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Sample records for alkali-resistant silicon nitride

  1. Subtask 6.6 - SiAION Coatings for Alkali-Resistant Silicon Nitride. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-25

    The efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by increasing operating temperature. Construction materials should both meet high strength requirements and exhibit hot alkali corrosion resistance. Structural ceramics based on silicon nitride are promising candidates for high temperature engineering applications because of their high strength and good resistance to corrosion. Their performance varies significantly with the mechanical properties of boundary phases which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition, thickness of the amorphous phase, and the deformation process. To make silicon nitride ceramics tough, SiAlON ceramics were developed with controlled crystallization of the amorphous grain boundary phase. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass improves the high temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics. Thus, the knowledge of silicon oxynitride ceramics corrosion behavior in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} becomes important for engineers in designing appropriate part for turbines working at high temperatures. So far there has been no report concerning alkali attack on SiAlON ceramics in the presence of SO{sub 2} and chlorine in flue gas. The goal of this project was to investigate alkali corrosion of SiAlON-Y structural ceramics under combustion conditions in the presence of sodium derived components.

  2. Task 6.6 - Sialon Coatings for Alkali-Resistant Silicon Nitride: Semi-annual report, July 1-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Nowok, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The efficiency of a gas turbine can be improved by increasing operating temperature. Construction materials should meet both high strength requirements and hot-alkali corrosion resistance. Structural ceramics based on silicon nitride are promising candidates for high temperature engineering applications because of their high strength and good resistance to corrosion. Their performance varies significantly with the mechanical properties of boundary phases which, in turn, depend on their chemical composition, thickness of the amorphous phase, and the deformation process. To make silicon nitride ceramics tough, SiAlON ceramics were developed with controlled crystallization of the amorphous grain boundary phase. Crystallization of the grain boundary glass improves the high temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride ceramics.

  3. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  4. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  5. Sintering silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Sanders, William A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Oxides having a composition of (Ba(1-x)Sr(x))O-Al2O3-2SiO2 are used as sintering aids for producing an improved silicon nitride ceramic material. The x must be greater than 0 to insure the formation of the stable monoclinic celsian glass phase.

  6. Cordierite silicon nitride filters

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B. ); Duiven, R.; Berger, M. ); Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J. )

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  7. Silicon Nitride Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaminathan, Pazhayannur; Brown, Robert

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the development a global, multi-phase equation of state (EOS) for the ceramic silicon nitride (Si3N4) . Structural forms include amorphous silicon nitride normally used as a thin film and three crystalline polymorphs. Crystalline phases include hexagonal α-Si3N4, hexagonalβ-Si3N4, and the cubic spinel c-Si3N4. Decomposition at about 1900 °C results in a liquid silicon phase and gas phase products such as molecular nitrogen, atomic nitrogen, and atomic silicon. The silicon nitride EOS was developed using EOSPro which is a new and extended version of the PANDA II code. Both codes are valuable tools and have been used successfully for a variety of material classes. Both PANDA II and EOSPro can generate a tabular EOS that can be used in conjunction with hydrocodes. The paper describes the development efforts for the component solid phases and presents results obtained using the EOSPro phase transition model to investigate the solid-solid phase transitions in relation to the available shock data. Furthermore, the EOSPro mixture model is used to develop a model for the decomposition products and then combined with the single component solid models to study the global phase diagram. Sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Living With a Star program office.

  8. Silicon nitride sintered body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    The sintering of silicon carbide and it production are described. The method of production is by calcination in which molding is followed by sintering without compression. The invention improves the composition of the silicon carbide ceramic. Six examples of the invention are illustrated and discussed.

  9. Method for producing silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-07-23

    Silicon carbide/silicon nitride composites are prepared by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and optionally crsytalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen.

  10. Shock Response of Silicon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, D. P.; Casem, D. T.; Motoyashiki, Y.; Sato, E.

    2009-06-01

    Silicon nitride is suitable for varied applications. The properties of silicon nitride have been tailored through processing and doping. The current work presents shock response of silicon nitride marketed as SN282. The density of this material, 3.4 Mg/m^3, exceeds its single crystal density due to the presence of lutetium oxide as an additive in ca. 5% by weight in the material. While the average grain size is 3.4 microns, aspect ratio of the grains exceed 3. Preliminary results of shock wave experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of SN282 is 11.2 GPa. (2) The magnitude of the inelastic wave velocity just above the HEL is 8.73 km/s, suggesting that inelastic deformation above the HEL is due to shock induced plasticity in the material. (3) The estimated value of the spall strength is 0.5 GPa. The spall strength of SN282 remains unchanged even when shocked beyond the HEL. The non-vanishing spall strength suggests that doping plays a role in the retention of spall strength of SN282. The role of doping needs to be further investigated.

  11. Manufacture of sintered silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwai, T.

    1985-01-01

    Sintered silicon nitrides are manufactured by sintering Si3N powder containing 2 to 15% in wt of a powder mixture composed of nitride powder of lanthanide or Y 100 parts and AIN powder less than 100 parts at 1500 to 1900 deg. temperature under a pressure of less than 200 Kg/sq. cm. The sintered Si3N has high mechanical strength in high temperature. Thus, Si3N4 93.0, Y 5.0 and AlN 2.0% in weight were wet mixed in acetone in N atom, molded and sintered at 1750 deg. and 1000 Kg/sq. cm. to give a sintered body having high hardness.

  12. Feasibility study of silicon nitride regenerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucinari, C. A.; Rao, V. D. N.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of silicon nitride as a regenerator matrix material for applications requiring inlet temperatures above 1000 C is examined. The present generation oxide ceramics are used as a reference to examine silicon nitride from a material characteristics, manufacturing, thermal stress and aerothermodynamic viewpoint.

  13. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  14. Shock Response of Silicon Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, D. P.; Casem, D. T.; Motoyashiki, Y.; Sato, E.

    2009-12-01

    Silicon nitride is suitable for varied applications because its properties can be tailored through processing and doping. The current work presents shock response of silicon nitride marketed as SN282. The density of this material, 3.4 Mg/m3, exceeds its single crystal density, 3.2 Mg/m3, due to the presence of lutetium oxide as an additive around 5% by weight in the material. While the average grain size is 3.4 microns, the aspect ratio of the grains exceed 3. Preliminary results of shock wave experiments may be summarized as follows: (1) The Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) of SN282 lies between 10.8 and 11.9 GPa. (2) The magnitude of the inelastic wave velocity just above the HEL is 8.73 km/s, suggesting that inelastic deformation above the HEL is due to shock induced plasticity in the material. (3) The value of the spall strength lies between 0.57 and 0.65 GPa. The spall strength of SN282 remains unchanged even when shocked beyond the HEL to at least 19.2 GPa unlike other brittle ceramics.

  15. Silicon Nitride Membranes for Filtration and Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, Paul; Zavadil, Kevin; Shul, Randy; Willison, Christi Gober; Miller, Sam

    1999-07-19

    Semi-Permeable silicon nitride membranes have been developed using a Bosch etch process followed by a reactive ion etch (NE) process. These membranes were observed to allow air but not water to pass through them into surface micromachined, silicon nitride microfluidic channels. Membranes with this property have potential use in microfluidic systems as gas bubble traps and vents, filters to remove particles and gas partitioning membranes. Membrane permeation was measured as 1.6 x 10{sup {minus}8} mol/m{sup 2}Pa s of helium for inline membranes at the entrance and exit of the silicon nitride microfluidic channels.

  16. Improved dispersion of silicon nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.H.; Buchta, M.

    1995-10-01

    To improve the dispersion of silicon nitride whiskers in aqueous suspensions, a standard dispersant used in glass fiber industry, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) is added. It was found that the viscosity of the whisker suspensions is lowered and the centrifuged density of the suspensions is increased with the addition of the APS. The pH values of suspensions before and after the addition of APS indicate that ASP extracts H{sup +} ions from the solutions and the adsorption of APS on silicon nitride is saturated in the experiment. The results indicate a colloidal route to the processing of ceramic composites with silicon nitride whiskers as reinforcements.

  17. Silicon nitride microwave photonic circuits.

    PubMed

    Roeloffzen, Chris G H; Zhuang, Leimeng; Taddei, Caterina; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Dijk, Paulus W L; Oldenbeuving, Ruud M; Marpaung, David A I; Burla, Maurizio; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-09-23

    We present an overview of several microwave photonic processing functionalities based on combinations of Mach-Zehnder and ring resonator filters using the high index contrast silicon nitride (TriPleX™) waveguide technology. All functionalities are built using the same basic building blocks, namely straight waveguides, phase tuning elements and directional couplers. We recall previously shown measurements on high spurious free dynamic range microwave photonic (MWP) link, ultra-wideband pulse generation, instantaneous frequency measurements, Hilbert transformers, microwave polarization networks and demonstrate new measurements and functionalities on a 16 channel optical beamforming network and modulation format transformer as well as an outlook on future microwave photonic platform integration, which will lead to a significantly reduced footprint and thereby enables the path to commercially viable MWP systems. PMID:24104179

  18. Silicon nitride reinforced with molybdenum disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; Honnell, R.E.

    1990-12-31

    Compositions of matter comprised of silicon nitride and molybdenum disilicide and methods of making the compositions, where the molybdenum disilicide is present in amounts ranging from about 5 to about 50 vol%.

  19. Silicon nitride reinforced with molybdenum disilicide

    DOEpatents

    Petrovic, John J.; Honnell, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions of matter comprised of silicon nitride and molybdenum disilicide and methods of making the compositions, where the molybdenum disilicide is present in amounts ranging from about 5 to about 50 vol. %.

  20. Joining of silicon nitrides using oxynitride glasses

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.H.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents a study on commercial silicon nitrides that were successfully joined using oxynitride glasses. Sintered silicon nitride was joined by either closed or glass-filled joints. Glass-filled joints were successfully used on hot-pressed silicon nitrides and were comparable in fast fracture strength to unjoined silicon nitrides up to approximately 1000C. Above that temperature, strengths decreased rapidly and glass flow failure began. The study observed that time-dependent failure currently limits the service temperatures of glass-filled joints. Creep failure occurred in excess of 1000C. Between 900 and 1000C, slow crack growth failure was observed. Cavitation (or viscous deformation) was the rate-controlling mechanism of slow crack growth.

  1. Nitride-bonded silicon carbide composite filter

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, B.N.; DiPietro, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate an advanced hot gas filter, using ceramic component technology, with enhanced durability to provide increased resistance to thermal fatigue and crack propagation. The material is silicon carbide fiber reinforced nitride bonded silicon carbide.

  2. Highly porous silicon membranes fabricated from silicon nitride/silicon stacks.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chengzhu; Striemer, Christopher C; Gaborski, Thomas R; McGrath, James L; Fauchet, Philippe M

    2014-07-23

    Nanopore formation in silicon films has previously been demonstrated using rapid thermal crystallization of ultrathin (15 nm) amorphous Si films sandwiched between nm-thick SiO2 layers. In this work, the silicon dioxide barrier layers are replaced with silicon nitride, resulting in nanoporous silicon films with unprecedented pore density and novel morphology. Four different thin film stack systems including silicon nitride/silicon/silicon nitride (NSN), silicon dioxide/silicon/silicon nitride (OSN), silicon nitride/silicon/silicon dioxide (NSO), and silicon dioxide/silicon/silicon dioxide (OSO) are tested under different annealing temperatures. Generally the pore size, pore density, and porosity positively correlate with the annealing temperature for all four systems. The NSN system yields substantially higher porosity and pore density than the OSO system, with the OSN and NSO stack characteristics fallings between these extremes. The higher porosity of the Si membrane in the NSN stack is primarily due to the pore formation enhancement in the Si film. It is hypothesized that this could result from the interfacial energy difference between the silicon/silicon nitride and silicon/silicon dioxide, which influences the Si crystallization process. PMID:24623562

  3. Silicon nitride ceramic having high fatigue life and high toughness

    DOEpatents

    Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    A sintered silicon nitride ceramic comprising between about 0.6 mol % and about 3.2 mol % rare earth as rare earth oxide, and between about 85 w/o and about 95 w/o beta silicon nitride grains, wherein at least about 20% of the beta silicon nitride grains have a thickness of greater than about 1 micron.

  4. Method and apparatus for stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon grown in silicon nitride ambient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, R. A.; Wheeler, R. K. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus for thermally growing stable silicon dioxide layers on silicon is disclosed. A previously etched and baked silicon nitride tube placed in a furnace is used to grow the silicon dioxide. First, pure oxygen is allowed to flow through the tube to initially coat the inside surface of the tube with a thin layer of silicon dioxide. After the tube is coated with the thin layer of silicon dioxide, the silicon is oxidized thermally in a normal fashion. If the tube becomes contaminated, the silicon dioxide is etched off thereby exposing clean silicon nitride and then the inside of the tube is recoated with silicon dioxide. As is disclosed, the silicon nitride tube can also be used as the ambient for the pyrolytic decomposition of silane and ammonia to form thin layers of clean silicon nitride.

  5. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite densified materials prepared using composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, S.D.; Weimer, A.W.; Carroll, D.F.; Eisman, G.A.; Cochran, G.A.; Susnitzky, D.W.; Beaman, D.R.; Nilsen, K.J.

    1997-07-01

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  6. Infrared bolometers with silicon nitride micromesh absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Turner, A. D.; DelCastillo, H. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Lange, A. E.; Mauskopf, P. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sensitive far infrared and millimeter wave bolometers fabricated from a freestanding membrane of low stress silicon nitride are reported. The absorber, consisting of a metallized silicon nitride micromesh thermally isolated by radial legs of silicon nitride, is placed in an integrating cavity to efficiently couple to single mode or multiple mode infrared radiation. This structure provides low heat capacity, low thermal conduction and minimal cross section to energetic particles. A neutron transmutation doped Ge thermister is bump bonded to the center of the device and read out with evaporated Cr-Au leads. The limiting performance of the micromesh absorber is discussed and the recent results obtained from a 300 mK cold stage are summarized.

  7. Tough silicon nitride matrix composites using Textron silicon carbide monofilaments

    SciTech Connect

    Foulds, W.; Lecostaouec, J.F.; Landry, C.; Dipietro, S.; Vasilos, T.

    1989-10-01

    The use of Textron SCS silicon carbide monofilament fibers as a reinforcement for silicon nitride is described. Samples were processed by both chemical vapor infiltration and hot pressing. Mechanical tests were performed in flexure, tension, and in shear. A ballistic test demonstrated high velocity impact toughness. 5 refs.

  8. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.; Huffsmith, Sarah A.

    1981-01-01

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi.sub.2 indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi.sub.2 with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400.degree. C.; and, simultaneously with the heating, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  9. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.; Huffsmith, S.A.

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite are described. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi/sub 2/ indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi/sub 2/ with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400/sup 0/C; and, simultaneously, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  10. Wetting and infiltration of nitride bonded silicon nitride by liquid silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Reimann, C.; Friedrich, J.

    2016-04-01

    Nitride bonded silicon nitride (NBSN) is a promising crucible material for the repeated use in the directional solidification of multicrystalline (mc) silicon ingots for photovoltaic applications. Due to wetting and infiltration, however, silicon nitride in its initial state does not offer the desired reusability. In this work the sessile drop method is used to systematically study the wetting and infiltration behavior of NBSN after applying different oxidation procedures. It is found that the wetting of the NBSN crucible by liquid silicon can be prevented by the oxidation of the geometrical surface. The infiltration of liquid silicon into the porous crucible can be suppressed by oxygen enrichment within the volume of the NBSN, i.e. at the pore walls of the crucibles. The realized reusability of the NBSN is demonstrated by reusing a NBSN crucible six times for the directional solidification of undoped multicrystalline silicon ingots.

  11. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  12. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1984-12-11

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  13. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-03-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  14. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, V.K.; Tracey, D.M.; Foley, M.R.; Paille, N.I.; Pelletier, P.J.; Sales, L.C.; Willkens, C.A.; Yeckley, R.L.

    1996-11-05

    A silicon nitride ceramic is disclosed comprising: (a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, (b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and (c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa. 4 figs.

  15. Silicon nitride having a high tensile strength

    DOEpatents

    Pujari, Vimal K.; Tracey, Dennis M.; Foley, Michael R.; Paille, Norman I.; Pelletier, Paul J.; Sales, Lenny C.; Willkens, Craig A.; Yeckley, Russell L.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon nitride ceramic comprising: a) inclusions no greater than 25 microns in length, b) agglomerates no greater than 20 microns in diameter, and c) a surface finish of less than about 8 microinches, said ceramic having a four-point flexural strength of at least about 900 MPa.

  16. Slip casting and nitridation of silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiko, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Powdered Silicon was slip-cast with a CaSO4 x 0.5H2O mold and nitrided in a N atm. containing 0 or 5 vol. % H at 1000 to 1420 deg. To remove the castings, the modeling faces were coated successively with an aq. salt soap and powdered cellulose containing Na alginate, and thus prevented the sticking problem.

  17. Colloidal characterization of silicon nitride and silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The colloidal behavior of aqueous ceramic slips strongly affects the forming and sintering behavior and the ultimate mechanical strength of the final ceramic product. The colloidal behavior of these materials, which is dominated by electrical interactions between the particles, is complex due to the strong interaction of the solids with the processing fluids. A surface titration methodology, modified to account for this interaction, was developed and used to provide fundamental insights into the interfacial chemistry of these systems. Various powder pretreatment strategies were explored to differentiate between true surface chemistry and artifacts due to exposure history. The colloidal behavior of both silicon nitride and carbide is dominated by silanol groups on the powder surfaces. However, the colloid chemistry of silicon nitride is apparently influenced by an additional amine group. With the proper powder treatments, silicon nitride and carbide powder can be made to appear colloidally equivalent. The impact of these results on processing control will be discussed.

  18. Silicon Nitride For Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagle, J.; Morgan, David V.

    1987-04-01

    Gallium Arsenide, unlike silicon does not have a natural oxide with the dielectric and interface qualities of SiO2. As a consequence alternative techniques have to be developed for device and IC processing applications. Plasma deposited silicon nitride films are currently being investigated in many laboratories. This paper will deal with the characterization of such films deposited under a range of gas and plasma deposition conditions. The techniques of Infra Red Spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering have been used for characterization of both "as deposited layers" and layers which have been annealed up to temperatures of 800 °C, after deposition. The use of RBS for silicon nitride on GaAs is limited since the relatively small nitride spectrum is superimposed on much larger GaAs spectrum. The problem can be removed by placing carbon test substrates alongside the GaAs wafers. This separates the silicon and nitrogen spectra from the substrate enabling enhanced accuracy to be obtained. In this paper the range of results obtained will be discussed in the context of the deposition condition in order to identify the optimum conditions for obtaining a stoichiometric compound and a high quality interface.

  19. Making a Silicon-Nitride/Silicon-Carbide Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.

    1987-01-01

    Hot pressing and nitriding produce strong fiber/matrix material. Fabrication method developed for processing strong and tough silicon-based ceramic composite material, SiC/RBSN, which consists of reaction-bonded Si3N4 (RBSN) reinforced by continuous-length, high-modulus, high strength silicon carbide (SiC) fibers prepared by chemical-vapor deposition method. Increased toughness and ultimate strength of SiC/RBSN composite makes it potential structural material for advanced heat engines.

  20. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  1. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, J. M.; Kalaee, M.; Pitanti, A.; Norte, R.; Heinzle, L.; Davanço, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Painter, O.

    2016-08-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom--mechanical, optical and microwave--would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments.

  2. Silicon Nitride Antireflection Coatings for Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Wydeven, T.; Donohoe, K.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical-vapor deposition adapted to yield graded index of refraction. Silicon nitride deposited in layers, refractive index of which decreases with distance away from cell/coating interface. Changing index of refraction allows adjustment of spectral transmittance for wavelengths which cell is most effective at converting light to electric current. Average conversion efficiency of solar cells increased from 8.84 percent to 12.63 percent.

  3. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1995-04-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  4. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOEpatents

    Crosbie, Gary M.; Predmesky, Ronald L.; Nicholson, John M.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  5. Bone ingrowth into porous silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Olsen, R

    2010-03-15

    Achieving solid skeletal attachment is a requirement for the clinical success of orthopedic implants. Porous or roughened surfaces and coatings have been developed and used with mixed success to achieve attachment due to bone ingrowth. Silicon nitride is a high performance ceramic whose strength, imaging properties, and biocompatibility make it a candidate material for orthopedic implants. A porous form of silicon nitride, cancellous-structured ceramic (CSC), has been developed. CSC is a nonresorbable, partially radiolucent porous structure that can be bonded to orthopedic implants made of silicon nitride to facilitate skeletal attachment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent and rate of bone ingrowth into CSC in a large animal model. Cylindrical implants were placed bilaterally using staged surgeries in the medial femoral condyle of six sheep. Condyles were retrieved after 3 and 6 months in situ and prepared for examination of bone growth under SEM. Bone grew into CSC to extents and at rates similar to those reported for other titanium porous surfaces in studies involving large animals and postmortem retrievals in humans. Bone ingrowth was observed at depths of penetration greater than 3 mm in some implants after only 12 weeks in situ. Bone ingrowth into CSC is a viable method for achieving skeletal attachment. PMID:19437439

  6. Process for manufacture of semipermeable silicon nitride membranes

    DOEpatents

    Galambos, Paul Charles; Shul, Randy J.; Willison, Christi Gober

    2003-12-09

    A new class of semipermeable membranes, and techniques for their fabrication, have been developed. These membranes, formed by appropriate etching of a deposited silicon nitride layer, are robust, easily manufacturable, and compatible with a wide range of silicon micromachining techniques.

  7. The Effect of Polymer Char on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Rickmond C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of polymer char on nitridation kinetics of attrition milled silicon powder have been investigated from 1200 to 1350 C. Results indicate that at and above 1250 C, the silicon compacts containing 3.5 wt percent polymer char were fully converted to Si3N4 after 24 hr exposure in nitrogen. In contrast, the silicon compacts without polymer char could not be fully converted to Si3N4 at 1350 C under similar exposure conditions. At 1250 and 1350 C, the silicon compacts with polymer char showed faster nitridation kinetics than those without the polymer char. As the polymer char content is increased, the amount of SiC in the nitrided material is also increased. By adding small amounts (approx. 2.5 wt percent) of NiO, the silicon compacts containing polymer char can be completely nitrided at 1200 C. The probable mechanism for the accelerated nitridation of silicon containing polymer char is discussed.

  8. Mechanical and tribological behavior of silicon nitride and silicon carbon nitride coatings for total joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, M; Tkachenko, S; Schmidt, S; Berlind, T; Jacobson, S; Hultman, L; Engqvist, H; Persson, C

    2013-09-01

    Total joint replacements currently have relatively high success rates at 10-15 years; however, increasing ageing and an active population places higher demands on the longevity of the implants. A wear resistant configuration with wear particles that resorb in vivo can potentially increase the lifetime of an implant. In this study, silicon nitride (SixNy) and silicon carbon nitride (SixCyNz) coatings were produced for this purpose using reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). The coatings are intended for hard bearing surfaces on implants. Hardness and elastic modulus of the coatings were evaluated by nanoindentation, cohesive, and adhesive properties were assessed by micro-scratching and the tribological performance was investigated in a ball-on-disc setup run in a serum solution. The majority of the SixNy coatings showed a hardness close to that of sintered silicon nitride (~18 GPa), and an elastic modulus close to that of cobalt chromium (~200 GPa). Furthermore, all except one of the SixNy coatings offered a wear resistance similar to that of bulk silicon nitride and significantly higher than that of cobalt chromium. In contrast, the SixCyNz coatings did not show as high level of wear resistance. PMID:23726925

  9. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, P.E.D.; Pugar, E.A.

    1985-11-12

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of whiskers'' or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900 C to about 1,200 C to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900 C. 6 figs.

  10. Process for producing amorphous and crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Peter E. D.; Pugar, Eloise A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for producing amorphous or crystalline silicon nitride is disclosed which comprises reacting silicon disulfide ammonia gas at elevated temperature. In a preferred embodiment silicon disulfide in the form of "whiskers" or needles is heated at temperature ranging from about 900.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to produce silicon nitride which retains the whisker or needle morphological characteristics of the silicon disulfide. Silicon carbide, e.g. in the form of whiskers, also can be prepared by reacting substituted ammonia, e.g. methylamine, or a hydrocarbon containing active hydrogen-containing groups, such as ethylene, with silicon disulfide, at elevated temperature, e.g. 900.degree. C.

  11. Silicon nitride used as a rolling-element bearing material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted with hot-pressed silicon nitride to determine its ability to withstand concentrated contacts in rolling-element bearings. If hot-pressed silicon nitride is used for both balls and races, attention must be paid to fitting both shaft and bearing housing.

  12. Fabrication of translucent boron nitride dispersed polycrystalline silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, B.; Fu, Z.; Niihara, K.; Lee, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    Optical transparency was achieved at infrared region and overall translucent silicon nitride was fabricated using hot press sintering (HPS). The increase in h-BN content decreased the optical transparency. Microstructral observations shows that the optical, mechanical and tribological properties of BN dispersed polycrystalline Si3N4 ceramics were affected by the density, α:β-phase ratio and content of h-BN in sintered ceramics. The hot pressed samples were prepared from the mixture of α-Si3N4, AlN, MgO and h-BN at 1850°C. The composite contained from 0.25 to 2 mass % BN powder with sintering aids (9% AlN + 3% MgO). Maximum transmittance of 57% was achieved for 0.25 mass % BN doped Si3N4 ceramics. Fracture toughness was increased and wear volume and friction coefficient were decreased with increase in BN content.

  13. Effect of iron on nitriding rate of silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kijima, Kazunori

    1996-12-31

    The present paper investigates reasons why iron doping promotes the nitriding reaction rate of silicon. Kinetic studies on silicon nitridation indicated that the nitriding rate was increased by one order of magnitude with iron addition and that a diffusion controlling process existed at the initial stage. Since nitrogen self-diffusion in silicon nitride may play an important role in silicon nitridation, it was measured by a gas-solid isotope exchange method using {sup 15}N isotope. Diffusion results showed that the self-diffusion coefficient increased by one order of magnitude with iron addition, and that the apparent activation energy did not change with or without additive. In order to understand why iron increases diffusion, the Moessbaur effect of iron doped silicon nitride was investigated. The isomer shift indicated that iron atoms were in the Fe{sup 3+} state. The quadrupole splitting could be explained by the presence of nitrogen vacancies in silicon nitride and the solubility limit of iron into silicon nitride lies around 0.6 at.% at 1430{degrees}C.

  14. Sputtered silicon nitride coatings for wear protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.; Aron, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon nitride films were deposited by RF sputtering on 304 stainless steel substrates in a planar RF sputtering apparatus. The sputtering was performed from a Si3N4 target in a sputtering atmosphere of argon and nitrogen. The rate of deposition, the composition of the coatings, the surface microhardness and the adhesion of the coatings to the substrates were investigated as a function of the process parameters, such as: substrate target distance, fraction nitrogen in the sputtering atmosphere and sputtering pressure. Silicon rich coating was obtained for fraction nitrogen below 0.2. The rate of deposition decreases continuously with increasing fraction nitrogen and decreasing sputtering pressure. It was found that the adherence of the coatings improves with decreasing sputtering pressure, almost independently of their composition.

  15. Feasibility study of silicon nitride protection of plastic encapsulated semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, J. W.; Hall, T. C.; Erickson, J. J.; Gebhart, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of low temperature silicon nitride protective layers on wire bonded integrated circuits mounted on lead frame assemblies is reported. An evaluation of the mechanical and electrical compatibility of both plasma nitride and photochemical silicon nitride (photonitride) passivations (parallel evaluations) of integrated circuits which were then encapsulated in plastic is described. Photonitride passivation is compatible with all wire bonded lead frame assemblies, with or without initial chip passivation. Plasma nitride passivation of lead frame assemblies is possible only if the chip is passivated before lead frame assembly. The survival rate after the environmental test sequence of devices with a coating of plasma nitride on the chip and a coating of either plasma nitride or photonitride over the assembled device is significantly greater than that of devices assembled with no nitride protective coating over either chip or lead frame.

  16. Wide-bandwidth silicon nitride membrane microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Brian T.; Bernstein, Jonathan J.

    1997-09-01

    Small, low cost microphones with high sensitivity at frequencies greater than 20 KHz are desired for applications such as ultrasonic imaging and communication links. To minimize stray capacitance between the microphone and its amplifier circuit, process compatibility between the microphone and on-chip circuitry is also desired to facilitate integration. In this work, we have demonstrated micromachined microphones packaged with hybrid JFET amplifier circuitry with frequency response extending to 100 KHz, and voltage sensitivity of approximately 2.0 mV/Pa from 100 Hz to 10 KHz, and 16.5 mV/Pa at 30 KHz with a bias voltage of 8.0 V. The microphones are fabricated with membranes and fixed backplates made of low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride. Because the maximum temperature of the fabrication process is 300 degrees Celsius, microphones may be built on silicon wafers from any commercial CMOS foundry without affecting transistor characteristics, allowing integration with sophisticated amplifier circuitry. Low stress silicon nitride deposition was used to produce membranes up to 2.0 mm diameter and 0.5 micrometer thickness with plus or minus 0.10 micrometer flatness. The excellent planarity of both the diaphragm and the backplate, combined with a narrow sense gap (approximately 2 micrometers) results in high output capacitance (up to 6.0 pF). The high output capacitance results in noise spectral density which is approximately 3x lower than silicon diaphragms microphones previously fabricated by the authors. Diaphragms with corrugations were fabricated to relive tensile stress, to increase deflection per unit pressure and to increase deflection linearity with pressure.

  17. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  18. Cordierite silicon nitride filters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, J.; Buchan, B.; Duiven, R.; Berger, M.; Cleveland, J.; Ferri, J.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a silicon nitride based crossflow filter. This report summarizes the findings and results of the project. The project was phased with Phase I consisting of filter material development and crossflow filter design. Phase II involved filter manufacturing, filter testing under simulated conditions and reporting the results. In Phase I, Cordierite Silicon Nitride (CSN) was developed and tested for permeability and strength. Target values for each of these parameters were established early in the program. The values were met by the material development effort in Phase I. The crossflow filter design effort proceeded by developing a macroscopic design based on required surface area and estimated stresses. Then the thermal and pressure stresses were estimated using finite element analysis. In Phase II of this program, the filter manufacturing technique was developed, and the manufactured filters were tested. The technique developed involved press-bonding extruded tiles to form a filter, producing a monolithic filter after sintering. Filters manufactured using this technique were tested at Acurex and at the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center. The filters did not delaminate during testing and operated and high collection efficiency and good cleanability. Further development in areas of sintering and filter design is recommended.

  19. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Fink, J M; Kalaee, M; Pitanti, A; Norte, R; Heinzle, L; Davanço, M; Srinivasan, K; Painter, O

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom-mechanical, optical and microwave-would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments. PMID:27484751

  20. Quantum electromechanics on silicon nitride nanomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Fink, J. M.; Kalaee, M.; Pitanti, A.; Norte, R.; Heinzle, L.; Davanço, M.; Srinivasan, K.; Painter, O.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation pressure has recently been used to effectively couple the quantum motion of mechanical elements to the fields of optical or microwave light. Integration of all three degrees of freedom—mechanical, optical and microwave—would enable a quantum interconnect between microwave and optical quantum systems. We present a platform based on silicon nitride nanomembranes for integrating superconducting microwave circuits with planar acoustic and optical devices such as phononic and photonic crystals. Using planar capacitors with vacuum gaps of 60 nm and spiral inductor coils of micron pitch we realize microwave resonant circuits with large electromechanical coupling to planar acoustic structures of nanoscale dimensions and femtoFarad motional capacitance. Using this enhanced coupling, we demonstrate microwave backaction cooling of the 4.48 MHz mechanical resonance of a nanobeam to an occupancy as low as 0.32. These results indicate the viability of silicon nitride nanomembranes as an all-in-one substrate for quantum electro-opto-mechanical experiments. PMID:27484751

  1. Development of silicon nitride of improved toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of reaction sintered Si2N4 energy absorbing surface layers to hot-pressed Si3N4 was investigated. The surface layer was formed by in-place nitridation of silicon powder. It was found that reaction sintered Si3N4 layers of 1 mm thickness, fabricated from either -100, +200, -200, or -325 mesh Si powder and nitrided in 96% N2/4% H2 so that approximately 20-25 vol % unnitrided Si remained in the layer, resulted in a sevenfold increase in ballistic impact resistance of a 0.64 cm thick hot-pressed SI3N4 substrate from RT 1370 C. Both NC-132 SI3N4, with MgO additive, and NCX-34 Si3N4, with Y2O3 additive, were evaluated as substrate material. The finer grain size -200 and -325 mesh nitrided Si layers were for their smoothness and relatively high density. It was found that nitriding in N2/H2 mixtures, rather than pure N2, resulted in a microstructure that did not substantially degrade the strength of the hot-pressed Si3N4 substrate. Thermal cycling tests on the RSSN/HPSN combinations from 200 C to 1370 C for 75 cycles in air did not degrade the impact resistance nor the interfacial bonding, although a large amount of internal silica formation occurred within the RSSN layer. Mach 0.8, 5 hr, hot gas erosion tests showed no surface recession of RSSN layers at 1200 C and slight surface recession at 1370 C.

  2. Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Joining Silicon Carbide to Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride to Silicon Nitride for Advanced Heat Engine Applications Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques were developed to produce reliable silicon nitride to silicon nitride (NCX-5101) curved joins which were used to manufacture spin test specimens as a proof of concept to simulate parts such as a simple rotor. Specimens were machined from the curved joins to measure the following properties of the join interlayer: tensile strength, shear strength, 22 C flexure strength and 1370 C flexure strength. In parallel, extensive silicon nitride tensile creep evaluation of planar butt joins provided a sufficient data base to develop models with accurate predictive capability for different geometries. Analytical models applied satisfactorily to the silicon nitride joins were Norton's Law for creep strain, a modified Norton's Law internal variable model and the Monkman-Grant relationship for failure modeling. The Theta Projection method was less successful. Attempts were also made to develop planar butt joins of siliconized silicon carbide (NT230).

  3. PECVD silicon-rich nitride and low stress nitride films mechanical characterization using membrane point load deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagolini, Alvise; Picciotto, Antonino; Crivellari, Michele; Conci, Paolo; Bellutti, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    An analysis of the mechanical properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapor (PECVD) silicon nitrides is presented, using micro fabricated silicon nitride membranes under point load deflection. The membranes are made of PECVD silicon-rich nitride and low stress nitride films. The mechanical performance of the bended membranes is examined both with analytical models and finite element simulation in order to extract the elastic modulus and residual stress values. The elastic modulus of low stress silicon nitride is calculated using stress free analytical models, while for silicon-rich silicon nitride and annealed low stress silicon nitride it is estimated with a pre-stressed model of point-load deflection. The effect of annealing both in nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere is evaluated in terms of residual stress, refractive index and thickness variation. It is demonstrated that a hydrogen rich annealing atmosphere induces very little change in low stress silicon nitride. Nitrogen annealing effects are measured and shown to be much higher in silicon-rich nitride than in low stress silicon nitride. An estimate of PECVD silicon-rich nitride elastic modulus is obtained in the range between 240-320 GPa for deposited samples and 390 GPa for samples annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. PECVD low stress silicon nitride elastic modulus is estimated to be 88 GPa as deposited and 320 GPa after nitrogen annealing.

  4. Nonvolatile memory characteristics of nickel-silicon-nitride nanocrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.-R.; Chang, T.-C.; Liu, P.-T.; Yeh, J.-L.; Tu, C.-H.; Lou, J.-C.; Yeh, C.-F.; Chang, C.-Y.

    2007-08-20

    The formation of nickel-silicon-nitride nanocrystals by sputtering a comixed target in the argon and nitrogen environment is proposed in this letter. High resolution transmission electron microscope analysis clearly shows the nanocrystals embedded in the silicon nitride and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also shows the chemical material analysis of nanocrystals. The memory window of nickel-silicon-nitride nanocrystals enough to define 1 and 0 states is obviously observed, and a good data retention characteristic to get up to 10 years is exhibited for the nonvolatile memory application.

  5. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.

    1988-01-01

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate before metal deposition to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  6. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1984-07-20

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate prior to metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  7. Scale-up of microwave nitridation of sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride parts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.; Garvey, G.A.

    1997-10-01

    Scale-up were performed in which microwave heating was used to fabricate reaction-bonded silicon nitride and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Tests were performed in both a 2.45 GHz, 500 liter and a 2.45 GHz, 4000 liter multimode cavities. The silicon preforms processed in the studies were clevis pins for diesel engines. Up to 230 samples were processed in a single microwave furnace run. Data were collected which included weight gains for nitridation and sintering studies were performed using a conventional resistance-heated furnace.

  8. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    2002-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon-silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon-silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  9. Silicon-doped boron nitride coated fibers in silicon melt infiltrated composites

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot; Luthra, Krishan Lal

    1999-01-01

    A fiber-reinforced silicon--silicon carbide matrix composite having improved oxidation resistance at high temperatures in dry or water-containing environments is produced. The invention also provides a method for protecting the reinforcing fibers in the silicon--silicon carbide matrix composites by coating the fibers with a silicon-doped boron nitride coating.

  10. A review of oxide, silicon nitride, and silicon carbide brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M.L.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    There is growing interest in using ceramics for structural applications, many of which require the fabrication of components with complicated shapes. Normal ceramic processing methods restrict the shapes into which these materials can be produced, but ceramic joining technology can be used to overcome many of these limitations, and also offers the possibility for improving the reliability of ceramic components. One method of joining ceramics is by brazing. The metallic alloys used for bonding must wet and adhere to the ceramic surfaces without excessive reaction. Alumina, partially stabilized zirconia, and silicon nitride have high ionic character to their chemical bonds and are difficult to wet. Alloys for brazing these materials must be formulated to overcome this problem. Silicon carbide, which has some metallic characteristics, reacts excessively with many alloys, and forms joints of low mechanical strength. The brazing characteristics of these three types of ceramics, and residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints are briefly discussed.

  11. Orthopedic applications of silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Bal, B S; Rahaman, M N

    2012-08-01

    Silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) is a ceramic material developed for industrial applications that demand high strength and fracture resistance under extreme operating conditions. Recently, Si(3)N(4) has been used as an orthopedic biomaterial, to promote bone fusion in spinal surgery and to develop bearings that can improve the wear and longevity of prosthetic hip and knee joints. Si(3)N(4) has been implanted in human patients for over 3 years now, and clinical trials with Si(3)N(4) femoral heads in prosthetic hip replacement are contemplated. This review will provide background information and data relating to Si(3)N(4) ceramics that will be of interest to engineering and medical professionals. PMID:22542731

  12. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Wimmer, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon nitride is a high temperature material currently under consideration for heat engine and other applications. The objective is to improve the net shape fabrication technology of Si3N4 by injection molding. This is to be accomplished by optimizing the process through a series of statistically designed matrix experiments. To provide input to the matrix experiments, a wide range of alternate materials and processing parameters was investigated throughout the whole program. The improvement in the processing is to be demonstrated by a 20 percent increase in strength and a 100 percent increase in the Weibull modulus over that of the baseline material. A full characterization of the baseline process was completed. Material properties were found to be highly dependent on each step of the process. Several important parameters identified thus far are the starting raw materials, sinter/hot isostatic pressing cycle, powder bed, mixing methods, and sintering aid levels.

  13. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  14. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Harry C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a four year program to improve the strength and reliability of injection-molded silicon nitride are summarized. Statistically designed processing experiments were performed to identify and optimize critical processing parameters and compositions. Process improvements were monitored by strength testing at room and elevated temperatures, and microstructural characterization by optical, scanning electron microscopes, and scanning transmission electron microscope. Processing modifications resulted in a 20 percent strength and 72 percent Weibull slope improvement of the baseline material. Additional sintering aids screening and optimization experiments succeeded in developing a new composition (GN-10) capable of 581.2 MPa at 1399 C. A SiC whisker toughened composite using this material as a matrix achieved a room temperature toughness of 6.9 MPa m(exp .5) by the Chevron notched bar technique. Exploratory experiments were conducted on injection molding of turbocharger rotors.

  15. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1989-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  16. Reliability of two sintered silicon nitride materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mieskowski, D. M.; Sanders, W. A.; Pierce, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of sintered silicon nitride were evaluated in terms of reliability: an experimental high pressure nitrogen sintered material and a commercial material. The results show wide variations in strength for both materials. The Weibull moduli were 5.5, 8.9, and 11 for the experimental material at room temperature, 1200, and 1370 C, respectively. The commercial material showed Weibull moduli of 9.0, 8.6, and 8.9 at these respective temperatures. No correlation between strength and flaw size was noted for the experimental material. The applicability of the Weibull and Griffith theories to processing defects on the order of 100 microns or less in size are discussed.

  17. Numerical investigation of silicon nitride trench waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Torun, Rasul; Rahman, Shah; Atasever, Tuva C.; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2015-08-01

    We numerically investigated optical properties, including evanescent intensity ratio (EIR), effective refractive index (Neff), dispersion coefficient (D), and mode area (Aeff) of the silicon nitride trench waveguides fabricated by using conventional lithography. The waveguides are etched 3 μm deep with potassium hydroxide for triangle and trapezoidal waveguides, which is then followed by 3 μm thermal oxidation and 725 nm silicon nitride deposition. The waveguide with 725 nm thickness has an EIR peak of 0.025 when its bottom width Wbtm equals 0.65 μm. A thinner waveguide has higher evanescent intensity ratio, which can be used in sensing applications. The locations of EIR peaks correspond to the quasi-TM and TE mode boundary. Narrower waveguides mainly support quasi-TM modes, whereas wider waveguides can support only TE modes. As the waveguide width increases, higher orders of TE modes emerge. In addition, a boundary of TE single mode and multimode can also be linearly curve fitted, according to the starting points of TE higher modes, in order to provide the single mode condition of the waveguide. The waveguide dispersion can be engineered to be in the anomalous region while at the same time remain close to zero. The waveguide with 725 nm thickness and 0.2 μm bottom width has its anomalous dispersion region between the wavelength of 1356 nm and 1462 nm. The mode area decreases with increasing waveguide width. This is the first time we have studied the mode properties of trench waveguides systematically. The waveguide will find more applications in sensing and nonlinear fields with the help of this mode analysis.

  18. Effect of processing parameters on reaction bonding of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, M. H.; Gregory, O. J.; Magida, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reaction bonded silicon nitride was developed. The relationship between the various processing parameters and the resulting microstructures was to design and synthesize reaction bonded materials with improved room temperature mechanical properties.

  19. Molecular dynamics studies of the bonding properties of amorphous silicon nitride coatings on crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Keith T.; Lamers, Machteld P. W. E.; Weeber, Arthur W.; Harding, John H.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present molecular dynamics simulations of silicon nitride, both in bulk and as an interface to crystalline silicon. We investigate, in particular, the bonding structure of the silicon nitride and analyze the simulations to search for defective geometries which have been identified as potential charge carrier traps when silicon nitride forms an interface with silicon semiconductors. The simulations reveal how the bonding patterns in silicon nitride are dependent upon the stoichiometry of the system. Furthermore we demonstrate how having an "interphase", where the nitrogen content in silicon gradually reduces toward pure silicon across a boundary region, as opposed to an interface where there is an abrupt drop in nitrogen concentration at the boundary, can result in significantly different numbers of certain important carrier trap.

  20. Fabrication of turbine components and properties of sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, J. T.; French, K. W.; Quackenbush, C. L.; Smith, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a status report on the injection molding of sinterable silicon nitride at GTE Laboratories. The effort involves fabrication of single axial turbine blades and monolithic radial turbine rotors. The injection molding process is reviewed and the fabrication of the turbine components discussed. Oxidation resistance and strength results of current injection molded sintered silicon nitride as well as dimensional checks on sintered turbine blades demonstrate that this material is a viable candidate for high temperature structural applications.

  1. Infrared Dielectric Properties of Low-stress Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Beall, James A.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; McAndrew, Brendan; Niemack, Michael D.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nitride thin films play an important role in the realization of sensors, filters, and high-performance circuits. Estimates of the dielectric function in the far- and mid-IR regime are derived from the observed transmittance spectra for a commonly employed low-stress silicon nitride formulation. The experimental, modeling, and numerical methods used to extract the dielectric parameters with an accuracy of approximately 4% are presented.

  2. Elastic Properties of Several Silicon Nitride Films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Metcalf, T. H.; Wang, Q.; Photiadis, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the internal friction (Q{sup -1}) of amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN{sub x}) films prepared by a variety of methods, including low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD), plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD), and hot-wire chemical-vapor deposition (HWCVD) from 0.5 K to room temperature. The measurements are made by depositing the films onto extremely high-Q silicon double paddle oscillator substrates with a resonant frequency of {approx}5500 Hz. We find the elastic properties of these a-SiN{sub x} films resemble those of amorphous silicon (a-Si) films, demonstrating considerable variation which depends on the film growth methods and post deposition annealing. The internal friction for most of the films shows a broad temperature-independent plateau below 30 K, characteristic of amorphous solids. The values of Q{sup -1}, however, vary from film to film in this plateau region by more than one order of magnitude. This has been observed in tetrehedrally covalent-bonded amorphous thin films, like a-Si, a-Ge, and a-C. The PECVD films have the highest Q{sup -1} just like a normal amorphous solid, while LPCVD films have an internal friction more than one order of magnitude lower. All the films show a reduction of Q{sup -1} after annealing at 800 C, even for the LPCVD films which were prepared at 850 C. This can be viewed as a reduction of structural disorder.

  3. Synthesis of silicon nitride films by ion beam enhanced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xianghuai, Liu; Bin, Xue; Zhihong, Zheng; Zuyao, Zhou; Shichang, Zou

    1989-03-01

    Silicon nitride films with stoichiometric ratio of Si 3N 4 have been synthesized by concurrent electron beam evaporation of silicon and bombardment with nitrogen ions. The results show that the component ratio of nitrogen to silicon in IBED silicon nitride films can be controlled and predicted by the atomic arrival rate ratio of nitrogen to silicon. IR measurement shows that the characteristic absorption peak of IBED Si 3N 4 is located at a wavenumber of 840 cm -1. The refractive index ranges from 2.2 to 2.6. RBS, AES, TEM, SEM, ED and spreading resistance measurement were used for investigation of the depth profiles of composition and structure of silicon nitride films synthesized by IBED. An intermixed layer is formed at the interface by the knock on effect, and a silicon enriched layer is observed at the surface region of the film. Normally the films were found to be amorphous, but electron diffraction patterns taken from deposited layer showed a certain crystallinity. The silicon nitride films prepared by IBED have dramatically less oxygen content than that formed by non-ion-assisted deposition.

  4. Radiation tolerant silicon nitride insulated gate field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.

    1969-01-01

    Metal-Insulated-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor /MISFET/ device uses a silicon nitride passivation layer over a thin silicon oxide layer to enhance the radiation tolerance. It is useful in electronic systems exposed to space radiation environment or the effects of nuclear weapons.

  5. Comparison of the surface charge behavior of commercial silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption of protons from aqueous solution onto the surfaces of a variety of commercial silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders has been examined using a surface titration methodology. This method provides information on some colloidal characteristics, such as the point of zero charge (pzc) and the variation of proton adsorption with dispersion pH, useful for the prediction of optimal ceramic-processing conditions. Qualitatively, the magnitude of the proton adsorption from solution reveals small differences among all of the materials studied. However, the results show that the pzc for the various silicon nitride powders is affected by the powder synthesis route. Complementary investigations have shown that milling can also act to shift the pzc exhibited by silicon nitride powder. Also, studies of the role of the electrolyte in the development of surface charge have indicated no evidence of specific adsorption of ammonium ion on either silicon nitride or silicon carbide powders.

  6. Development of a statistically proven injection molding method for reaction bonded silicon nitride, sintering reaction bonded silicon nitride, and sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Matthias

    A statistically proven, series injection molding technique for ceramic components was developed for the construction of engines and gas turbines. The flow behavior of silicon injection-molding materials was characterized and improved. Hot-isostatic-pressing reaction bonded silicon nitride (HIPRBSN) was developed. A nondestructive component evaluation method was developed. An injection molding line for HIPRBSN engine components precombustion chamber, flame spreader, and valve guide was developed. This line allows the production of small series for engine tests.

  7. Planar silicon nitride mid-infrared devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai Lin, Pao; Singh, Vivek; Kimerling, Lionel; Murthy Agarwal, Anuradha

    2013-06-01

    Integrated mid-infrared devices including (i) straight/bent waveguides and (ii) directional couplers are demonstrated on silicon nitride (SiN) thin films prepared by optimized low-pressure chemical vapor deposition. The deposited SiN film has a broad spectral transparency from visible up to a wavelength of λ = 8.5 μm (as seen from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Our SiN waveguide shows a dominant fundamental mode with an optical loss of 2.1 dB/cm at λ = 3.7 μm. In addition, we demonstrate an efficient SiN directional coupler between λ = 3.55 μm to λ = 3.75 μm where an 8 dB extinction ratio is achieved within each channel upon wavelength scanning. With the inherent advantage of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatibility, our SiN platform paves the way to create sophisticated photonic circuits that are desired for mid-infrared nonlinear light generation and chip-scale biochemical sensors.

  8. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Wimmer, J. M.; Huang, H. H.; Rorabaugh, M. E.; Schienle, J.; Styhr, K. H.

    1985-01-01

    The AiResearch Casting Company baseline silicon nitride (92 percent GTE SN-502 Si sub 3 N sub 4 plus 6 percent Y sub 2 O sub 3 plus 2 percent Al sub 2 O sub 3) was characterized with methods that included chemical analysis, oxygen content determination, electrophoresis, particle size distribution analysis, surface area determination, and analysis of the degree of agglomeration and maximum particle size of elutriated powder. Test bars were injection molded and processed through sintering at 0.68 MPa (100 psi) of nitrogen. The as-sintered test bars were evaluated by X-ray phase analysis, room and elevated temperature modulus of rupture strength, Weibull modulus, stress rupture, strength after oxidation, fracture origins, microstructure, and density from quantities of samples sufficiently large to generate statistically valid results. A series of small test matrices were conducted to study the effects and interactions of processing parameters which included raw materials, binder systems, binder removal cycles, injection molding temperatures, particle size distribution, sintering additives, and sintering cycle parameters.

  9. Forming of silicon nitride by gelcasting

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Strehlow, R.A. ); Armstrong, B.L. . Garrett Ceramic Components Div.)

    1990-01-01

    Gelcasting is a near-net-shape forming technique that is applicable to various types of powders. It is accomplished by casting a concentrated suspension of a commercial ceramic powder in a solution of a polymerizable monomer and then polymerizing. The monomer used in the process is acrylamide which undergoes a vinyl polymerization. A filled gel is formed, which is dried and processed further. Gelcasting of alumina, sialon and silicon nitride has been carried out as the principal part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) program. Two rotors have been gelcast as part of a cooperative research agreement between Allied-Signal Aerospace Company and ORNL. Emphasis is placed on the unit-operations of the process. Because a requirement of the process is a castable suspension of more than 50 vol % solids loading, good dispersion is crucial. Drying, another key process, has been studied extensively. Data on the relationship of physical properties of products to some of the more significant processing variables is discussed. Environmental, safety and hygiene issues are summarized. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hun C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1987-01-01

    The technology base required to fabricate silicon nitride components with the strength, reliability, and reproducibility necessary for actual heat engine applications is presented. Task 2 was set up to develop test bars with high Weibull slope and greater high temperature strength, and to conduct an initial net shape component fabrication evaluation. Screening experiments were performed in Task 7 on advanced materials and processing for input to Task 2. The technical efforts performed in the second year of a 5-yr program are covered. The first iteration of Task 2 was completed as planned. Two half-replicated, fractional factorial (2 sup 5), statistically designed matrix experiments were conducted. These experiments have identified Denka 9FW Si3N4 as an alternate raw material to GTE SN502 Si3N4 for subsequent process evaluation. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to correlate processing conditions with as-processed test bar properties. One processing condition produced a material with a 97 ksi average room temperature MOR (100 percent of goal) with 13.2 Weibull slope (83 percent of goal); another condition produced 86 ksi (6 percent over baseline) room temperature strength with a Weibull slope of 20 (125 percent of goal).

  11. Method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, John A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of densifying an article formed of reaction bonded silicon nitride is disclosed. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article is packed in a packing mixture consisting of silicon nitride powder and a densification aid. The reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are sujected to a positive, low pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause any open porosity originally found in the reaction bonded silicon nitride article to be substantially closed. Thereafter, the reaction bonded silicon nitride article and packing powder are subjected to a positive high pressure nitrogen gas treatment while being heated to a treatment temperature and for a treatment time to cause a sintering of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article whereby the strength of the reaction bonded silicon nitride article is increased.

  12. Second-harmonic generation in substoichiometric silicon nitride layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Emanuele; Capretti, Antonio; Miano, Giovanni; Dal Negro, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Harmonic generation in optical circuits offers the possibility to integrate wavelength converters, light amplifiers, lasers, and multiple optical signal processing devices with electronic components. Bulk silicon has a negligible second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility owing to its crystal centrosymmetry. Silicon nitride has its place in the microelectronic industry as an insulator and chemical barrier. In this work, we propose to take advantage of silicon excess in silicon nitride to increase the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency. Thin films have been grown by reactive magnetron sputtering and their nonlinear optical properties have been studied by femtosecond pumping over a wide range of excitation wavelengths, silicon nitride stoichiometry and thermal processes. We demonstrate SHG in the visible range (375 - 450 nm) using a tunable 150 fs Ti:sapphire laser, and we optimize the SH emission at a silicon excess of 46 at.% demonstrating a maximum SHG efficiency of 4x10-6 in optimized films. Polarization properties, generation efficiency, and the second order nonlinear optical susceptibility are measured for all the investigated samples and discussed in terms of an effective theoretical model. Our findings show that the large nonlinear optical response demonstrated in optimized Si-rich silicon nitride materials can be utilized for the engineering of nonlinear optical functions and devices on a Si chip.

  13. Third-harmonic UV generation in silicon nitride nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ning, Tingyin; Hyvärinen, Outi; Pietarinen, Henna; Kaplas, Tommi; Kauranen, Martti; Genty, Göery

    2013-01-28

    We report on strong UV third-harmonic generation from silicon nitride films and resonant waveguide gratings. We determine the absolute value of third-order susceptibility of silicon nitride at wavelength of 1064 nm to be χ(³) (-3ω,ω,ω,ω) = (2.8 ± 0.6) × 10⁻²⁰m²/V², which is two orders of magnitude larger than that of fused silica. The third-harmonic generation is further enhanced by a factor of 2000 by fabricating a resonant waveguide grating onto a silicon nitride film. Our results extend the operating range of CMOS-compatible nonlinear materials to the UV spectral regime. PMID:23389182

  14. Dynamic fracture toughnesses of reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.; Liaw, B. M.

    1983-01-01

    The room-temperature dynamic fracture response of reaction-bonded silicon nitride is investigated using a hybrid experimental-numerical procedure. In this procedure, experimentally determined crack velocities are utilized to drive a dynamic finite-element code or dynamic finite-difference code in its generation mode in order to extract numerically the dynamic stress intensity factor of the fracturing specimen. Results show that the dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relations of the two reaction-bonded silicon nitrides do not follow the general trend in those relations of brittle polymers and steel. A definite slow crack velocity during the initial phase of dynamic crack propagation is observed in reaction-bonded silicon nitride, which results in a nonunique dynamic fracture toughness vs crack velocity relation. In addition, it is found that a propagating crack will continue to propagate under a static stress intensity factor substantially lower than K(IC).

  15. Tensile creep in an in situ reinforced silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Gasdaska, C.J. . Corporate Research and Technology)

    1994-09-01

    The tensile creep of an in situ reinforced silicon nitride is described in terms of the rheological behavior of the thin intergranular film present in this liquid-phase sintered silicon nitride. The high stress exponents and apparent activation energies (at constant stress) can be explained assuming non-Newtonian flow behavior of the film during grain boundary sliding. Time-to-failure is related to the minimum creep rate, even for samples which fail by slow crack growth. In addition, the primary creep region and the relaxation effects observed on unloading are described in terms of grain boundary sliding modified by the presence of a grain boundary phase with a lower elastic modulus than silicon nitride.

  16. Cooled silicon nitride stationary turbine vane risk reduction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holowczak, John

    1999-12-31

    The purpose of this program was to reduce the technical risk factors for demonstration of air cooled silicon nitride turbine vanes. The effort involved vane prototype fabrication efforts at two U.S. based gas turbine grade silicon nitride component manufacturers. The efficacy of the cooling system was analyzed via a thermal time/temperature flow test technique previously at UTRC. By having multiple vendors work on parts fabrication, the chance of program success increased for producing these challenging components. The majority of the effort under this contract focused on developing methods for, and producing, the complex thin walled silicon nitride vanes. Components developed under this program will undergo engine environment testing within N00014-96-2-0014.

  17. Measurement and analysis of forces in grinding of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jahanmir, S.; Hwang, T.; Whitenton, E.P.; Job, L.S.; Evans, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Using an instrumented surface grinder, the two components of grinding forces (normal and tangential) were measured for different types of silicon nitride ceramics. The influences of grinding parameters, such as down feed and table speed, and grinding fluids on forces were determined. In addition to these measurements, the specific grinding energy defined as the energy per unit volume of removed material was calculated. This parameter and the measured forces were then analyzed to determine possible correlations with mechanical properties of the silicon nitrides. It was found that, in general, the grinding forces and the specific grinding energy increase with the hardness. Both the grinding forces and the specific grinding energy were influenced by the grinding fluid and the grinding parameters. The implication of these results on the mechanisms of material removal in grinding of silicon nitride and the possible tribological effects are discussed.

  18. Ceramics based on titanium nitride and silicon nitride sintered by SPS-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu; Evdokimov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The dependences of the microstructure and physical and mechanical properties of ceramic mixtures Si3N4/TiN in the full range of mass ratios of the components. Was also investigated directly, and the process of sintering occurring during a physical or chemical processes, in particular, has been obtained and the hardness of the material density on the ratio of the conductive titanium nitride phase and a silicon nitride insulating phase with values above and below the percolation threshold. Also obtained was pure ceramics based on titanium nitride with high physical-mechanical characteristics (H = 21.5 GPa).

  19. Cycling endurance of silicon{endash}oxide{endash}nitride{endash}oxide{endash}silicon nonvolatile memory stacks prepared with nitrided SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Habermehl, S.; Nasby, R.D.; Rightley, M.J.

    1999-08-01

    The effects of nitrided SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interfaces upon cycling endurance in silicon{endash}oxide{endash}nitride{endash}oxide{endash}silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memory transistors are investigated. Analysis of metal{endash}oxide{endash}silicon field-effect transistor subthreshold characteristics indicate cycling degradation to be a manifestation of interface trap generation at the tunnel oxide/silicon interface. After 10{sup 6} write/erase cycles, SONOS film stacks prepared with nitrided tunnel oxides exhibit enhanced cycling endurance over stacks prepared with non-nitrided tunnel oxides. If the capping oxide is formed by steam oxidation, rather than by deposition, SONOS stacks prepared with non-nitrided tunnel oxides exhibit endurance characteristics similar to stacks with nitrided tunnel oxides. For this case, a mechanism for latent nitridation of the tunnel oxide/silicon interface is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Fabrication of sinterable silicon nitride by injection molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, C. L.; French, K.; Neil, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Transformation of structural ceramics from the laboratory to production requires development of near net shape fabrication techniques which minimize finish grinding. One potential technique for producing large quantities of complex-shaped parts at a low cost, and microstructure of sintered silicon nitride fabricated by injection molding is discussed and compared to data generated from isostatically dry-pressed material. Binder selection methodology, compounding of ceramic and binder components, injection molding techniques, and problems in binder removal are discussed. Strength, oxidation resistance, and microstructure of sintered silicon nitride fabricated by injection molding is discussed and compared to data generated from isostatically dry-pressed material.

  1. Plasma deposited silicon nitride for indium phosphide encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valco, G. J.; Kapoor, V. J.; Biedenbender, M. D.; Williams, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    The composition and the annealing characteristics of plasma-deposited silicon-nitride encapsulating films on the ion-implanted InP substrates were investigated, using two different substrate-cleaning procedures (organic solvents and HF or HIO3 solutions) prior to encapsulation. The effect of plasma deposition of silicon nitride on the InP substrates was assessed through the current-voltage characteristics of Schottky diodes. Results of XPS analyses showed that the cleaning procedure that employed HF solution left less oxygen on the InP surface than the procedure involving HIO3. No chemical interaction between the film and the substrate was observed before or after annealing.

  2. Low temperature silicon nitride waveguides for multilayer platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Bucio, T.; Tarazona, A.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Mashanovich, G. Z.; Gardes, F. Y.

    2016-05-01

    Several 3D multilayer silicon photonics platforms have been proposed to provide densely integrated structures for complex integrated circuits. Amongst these platforms, great interest has been given to the inclusion of silicon nitride layers to achieve low propagation losses due to their capacity of providing tight optical confinement with low scattering losses in a wide spectral range. However, none of the proposed platforms have demonstrated the integration of active devices. The problem is that typically low loss silicon nitride layers have been fabricated with LPCVD which involves high processing temperatures (<1000 ºC) that affect metallisation and doping processes that are sensitive to temperatures above 400ºC. As a result, we have investigated ammonia-free PECVD and HWCVD processes to obtain high quality silicon nitride films with reduced hydrogen content at low temperatures. Several deposition recipes were defined through a design of experiments methodology in which different combinations of deposition parameters were tested to optimise the quality and the losses of the deposited layers. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the deposited materials were characterised using different techniques including ellipsometry, SEM, FTIR, AFM and the waveguide loss cut-back method. Silicon nitride layers with hydrogen content between 10-20%, losses below 10dB/cm and high material quality were obtained with the ammonia-free recipe. Similarly, it was demonstrated that HWCVD has the potential to fabricate waveguides with low losses due to its capacity of yielding hydrogen contents <10% and roughness <1.5nm.

  3. Nitridation of silicon /111/ - Auger and LEED results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delord, J. F.; Schrott, A. G.; Fain, S. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Clean silicon (111) (7x7) surfaces at up to 1050 C have been reacted with nitrogen ions and neutrals produced by a low energy ion gun. The LEED patterns observed are similar to those previously reported for reaction of silicon (111) (7x7) with NH3. The nitrogen KLL peak exhibits no shift or change in shape with nitride growth. At the same time the magnitude of the elemental silicon LVV peak at 92 eV decreases progressively as a new peak at 84 eV increases. The position of both peaks appears to be independent of the degree of nitridation. Since the Auger spectra are free of oxygen and other impurities, these features can be attributed only to silicon, nitrogen, and their reaction products. Characteristic features of the Auger spectra are related to LEED observations and to the growth of microcrystals of Si3N4.

  4. Deposition of reactively ion beam sputtered silicon nitride coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.

    1982-01-01

    An ion beam source was used to deposit silicon nitride films by reactively sputtering a silicon target with beams of Ar + N2 mixtures. The nitrogen fraction in the sputtering gas was 0.05 to 0.80 at a total pressure of 6 to 2 millionth torr. The ion beam current was 50 mA at 500 V. The composition of the deposited films was investigated by auger electron spectroscopy and the rate of deposition was determined by interferometry. A relatively low rate of deposition of about 2 nm. one-tenth min. was found. AES spectra of films obtained with nitrogen fractions higher than 0.50 were consistent with a silicon to nitrogen ratio corresponding to Si3N4. However the AES spectra also indicated that the sputtered silicon nitride films were contaminated with oxygen and carbon and contained significant amounts of iron, nickel, and chromium, most probably sputtered from the holder of the substrate and target.

  5. Method for one-to-one polishing of silicon nitride and silicon oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babu, Suryadevara V. (Inventor); Natarajan, Anita (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of removing silicon nitride at about the same removal rate as silicon dioxide by CMP. The method utilizes a polishing slurry that includes colloidal silica abrasive particles dispersed in water and additives that modulate the silicon dioxide and silicon nitride removal rates such that they are about the same. In one embodiment of the invention, the additive is lysine or lysine mono hydrochloride in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 8. In another embodiment of the invention, the additive is arginine in combination with picolinic acid, which is effective at a pH of about 10.

  6. Silicon nitride coated silicon thin film on three dimensions current collector for lithium ion battery anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yu; Chang, Chun-Chi; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2016-09-01

    Silicon nitride coated silicon (N-Si) has been synthesized by two-step DC sputtering on Cu Micro-cone arrays (CMAs) at ambient temperature. The electrochemical properties of N-Si anodes with various thickness of nitride layer are investigated. From the potential window of 1.2 V-0.05 V, high rate charge-discharge and long cycle test have been executed to investigate the electrochemical performances of various N-Si coated Si-based lithium ion batteries anode materials. Higher specific capacity can be obtained after 200 cycles. The cycling stability is enhanced via thinner nitride layer coating as silicon nitride films are converted to Li3N with covered Si thin films. These N-Si anodes can be cycled under high rates up to 10 C due to low charge transfer resistance resulted from silicon nitride films. This indicates that the combination of silicon nitride and silicon can effectively endure high current and thus enhance the cycling stability. It is expected that N-Si is a potential candidate for batteries that can work effectively under high power.

  7. Stability and rheology of dispersions of silicon nitride and silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feke, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between the surface and colloid chemistry of commercial ultra-fine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders was examined by a variety of standard characterization techniques and by methodologies especially developed for ceramic dispersions. These include electrokinetic measurement, surface titration, and surface spectroscopies. The effects of powder pretreatment and modification strategies, which can be utilized to augment control of processing characteristics, were monitored with these technologies. Both silicon carbide and nitride were found to exhibit silica-like surface chemistries, but silicon nitride powders possess an additional amine surface functionality. Colloidal characteristics of the various nitride powders in aqueous suspension is believed to be highly dependent on the relative amounts of the two types of surface groups, which in turn is determined by the powder synthesis route. The differences in the apparent colloidal characteristics for silicon nitride powders cannot be attributed to the specific absorption of ammonium ions. Development of a model for the prediction of double-layer characteristics of materials with a hybrid site interface facilitated understanding and prediction of the behavior of both surface charge and surface potential for these materials. The utility of the model in application to silicon nitride powders was demonstrated.

  8. Strength and toughness of monolithic and composite silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness of two composite and two monolithic silicon nitrides were measured from 25 to 1400 C. The monolithic and composite materials were made from similar starting powders. Both of the composite materials contained 30 vol percent silicon carbide whiskers. All measurements were made by four point flexure in surrounding air and humidity. The composite and monolithic materials exhibited similar fast fracture properties as a function of temperature.

  9. Silicon Nitride for Direct Water-Splitting and Corrosion Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Head, J.; Turner, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Todays fossil fuels are becoming harder to obtain, creating pollution problems, and posing hazards to people’s health. One alternative to fossil fuels is hydrogen, capable of serving as a clean and efficient energy carrier. Certain semiconductors are able to harness the energy of photons and direct it into water electrolysis in a process known as photoelectrochemical water splitting. Triple junction devices integrate three semiconductors of different band gaps resulting in a monolithic material that absorbs over a broader spectrum. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one such material that, when stacked in tandem, possesses water-splitting capabilities. Even though a-Si is capable of splitting water, it is an unstable material in solution and therefore requires a coating to protect the surface from corrosion. A stable, transparent material that has the potential for corrosion protection is silicon nitride. In this study, silicon nitride thin films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with varying amounts of argon and nitrogen added to the system. X-ray diffraction indicated amorphous silicon nitride films. Current as a function of potential was determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements. Mott-Schottky analysis showed n-type behavior with absorption and transmission measurements indicated variation in flatband potentials. Variation in band gap values ranging from 1.90 to 4.0 eV. Corrosion measurements reveal that the silicon nitride samples exhibit both p-type and n-type behavior. Photocurrent over a range of potentials was greater in samples that were submerged in acidic electrolyte. Silicon nitride shows good stability in acidic, neutral, and basic solutions, indicative of a good material for corrosion mitigation.

  10. Gelcasting of silicon preforms for the production of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O. Jr.; Nunn, S.D.; Tiegs, T.N.; Davisson, C.C.; Coffey, D.W.; Maria, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Gelcasting of silicon metal for the production of sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN) was investigated in order to identify associated advantages over conventional forming techniques, i.e., die and isostatic pressing. Compacts were formed from identical powder mixtures by both gelcasting and pressing, and were nitrided and sintered to produce SRBSN ceramics using both conventional and microwave heating. Characterization of the samples included measurement of green density, green and nitrided pore structure, weight gain during nitridation, final density, microstructure, toughness, and flexural strength. It was found that a more uniform pore structure existed in the green gelcast samples. It is believed that this pore configuration aided in nitridation, and manifested itself in a more uniform final microstructure. In addition, improved mechanical properties were achieved in the gelcast samples. This improvement can be attributed to green microstructure homogeneity. An additional finding of this study was that microwave hearing combined with gelcast forming resulted in SRBSN materials with improved mechanical properties.

  11. Nitridation of silicon under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, J. )

    1987-07-01

    The microstructure of reaction-bonded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} was changed by nitriding Si powder compacts at 0, 1, and 50 MPa. The microstructural parameters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy, XRD, and mercury pressure porosimetry. The influence of the nitriding gas pressure on the ratio of the crystallographic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phases {alpha} and {beta}, the pore size distribution, and the resulting mechanical properties has been investigated. High nitrogen pressure promotes the formation of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and leads to a fine-grained homogeneous microstructure, with improved fracture strength and fracture toughness.

  12. Silicon nitride films deposited with an electron beam created plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, D. C.; Emery, K. A.; Rocca, J. J.; Thompson, L. R.; Zamani, H.; Collins, G. J.

    1984-03-01

    The electron beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (EBCVD) of silicon nitride films using NH3, N2, and SiH4 as the reactant gases is reported. The films have been deposited on aluminum, SiO2, and polysilicon film substrates as well as on crystalline silicon substrates. The range of experimental conditions under which silicon nitrides have been deposited includes substrate temperatures from 50 to 400 C, electron beam currents of 2-40 mA, electron beam energies of 1-5 keV, total ambient pressures of 0.1-0.4 Torr, and NH3/SiH4 mass flow ratios of 1-80. The physical, electrical, and chemical properties of the EBCVD films are discussed.

  13. Development of a continuous spinning process for producing silicon carbide - silicon nitride precursor fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus was designed for the continuous production of silicon carbide - silicon nitride precursor fibers. The precursor polymer can be fiberized, crosslined and pyrolyzed. The product is a metallic black fiber with the composition of the type C sub x Si sub y n sub z. Little, other than the tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, is known of the physical properties.

  14. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L. )

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of [alpha] versus [beta]-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  15. Polyorganosilazane preceramic binder development for reaction bonded silicon nitride composites

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, D.L.; Starr, T.L.

    1992-11-01

    This study has examined the use of two commercially available polyorganosilazanes for application as preceramic binders in a composite composed of silicon carbide fibers in a reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) matrix. Ceramic monolithic and composite samples were produced. Density of monolithic and whisker reinforced RBSN samples containing the polysilazane binder was increased. Mercury intrusion porosimetry revealed a significant decrease in the pore sizes of samples containing a polyorganosilazane binder. Electron micrographs of samples containing the preceramic binder looked similar to control samples containing no precursor. Overall, incorporation of the polysilazane into monolithic and whisker reinforced samples resulted in significantly increased density and decreased porosity. Nitriding of the RBSN was slightly retarded by addition of the polysilazane binder. Samples with the preceramic binders contained increased contents of {alpha} versus {beta}-silicon nitride which may be due to interaction of hydrogen evolved from polysilazane pyrolysis with the nitriding process. Initial efforts to produce continuous fiber reinforced composites via this method have not realized the same improvements in density and porosity which have been observed for monolithic and whisker reinforced samples. Further, the addition of perceramic binder resulted in a more brittle fracture morphology as compared to similar composites made without the binder.

  16. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-04-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000{degrees}C.

  17. Microwave processing of silicon nitride for advanced gas turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Kiggans, J.O.

    1993-01-01

    Results from previous studies on microwave processing of silicon nitride-based ceramics are reviewed to ascertain the application of this technology to advanced gas turbine (AGT) materials. Areas of microwave processing that have been examined in the past are (1) sintering of powder compacts; (2) heat treatment of dense materials; and (3) nitridation of Si for reactionbonded silicon nitride. The sintering of Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] powder compacts showed improved densification and enhanced grain growth. However, the high additive levels required to produce crack-free parts generally limit these materials to low temperature applications. Improved high-temperature creep resistance has been observed for microwave heat-treated materials and therefore has application to materials used in highly demanding service conditions. In contrast to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], Si couples well in the microwave and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials have been fabricated in a one-step process with cost-effective raw materials. However, these materials are also limited to lower temperature applications, under about 1000[degrees]C.

  18. Electroless plating of thin gold films directly onto silicon nitride thin films and into micropores.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Julie C; Karawdeniya, Buddini Iroshika; Bandara, Y M Nuwan D Y; Velleco, Brian D; Masterson, Caitlin M; Dwyer, Jason R

    2014-07-23

    A method to directly electrolessly plate silicon-rich silicon nitride with thin gold films was developed and characterized. Films with thicknesses <100 nm were grown at 3 and 10 °C between 0.5 and 3 h, with mean grain sizes between ∼20 and 30 nm. The method is compatible with plating free-standing ultrathin silicon nitride membranes, and we successfully plated the interior walls of micropore arrays in 200 nm thick silicon nitride membranes. The method is thus amenable to coating planar, curved, and line-of-sight-obscured silicon nitride surfaces. PMID:24999923

  19. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, G. J.; Vartabedian, A. M.; Wade, J. A.; White, C. S.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP'ed Si3N4 with 4wt% Y2O3 (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  20. Analytical and experimental evaluation of joining silicon carbide to silicon carbide and silicon nitride to silicon nitride for advanced heat engine applications Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sundberg, G.J.; Vartabedian, A.M.; Wade, J.A.; White, C.S.

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of joining, Phase 2 was to develop joining technologies for HIP`ed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with 4wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (NCX-5101) and for a siliconized SiC (NT230) for various geometries including: butt joins, curved joins and shaft to disk joins. In addition, more extensive mechanical characterization of silicon nitride joins to enhance the predictive capabilities of the analytical/numerical models for structural components in advanced heat engines was provided. Mechanical evaluation were performed by: flexure strength at 22 C and 1,370 C, stress rupture at 1,370 C, high temperature creep, 22 C tensile testing and spin tests. While the silicon nitride joins were produced with sufficient integrity for many applications, the lower join strength would limit its use in the more severe structural applications. Thus, the silicon carbide join quality was deemed unsatisfactory to advance to more complex, curved geometries. The silicon carbide joining methods covered within this contract, although not entirely successful, have emphasized the need to focus future efforts upon ways to obtain a homogeneous, well sintered parent/join interface prior to siliconization. In conclusion, the improved definition of the silicon carbide joining problem obtained by efforts during this contract have provided avenues for future work that could successfully obtain heat engine quality joins.

  1. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, Rishi; Baik, Sunggi

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  2. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOEpatents

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1985-11-12

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  3. Thermodynamics of silicon nitridation - Effect of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, N. J.; Zeleznik, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Equilibrium compositions for the nitridization of Si were calculated to detect the effectiveness of H2 in removal of the oxide film and in increasing the concentration of SiO and reducing the proportions of O2. Gibbs free energy for the formation of SiN2O was computed above 1685 K, and at lower temperatures. The thermodynamic properties of SiN2O2 were then considered from 1000-3000 K, taking into account the known thermodynamic data for 39 molecular combinations of the Si, Ni, and O. The gases formed were assumed ideal mixtures with pure phase condensed species. The mole fractions were obtained for a system of SiO2 with each Si particle covered with a thin layer of SiO2 before nitridation, and a system in which the nitriding atmosphere had access to the Si. The presence of H2 was determined to enhance the removal of NiO2 in the first system, decrease the partial pressure of O2, increase the partial pressures of SiO, Si, H2O, NH3, and SiH4, while its effects were negligible in the Si system.

  4. Silicon nitride hybrid bearing fatigue life comparisons. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.

    1999-01-15

    Research to improve high-speed ball bearings for spacecraft applications has led to development of ceramic materials for bearing components, and the need to acquire sufficient fatigue life data to show the merits of various ceramic materials and fabrication processes, in comparison with the vast amount of steel bearing fatigue data acquired over many decades. In order to eliminate bias from such evaluations it is best to conduct comparative fatigue tests with steel bearings that are geometrically similar and in the same type of test rig. This report addresses some recent fatigue tests of hybrid bearings with silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) balls and Crucible Steel Company M62 steel raceways and a comparison set of all 52100 steel bearings. Results indicate that the bearings with ceramic (silicon nitride) balls are superior to the steel bearings.

  5. High-precision silicon nitride balls for bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cundill, Robin T.

    1992-04-01

    Hybrid ceramic bearings are now commercially available for use in high performance applications where the properties of the ceramic balls give advantages in terms of higher operating speeds, increased stiffness, lower fraction and less heat generation. Most hybrid bearings are high precision angular contact ball bearings fitted with silicon nitride balls, which have to be finished to ISO dimensional grades 3 and 5. Ball diameter variation and deviation from the spherical form has to be less than 0.125 micrometers for Grade 5 balls and less than 0.08 micrometers for Grade 3 balls. Surface finish of silicon nitride balls is typically 0.003 - 0.010 micrometers Rq (0.002 - 0.008 micrometers Ra). At this level, the basic material microstructures is discernible which facilitates inspection for material and other faults.

  6. Silicon Nitride: A Synthetic Mineral for Vertebrate Biology.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; McEntire, Bryan J; Bock, Ryan; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Vitale, Eleonora; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Bal, B Sonny

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material's surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4's zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i.e., N-vacancies versus silanols groups, respectively). Lattice defects at the biomaterial's surface greatly promote interaction with positively- and negatively-charged functional groups in biomolecules, and result in the biologically effective characteristics of silicon nitride. These findings are anticipated to be a starting point for further discoveries of therapeutic bone-graft substitute materials. PMID:27539146

  7. Development of moldable, high density reaction bonded silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangels, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that currently available reaction bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) materials are limited by relatively low strength (up to 300 MPa) and oxidation resistance, primarily due to open porosity. Attention is given to technology that was developed and used to produce an improved grade of injection molded RBSN having a density of 2.8 g/cc, with significantly decreased open porosity and a strength exceeding 350 MPa. It is shown that these results are primarily due to advances in two areas: silicon powder processing, and nitriding technique. A comparison of room temperature strength and oxidation resistance of the new material with that of state-of-the-art RBSN, showed significant improvements. It is concluded that turbine stator vanes were produced to show that this improved RBSN technology has been reduced to engineering practice.

  8. Silicon Nitride: A Synthetic Mineral for Vertebrate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; McEntire, Bryan J.; Bock, Ryan; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Vitale, Eleonora; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Bal, B. Sonny

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable stoichiometric flexibility of hydroxyapatite (HAp) enables the formation of a variety of charged structural sites at the material’s surface which facilitates bone remodeling due to binding of biomolecule moieties in zwitterionic fashion. In this paper, we report for the first time that an optimized biomedical grade silicon nitride (Si3N4) demonstrated cell adhesion and improved osteoconductivity comparable to highly defective, non-stoichiometric natural hydroxyapatite. Si3N4’s zwitterionic-like behavior is a function of the dualism between positive and negative charged off-stoichiometric sites (i.e., N-vacancies versus silanols groups, respectively). Lattice defects at the biomaterial’s surface greatly promote interaction with positively- and negatively-charged functional groups in biomolecules, and result in the biologically effective characteristics of silicon nitride. These findings are anticipated to be a starting point for further discoveries of therapeutic bone-graft substitute materials. PMID:27539146

  9. Synthesis of silicon nitride particles in pulsed radio frequency plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.; Babu, S.V.

    1996-03-01

    Silicon nitride (hydrogenated) particles are synthesized using a pulsed 13.56 MHz glow discharge. The plasma is modulated with a square-wave on/off cycle of varying period to study the growth kinetics. {ital In} {ital situ} laser light scattering and {ital ex} {ital situ} particle analysis are used to study the nucleation and growth. For SiH{sub 4}/Ar and SiH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3} plasmas, an initial very rapid growth phase is followed by slower growth, approaching the rate of thin film deposition on adjacent flat surfaces. The average particle size can be controlled in the 10{endash}100 nm range by adjusting the plasma-on time. The size dispersion of the particles is large and is consistent with a process of continuous nucleation during the plasma-on period. The large polydispersity is also reported for silicon particles from silane and differs from that reported in other laboratories. The silicon nitride particle morphology is compared to that of silicon and silicon carbide particles generated by the same technique. Whereas Si particles appear as rough clusters of smaller subunits, the SiC particles are smooth spheres, and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles are smooth but nonspherical. Postplasma oxidation kinetics of the particles are studied with Fourier transform infrared spectra and are consistent with a hydrolysis mechanism proposed in earlier work with continuous plasmas. Heat treatment of the powder in an ammonia atmosphere results in the elimination of hydrogen, rendering the silicon nitride resistant to atmospheric oxidation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  10. Synthesis of silicon nitride particles in pulsed Rf plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.; Babu, S.V.

    1995-11-01

    Silicon nitride (hydrogenated) particles are synthesized using a pulsed 13.56 Mhz glow discharge. The plasma is modulated with a square-wave on/off cycle of varying period to study the growth kinetics. In situ laser light scattering and ex situ particle analysis are used to study the nucleation and growth. For SiH{sub 4}/Ar and SiH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3} plasmas, an initial very rapid growth phase is followed by slower growth, approaching the rate of thin film deposition on adjacent flat surfaces. The average particle size can be controlled in the 10-100 nm range by adjusting the plasma-on time. The size dispersion of the particles is large and is consistent with a process of continuous nucleation during the plasma-on period. The large polydispersity is also reported for silicon particles from silane and differs from that reported in other laboratories. The silicon nitride particle morphology is compared to that of silicon and silicon carbide particles generated by the same technique. Whereas Si particles appear as rough clusters of smaller subunits, the SiC particles are smooth spheres, and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles are smooth but non-spherical. Post-plasma oxidation kinetics of the particles are studied with FTIR and are consistent with a hydrolysis mechanism proposed in earlier work with continuous plasmas. Heat treatment of the powder in an ammonia atmosphere results in the elimination of hydrogen, rendering the silicon nitride resistant to atmospheric oxidation.

  11. The hardness and toughness of HIPed silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Berriche, R.; Holt, R.T.; Kumar, S.N.; Maccagno, T.M.

    1992-10-01

    Silicon nitride with and without additives has been produced by hot isostatic pressing under different conditions. The HIP cycle parameters and grade of powder used have been found to affect the density, the hardness and the fracture toughness of the material produced. Sintering aids, on the other hand, have been found to affect the fracture toughness only. Materials HIPed with additives displayed a higher fracture toughness than materials HIPed without additives. 12 refs.

  12. Corrosion of silicon nitride in high temperature alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liyan; Guzonas, Dave A.; Qian, Jing

    2016-08-01

    The corrosion of silicon nitride (Si3N4) in alkaline solutions was studied at temperatures from 60 to 300 °C. Si3N4 experienced significant corrosion above 100 °C. The release rates of silicon and nitrogen follow zero order reaction kinetics and increase with increasing temperature. The molar ratio of dissolved silicon and nitrogen species in the high temperature solutions is the same as that in the solid phase (congruent dissolution). The activation energy for silicon and nitrogen release rates is 75 kJ/mol which agrees well with that of silica dissolution. At 300 °C, the release of aluminum is observed and follows first order reaction kinetics while other minor constituents including Ti and Y are highly enriched on the corrosion films due to the low solubility of their oxides.

  13. Tissue response around silicon nitride implants in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Guedes e Silva, Cecilia C; König, Bruno; Carbonari, Marcelo José; Yoshimoto, Marcelo; Allegrini, Sérgio; Bressiani, José Carlos

    2008-02-01

    The chemical and dimensional stability associated with suitable fracture toughness and propitious tribological characteristics make silicon nitride-based ceramics potential candidates for biomedical applications, mainly as orthopedic implants. Considering this combination of properties, silicon nitride components were investigated in relation to their biocompatibility. For this study, two cylindrical implants were installed in each tibia of five rabbits and were kept in the animals for 8 weeks. During the healing time, tissue tracers were administrated in the animals so as to evaluate the bone growth around the implants. Eight weeks after the surgery, the animals were euthanized and histological analyses were performed. No adverse reactions were observed close to the implant. The osteogenesis process occurred during the entire period defined by the tracers. However, this process occurred more intensely 4 weeks after the surgery. In addition, the histological analyses showed that bone growth occurred preferentially in the cortical areas. Different kinds of tissue were identified on the implant surface, characterized by lamellar bone tissue containing osteocytes and osteons, by a noncalcified matrix containing osteoblasts, or by the presence of collagen III, which may change to collagen I or remain as a fibrous tissue. The results demonstrated that silicon nitride obtained according to the procedure proposed in this research is a biocompatible material. PMID:17607762

  14. Fatigue life of high-speed ball bearings with silicon nitride balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of hot-pressed silicon nitride as a rolling-element bearing material. Two grades of hot-pressed silicon nitride balls were tested under rolling contact conditions in a five-ball fatigue tester. A digital computer program was used to predict the dynamic performance characteristics and fatigue life of high-speed ball bearings with silicon nitride balls relative to that with bearings containing steel balls. The results obtained include the finding that fatigue spalls on silicon nitride balls are similar in appearance to those obtained with typical bearing steels.

  15. Catalytic Effects of Cr on Nitridation of Silicon and Formation of One-dimensional Silicon Nitride Nanostructure

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Feng; Lu, Lilin; Tian, Liang; Li, Faliang; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic effects of chromium (Cr) on the direct nitridation of silicon (Si) and morphology of nitridation product were investigated. Cr dramatically improved the conversation of Si to silicon nitride (Si3N4). The complete conversion was achieved at 1350 °C upon addition of 1.25 wt% Cr. This temperature was much lower than that required in the case without using a catalyst. Meanwhile, Cr played an important role in the in-situ growth of one-dimensional (1-D) α-Si3N4 nanostructures. α-Si3N4 nanowires and nanobelts became the primary product phases when 5 wt% Cr was used as the catalyst. The growth processes of the 1-D α-Si3N4 nanostructures were governed by the vapor-solid mechanism. First-principle calculations suggest that electrons can be transferred from Cr atoms to N atoms, facilitating the Si nitridation. PMID:27527681

  16. Catalytic Effects of Cr on Nitridation of Silicon and Formation of One-dimensional Silicon Nitride Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Lu, Lilin; Tian, Liang; Li, Faliang; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic effects of chromium (Cr) on the direct nitridation of silicon (Si) and morphology of nitridation product were investigated. Cr dramatically improved the conversation of Si to silicon nitride (Si3N4). The complete conversion was achieved at 1350 °C upon addition of 1.25 wt% Cr. This temperature was much lower than that required in the case without using a catalyst. Meanwhile, Cr played an important role in the in-situ growth of one-dimensional (1-D) α-Si3N4 nanostructures. α-Si3N4 nanowires and nanobelts became the primary product phases when 5 wt% Cr was used as the catalyst. The growth processes of the 1-D α-Si3N4 nanostructures were governed by the vapor-solid mechanism. First-principle calculations suggest that electrons can be transferred from Cr atoms to N atoms, facilitating the Si nitridation. PMID:27527681

  17. Subcritical crack-growth behavior in advanced silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Ajay

    Advanced silicon nitride ceramics (Sisb3Nsb4) are leading candidates for structural components in gas turbine and reciprocating engines. However, widespread use of these materials has been deterred due to their low fracture toughness under tensile loads. In the last decade, novel processing techniques have allowed extrinsic toughening of this material through grain bridging processes. The extrinsic toughening mechanisms, however, are prone to subcritical crack-growth processes through environmental, mechanical and high temperature degradation mechanisms. Understanding these failure mechanisms is critical for long term reliability and design. In the first part of this study, fracture and environmentally-assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were examined in bulk Y-Si-Al-O-N oxynitride glasses with compositions typical of the grain boundary phase of silicon nitride ceramics. Both long crack as well as short crack behavior were investigated to establish a reliable fracture toughness value and to elucidate the anomalous densification behavior of the oxynitride glass under indentation loads. Environmentally assisted subcritical crack-growth processes were studied in inert, moist and wet environments under both cyclic and static loading conditions and compared to commercial soda lime and borosilicate glasses. The second part of this study involved the effect of loading, microstructure and temperature on subcritical crack-growth behavior in silicon nitride ceramics. Crack-growth rates under an alternating applied stress intensity were compared to those under static loads. The effect of microstructure on fatigue crack-growth rates was determined in silicon nitrides sintered using different processing techniques and with different grain sizes. Unique experimental techniques were used to determine subcritical crack-growth behavior from room temperature to elevated temperatures of 1250sp°C. Frictional wear models were used to explain the trends in experimental data at

  18. Stress relaxation in Si-rich silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Habermehl, S.

    1998-05-01

    Si-rich silicon nitride thin films have been deposited by low pressure chemical vapor deposition, at 850{degree}C from mixtures of dichlorosilane and ammonia. The films{close_quote} elastic properties have been studied as a function of film composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometric data indicate that the local atomic strain is a strong function of the calculated volume fraction of Si contained in the films. A relationship is observed that shows the strain to be inversely proportional to the cube root of the Si volume fraction. A model that accounts for distortion in Si{endash}Si{sub x}N{sub 4{minus}x} tetrahedra (x=0{endash}4), upon substitution of silicon for nitrogen in the film is applied to the data. The model is shown to be consistent with measurements of intrinsic film stress across a compositional range from stoichiometric silicon nitride, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, to nitrogen-free amorphous silicon, a-Si. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellés, J.; Brimont, C.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Guillet, T.; Roland, I.; Zeng, Y.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.; Gayral, B.

    2016-02-01

    Deep ultra-violet semiconductor lasers have numerous applications for optical storage and biochemistry. Many strategies based on nitride heterostructures and adapted substrates have been investigated to develop efficient active layers in this spectral range, starting with AlGaN quantum wells on AlN substrates and more recently sapphire and SiC substrates. Here we report an efficient and simple solution relying on binary GaN/AlN quantum wells grown on a thin AlN buffer layer on a silicon substrate. This active region is embedded in microdisk photonic resonators of high quality factors and allows the demonstration of a deep ultra-violet microlaser operating at 275 nm at room temperature under optical pumping, with a spontaneous emission coupling factor β = (4 ± 2) 10-4. The ability of the active layer to be released from the silicon substrate and to be grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates opens the way to future developments of nitride nanophotonic platforms on silicon.

  20. Deep-UV nitride-on-silicon microdisk lasers

    PubMed Central

    Sellés, J.; Brimont, C.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Guillet, T.; Roland, I.; Zeng, Y.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.; Gayral, B.

    2016-01-01

    Deep ultra-violet semiconductor lasers have numerous applications for optical storage and biochemistry. Many strategies based on nitride heterostructures and adapted substrates have been investigated to develop efficient active layers in this spectral range, starting with AlGaN quantum wells on AlN substrates and more recently sapphire and SiC substrates. Here we report an efficient and simple solution relying on binary GaN/AlN quantum wells grown on a thin AlN buffer layer on a silicon substrate. This active region is embedded in microdisk photonic resonators of high quality factors and allows the demonstration of a deep ultra-violet microlaser operating at 275 nm at room temperature under optical pumping, with a spontaneous emission coupling factor β = (4 ± 2) 10−4. The ability of the active layer to be released from the silicon substrate and to be grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates opens the way to future developments of nitride nanophotonic platforms on silicon. PMID:26887701

  1. First-principles study of silicon nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Guohua; Kang, Hong Seok

    2008-10-01

    We have made a first-principles calculation of the topological, geometric, and electronic structures of nitrogen-doped armchair and zigzag silicon carbide nanotubes, where we have assumed that all carbon atoms have been substituted by nitrogen atoms. The doping was found to be substantially easier than for analogous carbon nanotubes. In addition, the doping process is cooperative, leading us to theoretically predict the stable existence of silicon nitride nanotubes (SiNNTs). For (n,n) SiNNTs, all kinds of chiral indices n are possible. These armchair tubes are semiconductors with much smaller band gaps than those of corresponding silicon carbide nanotubes, and the gap decreases with the tube diameter. For (n,0) chirality, only even-numbered chiral indices (n=2l) are possible. These nanotubes are also semiconductors with band gaps larger than those of armchair SiNNTs of similar diameters.

  2. Development of silicon nitride composites with continuous fiber reinforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Mohr, D.L.; Lackey, W.J.; Hanigofsky, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    The composites were fabricated using ultrafine Si powders prepared by attritor milling; the powders exhibits full conversion to Si nitride in < 3 h at {le} 1200 C (these conditions reduce degradation of the fibers compared to conventional). Effects of processing conditions on fiber properties and the use of fiber coatings to improve stability during processing as well as change the fiber-matrix interfacial properties were investigated. A duplex carbon-silicon carbide coating, deposited by CVD, reduced fiber degradation in processing, and it modified the fiber-matrix adhesion. Si nitride matrix composites were fabricated using reaction sintering, forming laminates, filament-wound plates, and tubes. In each case, an attritor milled Si powder slurry is infiltrated into ceramic fiber preforms or tows, which are then assembled to form a 3-D structure for reaction sintering. The resulting composites have properties comparable to chemical vapor infiltration densified composites, with reasonable strengths and graceful composite fracture behavior.

  3. Atomistic models of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarolimek, K.; de Groot, R. A.; de Wijs, G. A.; Zeman, M.

    2010-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) , with equal concentrations of Si and N atoms (x=1) , for two considerably different densities (2.0 and 3.0g/cm3 ). Densities and hydrogen concentration were chosen according to experimental data. Using first-principles molecular-dynamics within density-functional theory the models were generated by cooling from the liquid. Where both models have a short-range order resembling that of crystalline Si3N4 because of their different densities and hydrogen concentrations they show marked differences at longer length scales. The low-density nitride forms a percolating network of voids with the internal surfaces passivated by hydrogen. Although some voids are still present for the high-density nitride, this material has a much denser and uniform space filling. The structure factors reveal some tendency for the nonstoichiometric high-density nitride to phase separate into nitrogen rich and poor areas. For our slowest cooling rate (0.023 K/fs) we obtain models with a modest number of defect states, where the low (high) density nitride favors undercoordinated (overcoordinated) defects. Analysis of the structural defects and electronic density of states shows that there is no direct one-to-one correspondence between the structural defects and states in the gap. There are several structural defects that do not contribute to in-gap states and there are in-gap states that do only have little to no contributions from (atoms in) structural defects. Finally an estimation of the size and cooling rate effects on the amorphous network is reported.

  4. RF-sputtered silicon and hafnium nitrides - Properties and adhesion to 440C stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.; Aron, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon nitride and hafnium nitride coatings were deposited by reactive RF sputtering on oxidized and unoxidized 440C stainless steel substrates. Sputtering was done in mixtures of argon and nitrogen gases from pressed powder silicon nitride and from hafnium metal targets. Depositions were at two background pressures, 8 and 20 mtorr, and at two different fractions (f) of nitrogen in argon, 0.25 and 0.60, for hafnium nitride and at f = 0.25 for silicon nitride. The coatings and the interface between the coating and substrates were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. A Knoop microhardness of 1650 + or 100 kg/sq mm was measured for hafnium nitride and 3900 + or 500 kg/sq mm for silicon nitride. The friction coefficients between a 440C rider and the coatings were measured under lubricated conditions. Scratch test results demonstrate that the adhesion of hafnium nitride to both oxidized and unoxidized 440C is superior to that of silicon nitride. Oxidized 440C is found to have increased adhesion, to both nitrides, over that of unoxidized 440C.

  5. RF sputtered silicon and hafnium nitrides: Properties and adhesion to 440C stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.; Aron, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon nitride and hafnium nitride coatings were deposited by reactive RF sputtering on oxidized and unoxidized 440C stainless steel substrates. Sputtering was done in mixtures of argon and nitrogen gases from pressed powder silicon nitride and from hafnium metal targets. Depositions were at two background pressures, 8 and 20 mtorr, and at two different fractions (f) of nitrogen in argon, 0.25 and 0.60, for hafnium nitride and at f = 0.25 for silicon nitride. The coatings and the interface between the coating and substrates were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. A Knoop microhardness of 1650 + or - 100 kg/sq mm was measured for hafnium nitride and 3900 + or - 500 kg/sq mm for silicon nitride. The friction coefficients between a 440C rider and the coatings were measured under lubricated conditions. Scratch test results demonstrate that the adhesion of hafnium nitride to both oxidized and unoxidized 440C is superior to that of silicon nitride. Oxidized 440C is found to have increased adhesion, to both nitrides, over that of unoxidized 440C.

  6. Rolling-element fatigue life of silicon nitride balls: Preliminary test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Hot pressed silicon nitride was evaluated as a rolling element bearing material. The five-ball fatigue tester was used to test 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) diameter balls at a maximum Hertz stress of 800,000 psi at a race temperature of 130 F. The fatigue spalls in the silicon nitride resembled those in typical bearing steels. The ten-percent fatigue life of the silicon nitride balls was approximately one-eighth to one-fifth that of typical bearing steels (52100 and M-50). The load capacity of the silicon nitride was approximately one-third that of typical bearing steels. The load capacity of the silicon nitride was significantly higher than previously tested ceramic materials for rolling element bearings.

  7. Nanostructured silicon nitride from wheat and rice husks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Wollmershauser, J. A.; Feng, C. R.

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticles, submicron-diameter tubes, and rods of Si3N4 were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat and rice husks at temperatures at and above 1300 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The whole pattern Rietveld analysis of the observed diffraction data from treatments at 1300 °C showed the formation of only hexagonal α-phase of Si3N4 with an R-factor of 1%, whereas samples treated at 1400 °C and above showed both α- and β-phases with an R-factor of 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of tubes, rods, and nanoparticles of Si3N4. In a two-step process, where pure SiC was produced first from rice or wheat husk in an argon atmosphere and subsequently treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1450 °C, a nanostructured composite material having α- and β-phases of Si3N4 combined with cubic phase of SiC was formed. The thermodynamics of the formation of silicon nitride is discussed in terms of the solid state reaction between organic matter (silica content), which is inherently present in the wheat and rice husks, with the nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere. Nanostructures of silicon nitride formed by a single direct reaction or their composites with SiC formed in a two-step process of agricultural byproducts provide an uncomplicated sustainable synthesis route for silicon nitride used in mechanical, biotechnology, and electro-optic nanotechnology applications.

  8. Surface Area, and Oxidation Effects on Nitridation Kinetics of Silicon Powder Compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, R. T.; Palczer, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercially available silicon powders were wet-attrition-milled from 2 to 48 hr to achieve surface areas (SA's) ranging from 1.3 to 70 sq m/g. The surface area effects on the nitridation kinetics of silicon powder compacts were determined at 1250 or 1350 C for 4 hr. In addition, the influence of nitridation environment, and preoxidation on nitridation kinetics of a silicon powder of high surface area (approximately equals 63 sq m/g) was investigated. As the surface area increased, so did the percentage nitridation after 4 hr in N2 at 1250 or 1350 C. Silicon powders of high surface area (greater than 40 sq m/g) can be nitrided to greater than 70% at 1250 C in 4 hr. The nitridation kinetics of the high-surface-area powder compacts were significantly delayed by preoxidation treatment. Conversely, the nitridation environment had no significant influence on the nitridation kinetics of the same powder. Impurities present in the starting powder, and those accumulated during attrition milling, appeared to react with the silica layer on the surface of silicon particles to form a molten silicate layer, which provided a path for rapid diffusion of nitrogen and enhanced the nitridation kinetics of high surface area silicon powder.

  9. Atomic layer deposited silicon dioxide films on nanomechanical silicon nitride resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, P. S.; Tan, C. P.; Craighead, H. G.

    2010-06-01

    Thin silicon dioxide films are deposited on nanomechanical resonators using atomic layer deposition (ALD), and their effect on the resonant properties of silicon nitride devices is studied as a function of thickness. We present experimental data and an analytical model for the effect of ALD growth and corroborate the model by studying resonators coated with atomic layer deposited aluminum nitride as well. As thicker films are deposited, device frequency shifts, become nonlinear with thickness, and quality factors drop significantly. Thin silicon dioxide coatings can be deposited on virtually any device surface to support surface chemistries commonly used in biochemical functionalization on glass surfaces. We also demonstrate that the efficiency of silane functionalization improves by 35% when low stress silicon nitride surfaces are coated with only 2.1 nm of atomic layer deposited silicon dioxide. This ALD modification technique should be particularly useful for nanomechanical resonant sensors since a thin, conformal film does not drastically reduce quality factor nor does it add excessive mass that would decrease device sensitivity.

  10. Carbon fibre-reinforced silicon nitride composites by slurry infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Grenet, C.; Plunkett, L.; Veyret, J.B.; Bullock, E.

    1995-12-01

    The present paper reports on the fabrication of long-carbon fibre reinforced silicon nitride matrix composites by liquid infiltration of an aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry followed by hot-pressing. A methodology for the maximum volume and uniform infiltration of preforms has been developed by optimising slurry rheology and fibre wetting conditions. Fully infiltrated green forms of 55% theoretical density are achieved with some 40% volume fraction of fibres. The quality of the composites has been assessed by microstructural analysis and mechanical characterization.

  11. Strength characterization of yttria/alumina-doped sintered silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govila, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The flexural strength of yttria/alumina-doped sintered silicon nitride (Ford Material-RM 20) was measured as a function of temperature (20 to 1400 deg C), applied stress and time. Flexural stress rupture testing at 800 and 1000 deg C indicated that the material can sustain 344 MPa and 276 MPa, respectively, without failure, for a limited time (less than or equal to 100 h). The RM 20 material was susceptible to both oxidation and early stages of creep deformation at temperatures above 1000 deg C and displayed extensive creep deformation and degradation in strength above 1300 deg C.

  12. Interface structure and atomic bonding characteristics in silicon nitride ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A; Idrobo, J C; Cinibulk, M K; Kisielowski, C; Browning, N D; Ritchie, R O

    2004-12-01

    Direct atomic resolution images have been obtained that illustrate how a range of rare-earth atoms bond to the interface between the intergranular phase and the matrix grains in an advanced silicon nitride ceramic. It has been found that each rare-earth atom bonds to the interface at a different location, depending on atom size, electronic configuration, and the presence of oxygen at the interface. This is the key factor to understanding the origin of the mechanical properties in these ceramics and will enable precise tailoring in the future to critically improve the materials' performance in wide-ranging applications. PMID:15576617

  13. Synthesis of silicon nitride nanowires by the pyrolysis of perhydropolysilazane.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gong-Jin; Zhang, Chang-Rui; Hu, Hai-Feng

    2006-05-01

    Silicon nitride nanowires synthesized by the pyrolysis of perhydropolysilazane without using any catalysts are reported. After pyrolysis at 1073 K in N2/NH3 atmosphere, the synthetic nanowires are discrete and curly with diameters about tens of nanometers and lengths of hundreds of nanometers. While after post-treatment at 1873 K in N2 atmosphere, the nanowires are continuous and randomly distributed with diameters about tens of nanometers and several microns in length. There are no bulbs or droplets on the tips of the nanowires, and two gas-solid mechanisms are proposed to explain their growth. PMID:16792386

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoidentation of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P.; Omeltchenko, A.; Kikuchi, Hideaki; Kalia, R.K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, P.

    1999-08-01

    This is a report of work in progress on 10 million atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of nanoindentation of crystalline and amorphous silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). Nanoindentation is used to determine mechanical properties of extremely thin films such as hardness and elastic moduli. The authors report load-displacement curves for several Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} configurations using an idealized non-deformable indenter and analyze the local stress distributions in the vicinity of the indenter tip. Preliminary results for surface adhesion using Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} for both tip and substrate are also reported.

  15. Compact and tunable silicon nitride Bragg grating filters in polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Novo, Alejandro Maese; Liu, Dongliang; Keil, Norbert; Grote, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    A series of tunable filters based on silicon nitride waveguide Bragg gratings buried in polymer are studied, fabricated and analyzed. The gratings are etched completely through the waveguides to improve the peak reflectivity at short grating lengths. Reflectivity from 1% to 70% can be reached when the third-order grating length varies from 16 µm to 160 µm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Due to its compact size and the thermal advantages of polymer, the filter can be tuned very efficiently by a micro heater buried beneath. A tuning range of 34.5 nm is demonstrated at a heat power of only 22 mW.

  16. Oxidation Protection of Porous Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Oxidation kinetics of both as-fabricated and coated reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) were studied at 900 and 1000 C with thermogravimetry. Uncoated RBSN exhibited internal oxidation and parabolic kinetics. An amorphous Si-C-O coating provided the greatest degree of protection to oxygen, with a small linear weight loss observed. Linear weight gains were measured on samples with an amorphous Si-N-C coating. Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) Si3N4 coated RBSN exhibited parabolic kinetics, and the coating cracked severely. A continuous-SiC-fiber-reinforced RBSN composite was also coated with the Si-C-O material, but no substantial oxidation protection was observed.

  17. Processing and testing of high toughness silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Sanders, William A.; Choi, Sung R.

    1993-01-01

    High toughness silicon nitride ceramics were processed with the addition of small quantities of beta-Si3N4 whiskers in a commercially available alpha-Si3N4 powder. These whiskers grew preferentially during sintering resulting in large, elongated beta-grains, which acted to toughen the matrix by crack deflection and grain pullout. The fracture toughness of these samples seeded with beta-Si3N4 whiskers ranged from 8.7 to 9.5 MPa m(exp 0.5) depending on the sintering additives.

  18. Defects Detection on Silicon Nitride Balls by Laser Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, M.; Ouaftouh, M.; Duquennoy, M.; Jenot, F.; Ourak, M.

    2005-04-09

    In this work, we study the generation and the detection of surface waves on silicon nitride balls a few millimetres in diameter. The excitation of these waves is carried out thanks to a pulsed laser YAG and their detection is achieved with a laser interferometric probe. The whole of the device requires neither coupling nor direct contact with the balls. These waves are then used for the analysis of defects close to the surface of the balls. Several measurements are carried out on samples presenting various defects. Correlation attempts are also carried out between some ultrasonic parameters and some characteristics of defects.

  19. Investigation of silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Sin sub x grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVO) for passivating silicon surfaces was studied. The application of PECVO SiN sub x films for passivations of silicon N+/P or P+/N solar cells is of particular interest. This program has involved the following areas of investigation: (1) Establishment of PECVO system and development of procedures for growth of SiN sub x; (2) Optical characterization of SiN sub x films; (3) Characterization of the SiN sub x/Si interface; (4) Surface recombination velocity deduced from photoresponse; (5) Current-Voltage analyses of silicon N+/P cells; and (6) Gated diode device studies.

  20. Tunable removal rates of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and polysilicon films during chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandu, Veera P. R.

    Achieving a high Si3N4 removal rate and a relatively low SiO2 removal rate, which is challenging but promising for emerging applications for sub-32 nm node devices, was investigated. This was thought to be impossible as the removal of Si3N4 usually follows a two-step mechanism in which silicon nitride is hydrolyzed first and then removed during CMP. Therefore, additives normally used to suppress the SiO 2 removal rate would tend to suppress the S3N4 removal rate as well. However, it was shown that by using a specific type of a cationic polymer in ceria-based dispersions, a low SiO2 removal rate (<2 nm/min) and relatively high Si3N4 removal rate (˜120 nm/min) can be achieved. These results have been extended to processes involved in MEMS and FinFET fabrication, where a polysilicon layer has to be selectively polished/protected with respect to silicon dioxide and/or silicon nitride layers. Several dispersions were identified which yield tunable removal rates of polysilicon (from <2 nm/min to ˜1 microm/min), silicon dioxide (<2 nm/min to ˜500 nm/min) and silicon nitride (<2 nm/min to ˜120 nm/min) films. This has been made possible by using several additives in ceria and silica based dispersions with and without surface functionalization at different pH values. A fundamental investigation of the interaction of the additive(s) with the abrasives, SiO2 Si3N4, and polysilicon films was also carried out in order to elucidate the removal mechanisms. Zeta potential measurements, UV-Vis Spectroscopy, adsorption isotherms and thermo gravimetric analysis were performed to understand the adsorption behavior of these additives on abrasives and polishing films at different pH values. It was observed that the Ce3+ on the surface of the ceria abrasives is reacting with the silicon dioxide and suboxide on the silicon nitride surfaces during polishing. Also, it appears that electrostatic interactions in conjunction with the reactivity of the active sites on the surface of

  1. Guided photoluminescence study of Nd-doped silicon rich silicon oxide and silicon rich silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirasteh, Parastesh; Charrier, Joël; Dumeige, Yannick; Doualan, Jean-Louis; Camy, Patrice; Debieu, Olivier; Liang, Chuan-hui; Khomenkova, Larysa; Lemaitre, Jonathan; Boucher, Yann G.; Gourbilleau, Fabrice

    2013-07-01

    Planar waveguides made of Nd3+-doped silicon rich silicon oxide (SRSO) and silicon rich silicon nitride (SRSN) have been fabricated by reactive magnetron sputtering and characterized with special emphasis on the comparison of the guided photoluminescence (PL) properties of these two matrices. Guided fluorescence excited by top surface pumping at 488 nm on planar waveguides was measured as a function of the distance between the excitation area and the output of the waveguide, as well as a function of the pump power density. The PL intensity increased linearly with pump power without any saturation even at high power. The linear intensity increase of the Nd3+ guided PL under a non-resonant excitation (488 nm) confirms the efficient coupling between either Si-np and rare-earth ions for SRSO or radiative defects and rare earth ions for SRSN. The guided fluorescences at 945 and 1100 nm were observed until 4 mm and 8 mm of the output of the waveguide for Nd3+ doped SRSO and SRSN waveguides, respectively. The guided fluorescence decays of Nd3+-doped-SRSO and -SRSN planar waveguides have been measured and found equal to 97 μs ±7 and 5 μs ± 2, respectively. These results show notably that the Nd3+-doped silicon rich silicon oxide is a very promising candidate on the way to achieve a laser cavity at 1.06 μm.

  2. Silicon Nitride Windows for Electron Microscopy of Whole Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ring, E. A.; Peckys, D. B.; Dukes, M. J.; Baudoin, J. P.; de Jonge, N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Silicon microchips with thin electron transparent silicon nitride windows provide a sample support that accommodates both light-, and electron microscopy of whole eukaryotic cells in vacuum or liquid, with minimum sample preparation steps. The windows are robust enough that cellular samples can be cultured directly onto them, with no addition of a supporting film, and no need to embed or section the sample, as is typically required in electron microscopy. By combining two microchips, a microfluidic chamber can be constructed for the imaging of samples in liquid in the electron microscope. We provide microchip design specifications, a fabrication outline, instructions on how to prepare them for biological samples, and examples of images obtained using different light-, and electron microscopy modalities. The use of these microchips is particularly advantageous for correlative light-, and electron microscopy. PMID:21770941

  3. An Electromagnetically Excited Silicon Nitride Beam Resonant Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deyong; Wu, Zhengwei; Liu, Lei; Shi, Xiaojing; Wang, Junbo

    2009-01-01

    A resonant microbeam accelerometer of a novel highly symmetric structure based on MEMS bulk-silicon technology is proposed and some numerical modeling results for this scheme are presented. The accelerometer consists of two proof masses, four supporting hinges, two anchors, and a vibrating triple beam, which is clamped at both ends to the two proof masses. LPCVD silicon rich nitride is chosen as the resonant triple beam material, and parameter optimization of the triple-beam structure has been performed. The triple beam is excited and sensed electromagnetically by film electrodes located on the upper surface of the beam. Both simulation and experimental results show that the novel structure increases the scale factor of the resonant accelerometer, and ameliorates other performance issues such as cross axis sensitivity of insensitive input acceleration, etc. PMID:22573956

  4. Mechanical properties measurement of silicon nitride thin films using the bulge test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hun Kee; Ko, Seong Hyun; Han, Jun Soo; Park, HyunChul

    2007-12-01

    The mechanical properties of silicon nitride films are investigated. Freestanding films of silicon nitride are fabricated using the MEMS technique. The films were deposited onto (100) silicon wafers by LPCVD (Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition). Square and rectangular membranes are made by anisotropic etching of the silicon substrates. Then the bulge test for silicon nitride film was carried out. The thickness of specimens was 0.5, 0.75 and 1μm respectively. By testing both square and rectangular membranes, the reliability and valiant-ness of bulge test with regard to the shape of specimens was investigated. Also considering residual stress in the films, one can evaluate the Young's modulus from experimental load-deflection curves. Young's modulus of the silicon nitride films was about 232GPa. The residual stress is below 100MPa.

  5. Thermal properties of silicon nitride beams below 1 Kelvin.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Novosad, V.; Datesman, A.; Pearson, J.; Shustakova, G.; Divan, R.; Chang, C.; McMahon, J.; Bleem, L.; Crites, A. T.; Downes, T.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Univ. of Chicago

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the thermal transport of long, narrow beams of silicon nitride at cryogenic temperatures. Simultaneously employing a superconducting Transition Edge Sensor (TES) as both a heater and a sensor, we measured the thermal conductance of 1 {micro}m thick silicon nitride beams of different lateral dimensions. Based upon these measurements, we calculate the thermal parameters of the beams. We utilize a boundary limited phonon scattering model and assume the phonon mean free path to be temperature independent in the calculation. In the temperature range from 300 mK to 530 mK, the following results are obtained for 20 (30) {micro}m beams: the volume heat capacity is 0.083 T+0.509 T{sup 3} J/m{sup 3}-K, the width dependent phonon mean free path is 9.60 (11.05) {micro}m, and the width dependent thermal conductivity is 5.60 x 10{sup -3} T+3.41 x 10{sup -2} T{sup 3} (6.50 x 10{sup -3} T+3.93 x 10{sup -2} T{sup 3}) W/m-K.

  6. Thermal Properties of Silicon Nitride Beams Below 1 Kelvin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Yefremenko, V.; Novosad, V.; Datesman, A.; Pearson, J.; Shustakova, G.; Divan, R.; Chang, C.; McMahon, J.; Bleem, L.; Crites, A. T.; Downes, T.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the thermal transport of long, narrow beams of silicon nitride at cryogenic temperatures. Simultaneously employing a superconducting Transition Edge Sensor (TES) as both a heater and a sensor, we measured the thermal conductance of 1 μm thick silicon nitride beams of different lateral dimensions. Based upon these measurements, we calculate the thermal parameters of the beams. We utilize a boundary limited phonon scattering model and assume the phonon mean free path to be temperature independent in the calculation. In the temperature range from 300 mK to 530 mK, the following results are obtained for 20 (30) μm beams: the volume heat capacity is 0.083 T+0.509 T3 J/m3-K, the width dependent phonon mean free path is 9.60 (11.05) μm, and the width dependent thermal conductivity is 5.60×10-3 T+3.41×10-2 T3 (6.50×10-3 T+3.93×10-2 T3) W/m-K.

  7. Advanced optical modelling of dynamically deposited silicon nitride layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojevic, N.; Hameiri, Z.; Winderbaum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic deposition of silicon nitrides using in-line plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems results in non-uniform structure of the dielectric layer. Appropriate analysis of such layers requires the optical characterization to be performed as a function of the layer's depth. This work presents a method to characterize dynamically deposited silicon nitride layers. The method is based on the fitting of experimental spectroscopic ellipsometry data via grading of Tauc-Lorentz optical parameters through the depth of the layer. When compared with the standard Tauc-Lorentz fitting procedure, used in previous studies, the improved method is demonstrating better quality fits to the experimental data and revealing more accurate optical properties of the dielectric layers. The most significant advantage of the method is the ability to extract the depth profile of the optical properties along the direction of the layer normal. This is enabling a better understanding of layers deposited using dynamic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems frequently used in the photovoltaic industry.

  8. Friction and wear behavior of in-situ reinforced silicon nitride. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yust, C.S.

    1995-10-01

    Specimens of in-situ-reinforced silicon nitride (ISRSH) have been wear tested in lubricated, reciprocating, sliding motion against a silicon nitride counterface. Only mild wear of the ISRSN was observed at contact pressures up to 4.8 GPa at an average sliding velocity of 0.3 m/s. At 0.6 m/s, a wear mode transition was observed in ISRSN at 4.2 - 4.4 GPa. In comparison, the wear mode transition in silicon carbide whisker reinforced silicon nitride at both velocities was evident at about 2.2 - 2.4 GPa. Scanning electron microscopy of the ISRSN wear surfaces revealed the presence of a 40 pm thick debris layer on the mild wear tracks. The ISRSN wear mode transition response indicated a potential for an improved wear resistance in this material as compared to whisker reinforced silicon nitride.

  9. Reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from wet attrition-milled silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Shaw, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon powder wet milled in heptane was dried, compacted into test bar shape, helium-sintered, and then reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 vol% hydrogen. As-nitrided bend strengths averaged approximately 290 MPa at both room temperature and 1400 C. Fracture initiation appeared to be associated with subsurface flaws in high-strength specimens and both subsurface and surface flaws in low-strength specimens.

  10. Reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from wet attrition-milled silicon. [fractography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herball, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.; Shaw, N. J.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon powder wet milled in heptane was dried, compacted into test bar shape, helium-sintered, and then reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 volume percent hydrogen. As-nitrided bend strengths averaged approximately 290 MPa at both room temperature and 1400 C. Fracture initiation appeared to be associated with subsurface flaws in high strength specimens and both subsurface and surface flaws in low strength specimens.

  11. Role of nitrogen in the downstream etching of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M.G.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Stevens, J.E.

    1996-07-01

    Chemical downstream etching of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) requires the addition of nitrogen to the discharge for obtaining efficient etch rates. A 10{percent} addition of N{sub 2} to a CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} discharge (CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} = 1.2, 0.525 Torr) causes a factor of 6 increase in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etch rate and a 8{percent} decrease in the silicon dioxide etch rate. The result is selectivities approaching 9:1. Importantly, the conversion of CF{sub 4} to F and F-containing reactive species by the discharge decreases or remains constant as nitrogen is added to the discharge mix, indicating that the etching reaction is not limited by delivery of these species to the substrate. By measuring the amount of NO and NO{sub 2} in the etch chamber, it is found that the NO concentration increases by a factor of 6 as N{sub 2} is added, while the amount of NO{sub 2} remains small and constant. The NO signal is significantly reduced during nitride etching compared to the signal observed during a discharge with an empty etch chamber, implying that the increase in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etch rate is related to the formation of NO in the discharge. This view is consistent with the observation that an NF{sub 3} plasma in a quartz discharge tube results in a nitride etch rate which is a factor of 2 higher than for the same discharge in a sapphire tube. The conclusion is that the oxygen liberated by erosion of the quartz tube allows the formation of NO. That NO is a key Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} etch reactant was confirmed by performing a series of experiments in which N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were injected into the discharge and then downstream in the reaction chamber during a CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} discharge. Nitride etch rates increased significantly upon injection of NO into both discharge and etch chamber as compared to injection of the other N{sub {ital x}}O{sub {ital y}} species. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  12. Coaxial nanocable: silicon carbide and silicon oxide sheathed with boron nitride and carbon

    PubMed

    Zhang; Suenaga; Colliex; Iijima

    1998-08-14

    Multielement nanotubes comprising multiple phases, with diameters of a few tens of nanometers and lengths up to 50 micrometers, were successfully synthesized by means of reactive laser ablation. The experimentally determined structure consists of a beta-phase silicon carbide core, an amorphous silicon oxide intermediate layer, and graphitic outer shells made of boron nitride and carbon layers separated in the radial direction. The structure resembles a coaxial nanocable with a semiconductor-insulator-metal (or semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor) geometry and suggests applications in nanoscale electronic devices that take advantage of this self-organization mechanism for multielement nanotube formation. PMID:9703508

  13. Optimization of sinter/HIP parameters of multiphase silicon nitride/silicon carbide ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, D.S.; Moricca, S.; Drennan, J.; Fan, Q.S.; Gu, P.Z.

    1996-12-31

    Multiphase silicon carbide reinforced silicon nitride materials were sintered using 3 techniques, (1) pressureless sintering, (2) post-sinter HIPing and (3) sintering and HIPing in the same cycle (sinter/HIP). The materials have been characterized with respect to their microstructure, phase relationships and mechanical properties. The materials reached almost the theoretical density using the 3 sintering methods, but this was achieved at a lower temperature with sinter/HIPing. A balance should be sought between the high pressure required for high density and the prevention of excessive nitrogen (pressurizing gas) dissolution in the glassy grain boundary phases. The optimization of sinter/HIP parameters are discussed with respect to sintering mechanisms.

  14. Crystallization of the glassy grain boundary phase in silicon nitride ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The role was studied of the intergranular glassy phase in silicon nitride as-processed with yttria as a sintering aid. The microstructure, crystallization, and viscosity of the glassy phase were areas studied. Crystallization of the intergranular glassy phase to more refractory crystalline phases should improve the high temperature mechanical properties of the silicon nitride. The addition of a nucleating agent will increase the rate of crystallization. The measurement of the viscosity of the glassy phase will permit the estimation of the high temperature deformation of the silicon nitride.

  15. Infiltration of reaction-bonded silicon nitride with equilibrium Y-Si-O-N melt

    SciTech Connect

    Sheu, T.S. . Dept. of Biologic and Materials Science)

    1994-02-01

    An equilibrium Y-Si-O-N melt was infiltrated to eliminate the open porosity of reaction-bonded silicon nitride at 1600--1800 C. This oxynitride melt contained two equilibrium phases, a [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] solid phase and a liquid phase at high temperatures. Before infiltration, porous reaction-bonded silicon nitride compacts were heat-treated to completely transform to the [beta]-Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] phase. After infiltration, the flexural strength of the reaction-bonded silicon nitride material increased from 200 to 600 MPa at 25 C, from 200 to 300 MPa at 1400 C in air.

  16. Elevated temperature mechanical behavior of monolithic and SiC whisker-reinforced silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Choi, Sung R.; Sanders, William A.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a 30 volume percent SiC whisker reinforced silicon nitride and a similar monolithic silicon nitride were measured at several temperatures. Measurements included strength, fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, dynamic fatigue susceptibility, post oxidation strength, and creep rate. Strength controlling defects were determined with fractographic analysis. The addition of SiC whiskers to silicon nitride did not substantially improve the strength, fracture toughness, or crack growth resistance. However, the fatigue resistance, post oxidation strength, and creep resistance were diminished by the whisker addition.

  17. Scale-up of the nitridation and sintering of silicon preforms using microwave heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.; Davisson, C.C.; Morrow, M.S.; Garvey, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    Scale-up studies were performed in which microwave heating was used to fabricate reaction-bonded silicon nitride and sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride (SRBSN). Tests were performed in both a 2.45 GHz, 500 liter and a 2.45 GHz, 4,000 liter multimode cavities. A variety of sizes, shapes, and compositions of silicon preforms were processed in the studies, including bucket tappets and clevis pins for diesel engines. Up to 230 samples were processed in a single microwave furnace run. Data were collected which included weight gains for nitridation experiments, and final densities for nitridation and sintering experiments. For comparison, nitridation and sintering studies were performed using a conventional resistance-heated furnace.

  18. Single-layer graphene on silicon nitride micromembrane resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Silvan; Guillermo Villanueva, Luis; Amato, Bartolo; Boisen, Anja; Bagci, Tolga; Zeuthen, Emil; Sørensen, Anders S.; Usami, Koji; Polzik, Eugene S.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Marcus, Charles M.; Cheol Shin, Yong; Kong, Jing

    2014-02-07

    Due to their low mass, high quality factor, and good optical properties, silicon nitride (SiN) micromembrane resonators are widely used in force and mass sensing applications, particularly in optomechanics. The metallization of such membranes would enable an electronic integration with the prospect for exciting new devices, such as optoelectromechanical transducers. Here, we add a single-layer graphene on SiN micromembranes and compare electromechanical coupling and mechanical properties to bare dielectric membranes and to membranes metallized with an aluminium layer. The electrostatic coupling of graphene covered membranes is found to be equal to a perfectly conductive membrane, without significantly adding mass, decreasing the superior mechanical quality factor or affecting the optical properties of pure SiN micromembranes. The concept of graphene-SiN resonators allows a broad range of new experiments both in applied physics and fundamental basic research, e.g., for the mechanical, electrical, or optical characterization of graphene.

  19. Distribution patterns of different carbon nanostructures in silicon nitride composites.

    PubMed

    Tapasztó, Orsolya; Markó, Márton; Balázsi, Csaba

    2012-11-01

    The dispersion properties of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as mechanically exfoliated few layer graphene flakes within the silicon nitride ceramic matrix have been investigated. Small angle neutron scattering experiments have been employed to gain information on the dispersion of the nano-scale carbon fillers throughout the entire volume of the samples. The neutron scattering data combined with scanning electron microscopy revealed strikingly different distribution patterns for different types of carbon nanostructures. The scattering intensities for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) reveal a decay exponent characteristic to surface fractals, which indicate that the predominant part of nanotubes can be found in loose networks wrapping the grains of the polycrystalline matrix. By contrast, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were found to be present mainly in the form of bulk aggregate structures, while few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes have been individually dispersed within the host matrix, under the very same preparation and processing conditions. PMID:23421284

  20. Dense and homogenous silicon nitride composites containing carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Osendi, M I; Gautheron, F; Miranzo, P; Belmonte, M

    2009-10-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) materials with 1.8 and 5.3 vol.% of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were densified using 7 wt% of sintering additives (Y2O3 +Al2O3). The mixing and sintering procedures produced quite homogenous and dense MWCNT/Si3N4 composites. The nanotubes condition was followed by micro-Raman spectroscopy and no alteration was observed in spite of the relatively high sintering temperatures (approximately 1600 degrees C). Mechanical parameters (hardness, elastic modulus and fracture toughness) of the composites and comparative blank specimens were measured by instrumented indentation and discussed in parallel. Thermal conductivity was also estimated for these specimens. The nanotube orientation effect inherent to pressure assisted sintering methods and the weak interfacial bond between nanotubes and Si3N4 are important factors to explain the mechanical and thermal behaviours of these composites. PMID:19908514

  1. Microstructure and abrasive wear in silicon nitride ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2001-10-01

    It is well known that abrasive wear resistance is not strictly a materials property, but also depends upon the specific conditions of the wear environment. Nonetheless, characteristics of the ceramic microstructure do influence its hardness and fracture toughness and must, therefore, play an active role in determining howa ceramic will respond to the specific stress states imposed upon it by the wear environment. In this study, the ways in which composition and microstructure influence the abrasive wear behavior of six commercially-produced silicon nitride based ceramics are examined. Results indicate that microstructural parameters, such as matrix grain size and orientation, porosity, and grain boundary microstructure, and thermal expansion mismatch stresses created as the result of second phase formation, influence the wear rate through their effect on wear sheet formation and subsurface fracture. It is also noted that the potential impact of these variables on the wear rate may not be reflected in conventional fracture toughness measurements.

  2. Mechanical properties of sputtered silicon nitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, M.; Cáceres, D.; Prieto, C.

    2003-12-01

    Silicon nitride thin films were prepared by reactive sputtering from different sputtering targets and using a range of Ar/N2 sputtering gas mixtures. The hardness and the Young's modulus of the samples were determined by nanoindentation measurements. Depending on the preparation parameters, the obtained values were in the ranges 8-23 and 100-210 GPa, respectively. Additionally, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction were used to characterize samples with respect to different types of bonding, atomic concentrations, and structure of the films to explain the variation of mechanical properties. The hardness and Young's modulus were determined as a function of film composition and structure and conditions giving the hardest film were found. Additionally, a model that assumes a series coupling of the elastic components, corresponding to the Si-O and Si-N bonds present in the sample has been proposed to explain the observed variations of hardness and Young's modulus.

  3. Improved performance of silicon nitride-based high temperature ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbrook, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the production of Si3N4 based ceramics is reviewed: (1) high temperature strength and toughness of hot pressed Si3N4 were improved by using high purity powder and a stabilized ZrO2 additive, (2) impact resistance of hot pressed Si3N4 was increased by the use of a crushable energy absorbing layer, (3) the oxidation resistance and strength of reaction sintered Si3N4 were increased by impregnating reaction sintered silicon nitride with solutions that oxidize to Al2O3 or ZrO2, (4) beta prime SiA1ON compositions and sintering aids were developed for improved oxidation resistance or improved high temperature strength.

  4. Supersonic jet epitaxy of aluminum nitride on silicon (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kyle A.; Ustin, S. A.; Lauhon, L.; Ho, W.

    1996-05-01

    Single phase aluminum nitride (0001) has been grown on atomically clean silicon (100) substrates (720 °C≥Ts≥620 °C) with dual supersonic molecular beam gas sources. The precursors used were triethylaluminum [TEA; Al(C2H5)3] and ammonia (NH3). The maximum growth rate obtained was 0.1 μm/h. The growth rate was found to depend strongly on the kinetic energy of the incident precursors. Single phase films were grown 200-400 nm thick. Structural x-ray studies reveal 2θ full widths at half-maxima between 0.20° and 0.35° for the AlN (0002) peak.

  5. Evaluation of Silicon Nitride for Brayton Turbine Wheel Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Marc R.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) is being evaluated as a risk-reduction alternative for a Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Brayton turbine wheel in the event that the Prometheus program design requirements exceed the creep strength of the baseline metallic superalloys. Five Si3N4 ceramics, each processed by a different method, were screened based on the Weibull distribution of bend strength at 1700 F (927 C). Three of the Si3N4 ceramics, Honeywell AS800, Kyocera SN282, and Saint-Gobain NT154, had bend strengths in excess of 87 ksi (600 MPa) at 1700 F (927 C). These were chosen for further assessment and consideration for future subcomponent and component fabrication and testing.

  6. Optical manipulation of microparticles and cells on silicon nitride waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaugiran, S.; Gétin, S.; Fedeli, J. M.; Colas, G.; Fuchs, A.; Chatelain, F.; Dérouard, J.

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate the optical manipulation of cells and dielectric particles on the surface of silicon nitride waveguides. Glass particles with 2μm diameter are propelled at velocities of 15μm/s with a guided power of 20mW. This is approximately 20 times more efficient than previously reported, and permits to use this device on low refractive index objects such as cells. Red blood cells and yeast cells can be trapped on the waveguide and pushed along it by the action of optical forces. This kind of system can easily be combined with various integrated optical structures and opens the way to the development of new microsystems for cell sorting applications.

  7. Conductivity of materials made of aluminum nitride and silicon nitride mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbatov, A. G.; Kamyshov, V. M.

    1978-01-01

    To establish the possible mechanism for conductivity in aluminum nitride a study was made of the electric conductivity of pure AlN and its mixtures with silicon nitride at different temperatures and partial pressures of nitrogen in the gas phase. The thermoelectromotive force was also measured. The experiments used polycrystalline samples of cylindrical shape 18 mm in diameter made of powders by hot pressing in graphite press molds at a temperature of 1973-2273 K and pressure 1,470,000 n/sqm. The items obtained by this method had porosity not over 5%. After pressing, the samples were machined to remove carbon from the surface, and were annealed in a stream of dry ammonia for 10 h at a temperature of 1273-1373 K. Electric conductivity was measured according to the bridge scheme on an alternating current of frequency 10 kHz. In order to guarantee close contact of the platinum electrodes with the surface of the samples, a thin layer of platinum was sprayed on them. Experiments were conducted in the temperature interval 1273-1573 K with a half hour delay at each assigned temperature with heating and cooling.

  8. Resistance of Silicon Nitride Turbine Components to Erosion and Hot Corrosion/oxidation Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangmen, Thomas E.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride turbine components are under intensive development by AlliedSignal to enable a new generation of higher power density auxiliary power systems. In order to be viable in the intended applications, silicon nitride turbine airfoils must be designed for survival in aggressive oxidizing combustion gas environments. Erosive and corrosive damage to ceramic airfoils from ingested sand and sea salt must be avoided. Recent engine test experience demonstrated that NT154 silicon nitride turbine vanes have exceptional resistance to sand erosion, relative to superalloys used in production engines. Similarly, NT154 silicon nitride has excellent resistance to oxidation in the temperature range of interest - up to 1400 C. Hot corrosion attack of superalloy gas turbine components is well documented. While hot corrosion from ingested sea salt will attack silicon nitride substantially less than the superalloys being replaced in initial engine applications, this degradation has the potential to limit component lives in advanced engine applications. Hot corrosion adversely affects the strength of silicon nitride in the 850 to 1300 C range. Since unacceptable reductions in strength must be rapidly identified and avoided, AlliedSignal and the NASA Lewis Research Center have pioneered the development of an environmental life prediction model for silicon nitride turbine components. Strength retention in flexure specimens following 1 to 3300 hour exposures to high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion has been measured and used to calibrate the life prediction model. Predicted component life is dependent upon engine design (stress, temperature, pressure, fuel/air ratio, gas velocity, and inlet air filtration), mission usage (fuel sulfur content, location (salt in air), and times at duty cycle power points), and material parameters. Preliminary analyses indicate that the hot corrosion resistance of NT154 silicon nitride is adequate for AlliedSignal's initial engine

  9. Studies on the scale-up of the microwave-assisted nitridation and sintering of reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Kiggans, J.O.: Tiegs, T.N.; Kimrey, H.D.

    1996-05-01

    Studies using laboratory test samples have shown that microwave heating produces sintered reaction-bonded silicon nitride materials with improved properties. The final challenge for processing this material by microwave heating is the development of a technology for processing larger batch-size quantities of these materials. Initial microwave scale-up experiments were performed using powder compacts of a bucket tappet geometry. In experiments using microwave-transparent boron nitride sample crucibles, temperature gradients within some crucibles led to larger variations in the sample densities than were obtained with the conventionally processed samples. The use of a microwave-suscepter type crucible made of silicon carbide and boron nitride resulted in an improved temperature uniformity and in density variations comparable to those obtained for the control groups.

  10. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J.

    1996-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  11. Use of additives to improve microstructures and fracture resistance of silicon nitride ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Becher, Paul F.; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2011-06-28

    A high-strength, fracture-resistant silicon nitride ceramic material that includes about 5 to about 75 wt-% of elongated reinforcing grains of beta-silicon nitride, about 20 to about 95 wt-% of fine grains of beta-silicon nitride, wherein the fine grains have a major axis of less than about 1 micron; and about 1 to about 15 wt-% of an amorphous intergranular phase comprising Si, N, O, a rare earth element and a secondary densification element. The elongated reinforcing grains have an aspect ratio of 2:1 or greater and a major axis measuring about 1 micron or greater. The elongated reinforcing grains are essentially isotropically oriented within the ceramic microstructure. The silicon nitride ceramic exhibits a room temperature flexure strength of 1,000 MPa or greater and a fracture toughness of 9 MPa-m.sup.(1/2) or greater. The silicon nitride ceramic exhibits a peak strength of 800 MPa or greater at 1200 degrees C. Also included are methods of making silicon nitride ceramic materials which exhibit the described high flexure strength and fracture-resistant values.

  12. Thermal Residual Stress in Environmental Barrier Coated Silicon Nitride - Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Abdul-Aziz; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2009-01-01

    When exposed to combustion environments containing moisture both un-reinforced and fiber reinforced silicon based ceramic materials tend to undergo surface recession. To avoid surface recession environmental barrier coating systems are required. However, due to differences in the elastic and thermal properties of the substrate and the environmental barrier coating, thermal residual stresses can be generated in the coated substrate. Depending on their magnitude and nature thermal residual stresses can have significant influence on the strength and fracture behavior of coated substrates. To determine the maximum residual stresses developed during deposition of the coatings, a finite element model (FEM) was developed. Using this model, the thermal residual stresses were predicted in silicon nitride substrates coated with three environmental coating systems namely barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS), rare earth mono silicate (REMS) and earth mono di-silicate (REDS). A parametric study was also conducted to determine the influence of coating layer thickness and material parameters on thermal residual stress. Results indicate that z-direction stresses in all three systems are small and negligible, but maximum in-plane stresses can be significant depending on the composition of the constituent layer and the distance from the substrate. The BSAS and REDS systems show much lower thermal residual stresses than REMS system. Parametric analysis indicates that in each system, the thermal residual stresses can be decreased with decreasing the modulus and thickness of the coating.

  13. Ultra efficient silicon nitride grating coupler with bottom grating reflector.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jinghui; Yu, Yu; Ye, Mengyuan; Liu, Lei; Deng, Shupeng; Zhang, Xinliang

    2015-10-01

    We theoretically propose a silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)) grating coupler (GC) with both ultrahigh efficiency and simplified fabrication processes. Instead of using a bottom distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) or metal reflector, a bottom Si grating reflector (GR) with comparable reflectivity is utilized to improve the coupling efficiency. The fully etched Si GR is designed based on an industrially standard silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with 220 nm top Si layer. By properly adjusting the trench width and period length of the Si GR, a high reflectivity over 90% is obtained. The Si(3)N(4) GC is optimized based on a common 400 nm Si(3)N(4) layer sitting on the Si GR with a SiO(2) separation layer. With an appropriate distance between the Si(3)N(4) GC and bottom Si GR, a low coupling loss of -1.47 dB is theoretically obtained using uniform GC structure. A further record ultralow loss of -0.88 dB is predicted by apodizing the Si(3)N(4) GC. The specific fabrication processes and tolerance are also investigated. Compared with DBR, the bottom Si GR can be easily fabricated by single step of patterning and etching, simplifying the fabrication processes. PMID:26480144

  14. Fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramics using binder jetting technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinskiy, L.; Ripetsky, A.; Sitnikov, S.; Solyaev, Y.; Kahramanov, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the binder jetting technology application for the processing of the Si3N4-based ceramics. The difference of the developed technology from analogues used for additive manufacturing of silicon nitride ceramics is a method of the separate deposition of the mineral powder and binder without direct injection of suspensions/slurries. It is assumed that such approach allows reducing the technology complexity and simplifying the process of the feedstock preparation, including the simplification of the composite materials production. The binders based on methyl ester of acrylic acid with polyurethane and modified starch were studied. At this stage of the investigations, the technology of green body's fabrication is implemented using a standard HP cartridge mounted on the robotic arm. For the coordinated operation of the cartridge and robot the specially developed software was used. Obtained green bodies of silicon powder were used to produce the ceramic samples via reaction sintering. The results of study of ceramics samples microstructure and composition are presented. Sintered ceramics are characterized by fibrous α-Si3N4 structure and porosity up to 70%.

  15. Synthesis of fine-grained .alpha.-silicon nitride by a combustion process

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A combustion synthesis process for the preparation of .alpha.-silicon nitride and composites thereof is disclosed. Preparation of the .alpha.-silicon nitride comprises the steps of dry mixing silicon powder with an alkali metal azide, such as sodium azide, cold-pressing the mixture into any desired shape, or loading the mixture into a fused, quartz crucible, loading the crucible into a combustion chamber, pressurizing the chamber with nitrogen and igniting the mixture using an igniter pellet. The method for the preparation of the composites comprises dry mixing silicon powder (Si) or SiO.sub.2, with a metal or metal oxide, adding a small amount of an alkali metal azide such as sodium azide, introducing the mixture into a suitable combustion chamber, pressurizing the combustion chamber with nitrogen, igniting the mixture within the combustion chamber, and isolating the .alpha.-silicon nitride formed as a reaction product.

  16. Microwave Nitridation of Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts for Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, J.; Kiggans, J.O.; Suman, A.W.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1999-01-01

    This cooperative project was a joint development program between Eaton Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess up-scale of the microwave nitridation process using a more intricate-shaped part designed for application in advanced diesel engines. Eaton Corporation mined access to microwave facilities and expertise for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA established with Eaton Corporation and ORNL was to develop cost-effective silicon nitride ceramics compared to the current materials available. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Demonstrated that the binder burnout step can be incorporated into the SRBSN processing in the microwave furnace. (2) Scale-up of the microwave nitridation process using Eaton Corporation parts showed that the nitridation weight gains were essentially identical to those obtained by conventional heating. (3) Combined nitridation and sintering processes using silicon nitride beads as packing powders results in degradation of the mechanical properties. (4) Gelcasting of silicon nitride materials using Eaton Si mixtures was demonstrated.

  17. Graphene metallization of high-stress silicon nitride resonators for electrical integration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunwoo; Adiga, Vivekananda P; Barton, Robert A; van der Zande, Arend M; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Ilic, B Rob; Gondarenko, Alexander; Parpia, Jeevak M; Craighead, Harold G; Hone, James

    2013-09-11

    High stress stoichiometric silicon nitride resonators, whose quality factors exceed one million, have shown promise for applications in sensing, signal processing, and optomechanics. Yet, electrical integration of the insulating silicon nitride resonators has been challenging, as depositing even a thin layer of metal degrades the quality factor significantly. In this work, we show that graphene used as a conductive coating for Si3N4 membranes reduces the quality factor by less than 30% on average, which is minimal when compared to the effect of conventional metallization layers such as chromium or aluminum. The electrical integration of Si3N4-Graphene (SiNG) heterostructure resonators is demonstrated with electrical readout and electrostatic tuning of the frequency by up to 0.3% per volt. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of hybrid graphene/nitride mechanical resonators in which the electrical properties of graphene are combined with the superior mechanical performance of silicon nitride. PMID:23905749

  18. Bend strengths of reaction bonded silicon nitride prepared from dry attrition milled silicon powder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    Dry attrition milled silicon powder was compacted, sintered in helium, and reaction bonded in nitrogen-4 volume percent hydrogen. Bend strengths of bars with as-nitrided surfaces averaged as high as 210 MPa at room temperature and 220 MPa at 1400 C. Bars prepared from the milled powder were stronger than those prepared from as-received powder at both room temperature and at 1400 C. Room temperature strength decreased with increased milling time and 1400 C strength increased with increased milling time.

  19. Improved multicrystalline silicon ingot quality using single layer silicon beads coated with silicon nitride as seed layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    babu, G. Anandha; Takahashi, Isao; Matsushima, Satoru; Usami, Noritaka

    2016-05-01

    We propose to utilize single layer silicon beads (SLSB) coated with silicon nitride as cost-effective seed layer to grow high-quality multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) ingot. The texture structure of silicon nitride provides a large number of nucleation sites for the fine grain formation at the bottom of the crucible. No special care is needed to prevent seed melting, which would lead to decrease of red zone owing to decrease of feedstock melting time. As we expected, mc-Si ingot seeded with SLSB was found to consist of small, different grain orientations, more uniform grain distribution, high percentage of random grain boundaries, less twin boundaries, and low density of dislocation clusters compared with conventional mc-Si ingot grown under identical growth conditions. These results show that the SLSB seeded mc-Si ingot has enhanced ingot quality. The correlation between grain boundary structure and defect structure as well as the reason responsible for dislocation clusters reduction in SLSB seeded mc-Si wafer are also discussed.

  20. Large-scale characterization of silicon nitride-based evanescent couplers at 532nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claes, Tom; Jansen, Roelof; Neutens, Pieter; Du Bois, Bert; Helin, Philippe; Severi, Simone; Van Dorpe, Pol; Deshpande, Paru; Rottenberg, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the photonics community has a renewed attention for silicon nitride.1-3 When deposited at temperatures below 650K with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD),4 it enables photonic circuits fabricated on-top of standard complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) electronics. Silicon nitride is moreover transparent to wavelengths that are visible to the human eye and detectable with available silicon detectors, thus offering a photonics platform for a range of applications that is not accessible with the popular silicon-on-insulator platform. However, first-time-right design of large-scale circuits for demanding specifications requires reliable models of the basic photonic building blocks, like evanescent couplers (Figure 1), components that couple power between multiple waveguides. While these models typically exist for the silicon-on-insulator platform, they still lack maturity for the emerging silicon nitride platform. Therefore, we meticulously studied silicon nitride-based evanescent couplers fabricated in our 200mm-wafer facility. We produced the structures in a silicon nitride film deposited with low-temperature PECVD, and patterned it using optical lithography at a wavelength of 193nm and reactive ion etching. We measured the performance of as much as 250 different designs at 532nm wavelength, a central wavelength in the visible range for which laser sources are widespread. For each design, we measured the progressive transmission of up-to 10 cascaded identical couplers (Figure 2(a)), yielding very accurate figures for the coupling factor (Figure 2(b)). This paper presents the trends extracted from this vast data set (Figure 3), and elaborates on the impact of the couplers bend radius and gap on its coupling factors (Figure 4 and Figure 5). We think that the large- scale characterization of evanescent couplers presented in this paper, in excellent agreement with the simulated performance of the devices, forms the basis for a component

  1. Multisite silicon neural probes with integrated silicon nitride waveguides and gratings for optogenetic applications.

    PubMed

    Shim, Euijae; Chen, Yu; Masmanidis, Sotiris; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal optogenetic perturbation of brain circuit activity often requires light delivery in a precise spatial pattern that cannot be achieved with conventional optical fibers. We demonstrate an implantable silicon-based probe with a compact light delivery system, consisting of silicon nitride waveguides and grating couplers for out-of-plane light emission with high spatial resolution. 473 nm light is coupled into and guided in cm-long waveguide and emitted at the output grating coupler. Using the direct cut-back and out-scattering measurement techniques, the propagation optical loss of the waveguide is measured to be below 3 dB/cm. The grating couplers provide collimated light emission with sufficient irradiance for neural stimulation. Finally, a probe with multisite light delivery with three output grating emitters from a single laser input is demonstrated. PMID:26941111

  2. Generation of cavities in silicon wafers by laser ablation using silicon nitride as sacrificial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, B.; Perez, M. S.; Toro, C.; Lasorsa, C.; Rinaldi, C. A.; Boselli, A.; Lamagna, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout this investigation, experiments on laser ablation with silicon (Si) wafers have been performed using silicon nitride (Si3N4) as a sacrificial layer to find the optimal fluence capable of removing the Si3N4, which allows the subsequent anisotropic etching in Si with potassium hydroxide. As a result, an alternative to the traditional micromachining techniques that require more steps and processing times has been introduced. The effect of the pulse numbers on Si wafers has been studied and it has been observed that when increasing the pulse numbers at the same fluence, the capacity of the pyramidal cavity formed was greater than using only one pulse at higher fluences. Microcavities were performed with a floating Si3N4 layer. This happens to be very useful for the development of drug delivery systems and the manufacture of microarrays. Microcavities were also used as masters for the fabrication of microionizers in polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS).

  3. Preparation of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Daniels, J. G.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Clemons, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers (SiC-Si3N4) by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors is reviewed. Precursor resin, which was prepared by heating tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane or tris(N-methylamino)phenylsilane to about 520 C, was drawn into fibers from the melt and then made unmeltable by humidity conditioning at 100 C and 95 percent relative humidity. The humidity treated precursor fibers were pyrolyzed to ceramic fibers with good mechanical properties and electrical resistivity. For example, SiC-Si3N4 fibers derived from tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane had a tensile rupture modulus of 29 million psi and electrical resistivity of 6.9 x ten to the 8th power omega-cm, which is ten to the twelfth power times greater than that obtained for graphite fibers.

  4. Multisite silicon neural probes with integrated silicon nitride waveguides and gratings for optogenetic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Euijae; Chen, Yu; Masmanidis, Sotiris; Li, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Optimal optogenetic perturbation of brain circuit activity often requires light delivery in a precise spatial pattern that cannot be achieved with conventional optical fibers. We demonstrate an implantable silicon-based probe with a compact light delivery system, consisting of silicon nitride waveguides and grating couplers for out-of-plane light emission with high spatial resolution. 473 nm light is coupled into and guided in cm-long waveguide and emitted at the output grating coupler. Using the direct cut-back and out-scattering measurement techniques, the propagation optical loss of the waveguide is measured to be below 3 dB/cm. The grating couplers provide collimated light emission with sufficient irradiance for neural stimulation. Finally, a probe with multisite light delivery with three output grating emitters from a single laser input is demonstrated.

  5. High gas velocity burner tests on silicon carbide and silicon nitride at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. A.; Probst, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    Specimens of silicon carbide and silicon nitride were exposed to a Mach one gas velocity burner simulating a turbine engine environment. Cyclic tests up to 100 hour duration were conducted at specimen temperatures of 1200 C. A specimen geometry was used that develops thermal stresses during thermal cycling in a manner similar to blades and vanes of a gas turbine engine. Materials were compared on a basis of weight change, dimensional reductions, metallography, fluorescent penetrant inspection, X-ray diffraction analyses, failure mode, and general appearance. One hot pressed SiC, one reaction sintered SiC, and three hot pressed Si3N4 specimens survived the program goal of 100 one-hour cycle exposures. Of the materials that failed to meet the program goal, thermal fatigue was identified as the exclusive failure mode.

  6. Multisite silicon neural probes with integrated silicon nitride waveguides and gratings for optogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Euijae; Chen, Yu; Masmanidis, Sotiris; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Optimal optogenetic perturbation of brain circuit activity often requires light delivery in a precise spatial pattern that cannot be achieved with conventional optical fibers. We demonstrate an implantable silicon-based probe with a compact light delivery system, consisting of silicon nitride waveguides and grating couplers for out-of-plane light emission with high spatial resolution. 473 nm light is coupled into and guided in cm-long waveguide and emitted at the output grating coupler. Using the direct cut-back and out-scattering measurement techniques, the propagation optical loss of the waveguide is measured to be below 3 dB/cm. The grating couplers provide collimated light emission with sufficient irradiance for neural stimulation. Finally, a probe with multisite light delivery with three output grating emitters from a single laser input is demonstrated. PMID:26941111

  7. Preparation of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penn, B. G.; Daniels, J. G.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Clemons, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide-silicon nitride fibers (SiC-Si3N4) by the pyrolysis of polycarbosilazane precursors is reviewed. Precursor resin, which was prepared by heating tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane or tris(N-methylamino)phenylsilane to about 520 C, was drawn into fibers from the melt and then made unmeltable by humidity conditioning at 100 C and 95 percent relative humidity. The humidity treated precursor fibers were pyrolyzed to ceramic fibers with good mechanical properties and electrical resistivity. For example, SiC-Si3N4 fibers derived from tris(N-methylamino)methylsilane had a tensile rupture modulus of 29 million psi and electrical resistivity of 6.9 x ten to the 8th power omega-cm, which is ten to the twelfth power times greater than that obtained for graphite fibers.

  8. High-temperature corrosion of material based on silicon nitride and exposed to salts

    SciTech Connect

    Gogotski, Y.G.; Frantsevich, I.N.; Lavrenko, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    Materials based on silicon nitride or carbide have shown promise for use in manufacturing gas-turbine and diesel engine parts. This paper presents an investigation of the corrosion of a reaction-sintered material based on silicon nitride with the addition of 30% silicon carbide and 2% magnesium oxide, when exposed to melts of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide, or sea salt. The studies show that the material corrodes very little in sea salt or sodium chloride melts, but it is destroyed rapidly in a sodium sulfate melt.

  9. Characterization of silicon nitride particles synthesized in an atmospheric-pressure convection-stabilized arc

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yl; Kong, P.; Pfender, E. )

    1989-03-01

    Silicon nitride powders were synthesized in an atmospheric-pressure convection-stabilized arc using silicon and ammonia as reactants. The morphology and particle size distributions of the silicon nitride particles were characterized by SEM, TEM, and electron diffraction analyses. The silicon nitride particles collected in the plasma reactor were formed by either gas-condensed phase reactions or chemical vapor reactions. The morphologies of the particles formed by gas-condensed phase reactions consisted of {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} prisms, {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matte, {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} needles, and spaghetti-like whiskers. For the homogeneously nucleated particles, the morphologies included dendrites, needles, platelets, and amorphous particles. Most of the particles formed were aggregates with particle size distributions ranging from 500 to 1,500 {angstrom} depending on the location of injection of the reactants.

  10. RF sputtered silicon and hafnium nitrides as applied to 440C steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grill, A.; Aron, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride and hafnium nitride coatings were deposited on oxidized and unoxidized 440C stainless steel substrates. Sputtering was done in mixtures of argon and nitrogen gases from pressed powder silicon nitride and from hafnium metal targets. The coatings and the interface between the coating and substrate were investigated by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. Oxide was found at all interfaces with an interface width of at least 600 A for the oxidized substrates and at least 300 A for the unoxidized substrates. Scratch test results demonstrate that the adhesion of hafnium nitride to both oxidized and unoxidized 440C is superior to that of silicon nitride. Oxidized 440C is found to have increased adhesion, to both nitrides, over that of unoxidized 440C. Coatings of both nitrides deposited at 8 mtorr were found to have increased adhesion to both oxidized and unoxidized 440C over those deposited at 20 mtorr.

  11. Use of anionic surfactants for selective polishing of silicon dioxide over silicon nitride films using colloidal silica-based slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penta, Naresh K.; Amanapu, H. P.; Peethala, B. C.; Babu, S. V.

    2013-10-01

    Four different anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate, dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid (DBSA), dodecyl phosphate and Sodium lauroyl sarcosine, selected from the sulfate, phosphate, and carboxylic family, were investigated as additives in silica dispersions for selective polishing of silicon dioxide over silicon nitride films. We found that all these anionic surfactants suppress the nitride removal rates (RR) for pH ≤4 while more or less maintaining the oxide RRs, resulting in high oxide-to-nitride RR selectivity. The RR data obtained as a function of pH were explained based on pH dependent distributions of surfactant species, change in the zeta potentials of oxide and nitride surfaces, and thermogravimetric data. It appears that the negatively charged surfactant species preferentially adsorb on the positively charged nitride surface below IEP through its electrostatic interactions and form a bilayer adsorption, resulting in the suppression of nitride RRs. In contrast to the surfactants, K2SO4 interacts only weakly with the nitride surface and hence cannot suppress its RR.

  12. Optimization of the gelcasting of a silicon nitride formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; O`Young, K.; Pollinger, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    An optimum gelcasting condition for a silicon nitride formulation was determined using the Taguchi statistical method. An L{sub 8}(4{sup 1} x 2{sup 4}) design, in which the effects of one factor at four levels and four factors at two levels were evaluated in only eight experiments, was used. The factors at two levels were: the total monomer concentration, the monomer/crosslinker ratio, the initiator concentration, and the initiator/catalyst ratio; the factor at four levels was the initiator concentration per mass of the slip. The primary criterion used to determine optimum design was the green strength of the dried part. Three other parameters were also considered: initial slip viscosity, time for the slip viscosity to reach 300 mPa.s at 25{degrees}C, and time for the slip to gel at 50{degrees}C. The optimum gelcasting conditions from the designed experiments predicted 80% increase in green strength (4.3 MPa versus 2.4 MPa, the initial value). The confirmation runs showed only a 60% increase in strength (3.9 MPa).

  13. Occurence and implications of silicon nitride in enstatite chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'd.; Swan, P.; Prombo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride Si3N4, has previously been observed to be a common constituent of acid residues of Qingzhen (EH3) and Indarch (EH4). Ion probe analysis of the Si, N and C isotopic compositions of individual Si3N4 grains from Qingzhen and Indarch acid residues suggest most, if not all, grains are Solar System in origin. A few grains have isotopically anomalous C but this is probably due to small presolar SiC grains adhering to them. In situ observations of the Si3N4 in Qingzhen show that it is only present within, and probably exsolved from, host phases which contain elemental Si in solid solution. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the Si3N4 probably formed during metamorphism and not in the nebula. Thermodynamic calculations also show that sinoite (Si2N2O) and not Si3N4 should be the stable phase during metamorphism. It appears that kinetic factors must have inhibited the formation if sinoite in Qimgzhen and Indarch.

  14. Laser damage studies of silicon oxy-nitride narrowband reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milward, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Keith L.; Sheach, K.; Heinecke, Rudolf A.

    1993-06-01

    A series of sinusoidally modulated, plasma deposited, silicon oxy-nitride, narrow band reflectors have been examined with a view to understanding the relative roles of electric field effects, defect type, surface roughness, thickness, and coating absorption on the laser damage threshold. The damage threshold measurements were made at 0.532 micrometers with a range of spot sizes, a pulse length of 15 ns (full width at half maximum intensity), and each site was tested with 100 shots at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The damage threshold was essentially constant at around 2 J/cm2 for all the samples, and was defect dominated. Three types of topological defects were discovered using a WYKO three dimensional surface profiler, and one of the defect types was responsible for a large fraction of the damage events. It is postulated that this 5 micrometers hemispherical defect may behave either as a microlens which enhances the peak fluence that the underlying coating is subjected to, or as a center for enhanced electric field effects.

  15. Barium aluminosilicate reinforced in situ with silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, K.K.; Freitag, D.W.; Hunn, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    Advanced ceramic composite materials that exhibit high strength and toughness with good thermal shock resistance are needed for emerging high-temperature engineering applications. A recently developed in situ reinforced barium aluminosilicate glass-ceramic shows promise of meeting many of the requirements for these types of applications with the added benefit of low-cost fabrication through densification by pressureless sintering. The material is toughened through in situ growth of rodlike {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains resulting from the {alpha}-{beta} silicon nitride phase transformation. Microstructural development and material properties for temperatures up to 1,400 C are discussed. When compared to monolithic barium aluminosilicate, barium aluminosilicate reinforced with 70% by volume of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows a significant increase in flexural strength (from 80 to 565 MPa) and fracture toughness (from 1.8 to 5.74 MPa {center_dot} m{sup 1/2}) with a high resistance to thermal shock.

  16. Testing of silicon nitride ceramic bearings for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bal, B Sonny; Khandkar, Ashok; Lakshminarayanan, R; Clarke, Ian; Hoffman, Aaron A; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2008-11-01

    Modern ceramic bearings used in total hip arthroplasty (THA) consist of a femoral head (ball) articulating inside a hemispherical acetabular cup (socket); the ball and socket are made of alumina (Al(2)O(3)) and Al(2)O(3)-based composite materials. In the present study, total hip bearings were made from a different ceramic material, silicon nitride (Si(3)N(4)), by sintering and hot isostatic pressing of powders. The resulting material had improved mechanical properties over modern Al(2)O(3) THA bearings, with a flexural strength of 920 +/- 70 MPa, a Weibull modulus of 19, and a fracture toughness of 10 +/- 1 MPa m(1/2). Unlike zirconia-based ceramics that have also been used in THA, accelerated aging of Si(3)N(4) did not adversely affect the flexural strength. In simulated wear tests, Si(3)N(4) acetabular cups produced low-volumetric wear whether articulating against Si(3)N(4) or cobalt-chromium (CoCr) femoral heads. The results of this investigation suggest that Si(3)N(4) may allow improved THA bearings that combine the reliability of metal femoral heads with the low wear advantages of ceramic materials. PMID:18491410

  17. Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Bock, Ryan M; McEntire, Bryan J; Jones, Erin; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Baggio, Greta; Boschetto, Francesco; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Bal, B Sonny

    2016-03-29

    Organisms of Gram-negative phylum bacteroidetes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, underwent lysis on polished surfaces of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics. The antibacterial activity of Si3N4 was mainly the result of chemically driven principles. The lytic activity, although not osmotic in nature, was related to the peculiar pH-dependent surface chemistry of Si3N4. A buffering effect via the formation of ammonium ions (NH4(+)) (and their modifications) was experimentally observed by pH microscopy. Lysis was confirmed by conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, and the bacteria's metabolism was traced with the aid of in situ Raman microprobe spectroscopy. This latter technique revealed the formation of peroxynitrite within the bacterium itself. Degradation of the bacteria's nucleic acid, drastic reduction in phenilalanine, and reduction of lipid concentration were observed due to short-term exposure (6 days) to Si3N4. Altering the surface chemistry of Si3N4 by either chemical etching or thermal oxidation influenced peroxynitrite formation and affected bacteria metabolism in different ways. Exploiting the peculiar surface chemistry of Si3N4 bioceramics could be helpful in counteracting Porphyromonas gingivalis in an alkaline pH environment. PMID:26948186

  18. Photoluminescence and electronic transitions in cubic silicon nitride

    PubMed Central

    Museur, Luc; Zerr, Andreas; Kanaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A spectroscopic study of cubic silicon nitride (γ-Si3N4) at cryogenic temperatures of 8 K in the near IR - VUV range of spectra with synchrotron radiation excitation provided the first experimental evidence of direct electronic transitions in this material. The observed photoluminescence (PL) bands were assigned to excitons and excited and centers formed after the electron capture by neutral structural defects. The excitons are weakly quenched on neutral and strongly on charged defects. The fundamental band-gap energy of 5.05 ± 0.05 eV and strong free exciton binding energy ~0.65 eV were determined. The latter value suggests a high efficiency of the electric power transformation in light in defect-free crystals. Combined with a very high hardness and exceptional thermal stability in air, our results indicate that γ-Si3N4 has a potential for fabrication of robust and efficient photonic emitters. PMID:26725937

  19. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C.; Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.; Carles, R.

    2015-09-01

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiNx) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiNx to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiNx/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiNx matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  20. Ag doped silicon nitride nanocomposites for embedded plasmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bayle, M.; Bonafos, C. Benzo, P.; Benassayag, G.; Pécassou, B.; Carles, R.; Khomenkova, L.; Gourbilleau, F.

    2015-09-07

    The localized surface plasmon-polariton resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) is widely exploited for enhanced optical spectroscopies of molecules, nonlinear optics, photothermal therapy, photovoltaics, or more recently in plasmoelectronics and photocatalysis. The LSPR frequency depends not only of the noble metal NP material, shape, and size but also of its environment, i.e., of the embedding matrix. In this paper, Ag-NPs have been fabricated by low energy ion beam synthesis in silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) matrices. By coupling the high refractive index of SiN{sub x} to the relevant choice of dielectric thickness in a SiN{sub x}/Si bilayer for an optimum antireflective effect, a very sharp plasmonic optical interference is obtained in mid-range of the visible spectrum (2.6 eV). The diffusion barrier property of the host SiN{sub x} matrix allows for the introduction of a high amount of Ag and the formation of a high density of Ag-NPs that nucleate during the implantation process. Under specific implantation conditions, in-plane self-organization effects are obtained in this matrix that could be the result of a metastable coarsening regime.

  1. Optimization of the gelcasting of a silicon nitride formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Omatete, O.O.; Pollinger, J.P.; O`Young, K.

    1995-06-01

    An optimum gelcasting condition for a silicon nitride formulation was determined using the Taguchi statistical method. An L{sub 8}(4{sup 1} {times} 2{sup 4}) design, in which the effects of one factor at four levels and four factors at two levels were evaluated in only eight experiments, was used. The factors at two levels were: the total monomer concentration, the monomer/crosslinker ratio, the initiator concentration, and the initiator/catalyst ratio; the factor at four levels was the initiator concentration per mass of the slip. The primary criterion used to determine optimum design was the green strength of the dried part, although three other parameters were measured: initial slip viscosity, time for the slip viscosity to reach 300 mPa.s. at 25 C, and time for the slip to gel at 50 C. The optimum gelcasting conditions from the designed experiments predicted 80% increase in green strength (4.3 MPa versus 2.4 MPa, the initial value). The confirmation runs showed only a 60% increase (3.8 MPa).

  2. Gas pressure sintering of silicon nitride to optimize fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Tiegs, T.N.; Nunn, S.D.; Beavers, T.M.; Menchhofer, P.A.; Barker, D.L.; Coffey, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Gas-pressure sintering (GPS) can be used to densify silicon nitride containing a wide variety of sintering additives. Parameters affecting the sintering behavior include densification temperature, densification time, grain growth temperature, grain growth time and heating rates. The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-6% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples sintered to high densities at all conditions used in the present study, whereas the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Sr{sub 2}La{sub 4}Yb{sub 4}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} samples required the highest temperatures and longest times to achieve densities {ge}98 % T. D. The main effect on the fracture toughness for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-6% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-2% A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples was the use of a lower densification temperature, which was 1900C in the present study. For the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-Sr{sub 2}La{sub 4}Yb{sub 4}SiO4{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} composition, fracture toughness was sensitive to and improved by a slower heating rate (10c/min), a lower densification temperature (1900`), a higher grain growth temperature (2000C), and a longer grain growth time (2 h).

  3. DNA characterization with Ion Beam Sculpted Silicon Nitride Nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Rollings, Ryan C.; McNabb, David S.; Li, Jiali

    2013-01-01

    Solid state nanopores are emerging as robust single molecule electronic measurement devices and as platforms for confining biomolecules for further analysis. The first silicon nitride nanopore to detect individual DNA molecules were fabricated using ion beam sculpting (IBS), a method that uses broad, low energy ion beams to create nanopores with dimensions ranging from 2 to 20 nm. In this chapter, we discuss the fabrication, characterization, and use of IBS sculpted nanopores as well as efficient uses of pClamp and MATLAB software suites for data acquisition and analysis. The fabrication section will cover the repeatability and the pore size limits. The characterization discussion focuses on the geometric properties as measured by low and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM). The section on translocation experiments focuses on how to use tools commonly available to the nanopore experimenter to determine whether a pore will be useful for experimentation or if it should be abandoned. A memory efficient method of taking data using Clampex’s event-driven mode and dual channel recording will be presented, followed by an easy to implement multi-threshold event detection and classification method using MATLAB software. PMID:22528259

  4. Silicon Nitride Creep Under Various Specimen-Loading Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Holland, Frederic A.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive creep testing of a hot-pressed silicon nitride (NC 132) was performed at 1300 C in air using five different specimen-loading configurations: (1) pure tension, (2) pure compression, (3) four-point uniaxial flexure, (4) ball-on-ring biaxial flexure, and (5) ring-on-ring biaxial flexure. This paper reports experimental results as well as test techniques developed in this work. Nominal creep strain and its rate for a given nominal applied stress were greatest in tension, least in compression, and intermediate in uniaxial and biaxial flexure. Except for the case of compression loading, nominal creep strain generally decreased with time, resulting in a less-defined steady-state condition. Of the four creep formulations-power-law, hyperbolic sine, step, and redistribution--the conventional power-law formulation still provides the most convenient and reasonable estimation of the creep parameters of the NC 132 material. The data base to be obtained will be used to validate the NASA Glenn-developed design code CARES/Creep (ceramics analysis and reliability evaluation of structures and creep).

  5. Silicon nitride Micromesh Bolometer Array for Submillimeter Astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Turner, A D; Bock, J J; Beeman, J W; Glenn, J; Hargrave, P C; Hristov, V V; Nguyen, H T; Rahman, F; Sethuraman, S; Woodcraft, A L

    2001-10-01

    We present the design and performance of a feedhorn-coupled bolometer array intended for a sensitive 350-mum photometer camera. Silicon nitride micromesh absorbers minimize the suspended mass and heat capacity of the bolometers. The temperature transducers, neutron-transmutation-doped Ge thermistors, are attached to the absorber with In bump bonds. Vapor-deposited electrical leads address the thermistors and determine the thermal conductance of the bolometers. The bolometer array demonstrates a dark noise-equivalent power of 2.9 x 10(-17) W/ radicalHz and a mean heat capacity of 1.3 pJ/K at 390 mK. We measure the optical efficiency of the bolometer and feedhorn to be 0.45-0.65 by comparing the response to blackbody calibration sources. The bolometer array demonstrates theoretical noise performance arising from the photon and the phonon and Johnson noise, with photon noise dominant under the design background conditions. We measure the ratio of total noise to photon noise to be 1.21 under an absorbed optical power of 2.4 pW. Excess noise is negligible for audio frequencies as low as 30 mHz. We summarize the trade-offs between bare and feedhorn-coupled detectors and discuss the estimated performance limits of micromesh bolometers. The bolometer array demonstrates the sensitivity required for photon noise-limited performance from a spaceborne, passively cooled telescope. PMID:18364768

  6. Characterization of Idealized Helical Repeat Proteins in Silicon Nitride Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiali; Ledden, Bradley; Talaga, David; Cortajarena, Aitziber; Regan, Lynne

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we report the measurement of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat (CTPR) proteins with single silicon nitride nanopores. The CTPR proteins were measured in KCl solution at pH below and above its isoelectric point (pI), as well as with and without denaturing agent, Guanidine HCl. When a CTPR protein molecule transits through a nanopore driven by an applied voltage, it partially blocks the ions (K^+ and Cl^-) flow in the nanopore and generates a characteristic electric current blockage signal. The current blockage signal reveals information about the size, conformation, and primary sequence of the CTPR protein molecule. Previous translocation studies carried out with DNA have established that higher bias voltages result in shorter duration current blockages indicating that DNA translocates faster at a stronger electric field. However, our CTPR translocation studies show that longer duration current blockades were observed at higher bias voltages. We discuss how the inhomogeneous distribution of the primary charge sequence of the CTPR proteins predicts translocation barriers that are proportional to the bias voltage. Larger barriers at higher bias voltages will result in longer translocation times, consistent with our experimental results.

  7. Occurence and implications of silicon nitride in enstatic chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Swan, P.; Prombo, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon nitride Si3N4, has previously been observed to be a common constituent of acid residues of Qingzhen (EH3) and Indarch (EH4). Ion probe analysis of the Si, N and C isotopic compositions of individual Si3N4 grains from Qingzhen and Indarch acid residues suggest most, if not all, grains are Solar System in origin. A few grains have isotopically anomalous C but this is probably due to small presolar SiC grains adhering to them. In situ observations of the Si3N4 in Qingzhen show that it is only present within, and probably exsolved from, host phases which contain elemental Si in solid solution. Thermodynamic calculations suggest that the Si3N4 probably formed during metamorphism and not in the nebula. Thermodynamic calculations also show that sinoite (Si2N2O) and not Si3N4 should be the stable phase during metamorphism. It appears that kinetic factors must have inhibited the formation if sinoite in Qimgzhen and Indarch.

  8. The electroluminescence mechanism of Er3+ in different silicon oxide and silicon nitride environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebohle, L.; Berencén, Y.; Wutzler, R.; Braun, M.; Hiller, D.; Ramírez, J. M.; Garrido, B.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-09-01

    Rare earth doped metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures are of great interest for Si-based light emission. However, several physical limitations make it difficult to achieve the performance of light emitters based on compound semiconductors. To address this point, in this work the electroluminescence (EL) excitation and quenching mechanism of Er-implanted MOS structures with different designs of the dielectric stack are investigated. The devices usually consist of an injection layer made of SiO2 and an Er-implanted layer made of SiO2, Si-rich SiO2, silicon nitride, or Si-rich silicon nitride. All structures implanted with Er show intense EL around 1540 nm with EL power efficiencies in the order of 2 × 10-3 (for SiO2:Er) or 2 × 10-4 (all other matrices) for lower current densities. The EL is excited by the impact of hot electrons with an excitation cross section in the range of 0.5-1.5 × 10-15 cm-2. Whereas the fraction of potentially excitable Er ions in SiO2 can reach values up to 50%, five times lower values were observed for other matrices. The decrease of the EL decay time for devices with Si-rich SiO2 or Si nitride compared to SiO2 as host matrix implies an increase of the number of defects adding additional non-radiative de-excitation paths for Er3+. For all investigated devices, EL quenching cross sections in the 10-20 cm2 range and charge-to-breakdown values in the range of 1-10 C cm-2 were measured. For the present design with a SiO2 acceleration layer, thickness reduction and the use of different host matrices did not improve the EL power efficiency or the operation lifetime, but strongly lowered the operation voltage needed to achieve intense EL.

  9. Determination of mechanical properties of PECVD silicon nitride thin films for tunable MEMS Fabry Pérot optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Winchester, K.; Liu, Y.; Hu, X. Z.; Musca, C. A.; Dell, J. M.; Faraone, L.

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports an investigation on techniques for determining elastic modulus and intrinsic stress gradient in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride thin films. The elastic property of the silicon nitride thin films was determined using the nanoindentation method on silicon nitride/silicon bilayer systems. A simple empirical formula was developed to deconvolute the film elastic modulus. The intrinsic stress gradient in the films was determined by using micrometric cantilever beams, cross-membrane structures and mechanical simulation. The deflections of the silicon nitride thin film cantilever beams and cross-membranes caused by in-thickness stress gradients were measured using optical interference microscopy. Finite-element beam models were built to compute the deflection induced by the stress gradient. Matching the deflection computed under a given gradient with that measured experimentally on fabricated samples allows the stress gradient of the PECVD silicon nitride thin films introduced from the fabrication process to be evaluated.

  10. Gas source molecular beam epitaxy of scandium nitride on silicon carbide and gallium nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    Scandium nitride (ScN) is a group IIIB transition metal nitride semiconductor with numerous potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices due to close lattice matching with gallium nitride (GaN). However, prior investigations of ScN have focused primarily on heteroepitaxial growth on substrates with a high lattice mismatch of 7%–20%. In this study, the authors have investigated ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas source molecular beam epitaxy (NH{sub 3}-GSMBE) of ScN on more closely lattice matched silicon carbide (SiC) and GaN surfaces (<3% mismatch). Based on a thermodynamic analysis of the ScN phase stability window, NH{sub 3}-GSMBE conditions of 10{sup −5}–10{sup −4} Torr NH{sub 3} and 800–1050 °C where selected for initial investigation. In-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ Rutherford backscattering measurements showed all ScN films grown using these conditions were stoichiometric. For ScN growth on 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° carbon rich surfaces, the observed attenuation of the XPS Si 2p and C 1s substrate core levels with increasing ScN thickness indicated growth initiated in a layer-by-layer fashion. This was consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of 100–200 nm thick films that revealed featureless surfaces. In contrast, ScN films grown on 3C-SiC (111)-(3 × 3) and 3C-SiC (100)-(3 × 2) silicon rich surfaces were found to exhibit extremely rough surfaces in SEM. ScN films grown on both 3C-SiC (111)-(√3 × √3)R30° and 2H-GaN (0001)-(1 × 1) epilayer surfaces exhibited hexagonal (1 × 1) low energy electron diffraction patterns indicative of (111) oriented ScN. X-ray diffraction ω-2θ rocking curve scans for these same films showed a large full width half maximum of 0.29° (1047 arc sec) consistent with transmission electron microscopy images that revealed the films to be poly-crystalline with columnar grains oriented at ≈15° to the [0001] direction of the

  11. Passivation of c-Si surfaces by sub-nm amorphous silicon capped with silicon nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di; Bullock, James; Zhang, Xinyu; Cuevas, Andres

    2015-12-01

    A sub-nm hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film capped with silicon nitride (SiNx) is shown to provide a high level passivation to crystalline silicon (c-Si) surfaces. When passivated by a 0.8 nm a-Si:H/75 nm SiNx stack, recombination current density J0 values of 9, 11, 47, and 87 fA/cm2 are obtained on 10 Ω.cm n-type, 0.8 Ω.cm p-type, 160 Ω/sq phosphorus-diffused, and 120 Ω/sq boron-diffused silicon surfaces, respectively. The J0 on n-type 10 Ω.cm wafers is further reduced to 2.5 ± 0.5 fA/cm2 when the a-Si:H film thickness exceeds 2.5 nm. The passivation by the sub-nm a-Si:H/SiNx stack is thermally stable at 400 °C in N2 for 60 min on all four c-Si surfaces. Capacitance-voltage measurements reveal a reduction in interface defect density and film charge density with an increase in a-Si:H thickness. The nearly transparent sub-nm a-Si:H/SiNx stack is thus demonstrated to be a promising surface passivation and antireflection coating suitable for all types of surfaces encountered in high efficiency c-Si solar cells.

  12. Plasma-enhanced CVD silicon nitride antireflection coatings for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.; Donohoe, K.

    1983-01-01

    Multilayer plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) silicon nitride antireflection coatings were deposited on space quality silicon solar cells. Preliminary experiments indicated that multilayer coatings decreased the total reflectance of polished silicon from 35 percent to less than 3 percent over the spectral range 0.4-1.0 micron. The solar cell energy conversion efficiency was increased from an average of 8.84 percent to an average of 12.63 percent.

  13. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  14. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    DOEpatents

    Huckabee, Marvin; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav; Neil, Jeffrey T.

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 .mu.m and a surface area of about 8-12 m.sup.2 /g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 .mu.m and a surface area of about 2-4 m.sup.2 /g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  15. Fatigue life of high-speed ball bearings with silicon nitride balls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Hot-pressed silicon nitride was evaluated as a rolling-element bearing material. The five-ball fatigue tester was used to test 12.7-mm- diameter silicon nitride balls at maximum Hertz stresses ranging from 4.27 x 10 to the 9th power n/sq m to 6.21 x 10 to the 9th power n/sq m at a race temperature of 328K. The fatigue life of NC-132 hot-pressed silicon nitride was found to be equal to typical bearing steels and much greater than other ceramic or cermet materials at the same stress levels. A digital computer program was used to predict the fatigue life of 120-mm- bore angular-contact ball bearings containing either steel or silicon nitride balls. The analysis indicates that there is no improvement in the lives of bearings of the same geometry operating at DN values from 2 to 4 million where silicon nitride balls are used in place of steel balls.

  16. Silicon nitride ceramic matrix for CMCs from silane derived Si powders and preceramic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Rhine, W.E.; Lightfoot, A.; Seyferth, D.; Haggerty, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    Si powders synthesized by the laser pyrolysis of silane can be nitrided at 1,200--1,250 C, producing an improved reaction bonded silicon nitride. This RBSN is a potential matrix for composites since it can be formed at temperatures which do not degrade the strengths of commercially available amorphous ceramic fibers. However, the density of the RBSN matrix has been limited to about 75% using the silane-derived Si powder. Combining Si powders and preceramic polymers offers an approach for increasing the density and mechanical properties of the reaction-formed Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix. The incorporation of polysilazanes inhibited the nitridation oat 1,250 C, but samples could be effectively nitrided at 1,400 C. These higher nitriding temperatures are compatible with SCS-6 and other low-oxygen, crystalline SiC fibers which can be used as reinforcements for ceramic composites.

  17. Hafnium nitride buffer layers for growth of GaN on silicon

    DOEpatents

    Armitage, Robert D.; Weber, Eicke R.

    2005-08-16

    Gallium nitride is grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (111) and (001) silicon substrates using hafnium nitride buffer layers. Wurtzite GaN epitaxial layers are obtained on both the (111) and (001) HfN/Si surfaces, with crack-free thickness up to 1.2 {character pullout}m. However, growth on the (001) surface results in nearly stress-free films, suggesting that much thicker crack-free layers could be obtained.

  18. Enhanced proliferation and osteocalcin production by human osteoblast-like MG63 cells on silicon nitride ceramic discs.

    PubMed

    Kue, R; Sohrabi, A; Nagle, D; Frondoza, C; Hungerford, D

    1999-07-01

    The biocompatibility of silicon nitride (Si3N4) was assessed in an in vitro model using the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cell line. Cells were propagated on the surface of: reaction-bonded silicon nitride discs, sintered after reaction-bonded silicon nitride discs or control polystyrene surface for 48 h. Compared to cells propagated on polystyrene surface, cells grown on the surface of unpolished silicon nitride discs had significantly lower cell yield and decreased osteocalcin production. In contrast, cells on the surface of polished silicon nitride discs showed similar proliferative capacity to control cells propagated on polystyrene surface. Cells propagated on polished discs also produced higher levels of osteocalcin than cells on unpolished discs. SEM analysis showed cells with well-delineated morphology and cytoplasmic extensions when propagated on polished sintered after reaction-bonded discs. Cells appeared more spherical, when grown on polished reaction-bonded discs. The results of this study suggest that silicon nitride is a non-toxic, biocompatible ceramic surface for the propagation of functional human bone cells in vitro. Its high wear resistance and ability to support bone cell growth and metabolism make silicone nitride an attractive candidate for clinical application. Further studies are needed to explore the feasibility of using silicon nitride clinically as an orthopedic biomaterial. PMID:10395388

  19. Crystal quality and growth evolution of aluminum nitride on silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Craig G.; Wu, Yuan; Keller, Stacia; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.; Emerson, David

    2006-05-01

    High quality base layer aluminum nitride films have become increasingly desirable with the advent of deep ultraviolet (<280 nm) emitters for water purification, solid state lighting, and biochemical detection applications. In this study, the influence of the MOCVD growth conditions on the structural properties of aluminum nitride grown on silicon carbide, both as-delivered and chemomechanically polished, was studied. Pre-deposition nitridation of the SiC substrate, growth temperature, growth rate, ammonia flow (V/III ratio), and gallium surfactants were explored. Films were analyzed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction.

  20. Ion bombardment-induced mechanical stress in plasma-enhanced deposited silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Claassen, W.A.P.

    1987-03-01

    The authors have studied the influence of different deposition conditions on the mechanical stress of silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride layers formed by plasma-enhanced deposition onto silicon substrates. It appears that the mechanical stress of the as-deposited silicon (oxy)nitride layer is a combined effect of the extent of ion bombardment and the deposition temperature on the hydrogen desorption rate. Deposited films show a tensile stress character when the hydrogen desorption rate is thermally controlled, whereas in the case of an ion-bombardment-controlled hydrogen desorption rate the deposited films have a compressive stress. It is also shown that due to annealing at temperatures above the deposition temperature the films are densified as a result of hydrogen desorption and cross-linking.

  1. Tensile test of pressureless-sintered silicon nitride at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsusue, K.; Fujisawa, Y.; Takahara, K.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial tensile strength tests of pressureless sintered silicon nitride were carried out in air at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 1600 C. Silicon nitrides containing Y2O3, Al2O3, Al2O3-MgO, or MgO-CeO2 additives were tested. The results show that the composition of the additive used influences the strength characteristics of the silicon nitride. The tensile strength rapidly decreased at temperatures above 1000 C for the materials containing MgO as the additive and above 1000 C for the material with Y2O3. When the temperature increased to as high as 1300 C, the strength decreased to about 10 percent of the room temperature strength in each case. Observations of the fracture origin and of the crack propagation on the fracture surfaces are discussed.

  2. Transient and steady-state erosion of in-situ reinforced silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Karasek, K.R.; Whalen, P.J.; Rateick, R.G. Jr.; Hamilton, A.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    Relative to most other materials silicon nitride is very erosion resistant. However, the resulting surface flaws degrade strength - a serious concern for component designers. AlliedSignal Ceramic Components GS-44 in-situ reinforced silicon nitride was eroded in a slinger apparatus. Both transient (extremely low level) and steady-state erosion regimes were investigated. Alumina particles with effective average diameters of 140 Jim and 63 {mu}m were used at velocities of 50 m/s, 100 m/s, and 138 m/s. Biaxial tensile strength was measured. Strength decreased by about 15% after a very small erodent dosage and then remained virtually constant with further erosion. In-situ reinforcement produces R-curve behavior in which the fracture toughness increases with crack size. The effect of this is quite dramatic with strength loss being significantly less than expected for a normal silicon nitride with constant fracture toughness.

  3. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting. PMID:25294975

  4. Si Passivation and Chemical Vapor Deposition of Silicon Nitride: Final Technical Report, March 18, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, H. A.

    2007-11-01

    This report investigated chemical and physical methods for Si surface passivation for application in crystalline Si and thin Si film photovoltaic devices. Overall, our efforts during the project were focused in three areas: i) synthesis of silicon nitride thin films with high hydrogen content by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition; ii) investigation of the role of hydrogen passivation of defects in crystalline Si and Si solar cells by out diffusion from hydrogenated silicon nitride films; iii) investigation of the growth kinetics and passivation of hydrogenated polycrystalline. Silicon nitride films were grown by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition and film properties have been characterized as a function of SiH4/NH3 flow ratio. It was demonstrated that hot-wire chemical vapor deposition leads to growth of SiNx films with controllable stoichiometry and hydrogen.

  5. Foreign Object Damage in Flexure Bars of Two Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Pereira, J. Michael; Janosik, Lesley A.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

    2004-01-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) behavior of two commercial gas-turbine grade silicon nitrides, AS800 and SN282, was determined at ambient temperature through strength testing of flexure test specimens impacted by steel ball projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm in a velocity range from 220 to 440 m/s. AS800 silicon nitride exhibited a greater FOD resistance than SN282, primarily due to its greater value of fracture toughness (K(sub lc)). The use of an additional equiaxed, fine-grained silicon nitride (NC132) showed that fracture toughness was a key material parameter affecting FOD resistance. The observed damages generated by projectile impact were typically in the forms of well- or ill-developed ring and cone cracks with little presence of radial cracks.

  6. The effects of annealing temperature on the photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardera, G.; Puzzer, T.; Perez-Wurfl, I.; Conibeer, G.

    2008-07-01

    The room temperature photoluminescence from silicon nitride multilayer structures, grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, is monitored for different annealing temperatures and is correlated to structural and molecular changes in the film. Use of various annealing temperatures from 600 °C to 1150 °C results in films which vary from being completely amorphous to an amorphous matrix containing silicon nanocrystals, and finally to a fully crystallized composite containing silicon, α-Si 3N 4 and β-Si 3N 4 nanocrystals. Coupled with the observed trends seen with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and infra-red absorbance with annealing temperature, the photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in amorphous silicon nitride is attributed to the presence of the nanocrystals in the film and not to transitions between band tails of the remaining amorphous matrix.

  7. Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride/silicon carbide ceramic nanocomposites derived from polymer precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasch, Matthew Jeremy

    Creep deformation of silicon nitride and silicon carbide ceramics is dominated by a solution-precipitation process through the glassy interface phase at grain boundary regions, which is formed by the reaction of oxide additives with the silicon oxide surface layer of the ceramic powder particles during liquid phase sintering. The ultimate approach to increase the creep resistance of these materials is to decrease the oxide content at the grain boundaries, rendering the solution-precipitation process non-effective. This research presents a new method of enhancing the creep properties of silicon nitride/silicon carbide composites by forming micro-nano and nano-nano microstructures during sintering. Starting from amorphous Si-C-N powders of micrometric size particles, powders were consolidated in three ways: (1) Consolidation of pyrolyzed powders without additives, (2) Electric Field Assisted Sintering (EFAS) of pyrolyzed powders with and without additives and (3) High pressure sintering. In all three cases, nanocomposites with varied grain size were achieved. High temperature mechanical creep testing was performed on the samples sintered by EFAS. Creep rates ranged from 1 x 10-8/s to 1 x 10-11/s depending on method in which powders were prepared and total oxide additive amount. For samples with high oxide contents the stress exponent was found to be n ˜ 2 with an activation energy of Q ˜ 600kJ/mol*K, indicating the typical solution precipitation process of deformation. But for the nano-nano composites sintered with little to none oxide additive, the stress exponent was found to be n ˜ 1 with and activation energy of Q ˜ 200kJ/mol*K, hinting at a diffusion controlled mechanism of creep deformation. For the nano-nano composites sintered without oxide additives, oxygen was found in the microstructure. However, oxygen contamination was found to distribute at grain boundary regions especially triple junctions. It is suggested that this highly dispersed distribution of

  8. Critical flaw size in silicon nitride ball bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, George Arthur

    Aircraft engine and bearing manufacturers have been aggressively pursuing advanced materials technology systems solutions to meet main shaft-bearing needs of advanced military aircraft engines. Ceramic silicon nitride hybrid bearings are being developed for such high performance applications. Though silicon nitride exhibits many favorable properties such as high compressive strength, high hardness, a third of the density of steel, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high corrosion and temperature resistance, they also have low fracture toughness and are susceptible to failure from fatigue spalls emanating from pre-existing surface flaws that can grow under rolling contact fatigue (RCF). Rolling elements and raceways are among the most demanding components in aircraft engines due to a combination of high cyclic contact stresses, long expected component lifetimes, corrosive environment, and the high consequence of fatigue failure. The cost of these rolling elements increases exponentially with the decrease in allowable flaw size for service applications. Hence the range of 3D non-planar surface flaw geometries subject to RCF is simulated to determine the critical flaw size (CFS) or the largest allowable flaw that does not grow under service conditions. This dissertation is a numerical and experimental investigation of surface flaws in ceramic balls subjected to RCF and has resulted in the following analyses: Crack Shape Determination: the nucleation of surface flaws from ball impact that occurs during the manufacturing process is simulated. By examining the subsurface Hertzian stresses between contacting spheres, their applicability to predicting and characterizing crack size and shape is established. It is demonstrated that a wide range of cone and partial cone cracks, observed in practice, can be generated using the proposed approaches. RCF Simulation: the procedure and concerns in modeling nonplanar 3D cracks subject to RCF using FEA for stress intensity

  9. Toxicity in vitro of some silicon carbides and silicon nitrides: whiskers and powders.

    PubMed

    Svensson, I; Artursson, E; Leanderson, P; Berglind, R; Lindgren, F

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the toxicity of silicon carbide whiskers and powders and silicon nitride whiskers and powders and to compare their toxicity with the toxicity of crocidolite. The effects studied were inhibition of the cloning efficiency of V79 cells, formation of DNA strand breaks by means of a nick translation assay, formation of oxygen radicals in three different assays, and the ability to stimulate neutrophils to produce hydroxyl radicals. All materials showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the cloning efficiency of V79 cells. The inhibition by the most toxic whiskers was in the same order of magnitude as that of crocidolite. Milled whiskers and powders were less toxic than the whiskers. There was a high DNA breaking potential for crocidolite and four of the silicon carbide whiskers and a rather low one for the other materials. Formation of hydroxyl radicals was found for crocidolite and one of the silicon carbide whiskers. In the neutrophil activation test, there was a great variation in the different materials' abilities to activate neutrophils. There was also a good correlation between chemiluminescence and H2O2 formation. The highest activation was found in neutrophils exposed to two of the silicon carbide whiskers and one milled whisker. The conclusion of the investigation is that some of the ceramic materials studied had damaging biological effects comparable to or greater than those of crocidolite. The results from the investigation clearly imply that caution is needed in the introduction of new ceramic fiber materials, so that the correct precautions and protective devices are used in order to avoid harm to the personnel handling the material. PMID:9055957

  10. Si quantum dots in silicon nitride: Quantum confinement and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharova, L. V. Karner, V. L.; D'Ortenzio, R.; Chaudhary, S.; Mokry, C. R.; Simpson, P. J.; Nguyen, P. H.

    2015-12-14

    Luminescence of amorphous Si quantum dots (Si QDs) in a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}:H) matrix was examined over a broad range of stoichiometries from Si{sub 3}N{sub 2.08} to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4.14}, to optimize light emission. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition was used to deposit hydrogenated SiN{sub x} films with excess Si on Si (001) substrates, with stoichiometry controlled by variation of the gas flow rates of SiH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} gases. The compositional and optical properties were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-laser-excited PL spectra show multiple emission bands from 400 nm (3.1 eV) to 850 nm (1.45 eV) for different Si{sub 3}N{sub x} compositions. There is a red-shift of the measured peaks from ∼2.3 eV to ∼1.45 eV as Si content increases, which provides evidence for quantum confinement. Higher N content samples show additional peaks in their PL spectra at higher energies, which we attribute to defects. We observed three different ranges of composition where Tauc band gaps, PL, and PL lifetimes change systematically. There is an interesting interplay of defect luminescence and, possibly, small Si QD luminescence observed in the intermediate range of compositions (∼Si{sub 3}N{sub 3.15}) in which the maximum of light emission is observed.