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Sample records for alicyclic mono di

  1. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  2. TOXICOLOGY OF MONO- AND DI-ALKYLTIN CHLORIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mono- and di-alkyltin chlorides are reactive compounds used in the production of stabilizers for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics, primarily used for water distribution pipes. Health effects data were compiled or developed by the manufacturers for the EPA's HPV Challenge progra...

  3. Mono- and di-cationic hydrido boron compounds.

    PubMed

    Ghadwal, Rajendra S; Schürmann, Christian J; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-08-28

    Brønsted acid HNTf2 (Tf = SO2CF3) mediated dehydrogenative hydride abstraction from (L(1))BH3 () and (L(2))BH3 () (L(1) = IPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-methylidene (); L(2) = SIPrCH2 = 1,3-(2,6-di-isopropylphenyl)imidazolidin-2-methylidiene ()) affords thermally stable hydride bridged mono-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) () and [{(L(2))BH2}2(μ-H)](NTf2) (). Furthermore, hydride abstraction yields di-cationic hydrido boron compounds [{(L(1))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 () and [{(L(2))BH}2(μ-H)2](NTf2)2 (). Unique cationic boron compounds with CH2BH2(μ-H)BH2CH2 ( and ) and CH2BH(μ-H)2BHCH2 ( and ) moieties feature a 3c-2e bond and have been fully characterized. Interesting electronic and structural features of compounds are analysed using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational methods. PMID:26200103

  4. DECHLORINATION ACTIVITY (CROSS-ACCLIMATION) OF FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS ADAPTED TO MONO- AND DI-CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reductive dechlorination of chlorophenols (CPs) in sediment slurries (10% solids) adapted to dechlorinate mono- and di-CPs (DCP) was investigated to define the regiospecificity of the dechlorination reaction. nadapted sediment slurries amended with various ortho-substituted C...

  5. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Stirling, D I; Dalton, H

    1977-01-01

    1. Methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) catalyses the oxidation of various substituted methane derivatives including methanol. 2. It is a very non-specific oxygenase and, in some of its catalytic properties, apparently resembles the analogous enzyme from Methylomonas methanica but differs from those found in Methylosinus trichosporium and Methylomonas albus. 3. CO is oxidized to CO2. 4. C1-C8 n-alkanes are hydroxylated, yielding mixtures of the corresponding 1- and 2-alcohols; no 3- or 4-alcohols are formed. 5. Terminal alkenes yield the corresponding 1,2-epoxides. cis- or trans-but-2-ene are each oxidized to a mixture of 2,3-epoxybutane and but-2-en-1-ol with retention of the cis or trans configuration in both products; 2-butanone is also formed from cis-but-2-ene only. 6. Dimethyl ether is oxidized. Diethyl ether undergoes sub-terminal oxidation, yielding ethanol and ethanal in equimolar amounts. 7. Methane mono-oxygenase also hydroxylates cyclic alkanes and aromatic compounds. However, styrene yields only styrene epoxide and pyridine yields only pyridine N-oxide. 8. Of those compounds tested, only NADPH can replace NADH as electron donor. PMID:411486

  6. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry of Naturally-Occurring Mixtures of Mono- and Di-rhamnolipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed for high-throughput screening of naturally-occurring mixtures of rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas spp. Mono- and di-rhamnolipids are readily distinguished by characteristic molecular adduct i...

  7. Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, a metabolite of di-n-octyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Earl Gray, L; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Herbert, Arnetra R; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6-C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), and other oxidative products. The urinary levels of one of these oxidative metabolites, mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), were about 560-fold higher than MnOP in Sprague-Dawley rats dosed with DnOP by gavage. Furthermore, MCPP was also found in the urine of rats dosed with di-isooctyl phthalate (DiOP), di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DiDP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), although at concentrations considerably lower than in rats given similar concentrations of DnOP. The comparatively much higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than of the hydrolytic monoesters of the high-molecular-weight phthalates DiOP, DiNP, and DiDP in the exposed rats suggest that these monoesters may be poor biomarkers of exposure to their precursor phthalates and may explain the relatively low frequency of detection of these monoester metabolites in human populations. MCPP and MnOP were also measured in 267 human urine samples. The frequent detection and higher urinary concentrations of MCPP than MnOP suggest that exposure to DnOP might be higher than previously thought based on the measurements of MnOP alone. However, because MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DBP and other phthalates in rats, and the metabolism of phthalates in rodents and humans may differ, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MCPP are needed to completely understand the extent of human exposure to DnOP from the urinary concentrations of MCPP. PMID:16263692

  8. Method for separating mono- and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1977-01-01

    A method for separating mono-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester and di-octylphenyl phosphoric acid ester from a mixture thereof comprises reacting the ester mixture with a source of lithium or sodium ions to form a mixture of the phosphate salts; contacting the salt mixture with an organic solvent which causes the dioctylphenyl phosphate salt to be dissolved in the organic solvent phase and the mono-octylphenyl phosphate salt to exist in a solid phase; separating the phases; recovering the phosphate salts from their respective phases; and acidifying the recovered salts to form the original phosphoric acid esters.

  9. Strength and nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in mono- and di-hydrated formamide complexes.

    PubMed

    Angelina, Emilio L; Peruchena, Nélida M

    2011-05-12

    In this work, mono- and di-hydrated complexes of the formamide were studied. The calculations were performed at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation. The atoms in molecules theory (AIM), based on the topological properties of the electronic density distribution, was used to characterize the different types of bonds. The analysis of the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) in the most stable mono- and di-hydrated formamide complexes shows a mutual reinforcement of the interactions, and some of these complexes can be considered as "bifunctional hydrogen bonding hydration complexes". In addition, we analyzed how the strength and the nature of the interactions, in mono-hydrated complexes, are modified by the presence of a second water molecule in di-hydrated formamide complexes. Structural changes, cooperativity, and electron density redistributions demonstrate that the H-bonds are stronger in the di-hydrated complexes than in the corresponding mono-hydrated complexes, wherein the σ- and π-electron delocalization were found. To explain the nature of such interactions, we carried out the atoms in molecules theory in conjunction with reduced variational space self-consistent field (RVS) decomposition analysis. On the basis of the local Virial theorem, the characteristics of the local electron energy density components at the bond critical points (BCPs) (the 1/4∇ (2)ρ(b) component of electron energy density and the kinetic energy density) were analyzed. These parameters were used in conjunction with the electron density and the Laplacian of the electron density to analyze the characteristics of the interactions. The analysis of the interaction energy components for the systems considered indicates that the strengthening of the hydrogen bonds is manifested by an increased contribution of the electrostatic energy component represented by the kinetic energy density at the BCP. PMID:21506592

  10. Novel mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine membrane lipids in northern wetland planctomycetes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eli K; Hopmans, Ellen C; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Villanueva, Laura; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Wienk, Hans; Schoutsen, Frans; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2013-11-01

    Northern peatlands represent a significant global carbon store and commonly originate from Sphagnum moss-dominated wetlands. These ombrotrophic ecosystems are rain fed, resulting in nutrient-poor, acidic conditions. Members of the bacterial phylum Planctomycetes are highly abundant and appear to play an important role in the decomposition of Sphagnum-derived litter in these ecosystems. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution accurate-mass mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRAM/MS) analysis of lipid extracts of four isolated planctomycetes from wetlands of European north Russia revealed novel ornithine membrane lipids (OLs) that are mono-, di-, and trimethylated at the ε-nitrogen position of the ornithine head group. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the isolated trimethylornithine lipid confirmed the structural identification. Similar fatty acid distributions between mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine lipids suggest that the three lipid classes are biosynthetically linked, as in the sequential methylation of the terminal nitrogen in phosphatidylethanolamine to produce phosphatidylcholine. The mono-, di-, and trimethylornithine lipids described here represent the first report of methylation of the ornithine head groups in biological membranes. Various bacteria are known to produce OLs under phosphorus limitation or fatty-acid-hydroxylated OLs under thermal or acid stress. The sequential methylation of OLs, leading to a charged choline-like moiety in the trimethylornithine lipid head group, may be an adaptation to provide membrane stability under acidic conditions without the use of scarce phosphate in nutrient-poor ombrotrophic wetlands. PMID:23995937

  11. Mono-, Di-, or Trimorphism in Black Sea Ammonia sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Alexander V.; Bassler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    For the genus Ammonia, the size of proloculi was considered one of the valuable taxonomic landmarks, although it may split in first alternating generations. We analysed 140 living (stained) tests of Ammonia sp. from the outer shelf of the Black Sea, collected from 5 stations on a depth gradient (138 to 206 m water depth). Samples were treated by standard technologies, such as live staining, wet sieving, volume detection, counts, and measures by light microscopy. The size of the proloculi was detected, extended by biometric characterisations of 11 measures, 5 qualitative characters, and 4 numerical ratios. Surprisingly, the multitude of test parameters allows the definition of either one highly variable taxon, or several species, or either di- or trimorphism, exclusively resulting from the definition of 'decisive' or 'neglectable' parameters, or parameter subsets. We followed the general taxonomic definition for the species of the genera, and applied, discussed and rejected published criteria considered as taxonomically important. Surprisingly, in result none of the species described hitherto fully correlates with the morphological roundup observed. It is a new species. This conclusion mainly results from the balance of all morphologies, and not from the selection of an ultimate subset.

  12. Separation of mono- and di-PEGylate of exenatide and resolution of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates by preparative ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh Thi; Lee, Jae Sun; Yun, Soi; Lee, E K

    2016-07-29

    Exenatide is a synthetic version of the 39-mer peptide of Exendin-4, which is an FDA-approved therapeutic against Type II diabetes mellitus. However, exenatide has a very short in-serum half-life and PEGylation have been performed to improve its in-serum stability. PEGylation often yields multivalent binding to non-specific residues, and the desired species should be carefully separated by chromatographies. In this study, we first devised an aqueous-phase, two-step PEGylation process. This consists of thiolation of Lys 12 and 27 residues followed by attachment of PEG-maleimide (10kD) to thiol groups. This process yields various species: mono-PEGylates with positional isomers, di-PEGylate, and other higher MW substances. A prep-grade cationic exchange chromatography (HiTrap SP) at pH 3.0 partially separated mono- and di-PEGylates based on the molar ratio of conjugated PEG and peptide and thus molecular weight of the conjugates. To further investigate the chromatographic separation of positional isomers of mono-PEGylates, we prepared two kinds of exenatide analogs by point mutation; K12C and K27C. Each analog was mono-PEGylated with very high yield (>95%). When a mixture of the two positional isomers of mono-PEGylates was applied to HiTrap SP chromatography, K12C-PEGylate and K27C-PEGylate eluted separately at 0.22M and 0.33M NaCl, respectively. When the proportions of acid and its conjugate base of the amino acid residues adjacent to the PEGylation site at pH 3.0 were analyzed, K27C-PEGylate shows stronger positive charge than K12C-PEGylate, and we propose the residence time difference between the two mono-PEGylates could be due to the charge difference. ELISA result shows that the immuno-binding activity of both analogs and their mono-PEGylates are well maintained. Furthermore, both mono-PEGylates of the analogs show higher than 50-fold improved anti-trypsin stability. We expect that mono-PEGylates of the exenatide analogs are alternatives to the conventional C40

  13. The action of mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards on the ribonucleic acid-containing bacteriophage μ2

    PubMed Central

    Shooter, K. V.; Edwards, P. A.; Lawley, P. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacteriophage μ2 is inactivated by both mono- and di-functional sulphur mustards at relatively low extents of alkylation. No degradation of alkylated RNA was detected. Cross-linking of RNA to protein was observed with the difunctional agent, but this reaction was only a minor contribution to the inactivation. Analyses of the reaction products in bacteriophage RNA showed that, at the mean lethal doses, more than one mono-alkylation of guanine had occurred but the sum total of other types of RNA alkylation was close to a single event. The results therefore suggest that inactivation results from the mono-alkylation of adenine or cytosine. In experiments with the difunctional agent cross-linking of RNA bases or of RNA to protein also prevented replication, the existence of these reactions accounting for the greater sensitivity of the bacteriophage to this agent. PMID:5145907

  14. Comparative Study of Low-temperature PECVD of Amorphous Silicon using Mono-, Di-, Trisilane and Cyclohexasilane

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantin Pokhodnya; Joseph Sandstrom; Xuliang Dai; Philip Boudjouk; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    The hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H films were grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using liquid cyclohexasilane Si{sub 6}H{sub 12} (CHS). The growth rate of a-Si:H was studied as a function of substrate temperatures in the range of 30 C < T < 450 C using deposition conditions that were optimized for monosilane SiH{sub 4}. The same parameters were used for a-Si:H films grown using disilane (Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}) and trisilane (Si{sub 3}H{sub 8}) precursors. It was found that the a-Si:H film growth rate for CHS is lower with respect to those for mono-, di- and trisilane in an Ar plasma. Addition of {approx}10% of H{sub 2} dramatically increases the deposition rate for CHS-based films to {_}nm/min - a 700% increase. The as-deposited films were characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to probe the hydrogen content and local bonding environment. It was found that the films grown using Ar/H{sub 2} mixtures as carrier gas have a reduced hydrogen content relative to polysilane fragments indicating higher quality amorphous silicon.

  15. π–π Interaction Energies as Determinants of the Photodimerization of Mono-, Di-, and Triazastilbenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the quantitative [2 + 2] photocycloaddition of crystalline trans-2,4-dichloro-6-styrylpyrimidine to produce the corresponding htt r-ctt cyclobutane dimer, and we present 1H NMR analysis of the photolysis of this and six other mono-, di-, and triazastilbenes in solid and solution states. Density functional (M06-2X) and correlated ab initio (MP2) calculations were used to obtain interaction energies between two monomers of each azastilbene. These energies mirror the relative polarization of the stilbene moieties and can be quantitatively correlated with the rate of reaction and selective formation of the htt r-ctt dimers. In the solid state, poor correlation is observed between interaction energy and reactivity/selectivity. This lack of correlation is explained through X-ray analysis of the azastilbene monomers and is shown to be in accordance with the principles of Schmidt’s topochemical postulate. Conversely, in solution there is a strong positive correlation (R2 = 0.96) between interaction energies and formation of the htt r-ctt dimer. These results are the first to show this correlation and to demonstrate the utility of calculated interaction energies as a tool for the prediction of stereo- and regioselectivity in solution-state stilbene-type photocycloadditions. PMID:24837276

  16. Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Hurtz, Donald; Malek, Nicole A; Needham, Larry L; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Barr, Dana B; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, the urinary MEHP levels in the NHANES samples were lower than the monoester metabolites of phthalates less commonly used than DEHP, suggesting metabolic differences between phthalates. We measured MEHP and two oxidative DEHP metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) to verify whether these other metabolites account for a greater proportion of DEHP metabolic products in 127 paired human urine and serum samples. We found that the urinary levels of MEHHP and MEOHP were 10-fold higher than levels of MEHP; concentrations of urinary MEOHP and MEHHP were strongly correlated (r = 0.928). We also found that the serum levels of MEOHP and MEHHP were comparatively lower than those in urine. Furthermore, the glucuronide-bound conjugates of the oxidative metabolites were the predominant form in both urine and serum. MEOHP and MEHHP cannot be formed by serum enzymes from the hydrolysis of any contamination from DEHP potentially introduced during blood collection and storage. Therefore, concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP in serum may be a more selective measure of DEHP exposure than is MEHP. However, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these oxidative metabolites are needed to completely understand the extent of DEHP exposure from the serum concentrations of oxidative DEHP metabolites. PMID:14998748

  17. Effect of Mono and Di-rhamnolipids on Biofilms Pre-formed by Bacillus subtilis BBK006.

    PubMed

    De Rienzo, Mayri A Díaz; Martin, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Different microbial inhibition strategies based on the planktonic bacterial physiology have been known to have limited efficacy on the growth of biofilms communities. This problem can be exacerbated by the emergence of increasingly resistant clinical strains. Biosurfactants have merited renewed interest in both clinical and hygienic sectors due to their potential to disperse microbial biofilms. In this work, we explore the aspects of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 biofilms and examine the contribution of biologically derived surface-active agents (rhamnolipids) to the disruption or inhibition of microbial biofilms produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006. The ability of mono-rhamnolipids (Rha-C10-C10) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and the di-rhamnolipids (Rha-Rha-C14-C14) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis E264, and phosphate-buffered saline to disrupt biofilm of Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was evaluated. The biofilm produced by Bacillus subtilis BBK006 was more sensitive to the di-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Burkholderia thailandensis than the mono-rhamnolipids (0.4 g/L) produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. Rhamnolipids are biologically produced compounds safe for human use. This makes them ideal candidates for use in new generations of bacterial dispersal agents and useful for use as adjuvants for existing microbial suppression or eradication strategies. PMID:27113589

  18. Environmental occurrence and potential toxicity of planar, mono-, and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in the biota

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C.S.; Xiao, J.; Bush, B.

    1995-12-31

    Coplanar PCBs without ortho-chlorine substituents and semicoplanar PCBs with one ortho-chlorination are stereochemically similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and, because of this similarity, exert biochemical activity and toxicity to biota comparable to that of TCDD. Four non-ortho-, eight mono-ortho-, and two di-ortho-chlorinated congeners have been determined in insect larvae, fresh water and salt water mussels, fish, mallard duck, seals, and in human milk and adipose tissue. The PCB congeners are separated from the remainder of PCBs by activated carbon chromatography or HPLC on porous graphitic carbon followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. PCB toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) (1) recommended by WHO for 3 non-ortho, 8 mono-ortho and 2 di-ortho PCBs and a TEF for congener 81 (3,4,4{prime},5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) suggested by Harris et al. from AHH induction in rainbow trout (2) were used for calculation of the contribution to dioxin-like toxicity to each life form. In all the biota examined, PCB congener number 126 was the major contributor to PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs), followed by congener numbers 118, 114, 156, and 105. The ability to separate out planar PCBs from the majority of PCBs has allowed the use of TCDD toxicity equivalence to compare the relative dioxin-like potency of PCB residues in various species from 12 different locations.

  19. INCLUSION OF 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS IN U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290

    EPA Science Inventory

    13C12-labeled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and -chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-C...

  20. MONO-(3-CARBOXYPROPYL) PHTHALATE, A METABOLITE OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is found as a component of mixed C6–C10 linear-chain phthalates used as plasticizers in various polyvinyl chloride applications, including flooring and carpet tiles. Following exposure and absorption, DnOP is metabolized to its hydrolytic monoester, mo...

  1. The migration of propylene glycol, mono-, di-, and triethylene glycols from regenerated cellulose film into food.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Cloke, H R; Crews, C; Gilbert, J

    1988-11-01

    Chocolates, boiled sweets, toffees, cakes and meat pies were wrapped in regenerated cellulose films (with or without coatings) that contained various mixtures of glycol softeners and which had been specially formulated for particular food applications. Samples were unwrapped at intervals (up to the end of the usual maximum shelf-life for the food) and analysed for their glycol content. Analysis involved homogenization of the food in hot water, removal of fats with hexane, precipitation of sugars with calcium hydroxide and analysis of the glycols by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC/FID) after trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatization. Triethylene glycol was analysed by selected ion monitoring GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as interference problems occurred with the GC/FID approach. The results of the study showed that higher levels of migration occurred for propylene glycol than for triethylene glycol and the presence of a coating reduced the migration of both softeners. Generally, mono- and diethylene glycol levels in the food samples were below 10 mg/kg, although some samples wrapped in polyethylene glycol-softened films contained levels approaching the current statutory limit of 50 mg/kg. PMID:3206944

  2. Sieving di-branched from mono-branched and linear alkanes using ZIF-8: experimental proof and theoretical explanation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; Granato, Miguel Angelo; Martins, Vanessa F Duarte; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2013-06-14

    We study the adsorption equilibrium isotherms and differential heats of adsorption of hexane isomers on the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. The studies are carried out at 373 K using a manometric set-up combined with a micro-calorimeter. We see that the Langmuir model describes well the isotherms for all four isomers (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane). The linear and mono-branched isomers adsorb well, but 2,2-dimethylbutane is totally excluded. Plotting the differential heat of adsorption against the loading shows an initial plateau for n-hexane and 2-methylpentane. This is followed by a slow rise, indicating adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. For the di-branched isomers the differential heat of adsorption decreases with loading. To gain further insight, we ran molecular simulations using the grand-canonical Monte Carlo approach. Comparing the simulation and the experimental results shows that the ZIF framework model requires blocking of the cages, since 2,2-dimethylbutane cannot fit through the sodalite-type windows. Practically speaking, this means that ZIF-8 is a highly promising candidate for enhancing gasoline octane numbers at 373 K, as it can separate 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane from 2-methylpentane. Our results prove the potential of ZIF-8 as a new adsorbent that can be employed in the upgrade of the Total Isomerization Process for the production of high octane number gasoline, by blending di-branched alkanes in the gasoline. PMID:23640581

  3. 6-Hydroxyflavone and Derivatives Exhibit Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity among Mono-, Di- and Polyhydroxylated Flavones in Kidney Mesangial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Desai, Umesh R.; Zhou, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses by kidney mesangial cells play a critical role in the glomerulonephritis. The anti-inflammatory potential of nineteen mono-, di- and polyhydroxylated flavones including fisetin, quercetin, morin, tricetin, gossypetin, apigenin and myricetin were investigated on rat mesangial cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the inflammatory stimuli. 6-Hydroxyflavone and 4′,6-dihydroxyflavone exhibited high activity with IC50 in the range of 2.0 μM, a much better inhibition potential in comparison to the well-studied polyhydroxylated flavones. Interestingly, the anti-inflammatory activity was not due to direct quenching of NO radicals. Investigation on derivatives with methylation, acetylation or sulfation of 6-hydroxyl group revealed that 6-methoxyflavone was the most potent with an IC50 of 192 nM. Mechanistic study indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of 6-methoxyflavone arose via the inhibition of LPS-induced downstream inducible NO synthase in mesangial cells. The identification of 6-hydroxyflavone and 6-methoxyflavone with potent anti-inflammatory activity in kidney mesangial cells provides a new flavone scaffold and direction to develop naturally derived products for potential nephritis prevention and treatment. PMID:25790236

  4. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P < 0.01. The IBS-QoL solely changed significantly during the LFD period, median: 67 (37-120), P < 0.01. The significant reduction in disease activity during the control period shows a positive effect of the web-application on IBS symptoms when presented as a “traffic light”. However adding the diet reduced IBS-SSS to < 150, inactive to mild symptoms. In the future results from larger scale trials are awaited. PMID:24914395

  5. Measurement of Intracellular Ribavirin Mono-, Di- and Triphosphate Using Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Jimmerson, Leah C.; Ray, Michelle L.; Bushman, Lane R.; Anderson, Peter L.; Klein, Brandon; Rower, Joseph E.; Zheng, Jia-Hua; Kiser, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Ribavirin (RBV) is a nucleoside analog used to treat a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. RBV undergoes intracellular phosphorylation to a mono- (MP), di- (DP), and triphosphate (TP). The phosphorylated forms have been associated with the mechanisms of antiviral effect observed in vitro, but the intracellular pharmacology of the drug has not been well characterized in vivo. A highly sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of intracellular RBV MP, DP, and TP in multiple cell matrix types. For this method, the individual MP, DP, and TP fractions were isolated from lysed intracellular matrix using strong anion exchange solid phase extraction, dephosphorylated to parent RBV, desalted and concentrated and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The method utilized a stable labeled internal standard (RBV-13C5) which facilitated accuracy (% deviation within ±15%) and precision (coefficient of variation of ≤15%). The quantifiable linear range for the assay was 0.50 to 200 pmol/sample. The method was applied to the measurement of RBV MP, DP, and TP in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBC), and dried blood spot (DBS) samples obtained from patients taking RBV for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus infection. PMID:25555148

  6. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan; Jensen, Lisbeth; Ankersen, Dorit Vedel; Felding, Maria; Andersen, Nynne Nyboe; Munkholm, Pia

    2014-06-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P < 0.01. The IBS-QoL solely changed significantly during the LFD period, median: 67 (37-120), P < 0.01. The significant reduction in disease activity during the control period shows a positive effect of the web-application on IBS symptoms when presented as a "traffic light". However adding the diet reduced IBS-SSS to < 150, inactive to mild symptoms. In the future results from larger scale trials are awaited. PMID:24914395

  7. Equilibrium binding studies of mono, di and triisocyanide ligands on Au powder surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ontko, A.

    1997-10-08

    The author`s group has previously shown that isocyanides are readily adsorbed from solutions to Au powder and bind to the Au surface in an end-on fashion through the terminal carbon. Later work demonstrated that the equilibrium constants for the reversible adsorption of electronically inequivalent isocyanides could be obtained using the Langmuir isotherm technique. This dissertation describes two projects completed which complement the initial findings of this group. Initially, several alkylisocyanides were synthesized to examine the effect of tail length on Au powder adsorption. It was observed that the length of the alkyl chain affected not only the Au surface binding affinity, but also the rate of surface saturation and saturation coverage values. Direct competition studies were also studied using a {sup 13}C-labeled isocyanide. These studies demonstrated the stabilization afforded by substrate-substrate packing forces in SAM`s formed by the longer chain isocyanides. In a second study, di and triisocyanides were synthesized to determine the effect that the length of the connecting link and the number of isocyanide groups (as points of attachment) have on Au adsorption stability. The work in this area describes the binding modes, relative binding affinities and surface coverage values for a series of flexible alkyl and xylyldiisocyanides on Au powder surfaces. This report contains only the introductory material, and general summary. Two chapters have been processed separately. 56 refs.

  8. Dysprosium complexes with mono-/di-carboxylate ligands—From simple dimers to 2D and 3D frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Scales, Nicholas; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2014-11-15

    Four dysprosium (Dy) single carboxylates, a formate, a propionate, a butyrate and an oxalate have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The structure of Dy(HCO{sub 2}){sub 3} (1) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra in perfect tricapped trigonal prisms. They are linked through trigonal O atoms forming 1D pillars which are further linked together through tricapped O atoms into a 3D pillared metal organic framework. The network structure is stable up to 360 °C. The structure of [Dy{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]·2.5H{sub 2}O (2) contains nine-fold coordinated Dy polyhedra linking together through μ{sub 2}-bridging oxalate anions into a 2D hexagonal layered structure. Both [Dy{sub 2}(Pr){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]·(HPr){sub 0.5} (3) [Pr=(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] and [Dy{sub 2}(Bu){sub 6}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (4) [Bu=(C{sub 3}H{sub 7}CO{sub 2}){sup −1}] have similar di-nuclear structures. The Raman vibration modes of the complexes have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four dysprosium (Dy) complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands have been synthesized and characterized. The Dy formato complex has a 3D pillared metal organic framework and the structure is stable up to 360 °C whilst the complexes with longer alkyl chained mono-carboxylates possess similar di-nuclear structures. The Dy oxalato complex has a 2D hexagonal (honeycomb-type) structure. Their Raman vibration modes have been investigated. - Highlights: • New Dysprosium complexes with formate, propionate, butyrate and oxalate ligands. • Crystal structures range from dimers to two and three dimensional frameworks. • Vibrational modes have been investigated and correlated to the structures. • The complexes are thermal robust and stable to over 300 °C.

  9. Competitive separation of di- vs. mono-valent cations in electrodialysis: effects of the boundary layer properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younggy; Walker, W Shane; Lawler, Desmond F

    2012-05-01

    In electrodialysis desalination, the boundary layer near ion-exchange membranes is the limiting region for the overall rate of ionic separation due to concentration polarization over tens of micrometers in that layer. Under high current conditions, this sharp concentration gradient, creating substantial ionic diffusion, can drive a preferential separation for certain ions depending on their concentration and diffusivity in the solution. Thus, this study tested a hypothesis that the boundary layer affects the competitive transport between di- and mono-valent cations, which is known to be governed primarily by the partitioning with cation-exchange membranes. A laboratory-scale electrodialyzer was operated at steady state with a mixture of 10mM KCl and 10mM CaCl(2) at various flow rates. Increased flows increased the relative calcium transport. A two-dimensional model was built with analytical solutions of the Nernst-Planck equation. In the model, the boundary layer thickness was considered as a random variable defined with three statistical parameters: mean, standard deviation, and correlation coefficient between the thicknesses of the two boundary layers facing across a spacer. Model simulations with the Monte Carlo method found that a greater calcium separation was achieved with a smaller mean, greater standard deviation, or more negative correlation coefficient. The model and experimental results were compared for the cationic transport number as well as the current and potential relationship. The mean boundary layer thickness was found to decrease from 40 to less than 10 μm as the superficial water velocity increased from 1.06 to 4.24 cm/s. The standard deviation was greater than the mean thickness at slower water velocities and smaller at faster water velocities. PMID:22336628

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-15

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 mug/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 mug/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  11. Synthesis of mono-, di-, and triaminobismuthanes and observation of C-C coupling of aromatic systems with bismuth(III) chloride.

    PubMed

    Hering-Junghans, Christian; Schulz, Axel; Thomas, Max; Villinger, Alexander

    2016-04-14

    The reaction of lithium N-trimethylsilyl-amides of the type RN(SiMe3)Li with bismuth(iii) chloride yielded mono-, di- or triaminobismuthanes depending on the sterical demand of the anilide ligand R and the used stoichiometry. For the bulky Mes* substituent the reaction with BiCl3 resulted in the formation of a C-C coupling product as the main product besides a small amount of the expected Mes*N(SiMe3)BiCl2. PMID:26911990

  12. (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-Mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines and their incorporation into hormaomycin analogues

    PubMed Central

    Kozhushkov, Sergei I; Yufit, Dmitrii S; Grosse, Christian; Kaiser, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Efficient and scalable syntheses of enantiomerically pure (2R,1'S,2'R)- and (2S,1'S,2'R)-3-[2-mono(di,tri)fluoromethylcyclopropyl]alanines 9a–c, as well as allo-D-threonine (4) and (2S,3R)-β-methylphenylalanine (3), using the Belokon' approach with (S)- and (R)-2-[(N-benzylprolyl)amino]benzophenone [(S)- and (R)-10] as reusable chiral auxiliaries have been developed. Three new fluoromethyl analogues of the naturally occurring octadepsipeptide hormaomycin (1) with (fluoromethylcyclopropyl)alanine moieties have been synthesized and subjected to preliminary tests of their antibiotic activity. PMID:25550751

  13. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono, Di and Trihalogenated DBPs - SLIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Examination of bromine incorporation in emerging DBPs vs that of regulated DBPs Study of predominance of di- vs trihalogenated species in different DBP classes Better understand and characterize exposure to DBPs of health concern

  14. Modified interactions among globular proteins below isoelectric point in the presence of mono-, di- and tri-valent ions: A small angle neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kaushik; Kundu, Sarathi; Mehan, Sumit; Aswal, V. K.

    2016-02-01

    Both short range attraction and long range electrostatic repulsion exist among globular protein Bovine Serum Albumin in solution below its isoelectric point (pI ≈ 4.8). At pD ≈ 4.0, below pI, protein has a net positive surface charge although local charge inhomogeneity presents. Small angle neutron scattering study reveals that in the presence of both mono-(Na+) and di-(Ni2+) valent ions attractive interaction increases and repulsive interaction decreases with the increase of salt concentration. However, for tri-valent (Fe3+) ions, both attractive and repulsive interaction increases with increasing salt concentration but the relative strength of repulsion is more than the attraction.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation for the Level of Conjugation in Carbazole-Based Precursors and Their Mono-, Di-, and Polynuclear Pt(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Al-Balushi, Rayya A; Haque, Ashanul; Jayapal, Maharaja; Al-Suti, Mohammed K; Husband, John; Khan, Muhammad S; Koentjoro, Olivia F; Molloy, Kieran C; Skelton, Jonathan M; Raithby, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    A series of trimethylsilyl-protected monoalkynes (Me3SiC≡C-R) and bis-alkynes (Me3 SiC≡C-R-C≡CSiMe3) incorporating carbazole spacer groups (R = carbazole-2-yl, carbazole-3-yl, carbazole-2,7-diyl, N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole-2,7-diyl, carbazole-3,6-diyl, N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole-3,6-diyl), together with the corresponding terminal monoalkynes (H-C≡C-R) and bis-alkynes (H-C≡C-R-C≡C-H), have been synthesized and characterized. The CuI-catalyzed dehydrohalogenation reaction between trans-[(Ph)(Et3P)2PtCl], trans-[(Et3P)2PtCl2], and trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2PtCl2] and the terminal alkynes in (i)Pr2NH/CH2Cl2 affords a series of Pt(II) mono- and diynes, while the dehydrohalogenation polycondensation reactions with trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2PtCl2] under similar reaction conditions yields four Pt(II) poly-ynes of the form trans-[(P(n)Bu3)2Pt-C≡C-R-C≡C-]n. The acetylide-functionalized carbazole ligands and the mono-, di-, and polynuclear Pt(II) σ-acetylide complexes have been characterized spectroscopically, with a subset analyzed using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Pt(II) mono-, di-, and poly-ynes incorporating the carbazole spacers are soluble in common organic solvents, and solution absorption spectra show a consistent red-shift between the 2- and 2,7- as well as 3- and 3,6-carbazole complexes. Computational modeling is used to explain the observed spectral shifts, which are related to the enhanced electronic delocalization in the latter systems. These results also indicate that the inclusion of carbazole-2,7-diyl units into rigid-rod organometallic polymers should enhance electronic transport along the chains. PMID:27284807

  16. Effects of route of administration and repetitive dosing on the disposition kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and its mono-de-esterified metabolite in rats.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G M; Li, R C; Ermer, J C; Shen, D D

    1985-06-30

    The disposition kinetics of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its biologically active metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) were studied in rats following single or multiple administration of DEHP by various routes. Following a single intraarterial (ia) injection, a large apparent volume of distribution (5390 ml/kg) and a high rate of clearance (21.5 ml/min/kg) were observed for DEHP. The systemic availability of DEHP was low following both single po (13.6%) and ip (5.2%) administration. A marked route-dependency in the formation of MEHP from DEHP was observed. The circulating concentrations of MEHP were substantially higher than those of DEHP (i.e., area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of approximately 7) after po administration, whereas concentrations of the mono-de-esterified metabolite were much lower relative to the parent diester concentration after ia or ip administration (i.e., AUC ratio less than 0.4). Pharmacokinetic calculations revealed that approximately 80% of a po dose of DEHP undergoes mono-de-esterification, as compared to only about 1% of the dose following either ia or ip administration. Hence, the low po systemic availability of DEHP may be largely attributed to presystemic hydrolysis of DEHP to MEHP in the gut, whereas slow and/or incomplete absorption is the likely cause of the poor bioavailability of DEHP after ip administration. No significant accumulation in the circulating concentrations of DEHP or derived MEHP were observed following 7 days of repetitive administration of DEHP. However, multiple ip injections resulted in an apparent decrease in the rate and/or extent of DEHP absorption from the peritoneal cavity, while no significant change in the po absorption of the diester was observed. The striking difference in the MEHP to DEHP AUC ratio between po and ip routes was still evident after multiple dosing. These data suggest that previously reported differences in the biologic effects of

  17. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10606 - Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl substituted alkanediol polymer... alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... substituted alkanediol polymer with aliphatic and alicyclic diisocyanates (PMN P-11-486) is subject...

  19. What's Mono?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What's Mono? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mono? Print A ...

  20. Linear and branched alkyl-esters and amides of gallic acid and other (mono-, di- and tri-) hydroxy benzoyl derivatives as promising anti-HCV inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Carrero, Paula; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Madrona, Andrés; Quesada, Ernesto; Camarasa, María José; Peréz-Pérez, María Jesús; Leyssen, Pieter; Paeshuyse, Jan; Balzarini, Jan; Neyts, Johan; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-03-01

    Linear and branched compounds that contain two, three or five units of galloyl (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) or its isomer 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl, as well as other mono- or dihydroxybenzoyl moieties have been synthesized. These molecules have been evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory effects against a wide panel of viruses showing preferential activity against HIV and HCV. Our structure-activity relationship studies demonstrated that the 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl moiety provides better antiviral activities than the galloyl (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl) moiety that is present in natural green tea catechins. This observation can be of interest for the further rational exploration of compounds with anti-HCV/HIV properties. The most notable finding with respect to HIV is that the tripodal compounds 43 and 45, with three 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl moieties, showed higher activities than linear compounds with only one or two. With respect to HCV, the linear compounds, 52 and 41, containing a 12 polymethylene chain and two 2,3 di- or 2,3,4 tri-hydroxybenzoyl groups respectively at the ends of the molecule showed good antiviral efficiency. Furthermore, the anti-HCV activity of both compounds was observed at concentrations well below the cytotoxicity threshold. A representative member of these compounds, 41, showed that the anti-HCV activity was largely independent of the genetic make-up of the HCV subgenomic replicon and cell lines used. PMID:25617695

  1. Design, synthesis and in vitro bactericidal/fungicidal screening of some vanadyl(IV)complexes with mono- and di-substituted ONS donor triazoles.

    PubMed

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2015-01-01

    A new series of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal mono- and di-substituted triazoles (L(1))-(L(6)) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. The ligands (L(1))-(L(6)) on reaction with vanadyl(IV) sulphate led to the formation of vanadyl(IV) metal complexes (1)-(4). The structure of the complexes has been established on the basis of their physical, spectral and elemental analyses data. The synthesized ligands and their vanadyl(IV) complexes have been screened in vitro for anti-bacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and for in vitro anti-fungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. The screening results showed the vanadyl complexes to be more bactericidal/fungicidal against one or more bacterial/fungal species. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to brine shrimp bioassay for scrutinizing their cytotoxicity. PMID:25716124

  2. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    PubMed

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments. PMID:26634977

  3. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  4. Copper-incorporated mono- and di-TeRu5 metal carbonyl complexes: syntheses, structures, and an unusual skeletal arrangement.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Minghuey; Miu, Chia-Yeh; Hsing, Kai-Jieah; Jang, Li-Fing; Lin, Chien-Nan

    2015-04-14

    Two sandwich-type Cu3Cl- or Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}-bridging di-TeRu5 clusters, [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu3Cl](2-) () and [{TeRu5(CO)14}2Cu2{Te2Ru4(CO)10}](4-) (), were obtained from the reaction of [TeRu5(CO)14](2-) with 1 equiv. of [Cu(MeCN)4][BF4] in CH2Cl2 or THF at 0 °C, respectively, depending on the solvents. The chloride-abstracted was structurally characterized to have two TeRu5 cores that were linked by a Cu3Cl moiety with two Cu-Cu bonds. If the reaction was carried out in a molar ratio of 1 : 2 at 0 or 30 °C in CH2Cl2, the structural isomers [TeRu5(μ-CO)2(CO)12(CuMeCN)2] () and [TeRu5(μ-CO)3(CO)11Cu2(MeCN)2] () were produced, respectively, as the major product. Cluster displayed a TeRu5 core with two adjacent Ru3 triangles each capped by a μ3-Cu(MeCN) fragment, while contained a TeRu5 core with one triangle Ru3 plane capped by a Cu2(MeCN)2 fragment with two Cu atoms covalently bonded. Upon heating, the isomerization of into proceeded to undergo an unusual skeletal arrangement of Cu(MeCN) and migration of CO, with the TeRu5 core remaining intact. An electrochemical study revealed that and each exhibited only one oxidation while cluster had two consecutive oxidations, suggesting significant electronic communication between the two TeRu5 metal cores in via the Cu3 moiety. This work describes the facile synthesis of a series of semiconducting Cux-bridging Te-Ru carbonyl clusters, in which the incorporation of the Cux fragments has significantly influenced their resulting structures, rearrangements, and electronic properties, which was further elucidated by DFT calculations. PMID:25757103

  5. ArF photoresist system using alicyclic polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Seong-Ju; Park, Sun-Yi; Lee, Hosull; Jung, Jae Chang; Bok, Cheol-Kyu; Baik, Ki-Ho

    1997-07-01

    We have developed a chemically amplified photoresist for use in ArF lithography based on alicyclic polymer. 3- Bicyclo(2,2,1)hept-2-yl-3-(2-methyl allyoxy)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (BHPE) was prepared as a new kind of protected acid-labile monomer. Terpolymer, poly(BHPE-NBO-MAL), was prepared with BHPE, 5-norbornen-2-ol (NBO), and maleic anhydride (MAL) monomers by radical polymerization. Photoresist of poly(BHPE-NBO-MAL) displayed good adhesion, dry-etch resistance, and development. As a result, we obtained 0.16 micrometer line-and-space positive patterns with 2.38 wt% TMAH aqueous solution using an ArF exposure system.

  6. Occurrence of non-ortho-, mono-ortho- and di-ortho- substituted PCB congeners in different organs and tissues of polecats (Mustela putorius L. ) from the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Leonards, P.E.G.; Hattum, B. Van; Cofino, W.P. . Inst. for Environmental Studies); Brinkman, U.A. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-01-01

    The presence and concentrations of non-ortho-, mono-ortho-, and di-ortho--substituted PCB congeners in the pole-cat (n = 7), were investigated. PCBs were extracted with a Soxhlet apparatus. After cleanup the non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners were separated from the other PCBs by HPLC. Determinations were accomplished with GC-ECD or GC-MSD. Patterns of PCBs were examined in different organs and tissues: liver, kidney, muscle, anal gland secretion, mesenteric fat, and subcutaneous fat. Using a multivariate statistical method for data analysis (SIMCA), a significant difference of PCB patterns between anal gland secretion and the other organs and tissues was revealed. Lesser concentrations of congeners with seven and eight chlorine atoms in anal gland secretion were mainly responsible for this phenomenon. A more or less organ- and tissue-specific PCB pattern was observed in all animals. PCB patterns were not dependent on prey choice, which ranged from terrestrial (small rodents) to aquatic (amphibians). This finding implies that PCB patterns in the pole-cat seem to be controlled by metabolic processes rather than diet factors. The total concentration of PCBs in polecats varies widely, two orders of magnitude, from 1 to 3,700 [mu]g/g lipid. In some animals, PCBs exceeded the experimentally determined reproduction effect concentrations of mink and ferrets. Using the toxic equivalent approach, it was observed that planar PCB 126 accounts for 63 to 98% of the toxic equivalents. The results showed that juvenile animals contain greater PCB levels than adult males and females, which might be related to an increased elimination of PCBs in adult animals due to anal gland secretion. High concentrations of PCBs were observed in such secretion. A preliminary model for concentration of PCBs in polecats including this effect is proposed.

  7. Determination of lipophilicity of chlorinated alicyclic compounds by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Coats, J.R. . Dept. of Entomology); Chambers, J.E. . Coll. of Veterinary Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    A RP-HPLC procedure has been developed for measuring the capacity factor (k[prime]) of a series of chlorinated alicyclic compounds. The chromatographic behavior measured on a 4.5 mm i.d. [times] 3.3 cm C-18 column with methanol/water as the mobile phase was related to the volume fraction of methanol ([phi]). A linear relationship was found between log k[prime] and [phi], showing the correlation coefficient [lambda] > 0.99, for each of the 15 chlorinated alicyclic compounds tested. The log k[sub w], the capacity factor obtained by extrapolation of the retention data from binary effluents to 100% water, was chosen as a measure of the solute lipophilicity. Since log k[sub w] is considered as a valuable index of the lipophilicity of a compound, the determined values will be used for the quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the chlorinated alicyclic compounds.

  8. Mono Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be ... Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ...

  9. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines.

    PubMed

    Topczewski, Joseph J; Cabrera, Pablo J; Saper, Noam I; Sanford, Melanie S

    2016-03-10

    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline. PMID:26886789

  10. Palladium-catalysed transannular C-H functionalization of alicyclic amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topczewski, Joseph J.; Cabrera, Pablo J.; Saper, Noam I.; Sanford, Melanie S.

    2016-03-01

    Discovering pharmaceutical candidates is a resource-intensive enterprise that frequently requires the parallel synthesis of hundreds or even thousands of molecules. C-H bonds are present in almost all pharmaceutical agents. Consequently, the development of selective, rapid and efficient methods for converting these bonds into new chemical entities has the potential to streamline pharmaceutical development. Saturated nitrogen-containing heterocycles (alicyclic amines) feature prominently in pharmaceuticals, such as treatments for depression (paroxetine, amitifadine), diabetes (gliclazide), leukaemia (alvocidib), schizophrenia (risperidone, belaperidone), malaria (mefloquine) and nicotine addiction (cytisine, varenicline). However, existing methods for the C-H functionalization of saturated nitrogen heterocycles, particularly at sites remote to nitrogen, remain extremely limited. Here we report a transannular approach to selectively manipulate the C-H bonds of alicyclic amines at sites remote to nitrogen. Our reaction uses the boat conformation of the substrates to achieve palladium-catalysed amine-directed conversion of C-H bonds to C-C bonds on various alicyclic amine scaffolds. We demonstrate this approach by synthesizing new derivatives of several bioactive molecules, including varenicline.

  11. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim; Csanády, György A.; Pütz, Christian; and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  12. Stable TeV Black Hole Remnants at the Lhc:. Discovery Through Di-Jet Suppression, Mono-Jet Emission and a Supersonic Boom in the Quark-Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöcker, H.

    The production of large extra dimension (LXD) black holes (BHs), with a new, fundamental mass scale of Mf = 1 TeV, has been predicted to occur at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, with the formidable rate of 108 per year in p-p collisions at full energy, 14 TeV, and at full luminosity. We show that such LXD-BH formation will be experimentally observable at the LHC by the complete disappearance of all very high pt (> 500 GeV) back-to-back correlated Di-Jets of total mass M > Mf = 1 TeV, in the large detectors ALICE, ATLAS and CMS. We suggest complementing this clear cut-off signal at M > 2*500 GeV in the di-jet-correlation function by detecting the subsequent, Hawking-decay products of the LXD-BHs, namely either multiple high energy (> 100 GeV) SM Mono-Jets (i.e. away-side jet missing), sprayed off the evaporating BHs isentropically into all directions or the thermalization of the multiple overlapping Hawking-radiation in a Heckler-Kapusta-plasma: The extreme energy density of the Hawking Radiation may yield a Heckler-Kapusta-Hawking quark-gluon plasma of SM — and SUSY — particles at temperatures above the electroweak phase transition, which hydrodynamically (isentropically) evolves and cools until the quark-hadron phasetransition and chemical freezeout at T ~ 100 MeV is reached. Microcanonical quantum statistical calculations of the Hawking evaporation process for these LXD-BHs show that cold black hole remnants (BHRs) of mass ~ Mf remain leftover as the ashes of these spectacular di-jet-suppressed events. The BHRs are charged and can be detected as a track in the Central TPC of ALICE. Strong di-jet suppression is also expected with heavy ion beams at the LHC, due to quark-gluon-plasma induced jet attenuation at medium to low jet energies, pt < 200 GeV. The (mono-) jets in these events can be used to trigger tsunami-emission of secondary compressed QCD-matter at well defined Mach-angles, both at the trigger side and at the awayside (missing) jet. The Machshock

  13. Production of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols as a factor obstacle to the successful ozonation-assisted biodegradation of ethoxylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2015-10-01

    Ozonation is believed to improve the biodegradability of organic compounds. In the present study, degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was monitored in hybrid treatment systems consisting of ozonation and microbial degradation processes. We found that ozonation of NPEOs decreased, rather than increased, the biodegradability under certain conditions. The timing of ozonation was a definitive factor in determining whether ozonation increased or decreased the biodegradation rates of NPEOs. Initial ozonation of NPEOs prior to biodegradation reduced the rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal during the subsequent 14 d of biodegradation, whereas intermediate ozonation at the 9th day of biodegradation improved subsequent DOC removal during 14 d of NPEO biodegradation. Furthermore, reduction of DOC removal was also observed, when initial ozonation prior to biodegradation was subjected to cetyl alcohol ethoxylates. The production of less biodegradable intermediates, such as mono- and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (MCPEGs and DCPEGs), was responsible for the negative effect of ozonation on biodegradability of NPEOs. DCPEGs and MCPEGs were produced by biodegradation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) that were ozonolysis products of the NPEOs, and the biodegradability of DCPEGs and MCPEGs was less than that of the precursor PEGs. The results indicate that, if the target chemicals contain ethoxy chains, production of PEGs may be one of the important factors when ozonation is considered. PMID:25985303

  14. The role of substituents in the molecular and crystal structure of 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(mono)- and 3,3-(di) substituted thioureas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Aamer; Flörke, Ulrich; Erben, Mauricio F.

    2014-05-01

    Three novel 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl) thioureas were synthesized by the reaction of adamantyl isothiocyante with corresponding amines and fully characterized by spectroscopy methods. Two isomeric species, i.e. 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)thiourea (1) and 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)thiourea (2), are structurally characterized and a third related compound, namely 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3,3-(methyl-phenyl)thiourea (3) has been also included for assessing the role of the nitrogen substitution on the structural properties. As determined by X-ray analysis, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit the S conformation with the CO and CS double bonds in a pseudo-antiperiplanar orientation, whereas the U form is found for compound 3. These conformational features are mainly dictated by the substitution degree on the thiourea core and the ability of forming an intra-molecular NH⋯OC hydrogen bond for mono-substituted analogues 1 and 2. These dissimilar interactions affect the vibrational properties, which have been determined by infrared and Raman spectroscopies and quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of approximation.

  15. Mono-Schiff-base or di-Schiff-base? Synthesis, spectroscopic, X-ray structural and DFT study of a series of Schiff-bases derived from benzil dihydrazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xue-Jie; Hao, Xiu-Qi; Zhao, Qing-Zhe; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Xie, Wen-Long; Xing, Dian-Xiang; Liu, Yun; Song, Lai-Zhou

    2015-11-01

    A series of mono- and di-Schiff-bases based on Benzil Dihydrazone (BDH) were designed and synthesized to be set as the model compounds to explain which one should be the advanced product and which parameters will determine the end-product. As the first step of a series of investigations, this article presents the syntheses and characterization of five new Schiff-bases plus one preliminary reported Schiff-base, all derived from BDH. The compounds were characterized by single crystal (or conventional powder) X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis, m.p., 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis. Structural features of the five new Schiff-bases are similar. For instance, all molecules are nonsymmetrical/symmetrical double helix with the torsion angle of two "half-parts" about 72-97°. The Ph-Cdbnd N-Ndbnd C-Ph moiety all exists in planar and anti form, indicating significant conjugation. The crystal structures appear to be stabilized by π-stacking between the aromatic rings, as well as by intermolecular hydrogen bonds and C-H … π stacking interactions. DFT calculations have been performed to explain the trend of the experimentally measured reaction yields. In the case of the studied systems by us, the type of Schiff-bases exhibits a clear dependence on the molar ratio of reactants if the products have similar stabilities. Otherwise the importance of reaction conditions will be weakened and the most stable product will be favored.

  16. Human biofluid concentrations of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in chimeric mice with humanized liver administered with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Koichiro; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a reproductive toxicant in male rodents. The aim of the current study was to extrapolate the pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP, a primary metabolite of DEHP) in humans by using data from oral administration of DEHP to chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. MEHP and its glucuronide were detected in plasma from control mice and chimeric mice after single oral doses of 250mg DEHP/kg body weight. Biphasic plasma concentration-time curves of MEHP and its glucuronide were seen only in control mice. MEHP and its glucuronide were extensively excreted in urine within 24h in mice with humanized liver. In contrast, fecal excretion levels of MEHP glucuronide were high in control mice compared with those with humanized liver. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated urine MEHP concentrations in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. This research illustrates how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of the primary or secondary metabolites of DEHP. PMID:25867688

  17. Comparative Tumor Imaging and PDT Efficacy of HPPH Conjugated in the Mono- and Di-Forms to Various Polymethine Cyanine Dyes: Part - 2

    PubMed Central

    James, Nadine S.; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y.; Chen, Yihui; Joshi, Penny; Zheng, Xiang; Goswami, Lalit N.; Pandey, Ravindra K.

    2013-01-01

    efficacy. Among the conjugates investigated, the bifunctional agent in which two HPPH moieties were linked to the benzoindole-based cyanine dye 11 showed superiority over the lead candidate 9 (mono HPPH-cyanine dye). PMID:24019855

  18. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damaging effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on MA-10 Leydig cells and protection by selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Erkekoglu, Pinar; Rachidi, Walid; Giray, Belma; Favier, Alain; Hincal, Filiz

    2010-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundantly used phthalate derivative, inevitable environmental exposure of which is suspected to contribute to the increasing incidence of testicular dysgenesis syndrome in humans. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in germ cells are suggested to contribute to phthalate-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in rodents, and Leydig cells are one of the main targets of phthalates' testicular toxicity. Selenium is known to be involved in the modulation of intracellular redox equilibrium, and plays a critical role in testis, sperm, and reproduction. This study was aimed to investigate the oxidative stress potential of DEHP and its consequences in testicular cells, and examine the possible protective effects of selenium using the MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cell line as a model. In the presence and absence of selenium compounds [30 nM sodium selenite (SS), and 10 {mu}M selenomethionine (SM)], the effects of exposure to DEHP and its main metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP) on the cell viability, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status, ROS production, p53 expression, and DNA damage by alkaline Comet assay were investigated. The overall results of this study demonstrated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity potential of DEHP, where MEHP was found to be more potent than the parent compound. SS and SM produced almost the same level of protection against antioxidant status modifying effects, ROS and p53 inducing potentials, and DNA damaging effects of the two phthalate derivatives. It was thus shown that DEHP produced oxidative stress in MA-10 cells, and selenium supplementation appeared to be an effective redox regulator in the experimental conditions used in this study, emphasizing the critical importance of the appropriate selenium status.

  19. Differential Degradation of Bicyclics with Aromatic and Alicyclic Rings by Rhodococcus sp. Strain DK17 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dockyu; Yoo, Miyoun; Choi, Ki Young; Kang, Beom Sik; Kim, Tai Kyoung; Hong, Soon Gyu; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Kim, Eungbin

    2011-01-01

    The metabolically versatile Rhodococcus sp. strain DK17 is able to grow on tetralin and indan but cannot use their respective desaturated counterparts, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene and indene, as sole carbon and energy sources. Metabolite analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry clearly show that (i) the meta-cleavage dioxygenase mutant strain DK180 accumulates 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,2-naphthalene diol, 1,2-indene diol, and 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-1,2-diol from tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, respectively, and (ii) when expressed in Escherichia coli, the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase transforms tetralin, indene, and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene into tetralin cis-dihydrodiol, indan-1,2-diol, and cis-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, respectively. Tetralin, which is activated by aromatic hydroxylation, is degraded successfully via the ring cleavage pathway to support growth of DK17. Indene and 1,2-dihydronaphthalene do not serve as growth substrates because DK17 hydroxylates them on the alicyclic ring and further metabolism results in a dead-end metabolite. This study reveals that aromatic hydroxylation is a prerequisite for proper degradation of bicyclics with aromatic and alicyclic rings by DK17 and confirms the unique ability of the DK17 o-xylene dioxygenase to perform distinct regioselective hydroxylations. PMID:21965391

  20. Hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, in humans, dogs, rats, and mice: an in vitro analysis using microsomal fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanioka, Nobumitsu; Isobe, Takashi; Kinashi, Yu; Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Jinno, Hideto

    2016-07-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is an active metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and has endocrine-disrupting effects. MEHP is metabolized into glucuronide by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of MEHP in humans, dogs, rats, and mice was examined in an in vitro system using microsomal fractions. The kinetics of MEHP glucuronidation by liver microsomes followed the Michaelis-Menten model for humans and dogs, and the biphasic model for rats and mice. The K m and V max values of human liver microsomes were 110 µM and 5.8 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The kinetics of intestinal microsomes followed the biphasic model for humans, dogs, and mice, and the Michaelis-Menten model for rats. The K m and V max values of human intestinal microsomes were 5.6 µM and 0.40 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the high-affinity phase, and 430 µM and 0.70 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively, for the low-affinity phase. The relative levels of V max estimated by Eadie-Hofstee plots were dogs (2.0) > mice (1.4) > rats (1.0) ≈ humans (1.0) for liver microsomes, and mice (8.5) > dogs (4.1) > rats (3.1) > humans (1.0) for intestinal microsomes. The percentages of the V max values of intestinal microsomes to liver microsomes were mice (120 %) > rats (57 %) > dogs (39 %) > humans (19 %). These results suggest that the metabolic abilities of UGT enzymes expressed in the liver and intestine toward MEHP markedly differed among species, and imply that these species differences are strongly associated with the toxicity of DEHP. PMID:26514348

  1. Toxicology of mono-, di-, and triethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Knaak, J B; Leung, H W; Stott, W T; Busch, J; Bilsky, J

    1997-01-01

    The chemistry, biochemistry, toxicity, and industrial use of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are reviewed. The dual function groups, amino and hydroxyl, make them useful in cutting fluids and as intermediates in the production of surfactants, soaps, salts, corrosion control inhibitors, and in pharmaceutical and miscellaneous applications. In 1995, the annual U.S. production capacity for ethanolamines was 447,727 metric tons. The principal route of exposure is through skin, with some exposure occurring by inhalation of vapor and aerosols. MEA, DEA, and TEA in water penetrate rat skin at the rate of 2.9 x 10(-3), 4.36 x 10(-3) and 18 x 10(-3) cm/hr, respectively. MEA, DEA, and TEA are water-soluble ammonia derivatives, with pHs of 9-11 in water and pHa values of 9.3, 8.8, and 7.7, respectively. They are irritating to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, with MEA being the worst irritant, followed by DEA and TEA. The acute oral LD50s are 2.74 g/kg for MEA, 1.82 g/kg for DEA, and 2.34 g/kg for TEA (of bw), with most deaths occurring within 4 d of administration. MEA is present in nature as a nitrogenous base in phospholipids. These lipids, composed of glycerol, two fatty acid esters, phosphoric acid, and MEA, are the building blocks of biomembranes in animals. MEA is methylated to form choline, another important nitrogenous base in phospholipids and an essential vitamin. The rat dietary choline requirement is 10 mg kg-1 d-1; 30-d oral administration of MEA (160-2670 mg kg-1 d-1) to rats produced "altered" liver and kidney weights in animals ingesting 640 mg kg-1 d-1 or greater. Death occurred at dosages of 1280 mg kg-1 d-1. No treatment-related effects were noted in dogs administered as much as 22 mg kg-1 d-1 for 2 yr. DEA is not metabolized or readily eliminated from the liver or kidneys. At high tissue concentrations, DEA substitutes for MEA in phospholipids and is methylated to form phospholipids composed of N-methyl and N, N-dimethyl DEA. Dietary intake of DEA by rats for 13 wk at levels greater than 90 mg kg-1 d-1 resulted in degenerative changes in renal tubular epithelial cells and fatty degeneration of the liver. Similar effects were noted in drinking water studies. The findings are believed to be due to alterations in the structure and function of biomembranes brought about by the incorporation of DEA and methylated DEA in headgroups. TEA is not metabolized in the liver or incorporated into phospholipids. TEA, however, is readily eliminated in urine. Repeated oral administration to rats (7 d/wk, 24 wk) at dose levels up to and including 1600 mg kg-1 d-1 produced histopathological changes restricted to kidney and liver. Lesions in the liver consisted of cloudy swelling and occasional fatty changes, while cloudy swelling of the convoluted tubules and loop of Henle were observed in kidneys. Chronic administration (2 yr) of TEA in drinking water (0, 1%, or 2% w/v; 525 and 1100 mg kg-1 d-1 in males and 910 and 1970 mg kg-1 d-1 in females) depressed body and kidney weights in F-344 rats. Histopathological findings consisted of an "acceleration of so-called chronic nephropathy" commonly found in the kidneys of aging F-344 rats. In B6C3F1 mice, chronic administration of TEA in drinking water (0, 1%, or 2%) produced no significant change in terminal body weights between treated and control animals or gross pathological changes. TEA was not considered to be carcinogenic. Systemic effects in rats chronically administered TEA dermally (0, 32, 64, or 125 mg kg-1 d-1 in males; 0, 63, 125, or 250 mg kg-1 d-1 in females) 5 d/wk for 2 yr were primarily limited to hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium and small microscopic adenomas. In a companion mouse dermal study, the most significant change was associated with nonneoplastic changes in livers of male mice consistent with chronic bacterial hepatitis. PMID:8956558

  2. Analysis of the HNO and NO donating properties of alicyclic amine diazeniumdiolates

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Benini, Patricia G.Z.; Basudhar, Debashree; Ramos-Colon, Cyf N.; Johnson, Gail M.; Larriva, Marti M.; Keefer, Larry K.; Andrei, Daniela; Miranda, Katrina M.

    2014-01-01

    Nitroxyl (HNO) donors have been shown to elicit a variety of pharmacological responses, ranging from tumoricidal effects to treatment of heart failure. Isopropylamine-based diazeniumdiolates have been shown to produce HNO on decomposition under physiological conditions. Herein, we report the synthesis and HNO release profiles of primary alicyclic amine-based diazeniumdiolates. These compounds extend the range of known diazeniumdiolate-based HNO donors. Acetoxymethyl ester-protected diazeniumdiolates were also synthesized to improve purification and cellular uptake. The acetoxymethyl derivative of cyclopentylamine diazeniumdiolate not only showed higher cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to the parent anion but was also effective in combination with tamoxifen for targeting estrogen receptor α-negative breast cancer cells. PMID:25192820

  3. Mono Lake Excursion Reviewed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddicoat, J. C.; Coe, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    The Mono Lake Excursion as recorded in the Mono Basin, CA, has an older part that is about negative 30 degrees inclination and about 300 degrees declination during low relative field intensity. Those paleomagnetic directions are closely followed by greater than 80 degrees positive inclination and east declination of about 100 degrees during higher relative field intensity. A path of the Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGPs) for the older part followed from old to young forms a large clockwise loop that reaches 35 degrees N latitude and is centered at about 35 degrees E longitude. That loop is followed by a smaller one that is counterclockwise and centered at about 70 degrees N latitude and 270 degrees E longitude (Denham & Cox, 1971; Denham, 1974; Liddicoat & Coe, 1979). The Mono Lake Excursion outside the Mono Basin in western North America is recorded as nearly the full excursion at Summer Lake, OR (Negrini et al., 1984), and as the younger portion of steep positive inclination/east declination in the Lahontan Basin, NV. The overall relative field intensity during the Mono Lake Excursion in the Lahontan Basin mirrors very closely the relative field intensity in the Mono Basin (Liddicoat, 1992, 1996; Coe & Liddicoat, 1994). Using 14C and 40Ar/39Ar dates (Kent et al., 2002) and paleoclimate and relative paleointensity records (Zimmerman et al., 2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion in the Mono Basin, it has been proposed that the Mono Lake Excursion might be older than originally believed and instead be the Laschamp Excursion at about 40,000 yrs B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). On the contrary, we favor a younger age for the Mono Lake Excursion, about 32,000 yrs B.P., using the relative paleointensity in the Mono Basin and Lahontan Basin and 14C dates from the Lahontan Basin (Benson et al., 2002). The age of about 32,000 yrs B.P. is also in accord with the age (32,000- 34,000 yrs B.P.) reported by Channell (2006) for the Mono Lake Excursion at ODP Site 919 in the Irminger Basin

  4. B3LYP/6-311++G** STUDIES ON HYDRATES OF CARBOHYDRATES:EFFECT OF EXPLICIT WATER MOLECULES ON THE CONFORMATION AND ENERGIES OF SELECTED MONO- AND DI-SACCHARIDES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geometry/energy optimzation of cellobiose hydrates, and mono-, penta-, deca-hydrates of glucose were carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Energetically favored hydration sites were found and the molecular stress energies associated with the interaction of the water molecules obtaine...

  5. Synthesis and Pharmacology of Mono-, Di-, and Trialkyl-Substituted 7-Chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-Dioxides Combined with X-ray Structure Analysis to Understand the Unexpected Structure-Activity Relationship at AMPA Receptors.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anja Probst; Francotte, Pierre; Frydenvang, Karla; Tapken, Daniel; Goffin, Eric; Fraikin, Pierre; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Lestage, Pierre; Danober, Laurence; Pirotte, Bernard; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2016-03-16

    Positive allosteric modulators of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors are promising compounds for treatment of neurological disorders, for example, Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a series of mono-, di-, or trialkyl-substituted 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides, comprising in total 16 new modulators. The trisubstituted compounds 7b, 7d, and 7e revealed potent activity (EC2× = 2.7-4.3 μM; concentration of compound responsible for a 2-fold increase of the AMPA mediated response) as AMPA receptor potentiators in an in vitro cellular fluorescence assay (FLIPR). The 4-cyclopropyl compound 7f was found to be considerably less potent (EC2× = 60 μM), in contrast to previously described 4-monoalkyl-substituted benzothiadiazine dioxides for which the cyclopropyl group constitutes the best choice of substituent. 7b was subjected to X-ray structural analysis in complex with the GluA2 ligand-binding domain. We propose an explanation of the unexpected structure-activity relationship of this new series of mono-, di-, and trialkyl-substituted 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide compounds. The methyl substituent in the 3-position directs the binding mode of the 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide (BTD) scaffold. When a methyl substituent is present in the 3-position of the BTD, additional methyl substituents in both the 2- and 4-positions increase potency, whereas introduction of a 4-cyclopropyl group does not enhance potency of 2,3,4-alkyl-substituted BTDs. A hydrogen bond donor in the 2-position of the BTD is not necessary for modulator potency. PMID:26771108

  6. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of mono- and disaccharides in D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Di-D-fructose dianhydrides as tracers of caramel authenticity.

    PubMed

    Ratsimba, V; García Fernández, J M; Defaye, J; Nigay, H; Voilley, A

    1999-06-01

    The monosaccharide (D-fructose, D-glucose, anhydrosugars), disaccharide (glucobioses) and pseudodisaccharide (di-D-fructose dianhydrides) content of D-fructose, D-glucose and sucrose caramels has been determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS) of their trimethylsilyl (TMS) or TMS-oxime derivatives. The chromatographic profiles revealed significant differences in the disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide distribution depending on the caramel source: a D-fructose caramel contains prominent proportions of di-D-fructose dianhydrides, a D-glucose caramel mainly D-glucobioses, and a sucrose caramel similar proportions of both disaccharide/pseudodisaccharide series. It is noteworthy that di-D-fructose dianhydrides are found in all three types of caramels and might then be used as specific tracers of the authenticity of caramel, i.e., a product resulting from the controlled heat treatment of food-grade carbohydrates for use as food additives. PMID:10399331

  7. How Long Is Mono Contagious?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? How Long Is Mono Contagious? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Long Is Mono Contagious? Print A A A Text ... so lots of people are confused about how long it is contagious. Once someone gets mono, the ...

  8. Elucidation of the upper pathway of alicyclic musk Romandolide degradation in OECD screening tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, M; Boschung, A; Miffon, F; Ohleyer, E; Chaintreau, A

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of Romandolide ([1-(3',3'-dimethyl-1'-cyclohexyl)ethoxycarbonyl] methyl propanoate), a synthetic alicyclic musk, by activated sludge inocula was investigated using both the manometric respirometry test OECD 301F and the CO₂ evolution test. In addition to measuring its biodegradability, key steps of the upper part of the metabolic pathway responsible for Romandolide degradation were identified using extracts at different time points of incubation. Early metabolism of Romandolide yielded ester hydrolysis products, including Cyclademol (1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethanol). The principal metabolites after 31 days were identified as 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone and 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexyl acetate. Formation of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone from Cyclademol by sludge was confirmed in subsequent experiments using Cyclademol as a substrate, indicating the involvement of an oxygen insertion reminiscent of a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. Further mineralization of 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone was also confirmed in subsequent studies. Three steps were thus required for complete biodegradation of the alicyclic musk: (1) successive ester hydrolyses leading to the formation of Cyclademol with concomitant degradation of the resulting acids, (2) conversion of Cyclademol into 3,3-dimethyl cyclohexanone, and (3) further mineralization via ring cleavage. PMID:24277432

  9. Biochemical properties of a new cold-active mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from marine member Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dongjuan; Lan, Dongming; Xin, Ruipu; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase has been applied to industrial usage in oil modification for its special substrate selectivity. Until now, the reported mono- and di-acylglycerol lipases from microorganism are limited, and there is no report on the mono- and di-acylglycerol lipase from bacteria. A predicted lipase (named MAJ1) from marine Janibacter sp. strain HTCC2649 was purified and biochemical characterized. MAJ1 was clustered in the family I.7 of esterase/lipase. The optimum activity of the purified MAJ1 occurred at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. The enzyme retained 50% of the optimum activity at 5 °C, indicating that MAJ1 is a cold-active lipase. The enzyme activity was stable in the presence of various metal ions, and inhibited in EDTA. MAJ1 was resistant to detergents. MAJ1 preferentially hydrolyzed mono- and di-acylglycerols, but did not show activity to triacylglycerols of camellia oil substrates. Further, MAJ1 is low homologous to that of the reported fungal diacylglycerol lipases, including Malassezia globosa lipase 1 (SMG1), Penicillium camembertii lipase U-150 (PCL), and Aspergillus oryzae lipase (AOL). Thus, we identified a novel cold-active bacterial lipase with a sn-1/3 preference towards mono- and di-acylglycerides for the first time. Moreover, it has the potential, in oil modification, for special substrate selectivity. PMID:24927145

  10. An efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene: preparation and application.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhu-Bao; Deng, Cong; Tan, Yi; Chen, Ming-Jun; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2014-05-28

    We found in our previous study that ethylenediamine- or ethanolamine-modified ammonium polyphosphates could be used alone as an intumescent flame retardant for polypropylene (PP), but their flame-retardant efficiency was not very high. In this present work, a novel highly-efficient mono-component polymeric intumescent flame retardant, piperazine-modified ammonium polyphosphate (PA-APP) was prepared. The oxygen index value of PP containing 22 wt % of PA-APP reached 31.2%, which increased by 58.4% compared with that of PP with equal amount of APP, and the vertical burning test (UL-94) could pass V-0 rating. Cone calorimeter (CC) results indicated that PP/PA-APP composite exhibited superior performance compared with PP/APP composite. For PP containing 25 wt % of PA-APP, fire growth rate (FGR) and smoke production rate (SPR) peak were reduced by 86.4% and 78.2%, respectively, compared with PP blended with 25 wt % APP. The relevant flame-retardant mechanism of PA-APP was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy etc. The P-N-C structure with the alicyclic amine was formed during the thermal decomposition of piperazine salt (-NH2(+)-O-P-), and the rich P-N-C structure facilitated the formation of stable char layer at the later stage, consequently improving the flame-retardant efficiency of APP. PMID:24742305

  11. Crystal structure of 4-(3,4-di­cyano­phen­oxy)-N-[3-(di­methyl­amino)­prop­yl]benzamide mono­hydrate: a phen­oxy­phthalo­nitrile derivative

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Senem; Yıldız, Salih Zeki; Çaylak Delibaş, Nagihan; Pişkin, Hasan; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C20H20N4O2·H2O, the planes of the phen­oxy and phthalo­nitrile rings are oriented at a dihedral angle of 60.39 (5)°. The 3-(di­­methyl­amino)­propyl chain has an extended conformation and is cis with respect to the phthalo­nitrile ring. In the crystal, O—H⋯O, O—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules to form slabs parallel to (100). There are also C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions present within the slabs. The slabs are linked by a pair of inversion-related C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, involving phthalo­nitrile rings, forming a three-dimensional structure. PMID:26396843

  12. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components.

    PubMed

    Jetter, Reinhard; Riederer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  13. Decarboxylative dearomatization and mono-α-arylation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Shehani N; Tunge, Jon A

    2016-06-01

    We report the first example of a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative dearomatization reaction that occurs via Pd-π-benzyl intermediates. In fact, the Pd-catalyzed decarboxylative cross-coupling reaction of benzyl enol carbonates can lead to either the dearomatized alicyclic ketones or α-monoarylated ketone products depending on the catalyst and ligand employed. PMID:27229656

  14. URINARY AND AMNIOTIC FLUID LEVELS OF PHTHALATE MONOESTERS IN RATS AFTER THE ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF DI(2-ETHYLHEXYL) PHTHALATE AND DI-N-BUTYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two studies were designed to examine amniotic fluid and maternal urine concentrations of the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite monobutyl phthalate (MBP) after administration of DEHP and D...

  15. The impact of rubbing fabric type on surface roughness and tribological properties of some semi-alicyclic polyimides evaluated from atomic force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of some polyimides (PI) prepared from a flexible and alicyclic dianhydride, in combination with aromatic diamines was investigated in detail before and after rubbing with two types of fabric: cotton velvet (CV) and cellulose diacetate velvet (CDV). Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the correlation between rubbing-induced grooves in PI film and size/flexibility of textile fibers. For both samples surface isotropy decreased appreciatively with 91% after patterning since the appearance of ordered nanostructures in the direction of rubbing. The angular spectra reveal the generation of a surface anisotropy after rubbing process and a higher surface regularity and uniformity when using CV. This result is confirmed by decrease of texture direction index with 75% and of surface texture aspect ratio with 89%. These parameters together with the rubbing fiber characteristics are key factors in controlling liquid crystal alignment on patterned PI surfaces.

  16. URINARY METABOLITES OF DI-N-OCTYL PHTHALATE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) is a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride plastics, cellulose esters, and polystyrene resins. The metabolism of DnOP results in the hydrolysis of one ester linkage to produce mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), which subsequently metabolizes to form oxida...

  17. Digital Bathymetric Model of Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raumann, Christian G.; Stine, Scott; Evans, Alexander; Wilson, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    In 1986 and 1987, Pelagos Corporation of San Diego (now Racal Pelagos) undertook a bathymetric survey of Mono Lake in eastern California for the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (DWP). The result of that survey was a series of maps at various scales and contour intervals. From these maps, the DWP hoped to predict consequences of the drop in lake level that resulted from their diversion of streams in the Mono Basin. No digital models, including shaded-relief and perspective-view renderings, were made from the data collected during the survey. With the permission of Pelagos Corporation and DWP, these data are used to produce a digital model of the floor of Mono Lake. The model was created using a geographic information system (GIS) to incorporate these data with new observations and measurements made in the field. This model should prove to be a valuable tool for enhanced visualization and analyses of the floor of Mono Lake.

  18. Enrichment of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic acids by oil-degrading bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of plants growing in oil-contaminated soil from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Mikolasch, Annett; Omirbekova, Anel; Schumann, Peter; Reinhard, Anne; Sheikhany, Halah; Berzhanova, Ramza; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2015-05-01

    Three microbial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (Festuca rubra, 75 %; Lolium perenne, 20 %; Poa pratensis, 10 %), and rape (Brassica napus) on the basis of their high capacity to use crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source. These isolates used an unusually wide spectrum of hydrocarbons as substrates (more than 80), including n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C32, monomethyl- and monoethyl-substituted alkanes (C12-C23), n-alkylcyclo alkanes with alkyl chain lengths from 4 to 18 carbon atoms, as well as substituted monoaromatic and diaromatic hydrocarbons. These three strains were identified as Gordonia rubripertincta and Rhodococcus sp. SBUG 1968. During their transformation of this wide range of hydrocarbon substrates, a very large number of aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic acids was detected, 44 of them were identified by GC/MS analyses, and 4 of them are described as metabolites for the first time. Inoculation of plant seeds with these highly potent bacteria had a beneficial effect on shoot and root development of plants which were grown on oil-contaminated sand. PMID:25592733

  19. Direct synthesis of C3-mono-functionalized oxindoles from N-unprotected 2-oxindole and their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Angela; Cordaro, Massimiliano; Grassi, Giovanni; Piperno, Anna; Barberi, Giuseppina; Cascio, Antonio; Risitano, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    A novel approach for the synthesis of unprecedented C3-mono-functionalized indolin-2-ones is reported, starting from 2-oxindole and chalcones. The reactions proceed regioselectively under mild conditions, without di- and tri-alkylated side products. The new compounds have been evaluated in vitro for their antiproliferative effects against the protozoan Leishmania infantum. Interestingly, they appear able to kill L. infantum promastigotes and amastigotes, without significant cytotoxic effects. PMID:24433962

  20. Resonant mono Higgs at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the production of a SM particle with large missing transverse momentum, dubbed mono-X searches, have gained increasing attention. After the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the run-II of the LHC will now scrutinise its properties, looking for BSM physics. In particular, one could search for mono-Higgs signals, that are typically studied in models addressing dark matter. However, this signal can appear also in models addressing the neutrino masses, if additional heavier neutrinos with masses at the electroweak scale are present. The latter will couple to the SM neutrinos and the Higgs boson, yielding a type of mono-Higgs signal not considered for dark matter: the resonant production of a Higgs boson and missing energy. In this paper, we address the LHC exclusion power of the latter with dedicated detector simulations, and reinterpret it in a benchmark scenario for neutrino mass generation.

  1. Gravity and magnetic investigations of the Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain, Mono Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pera, A. A.; Ponce, D. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Battaglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Mono Inyo volcanic chain is a 25-km long, north-south trending series of domes and craters extending southward from Mono Lake and into the west moat of Long Valley Caldera. Based on the Holocene history of eruptions in the area, the chain appears to hold the greatest potential for renewed magmatic activity (Hildreth, 2004). To better characterize the geometry and structure of Mono Basin for future dynamic modeling of the Mono Inyo volcanic chain a new gravity and magnetic survey was conducted. We collected gravity data at over 320 stations in and around the northern and central region of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain and around Mono Lake in the summer of 2010. Regional gravity data was collected at one-mile spacing and data collected on profile lines was collected at quarter-mile intervals. We collected magnetic data on major roads along several transects across Mono Basin that include one coincident with a seismic refraction line (Hill and others, 1985). Rock samples were collected for analysis of density and magnetic susceptibility. The new gravity and magnetic data will be compiled with pre-existing data from studies dating back to the 1960’s (Pakiser and others, 1960, 1976; Christensen, 1969) to produce new isostatic gravity and magnetic anomaly maps. Preliminary isostatic gravity and magnetic maps from pre-existing data show the presence of gravity and magnetic lows in Mono Lake and Long Valley Caldera where low density volcanic sediments are prevalent; gravity highs were observed to the east and west of Mono Lake and to the east of Long Valley Caldera. A region with a high magnetic anomaly lies to the east of the volcanic chain. Two-dimensional forward modeling of potential field data along profiles that extend across Mono Basin will constrain the density and magnetization distribution, stratification and structural geology of the Mono-Inyo volcanic chain. These efforts are critical to improve dynamic modeling of Sierran range-front faulting and dike

  2. Educational and Demographic Profile: Mono County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Mono County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced communication…

  3. Mono versus Stereo: Bilingualism's Double Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grutman, Rainier

    1993-01-01

    Offers an application of Mikhail Bakhtin's heteroglossia model, describing literature from a diversified point of view. Analyzes two examples to show nevertheless that Bakhtin unilaterally celebrates "stereo" qualities of language blending, and leaves no room for "mono" texts, which use polyglot devices as borders much more than as bridges between…

  4. Fetotoxic effects of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, I; Nakamura, Y; Yagi, Y; Tutikawa, K

    1986-01-01

    Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), one of the main metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), exerted embryo/fetotoxic effects similar to those of DEHP at lower doses. Oral administration of MEHP (1 mL/kg) to the mice of 8 days gestation resulted in less than 32% of live fetuses, all of which were deformed. When DEHP (10 mL/kg) was given to the pregnant mice of 8 days gestation, approximately 0.03% and 0.003% of the administered dose was found in fetuses as DEHP and MEHP, respectively, after 12 hr. The presence of the MEHP in fetuses is probably due to the transplacental crossing of the MEHP formed in the maternal body, since the fetuses of mice up to day 9 of pregnancy showed no hydrolytic activity of DEHP to MEHP. Crossing of MEHP through the placenta was proven by an experiment in which MEHP was administered in pregnant mice. A single injection of MEHP (25 or 50 mg/kg), but not DEHP (500 mg/kg) into pregnant mice, induced a significantly high incidence of somatic mutations in the coat hair of offspring of mice (KYG, female X PW, male; C57BL/6Crj, female X PW, male). All these data suggest that MEHP could be responsible for the embryotoxic/fetotoxic effects observed with DEHP. PMID:3709449

  5. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  7. Localization of the Transpiration Barrier in the Epi- and Intracuticular Waxes of Eight Plant Species: Water Transport Resistances Are Associated with Fatty Acyl Rather Than Alicyclic Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Plant cuticular waxes play a crucial role in limiting nonstomatal water loss. The goal of this study was to localize the transpiration barrier within the layered structure of cuticles of eight selected plant species and to put its physiological function into context with the chemical composition of the intracuticular and epicuticular wax layers. Four plant species (Tetrastigma voinierianum, Oreopanax guatemalensis, Monstera deliciosa, and Schefflera elegantissima) contained only very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives such as alcohols, alkyl esters, aldehydes, and alkanes in their waxes. Even though the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes of these species had very similar compositions, only the intracuticular wax was important for the transpiration barrier. In contrast, four other species (Citrus aurantium, Euonymus japonica, Clusia flava, and Garcinia spicata) had waxes containing VLCFA derivatives, together with high percentages of alicyclic compounds (triterpenoids, steroids, or tocopherols) largely restricted to the intracuticular wax layer. In these species, both the epicuticular and intracuticular waxes contributed equally to the cuticular transpiration barrier. We conclude that the cuticular transpiration barrier is primarily formed by the intracuticular wax but that the epicuticular wax layer may also contribute to it, depending on species-specific cuticle composition. The barrier is associated mainly with VLCFA derivatives and less (if at all) with alicyclic wax constituents. The sealing properties of the epicuticular and intracuticular layers were not correlated with other characteristics, such as the absolute wax amounts and thicknesses of these layers. PMID:26644508

  8. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E.; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A.; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R.

    2012-01-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure–function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis–Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  9. Arsenic speciation in Mono Lake, California: Response to seasonal stratification and anoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollibaugh, James T.; Carini, Steve; Gürleyük, Hakan; Jellison, Robert; Joye, Samantha B.; LeCleir, Gary; Meile, Christof; Vasquez, Lydia; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2005-04-01

    Mono Lake is a closed-basin, alkaline, hypersaline lake located at the western edge of the Great Basin in eastern California. We studied the distribution of arsenic (As) species in the water column of Mono Lake between February and November, 2002. This period captured the seasonal progression from winter mixing, through summer thermal stratification, to autumn overturn. Arsenic speciation was determined by ion chromatography-inductively coupled-plasma-mass spectrometry of samples preserved in the field by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. We found that arsenic speciation was dominated (>90%) by arsenate when oxygen was detectable. Once levels fell below 6 μmol/L O 2, arsenic speciation shifted to dominance by reduced species. Arsenate and arsenite co-occurred in a transition zone immediately below the base of the oxycline and low but significant concentrations of arsenate were occasionally detected in sulfidic hypolimnion samples. Thio-arsenic species were the dominant form of As found in sulfidic waters. Maxima of thio-arsenic species with stoichiometries consistent with mono-, di- and trithio-arsenic occurred in succession as sulfide concentration increased. A compound with a stoichiometry consistent with trithio-arsenic was the dominant As species (˜50% of total As) in high sulfide (2 mmol/L) bottom water. Lower concentrations of total As in bottom water relative to surface water suggest precipitation of As/S mineral phases in response to sulfide accumulation during prolonged anoxia.

  10. Catalytic residues and a predicted structure of tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Fuchs, Julian E; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Keller, Markus A; Golderer, Georg; Hermetter, Albin; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Hulo, Nicolas; Werner, Ernst R

    2012-04-01

    Alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase (EC 1.14.16.5) forms a third, distinct, class among tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes in addition to aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and nitric oxide synthases. Its protein sequence contains the fatty acid hydroxylase motif, a signature indicative of a di-iron centre, which contains eight conserved histidine residues. Membrane enzymes containing this motif, including alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase, are especially labile and so far have not been purified to homogeneity in active form. To obtain a first insight into structure-function relationships of this enzyme, we performed site-directed mutagenesis of 26 selected amino acid residues and expressed wild-type and mutant proteins containing a C-terminal Myc tag together with fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase in Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Among all of the acidic residues within the eight-histidine motif, only mutation of Glu137 to alanine led to an 18-fold increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for tetrahydrobiopterin, suggesting a role in tetrahydrobiopterin interaction. A ninth additional histidine residue essential for activity was also identified. Nine membrane domains were predicted by four programs: ESKW, TMHMM, MEMSAT and Phobius. Prediction of a part of the structure using the Rosetta membrane ab initio method led to a plausible suggestion for a structure of the catalytic site of alkylglycerol mono-oxygenase. PMID:22220568

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO DI-N-BUTYLTIN DICHLORIDE (DBTC): IMMUNOTOXIC AND NEUROTOXIC EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organotins are incorporated as stabilizers in PVC water supply pipe. Particularly when new, mono- and di-substituted methyl- and butyltins leach from the pipe and are thus of regulatory concern to EPA. These contaminants have adverse effects on both the immune and nervous systems...

  12. Elevated concentrations of actinides in mono lake.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R F; Bacon, M P; Brewer, P G

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply. PMID:17735740

  13. Elevated concentrations of actinides in Mono Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.F.; Bacon, M.P.; Brewer, P.G.

    1982-04-30

    Tetravalent thorium, pentavalent protactinium, hexavalent uranium, and plutonium (oxidation state uncertain) are present in much higher concentrations in Mono Lake, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern central California, than in seawater. Low ratios of actinium to protactinium and of americium to plutonium indicate that the concentrations of trivalent actinides are not similarly enhanced. The elevated concentrations of the ordinarily very insoluble actinides are maintained in solution by natural ligands, which inhibit their chemical removal from the water column, rather than by an unusually large rate of supply.

  14. Biological in vitro and in vivo studies of a series of new asymmetrical cationic [99mTc(N)(DTC-Ln)(PNP)]+ complex (DTC-Ln = alicyclic dithiocarbamate and PNP = diphosphinoamine).

    PubMed

    Bolzati, Cristina; Cavazza-Ceccato, Mario; Agostini, Stefania; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Yamamichi, Yoshihiro; Tokunaga, Shinji; Carta, Davide; Salvarese, Nicola; Bernardini, Daniele; Bandoli, Giuliano

    2010-05-19

    (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 is a cationic mixed compound under clinical investigation as potential myocardial imaging agent. In spite of this, analogously to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents, presents a relatively low first-pass extraction. Thus, modification of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC(5) direct to increase its first-pass extraction keeping unaltered the favorable imaging properties would be desirable. This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of novel cationic (99m)Tc-nitrido complexes, of general formula [(99m)TcN(DTC-Ln)(PNP)](+) (DTC-Ln= alicyclic dithiocarbamates; PNP = diphosphinoamine), as potential radiotracers for myocardial perfusion imaging. The synthesis of cationic (99m)Tc-(N)-complexes were accomplished in two steps. Biodistribution studies were performed in rats and compared with the distribution profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-DBODC5 and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi. The metabolisms of the most promising compounds were evaluated by HPLC methods. Biological studies revealed that most of the complexes have a high initial and persistent heart uptake with rapid clearance from nontarget tissues. Among tested compounds, 2 and 12 showed improved heart uptake with respect to the gold standard (99m)Tc-complexes with favorable heart-to-liver and slightly lower heart-to-lung ratios. Chromatographic profiles of (99m)Tc(N)-radioactivity extracted from tissues and fluids were coincident with the native compound evidencing remarkable in vivo stability of these agents. This study shows that the incorporation of alicyclic dithiocarbamate in the [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP)](+) building block yields to a significant increase of the heart uptake at early injection point suggesting that the first-pass extraction fraction of these novel complexes may be increased with respect to the other cationic (99m)Tc-agents keeping almost unaltered the favorable target/nontarget ratios. PMID:20402465

  15. On mono-W signatures in spin-1 simplified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haisch, Ulrich; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Tait, Tim M. P.

    2016-09-01

    The potential sensitivity to isospin-breaking effects makes LHC searches for mono-W signatures promising probes of the coupling structure between the Standard Model and dark matter. It has been shown, however, that the strong sensitivity of the mono-W channel to the relative magnitude and sign of the up-type and down-type quark couplings to dark matter is an artifact of unitarity violation. We provide three different solutions to this mono-W problem in the context of spin-1 simplified models and briefly discuss the impact that our findings have on the prospects of mono-W searches at future LHC runs.

  16. Mono- to Octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in stack gas from typical waste incinerators and their implications on emission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Haifeng; Xie, Huiting; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Tang, Chen; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-09-01

    Mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (mono- to octa-CDD/Fs) were determined in 14 stack gas samples from two municipal solid waste incinerators and two medical waste incinerators. The total PCDD/F concentrations were 5.1-390 ng/Nm(3), and the mono- to trichlorinated homologues contributed 53.2-94.5% of the total concentrations. The homologue profiles were dominated by the MoCDF, ranged from 1.51 to 113.1 ng/Nm(3), and the proportion that each PCDF homologue group contributed to the total concentration decreased with increasing chlorination level. The toxic equivalent concentrations (I-TEQs) were 0.01-2.81 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF being the biggest contributor, at 30.6-60.0%. Correlations were found among the PCDD/PCDF ratios (D/F ratios), the degree of chlorination, and the TEQ. Stack gases with low I-TEQs had higher proportions of the less chlorinated homologues and lower D/F ratios, which could be attributed to the removal of the more chlorinated isomers by the air pollution control systems used by the incinerators. 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, DiCDF, and TrCDF can be used as TEQ indicators for monitoring PCDD/Fs. 2,8-DiCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF correlated well with the TEQ because they strongly correlated with 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, implying possible correlations in their formation mechanisms. PMID:23906316

  17. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10505 - Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and... Phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol mono-C12-16-alkyl... identified as phosphoric acid, mixed mono- and diesters with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and polyethylene glycol...

  1. Mono Lake's Radiocarbon Budget: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broecker, Wallace; Stine, Scott

    Mono Lake occupies a semiarid basin just east of the central Sierra Nevada in California. During the past 4 decades, diversion of the lake's tributary streams by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has caused the lake to shrink dramatically. This shrinkage has concentrated the salts that occur naturally in the lake, forcing the salinity to rise toward levels that will cause the extinction of the resident brine shrimp and brine flies that provide food for many hundreds of thousands of migratory waterfowl. The lake is now the focus of a pitched battle between conservationists who want to curtail diversions before serious ecological consequences occur and the LADWP, whose responsibility is to supply the city with water.

  2. Viscoelasticity of mono- and polydisperse inverse ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Saldivar-Guerrero, Ruben; Richter, Reinhard; Rehberg, Ingo; Aksel, Nuri; Heymann, Lutz; Rodriguez-Fernández, Oliverio S

    2006-08-28

    We report on measurements of a magnetorheological model fluid created by dispersing nonmagnetic microparticles of polystyrene in a commercial ferrofluid. The linear viscoelastic properties as a function of magnetic field strength, particle size, and particle size distribution are studied by oscillatory measurements. We compare the results with a magnetostatic theory proposed by De Gans et al. [Phys. Rev. E 60, 4518 (1999)] for the case of gap spanning chains of particles. We observe these chain structures via a long distance microscope. For monodisperse particles we find good agreement of the measured storage modulus with theory, even for an extended range, where the linear magnetization law is no longer strictly valid. Moreover we compare for the first time results for mono- and polydisperse particles. For the latter, we observe an enhanced storage modulus in the linear regime of the magnetization. PMID:16965057

  3. Gaylussite formation at mono lake, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Herbst, D.B.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The salinity of Mono Lake has steadily increased since 1941 from 50%. to about 90%. due to diversion of tributary streams. This increase has resulted in the newly discovered precipitation of gaylussite (Na2Ca(CO3)2 ?? 5H2O). Chemical modeling of the lake water using Pitzer equations suggests that gaylussite has been forming year round since about 1970 when the salinity first exceeded 80%., and that it was earlier forming intermittently at lower salinities in the winter shortly after diversion began, breaking down incongruently to aragonite during summers. Lake water appears to remain at a constant 9-fold supersaturation with aragonite at all salinities, perhaps buffered by monohydrocalcite which appears to be just at saturation for all salinities. Other saline lakes also appear to be buffered by monohydrocalcite. ?? 1991.

  4. Mono-cadmium vs Mono-mercury Doping of Au25 Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chuanhao; Lin, Yue-jian; Yuan, Jinyun; Liao, Lingwen; Zhu, Min; Weng, Lin-hong; Yang, Jinlong; Wu, Zhikun

    2015-12-16

    Controlling the dopant type, number, and position in doped metal nanoclusters (nanoparticles) is crucial but challenging. In the work described herein, we successfully achieved the mono-cadmium doping of Au25 nanoclusters, and revealed using X-ray crystallography in combination with theoretical calculations that one of the inner-shell gold atoms of Au25 was replaced by a Cd atom. The doping mode is distinctly different from that of mono-mercury doping, where one of the outer-shell Au atoms was replaced by a Hg atom. Au24Cd is readily transformed to Au24Hg, while the reverse (transformation from Au24Hg to Au24Cd) is forbidden under the investigated conditions. PMID:26595532

  5. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  6. Thio-arsenic species in alkaline, hypersaline, meromictic Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollibaugh, J. T.; Carini, S.; Gürleyük, H.; Jellison, R.; Joye, S. B.; Lecleir, G.; Meile, C.; Vasquez, L.; Wallschläger, D.

    2004-12-01

    Mono Lake had been meromictic for 8 years when sampled (Feb-Nov, 2002). Arsenic speciation was determined by IC-ASRS-ICP-MS of samples preserved in the field by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Arsenic speciation was dominated by arsenate when oxygen was detectable, but shifted to dominance by reduced species once oxygen was no longer detectable. Thio-arsenic species were the dominant form of As found in sulfidic waters. Maxima of thio-arsenic species with stoichiometries consistent with mono-, di- and tri-thio-arsenic occurred in succession as sulfide concentration increased. A compound with a stoichiometry consistent with tri-thio-arsenic was the dominant As species (>50% of total As) in high sulfide (>2 mM) bottom water. Comparison of the data with a simple equilibrium model suggested that the distributions do not represent simple chemical equilibria driven by sulfide concentration. Lower concentrations of total As in bottom water relative to surface water suggest precipitation of As/S mineral phases in response to sulfide accumulation during prolonged anoxia.

  7. Three Dimensional Visualization of Mono Basin, California from Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, J.; McPhee, D.; Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Matson, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mono Basin, east of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, is an area of great interest not only because of recent volcanic activity, but also as a region of geothermal potential. Not surprisingly, most of the geophysical data collected in the region has been focused on Long Valley Caldera and Mammoth Mountain due to recent seismic activity in the south moat, uplift of a central resurgent dome in the Caldera, and enhanced CO2 emissions near Mammoth Mountain. Consequently, there is a void of geophysical information on the Mono-Inyo Craters, a chemically distinct volcanic chain north of Long Valley. The Mono-Inyo chain is nominally two parts but volcanically similar; the Inyo Craters form a north trending linear chain and the Mono craters form an arcuate chain concave towards the west, bounding the east side of Mono Basin. In the last two years, gravity, high-resolution aeromagnetic, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and magnetotelluric (MT) data have been collected around Mono Craters. The focus of this study is the Mono Basin, where interesting features have been found from 3D visualization of these geophysical data. One prominent feature is a large circular magnetic anomaly with a diameter of 10~km stretching from Mono Craters to the base of the Sierra Nevada, where the geometry of Mono Craters follow the eastern part of this anomaly. This circular anomaly has been suggested to be a ring fracture, but sparse surface data leaves this theory unconstrained. Another feature is an interpreted deep (~ 600 m) fault (previously unmapped) just west of Mono Craters inside the circular magnetic anomaly. This structure correlates with a conductive high in the 3D resistivity model found from the AMT data and 2D resistivity model from newly collected MT data, a gravity gradient, and a positive magnetic anomaly in the aeromagnetic data. Moreover, this fault may be an important structural constraint on the formation of Mono Craters, because it may explain why the Mono Craters form an arcuate

  8. MONO FOR CROSS-PLATFORM CONTROL SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Timossi, Chris

    2006-10-19

    Mono is an independent implementation of the .NET Frameworkby Novell that runs on multiple operating systems (including Windows,Linux and Macintosh) and allows any .NET compatible application to rununmodified. For instance Mono can run programs with graphical userinterfaces (GUI) developed with the C# language on Windows with VisualStudio (a full port of WinForm for Mono is in progress). We present theresults of tests we performed to evaluate the portability of our controlssystem .NET applications from MS Windows to Linux.

  9. Self-excited mono-ion oscillator.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H; Nagourney, W; Sandberg, J

    1986-08-01

    We propose self-excitation as a potentially more sensitive technique for studying a mono-ion oscillator of frequency v(z) approximately 0.1-100 MHz. This technique also makes only low demands on the harmonicity of the ion oscillation. It should therefore work with inexpensive, easily constructed rf traps. In our analysis, the bound ion between the trap electrodes is represented by an effective circuit resembling that of a piezoelectric quartz crystal. The feedback circuit developed, when operated below self-excitation threshold, may also make efficient electronic cooling of the ion possible, particularly in conjunction with a heterodyne feedback scheme. In the super-regenerative mode, the apparatus might function as a powerful atomic amplifier of the ion oscillation for an energy as low as a fraction of hv(z). These techniques may prove especially useful in conjunction with attempts to synthesize in an rf trap a loosely bound anti-hydrogen atom from a positron and antiproton. PMID:16593742

  10. Travertine Hot Springs, Mono County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Chesterman, C.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.

    1991-08-01

    This article is an abridgement of Special Report 172, Travertine Hot Springs at Bridgeport, Mono County, California, in preparation at the California Division of Mines and Geology. The Travertine Hot Springs area is on the northern edge of what many consider to be one of the most tectonically active areas in the United States. There is abundant geothermal and seismic activity. The landscape is dotted with volcanic features- cones, craters, domes, flows, fumaroles and hot springs-indicators of unrest in the present as well as reminders of activity in the past. Travertine, also known as calcareous sinter, is limestone formed by chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) from ground or surface waters. It forms stalactites and stalagmites in caves, fills some veins and spring conduits and can also be found at the mouths of springs, especially hot springs. The less compact variety is called tufa and the dense, banded variety is known as Mexican onyx, or onyx marble. True onyx, however, is a banded silicate.

  11. Modeling the kinetics of UV/hydrogen peroxide oxidation of some mono-, di-, and trichlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Hugül, M; Apak, R; Demirci, S

    2000-10-01

    The decomposition of a number of chlorophenols (CPs), namely 2-CP, 2, 4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, has been studied in aqueous solution by UV-catalyzed oxidation with H(2)O(2) under UV radiation emitted by a 125-W medium pressure Hg lamp in an immersion well-type quartz photoreactor, and the organic-bound chlorine has been converted into the environmentally harmless inorganic chloride. For oxidant/CP mole ratios between 1:1 and 16:1, the reaction kinetics were modeled and the corresponding rate constants found by periodically measuring the remaining CP, hydrogen peroxide and converted chloride in solution. A theoretical model for the degradation pathway is proposed expressing the rate as a linear function of the concentrations of CP and oxidant. The rate constants for the pseudo-first order approximation of the CP degradation were compared. H(2)O(2), when combined with UV, is an effective photoactivated oxidant. The photodegradation order in terms of the initial rate of CPs destruction was: Cl(3).Ph>/=Cl(2).Ph>Cl.Ph. PMID:10946128

  12. Geometric and electronic structures of mono- and di-vacancies in phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Dong, Jinming

    2015-02-13

    The geometric structures, stabilities and diffusions of the monovacancy (MV) and divacancy (DV) in two-dimensional phosphorene, as well as their influences on their vibrational and electronic properties have been studied by first-principles calculations. Two possible MVs and 14 possible DVs have been found in phosphorene, in which the MV-(5|9) with a pair of pentagon-nonagon is the ground state of MVs, and the DV-(5|8|5) with a pentagon-octagon-pentagon structure is the most stable DV. All 14 DVs could be divided into four basic types based upon their topological structures and transform between different configurations via bond rotations. The diffusion of MV-(5|9) is found to exhibit an anisotropic character, preferring to migrate along the zigzag direction in the same half-layer. The introduction of MV and DV in phosphorene influences its vibrational properties, inducing the localized defect modes, which could be used to distinguish different vacancy structures. The MVs and DVs also have a significant influence on the electronic properties of phosphorene. It is found that the phosphorene with MV-(5|9) is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with the magnetic moment of 1.0 μB and a band gap of about 0.211 eV, while the DV induces a direct-indirect band gap transition. Our calculation results on the MV and DV in phosphorene are important for the promising application of the phosphorene in the nanoelectronics. PMID:25597897

  13. Resistivity Imaging of the Mono-Inyo Volcanic Chain, Mono Basin, California Using the Audiomagnetotelluric Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Ponce, D. A.; Pera McDonell, A.; Chuchel, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) models of data collected in Mono Basin, California show significant structure within the upper kilometer of the basin and image a shallow resistor that may be related to a shallow basement feature. The Mono-Inyo volcanic chain is a 25-km long, north-south trending series of domes and craters extending southward from Mono Lake and into the western part of the Long Valley Caldera. Gravity and magnetic modeling in the region, prompted by a volcano hazards study, show a basement high associated with an apparent circular magnetic anomaly. AMT data are used to further investigate this potential field anomaly and image the geoelectric structure within the volcanic rocks in Mono Basin. We collected AMT data along two profiles in Pumice Valley and along the western margin of the domes. Profile A runs approximately east-west, perpendicular to the regional geologic strike, and extends 2.5 km from the southern edge of North Coulee into the basin. Profile B is a north-south trending 6 km-long profile within the basin and was located several hundred meters away from the volcanic chain. Both profiles perpendicularly intersect the circular magnetic feature. We computed both one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) inverse models along each profile. 2D models were computed using the conjugate gradient, finite-difference method of Rodi and Mackie (2001) and a 100 ohm-m half-space, starting model. One-dimensional model sensitivity and various 2D starting models indicate a depth of investigation of about 1 km. Preliminary models show a relatively conductive (~20 ohm-m) volcanic basin fill likely associated with the Bishop Tuff, a voluminous pyroclastic flow, whose eruption resulted in formation of the Long Valley caldera 760 Ka ago. Resistivity variations within the basin fill may be related to the porosity or amount of fracturing of individual flows. A resistive (> 200 ohm-m) feature at roughly 600-800 m depth coincides with the magnetic high and relative

  14. Electron transfer reactions in the alkene mono-oxygenase complex from Nocardia corallina B-276.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, S C; Cammack, R; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    Nocardia corallina B-276 possesses a multi-component enzyme, alkene mono-oxygenase (AMO), that catalyses the stereoselective epoxygenation of alkenes. The reductase component of this system has been shown by EPR and fluorescence spectroscopy to contain two prosthetic groups, an FAD centre and a [2Fe-2S] cluster. The role of these centres in the epoxygenation reaction was determined by midpoint potential measurements and electron transfer kinetics. The order of potentials of the prosthetic groups of the reductase were FAD/FAD.=-216 mV, [2Fe-2S]/[2Fe-2S].=-160 mV and FAD./FAD.=-134 mV. Combined, these data implied that the reductase component supplied the energy required for the epoxygenation reaction and allowed a prediction of the mechanism of electron transfer within the AMO complex. The FAD moiety was reduced by bound NADH in a two-electron reaction. The electrons were then transported to the [2Fe-2S] centre one at a time, which in turn reduced the di-iron centre of the epoxygenase. Reduction of the di-iron centre is required for oxygen binding and substrate oxidation. PMID:10085230

  15. Plutonium speciation in water from Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cleveland, J.M.; Rees, T.F.; Nash, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of plutonium in Mono Lake water is enhanced by the presence of large concentrations of indigenous carbonate ions and moderate concentrations of fluoride ions. In spite of the complex chemical composition of this water, only a few ions govern the behavior of plutonium, as demonstrated by the fact that it was possible to duplicate plutonium speciation in a synthetic water containing only the principal components of Mono Lake water.

  16. Identification of di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP) metabolites using human liver microsomes for biomonitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manori J; Samandar, Ella; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-06-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is used in food packaging and medical devices, among other applications, and is a potential replacement for DEHP and other ortho-phthalate plasticizers. Identifying sensitive and specific biomarkers of DEHTP is necessary to assess humans' background exposure to DEHTP. Using mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of DEHTP by human liver microsomes to identify in vitro DEHTP metabolites. We unequivocally identified terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono-2-ethylhydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP), using authentic standards, and tentatively identified mono-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (MEHTP) and two other oxidative metabolites of DEHTP: mono-2-ethyloxohexyl terephthalate (MEOHTP), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) from their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. We also evaluated the formation of in vitro metabolites of DEHP. DEHTP and DEHP produced similar metabolites, but their metabolite profiles differed considerably. DEHTP metabolized to form TPA, a metabolite of several terephthalates, as the major in vitro metabolite, followed by MEHTP, MEHHTP, MEOHTP and MECPTP. MEHTP, MEHHTP, MEOHTP and MECPTP, which are specific metabolites of DEHTP, may be suitable biomarkers for assessing exposure to DEHTP. Nonetheless, data on the urinary excretion fraction and temporal stability of these metabolites, among other considerations, are needed to demonstrate their utility as exposure biomarkers. PMID:25687528

  17. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  18. Mono- and Polyhydrated Sulfates in Tithonium Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of sulfate-containing deposits in Tithonium Chasma was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 1538 UTC (11:38 a.m. EDT) on August 31, 2007 near 5.22 degrees south latitude, 270.48 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    Tithonium Chasma lies at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system. It extends approximately east-west for roughly 810 kilometers (503 miles), varies in width from approximately 10 to 110 kilometers (6 to 68 miles), and cuts into the Martian surface to a maximum depth of roughly 6 kilometers (4 miles).

    The top panel in the montage above shows the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM data covers an area centered on a ridge of erosion-resistant rock.

    The center left image, an infrared false color image, reveals banded, light-colored material draped on the ridge. The center right image unveils the mineralogical composition of the area, with yellow representing monohydrated sulfates (sulfates with one water molecule incorporated into each molecule of the mineral) and purple polyhydrated sulfates (sulfates with multiple waters per mineral molecule).

    The lower two images are renderings of data draped over topography with 7 times vertical exaggeration. These images provide a view of the topography and reveal how the sulfate deposits both cover and flank the ridge. Brighter, monohydrated sulfate (yellow) deposits revealed in the lower right image lies along the ridge's northwest side and fall off into a small valley or depression, while darker polyhydrated sulfates (purple) lie along the ridge's northeast flank. A deposit of both mono- and polyhydrated sulfates spanning the ridge

  19. Pairing preferences of the model mono-valence mono-atomic ions investigated by molecular simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Ruiting; Zhao, Ying; Li, HuanHuan; Zhuang, Wei E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Yi Qin E-mail: gaoyq@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-14

    We carried out a series of potential of mean force calculations to study the pairing preferences of a series of model mono-atomic 1:1 ions with evenly varied sizes. The probabilities of forming the contact ion pair (CIP) and the single water separate ion pair (SIP) were presented in the two-dimensional plots with respect to the ion sizes. The pairing preferences reflected in these plots largely agree with the empirical rule of matching ion sizes in the small and big size regions. In the region that the ion sizes are close to the size of the water molecule; however, a significant deviation from this conventional rule is observed. Our further analysis indicated that this deviation originates from the competition between CIP and the water bridging SIP state. The competition is mainly an enthalpy modulated phenomenon in which the existing of the water bridging plays a significant role.

  20. Effect of Mono- and Poly-CH/P Exchange(s) on the Aromaticity of the Tropylium Ion.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ankita; Gupta, Raakhi

    2016-01-01

    In view of the fact that the phosphorus atom in its low co-ordination state (coordination numbers 1 and 2) has been termed as the carbon copy, there have been attempts to investigate, theoretically as well as experimentally, the effect of the exchange(s) of CH- moiety with phosphorus atom(s) (CH/P) on the structural and other aspects of the classical carbocyclic and heterocyclic systems. Tropylium ion is a well-known non-benzenoid aromatic system and has been studied extensively for its aromatic character. We have now investigated the effect of mono- and poly-CH/P exchange(s) on the aromaticity of the tropylium ion. For this purpose, the parameters based on the geometry and magnetic properties, namely bond equalization, aromatic stabilization energies (ASE), Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) values, (NICS(0), NICS(1), NICS(1)zz), proton nucleus magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) chemical shifts, magnetic susceptibility exaltation and magnetic anisotropic values of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions have been determined at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) (B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) level. Geometry optimization reveals bond length equalization. ASEs range from -46.3 kcal/mol to -6.2 kcal/mol in mono- and diphospha-analogues which are planar. However, the ions having three and four phosphorus atoms lose planarity and their ASE values approach the values typical for non-aromatic structures. Of the three NICS values, the NICS(1)zz is consistently negative showing aromatic character of all the systems studied. It is also supported by the magnetic susceptibility exaltations and magnetic anisotropic values. Furthermore, ¹H-NMR chemical shifts also fall in the aromatic region. The conclusion that mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-phosphatropylium ions are aromatic in nature has been further corroborated by determining the energy gap between the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (LUMO) (HOMO - LUMO gap), which falls in the

  1. Structural characterization and surface-active properties of a new glycolipid biosurfactant, mono-acylated mannosylerythritol lipid, produced from glucose by Pseudozyma antarctica.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-09-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudozyma yeasts, show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. In the course of MEL production from glucose as the sole carbon source, P. antarctica was found to produce unknown glycolipids more hydrophilic than conventional "di-acylated MELs," which have two fatty acyl esters on the mannose moiety. Based on a detailed characterization, the most hydrophilic one was identified as 4-O-(3'-O-alka(e)noyl-beta-D: -mannopyranosyl)-D: -erythritol namely, "mono-acylated MEL." The mono-acylated MEL reduced the surface tension of water to 33.8 mN/m at a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 3.6 x 10(-4) M, and its hydrophilic-lipophilic balance was tentatively calculated to be 12.15. The observed CMC was 100-fold higher than that of the MELs hitherto reported. Interestingly, of the yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma, only P. antarctica and P. parantarctica gave the mono-acylated MEL from glucose, despite a great diversity of di-acylated MEL producers in the genus. These strains produced MELs including the mono-acylated one at a rate of 20-25%. From these results, the new MEL is likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water-type emulsifiers and washing detergents because of its higher water solubility compared to conventional MELs and will thus contribute to facilitating a broad range of applications for the environmentally advanced surfactants. PMID:17607573

  2. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:25620856

  3. Gas exchange on Mono Lake and Crowley Lake, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Ledwell, James R.; Broecker, Wallace S.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange coefficients (k) have been determined for freshwater Crowley Lake and saline Mono Lake through the use of a man-made purposefully injected gas, SF6. The concentration decreased from an initial value of 40 to 4 pmol/L for Mono Lake and from 20 to 1 pmol/L for Crowley lake over a period of 6 wks. Wind-speed (u) records from anemometers on the shore of each lake made it possible to determine the relationship between k and u. The average u and k values for the experiment were identical for the two lakes, despite the large chemical differences. It is estimated that, for the u values observed over Mono Lake from July to December 1984, the exchange of CO2 occurred 2.5 times faster than without chemical enhancement. This is a factor of 4 lower than needed to explain the high invasion rate of C-14 produced by nuclear bomb tests.

  4. Degradation of mono-fluorophenols by an acclimated activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Chaojie, Zhang; Qi, Zhou; Ling, Chen; Yuan, Yuan; Hui, Yu

    2007-02-01

    Acclimated activated sludge was examined for its ability to degrade mono-fluorophenols as the sole carbon source in aerobic batch cultures. The acclimated activated sludge degraded fluorophenol efficiently. It degraded 100 mg/l 3-fluoropheno and 4-fluorophenol in 16 h with, respectively, 99.85% and 99.91% fluoride anion release and it degraded 50 mg/l 2-fluorophenol in 15 h with 99.26% fluoride anion release. The aerobic biodegradability of the mono-fluorophenols decreased in the order: 4-fluorophenol > 3-fluorophenol > 2-fluorophenol, resulting mainly from a different octanol/water partition coefficient and different steric parameter of the fluorophenols. The mechanism study revealed that the initial step in the aerobic biodegradation of mono-fluorophenols by the activated sludge was their transformation to fluorocatechol. Following transformation of the fluorophenol to fluorocatechol, ring cleavage by catechol 1, 2-dioxygenases proceeded via an ortho-cleavage pathway, then defluorination occurred. PMID:16819592

  5. FT-IR study of the proton polarizability of hydrogen bonds and of the hydrogen-bonded systems in a di-Mannich base of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Bogumil; Wojciechowski, Grzegorz; Urjasz, Hanna; Zundel, Georg

    1998-10-01

    The mono- as well as the di-Mannich bases of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol are studied by FT-IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in these bases the protons remain localized at the phenol O atom. This result is in contrast to those obtained earlier for more acidic biphenols in which the protons are not localized but fluctuate and the relevant hydrogen bonds show large polarizability. An intense infrared continuum in the FT-IR spectrum of the mono-protonated di-Mannich base of 5,5'-dimethoxy-2,2'-biphenol demonstrates that the intramolecular hydrogen bond in this compound shows large proton polarizability.

  6. [Immediately loaded MonoType implants in the edentulous mandible].

    PubMed

    Gfeller, F; Zitzmann, N U; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Results of immediately loaded implants are presented. 34 patients with 136 interforaminal MonoType implants (Straumann,Basel, Switzerland) were included in the study. The bar retention was manufactured fter the operation, inserted and covered with a hybrid prosthesis. 28 patients showed up for the follow-up study, the average time range was three years. Five implants were rated as failures, the cumulative six-year success rate being 94%. Interforaminal immediately loaded MonoType implants in edentulous patients showed very good results, comparable to similar studies with different systems. PMID:21560796

  7. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  8. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  9. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  10. Air quality in bedded mono-slope beef barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded mono-slope barns are becoming more common in the upper Midwest. Because these are new facilities, little research has been published regarding environmental quality, building management and animal performance in these facilities. A team of researchers from South Dakota State University, USDA ...

  11. Geophysical studies of Mono Lake, east-central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, N. D.; Ponce, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake, California to study regional crustal structures and to aid understanding the geologic framework of Mono Lake, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Recent geophysical surveys included over 600 line-kilometers of high-resolution ship-borne magnetometer data that augmented existing airborne data, 22 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data that were collected along six traverses across Paoha Island, 56 gravity stations that were collected on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples that were collected for physical property data. Magnetic highs in the study area occur to the east and west of Mono Lake, where pre-Tertiary basement is exposed. Magnetic data indicate that Mono Lake itself is dominated by three prominent magnetic anomalies that are from west to east: a magnetic high along the northwest part of the lake associated with the moderately magnetic basalt cinder cone at Black Point, a magnetic high associated with the young volcanic centers at Paoha and Negit Islands, and a broad magnetic high along the eastern margin of the lake probably associated with moderately magnetic granitic basement rocks at depth. Because volcanic rocks exposed at the surface of Paoha and Negit Islands are only weakly magnetic, magnetic data suggest that more mafic volcanic rocks probably occur at depth and are the source of the anomaly. The linear and steep magnetic gradient across the eastern part of the lake may reflect a fault. A fault may also be imaged in the northeastern part of the lake, where a possible laterally offset magnetic anomaly may be present. Within Mono Lake, gravity station control is poor because land-based gravity stations are limited to Paoha and Negit Islands. The gravity low in the basin reflects a moderately deep sedimentary basin filled with low density lacustrine and volcanic deposits. Isostatic gravity data indicate the central

  12. Stability and Analgesic Efficacy of Di-acetyl Morphine (Diamorphine) Compared with Morphine in Implanted Intrathecal Pumps In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jon H; Palfrey, Stephen M; Rayen, Arasu; Southall, Jane L; Labib, Maurad H

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate di-acetyl morphine as an alternative opioid analgesic for use in implanted intrathecal drug delivery systems because of its greater solubility through evaluation of its stability in vivo and analgesic efficacy in the period between pump refills. Contents of intrathecal drug delivery system reservoirs (SynchroMed, Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) that had been filled with di-acetyl morphine dissolved in saline (21), bupivacaine (9), or in both bupivacaine and clonidine (19) were sampled in vivo between 1 and 125 days after refill. The samples were assayed for di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Prospective daily numerical pain scores between pump refills, using 11-point Likert scales, on 24 patients with implanted SynchroMed pumps (12 delivering di-acetyl morphine in saline, 12 were delivering morphine in saline) were collected. Results showed that di-acetyl morphine immediately started to decay to mono-acetyl morphine in implanted Synchromed pumps with half-life of 50 days. Mono-acetyl morphine decayed to morphine with a maxima estimated at 125 days. There was no clinically significant change in average weekly pain scores for up to ten weeks in either group (range, 2.5 to 2.8 for diamorphine and 2.7 to 3.1 for morphine) (2-way repeated ANOVA, F(9,220) = 0.98, n.s.). We conclude that di-acetyl morphine and its breakdown products, 6 mono-acetyl morphine and morphine, provide similar analgesia to morphine alone when administered by intrathecal pump for a period of at least ten weeks and may be a useful alternative when a more soluble agent is favored. PMID:22151270

  13. Quaternary Eruptions of the Mono-Inyo Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M. I.; Pouget, S.; Mangan, M.; Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eruptive products of the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain include the tephra and associated volcanic rocks of Black Point, islands of Mono Lake, Mono Craters, Inyo Craters, late eruptions of Mammoth Mountain and Red Cones. Most of the eruptions were explosive, and generated numerous pyroclastic flows, surges and falls as well as the prominent domes and lava flows that now cover vents. The eruptions range in age from several hundred years to at least 60,000 yr BP. The Mono-Inyo tephras are dispersed throughout the Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, providing key time-stratigraphic marker layers. Recent work has not only resulted in high-precision radiometric dating of many of the tephras, but also detailed geochemical data that for the first time provides fingerprinting sufficiently precise to discriminate among the tephras. Lithostratigraphy of many of the layers is herein described for the first time, based on careful sampling and description in the field, and laboratory grain size, grain shape and componentry analyses of the late Pleistocene tephras of the Wilson Creek Formation. Most of the Wilson Creek volcanic layers are fall deposits accumulated within paleolake Russell, which were generated by eruptions of variable intensity and influenced by paleowinds of different orientation. Prevailing winds were generally to the North and East, but often the Pleistocene layers less than 25 ka were dispersed to the West. Many of the fall layers show evidence of wave reworking, generally near the top, although in some cases it is pervasive. Only near the vent do some layers of apparent debris flow origin occur. Maximum pumice sizes range up to nearly 3 cm, and lithics range up to 1 cm in the rhyolitic fall beds, while thicknesses range up to c. 30 cm. These data are consistent with relatively low volume, subplinian style eruptive behavior for most of the life of the Mono-Inyo Craters.

  14. The effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Liu, Keqiang; Yuan, Haitao; Zhu, Jian; Yu, Guangyan; Xie, Jingli; Fu, Songpo; Guo, Kun; Ye, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is considered to be a reproductive toxicant. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of MEHP on apoptosis of rat ovarian granulosa cells and explore potential mechanism. Granulosa cells were treated with MEHP (0, 25, 50, and 100 μmol/l). Inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis rate were observed in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups. CASPASE3 activity and BAX expression were significantly raised in all MEHP-treated groups; BCL2 expression was elevated in 25 μmol/l group, while inhibited in 50 and 100 μmol/l groups; BAX/BCL2 ratio was increased in a typical dose-effect relationship. In conclusion, this study showed that MEHP exposure induced cell viability decrease and apoptosis, associated with increase of CASPASE3 activity and BAX/BCL2 ratio. Moreover, CASPASE3 activity showed a reversed dose-dependent effect in MEHP-treated groups, indicating there might exist other CASPASE-independent pathway involved in MEHP-induced apoptosis. PMID:25681707

  15. Sponge Phases and Nanoparticle Dispersions in Aqueous Mixtures of Mono- and Diglycerides.

    PubMed

    Valldeperas, Maria; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Ram-On, Maor; Kesselman, Ellina; Danino, Dganit; Nylander, Tommy; Barauskas, Justas

    2016-08-30

    The lipid liquid crystalline sponge phase (L3) has the advantages that it is a nanoscopically bicontinuous bilayer network able to accommodate large amounts of water and it is easy to manipulate due to its fluidity. This paper reports on the detailed characterization of L3 phases with water channels large enough to encapsulate bioactive macromolecules such as proteins. The aqueous phase behavior of a novel lipid mixture system, consisting of diglycerol monooleate (DGMO), and a mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides (Capmul GMO-50) was studied. In addition, sponge-like nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by Polysorbate 80 (P80) were prepared based on the DGMO/GMO-50 system, and their structure was correlated with the phase behavior of the corresponding bulk system. These NPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to determine their size, shape, and inner structure as a function of the DGMO/GMO-50 ratio. In addition, the effect of P80 as stabilizer was investigated. We found that the NPs have aqueous pores with diameters up to 13 nm, similar to the ones in the bulk phase. PMID:27482838

  16. The endocrine disruptor mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes adipocyte differentiation and induces obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chanjuan; Cheng, Xuejia; Xia, Hongfei; Ma, Xu

    2012-12-01

    The environmental obesogen hypothesis proposes that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental 'window' contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate], a metabolite of the widespread plasticizer DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate], has been found in exposed organisms and identified as a selective PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) modulator. However, implication of MEHP on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we show the dose-dependent effects of MEHP on adipocyte differentiation and GPDH (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) activity in the murine 3T3-L1 cell model. MEHP induced the expression of PPARγ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. Moreover, MEHP perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to a low dose of MEHP significantly increased b.w. (body weight) and fat pad weight in male offspring at PND (postnatal day) 60. In addition, serum cholesterol, TAG (triacylglycerol) and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to MEHP may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. PMID:22953781

  17. Design and syntheses of mono and multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates for targeted liposomal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Štimac, Adela; Cvitaš, Jelena Trmčić; Frkanec, Leo; Vugrek, Oliver; Frkanec, Ruža

    2016-09-10

    Multivalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates may be of interest for glycosylation of liposomes and targeted drug delivery because the mannose specifically binds to C-type lectin receptors on the particular cells. In this paper syntheses of two types of novel O-mannosides are presented. Conjugates 1 and 2 with a COOH- and NH2-functionalized spacer and the connection to a lysine and FmocNH-PEG-COOH, are described. The coupling reactions of prepared intermediates 6 and 4 with a PEGylated-DSPE or palmitic acid, respectively, are presented. Compounds 5, mono-, 8, di- and 12, tetravalent mannosyl-lipoconjugates, were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were incorporated into liposomes and liposomal preparations featuring exposed mannose units were characterized. Carbohydrate liposomal quartz crystal microbalance based assay has been established for studying carbohydrate-lectin binding. It was demonstrated that liposomes with incorporated mannosyl-lipoconjugates were effectively recognized by Con A and have great potential to be used for targeted liposomal drug delivery systems. PMID:27363934

  18. Inhibition of human platelet phospholipase A/sub 2/ by mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Labow, R.S.; Meek, E.; Adams, G.A.; Rock, G.

    1988-06-01

    There is evidence that the carcinogenic and teratogenic effects attributed to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) are due to its major metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP). MEHP is also formed ex vivo by a plasma enzyme in blood products stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) DEHP plastic containers. People who receive large amounts of blood products, such as hemophiliacs or patients undergoing hemodialysis, cardiopulmonary bypass, or massive transfusion, are exposed to significant levels of plasticizer. In this study, the platelet was used to show that MEHP inhibits phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/), one of the enzymes important in the release of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. PLA/sub 2/ was measured by the liberation of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid from 1-stearoyl-2-(1-/sup 14/C)arachidonyl-L-3-phosphatidylcholine. MEHP inhibits PLA/sub 2/ activity noncompetitively in intact human platelets and lysates with a K/sub i/ of 3.7 x 10/sup -4/ M. DEHP does not inhibit PLA/sub 2/ in whole platelets. Inhibition of PLA/sub 2/ by MEHP occurs at only three times the circulating level of MEHP measured in neonates undergoing exchange transfusion and 20-fold the levels experienced by patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore, infants and adult patients with multisystem failure who accumulate MEHP in their blood may be at risk for decreased platelet function.

  19. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate disrupts neurulation and modifies the embryonic redox environment and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sant, Karilyn E; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jilek, Joseph L; Sartor, Maureen A; Harris, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Mono-2-ethylhexl phthalate (MEHP) is the primary metabolite of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous contaminant in plastics. This study sought to determine how structural defects caused by MEHP in mouse whole embryo culture were related to temporal and spatial patterns of redox state and gene expression. MEHP reduced morphology scores along with increased incidence of neural tube defects. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) concentrations fluctuated spatially and temporally in embryo (EMB) and visceral yolk sac (VYS) across the 24h culture. Redox potentials (Eh) for GSSG/GSH were increased by MEHP in EMB (12h) but not in VYS. CySS/CyS Eh in EMB and VYS were significantly increased at 3h and 24h, respectively. Gene expression at 6h showed that MEHP induced selective alterations in EMB and VYS for oxidative phosphorylation and energy metabolism pathways. Overall, MEHP affects neurulation, alters Eh, and spatially alters the expression of metabolic genes in the early organogenesis-stage mouse conceptus. PMID:27167697

  20. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate targets glycogen debranching enzyme and affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis.

    PubMed

    Kuramori, Chikanori; Hase, Yasuyoshi; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Watanabe, Keiko; Nishi, Takeyuki; Hishiki, Takako; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nashimoto, Akihiro; Kabe, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Hajime; Kataoka, Kohsuke; Suematsu, Makoto; Handa, Hiroshi

    2009-05-01

    Phthalate esters are commonly used plasticizers; however, some are suspected to cause reproductive toxicity. Administration of high doses of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) induces germ cell death in male rodents. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), a hydrolyzed metabolite of DEHP, appears to be responsible for this testicular toxicity; however, the underlying mechanism of this chemical's action remains unknown. Here, using a one-step affinity purification procedure, we identified glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) as a phthalate-binding protein. GDE has oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase and amylo-1,6-glucosidase activities, which are responsible for the complete degradation of glycogen to glucose. Our findings demonstrate that MEHP inhibits the activity of oligo-1,4-1,4-glucanotransferase, but not of amylo-1,6-glucosidase. Among various phthalate esters tested, MEHP specifically binds to and inhibits GDE. We also show that DEHP administration affects glycogen metabolism in rat testis. Thus, inhibition of GDE by MEHP may play a role in germ cell apoptosis in the testis. PMID:19240039

  1. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  2. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  3. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. 573... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  4. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8340 - Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8340 Mono esters from 2- propenoic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as mono esters from 2-propenoic acid (PMN P-01-85) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.856 Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides... groups of glycerin has been esterified by diacetyl tartaric acid and by fatty acids. The ingredient...

  8. The Magma Transport System of the Mono Craters, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Putirka, K. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Mono Craters are a series of 28 volcanic domes, coulees, and craters, just 16 km north of Long Valley. The magmatic products of the Mono Craters include mostly small magmatic bodies, sills, and dikes set in a transtensional tectonic setting. New high-density sampling of the domes reveals a wider range of magma compositions than heretofore recognized, and thus reveals what is likely a more complex magmatic system, involving a greater number of batches of magma and a more complex magma storage/delivery system. Here, we present a model for the magma plumbing system based on space-composition patterns and preliminary estimates of crystallization temperatures and pressures based on olivine-, feldspar- and clinopyroxene-liquid equilibria. Whole rock analyses show three compositionally distinct batches of magma within the Mono Craters proper: a felsic (73-78.4% SiO2), intermediate (64.4-68% SiO2) and mafic (52.7-61% SiO2) group. The Mono Lake Islands (Paoha and Negit) fall into the intermediate group, but contain distinctly lower TiO2 and Fe2O3 at a given SiO2 compared to all other Mono Craters; on this basis, we surmise that the Paoha and Negit eruptions represent a distinct episode of magmatism that is not directly related to the magmatic activity that created the Mono Craters proper. The discontinuous nature of the three groups indicates that magma mixing, while evident to some degree within and between certain domes, did not encompass the entire range of compositions at any given time. The three groups, however, do form a rough linear trend, and some subsets of domes have compositions that fall on distinctly linear (if still discontinuous) trends that cannot be reproduced by fractional crystallization, but rather are indicative of magma mixing. Our high-density sampling also reveals interesting geographical patterns: for example, felsic magmas erupt throughout the entire Mono Craters chain, erupting at a wide range of temperatures, ranging from 650-995°C, but

  9. Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma is a non-profit institute dedicated to astrophysical research. It was founded in the early nineteenth century, and moved to its present residence, the ancient Villa Mellini, not far from St Peter's Cathedral, in 1935....

  10. Unusual 2:3:2 complex of DABCO mono-betaine with HCl and H 2O studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barczyński, P.; Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Perdoch, W.; Szafran, M.

    2009-12-01

    DABCO mono-betaine (1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) forms a complex with HCl and water in the ratio 2:3:2. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1¯. Two non-equivalent molecules of protonated DABCO mono-betaines form a homoconjugated cation through the short and asymmetric O·H·O hydrogen bond of 2.470(3) Å. Two chloride anions are involved in the N-H···Cl hydrogen bonds of 3.049(2) and 3.023(3) Å. The third chloride anion is solvated by the water molecules. The molecules of bis(1,4-diazoniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) trihydrochloride dihydrate are linked into comb-like chains by the hydrogen bond formed between water molecules of the neighboring complexes; the O(W)-H···O(W) distance is 2.920(5) Å. FTIR spectrum shows several broad bands attributed to the νO-H, νN-H and νO·H·O vibrations. The structure of three bis(1,4-diazoniumbicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1-acetate) hydrochlorides are optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory and a theoretical IR spectrum is calculated. The values of p Ka of DABCO, DABCO mono- and di-betaines are determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  11. Mono- and tetra-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines containing morpholinyl moieties: Synthesis, antifungal photodynamic activities, and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bi-Yuan; Ke, Mei-Rong; Lan, Wen-Liang; Hou, Lu; Guo, Jun; Wan, Dong-Hua; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2016-05-23

    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) mono-substituted and tetra-substituted with morpholinyl moieties and their quaternized derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal photodynamic activities toward Candida albicans. The α-substituted, quaternized, and mono-substituted ZnPcs are found to have higher antifungal photoactivity than β-substituted, neutral, and tetra-substituted counterparts. The cationic α-mono-substituted ZnPc (6a) exhibits the highest photocytotoxicity. Moreover, it is more potent than axially di-substituted analogue. The different photocytotoxicities of these compounds have also been rationalized by investigating their spectroscopic and photochemical properties, aggregation trend, partition coefficients, and cellular uptake. The IC90 value of 6a against C. albicans cells is as low as 3.3 μM with a light dose of 27 J cm(-2), meaning that 6a is a promising candidate as the antifungal photosensitizer for future investigations. PMID:27046231

  12. Permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byon, C.; Kim, S. J.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the permeability of mono- and bi-dispersed porous media is considered. The effects of the particle size distribution and the packing structure of particles on the permeability are investigated experimentally and analytically. Both experimental and analytic results suggest that the particlesize distribution is close to the log-normal distribution, and the permeability of the mono-dispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of the particle size distribution increases. On the other hand, the effect of packing structure of particles on the permeability is shown to be negligible.The permeability of the bidispersed porous media quasi-linearly decreases as the range of cluster size increases, and nearly independent of the particle size distribution. The present model is valid over the range of parameters typically found in heat transfer applications.

  13. Mono Lake Analog Mars Sample Return Expedition for AMASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, P. G.; Steele, A.; Younse, P.; DiCicco, M.; Morgan, A. R.; Backes, P.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Marquardt, D.; Amundsen, H. E. F.

    2011-01-01

    We explored the performance of one robotic prototype for sample acquisition and caching of martian materials that has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for potential use in the proposed MAX-C Mars Sample Return architecture in an environment, rich in chemical diversity with a variety of mineralogical textures. Mono Lake State Tufa Reserve in Mono County, CA possesses a variety of minerals including a variety of evaporites, volcanic glass and lava, and sand and mudstones. The lake itself is an interesting chemical system: the water is highly alkaline (pH is approximately 10) and contains concentrations of Cl, K, B, with lesser amounts of S Ca Mg, F, As, Li, I and Wand generally enriched HREEs. There are also traces of radioactive elements U, Th, Pl.

  14. Volcanic Geology of Negit Island, Mono Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursik, M.; Kobs, S.; Jayko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Negit Island, located in Mono Lake, eastern California, is a dacitic cumulodome with seven distinct lava flows emanating from at least four separate vent areas. Vent areas are dominated by en echelon northeast-trending fissures, indicating strong tectonic control. Neptunian(?) pyroclastic deposits on the north end of the island indicate an explosive subaqueous eruption early in island history. Northwestern shorelands, as well as a former landbridge to the island, retain a localized cap of rotated Pleistocene lake bottom sediment blocks, suggesting that proto-Negit was similar to modern Paoha Island, a nearby young structural dome draped with rotated lake bed blocks and explosive ejecta. In analogy with Paoha, the pyroclastic ejecta and blocks may thus indicate sublacustrine block landsliding with attendant eruption as an initial magmatic-structural dome grew, on which later lava domes and flows were superposed. What may be the oldest lava flow, in the center-west, is overlain by a deep orange-red soil, and three Mono Craters tephras. The well-developed soil indicates an extended period of chemical weathering before overlying tephra deposition. The southwestern end of the island is dominated by young lava flows and a prominent dome, which are not overlain by the most recent North Mono Craters tephra of 1350 A.D., consistent with earlier work indicating that parts of the island are younger than any eruption of the Mono Craters. The history of early structural doming with little or minimal eruptive activity at both Negit and Paoha Islands may have important implications for the current episode of noneruptive unrest and doming at nearby Long Valley caldera.

  15. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  16. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Liddicoat, J.; Smoot, J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Negrini, R.; Lund, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash #15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620 ?? 300 14C yr BP (??? 32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash #15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  17. Bartonella henselae inhibits apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Volkhard A J; Schairer, Annette; Neumann, Diana; Grassl, Guntram A; Lauber, Kirsten; Lebiedziejewski, Maria; Schaller, Martin; Kyme, Pierre; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis probably resulting from the release of vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) from infected epithelial or monocytic host cells. Here we demonstrate that B. henselae in addition to VEGF induction was also capable of inhibiting the endogenous sucide programme of monocytic host cells. Our results show that B. henselae inhibits pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-induced apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells. B. henselae was observed to be present in a vacuolic compartment of Mono Mac 6 cells. Direct contact of B. henselae with Mono Mac 6 cells was crucial for inhibition of apoptosis as shown by the use of a two-chamber model. Inhibition of apoptosis was paralleled by diminished caspase-3 activity which was significantly reduced in PDTC-stimulated and B. henselae-infected cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of B. henselae was accompanied by (i) the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and (ii) the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP-1, -2). Our results suggest a new synergistic mechanism in B. henselae pathogenicity by (i) inhibition of host cell apoptosis via activation of NF-kappaB and (ii) induction of host cell VEGF secretion. PMID:15617526

  18. Age of the Mono Lake excursion and associated tephra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Larry; Liddicoat, Joseph; Smoot, Joseph; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei; Negrini, Robert; Lund, Steve

    2003-02-01

    The Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is an important time marker that has been found in lake and marine sediments across much of the Northern Hemisphere. Dating of this event at its type locality, the Mono Basin of California, has yielded controversial results with the most recent effort concluding that the MLE may actually be the Laschamp excursion (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 197 (2002) 151). We show that a volcanic tephra (Ash ♯15) that occurs near the midpoint of the MLE has a date (not corrected for reservoir effect) of 28,620±300 14C yr BP (˜32,400 GISP2 yr BP) in the Pyramid Lake Basin of Nevada. Given the location of Ash ♯15 and the duration of the MLE in the Mono Basin, the event occurred between 31,500 and 33,300 GISP2 yr BP, an age range consistent with the position and age of the uppermost of two paleointensity minima in the NAPIS-75 stack that has been associated with the MLE (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009). The lower paleointensity minimum in the NAPIS-75 stack is considered to be the Laschamp excursion (Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 358 (2000) 1009).

  19. Nongeocentric axial dipole field behavior during the Mono Lake excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, Robert M.; McCuan, Daniel T.; Horton, Robert A.; Lopez, James D.; Cassata, William S.; Channell, James E. T.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Coe, Robert S.; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Lund, Steven P.; Benson, Larry V.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.

    2014-04-01

    A new record of the Mono Lake excursion (MLE) is reported from the Summer Lake Basin of Oregon, USA. Sediment magnetic properties indicate magnetite as the magnetization carrier and imply suitability of the sediments as accurate recorders of the magnetic field including relative paleointensity (RPI) variations. The magnitudes and phases of the declination, inclination, and RPI components of the new record correlate well with other coeval but lower resolution records from western North America including records from the Wilson Creek Formation exposed around Mono Lake. The virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) path of the new record is similar to that from another high-resolution record of the MLE from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 919 in the Irminger Basin between Iceland and Greenland but different from the VGP path for the Laschamp excursion (LE), including that found lower in the ODP-919 core. Thus, the prominent excursion recorded at Mono Lake, California, is not the LE but rather one that is several thousands of years younger. The MLE VGP path contains clusters, the locations of which coincide with nonaxial dipole features found in the Holocene geomagnetic field. The clusters are occupied in the same time progression by VGPs from Summer Lake and the Irminger Basin, but the phase of occupation is offset, a behavior that suggests time-transgressive decay and return of the principal field components at the beginning and end of the MLE, respectively, leaving the nonaxial dipole features associated with the clusters dominant during the excursion.

  20. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, T.L.; Joye, S.B.; Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) in the water column of Mono Lake, CA, was studied by measuring the formation of H14CO3 from [14C]MeBr. Potential oxidation was detected throughout the water column, with highest rates occurring in the epilimnion (5-12 m depth). The oxidation of MeBr was eliminated by filter-sterilization, thereby demonstrating the involvement of bacteria. Vertical profiles of MeBr activity differed from those obtained for nitrification and methane oxidation, indicating that MeBr oxidation is not simply a co-oxidation process by either nitrifiers or methanotrophs. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of methane oxidation and/or nitrification (e.g., methyl fluoride, acetylene, allyl sulfide) had no effect upon the rate of MeBr oxidation in live samples. Of a variety of potential electron donors added to Mono Lake water, only trimethylamine resulted in the stimulation of MeBr oxidation. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the oxidation of MeBr in Mono Lake waters is attributable to trimethylamine-degrading methylotrophs. Neither methyl chloride nor methanol inhibited the oxidation of [14C]MeBr in live samples, indicating that these bacteria directly oxidized MeBr rather than the products of MeBr nucleophilic substitution reactions.

  1. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Satish; Sell, Marie A; Relyea, George

    2007-01-01

    To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category-other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse. PMID:17996066

  2. Synthesis, spectral and magnetic studies of mono- and bi-nuclear metal complexes of a new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand derived from 4,6-diacetylresorcinol and ethanolamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebl, Magdy

    2009-07-01

    A new bis(tridentate NO2) Schiff base ligand, H4L, was prepared by the reaction of the bifunctional carbonyl compound; 4,6-diacetylresorcinol (DAR) with ethanolamine. The ligand reacted with iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II), cerium(III) and uranyl(VI) ions, in absence and in presence of LiOH, to yield mono- and bi-nuclear complexes with different coordinating sites. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, electronic, ESR and mass spectra, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements as well as thermal analyses. In absence of LiOH, mononuclear complexes (2, 3 and 5-9) as well as binuclear complexes (1 and 4) were obtained. In mononuclear complexes, the ligand acted as a neutral, mono- and di-basic/bi- and tetra-dentate ligand while in binuclear complexes (1 and 4), the ligand acted as a bis(mono- or di-basic/tridentate) ligand. On the other hand, in presence of LiOH, only binuclear complexes (10-15) were obtained in which the ligand acted as a bis(dibasic tridentate) ligand. The metal complexes exhibited different geometrical arrangements such as octahedral, tetrahedral, square planar, square pyramidal and pentagonal bipyramidal arrangements.

  3. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  4. New mono- and diethynylsiloxysilsesquioxanes--efficient procedures for their synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dudziec, Beata; Rzonsowska, Monika; Marciniec, Bogdan; Brząkalski, Dariusz; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2014-09-21

    Ethynyl-substituted siloxysilsesquioxanes are promising building blocks for a wide range of substances based on a POSS/DDSQ core, especially for (oligo-)polymer syntheses and modifications (the formation of hybrid materials with interesting photophysical and mechanical properties). In this study, we report on a series of new mono- and diethynylsiloxysilsesquioxanes formed via an efficient and highly selective one-pot process from silsesquioxanes with reactive Si-OH groups based on sequential condensation, hydrolysis, chlorination and substitution reactions. All newly synthesized compounds were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. PMID:25047114

  5. Mono- and bis-thiazolium salts have potent antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Hamzé, Abdallah; Rubi, Eric; Arnal, Pascal; Boisbrun, Michel; Carcel, Carole; Salom-Roig, Xavier; Maynadier, Marjorie; Wein, Sharon; Vial, Henri; Calas, Michèle

    2005-05-19

    Three new series comprising 24 novel cationic choline analogues and consisting of mono- or bis (N or C-5-duplicated) thiazolium salts have been synthesized. Bis-thiazolium salts showed potent antimalarial activity (much superior to monothiazoliums). Among them, bis-thiazolium salts 12 and 13 exhibited IC(50) values of 2.25 nM and 0.65 nM, respectively, against P. falciparum in vitro. These compounds also demonstrated good in vivo activity (ED(50)

  6. The metal centres of particulate methane mono-oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2008-12-01

    pMMO (particulate methane mono-oxygenase) is an integral membrane metalloenzyme that catalyses the oxidation of methane to methanol. The pMMO metal active site has not been identified, precluding detailed investigation of the reaction mechanism. Models for the metal centres proposed by various research groups have evolved as crystallographic and spectroscopic data have become available. The present review traces the evolution of these active-site models before and after the 2005 Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) pMMO crystal structure determination. PMID:19021511

  7. Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Phthalate Induces Oxidative Stress Responses in Human Placental Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Lauren M; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:23360888

  8. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wenhui; Huang, Zhigang; Chen, Li; Feng, Cong; Li, Bei; Li, Tanshi

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L) from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab) might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8) and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG). However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR) was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity. PMID:24658602

  9. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsberg, Jochen Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-08-15

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 105 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 138 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, 49 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and 78 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possi0009b.

  10. Re-characterization of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate hydrolase belonging to the serine hydrolase family.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Makoto; Imaoka, Takuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Takao

    2016-08-01

    A novel bacterium assimilating di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate as a sole carbon source was isolated, and identified as a Rhodococcus species and the strain was named EG-5. The strain has a mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) hydrolase (EG-5 MehpH), which exhibits some different enzymatic features when compared with the previously reported MEHP hydrolase (P8219 MehpH) from Gordonia sp. These differences include different pH optimum activity, maximal reaction temperature and heat stability. The Km and Vmax values of EG-5 MehpH were significantly higher than those of P8219 MehpH. The primary structure of EG-5 MehpH showed the highest sequence identity to that of P8219 MehpH (39%) among hydrolases. The phylogenetic tree suggested that EG-5 MehpH and P8219 MehpH were categorized in different groups of the novel MEHP hydrolase family. Mutation of a conserved R(109) residue of EG-5 MehpH to a hydrophobic residue resulted in a dramatic reduction in the Vmax value towards MEHP without affecting the Km value. These results indicate that this residue may neutralize the negative charge of a carboxylate anion of MEHP, and thus inhibit the catalytic nucleophile from attacking the ester bond. In other words, the R residue blocks inhibition from the carboxylate anion of MEHP. Recently, registered hypothetical proteins exhibiting 98% or 99% identities for EG-5 MehpH or for P8219 MehpH were found from some pathogens belonging to Actinomycetes. The protein may have other activities besides MEHP hydrolysis and function in other physiological reactions in some Actinomycetes. PMID:26868518

  11. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate induces oxidative stress responses in human placental cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Tetz, Lauren M.; Cheng, Adrienne A.; Korte, Cassandra S.; Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang; Harris, Craig; Meeker, John D.; Loch-Caruso, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental contaminant commonly used as a plasticizer in polyvinyl chloride products. Exposure to DEHP has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans including preterm birth, low birth-weight, and pregnancy loss. Although oxidative stress is linked to the pathology of adverse pregnancy outcomes, effects of DEHP metabolites, including the active metabolite, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), on oxidative stress responses in placental cells have not been previously evaluated. The objective of the current study is to identify MEHP-stimulated oxidative stress responses in human placental cells. We treated a human placental cell line, HTR-8/SVneo, with MEHP and then measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation using the dichlorofluorescein assay, oxidized thymine with mass-spectrometry, redox-sensitive gene expression with qRT-PCR, and apoptosis using a luminescence assay for caspase 3/7 activity. Treatment of HTR-8 cells with 180 μM MEHP increased ROS generation, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase 3/7 activity, and resulted in differential expression of redox-sensitive genes. Notably, 90 and 180 μM MEHP significantly induced mRNA expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), an enzyme important for synthesis of prostaglandins implicated in initiation of labor. The results from the present study are the first to demonstrate that MEHP stimulates oxidative stress responses in placental cells. Furthermore, the MEHP concentrations used were within an order of magnitude of the highest concentrations measured previously in human umbilical cord or maternal serum. The findings from the current study warrant future mechanistic studies of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and prostaglandins as molecular mediators of DEHP/MEHP-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. - Highlights: ► MEHP increased reactive oxygen species, oxidative DNA damage, and caspase activity. ► MEHP induced expression of PTGS2, a gene

  12. Digital Map of Tephra Deposits of the Mono-Inyo Craters, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogova, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Sieh, K. E.; Meltzner, A. J.; Dennen, R. L.; Collins, R.; Dahn, N.; Lagamba, M.; Shufelt, C.; Weinerth, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Mono-Inyo Craters have erupted numerous times in the Holocene. Radiocarbon dating suggests eruption sequences < 1302-1356 calBP (2 sigma; Southern Mono Craters), < 1520-1628 calBP (Northern Mono Craters), > 1405-1528 calBP (Northwest Negit Island), < 1611-1710 calBP (Wilson's Butte), < 1987-2212 calBP (Central(?) Mono Craters), < 3395-3632 calBP (Southern Mono Craters), < 5039-5297 calBP (Southern Mono -- Inyo Craters) and < 9282-9635 calBP (Mono Craters). These eruptions are in addition to those already known and previously dated from the North Mono area, Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain Craters, and the islands of Mono Lake. Data on spatial position, age, thickness, grain size, componentry, geochemistry, etc., have been entered into a spatially enabled, PostgreSQL relational database. These data are searchable, and retrievable through-the-web as either spreadsheets or shapefiles. Algorithms for layer matching by geochemistry or lithology, isopaching and grain-size isoplething allow the downloaded data to be investigated for possible correlation, volume calculation and other analysis. Use of the digital database and associated tools has already allowed us to determine provenance of certain tephra layers, cluster tephra sources by geochemistry, correlate previously uncategorized tephra occurrences to known layers and automatically estimate tephra volume.

  13. Selective Mono-reduction of Pyrrole-2,5 and 2,4-Dicarboxylates.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Eiko; Tsuda, Jyunpei; Ohnuki, Satoshi; Nagumo, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxylates were rapidly and selectively reduced to the corresponding mono-alcohol using 3 eq of diisobutylaluminum hydride at 0°C. Pyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylate showed the same reactivity; however, the selectivity decreased with pyrrole-3,4-dicarboxylate. When the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole-2,5-dicarboxylate is protected with a benzyl group, selective mono-reduction does not occur. Considering that furan-2,5-dicarboxylates did not give the corresponding mono-alcohol under the same conditions, the unprotected nitrogen atom of pyrrole apparently plays an important role in this selective mono-reduction. PMID:27581630

  14. MonoSLAM: real-time single camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew J; Reid, Ian D; Molton, Nicholas D; Stasse, Olivier

    2007-06-01

    We present a real-time algorithm which can recover the 3D trajectory of a monocular camera, moving rapidly through a previously unknown scene. Our system, which we dub MonoSLAM, is the first successful application of the SLAM methodology from mobile robotics to the "pure vision" domain of a single uncontrolled camera, achieving real time but drift-free performance inaccessible to Structure from Motion approaches. The core of the approach is the online creation of a sparse but persistent map of natural landmarks within a probabilistic framework. Our key novel contributions include an active approach to mapping and measurement, the use of a general motion model for smooth camera movement, and solutions for monocular feature initialization and feature orientation estimation. Together, these add up to an extremely efficient and robust algorithm which runs at 30 Hz with standard PC and camera hardware. This work extends the range of robotic systems in which SLAM can be usefully applied, but also opens up new areas. We present applications of MonoSLAM to real-time 3D localization and mapping for a high-performance full-size humanoid robot and live augmented reality with a hand-held camera. PMID:17431302

  15. Crustal structure between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Lane R.

    1964-01-01

    Interpretation of a reversed seismic-refraction profile between Lake Mead, Nevada, and Mono Lake, California, indicates velocities of 6.15 km/sec for the upper layer of the crust, 7.10 km/sec for an intermediate layer, and 7.80 km/sec for the uppermost mantle. Phases interpreted to be reflections from the top of the intermediate layer and the Mohorovicic discontinuity were used with the refraction data to calculate depths. The depth to the Moho increases from about 30 km near Lake Mead to about 40 km near Mono Lake. Variations in arrival times provide evidence for fairly sharp flexures in the Moho. Offsets in the Moho of 4 km at one point and 2 1/2 km at another correspond to large faults at the surface, and it is suggested that fracture zones in the upper crust may displace the Moho and extend into the upper mantle. The phase P appears to be an extension of the reflection from the top of the intermediate layer beyond the critical angle. Bouguer gravity, computed for the seismic model of the crust, is in good agreement with the measured Bouguer gravity. Thus a model of the crustal structure is presented which is consistent with three semi-independent sources of geophysical data: seismic-refraction, seismic-reflection, and gravity.

  16. Characterization of Mono- and Mixed-Culture Campylobacter jejuni Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ica, Tuba; Caner, Vildan; Istanbullu, Ozlem; Nguyen, Hung Duc; Ahmed, Bulbul; Call, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis, is a thermophilic and microaerophilic bacterium. These characteristics make it a fastidious organism, which limits its ability to survive outside animal hosts. Nevertheless, C. jejuni can be transmitted to both humans and animals via environmental pathways, especially through contaminated water. Biofilms may play a crucial role in the survival of the bacterium under unfavorable environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to investigate survival strategies of C. jejuni in mono- and mixed-culture biofilms. We grew monoculture biofilms of C. jejuni and mixed-culture biofilms of C. jejuni with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that mono- and mixed-culture biofilms had significantly different structures and activities. Monoculture C. jejuni biofilms did not consume a measurable quantity of oxygen. Using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), we found that cells from monoculture biofilms were alive according to live/dead staining but that these cells were not culturable. In contrast, in mixed-culture biofilms, C. jejuni remained in a culturable physiological state. Monoculture C. jejuni biofilms could persist under lower flow rates (0.75 ml/min) but were unable to persist at higher flow rates (1 to 2.5 ml/min). In sharp contrast, mixed-culture biofilms were more robust and were unaffected by higher flow rates (2.5 ml/min). Our results indicate that biofilms provide an environmental refuge that is conducive to the survival of C. jejuni. PMID:22179238

  17. Three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin (California): finite element analysis of the interaction between the Hartley Spring Fault and the Mono Dike

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; McDonnell, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward-trending structural depression lying immediately east of the central Sierra Nevada (California) that extends from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the center of Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain forms a prominent 17-km-long arcuate ridge within the Mono Basin. Recent studies have proposed that the volcanism and tectonism in this area is likely interrelated. Stratigraphic data suggest that a series of strong earthquakes occurred during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of 1350 A.D. Geological data are consistent with rupture of the Hartley Springs fault during the eruption sequence. The temporal proximity of these events suggests the possibility of a causal relationship. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to generate a three-dimensional model of the Mono Basin and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. First we combine the potential of the FEM with the Okada (1992) analytical solution for a homogeneous elastic flat half-space to validate our model. Then, to better simulate a geodynamic model of the Mono Basin, we implement more realistic dynamics that include gravity forces, vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust, and topography. We evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo dike intrusion on the Hartley Springs fault and how slip along the fault may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. We employ the Coulomb stress change as a failure criterion on the Hartley Springs fault. Preliminary results indicate that slip along the Hartley Springs fault may have encouraged the intrusion of the Mono Dike.

  18. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  19. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  20. 21 CFR 573.800 - Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.800 Polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate. (a) The food additive polyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleate meets the following...

  1. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  2. 21 CFR 573.820 - Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.820 Polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates. The food additive polyoxyethylene glycol (400) mono- and dioleates may be safely used as an...

  3. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  4. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  5. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  6. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  7. 21 CFR 172.856 - Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and... diesters of fats and fatty acids. Propylene glycol mono- and diesters of fats and fatty acids may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are produced from edible...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10437 - Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10437 Sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono... chemical substances identified generically as sulfonic acid, linear xylene alkylate, mono, sodium...

  10. Synthesis and physical properties of mono-estolides with varying chain lengths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated mono-estolide methyl esters and enriched saturated mono-estolide 2-EH esters were synthesized from oleic and different saturated fatty acids under three different synthetic routes. Estolide numbers (EN), the average number of fatty acid units added to a base fatty acid, varied with synthe...

  11. Synthesis, purification, and time-dependent disposition studies of 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid and 9- and 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the potential use of radiolabeled 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine as a perfusion and metabolic imaging agent for the heart. Radiochemical purity was achieved and determined by the use of silica gel and/or anion exchange resin chromatography. Radiochemical yields of 45-63 and 4% were obtained for the fatty acid and carnitine ester, respectively. Male albino mice were sacrificed at 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 50 minutes post-injection with either /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid or 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl (-) carnitine. The lungs, liver heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, stomach, thyroid, blood, fat, and skeletal muscle tissue were excised and assayed for levels of radioactivity in a NaI crystal well counter. The very low target-to-nontarget ratios obtained with /sup 125/I 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine in mice strongly suggest that radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearyl carnitine is not suitable for use as a myocardial imaging agent. However, radioiodinated 9- or 10-mono-iodostearic acid showed promise as a myocardial imaging agent and may warrant further investigation.

  12. Mono-Higgs detection of dark matter at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by the recent discovery of the Higgs boson, we investigate the possibility that a missing energy plus Higgs final state is the dominant signal channel for dark matter at the LHC. We consider examples of higher-dimension operators where a Higgs and dark matter pair are produced through an off-shell Z or γ, finding potential sensitivity at the LHC to cutoff scales of around a few hundred GeV. We generalize this production mechanism to a simplified model by introducing a Z' as well as a second Higgs doublet, where the pseudoscalar couples to dark matter. Resonant production of the Z' which decays to a Higgs plus invisible particles gives rise to a potential mono-Higgs signal. This may be observable at the 14 TeV LHC at low tan β and when the Z' mass is roughly in the range 600 GeV to 1.3 TeV.

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase activity in human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, G.D.; Schuresko, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon mono-oxygenase (AHM), an enzyme of key importance in metabolism of xenobiotic chemicals such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA), is present in human lymphocytes. Studies investing the relation of activity of AHM in human lymphocytes to parameters such as disease state, PNA exposure, in vitro mitogen stimulation, etc. have been summarized in this report. Some studies have demonstrated increased AHM activity in lymphocytes from cigarette smokers (compared to nonsmokers), and in lung cancer patients when compared to appropriate control groups. These observations are confused by extreme variability in human lymphocyte AHM activities, such variability arising from factors such as genetic variation in AHM activity, variation in in vitro culture conditions which affect AHM activity, and the problematical relationship of common AHM assays to actual PNA metabolism taking place in lymphocytes. If some of the foregoing problems can be adequately addressed, lymphocyte AHM activity could hold the promise of being a useful biomarker system for human PNA exposure.

  14. The radiocarbon budget for Mono Lake: an unsolved mystery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broecker, W.S.; Wanninkhof, R.; Mathieu, G.; Peng, T.-H.; Stine, S.; Robinson, S.; Herczeg, A.; Stuiver, M.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1957 the 14C C ratio of the dissolved inorganic carbon in Mono Lake has risen by about 60???. The magnitude of this increase is about four times larger than that expected from the invasion of bomb-produced 14C from the atmosphere. We have eliminated the following explanations: (1) measurement error, (2) an unusually high physical exchange rate for non-reactive gases, (3) inorganic enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate, and (4) biological enhancement of the CO2 exchange rate. Clandestine disposal of waste radiocarbon remains a dark-horse explanation. In the course of our investigations we have uncovered evidence for at least one episodic input of radiocarbon-free carbon to the lake over the last 1000 years. We speculate that this injection was related to a hydrothermal event resulting from sublacustrine volcanic activity. ?? 1988.

  15. Synthesis of mono- and dideoxygenated α,α-trehalose analogs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fiona L.; van Halbeek, Herman; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we describe the synthesis and NMR characterization of four mono- and four dideoxygenated analogs of α,α-d-trehalose. The symmetrical (2,2′-, 3,3′-, 4,4′- and 6,6′-) dideoxy analogs were obtained via selective protection and subsequent radical deoxygenation of the desired hydroxyl group set. The unsymmetrical (2′-, 3′-, 4′- and 6′-) monodeoxy analogs were synthesized by desymmetrization of α,α-trehalose and subsequent deoxygenation under radical conditions. Complete assignment of all 1H and 13C resonances in the spectra of these deoxytrehaloses was achieved through the extensive use of 2D {1H,1H} and {1H,13C} correlation NMR experiments. The synthesis of these trehalose analogs sets the stage for future biochemical and NMR-based studies to probe the substrate interactions of trehalose with the recently identified mycobacterial sulfotransferase Stf0. PMID:17559818

  16. Tetrabenzoporphyrin and -mono-, -cis-di- and Tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin Derivatives: Electrochemical and Spectroscopic Implications of meso CH Group Replacement with Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    van As, Adele; Joubert, Chris C; Buitendach, Blenerhassitt E; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Conradie, Jeanet; Cammidge, Andrew N; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cook, Michael J; Swarts, Jannie C

    2015-06-01

    Nonperipherally hexyl-substituted metal-free tetrabenzoporphyrin (2H-TBP, 1a) tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin (2H-TBMAP, 2a), tetrabenzo-cis-diazaporphyrin (2H-TBDAP, 3a), tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin (2H-TBTAP, 4a), and phthalocyanine (2H-Pc, 5a), as well as their copper complexes (1b-5b), were synthesized. As the number of meso nitrogen atoms increases from zero to four, λmax of the Q-band absorption peak becomes red-shifted by almost 100 nm, and extinction coefficients increased at least threefold. Simultaneously the blue-shifted Soret (UV) band substantially decreased in intensity. These changes were related to the relative electron-density of each macrocycle expressed as the group electronegativity sum of all meso N and CH atom groups, ∑χR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy differentiated between the three different types of macrocyclic nitrogen atoms (the Ninner, (NH)inner, and Nmeso) in the metal-free complexes. Binding energies of the Nmeso and Ninner,Cu atoms in copper chelates could not be resolved. Copper insertion lowered especially the cathodic redox potentials, while all four observed redox processes occurred at larger potentials as the number of meso nitrogens increased. Computational chemical methods using density functional theory confirmed 1b to exhibit a Cu(II) reduction prior to ring-based reductions, while for 2b, Cu(II) reduction is the first reductive step only if the nonperipheral substituents are hydrogen. When they are methyl groups, it is the second reduction process; when they are ethyl, propyl, or hexyl, it becomes the third reductive process. Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed redox processes were associated with a substantial change in intensity of at least two main absorbances (the Q and Soret bands) in the UV spectra of these compounds. PMID:25970004

  17. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs (Proceedings Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research has shown that bromine incorporation into trihalogenated acetic acids (TXAAs) was similar to that of the trihalomethanes (THMs). Likewise, occurrence data for other trihalogenated DBPs (e.g., halonitromethanes [HNMs], haloacetaldehydes [HAs]) showed similar or ...

  18. Bromine Incorporation in Regulated and Emerging DBPs and the Relative Predominance of Mono-, Di-, and Trihalogenated DBPs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (in general) appear to be more cytotoxic and genotoxic than the chlorinated species, and some of the dihalogenated species are more toxic than the trihalogenated analogues; however, many of the more toxic species are not routinely measur...

  19. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are used as wetting agents in shampoos, lotions, creams, and other cosmetics. DEA is widely used to provide lather in shampoos and maintain a favorable consistency in lotions and creams. Although DEA is not harmful, it may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula after extended storage periods to form an extremely potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA), which is readily absorbed through the skin and has been linked to the development of stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous quantification method for measurement of MEA, DEA, and TEA in cosmetic products. Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column with isocratic elution containing acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate in water (88:12, v/v). Identification and quantification of alkanolamines were performed using MS/MS monitoring to assess the transition from precursor to product ion of MEA (m/z, 61.1 → 44.0), DEA (m/z, 106.1 → 88.0), TEA (m/z, 150.1 → 130.0), and the internal standard triethylamine (m/z, 102.2 → 58.0). Alkanolamines extractions were simplified using a single extraction with acetonitrile in the cosmetic matrix. Performance of the method was evaluated with quality parameters such as specificity, carry-over, linearity and calibration, correlation of determination (R(2)), detection limit, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Calibration curves of MEA (2.9-1000 ppb), DEA (1-1000 ppb), and TEA (1-1000 ppb) were constructed by plotting concentration versus peak-area ratio (analyte/internal standard with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay accuracy ranged from 92.92 to 101.15 % for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay precision for MEA, DEA, and TEA showed all coefficients of variance were less than 9.38 % for QC samples. Limits of detection and limits of quantification were 2.00 and 15.63 ppb for MEA, 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for DEA, and 0.49 and 1.96 ppb for TEA, respectively. This novel quantification method simplified sample preparation and allowed accurate and reproducible quantification of alkanolamines in the ng/g cosmetic weight (ppb) range for several cosmetic products. PMID:26578210

  20. The identification of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetragalactosyl-diacylglycerols and their natural estolides in oat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat kernels were extracted with methanol, and glycolipid-enriched fractions were prepared using silica solid phase extraction. Using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS), HPLC-ESI-MS, and HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-MS, we confirmed pr...

  1. Collide and conquer: constraints on simplified dark matter models using mono- X collider searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, A. J.; McDonald, M. F.; Gramling, J.; Jacques, T. D.

    2016-05-01

    The use of simplified models as a tool for interpreting dark matter collider searches has become increasingly prevalent, and while early Run II results are beginning to appear, we look to see what further information can be extracted from the Run I dataset. We consider three `standard' simplified models that couple quarks to fermionic singlet dark matter: an s-channel vector mediator with vector or axial-vector couplings, and a t-channel scalar mediator. Upper limits on the couplings are calculated and compared across three alternate channels, namely mono-jet, mono- Z (leptonic) and mono- W/Z (hadronic). The strongest limits are observed in the mono-jet channel, however the computational simplicity and absence of significant t-channel model width effects in the mono-boson channels make these a straightforward and competitive alternative. We also include a comparison with relic density and direct detection constraints.

  2. Myosin di-phosphorylation and peripheral actin bundle formation as initial events during endothelial barrier disruption

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Mayumi; Hirano, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation of the 20-kD myosin light chain (MLC) and actin filament formation play a key role in endothelial barrier disruption. MLC is either mono- or di-phosphorylated (pMLC and ppMLC) at T18 or S19. The present study investigated whether there are any distinct roles of pMLC and ppMLC in barrier disruption induced by thrombin. Thrombin induced a modest bi-phasic increase in pMLC and a robust mono-phasic increase in ppMLC. pMLC localized in the perinuclear cytoplasm during the initial phase, while ppMLC localized in the cell periphery, where actin bundles were formed. Later, the actin bundles were rearranged into stress fibers, where pMLC co-localized. Rho-kinase inhibitors inhibited thrombin-induced barrier disruption and peripheral localization of ppMLC and actin bundles. The double, but not single, mutation of phosphorylation sites abolished the formation of peripheral actin bundles and the barrier disruption, indicating that mono-phosphorylation of MLC at either T18 or S19 is functionally sufficient for barrier disruption. Namely, the peripheral localization, but not the degree of phosphorylation, is suggested to be essential for the functional effect of ppMLC. These results suggest that MLC phosphorylation and actin bundle formation in cell periphery are initial events during barrier disruption. PMID:26863988

  3. Systematic comparison of the mono-, dimethyl- and trimethyl 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones - Attempted optimization of the orally active iron chelator, deferiprone.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Zidong; Kong, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Tao; Bansal, Sukhi; Hider, Robert

    2016-06-10

    A range of close analogues of deferiprone have been synthesised. The group includes mono-, di- and tri-methyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones. These compounds were found to possess similar pFe(3+) values to that of deferiprone, with the exception of the 2.5-dimethylated derivatives. Surprisingly the NH-containing hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridones were found to be marginally more lipophilic than the corresponding N-Me containing analogues. This same group are also metabolised less efficiently by Phase 1 hydroxylating enzymes than the corresponding N-Me analogues. As result of this study, three compounds have been identified for further investigation centred on neutropenia and agranulocytosis. PMID:27014847

  4. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- benzimidazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers were prepared from phenyl-hydroxybenzoate and aromatic bis(o-diamine)s. These monomers were used in the synthesis of soluble polybenzimidazoles. The reaction involved the aromatic nucleophilic displacement of various di(hydroxyphenyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds in the presence of an alkali metal base. These polymers exhibited lower glass transition temperatures, improved solubility, and better compression moldability over their commercial counterparts.

  5. Synthesis and structural investigation of mono- and polynuclear copper complexes of 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, M. M.; Gabr, I. M.; Abdel-Rhman, M. H.; El-Asmy, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between 2-hydrazinopyridine and ethylisothiocyanate produced 4-ethyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl) thiosemicarbazide (HEPTS). Its reaction with copper fluoride, chloride, bromide, acetate, nitrate, perchlorate, sulfate, carbonate, hydroxide and copper metal produced 15 Cu(II) complexes. The copper metal is easily oxidized in aqueous-ethanol solution of HEPTS giving [Cu 2(EPTS)(H 2O) 3(OH) 3]EtOH. Different complexes for the same anion were synthesized by controlling the heating time. Characterization by elemental, thermal, magnetic and spectral (electronic, IR, mass and ESR) studies showed the formation of mono-, di-, tri- and tetra nuclear complexes. The room temperature solid state ESR spectra of the complexes show an axial spectrum with dx2-y ground state, suggesting distorted tetragonal geometry around Cu(II) center. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps in the complexes were calculated. HEPTS and its Cu(II) complexes showed high activity against gram negative bacteria; [Cu 3(EPTS) 2(EtOH) 2Br 4] has more activity.

  6. Formation Pathways of Mono- to Octa-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Main Organochemical Industries.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Tian, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mengjing; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    The concentrations and formation pathways of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in main organochemical industries. High levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were detected. The total concentrations of 27 PCDD/F congeners in chloranil, 2,4-D, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 5302397 ± 8944449, 20963 ± 15908, and 242 ± 67 pg g(-1), respectively, and the less-chlorinated PCDD/F levels were 12006 ± 20155, 9536 ± 5594, and 195 ± 94 pg g(-1), respectively. The distribution trends of less and more chlorinated PCDD/Fs were similar in different chemical plants because of their similar formation pathways, which may also be related to the degree of chlorination of chemical products and purification processes. 1,2,3,4-TeCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF were selected as model molecules to calculate the bond dissociation energy, showing that 2-MCDF, 3-MCDF, and 2,8-DCDF are more easily formatted as shown by the analytical results. The formation pathways of less to more chlorinated PCDFs are proposed to explain why 2-MoCDF, 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF are the dominant congeners and to explain why 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor of I-TEQs in most studies. PMID:26301518

  7. An electron spin polarization study of the interaction of photoexcited triplet molecules with mono- and polynitroxyl stable free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Turro, N.J.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Bossmann, S.H. ); Dwyer, D.W. )

    1993-02-11

    Time-resolved electron spin resonance (TR ESR) has been used to investigate the chemically induced dynamic electron polarization (CIDEP) generated by the interaction of stable free radicals with the triplet states of benzophenone, benzil, and 2-acetylnaphthalene. The stable radicals were mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranitroxyl free radicals possessing the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl moiety. All of the stable radical systems investigated were found to be emissively polarized by interaction with the triplet states, and the phase of polarization was independent of the sign of zero-field splitting (D) of the interacting triple molecule. Possible and likely mechanisms of polarization transfer (creation) resulting from the interaction of photoexcited triplet molecules with nitroxyls in the strong electron exchange are discussed. The emissive CIDEP of nitroxyls observed in the interactions with triplet benzil, which has D > 0, provides strong support for the operation of the radical-triplet pair mechanism. Within the time scale of TR ESR experiments ([approximately]10[sup [minus]7]--10[sup [minus]6] s) no significant variation in the shape of the CIDEP spectra of the nitroxyls was observed, either in viscous media or in micelles. It is concluded that intramolecular spin exchange (or conformational change) of polynitroyls occurs much faster than the time resolution of the experiment. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  11. Dose Reconstruction of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Using a Simple Pharmacokinetic Model

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), used primarily as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, is found in a variety of products. Previous studies have quantified human exposure by back calculating intakes based on DEHP metabolite concentrations in urine and by determining concentrations of DEHP in exposure media (e.g., air, food, dust). Objectives: To better understand the timing and extent of DEHP exposure, we used a simple pharmacokinetic model to “reconstruct” the DEHP dose responsible for the presence of DEHP metabolites in urine. Methods: We analyzed urine samples from eight adults for four DEHP metabolites [mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate]. Participants provided full volumes of all voids over 1 week and recorded the time of each void and information on diet, driving, and outdoor activities. Using a model previously calibrated on a single person self-dosed with DEHP in conjunction with the eight participants’ data, we used a simple trial-and-error method to determine times and doses of DEHP that resulted in a best fit of predicted and observed urinary concentrations of the metabolites. Results: The average daily mean and median reconstructed DEHP doses were 10.9 and 5.0 µg/kg-day, respectively. The highest single modeled dose of 60 µg/kg occurred when one study participant reported consuming coffee and a bagel with egg and sausage that was purchased at a gas station. About two-thirds of all modeled intake events occurred near the time of reported food or beverage consumption. Twenty percent of the modeled DEHP exposure occurred between 2200 hours and 0500 hours. Conclusions: Dose reconstruction using pharmacokinetic models—in conjunction with biomonitoring data, diary information, and other related data—can provide a powerful means to define timing, magnitude, and possible sources of exposure to a given contaminant. PMID

  12. Trasforiiazioni Termoelastiche Finite di Solidi Incomprimibili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorini, A.

    Queste lezlioni hanno come direttiva una sintesi di quanto si trova sistematicamente sviluppato in una mia Memoria sulle trasformazioni termoelastiche finite di solidi incomprimibili, in corso di stampa negli Annali di Matematica pura e applicata t. XXXIX ( 1955) pp. 147-201 , Verranno anche esposti, come necessaria premessa, alcuni d ei risultati di due precedenti Memorie degli stessi Annali. Invece, per motivo di brevità, non potrò dare neppure un cenno delle ulteriori ricerche svilup pate dal prof. T. Manacorda in tre recentissimi suoi lavori:

  13. Electrochemical behaviour of mono-chloronitrobenzene as cathode material for magnesium reserve batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunakaran, R.; Vasudevan, S.; Sivashanmugam, A.; Gopukumar, S.

    Mono-chloronitrobenzene (MCNB) is investigated as a cathode material for magnesium reserve batteries that use a magnesium anode and a 2 M magnesium perchlorate aqueous electrolyte. The composition of the conducting material (acetylene black) in the cathode mix is optimized to obtain better electrochemical performance. The reduction mechanism of mono-chloronitrobenzene is examined by means of cyclic voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode. Discharge studies at different current drains indicate that Mg-MCNB cells exhibit the highest Coulombic efficiency (86%) at a current drain of 100 mA. The reduction of MCNB to mono-chloroaniline is irreversible and diffusion-controlled.

  14. Glass liquid glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-González, P. E.; Vizcarra-Rendón, A.; Guevara-Rodríguez, F. de J.; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2008-05-01

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and fs(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  15. Mono-THF ring annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa.

    PubMed

    Hopp, D C; Alali, F Q; Gu, Z M; McLaughlin, J L

    1998-03-01

    Continuing work on the bark of Annona squamosa Rich. (Annonaceae), directed by the brine shrimp lethality test (BST), has resulted in the isolation of three new Annonaceous acetogenins, 4-deoxyannoreticuin, cis-4-deoxyannoreticuin, and (2,4-cis and trans)-squamoxinone. The first two are additional examples of acetogenins isolated from this plant species which contain the unusual feature of an oxygen functionality at the C-9 position. They have a hydroxylated mono-THF ring with respective threo/trans/threo and threo/cis/threo relative stereochemistries. The latter compound is a ketolactone mixture which has the same relative stereochemistry around the THF ring and the same spatial relationship between the THF ring and the hydroxyl group along the aliphatic chain as 4-deoxyannoreticuin, but is two methylene units longer. Additionally, the isolated hydroxyl group is at C-11, while the THF ring starts at C-17, instead of at C-9 and C-15, respectively, as for the first two compounds. All three compounds showed moderate, but significant, cytotoxicities against a panel of six human tumor cell lines with (2,4 cis and trans)-squamoxinone showing promising selectivity against the pancreatic cell line (PACA-2). PMID:9542173

  16. Neutrino Mass Measurement Using a Directed Mono-Energetic Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsifrinovich, Vladimir; Folan, Lorcan

    2015-04-01

    It was shown that a directed mono-energetic neutrino beam can be generated by electron capture beta-decay in a sample with a strong hyperfine field at the radioactive nuclei. We study the conditions required to measure the neutrino rest mass using the recoil force produced by a directed neutrino beam. We consider the displacement of an atomic force microscope cantilever due to such a recoil force. We find the change in the cantilever displacement associated with the non-zero neutrino mass, as a function of nuclear half-life T1 / 2, cantilever spring constant, and temperature. We consider the opportunity to increase the sensitivity of the neutrino mass measurement using averaging of the measurement signal. We show that the optimal time for the signal accumulation is, approximately, 1.8T1 / 2. We compute the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for 119Sb nuclei decaying to 119Sn with a decrease in the nuclear spin from I = 5/2 to I = 3/2, and T1 / 2 = 38.2 hours. Finally, we present the parameters values required for detection of sub-eV neutrino rest mass, and estimate the angular distribution of neutrino radiation as a function of temperature.

  17. The microbial arsenic cycle in Mono Lake, California.

    PubMed

    Oremland, Ronald S; Stolz, John F; Hollibaugh, James T

    2004-04-01

    Significant concentrations of dissolved inorganic arsenic can be found in the waters of a number of lakes located in the western USA and in other water bodies around the world. These lakes are often situated in arid, volcanic terrain. The highest concentrations of arsenic occur in hypersaline, closed basin soda lakes and their remnant brines. Although arsenic is a well-known toxicant to eukaryotes and prokaryotes alike, some prokaryotes have evolved biochemical mechanisms to exploit arsenic oxyanions (i.e., arsenate and arsenite); they can use them either as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration (arsenate), or as an electron donor (arsenite) to support chemoautotrophic fixation of CO(2) into cell carbon. Unlike in freshwater or marine ecosystems, these processes may assume quantitative significance with respect to the carbon cycle in arsenic-rich soda lakes. For the past several years our research has focused on the occurrence and biogeochemical manifestations of these processes in Mono Lake, a particularly arsenic-rich environment. Herein we review some of our findings concerning the biogeochemical arsenic cycle in this lake, with the hope that it may broaden the understanding of the influence of microorganisms upon the speciation of arsenic in more common, less "extreme" environments, such as drinking water aquifers. PMID:19712427

  18. Transcranial Propagation with an Ultrasonic Mono-element Focused Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, P. C.; Jiménez, N.; Konofagou, E.; Camarena, F.; Redondo, J.

    Focused Ultrasound is the only truly transient, local and non-invasive technique able to induce safe Blood-Brain Barrier Opening (BBBO), technique used in Parkinson or Alzheimer diseases research. However, the presence of the skull in the path usually affects the focus characteristics (gain, beam width, shape and maxima location). In this work, transcranial acoustic wave propagation generated by a mono-element focused transducer has been modeled using 2D and 3D FDTD methods. Skull structure of the non-human primate under test can be compared in terms of density and sound speed with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) films. Then, focus aberration and the phenomena that cause it are characterized, providing a better control of the beam focus using the BBBO technique. Results throw that focal axial displacements are constant with the angle of incidence for PMMA flat films. In normal incidence, a shift of 6 mm is given for axial displacement in the 2D transcranial propagation. Moreover, if the skull geometry under the action of the ultrasonic beam can be compared with the curvature radius of the transducer, displacements should be constant with angle independency, like those seeing in the homogenous flat films with the same thickness.

  19. Laser System for Livermore's Mono Energetic Gamma-Ray Source

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, D; Albert, F; Bayramian, A; Marsh, R; Messerly, M; Ebbers, C; Hartemann, F

    2011-03-14

    A Mono-energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source, based on Compton scattering of a high-intensity laser beam off a highly relativistic electron beam, requires highly specialized laser systems. To minimize the bandwidth of the {gamma}-ray beam, the scattering laser must have minimal bandwidth, but also match the electron beam depth of focus in length. This requires a {approx}1 J, 10 ps, fourier-transform-limited laser system. Also required is a high-brightness electron beam, best provided by a photoinjector. This electron source requires a second laser system with stringent requirements on the beam including flat transverse and longitudinal profiles and fast rise times. Furthermore, these systems must be synchronized to each other with ps-scale accuracy. Using a novel hyper-dispersion compressor configuration and advanced fiber amplifiers and diode-pumped Nd:YAG amplifiers, we have designed laser systems that meet these challenges for the X-band photoinjector and Compton-scattering source being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  20. On the mono-exponential fitting of phosphorescence decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, N.; Brübach, J.; Dreizler, A.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods for mono-exponential fitting of decay curves are presented and compared among each other in terms of precision, accuracy and computational time. Simulated noisy data sets are generated and evaluated in order to determine the main contributors to a loss in performance. The influence of the temporal discretization of the decay curve on the precision of the fitting methods is discussed. Correlations between the background offset and the decay time are analyzed. Variations of the signal-to-noise ratio are shown, allowing for evaluation of systematic errors and precision in the presence of noise. Finally, the algorithms are applied to experimental data, and the computational efforts for the different algorithms are compared. The results of this latter investigation confirm the conclusions drawn from the simulated data and the following conclusions are drawn: The frequently applied method of performing a linear regression to the logarithm of a background-corrected decay showed systematic errors in the presence of noise. Best results in terms of precision and accuracy were obtained by a nonlinear least-squares approximation and a method denoted as the linear regression of the sum. Additionally, this latter method required the lowest computational time and is finally recommended for determining decay times from experimental data.

  1. Adding Mono- and Multivalent Ions to Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, Luana; Park, Heung-Shik; Antion, Kelly; Woolwerton, Chris; Finotello, Daniele; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    2006-03-01

    Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals (LCLCs) are a distinct class of liquid crystals formed in aqueous solutions by molecules with rigid polyaromatic cores and ionic groups at the periphery [1-4]. The phase diagrams of these materials should depend on entropic factors (as in the Onsager model) and electrostatic interactions. Using optical polarizing microscopy, we studied the effects of mono- and multivalent ions on the phase diagrams of Blue 27 [3] and Sunset Yellow [2]. The monovalent ions change the temperatures of phase transitions, as described in [4], while the effect of multivalent ions is more dramatic and, in addition to the changed temperatures of phase transitions by tens of degrees, it often involves condensation of LCLC aggregates into domains with birefringence much higher than that in a normal nematic phase. Work supported by OBR B-7844. [1]J. Lydon, Current Opin. Colloid & Interface Sci. 3, 458 (1998);8, 480-489 (2004); [2]V. R. Horowitz, L. A. Janowitz, A. L. Modic, P. J. Heiney, and P. J. Collings, 2005, Phys. Rew. E 72, 041710; [3]Yu. A. Nastishin, H. Liu, T. Schneider, T., V. Nazarenko, R. Vasyuta, S. V. Shiyanovskii, and O. D. Lavrentovich, 2005, Phys. Rev. E 72, 041711; [4]A.F. Kostko, B. H. Cipriano, O. A. Pinchuk, L. Ziserman, M. A. Anisimov, D. Danino, and S. R. Raghavan. J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 19126-19133 (2005)

  2. Collaborative study on determination of mono methylmercury in seafood.

    PubMed

    Valdersnes, Stig; Fecher, Peter; Maage, Amund; Julshamn, Kaare

    2016-03-01

    Eight laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory method-performance (collaborative) study of a method for the determination of mono methylmercury (MMHg) in foodstuffs of marine origin by gas chromatography inductively coupled plasma isotope dilution mass spectrometry (GC-ICP-IDMS) after dissolution, derivatisation and extraction of the species. The method was tested on seven seafood products covering both a wide concentration range and variations in the MMHg concentrations as well as matrix compositions. The samples were mussel tissue, squid muscle, crab claw meat, whale meat, cod muscle, Greenland halibut muscle and dogfish liver (NRCC DOLT-4), with MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 3.58mg/kg (as Hg) dry weight. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) for MMHg ranged from 2.1% to 8.7%. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 5.8% to 42%. All samples showed HorRat value below 1.0, except for the sample with the lowest MMHg content, mussel tissue, with a HorRat value of 1.6. PMID:26471575

  3. Mono- and bimetallic zwitterionic chromium(0) and tungsten(0) allenyls.

    PubMed

    Giner, Elena A; Santiago, Alicia; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Ramírez de Arellano, Carmen; Poulten, Rebecca C; Whittlesey, Michael K; Sierra, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    A series of stable chiral (racemic), formally neutral, zwitterionic mono- and bimetallic M(CO)5[C(OEt)═C═CR(NHC)] (M = Cr, W) σ-allenyls are ready available by the addition of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) to Cr(0) and W(0) alkynyl Fischer carbene complexes. Different classes of NHCs, (e.g., 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene, 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene, and their six- and seven-membered analogues and 1,3-bis(dimethyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) were employed as nucleophiles in these C-C bond-forming reactions yielding the novel complexes in essentially quantitative yields. A systematic experimental and computational study of the electronic properties of the Cr- and W-allenyls shows that their UV-vis spectra are directly influenced by the structure of the heterocyclic moiety derived from the NHC (ring size, substituents on the N atoms) and by the nature of the metal fragment (Cr/W). The electron-releasing nature of these complexes allows them to participate in electron-transfer reactions in the ground state, leading to a type of charged α,β-unsaturated Fischer carbenes that incorporate an NHC fragment in their structure. PMID:25952749

  4. Geothermal systems of the Mono Basin-Long Valley region, eastern California and western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Flynn, T.; Chapman, R.H.; Trexler, D.T.; Chase, G.R.; Bacon, C.F.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The region that includes Mono Basin, Long Valley, the Bridgeport-Bodie Hills area, and Aurora, in eastern California and western Nevada was studied to determine the possible causes and interactions of the geothermal anomalies in the Mono Basin-Long Valley region as a whole. A special goal of the study was to locate possible shallow bodies of magma and to determine their influence on the hydrothermal systems in the region. (ACR)

  5. Roles of mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 in the formation of Smad transcriptional complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bei; Suzuki, Hiroyuki Kato, Mitsuyasu

    2008-11-14

    TGF-{beta} activates receptor-regulated Smad (R-Smad) through phosphorylation by type I receptors. Activated R-Smad binds to Smad4 and the complex translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the transcription of target genes through association with co-activators including p300. It is not clear, however, how activated Smad complexes are removed from target genes. In this study, we show that TGF-{beta} enhances the mono-ubiquitination of Smad4. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination was promoted by p300 and suppressed by the c-Ski co-repressor. Smad4 mono-ubiquitination disrupted the interaction with Smad2 in the presence of constitutively active TGF-{beta} type I receptor. Furthermore, mono-ubiquitinated Smad4 was not found in DNA-binding Smad complexes. A Smad4-Ubiquitin fusion protein, which mimics mono-ubiquitinated Smad4, enhanced localization to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that mono-ubiquitination of Smad4 occurs in the transcriptional activator complex and facilitates the turnover of Smad complexes at target genes.

  6. Good quality blastocyst from non-/mono-pronuclear zygote may be used for transfer during IVF.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bao-Li; Hao, Hao-Ying; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Wei, Duo; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2016-04-01

    Although healthy infants have developed from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes, the transfer of embryos from non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes is not recommended because there are no proper selection criteria. In the present study, we discuss how to select non- and mono-pronuclear embryos with the highest developmental potential at 19-20 hours post-insemination. We found that the percentage of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution in non-pronuclear zygotes was slightly higher than in mono-pronuclear zygotes. Non- and mono-pronuclear embryos that were at the 4-cell stage on D2 and/or at the 6- to 8-cell stage on D3 had higher incidence rates of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitutions. We also found higher incidences of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution on D6 than on D5. The results suggest that if high quality non- and mono-pronuclear zygotes develop to the 4-cell stage on D2 and the 6-to 8- cell stages on D3, along with high quality D6 blastocysts, the incidence of blastocysts with normal chromosome constitution is higher. PMID:26901373

  7. The biosynthesis of allelopathic di-C-glycosylflavones from the roots of Desmodium incanum (G. Mey.) DC.

    PubMed

    Hao, Bing; Caulfield, John C; Hamilton, Mary L; Pickett, John A; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R; Wang, Junru R; Hooper, Antony M

    2015-12-28

    The allelopathic root exudate of the drought-tolerant subsistence cereal intercrop D. incanum, protecting against the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica, comprises a number of di-C-glycosylflavones specifically containing C-glucosyl, C-galactosyl and C-arabinosyl moieties. Here we demonstrate that the biosynthesis of all compounds containing a C-glucose involves C-glucosylation of 2-hydroxynaringenin with subsequent C-galactosylation, C-glucosylation or C-arabinosylation. In addition, the crude soluble enzyme extract converts two fluorinated 2-hydroxyflavanone analogues to corresponding mono- and di-C-glycosylflavones demonstrating that some differences in C-ring substitution can be tolerated by the plant enzymes. Elucidating the biosynthesis of these C-glycosylflavones (CGFs) has the potential to open up opportunities for transferring the enzymic and genetic basis for the S. hermonthica inhibiting allelopathic trait to food crop plants. PMID:26478440

  8. Discovery and industrial applications of lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Katja S

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) has opened up a vast area of research covering several fields of application. The biotech company Novozymes A/S holds patents on the use of these enzymes for the conversion of steam-pre-treated plant residues such as straw to free sugars. These patents predate the correct classification of LPMOs and the striking synergistic effect of fungal LPMOs when combined with canonical cellulases was discovered when fractions of fungal secretomes were evaluated in industrially relevant enzyme performance assays. Today, LPMOs are a central component in the Cellic CTec enzyme products which are used in several large-scale plants for the industrial production of lignocellulosic ethanol. LPMOs are characterized by an N-terminal histidine residue which, together with an internal histidine and a tyrosine residue, co-ordinates a single copper atom in a so-called histidine brace. The mechanism by which oxygen binds to the reduced copper atom has been reported and the general mechanism of copper-oxygen-mediated activation of carbon is being investigated in the light of these discoveries. LPMOs are widespread in both the fungal and the bacterial kingdoms, although the range of action of these enzymes remains to be elucidated. However, based on the high abundance of LPMOs expressed by microbes involved in the decomposition of organic matter, the importance of LPMOs in the natural carbon-cycle is predicted to be significant. In addition, it has been suggested that LPMOs play a role in the pathology of infectious diseases such as cholera and to thus be relevant in the field of medicine. PMID:26862199

  9. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Antolak, A. J.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.

    2009-03-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,γ)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,γ)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 μs long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  10. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  11. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, B. A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Antolak, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB{sub 6} tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 {mu}s long pulses, and a 1% duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  12. Mono- and multistatic polarimetric sparse aperture 3D SAR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraaf, Stuart; Twigg, Charles; Phillips, Louis

    2008-04-01

    SAR imaging at low center frequencies (UHF and L-band) offers advantages over imaging at more conventional (X-band) frequencies, including foliage penetration for target detection and scene segmentation based on polarimetric coherency. However, bandwidths typically available at these center frequencies are small, affording poor resolution. By exploiting extreme spatial diversity (partial hemispheric k-space coverage) and nonlinear bandwidth extrapolation/interpolation methods such as Least-Squares SuperResolution (LSSR) and Least-Squares CLEAN (LSCLEAN), one can achieve resolutions that are commensurate with the carrier frequency (λ/4) rather than the bandwidth (c/2B). Furthermore, extreme angle diversity affords complete coverage of a target's backscatter, and a correspondingly more literal image. To realize these benefits, however, one must image the scene in 3-D; otherwise layover-induced misregistration compromises the coherent summation that yields improved resolution. Practically, one is limited to very sparse elevation apertures, i.e. a small number of circular passes. Here we demonstrate that both LSSR and LSCLEAN can reduce considerably the sidelobe and alias artifacts caused by these sparse elevation apertures. Further, we illustrate how a hypothetical multi-static geometry consisting of six vertical real-aperture receive apertures, combined with a single circular transmit aperture provide effective, though sparse and unusual, 3-D k-space support. Forward scattering captured by this geometry reveals horizontal scattering surfaces that are missed in monostatic backscattering geometries. This paper illustrates results based on LucernHammer UHF and L-band mono- and multi-static simulations of a backhoe.

  13. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O'Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  14. Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Di ( 2 - ethylhexyl ) adipate ; CASRN 103 - 23 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  15. 238U-230Th crystallization ages for the oldest domes of the Mono Craters, eastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcaida, M.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Mono Craters volcanic chain is one of the youngest areas of rhyolitic volcanism in the Mono Lake-Long Valley region of eastern California. Located just south of Mono Lake, the Mono Craters comprise at least 28 individual domes and flows (numbered 3-30, north to south); however, the timing and frequency of eruptions remain poorly resolved. The earliest signs of volcanic activity are preserved as numerous tephra layers (Ashes 1-19, top to bottom) in the late Pleistocene Wilson Creek formation of ancestral Mono Lake, which indicate that rhyolitic volcanism from Mono Craters began by at least ca. 62 ka [1]. Although the current chronology indicates that most of the Mono Craters are younger than ca. 20 ka [2-4], similar compositions of titanomagnetite from both pumice and lava potentially correlate several Wilson Creek tephras to porphyritic biotite-bearing domes 11, 24, and 19 of the Mono Craters [5], suggesting that multiple domes in the Mono Craters chain reflect volcanism older than ca. 20 ka. Ash 3 is correlated to dome 11 based on similar ca. 20 ka ages and titanomagnetite compositions [6]. More recently, we performed ion microprobe 238U-230Th dating of unpolished rims of allanite and zircon from domes 24 and 19, yielding isochron ages of ca. 38 ka and ca. 42 ka, respectively. The age of dome 24 is consistent with the ca. 38 ka age of its potential correlative tephra layers [1, 5], indicating that dome 24 is likely the extrusive equivalent of Ashes 9-10. Dome 19 has titanomagnetite crystals with similar bimodal chemistry to titanomagnetites from Ash 15 [5]. The age of dome 19 is indistinguishable from the 238U-230Th age of Ash 15 [1], which erupted during a prominent geomagnetic excursion, originally designated as the "Mono Lake" excursion. Combining geochronological and titanomagnetite compositional data confirms that Ash 15 and its extrusive equivalent, dome 19, erupted during the Laschamp excursion. [1] Vazquez, J.A. and Lidzbarski, M.I. (2012) EPSL 357

  16. Biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, M.G.; Hayton, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The biotransformation of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intravascular administration. Methyl-esterified metabolites were identified using rodent-derived standards and non-linear gradient elution HPLC; metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography. Similarities between the biotransformation of DEHP by rainbow trout and mammalian species included (a) mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) appeared to be the obligatory first step in DEHP metabolism; (b) the phthalate ring was not oxidized; (c) phthalic acid was a minor metabolite; and (d) several metabolites contained multiple oxidations of the 2-ethylhexyl moiety of MEHP. No metabolites unique to rainbow trout were identified. However, fewer oxidized metabolites were identified in rainbow trout than in mammalian species, possibly due to limited mitochondrial metabolism of MEHP in rainbow trout. The amount of biliary MEHP glucuronide after intravascular administration of DEHP was substantially less than reported in rainbow trout exposed to DEHP via the water. Results confirmed that DEHP metabolism in rainbow trout proceeds by initial rapid formation of MEHP, followed by excretion or extensive oxidation by microsomal P450.

  17. Kinetics of the phthalate metabolites mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in male subjects after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Astrid; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2016-06-11

    Humans have been exposed to dialkyl ortho-phthalates for decades. Due to degradation the phthalate monoesters, responsible for the toxic effects, are additionally found in environmental media as well as food samples. Nevertheless, the toxicokinetic properties of the monoesters are not known. Therefore, metabolism of the phthalate monoesters mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was studied in four male volunteers (23-58 years of age) after ingestion of a single dose of 50μg/kg bw D4-MEHP or 10μg/kg bw D4-MnBP. The main metabolites in urine were determined up to 46h after administration. In the MEHP-study, more than 90% of each metabolite appeared in the urine within the first 22h, and the average excreted amount of D4-MEHP and its four secondary metabolites was 62% of the administered dose. The highest value of 15% was observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl phthalate (D4-5cx-MEPP). The mean elimination half-life of D4-MEHP was estimated to be 3.5±1.4h. In the MnBP-study, the total recovered values of D4-MnBP and its secondary metabolites ranged from 52% to 130%. The monoester itself, with a half-life of 1.9±0.5h, accounted for the majority of the ingested dose (92%), while the secondary metabolites D4-mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (D4-3OH-MnBP) and D4-3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (D4-3cx-MPP) represented only 7.1% and 1.0% of the ingested dose, respectively. Overall, this study determined that the kinetics of the phthalate monoesters MEHP and MnBP after oral dosage are comparable to the properties of their diesters. PMID:27091076

  18. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate accelerates early folliculogenesis and inhibits steroidogenesis in cultured mouse whole ovaries and antral follicles.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Patrick R; Brannick, Katherine E; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-05-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2-20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) for 24-96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  19. Apiose and mono-O-methyl sugars as minor constituents of the leaves of deciduous trees and various other species

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, J. S. D.; Cheshire, M. V.

    1971-01-01

    1. Leaves of a number of species were hydrolysed with aqueous sulphuric acid and the resulting mixtures of sugars were fractionated by chromatography on activated charcoal. Paper chromatography of the fractions showed the presence in all the hydrolysates of minor constituents with RF values similar to or greater than those of the common hexoses and pentoses. 2. Two of these were identified as 2-O-methylxylose and 2-O-methylfucose. Estimates of the amounts present in whole leaves, and in fractions prepared from them, showed that they were associated with the hemicelluloses. 3. A third constituent was identified, by the formation of its di-isopropylidene derivative, as apiose. It also was associated chiefly with the hemicellulose fraction; none could be found in aqueous extracts from leaves of Tilia vulgaris, nor in aqueous extracts of Zostera marina, in which apiose is a major constituent of the water-insoluble polysaccharide. 4. A further constituent, after further purification by preparative paper chromatography, was tentatively identified, by gas–liquid chromatography of derivatives, as 3-O-methylgalactose, and was probably accompanied by small amounts of 4-O-methylgalactose. 5. These observations confirm the widespread occurrence of 2-O-methylxylose, 2-O-methylfucose and apiose, but 3-O-methylgalactose was hitherto known only in slippery-elm mucilage, and 4-O-methylgalactose in soil polysaccharides. Some experiments on the digestion of leaf hemicellulose fractions by snail crop-juice suggested that the mono-O-methyl sugars might confer resistance to enzymic degradation. PMID:5135242

  20. Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) regulates glucocorticoid metabolism through 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 in murine gonadotrope cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Dun; Li, Xing-Wang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Lamba, Pankaj; Bernard, Daniel J.; Hardy, Dianne O.; Chen, Hai-Xiao; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2009-11-13

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and its metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) have been classified as toxicants to the reproductive system at the testis level and DEHP may also impair reproductive axis function at the pituitary levels. However, MEHP is 10-fold more potent than DEHP in toxicity and little is known about the toxicological effect of MEHP on pituitary. In this study, we demonstrated that 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11{beta}-HSD2), not 11{beta}-HSD1, is strongly expressed in murine gonadotrope L{beta}T2 cells. Interestingly, MEHP inhibited Hsd11b2 mRNA level and 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity in L{beta}T2 cells at as low as 10{sup -7} M. Corticosterone (CORT) at a concentration of 10{sup -6} M significantly inhibited L{beta}T2 cell proliferation after 2-day culture, and 10{sup -6} M RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reversed this inhibition. However, in the presence of 10{sup -5} or 10{sup -4} M MEHP, the minimal concentration of CORT to inhibit the proliferation of L{beta}T2 cells was lowered to 10{sup -7} M, and 10{sup -6} M RU486 was not able to completely reverse the CORT effect. In conclusion, along with the regulation of GR, 11{beta}-HSD2 may have a key role in glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells. MEHP may participate in the glucocorticoid metabolism in L{beta}T2 cells through inhibition of 11{beta}-HSD2 enzyme activity. Such perturbation may be of pathological significance as MEHP may interfere with the reproductive system at pituitary level through regulation of glucocorticoid metabolism, especially in neonates with higher risk of phthalates exposure.

  1. Mono(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Accelerates Early Folliculogenesis and Inhibits Steroidogenesis in Cultured Mouse Whole Ovaries and Antral Follicles1

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are ubiquitously exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which is an environmental toxicant present in common consumer products. DEHP potentially targets the ovary through its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, the direct effects of MEHP on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis, two processes essential for reproductive and nonreproductive health, are unknown. The present study tested the hypotheses that MEHP directly accelerates early folliculogenesis via overactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, a pathway that regulates primordial follicle quiescence and activation, and inhibits the synthesis of steroid hormones by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. Neonatal ovaries from CD-1 mice were cultured for 6 days with vehicle control, DEHP, or MEHP (0.2–20 μg/ml) to assess the direct effects on folliculogenesis and PI3K signaling. Further, antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or MEHP (0.1–10 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of MEHP on steroid hormones and steroidogenic enzymes. In the neonatal ovaries, MEHP, but not DEHP, decreased phosphatase and tensin homolog levels and increased phosphorylated protein kinase B levels, leading to a decrease in the percentage of germ cells and an increase in the percentage of primary follicles. In the antral follicles, MEHP decreased the mRNA levels of 17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase leading to a decrease in testosterone, estrone, and estradiol levels. Collectively, MEHP mediates the effect of DEHP on accelerated folliculogenesis via overactivating PI3K signaling and inhibits steroidogenesis by decreasing steroidogenic enzyme levels. PMID:25810477

  2. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  3. High resolution seismic reflection profiles of Holocene volcanic and tectonic features, Mono Lake, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Hart, P. E.; Bursik, M. I.; McClain, J. S.; Moore, J. C.; Boyle, M.; Childs, J. R.; Novick, M.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Roeske, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Inyo-Mono Craters of Long Valley and Mono Basin, California are the youngest eruptive vents of the Great Basin, USA and the second youngest in California. They are one of two seismically active volcanic centers with geothermal power production in the Walker Lane, western Great Basin, the other being the Coso Volcanic Field to the south. High resolution seismic reflection data collected from the northern tip of the Mono Craters eruptive centers in Mono Lake delinates two structural zones proximal to the active volcanic centers in Mono Lake. A growth structure drapped by ~30 m or more of bedded sediment shows increasing deformation and offset of clastic deposits on the northwest margin of the basin. Coherent thin-bedded stratigraphic sections with strong reflectors to 30-100m depth are preserved on the western and northern margins of the basin. The southern and southeastern areas of the lake are generally seismically opaque, due to extensive ash and tephra deposits as well as widespread methane. Thin pockets of well-bedded, poorly consolidated sediment of probable Holocene and last glacial age are present within intrabasin depressions providing some local age constraints on surfaces adjacent to volcanic vents and volcanically modified features.

  4. Review of the recording and age of the Mono Lake Excursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2009-04-01

    Among the brief departures from gradual, long-term behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field in the Brunhes Normal Chron that reached opposite polarity or have a Virtual Geomagnetic Pole deep in the southern hemisphere, the first to be reported is the Laschamp Excursion (LE) in volcanic rocks in the Massif Central in France (Bonhommet and Zahringer, 1969). They originally believed it occurred between about 9,000 to 20,000 years before present, but it is now assigned an age of about 40,000 years B.P. (Guillou et al., 2004). Denham and Cox (1971) unsuccessfully sought the LE in exposed lake sediments that seemed to span that interval in the Mono Basin in the western Great Basin of the U.S., but instead encountered anomalous field behaviour that is called the Mono Lake Excursion (MLE)(Liddicoat and Coe, 1979). As a tribute to Norbert Bonhommet, who assisted us in our initial field work in the Mono Basin and shared a long-standing interest in the LE and MLE, we will review the palaeomagnetic behaviour and age of the MLE in the Mono Basin and elsewhere, for which there are nearly 20 reports of its occurrence globally, and evaluate the recent suggestion that the excursion at Mono Lake and the LE are the same.

  5. The "Bestie di Satana" murders.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Jutta; Candelli, Chiara; Zeroli, Stefania; La Tegola, Donatella; Carabellese, Felice

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, satanic groups have been responsible for various types and degrees of crimes. We report the case of a number of murders committed in Italy by a group of young people calling themselves the "Bestie di Satana". Forensic psychiatric assessment of the members of a satanic sect charged with the crime revealed that all the young people had a fragile, immature personality, a very low level of education and were socially disadvantaged. The trial of the members of the "Bestie di Satana" sect was concluded with the verdict of deliberate murder, and all the members were given long jail sentences. This report should lead us to explore social and cultural responses to juvenile satanism, statistically shown to be a relatively rare phenomenon but with a high criminal potential. PMID:24117906

  6. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  7. Crystal structure of a mono-bridged calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Shimelis T; Butcher, Ray J; Hudrlik, Paul F; Hudrlik, Anne M

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, 5(2)-[(5-bromo-pent-yl)-oxy]-1(2),1(14),3(5),5(5)-tetra-tert-butyl-1(7),1(8),1(9),1(10)-tetra-hydro-1(6) H,1(16) H-1(4,12)-dibenzo[b,e][1,7]dioxa-cyclo-dodecina-3,5(1,3)-dibenzena-cyclo-hexa-phan-3(2)-ol, C54H73BrO4, was synthesized from the reaction of tert-butyl-calix[4]arene with 1,5-di-bromo-pentane using K2CO3 in CH3CN. The structure consists of a calixarene unit with a five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms, and with a bromo-pent-oxy chain on one of the remaining phenolic O atoms. The calixarene unit was found to have a flattened cone conformation with no solvent (or other guest) mol-ecule observed in the cavity. Two of the opposite phenyl rings lean outwards with fold angles of 136.2 (1) and 133.0 (1)° between the rings and the plane of the bridging methyl-ene C atoms, while the other two opposite rings form fold angles of 83.27 (9) and 105.46 (9)°. There is considerable disorder in this mol-ecule. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.527 (5) and 0.473 (5). The bromo-pent-oxy chain is disordered over three configurations with occupancies of 0.418, 0.332 and 0.250. The five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.537 (7) and 0.463 (7). PMID:26279864

  8. Crystal structure of a mono-bridged calix[4]arene

    PubMed Central

    Hailu, Shimelis T.; Butcher, Ray J.; Hudrlik, Paul F.; Hudrlik, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, 52-[(5-bromo­pent­yl)­oxy]-12,114,35,55-tetra-tert-butyl-17,18,19,110-tetra­hydro-16 H,116 H-1(4,12)-dibenzo[b,e][1,7]dioxa­cyclo­dodecina-3,5(1,3)-dibenzena­cyclo­hexa­phan-32-ol, C54H73BrO4, was synthesized from the reaction of tert-butyl­calix[4]arene with 1,5-di­bromo­pentane using K2CO3 in CH3CN. The structure consists of a calixarene unit with a five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms, and with a bromo­pent­oxy chain on one of the remaining phenolic O atoms. The calixarene unit was found to have a flattened cone conformation with no solvent (or other guest) mol­ecule observed in the cavity. Two of the opposite phenyl rings lean outwards with fold angles of 136.2 (1) and 133.0 (1)° between the rings and the plane of the bridging methyl­ene C atoms, while the other two opposite rings form fold angles of 83.27 (9) and 105.46 (9)°. There is considerable disorder in this mol­ecule. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.527 (5) and 0.473 (5). The bromo­pent­oxy chain is disordered over three configurations with occupancies of 0.418, 0.332 and 0.250. The five-carbon bridge connecting two proximal phenolic O atoms is disordered over two conformations with occupancies of 0.537 (7) and 0.463 (7). PMID:26279864

  9. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to monitor in a single run, mono- to triterpenoid compounds distribution in resinous plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jemmali, Zaineb; Chartier, Agnes; Elfakir, Claire

    2016-04-22

    A new procedure based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of mono- to triterpenoid compounds in resinous materials. Given the difference of volatility and polarity of the studied compounds some critical steps in this methodology had to be identified and investigated. The recovery of volatile compounds after sample extraction was studied. A recovery range from 30% to 100% from the more volatile monoterpene to the least one was observed. Then the mandatory derivatization step for the analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes bearing hydroxyl and carboxyl groups was optimized. Results showed that derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) in pyridine (22:13:65 v/v/v) for 2h at 30 °C was the most efficient method of derivatizing all the hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups contained in the triterpene structures. After choosing the best injection parameters for these compounds, the selectivity of the GC column towards the separation of these terpenoids was investigated using statistical tools (principal component analysis and desirability functions). A separation with a good resolution was achieved on an HP-5ms column using a programmed temperature vaporizing injector (PTV). The method was pre-validated in terms of detection limits (LOD from 100 μg L(-1) to 200 μg L(-1) depending on the compound), linearity and repeatability using seven compounds representative of mono- and triterpenoid classes. An exhaustive characterization of various types of resins (di-, triterpenic and oleo-gum resins) was achieved. PMID:27018190

  10. Di-photon excess at LHC and the gamma ray excess at the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hektor, Andi; Marzola, Luca

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recent indications for a 750 GeV resonance in the di-photon final state at the LHC, in this work we analyse the compatibility of the excess with the broad photon excess detected at the Galactic Centre. Intriguingly, by analysing the parameter space of an effective models where a 750 GeV pseudoscalar particles mediates the interaction between the Standard Model and a scalar dark sector, we prove the compatibility of the two signals. We show, however, that the LHC mono-jet searches and the Fermi LAT measurements strongly limit the viable parameter space. We comment on the possible impact of cosmic antiproton flux measurement by the AMS-02 experiment.