWWLKALAKK), derived from the C-terminus of myotoxin II from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper on phospholipid mono- and bilayers were performed by means of Langmuir Blodgett (LB) monolayer technique, atomic force microscopy and calcein leakage assay. Phospholipid mono- and bilayers composed of single zwitterionic or anionic phospholipids as well as lipid mixtures mimicking bacterial cell membrane were used. LB measurements indicate that the peptide binds to both anionic and zwitterionic phospholipid monolayers at low surface pressure but only to anionic at high surface pressure. Preferential interaction of the peptide with anionic phospholipid monolayer is also supported by a more pronounced change of the monolayer pressure/area isotherms induced by the peptide. AFM imaging reveals the presence of nanoscale aggregates in lipid/peptide mixture monolayers. At the same time, calcein leakage experiment demonstrated that pEM-2 induces stronger disruption of zwitterionic than anionic bilayers. Results of the study indicate that electrostatic interactions play a significant role in the initial recognition and binding of pEM-2 to the cell membrane. However, membrane rupturing activity of the peptide depends on interactions other than simple ionic attraction. PMID:19632195

  3. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Mono Acid Esters Derived from the Constituents of Urtica pilulifera

    PubMed Central

    I. Husein, Ahmad; J. Jondi, Waheed; A. Zatar, Nidal; S. Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    New mono acid esters have been synthesized from the reaction of benzoic acid and mono-hydroxybenzoic acids with 2-phenoxyethanol separated from Urtica pilulifera, characterized, and screened for possible antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. These phenolic acid esters gave various degrees of free radical scavenging, but the values were lower than that of α-tocopherol. The concentrations of the tested compounds needed to reduce DPPH absorption by 50% at 517 nm were nearly in the range of 900-1100 µg/mL. While for α-tocopherol was 40 µg /mL. The compounds were tested in-vitro against six bacterial species which are known to cause dermic and mucosal infections in human. 2-phenoxyethyl benzoate showed significant activity in the range of 30% against P. aeruginosa to 70% against E. coli compared with the activity of Streptomycin. On the other hand 2-phenoxyethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate reveals 70% of gentamicin against K. pneumoniae. The tested compounds also showed complete inhibition at a concentration less than 37.5 µg/mL against M. canis and less than 50 µg/mL against T. rubrum. 2-phenoxyethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate showed considerable activity against MCF-7 with IC50 is less than 62.5 µg/mL. PMID:25587305

  4. Production, purification and biological characterization of mono-PEGylated anti-IL-17A antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome-Juliette; Heywood, Sam; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Barilly, Céline; Van Snick, Jacques; Vanbever, Rita

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to maximize the yield of the production of mono-PEGylated anti-interleukin-17A (anti-IL-17A) antibody fragments using large (≥ 20 kDa) polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains. Particular attention was paid to selectively yield mono-PEGylated species to maintain the maximum possible functionality and to simplify the purification. Neutralization of IL-17A by antibody constructs might find application for the treatment of bronchial hyperreactivity. Amino-directed and sulfhydryl-directed PEGylation of the native antibody fragments were compared. The former was selected as it produced the most interesting construct in terms of yield and preservation of biological activity. In particular, the F(ab')2-PEG conjugate with one 40 kDa branched PEG prepared in this study was produced at a 42% yield. The conjugate presented only a slight decrease in its binding activity and in its in vitro inhibitory potency offering interesting perspectives for in vivo studies. PMID:23850622

  5. Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-06-28

    While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

  6. Charge Density Waves in the bulk and mono-layer VSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yang-Hao; Wei, Ching-Ming; Chou, Mei-Yin

    Charge density waves (CDWs) are widely observed in the layered transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). With the capability of preparing atomically thin samples in the experiment, the underlying mechanism of the formation of CDWs and the role played by dimensionality in TMDs can now be studied in great detail. We present the first-principles calculations on bulk and mono-layer VSe2. Our results agree with the experimental findings that the dominant CDW phase has a 4x4x3 supercell structure in the bulk system. Electronic structure calculations suggest Fermi-surface nesting is a relevant mechanism. On the other hand, we find a new 3√{ {} 3 } ×√{ {} 3 } CDW phase as the lowest energy structure in the mono-layer case induced by strong electron-phonon interaction. We also find that substantial hole doping leads to a CDW-superconducting (SC) phase transition. The SC transition temperature is predicted to be higher than that of the bulk from our first-principles calculations.

  7. Evaluation of mono or mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria in type II sourdough system.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Raci; Şimşek, Ömer; Küçükçuban, Ayca; Nas, Sebahattin

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mono and mixed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures to determine suitable LAB combinations for a type II sourdough system. In this context, previously isolated sourdough LAB strains with antimicrobial activity, which included Lactobacillus plantarum PFC22, Lactobacillus brevis PFC31, Pediococcus acidilactici PFC38, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PFC80, were used as mono or mixed culture combinations in a fermentation system to produce type II sourdough, and subsequently in bread dough production. Compared to the monoculture fermentation of dough, the use of mixed cultures shortened the adaptation period by half. In addition, the use of mixed cultures ensured higher microbial viability, and enhanced the fruity flavor during bread dough production. It was determined that the combination of L. plantarum PFC22 + P. acidilactici PFC38 + L. sanfranciscensis PFC80 is a promising culture mixture that can be used in the production of type II sourdough systems, and that may also contribute to an increase in metabolic activity during bread production process. PMID:25807196

  8. Ash production and dispersal from sustained low-intensity Mono-Inyo eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Benjamin A.; Manga, Michael; Andrews, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Recent rhyolitic volcanism has demonstrated that prolonged low-intensity ash venting may accompany effusive dome formation. We examine the possibility and some consequences of episodes of extended, weak ash venting at the rhyolitic Mono-Inyo chain in Eastern California. We describe ash-filled cracks within one of the youngest domes, Panum Crater, which provide a textural record of ash venting during dome effusion. We use synchrotron-based X-ray computed tomography to characterize the particles in these tuffisites. Particle sizes in well-sorted tuffisite layers agree well with grain size distributions observed during weak ash venting at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, and yield approximate upper and lower bounds on gas velocity and mass flux during the formation of those layers. We simulate ash dispersal with Ash3d to assess the consequences of long-lived Mono-Inyo ash venting for ash deposition and the accompanying volcanic hazards. Our results highlight the sensitivity of large-scale outcomes of volcanic eruptions to small-scale processes.

  9. Computationally and experimentally assessed gravity-driven, mono- and bidisperse, particle-laden flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shreyas; Huang, Kaiwen; Hin, Matt; Urdaneta, Gilberto; Mavromoustaki, Aliki; Wong, Jeffrey; Lee, Sungyon; Bertozzi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    We present an experimental study which investigates the motion of granular materials in mono- and bi-disperse suspensions consisting of silicone oil, glass and ceramic beads. The beads are of distinct densities both denser than the oil but of approximately the same size. A finite volume of slurry is allowed to flow down an inclined plane and the subsequent flow development is recorded. The system parameters are the angle of inclination, the total particle concentration and the relative amount of heavy (ceramic) to light (glass) beads. Similarly to the results observed in previous studies of mono-disperse slurry flows, in bidisperse suspensions, there exist two stable flow regimes: the first one involves settling of particles to the substrate while, in the second one, the particles aggregate at the front of the flow. We carry out a series of experiments to investigate the effect of system parameters on the resulting flow regime patterns and compare our results with a theoretical model which incorporates the effects of shear-induced migration and sedimentation in bidisperse suspensions of negatively buoyant particles. Further, we use fluorescent particle beads to compare the particle spatio-temporal evolution observed in experiments against numerical simulations.

  10. Interactions of squaric acid with DABCO mono-betaine: Structural, spectroscopic and calculation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-04-01

    The 1:1 complex of squaric acid (3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dion) with DABCO mono-betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and by DFT calculations. The crystal of 1 is triclinic, space group P1¯. Short COOH⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.445(2) and 2.582(2) Å, respectively, link the diprotonated DABCO mono-betaine dications and squarate dianions into chain. The structure is additionally stabilized by the N+⋯O electrostatic interactions and weak Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The FTIR spectrum shows two broad absorptions in the 3000-2000 cm-1 region assigned to the νNsbnd H⋯O vibration and in the 1900-500 cm-1 region attributed to the ν(OHO) and γ(OHO) vibrations of the short hydrogen bonds.

  11. Dissecting simulated disc galaxies - I. The structure of mono-age populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Minchev, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2014-08-01

    We study seven simulated disc galaxies, three with a quiescent merger history, and four with mergers in their last 9 Gyr of evolution. We compare their structure at z = 0 by decomposing them into `mono-age populations' (MAPs) of stars within 500 Myr age bins. All studied galaxies undergo a phase of merging activity at high redshift, so that stars older than 9 Gyr are found in a centrally concentrated component, while younger stars are mostly found in discs. We find that most MAPs have simple exponential radial and vertical density profiles, with a scaleheight that typically increases with age. Because a large range of merger histories can create populations with simple structures, this suggests that the simplicity of the structure of mono-abundance populations observed in the Milky Way by Bovy et al. is not necessarily a direct indicator of a quiescent history for the Milky Way. Similarly, the anticorrelation between scalelength and scaleheight does not necessarily imply a merger-free history. However, mergers produce discontinuities between thin and thick disc components, and jumps in the age-velocity relation. The absence of a structural discontinuity between thin and thick disc observed in the Milky Way would seem to be a good indicator that no merger with a mass ratio larger than 1:15-1:10 occurred in the last 9 Gyr. Mergers at higher redshift might nevertheless be necessary to produce the thickest, hottest components of the Milky Way's disc.

  12. [Consultations in oncological supportive care mono-, multi-, ou interdisciplinary: What should we favour?].

    PubMed

    Garnier, Stéphanie Ranque; Pelletti, Caroline; Quenard, Christelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Lemoine, Patrick; Guastella, Virginie; Rhondali, Wadih

    2015-09-01

    According to the point 7.6 and 7.7 of the Cancer Plan 2014, all cancer patients should have access to supportive care. Indeed, the supportive care consultation in oncology is an important tool for the symptom management of cancer patients at all times of treatment. This consultation can be mono-disciplinary or multi-disciplinary (with different professions: physician, nurse, psychologist, social service assistant…) with or without integration (multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary). There are few studies focusing on the types of consultations (mono- or multidisciplinary) to promote based on their expected outcomes. After describing the different types of consultations (initial, follow-up, unscheduled, discharge) and having highlighted the main issues of these consultations, we will present the possible configurations. Our discussion will concern then the advantages and disadvantages of monodisciplinarity and different types of multidisciplinary highlighting the possible improvements. At the end of this work, after a brief synthesis of the different outcomes associated with each type of consultation, we would like to discuss the type of consultation to choose according to the outcomes. PMID:26031300

  13. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Mono Acid Esters Derived from the Constituents of Urtica pilulifera.

    PubMed

    I Husein, Ahmad; J Jondi, Waheed; A Zatar, Nidal; S Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    New mono acid esters have been synthesized from the reaction of benzoic acid and mono-hydroxybenzoic acids with 2-phenoxyethanol separated from Urtica pilulifera, characterized, and screened for possible antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. These phenolic acid esters gave various degrees of free radical scavenging, but the values were lower than that of α-tocopherol. The concentrations of the tested compounds needed to reduce DPPH absorption by 50% at 517 nm were nearly in the range of 900-1100 µg/mL. While for α-tocopherol was 40 µg /mL. The compounds were tested in-vitro against six bacterial species which are known to cause dermic and mucosal infections in human. 2-phenoxyethyl benzoate showed significant activity in the range of 30% against P. aeruginosa to 70% against E. coli compared with the activity of Streptomycin. On the other hand 2-phenoxyethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate reveals 70% of gentamicin against K. pneumoniae. The tested compounds also showed complete inhibition at a concentration less than 37.5 µg/mL against M. canis and less than 50 µg/mL against T. rubrum. 2-phenoxyethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate showed considerable activity against MCF-7 with IC50 is less than 62.5 µg/mL. PMID:25587305

  14. Mono-ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a clinical review on ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Birch Petersen, Kathrine; Pedersen, Nina Gros; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Lauritsen, Mette Petri; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women of reproductive age and is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. The treatment approaches to ovulation induction vary in efficacy, treatment duration and patient friendliness. The aim was to determine the most efficient, evidence-based method to achieve mono-ovulation in women diagnosed with PCOS. Publications in English providing information on treatment, efficacy and complication rates were included until September 2015. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials were favoured over cohort and retrospective studies. Clomiphene citrate is recommended as primary treatment for PCOS-related infertility. It induces ovulation in three out of four patients, the risk of multiple pregnancies is modest and the treatment is simple and inexpensive. Gonadotrophins are highly efficient in a low-dose step-up regimen. Ovulation rates are improved by lifestyle interventions in overweight women. Metformin may improve the menstrual cycle within 1-3 months, but does not improve the live birth rate. Letrozole is effective for ovulation induction, but is an off-label drug in many countries. Ovulation induction in women with PCOS should be individualized with regard to weight, treatment efficacy and patient preferences with the aim of achieving mono-ovulation and subsequently the birth of a singleton baby. PMID:27151490

  15. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness. PMID:27225416

  16. Anomalous Raman scattering and lattice dynamics in mono- and few-layer WTe2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghee; Jhon, Young In; Park, June; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jhon, Young Min

    2016-01-28

    Tungsten ditelluride (WTe2) is a layered material that exhibits excellent magnetoresistance and thermoelectric behaviors, which are deeply related with its distorted orthorhombic phase that may critically affect the lattice dynamics of this material. Here, we report comprehensive characterization of Raman spectra of WTe2 from bulk to monolayer using experimental and computational methods. We find that mono and bi-layer WTe2 are easily identified by Raman spectroscopy since two or one Raman modes that are observed in higher-layer WTe2 are greatly suppressed below the noise level in the mono- and bi-layer WTe2, respectively. In addition, the frequency of in-plane A1(7) mode of WTe2 remains almost constant as the layer number decreases, while all the other Raman modes consistently blueshift, which is completely different from the vibrational behavior of hexagonal metal dichalcogenides. First-principles calculation validates experimental results and reveals that anomalous lattice vibrations in WTe2 are attributed to the formation of tungsten chains that make WTe2 structurally one-dimensional. PMID:26750205

  17. Steady-state kinetic analysis of soluble methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Dalton, H

    1986-01-01

    A steady-state kinetic analysis of purified soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) was performed. The enzyme was found to follow a concerted-substitution mechanism. Methane binds to the enzyme followed by NADH, which reacts to yield reduced enzyme and NAD+. The reduced enzyme-methane complex binds O2 to give a second ternary complex, which breaks down to release water and methanol. In this way the enzyme can control the supply of electrons to the active site to coincide with the arrival of methane. Product-inhibition studies (with propylene as substrate) supported the reaction mechanism proposed. Ki values for NAD+ and propylene oxide are reported. The Km for NADH varied from 25 microM to 300 microM, depending on the nature of the hydrocarbon substrate, and thus supports the proposed reaction sequence. With methane as substrate the Km values for methane, NADH and O2 were shown to be 3 microM, 55.8 microM and 16.8 microM respectively. With propylene as substrate the Km values for propylene, NADH and O2 were 0.94 microM, 25.2 microM and 12.7-15.9 microM respectively. Methane mono-oxygenase was shown to be well adapted to the oxidation of methane compared with other straight-chain alkanes. PMID:3098230

  18. Potassium-argon ages of recent rhyolites of the Mono and Inyo craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brent, Dalrymple G.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-two KAr ages were determined for sanidine samples from 10 rhyolite domes of the Mono and Inyo Craters to test the applicability of KAr dating to volcanic rocks of Recent age. Comparison of the results with 'blank' and dosed analyses shows that radiogenic 40Ar was detected and was measured to within a factor of two or better. The estimated standard deviation of precision is 12% for analyses containing 5% or more radiogenic 40Ar. A statistical analysis suggests that real differences in apparent age were detected between three of the analyzed domes. The ages, which range from 6400 to 10,200 years for experiments with 5% or more radiogenic 40Ar, are, in general, consistent with ionium ages on 5 of the same samples and with glacial and 14C evidence of age. They suggest that most of the Mono Craters volcanos are on the order of 10,000 years old or less. The results also suggest that the problem of excess 40Ar may not be severe for KAr dating of volcanic rocks. ?? 1967.

  19. Investigation of the effect of low energy ion beam irradiation on mono-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yijun; II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich- Hund- Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen; State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 ; Zhang, Kun; Brüsewitz, Christoph; Hofsäss, Hans Christian; Wu, Xuemei; State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, the effect of low energy irradiation on mono-layer graphene was studied. Mono-layer graphene films were irradiated with B, N and F ions at different energy and fluence. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that foreign ions implanted at ion energies below 35 eV could dope into the graphene lattice and form new chemical bonds with carbon atoms. The results of Raman measurement indicate that ion beam irradiation causes defects and disorder to the graphene crystal structure, and the level of defects increases with increasing of ion energy and fluence. Surface morphology images also prove that ion beam irradiation creates damages to graphene film. The experiment results suggest that low-energy irradiation with energies of about 30 eV and fluences up to 5·10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} could realize small amount of doping, while introducing weak damage to graphene. Low energy ion beam irradiation, provides a promising approach for controlled doping of graphene.

  20. Block of sodium channels by internal mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. Modulation by sodium ion concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Danko, M; Smith-Maxwell, C; McKinney, L; Begenisich, T

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated the block of squid axon sodium channels by mono- and divalent guanidinium analogues. The action of these compounds on steady state sodium currents was independent of the presence or absence of the normal inactivation process. Block by both mono- and divalent analogues was voltage-dependent, but was a steeper function of potential for divalent molecules. The voltage-dependence could not, in general, be reproduced by a simple model based on Boltzmann's equation. Inhibition of steady state currents by guanidinium ions with 50 mM internal sodium was reasonably well described by a 1:1 drug/channel binding function. Increasing the internal sodium ion concentration increased both the degree and voltage-dependence of current inhibition. This is in sharp contrast to the decrease in inactivation caused by internal sodium. Changes in the external sodium concentration had very little effect on drug block. These results are consistent with a model of the sodium channel as a multi-ion pore. Only a small increase in block can be produced by increased internal sodium in a three-barrier two-site model, but a four-barrier three-site model can reproduce these experimental findings. The implications of these results for physical models of inactivation are discussed. PMID:2420382

  1. Enhanced cooling in mono-crystalline ultra-thin silicon by embedded micro-air channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Torres Sevilla, Galo A.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Lizardo, Ernesto B.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's digital world, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology enabled scaling of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) based electronics has resulted in their higher performance but with increased dynamic and off-state power consumption. Such trade-off has caused excessive heat generation which eventually drains the charge of battery in portable devices. The traditional solution utilizing off-chip fans and heat sinks used for heat management make the whole system bulky and less mobile. Here we show, an enhanced cooling phenomenon in ultra-thin (>10 μm) mono-crystalline (100) silicon (detached from bulk substrate) by utilizing deterministic pattern of porous network of vertical "through silicon" micro-air channels that offer remarkable heat and weight management for ultra-mobile electronics, in a cost effective way with 20× reduction in substrate weight and a 12% lower maximum temperature at sustained loads. We also show the effectiveness of this event in functional MOS field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high-κ/metal gate stacks.

  2. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of mono-arylimidamides as antileishmanial agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Farahat, Abdelbasset A.; Mattamana, Meena; Joice, April; Pandharkar, Trupti; Holt, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Moloy; Gragg, Jamie L.; Hu, Laixing; Kumar, Arvind; Yang, Sihyung; Wang, Michael Zhuo; Boykin, David W.; Werbovetz, Karl A.

    2016-01-01

    Arylimidamide (AIA) compounds containing two pyridylimidamide terminal groups (bis-AIAs) possess outstanding in vitro antileishmanial activity, and the frontrunner bis-AIA DB766 (2,5-bis[2-(2-isopropoxy)-4-(2-pyridylimino)aminophenyl]furan) is active in visceral leishmaniasis models when given orally. Eighteen compounds containing a single pyridylimidamide terminal group (mono-AIAs) were synthesized and evaluated for their antileishmanial potential. Six of these compounds exhibited sub-micromolar potency against both intracellular Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes, and three of these compounds also displayed selectivity indexes of 25 or greater for the parasites compared to a J774 macrophage cell line. When given orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for five days, compound 1b (N-(3-isopropoxy-4-(5-phenylfuran-2-yl)phenyl)picolinimidamide methanesulfonate) reduced liver parasitemia by 46% in L. donovani-infected mice. Mono-AIAs are thus a new class of candidate molecules for antileishmanial drug development. PMID:27048943

  3. Origin of Structural Transformation in Mono- and Bi-Layered Molybdenum Disulfide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Zhijie; Fu, Y Q

    2016-01-01

    Mono- and multi-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is considered to be one of the next generation anode materials for rechargeable ion batteries. Structural transformation from trigonal prismatic (2H) to octahedral (1T) upon lithium or sodium intercalation has been in-situ observed experimentally using transmission electron microscope during studies of their electrochemical dynamics processes. In this work, we explored the fundamental mechanisms of this structural transformation in both mono- and bi-layered MoS2 using density functional theory. For the intercalated MoS2, the Li and Na donate their electrons to the MoS2. Based on the theoretical analysis, we confirmed that, for the first time, electron transfer is dominant in initiating this structural transformation, and the results provide an in-depth understanding of the transformation mechanism induced by the electron doping. The critical values of electron concentrations for this structural transformation are decreased with increasing the layer thickness. PMID:27225416

  4. Possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion in cored sediment from Clear Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, Joseph; Verosub, Kenneth

    2010-05-01

    We report the possible recording of the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE) in cored sediment from Clear Lake, CA. The locality (39.0˚N, 237.3˚E) is about 120 km north of San Francisco, CA, and 320 km northwest of the Mono Basin, CA, where the MLE first was discovered in North America (Denham and Cox, 1971). The field behaviour at Clear Lake that might be the MLE is recorded in clay and peaty clay about 50 cm below the top of the lowermost 80-cm core slug of a 21.6-m core. The coring was done by the wire-line method (Sims and Rymer, 1975) and the samples (rectangular solids 21 mm on a side and 15 mm high) were measured in a cryogenic magnetometer after demagnetization in an alternating field to 35 milliTesla (Verosub, 1977). The continuously-spaced samples record negative inclination of nearly 20˚ and northerly declination when unnormalized relative field intensity was reduced by an order of magnitude from the mean value. Those palaeomagnetic directions are followed immediately by positive inclination to about 50˚ and easterly declination of about 60˚ when the field intensity is at a relative high. That pattern of behaviour is recorded at three localities (Wilson Creek, Mill Creek, and Warm Springs) in the Mono Basin at the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) at Clear Lake form a clockwise-trending loop that is centered at 65˚N, 20˚E in the hemisphere away from the locality. The VGP that is farthest from the North Geographic Pole is at 29.3˚N, 337.1˚E, which is close to the path formed by the VGPs in the older portion of the MLE (Liddicoat and Coe, 1979; Liddicoat, 1992). The age of the sediment recording the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions in Clear Lake is about 30,000 years B.P. (Verosub, 1977). That age was determined from six (uncalibrated) radiocarbon dates, three of which are from near the base of the core (Sims and Rymer, 1975) where there are the anomalous palaeomagnetic directions, and linear

  5. Digital database of the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bursik, Marcus; Sieh, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    This digital product comprises a collection of age and isopach data for the Holocene tephras of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California. Data on the most recent eruptions from this volcanic chain are relatively comprehensive, getting less so the further back in time. For the most recent eruptions to about 1,500 years ago, tephra beds within separate eruptive sequences have been studied and isopached. Before this, from about 2,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago, there are insufficient data for isopaching. However, one isolated tephra of about 9,000 years ago was studied and isopached in detail. Regarding ages, there are many tens of radiocarbon ages that have been obtained on the Holocene Mono-Inyo volcanic products. The vast majority of these radiocarbon dates are associated with tephras at locales that can be considered distal (basically where the primary tephra is less than several centimeters (cm) thick). These dates represent carbon that was sequestered perhaps within several hundred years of the eruption but do not represent the ages of separate eruptive pulses. There are two reasons for this. In some cases, it is clear that the dated material is not associated with the eruption products. This is the case in some lake strata where carbon is either not physically close to a given tephra layer or where an age for a tephra layer was obtained by interpolation assuming a sedimentation rate. In other cases, it is not clear that a given tephra layer represents a primary tephra; in such cases the layer could instead be redeposited. At most distal localities (beyond about 5 kilometers (km) from the chain), there was no record made of whether tephra was primary or redeposited, and at these distances where tephra is thin, it is generally redeposited during later events such as fires or thunderstorms. These age data are not appropriate for use in dating the eruptive history of the volcanic chain, and are therefore not included in the present contribution. The carbon age

  6. Ca isotope fractionation in a high-alkalinity lake system: Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Laura C.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2013-10-01

    Precipitation of calcium carbonate minerals from aqueous solutions causes surface-controlled kinetic stable Ca isotope fractionation. The magnitude of fractionation depends on the relative rates of ion attachment to and detachment from the mineral surface, which in turn is predicted to depend on both the saturation state and the solution stoichiometry or the Ca:CO32- activity ratio. Experimental studies have not directly investigated the effects of varying solution stoichiometry on calcium isotope partitioning during calcite or aragonite growth, but natural alkaline lake systems such as Mono Lake, California provide a test bed for the hypothesized stoichiometry dependence. Mono Lake has a Ca:CO32- activity ratio of about 0.0001, seven orders of magnitude lower than ocean water and typical terrestrial freshwater. We present chemical and isotopic measurements of streams, springs, lake water, and precipitated carbonates from the Mono Basin that yield evidence of stoichiometry-dependent Ca isotope fractionation during calcite, aragonite and Mg-calcite precipitation from the alkaline lake water. To estimate the Ca isotope fractionation factors, it is necessary to characterize the lake Ca balance and constrain the variability of lake water chemistry both spatially and temporally. Streams and springs supply Ca to the lake, and a substantial fraction of this supply is precipitated along the lake shore to form tufa towers. Lake water is significantly supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals, so CaCO3 also precipitates directly from the water column to form carbonate-rich bottom sediments. Growth rate inhibition by orthophosphate likely preserves the high degree of supersaturation in the lake. Strontium isotope ratios are used to estimate the proportions of fresh and alkaline lake water from which each solid carbonate sample precipitated. Carbonate minerals that precipitate directly from lake water (low Ca:CO32-) experience relatively large Ca isotope fractionation

  7. Chronology of late Pleistocene and Holocene volcanics, Long Valley and Mono Basin geothermal areas, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hydration-rind ages based on hydration-rind thicknesses of obsidian and an assumed hydration rate of 5 microns /1000 yrs have been determined for the 26 exposed Mono domes and coulees. Hydration-rind thickness data give good estimates of relative age differences between the domes, but determination of absolute ages will depend upon calibration to radiometric ages. The first extrusion of highly differentiated, sparsely porphyritic rhyolite occurred an estimated 32,000 to 40,000 yrs ago and consists of a small dome at the northwest end of the contiguous chain. The next major extrusive event occurred about 24,000 yrs ago and is represented by two domes and a major tephra. About 10,000 yrs ago the frequency of eruptive activity increases and rhyolite lave was extruded at an average rate of 0.2 km3/1000 yrs; periods of dormancy ranging in length from 300 to 2000 yrs. About 2000 to 3000 yrs ago the rate of extrusion increased dramatically to 0.8 km3/1000 yrs beginning with the eruption of the South Coulee and its associated tephra. At the same time, the nature of erupted magma changed from sparsely porphyritic (3 to 10 per cent sanidine) to aphyric rhyolite. All eruptions since 2000 radiocarbon yrs BP have produced magma that is aphyric but is of the same chemical composition as the earlier porphyritic magma. Volumes of porphyritic and aphyric extrusives, each of which includes volumes of lava and volumes of pumiceous pyroclastics reduced for porosity, are nearly equal and together total about 4 km3. Projecting the recent rate of extrusion over the time since the last major eruption, 1185 radiocarbon yrs ago suggests that a future eruption in the Mono Chain could release as much as 1 km 3 of magma. The recent increase in extrusion rate and the contemporaneous change in the nature of the magma are attributed to an event in the magma chamber that allowed the release of hotter, more fluid, crystal-free magma. The young age for the beginning of rhyolite volcanism from the

  8. Two coarse pyroclastic flow deposits, northern Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennen, R. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Stokes, P. J.; Lagamba, M.; Fontanella, N.; Hintz, A. R.; Jayko, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    The ~1350 A.D., rhyolitic North Mono eruption, Mono-Inyo Craters, CA, included the extrusion and destruction of Panum Dome and associated clastic deposits. Overlying the tephras of the North Mono sequence, the Panum deposits include a block-and-ash flow (BAF) deposit, covering ~3.5 km2. Blocks within the deposit are typically lithic rhyolite and banded gray micro-vesicular glass, showing white, almost powdery marks ranging from circular to linear in shape. These marks are interpreted as friction marks resulting from collisions between clasts. The deposit also contains bread-crusted obsidians with pressed-in clasts as well as reticulite with a bread-crusted surface texture. Near the centerline of the deposit is a ridge-topping train of jigsaw fractured blocks, often with reddish-orange alteration. One house sized jigsaw block sits upstream of a long, thinning pile of reddish orange debris; this “flow shadow” indicates that the block remained relatively stationary while the block and ash flow continued to propagate around it. The bread-crusted reticulite is most common at proximal localities. It is proposed that the dome destruction included a debris avalanche emplacing the train of jigsaw fractured blocks and creating a topographic high, the block-and-ash flow (the farthest reaching deposit from this event) which flowed around the debris avalanche deposits, and a final “lateral expansion” of a magma foam, creating the reticulite seen concentrated at proximal locations. Another coarse pyroclastic flow (here termed the “lower blast deposit”) underlies the North Mono tephra. It is more obsidian rich and finer grained than the Panum BAF. The lower blast deposit may have originated from Pumice Pit vent, which is now capped with an older dome ~0.5 km southeast of Panum. The lower blast deposit extends farther from the Panum vent than does the Panum BAF deposit, and apparently was mistaken for the Panum BAF deposit by previous workers. Hence the run

  9. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  10. Benchmarking of the mono-energetic transport coefficients-results from the International Collaboration on Neoclassical Transport in Stellarators (ICNTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Beidler, C. D.; Allmaier, K.; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Kasilov, K.; Kernbichler, W.; Leitold, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Murakami, Masanori; Schmidt, M.; Spong, Donald A; Tribaidos, V.; Wakasa, A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.

  11. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  12. Development of Conductometric Sensor Based on 25,27-Di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 for Determination of Ammonium.

    PubMed

    Saiapina, O Y; Kharchenko, S G; Vishnevskii, S G; Pyeshkova, V M; Kalchenko, V I; Dzyadevych, S V

    2016-12-01

    The conductometric sensor based on 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 was developed for the quantitative analysis of ammonium. The calixarene was immobilized on the surface of the planar interdigitated electrodes by attachment of its dialkyl sulfide groups to the surface of the gold electrodes. The intrinsic ability of the calixarene to capture ammonium was studied in the conductometric measuring mode and by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The developed sensor showed high selectivity to ammonium in the presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonium resulted from the complexation between the ammonium ions and a crown-ether fragment of the upper rim of the 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 macrocycle. The developed sensor had high signal repeatability. Its sensitivity was found to be satisfactory for the forthcoming sensor application in the water-sample analysis; the linear range was 0.01-1.5 mM and limit of detection 10 μM. PMID:26911569

  13. Development of Conductometric Sensor Based on 25,27-Di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 for Determination of Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiapina, O. Y.; Kharchenko, S. G.; Vishnevskii, S. G.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Kalchenko, V. I.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The conductometric sensor based on 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 was developed for the quantitative analysis of ammonium. The calixarene was immobilized on the surface of the planar interdigitated electrodes by attachment of its dialkyl sulfide groups to the surface of the gold electrodes. The intrinsic ability of the calixarene to capture ammonium was studied in the conductometric measuring mode and by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The developed sensor showed high selectivity to ammonium in the presence of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Selective and highly sensitive detection of ammonium resulted from the complexation between the ammonium ions and a crown-ether fragment of the upper rim of the 25,27-di-(5-thio-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown-6 macrocycle. The developed sensor had high signal repeatability. Its sensitivity was found to be satisfactory for the forthcoming sensor application in the water-sample analysis; the linear range was 0.01-1.5 mM and limit of detection 10 μM.

  14. The conformation of the poly(ethylene glycol) chain in mono-PEGylated lysozyme and mono-PEGylated human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sheetal S; Hammouda, Boualem; Hong, Kunlun; Pozzo, Danilo C; Przybycien, Todd M; Tilton, Robert D

    2011-11-16

    Covalent conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) or "PEGylation" has proven an effective strategy to improve pharmaceutical protein efficacy by hindering recognition by proteases, inhibitors, and antibodies and by retarding renal clearance. Because it determines the strength and range of intermolecular steric forces and the hydrodynamic properties of the conjugates, the configuration of protein-conjugated PEG chains is the key factor determining how PEGylation alters protein in vivo circulation time. Mono-PEGylated proteins are typically described as having a protective PEG shroud wrapped around the protein, but recent dynamic light scattering studies suggested that conjugates adopt a dumbbell configuration, with a relatively unperturbed PEG random coil adjacent to the globular protein. We used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to distinguish between the dumbbell model and the shroud model for chicken-egg lysozyme and human growth hormone covalently conjugated to a single 20 kDa PEG chain. The SANS contrast variation technique was used to isolate the PEG portion of the conjugate. Scattering intensity profiles were well described by the dumbbell model and inconsistent with the shroud model. PMID:21950579

  15. Di-hadron production at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos Pereira, Sergio; et. al.,

    2014-10-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) has been used extensively in recent years as an important testing ground for QCD. Studies so far have concentrated on better determination of parton distribution functions, distinguishing between the quark and antiquark contributions, and understanding the fragmentation of quarks into hadrons. Hadron pair (di-hadron) SIDIS provides information on the nucleon structure and hadronization dynamics that complement single hadron SIDIS. Di-hadrons allow the study of low- and high-twist distribution functions and Dihadron Fragmentation Functions (DiFF). Together with the twist-2 PDFs ( f1, g1, h1), the Higher Twist (HT) e and hL functions are very interesting because they offer insights into the physics of the largely unexplored quark-gluon correlations, which provide access into the dynamics inside hadrons. The CLAS spectrometer, installed in Hall-B at Jefferson Lab, has collected data using the CEBAF 6 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on longitudinally polarized solid NH3 targets. Preliminary results on di-hadron beam-, target- and double-spin asymmetries will be presented.

  16. RTI & DI (Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Helene M.

    2014-01-01

    In today's diverse and inclusive classrooms, teachers face the challenge of delivering instruction that is effective and accessible to students with a wide range of needs, abilities, and learning styles. Newly updated for 2014, "RTI & DI: Response to Intervention & Differentiated Instruction," by Helene Hanson, shows teachers how…

  17. Protoisomerization of indigo di- and monoimines.

    PubMed

    Nicholls-Allison, Emma C; Nawn, Graeme; Patrick, Brian O; Hicks, Robin G

    2015-08-11

    Indigo di- and monoimines can be protonated to form stable salts in which the central C=C bond has isomerized from a trans to cis configuration. Deprotonation of these salts regenerates the neutral trans species. The protonation chemistry of indigo is also explored. PMID:26146012

  18. N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    N - Nitroso - di - n - butylamine ; CASRN 924 - 16 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  19. Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) phthalate ( DEHP ) ; CASRN 117 - 81 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  20. Biopreservation of Fior di Latte cheese.

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Zambrini, A V; Del Nobile, M A

    2014-09-01

    In this study a new biopreservation system consisting of an active sodium alginate coating containing Lactobacillus reuteri applied to Fior di Latte cheese was studied. The final aim was to extend cheese shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin. Experimental trials were carried out with and without glycerol. How the fermentation time could improve the production of reuterin, enabling Fior di Latte shelf life, was also assessed. To this aim, the experimental analyses were conducted in 2 different trials, using 2 different production batches of samples. In the first one, Fior di Latte samples were dipped into the active sodium alginate solution prepared on the same day of their production, whereas in the second trial, samples were dipped into the active solution prepared 48h before their production to allow a proper fermentation of the inoculated microorganism. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to prove the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. In the first trial, the combination of the probiotic microorganism with glycerol improved the microbial quality by 1 d compared with the same active solution without glycerol, whereas the 48-h-fermented active alginate solution (second trial) showed a further improved microbial quality. The application of an active coating enriched with L. reuteri and glycerol to Fior di Latte cheese is an optimal and innovative way to preserve the product and at the same time, with a combination of an optimal fermentation time, to prolong its microbial quality and thus its shelf life. PMID:24952776

  1. Di-codon Usage for Gene Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh N.; Ma, Jianmin; Fogel, Gary B.; Rajapakse, Jagath C.

    Classification of genes into biologically related groups facilitates inference of their functions. Codon usage bias has been described previously as a potential feature for gene classification. In this paper, we demonstrate that di-codon usage can further improve classification of genes. By using both codon and di-codon features, we achieve near perfect accuracies for the classification of HLA molecules into major classes and sub-classes. The method is illustrated on 1,841 HLA sequences which are classified into two major classes, HLA-I and HLA-II. Major classes are further classified into sub-groups. A binary SVM using di-codon usage patterns achieved 99.95% accuracy in the classification of HLA genes into major HLA classes; and multi-class SVM achieved accuracy rates of 99.82% and 99.03% for sub-class classification of HLA-I and HLA-II genes, respectively. Furthermore, by combining codon and di-codon usages, the prediction accuracies reached 100%, 99.82%, and 99.84% for HLA major class classification, and for sub-class classification of HLA-I and HLA-II genes, respectively.

  2. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Bayr, S. Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  3. Magmatic gas emissions at Holocene volcanic features near Mono Lake, California, and their relation to regional magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Howle, James F.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-02-01

    Silicic lavas have erupted repeatedly in the Mono Basin over the past few thousand years, forming the massive domes and coulees of the Mono Craters chain and the smaller island vents in Mono Lake. We report here on the first systematic study of magmatic CO2 emissions from these features, conducted during 2007-2010. Most notably, a known locus of weak steam venting on the summit of North Coulee is actually enclosed in a large area (~ 0.25 km2) of diffuse gas discharge that emits 10-14 t/d of CO2, mostly at ambient temperature. Subsurface gases sampled here are heavily air-contaminated, but after standard corrections are applied, show average δ13C-CO2 of - 4.72‰, 3He/4He of 5.89RA, and CO2/3He of 0.77 × 1010, very similar to the values in fumarolic gas from Mammoth Mountain and the Long Valley Caldera immediately to the south of the basin. If these values also characterize the magmatic gas source at Mono Lake, where CO2 is captured by the alkaline lake water, a magmatic CO2 upflow beneath the lake of ~ 4 t/d can be inferred. Groundwater discharge from the Mono Craters area transports ~ 13 t/d of 14C-dead CO2 as free gas and dissolved carbonate species, and adding in this component brings the estimated total magmatic CO2 output to 29 t/d for the two silicic systems in the Mono Basin. If these emissions reflect intrusion and degassing of underlying basalt with 0.5 wt.% CO2, a modest intrusion rate of 0.00075 km3/yr is indicated. Much higher intrusion rates are required to account for CO2 emissions from Mammoth Mountain and the West Moat of the Long Valley Caldera.

  4. Inducible STAT3 NH2 Terminal Mono-ubiquitination Promotes BRD4 Complex Formation to Regulate Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sutapa; Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Edeh, Chukwudi B.; Lee, Chang; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) are latent transcription factors that are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to cellular activation by the IL-6 superfamily of cytokines to regulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. Here we observe that STAT3 is inducibly mono-ubiquitinated and investigate its consequences. Using domain mapping and highly specific selected reaction monitoring- mass spectrometric assays, we identify lysine (K) 97 in its NH2-terminal domain as the major mono-ubiquitin conjugation site. We constructed a mono-ubiquitinated mimic consisting of a deubiquitinase-resistant monomeric ubiquitin fused to the NH2 terminus of STAT3 (ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP). In complex assays of ectopically expressed ubi-STAT3-FP, we observed enhanced complex formation with bromodomain -containing protein 4 (BRD4), a component of the activated positive transcriptional elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in STAT3+/− and STAT3−/− MEFs showed BRD4 recruitment to STAT3-dependent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 gene (SOCS3). The effect of a selective small molecule inhibitor of BRD4, JQ1, to inhibit SOCS3 expression demonstrated the functional role of BRD4 for STAT3-dependent transcription. Additionally, ectopic ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP expression upregulated BCL2, BCL2L1, APEX1, SOD2, CCND1 and MYC expression indicating the role of ubiquitinated STAT3 in anti-apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Finally we observed that ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP suppressed TNFα-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating the functional importance of mono-ubiquitinated STAT3 in antiapoptotic gene expression. We conclude that STAT3 mono-ubiquitination is a key trigger in BRD4-dependent antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative gene expression programs. Thus, inhibiting the STAT3 mono-ubiquitination - BRD4 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STAT3-dependent proliferative

  5. Inducible STAT3 NH2 terminal mono-ubiquitination promotes BRD4 complex formation to regulate apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sutapa; Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Lee, Chang; Brasier, Allan R

    2014-07-01

    Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription-3 (STAT3) are latent transcription factors that are regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) in response to cellular activation by the IL-6 superfamily of cytokines to regulate cell cycle progression and/or apoptosis. Here we observe that STAT3 is inducibly mono-ubiquitinated and investigate its consequences. Using domain mapping and highly specific selected reaction monitoring-mass spectrometric assays, we identify lysine (K) 97 in its NH2-terminal domain as the major mono-ubiquitin conjugation site. We constructed a mono-ubiquitinated mimic consisting of a deubiquitinase-resistant monomeric ubiquitin fused to the NH2 terminus of STAT3 (ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP). In complex assays of ectopically expressed ubi-STAT3-FP, we observed enhanced complex formation with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a component of the activated positive transcriptional elongation factor (P-TEFb) complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in STAT3(+/-) and STAT3(-/-) MEFs showed BRD4 recruitment to STAT3-dependent suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 gene (SOCS3). The effect of a selective small molecule inhibitor of BRD4, JQ1, to inhibit SOCS3 expression demonstrated the functional role of BRD4 for STAT3-dependent transcription. Additionally, ectopic ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP expression upregulated BCL2, BCL2L1, APEX1, SOD2, CCND1 and MYC expression indicating the role of ubiquitinated STAT3 in anti-apoptosis and cellular proliferation. Finally we observed that ubiquitinated-STAT3 FP suppressed TNFα-induced apoptotic cell death, indicating the functional importance of mono-ubiquitinated STAT3 in antiapoptotic gene expression. We conclude that STAT3 mono-ubiquitination is a key trigger in BRD4-dependent antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative gene expression programs. Thus, inhibiting the STAT3 mono-ubiquitination-BRD4 pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of STAT3-dependent proliferative diseases

  6. Assessing Li and other leachable geochemical proxies for paleo-salinity in lake sediments from the Mono Basin, CA (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahajpal, Rahul; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Datta, Saugata; Hemming, N. Gary; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2011-12-01

    Regional climate-driven hydrological changes are accompanied by salinity changes in closed basin lakes. We have investigated acid leachable Li, along with other leachable ions including Mg, Ca and Sr, as geochemical proxies of salinity in lake sediments in the Mono Basin, California. All the elements in the acid leachable suite show a strong correlation with paleo-lake level estimates based on physical and stratigraphic evidence. The CaCO 3 content of lake sediments, which has been shown to be a reliable proxy for lake level changes in the Mono basin and the adjoining Owens Lake basin, corresponds well with our acid-leachable proxy data.

  7. A late Pleistocene tephra layer in the southern Great Basin and Colorado Plateau derived from Mono Craters, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madsen, D.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Thompson, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    A newly identified tephra in stratified deposits in southwestern Utah, dated ???14,000 14C yr B.P., may aid in correlating late Pleistocene deposits across parts of the southern Great Basin and west-central Colorado Plateau. Geochemical analyses of the ash suggest the tephra originated from Mono Craters, California, and most probably correlates with Wilson Creek ash #3. Because the ash is 2 mm thick ???550 km from its source, the event may have been larger than others correlated to Mono Craters eruptions. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  8. A microfluidic manifold with a single pump system to generate highly mono-disperse alginate beads for cell encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Choong; Park, Juyoung

    2014-01-01

    Cell encapsulation technology is a promising strategy applicable to tissue engineering and cell therapy. Many advanced microencapsulation chips that function via multiple syringe pumps have been developed to generate mono-disperse hydrogel beads encapsulating cells. However, their operation is difficult and only trained microfluidic engineers can use them with dexterity. Hence, we propose a microfluidic manifold system, driven by a single syringe pump, which can enable the setup of automated flow sequences and generate highly mono-disperse alginate beads by minimizing disturbances to the pump pressure. The encapsulation of P19 mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic body formation are demonstrated to prove the efficiency of the proposed system. PMID:25587376

  9. Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1 efficiently remediates di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, S; Josh, M K Sarath; Binod, P; Devi, R Sudha; Balachandran, S; Anderson, Robin C; Benjamin, Sailas

    2015-02-01

    This study describes how Achromobacter denitrificans strain SP1, a novel isolate from heavily plastics-contaminated sewage sludge efficiently consumed the hazardous plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) as carbon source supplemented in a simple basal salt medium (BSM). Response surface methodology was employed for the statistical optimization of the process parameters such as temperature (32°C), agitation (200 rpm), DEHP concentration (10 mM), time (72 h) and pH (8.0). At these optimized conditions, experimentally observed DEHP degradation was 63%, while the predicted value was 59.2%; and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.998, i.e., highly significant and fit to the predicted model. Employing GC-MS analysis, the degradation pathway was partially deduced with intermediates such as mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and 2-ethyl hexanol. Briefly, this first report describes A. denitrificans strain SP1 as a highly efficient bacterium for completely remediating the hazardous DEHP (10 mM) in 96 h in BSM (50% consumed in 60 h), which offers great potentials for efficiently cleaning the DEHP-contaminated environments such as soil, sediments and water upon its deployment. PMID:25463861

  10. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  11. Lake Level Changes in the Mono Basin During the Last Deglacial Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ali, G.; Hemming, S. R.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Stine, S. W.; Hemming, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mono Basin, located in the southwestern corner of the US Great Basin, has long been known to have experienced large lake level changes, particularly during the last deglaciation. But until recently it was not possible to establish a reliable lake level time series. We discovered many visually clean, white, shiny, dense calcite samples in the basin, associated with tufa deposits from high terraces. Their low thorium, but high uranium contents allow precise and reproducible U/Th age determinations. A highly resolved history of a minimum lake level through the last deglaciation can therefore be inferred based on sample locations and their ages. We found that the lake level reached ~2030 m asl at ~20.4 ka, evidenced by calcite coatings on a tufa mound at the upper Wilson Creek. The lake then rose to ~2075 m by ~19.1 ka, shown by calcite cements on conglomerates from the Hansen Cut terrace. The lake climbed to at least ~2140 m at ~15.9 ka, indicated by beach calcites from the east Sierra slope. Such timing of the highest lake stand, occurring within Heinrich Stadial 1, is reinforced by U/Th dates on calcite coatings from widespread locations in the basin, including the Bodie Hills and Cowtrack Mountains. The lake then dropped rapidly to ~2075 m at ~14.5 ka. It stood near this height over the next ~300 years, evidenced by a few-centimeter thick, laminated calcite rims on the Goat Ranch tufa mounds. It subsequently plunged to ~2007 m at ~13.8 ka, indicated by calcite coatings from cemetery road tufa mounds. The lake level came back to ~2030 m at ~12.9 ka, as seen in upper Wilson Creek tufa mounds. The lake level had a few fluctuations within the Younger Dryas, and even shot up to ~2075 m at ~12.0 ka. It then fell to levels in accord with Holocene climatic conditions. Relative to the present lake level of ~1950 m, Mono Lake broadly stood high during Heinrich Stadial 1 and Younger Dryas, when the climate was extremely cold over the North Atlantic, and the Asian monsoon was

  12. THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF MONO-ABUNDANCE SUB-POPULATIONS OF THE MILKY WAY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Liu Chao; Hogg, David W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-07-10

    The spatial, kinematic, and elemental-abundance structure of the Milky Way's stellar disk is complex, and has been difficult to dissect with local spectroscopic or global photometric data. Here, we develop and apply a rigorous density modeling approach for Galactic spectroscopic surveys that enables investigation of the global spatial structure of stellar sub-populations in narrow bins of [{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H], using 23,767 G-type dwarfs from SDSS/SEGUE, which effectively sample 5 kpc < R{sub GC} < 12 kpc and 0.3 kpc {approx}< |Z| {approx}< 3 kpc. We fit models for the number density of each such ([{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H]) mono-abundance component, properly accounting for the complex spectroscopic SEGUE sampling of the underlying stellar population, as well as for the metallicity and color distributions of the samples. We find that each mono-abundance sub-population has a simple spatial structure that can be described by a single exponential in both the vertical and radial directions, with continuously increasing scale heights ( Almost-Equal-To 200 pc to 1 kpc) and decreasing scale lengths (>4.5 kpc to 2 kpc) for increasingly older sub-populations, as indicated by their lower metallicities and [{alpha}/Fe] enhancements. That the abundance-selected sub-components with the largest scale heights have the shortest scale lengths is in sharp contrast with purely geometric 'thick-thin disk' decompositions. To the extent that [{alpha}/Fe] is an adequate proxy for age, our results directly show that older disk sub-populations are more centrally concentrated, which implies inside-out formation of galactic disks. The fact that the largest scale-height sub-components are most centrally concentrated in the Milky Way is an almost inevitable consequence of explaining the vertical structure of the disk through internal evolution. Whether the simple spatial structure of the mono-abundance sub-components and the striking correlations between age, scale length, and scale height can

  13. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shan-Ho; Galperin, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  14. Diversity of Cyclic Di-GMP-Binding Proteins and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) synthetases and hydrolases (GGDEF, EAL, and HD-GYP domains) can be readily identified in bacterial genome sequences by using standard bioinformatic tools. In contrast, identification of c-di-GMP receptors remains a difficult task, and the current list of experimentally characterized c-di-GMP-binding proteins is likely incomplete. Several classes of c-di-GMP-binding proteins have been structurally characterized; for some others, the binding sites have been identified; and for several potential c-di-GMP receptors, the binding sites remain to be determined. We present here a comparative structural analysis of c-di-GMP-protein complexes that aims to discern the common themes in the binding mechanisms that allow c-di-GMP receptors to bind it with (sub)micromolar affinities despite the 1,000-fold excess of GTP. The available structures show that most receptors use their Arg and Asp/Glu residues to bind c-di-GMP monomers, dimers, or tetramers with stacked guanine bases. The only exception is the EAL domains that bind c-di-GMP monomers in an extended conformation. We show that in c-di-GMP-binding signature motifs, Arg residues bind to the O-6 and N-7 atoms at the Hoogsteen edge of the guanine base, while Asp/Glu residues bind the N-1 and N-2 atoms at its Watson-Crick edge. In addition, Arg residues participate in stacking interactions with the guanine bases of c-di-GMP and the aromatic rings of Tyr and Phe residues. This may account for the presence of Arg residues in the active sites of every receptor protein that binds stacked c-di-GMP. We also discuss the implications of these structural data for the improved understanding of the c-di-GMP signaling mechanisms. PMID:26055114

  15. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  19. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine. 721.1645... Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine. 721.1645... Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1645 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono[(C10-16-alkyloxy)methyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2,2,4(or 2,4,4)-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine. 721.1645... Substances § 721.1645 Benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products with oxirane mono derivatives and 2... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance benzenesulfonic acid, 4-methyl-, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  8. MONO- TO TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENSODIOXIN (CDD) AND DIBENZOFURAN (CDF) CONGENERS/HOMOLOGUES AS INDICATORS OF CDD AND CDF EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND WASTE/COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total homologue concentrations and select congener concentrations from amongst the mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) are used to model both total (mono- to octa-) CDD + CDF emissions and the toxicity equivalent (TEQ) of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-subst...

  9. Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Floriana; Fratoddi, Ilaria; Battocchio, Chiara; Piscopiello, Emanuela; Tapfer, Leander; Russo, Maria Vittoria; Polzonetti, Giovanni; Giannini, Cinzia

    2011-12-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand.

  10. Conversion of a Mono- and Diacylglycerol Lipase into a Triacylglycerol Lipase by Protein Engineering.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongming; Popowicz, Grzegorz Maria; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Zhou, Pengfei; Bornscheuer, Uwe T; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-07-01

    Despite the fact that most lipases are believed to be active against triacylglycerides, there is a small group of lipases that are active only on mono- and diacylglycerides. The reason for this difference in substrate scope is not clear. We tried to identify the reasons for this in the lipase from Malassezia globosa. By protein engineering, and with only one mutation, we managed to convert this enzyme into a typical triacylglycerol lipase (the wild-type lipase does not accept triacylglycerides). The variant Q282L accepts a broad spectrum of triacylglycerides, although the catalytic behavior is altered to some extent. From in silico analysis it seems that specific hydrophobic interactions are key to the altered substrate specificity. PMID:25955297

  11. Recent insights into copper-containing lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, Glyn R; Davies, Gideon J; Walton, Paul H

    2013-10-01

    Recently the role of oxidative enzymes in the degradation of polysaccharides by saprophytic bacteria and fungi was uncovered, challenging the classical model of polysaccharide degradation of being solely via a hydrolytic pathway. 3D structural analyses of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases of both bacterial AA10 (formerly CBM33) and fungal AA9 (formerly GH61) enzymes revealed structures with β-sandwich folds containing an active site with a metal coordinated by an N-terminal histidine. Following some initial confusion about the identity of the metal ion it has now been shown that these enzymes are copper-dependent oxygenases. Here we assess recent developments in the academic literature, focussing on the structures of the copper active sites. We provide critical comparisons with known small-molecules studies of copper-oxygen complexes and with copper methane monoxygenase, another of nature's powerful copper oxygenases. PMID:23769965

  12. Surface-Controlled Mono/Diselective ortho C-H Bond Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yang, Biao; Lin, Haiping; Aghdassi, Nabi; Miao, Kangjian; Zhang, Junjie; Zhang, Haiming; Li, Youyong; Duhm, Steffen; Fan, Jian; Chi, Lifeng

    2016-03-01

    One of the most charming and challenging topics in organic chemistry is the selective C-H bond activation. The difficulty arises not only from the relatively large bond-dissociation enthalpy, but also from the poor reaction selectivity. In this work, Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces were used to address ortho C-H functionalization and ortho-ortho couplings of phenol derivatives. More importantly, the competition between dehydrogenation and deoxygenation drove the diversity of reaction pathways of phenols on surfaces, that is, diselective ortho C-H bond activation on Au(111) surfaces and monoselective ortho C-H bond activation on Ag(111) surfaces. The mechanism of this unprecedented phenomenon was extensively explored by scanning tunneling microscopy, density function theory, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our findings provide new pathways for surface-assisted organic synthesis via the mono/diselective C-H bond activation. PMID:26853936

  13. Geochemical fingerprinting of Wilson Creek Formation tephra layers (Mono Basin, CA) using titanomagnetite compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Mangan, M.; Vazquez, J. A.; Bursik, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    The Wilson Creek Formation (WCF) near Mono Lake in eastern California is a 6-15 m thick sequence of lake sediments interbedded with 18 rhyolitic tephra layers attributed to eruptions from nearby Mono Craters, and 2 basaltic tephra layers erupted from Black Point and June Lake (not included in study). These tephra layers are numbered 1 to 19 (June Lake tephra designated as Ash 13*) from top to bottom (Lajoie, 1968), and range in age from ~14 to 67 ka (Zimmerman et al., 2006). The WCF tephras are important to understanding volcanism in the Long Valley region, and they provide age constraints for paleomagnetic, paleoclimatic, and paleoecologic studies. Major-oxide compositions of glass for the rhyolitic tephras are similar, with no reported compositional variations between layers. In this study, we show that titanomagnetite compositions can be used to fingerprint specific WCF tephra layers, thus enhancing their use as time-stratigraphic markers. We performed electron microprobe analyses of >700 titanomagnetite crystals and minor ilmenite. Compositional ranges of titanomagnetite are ~83-89 wt% FeO, and ~8-14 wt% TiO2, with MgO+MnO+Al2O3 <3 wt%. Major oxide concentrations trend linearly, with ratios of FeO/TiO2 generally increasing with age. There is a slight trend offset between the older (~57-67 ka) tephras (Ashes 16, 17, and 19) and younger (~14-40 ka) tephras (Ashes 1-15), and a compositional gap between Ash 8 and the rest of the WCF tephras. Compositional variability within individual tephra beds is minor (FeO <0.4 wt%; TiO2 <0.3 wt%). Older WCF tephra titanomagnetites (Ashes 16, 17, 19) are distinct and characterized by high FeO/TiO2 (~9-9.5). Ashes 7 and 8 have relatively high-TiO2 compositions (>12 wt%), although Ash 8 has the lowest FeO/TiO2 (~6). Titanomagnetite crystals in the other WCF tephra layers are not as compositionally distinct (FeO/TiO2 = ~7.5-8), although the youngest tephras (Ashes 1- 4) can be distinguished on the basis of MgO content. Ash 15 is

  14. Coherent Lattice Vibrations in Mono- and Few-Layer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Tae Young; Jin, Byung Moon; Rhim, Sonny H; Debbichi, Lamjed; Park, Jaesung; Jang, Yu Dong; Lee, Hyang Rok; Chae, Dong-Hun; Lee, Donghan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jung, Suyong; Yee, Ki Ju

    2016-05-24

    We report the observation of coherent lattice vibrations in mono- and few-layer WSe2 in the time domain, which were obtained by performing time-resolved transmission measurements. Upon the excitation of ultrashort pulses with the energy resonant to that of A excitons, coherent oscillations of the A1g optical phonon and longitudinal acoustic phonon at the M point of the Brillouin zone (LA(M)) were impulsively generated in monolayer WSe2. In multilayer WSe2 flakes, the interlayer breathing mode (B1) is found to be sensitive to the number of layers, demonstrating its usefulness in characterizing layered transition metal dichalcogenide materials. On the basis of temperature-dependent measurements, we find that the A1g optical phonon mode decays into two acoustic phonons through the anharmonic decay process. PMID:27102714

  15. Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe2.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Kaczmarczyk, A; Gerardot, B D

    2015-11-11

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ∼170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:26480237

  16. Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer.

    PubMed

    Dunk, Paul W; Mulet-Gas, Marc; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Kaiser, Nathan K; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Shinohara, Hisanori; Poblet, Josep M; Marshall, Alan G; Kroto, Harold W

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of chemical formation mechanisms is essential to achieve effective yields and targeted products. One of the most challenging endeavors is synthesis of molecular nanocarbon. Endohedral metallofullerenes are of particular interest because of their unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications. Nevertheless, the mechanism of formation from metal-doped graphite has largely eluded experimental study, because harsh synthetic methods are required to obtain them. Here we report bottom-up formation of mono-metallofullerenes under core synthesis conditions. Charge transfer is a principal factor that guides formation, discovered by study of metallofullerene formation with virtually all available elements of the periodic table. These results could enable production strategies that overcome long-standing problems that hinder current and future applications of metallofullerenes. PMID:25524825

  17. Bottom-up formation of endohedral mono-metallofullerenes is directed by charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunk, Paul W.; Mulet-Gas, Marc; Nakanishi, Yusuke; Kaiser, Nathan K.; Rodríguez-Fortea, Antonio; Shinohara, Hisanori; Poblet, Josep M.; Marshall, Alan G.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of chemical formation mechanisms is essential to achieve effective yields and targeted products. One of the most challenging endeavors is synthesis of molecular nanocarbon. Endohedral metallofullerenes are of particular interest because of their unique properties that offer promise in a variety of applications. Nevertheless, the mechanism of formation from metal-doped graphite has largely eluded experimental study, because harsh synthetic methods are required to obtain them. Here we report bottom-up formation of mono-metallofullerenes under core synthesis conditions. Charge transfer is a principal factor that guides formation, discovered by study of metallofullerene formation with virtually all available elements of the periodic table. These results could enable production strategies that overcome long-standing problems that hinder current and future applications of metallofullerenes.

  18. Strain-Induced Spatial and Spectral Isolation of Quantum Emitters in Mono- and Bilayer WSe2

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors are intriguing hosts for quantum light sources due to their unique optoelectronic properties. Here, we report that strain gradients, either unintentionally induced or generated by substrate patterning, result in spatially and spectrally isolated quantum emitters in mono- and bilayer WSe2. By correlating localized excitons with localized strain variations, we show that the quantum emitter emission energy can be red-tuned up to a remarkable ∼170 meV. We probe the fine-structure, magneto-optics, and second-order coherence of a strained emitter. These results raise the prospect of strain-engineering quantum emitter properties and deterministically creating arrays of quantum emitters in two-dimensional semiconductors. PMID:26480237

  19. Observation of Quasi Mono-Energetic Protons in Laser Spray-Target Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishna, B.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Andreev, A.; Ehrentraut, L.; Sandner, W.; Schnuerer, M.; Steinke, S.; Nickles, P. V.

    2010-02-02

    Laser driven ion acceleration arises from charge separation effects caused by an ultrahigh intensity laser pulse. Limited mass targets confine the accelerated electrons within the target size and prevent the large area spreading seen in extended foil targets. Furthermore, if the target size is smaller than the laser wavelength and focal spot diameter, homogeneous heating of the target is ensured. Observation of quasi-monoenergetic protons in the interaction of a high intensity high contrast laser pulse at 5x10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} with 150 nm--diameter water droplets is investigated. An ensemble of such objects is formed in a spray. Quasi mono energetic proton bursts of energy Eapprox1.6 MeV are observed and are associated with a specific ionization and explosion dynamics of the spheres.

  20. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays. PMID:26474209

  1. THE VERTICAL MOTIONS OF MONO-ABUNDANCE SUB-POPULATIONS IN THE MILKY WAY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Bovy, Jo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Hogg, David W.; Zhang, Lan; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun

    2012-08-20

    We present the vertical kinematics of stars in the Milky Way's stellar disk inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SDSS/SEGUE) G-dwarf data, deriving the vertical velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub z}, as a function of vertical height |z| and Galactocentric radius R for a set of 'mono-abundance' sub-populations of stars with very similar elemental abundances [{alpha}/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We find that all mono-abundance components exhibit nearly isothermal kinematics in |z|, and a slow outward decrease of the vertical velocity dispersion: {sigma}{sub z}(z, R | [{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Almost-Equal-To {sigma}{sub z}([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]) Multiplication-Sign exp (- (R - R{sub 0})/7 kpc). The characteristic velocity dispersions of these components vary from {approx}15 km s{sup -1} for chemically young, metal-rich stars with solar [{alpha}/Fe], to {approx}> 50 km s{sup -1} for metal-poor stars that are strongly [{alpha}/Fe]-enhanced, and hence presumably very old. The mean {sigma}{sub z} gradient (d{sigma}{sub z}/dz) away from the mid-plane is only 0.3 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} kpc{sup -1}. This kinematic simplicity of the mono-abundance components mirrors their geometric simplicity; we have recently found their density distribution to be simple exponentials in both the z- and R-directions. We find a continuum of vertical kinetic temperatures ({proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}) as a function of ([{alpha}/Fe], [Fe/H]), which contribute to the total stellar surface-mass density approximately as {Sigma}{sub R{sub 0}}({sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}){proportional_to} exp(-{sigma}{sup 2}{sub z}). This and the existence of isothermal mono-abundance populations with intermediate dispersions (30-40 km s{sup -1}) reject the notion of a thin-thick-disk dichotomy. This continuum of disk components, ranging from old, 'hot', and centrally concentrated ones to younger, cooler, and radially extended ones, argues against models where the thicker

  2. Flexible carbon nanotube/mono-crystalline Si thin-film solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Flexible heterojunction solar cells were fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mono-crystalline Si thin films at room temperature. The Si thin films with thickness less than 50 μm are prepared by chemically etching Si wafer in a KOH solution. The initial efficiency of the thin-film solar cell varies from approximately 3% to 5%. After doping with a few drops of 1 M HNO3, the efficiency increases to 6% with a short-circuit current density of 16.8 mA/cm2 and a fill factor of 71.5%. The performance of the solar cells depends on the surface state and thickness of Si thin films, as well as the interface of CNT/Si. The flexible CNT/Si thin-film solar cells exhibit good stability in bending-recovery cycles. PMID:25258617

  3. Summary geochemical maps, Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area, Mono and Tuolumne counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Hoover Wilderness and the adjacent Hoover Extension (East), Hoover Extension (West), and Cherry Creek A Roadless Areas (the adjacent study area) encompass approximately 153,900 acres (241 mi2; 623 km2) in the Inyo, Stanislaus, and Toiyabe Naitonal Forests, Mono and Tuolumne Counties, Calif. These two areas lie along and mostly east of the crest of the Sierra Nevada, along the north and east sides of Yosemite National Park. Elevations vary from a high of 12,446 ft (3,793 m) on the crest of the Sierra Nevada to a low of about 6,500 ft (1,981 m) near the Bridgeport Ranger Station. Access to the Hoover Wilderness and adjacent study area is by U.S. Highway 395, California State Highways 108 (Sonora Pass) and 120 (Tioga Pass), and by other paved and graded roads that lead off of these U.S. and State highways.

  4. Antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(ii) arene complexes with mono- and bidentate pyridine-based ligands.

    PubMed

    Richter, Stefan; Singh, Sushma; Draca, Dijana; Kate, Anup; Kumbhar, Anupa; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mijatovic, Sanja; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2016-08-16

    A series of Ru(II) arene complexes of mono- and bidentate N-donor ligands with carboxyl or ester groups and chlorido ancillary ligands were synthesised and structurally characterised. The complexes have a distorted tetrahedral piano-stool geometry. The binding interaction was studied with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by absorption titration, viscosity measurement, thermal melting, circular dichroism, ethidium bromide displacement assay and DNA cleavage of plasmid DNA (pBR322), investigated by gel electrophoresis. The dichlorido complexes bind covalently to DNA in the dark, similar to cisplatin, while the monochlorido complexes bind covalently on irradiation, similar to cisplatin analogues. The compounds are selectively cytotoxic against several tumour cell lines and show specific nonlinear correlation between dose and activity. This phenomenon is closely related to their potential to act preferentially as inhibitors of cell division. PMID:27264161

  5. Flexible carbon nanotube/mono-crystalline Si thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huanhuan; Wei, Jinquan; Jia, Yi; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2014-01-01

    Flexible heterojunction solar cells were fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and mono-crystalline Si thin films at room temperature. The Si thin films with thickness less than 50 μm are prepared by chemically etching Si wafer in a KOH solution. The initial efficiency of the thin-film solar cell varies from approximately 3% to 5%. After doping with a few drops of 1 M HNO3, the efficiency increases to 6% with a short-circuit current density of 16.8 mA/cm(2) and a fill factor of 71.5%. The performance of the solar cells depends on the surface state and thickness of Si thin films, as well as the interface of CNT/Si. The flexible CNT/Si thin-film solar cells exhibit good stability in bending-recovery cycles. PMID:25258617

  6. Planar Position Sensor Based on Mono Sensing Electrode and Hybrid-Frequency Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Mengfeng; Zhang, Hongli; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    A new way of measuring planar position for micrometric and sub-micrometric applications is presented with a mono sensing electrode and hybrid-frequency excitation. The sensing theory and operation principle are described and summarized, and a printed circuit board (PCB) sensor prototype is built and tested. It is shown by the experimental results that a very simple structure and geometric relationship are achieved. Meanwhile, displacement sensitivity on an order of 1.50 mV per micron and measurement repeatability better than 0.002 mm are easily fulfilled for a square zone of 256 mm2, making it a valuable alternative measurement device candidate for flexible and low-cost planar position detection. PMID:27187404

  7. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of mono lake, california.

    PubMed

    Cloud, P; Lajoie, K R

    1980-11-28

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows. PMID:17797491

  8. Pressure induced structural phase transition in actinide mono-bismuthides: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataiya, J.; Makode, C.; Aynyas, M.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2013-06-01

    The structural and electronic properties of mono-bismuthides of Plutonium and Americium have been investigated using tight binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method within the local density approximation (LDA). From present study with the help of total energy calculations it is found that PuBi and AmBi are stable in NaCl - type structure under ambient pressure. The structure stability of PuBi and AmBi changes under the application of pressure. We predict a structural phase transition from NaCl-type (B1-phase) structure to CsCl-type (B2-phase) structure for these phospides in the pressure range of 45 - 4.5 GPa for PuBi and AmBi respectively. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameters and bulk modulus are in good agreement with experimental and theoretical work.

  9. Prospects and challenges with introduction of a mono-valent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Brown J; Idoko, Olubukola T; Adegbola, Richard A

    2009-03-23

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is a priority disease for prevention and control in Africa. The current World Health Organization (WHO) approach to the control of meningitis epidemics is based on early detection of cases and emergency vaccination of the population at risk with meningococcal polysaccharide (PS) vaccines. But this is a tall order for the developing nations of Africa where experts operate from an ineffective health system. Although the widespread use of meningococal polysaccharide vaccines has had a major and much appreciated public health impact on the disease it has not prevented epidemics of this dreaded infection. The current partnership between WHO and the PATH aims to develop, evaluate and introduce an appropriate and affordable meningococcal conjugate vaccine that could potentially provide for a means of preventing epidemic meningitis caused by N. meningitidis group A. In this paper, we review the prospects and challenges facing the introduction of the mono-valent conjugate vaccine in Africa. PMID:19095025

  10. All the Astrophysical Jet Sources: Driven by Mono-energetic e± Beams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundt, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    Gopal Krishna and I are now considering E × B-drifting jets since some 25 years, and are still convinced that they form the only consistent description of the huge body of observations. New is our 2004 tightening that (all) the jets consist of mono-energetic flows of extremely relativistic electron-positron pairs, of bulk Lorentz factor γ lesssim 104, moving in equipartition with their frozen-in magnetic and electric fields. Whenever their supersonic propagation gets blocked by some (heavy) obstacle, their frozen-in Poynting flux converts the delta-shaped particle-energy distribution into an almost white (in power) power law: E2NE ~ E-epsilon with epsilon gtrsim 0.

  11. Challenges in the Synthesis of a Unique Mono-Carboxylic Acid Antibiotic (+)-Zincophorin

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenlei; Lohse, Andrew G.; Hsung, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    (+)-Zincophorin, also referred to as M144255 or griseochellin, is a polyoxygenated ionophoric antibiotic that was isolated from Streptomyces griseus in 1984. It possesses strong in vivo activity against Gram-positive bacteria and Clostridium coelchii. Its methyl ester was reported in a patent as having strong inhibitory properties against influenza WSN/virus with reduced toxicity for the host cell. Its ability to strongly bind with Zn2+, which is also present in its X-ray structure, is the basis for its name. Over the last two decades, (+)-zincophorin h as attracted an impressive array of synthetic efforts including Danishefsky's first total synthesis along with two recent elegant total syntheses reported by Cossy and Miyashita as well as our own formal total synthesis. This Account provides a comparison of the different synthetic efforts on this novel mono-carboxylic acid antibiotic and documents its interesting isolation, structure determination, and biological activities. PMID:19642422

  12. Calcite-impregnated defluidization structures in littoral sands of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    Associated locally with well-known tufa mounds and towers of Mono Lake, California, are subvertical, concretionary sand structures through which fresh calcium-containing artesian waters moved up to sites of calcium carbonate precipitation beneath and adjacent to the lake. The structures include closely spaced calcite-impregnated columns, tubes, and other configurations with subcylindrical to bizarre cross sections and predominantly vertical orientation in coarse, barely coherent pumice sands along the south shore of the lake. Many structures terminate upward in extensive calcareous layers of caliche and tufa. Locally they enter the bases of tufa mounds and towers. A common form superficially resembles root casts and animal burrows except that branching is mostly up instead of down. Similar defluidization structures in ancient sedimentary rocks have been mistakenly interpreted as fossil burrows.

  13. The microscopic structure of mono-disperse granular heaps and sediments of particles on inclined surfaces.

    PubMed

    Topic, Nikola; Schaller, Fabian M; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Granular heaps of particles created by deposition of mono-disperse particles raining from an extended source of finite size are characterized by a non-homogeneous field of density. It was speculated that this inhomogeneity is due to the transient shape of the sediment during the process of construction of the heap, thus reflecting the history of the creation of the heap. By comparison of structural characteristics of the heap with sediments created on top of inclined planes exploiting the method of Minkowski tensors, we provide further evidence to support this hypothesis. Moreover, for the case of sediments generated by homogeneous rain on surfaces, we provide relationships between the inclination of the surface and the Minkowski measures characterizing the isotropy of local particle environments. PMID:26892630

  14. Mono- and bi-functional arenethiols as surfactants for gold nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles stabilized by different mono and bi-functional arenethiols, namely, benzylthiol and 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol, have been prepared by using a modified Brust's two-phase synthesis. The size, shape, and crystalline structure of the gold nanoparticles have been determined by high-resolution electron microscopy and full-pattern X-ray powder diffraction analyses. Nanocrystals diameters have been tuned in the range 2 ÷ 9 nm by a proper variation of Au/S molar ratio. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles and their interaction with thiols have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In particular, the formation of networks has been observed with interconnected gold nanoparticles containing 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol as ligand. PMID:21711615

  15. Mono- and Bis-Alkylation of Glyoxal-Bridged Tetraazamacrocycles Using Mechanochemistry.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahaab, Bassim H; Burke, Benjamin P; Domarkas, Juozas; Silversides, Jon D; Prior, Timothy J; Archibald, Stephen J

    2016-02-01

    Glyoxal-bridged bisaminal tetraazamacrocyclic derivatives of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam) can be N-functionalized to incorporate coordinating groups or for conjugation to biomolecules. Herein, we present an improved N-functionalization methodology using mechanochemistry which reduces reaction times in comparison with conventional synthetic routes. A range of six alkyl halides were reacted with cyclen and cyclam bisaminal derivatives in various ratios to form mono- and bis-functionalized quaternary ammonium salts. Cross-bridged cyclam, a key intermediate for CB-TE2A, a commonly used chelator in positron emission tomography medical imaging with (64)Cu, has been synthesized using nonconventional synthetic methodologies (grinding and microwave heating) with intermediates characterized by 2D NMR and single crystal XRD. The overall synthesis time of CB-TE2A from cyclam could be shortened to 5 days from the 35 days required for the conventional synthesis. PMID:26670783

  16. Thermal Joining of Thermoplastic Metal Hybrids by Means Of Mono- and Polychromatic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, P.; Pfindel, S.; Schmidt, M.

    In recent years, joining of plastics and metals for lightweight constructions has become more and more important for industrial applications. This paper presents a novel approach for thermal joining of thermoplastic metal hybrids by means of a combination of mono- and polychromatic radiation. During this work, hybrid joints of aluminum (EN AW-5182) and technical thermoplastics (PC, PA6, PA66-GF30) are studied. Thereby experiments for transmission and heat-conduction joining are performed. Besides, the influences of laser structuring of the metal surface on the joint connections are investigated. Additionally, climate tests according to BMW PR 308.2 from -30 °C to 90 °C and from -40 °C to 120 °C are performed to analyze the long-term durability of the hybrid joint connections.

  17. Planar Position Sensor Based on Mono Sensing Electrode and Hybrid-Frequency Excitation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Yu; Shen, Mengfeng; Zhang, Hongli; Gao, Zhao; Wang, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    A new way of measuring planar position for micrometric and sub-micrometric applications is presented with a mono sensing electrode and hybrid-frequency excitation. The sensing theory and operation principle are described and summarized, and a printed circuit board (PCB) sensor prototype is built and tested. It is shown by the experimental results that a very simple structure and geometric relationship are achieved. Meanwhile, displacement sensitivity on an order of 1.50 mV per micron and measurement repeatability better than 0.002 mm are easily fulfilled for a square zone of 256 mm², making it a valuable alternative measurement device candidate for flexible and low-cost planar position detection. PMID:27187404

  18. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  19. Pregnenolone co-treatment partially restores steroidogenesis, but does not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mouse ovarian antral follicles treated with mono-hydroxy methoxychlor

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R. Hannon, Patrick R. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2013-11-01

    Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor (mono-OH MXC) is a metabolite of the pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC). Although MXC is known to decrease antral follicle numbers, and increase follicle death in rodents, not much is known about the ovarian effects of mono-OH MXC. Previous studies indicate that mono-OH MXC inhibits mouse antral follicle growth, increases follicle death, and inhibits steroidogenesis in vitro. Further, previous studies indicate that CYP11A1 expression and production of progesterone (P{sub 4}) may be the early targets of mono-OH MXC in the steroidogenic pathway. Thus, this study tested whether supplementing pregnenolone, the precursor of progesterone and the substrate for HSD3B, would prevent decreased steroidogenesis, inhibited follicle growth, and increased follicle atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Mouse antral follicles were exposed to vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), mono-OH MXC (10 μg/mL), pregnenolone (1 μg/mL), or mono-OH MXC and pregnenolone together for 96 h. Levels of P{sub 4}, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E{sub 1}), and 17β-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in media were determined, and follicles were processed for histological evaluation of atresia. Pregnenolone treatment alone stimulated production of all steroid hormones except E{sub 2}. Mono-OH MXC-treated follicles had decreased sex steroids, but when given pregnenolone, produced levels of P{sub 4}, A, T, and E{sub 1} that were comparable to those in vehicle-treated follicles. Pregnenolone treatment did not prevent growth inhibition and increased atresia in mono-OH MXC-treated follicles. Collectively, these data support the idea that the most upstream effect of mono-OH MXC on steroidogenesis is by reducing the availability of pregnenolone, and that adding pregnenolone may not be sufficient to prevent inhibited follicle growth and survival. - Highlights: • Mono-OH MXC inhibited antral follicle steroidogenesis, growth, and survival. • Pregnenolone partially restored steroidogenesis

  20. Mono- to few-layered graphene oxide embedded randomness assisted microcavity amplified spontaneous emission source.

    PubMed

    Das, Pratyusha; Maiti, Rishi; Barman, Prahalad K; Ray, Samit K; Shivakiran, Bhaktha B N

    2016-02-01

    The realization of optoelectronic devices using two-dimensional materials such as graphene and its intermediate product graphene oxide (GO) is extremely challenging owing to the zero band gap of the former. Here, a novel amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) system based on a GO-embedded all-dielectric one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPhC) micro-resonator is presented. The mono- to few-layered GO sheet is inserted within a microcavity formed by two 5-bilayered SiO2/SnO2 Bragg reflectors. Significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) emission of GO embedded in 1DPhC is explicated by studying the electric field confined within the micro-resonator using the transfer matrix method. The inherent randomness, due to fabrication limitations, in the on-average periodic 1DPhC is exploited to further enhance the PL of the optically active micro-resonator. The 1DPhC and randomness assisted field confinement reduces the ASE threshold of the mono- to few-layered weak emitter making the realization of an ASE source feasible. Consequently, ASE at the microcavity resonance and at the low-frequency band-edge of photonic stop-band is demonstrated. Variation of the detection angle from 5° to 30°, with respect to the sample surface normal allows reallocation of the defect mode ASE peak over a spectral range of 558-542 nm, making the GO-incorporated 1DPhC a novel and attractive system for integrated optic applications. PMID:26670725