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Sample records for alkaline battery electrodes

  1. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  2. Additive for activating iron electrodes in alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, G.; Haschka, F.

    1981-02-10

    An additive is disclosed for the iron electrodes of alkaline batteries which prevents and counteracts the tendency of iron electrodes to become passive and ineffective. The additive consists of sulfide, selenide or telluride which is sparingly soluble in the electrolyte and has a decomposition potential more electronegative than the final charging potential of the iron electrode. The additive may be placed in the active electrode material during manufacture but may also be placed in the battery during or after manufacture, for example in tablet form. The additive may also be introduced in a manner permitting subsequent activation by electrochemical methods. A number of examples is presented.

  3. Investigation of electrode materials for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcand, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    A number of amalgam electrode systems were investigated for possible use as high rate anodes and cathodes. The systems examined include: lithium, sodium, and potassium in Group 1, magnesium, calcium, and barium in Group 2, aluminum in Group 3, lead in Group 4, copper in Group 1b, and zinc and cadmium in Group 2b. The K(Hg) and Na(Hg) anodes in 10 VF and 15 VF (an unambiguous expression of concentration that indicates the number of formula weights of solute dissolved in a liter of solution) hydroxide solutions have proven satisfactory; some of these have produced current densities of more than 8 A/sq cm. None of the amalgam cathodes have approached this performance although the TI(Hg) has delivered 1 A/sq cm. Se(Hg) and Te(Hg) cathodes have given very stable discharges. Zn(Hg) and Cd(Hg) electrodes did not show good high rate characteristics, 200 to 300 mA/sq cm being about the maximum current densities obtainable. Both anodes are charged through a two-step process in which M(Hg) is first formed electrochemically and subsequently reduces Zn(II or Cd(II) to form the corresponding amalgam. The second step is extremely rapid for zinc and very slow for cadmium.

  4. Development of flexible secondary alkaline battery with carbon nanotube enhanced electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqian; Mitra, Somenath

    2014-11-01

    We present the development of flexible secondary alkaline battery with rechargeability similar to that of conventional secondary alkaline batteries. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were added to both electrodes to reduce internal resistance, and a cathode containing carbon black and purified MWCNTs was found to be most effective. A polyvinyl alcohol-poly (acrylic acid) copolymer separator served the dual functions of electrolyte storage and enhancing flexibility. Additives to the anode and cathode were effective in reducing capacity fades and improving rechargeability.

  5. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  6. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  7. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  8. The fabrication of a bifunctional oxygen electrode without carbon components for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Stephen W. T.; Thompson, Stephen J.; Li, Xiaohong; Gorman, Scott F.; Pletcher, Derek; Russell, Andrea E.; Walsh, Frank C.; Wills, Richard G. A.

    2014-08-01

    The fabrication of a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) without carbon components is described. It is therefore suitable for use as a bifunctional oxygen electrode in alkaline secondary batteries. The electrode is fabricated in two stages (a) the formation of a PTFE-bonded nickel powder layer on a nickel foam substrate and (b) the deposition of a NiCo2O4 spinel electrocatalyst layer by dip coating in a nitrate solution and thermal decomposition. The influence of modifications to the procedure on the performance of the GDEs in 8 M NaOH at 333 K is described. The GDEs can support current densities up to 100 mA cm-2 with state-of-the-art overpotentials for both oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction. Stable performance during >50 successive, 1 h oxygen reduction/evolution cycles at a current density of 50 mA cm-2 has been achieved.

  9. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  10. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  12. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  13. Modified carbon-free silver electrodes for the use as cathodes in lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmaier, Dennis; Wagner, Norbert; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Amin, Hatem M. A.; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2014-11-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes with silver catalysts show a high activity towards oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media but a rather poor activity towards oxygen evolution reaction. For the use in future lithium-air batteries with an aqueous alkaline electrolyte the activity of such electrodes must be improved significantly. As Co3O4 is a promising metal oxide catalyst for oxygen evolution in alkaline media, silver electrodes were modified with Co3O4. For comparison silver electrodes were also modified with IrO2. Due to the poor stability of carbon materials at high anodic potentials these gas diffusion electrodes were prepared without carbon support to improve especially the long-term stability. Gas diffusion electrodes were electrochemically investigated in an electrochemical half-cell arrangement. In addition to cyclic voltammograms electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out. SEM and XRD were used for the physical and morphological investigations. Investigations showed that silver electrodes containing 20 wt.% Co3O4 exhibited the highest performance and highest long-term stability. For comparison, rotating - ring - disc - electrode experiments have been performed using model electrodes with thin catalyst layers, showing that the amount of hydrogen peroxide evolved is negligible.

  14. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  15. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  16. Rechargeable Zn-MnO sub 2 alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, W.J.; Reichman, B.; Bullock, K.R.; Kao, W.H. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper progress in the development of rechargeable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells is described. The advantages and limitations of the system are evaluated. Laboratory tests run on commercial primary alkaline cells as well as model simulations of a bipolar MnO{sub 2} electrode show that the rechargeable alkaline battery may be able to compete with lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and secondary lithium cells for low- to moderate-rate applications. However, because of this poor performance at high rates and low temperatures, the alkaline MnO{sub 2} battery is not suitable for present automotive starting applications.

  17. Flexible separator for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Device is fabricated from low-cost readily-available commercial-materials by automated methods utilizing conventional paper coating processes. Flexibility of unit prevents cracking and disintegration caused by electrode warpage and dendrite growth, major causes of early battery failure with present separators.

  18. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  19. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  20. Assembly and electrochemical properties of novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery using Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres as electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Jinqing; Li, Zhangpeng; Niu, Lengyuan; Hong, Wei; Yang, Shengrong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 microspheres are synthesized by solvothermal method. Then, a novel alkaline rechargeable Ni/Bi battery is assembled for the first time using the synthesized Ni(OH)2 and (BiO)4CO3(OH)2 as the positive electrode and negative electrode materials, respectively. As a result, the assembled Ni/Bi battery delivers a high specific capacity of 113 mAh g-1 at a discharge rate of 0.2C based on the total mass of the electrode materials, as well as a high energy density of 92 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 27.3 W kg-1.

  1. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  2. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  3. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Jr., Philip N.

    1989-01-01

    An improved zinc electrode is disclosed for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed which utilizes the improved zinc electrode and further includes an alkaline electrolyte within said battery circulating through the passageways in the zinc electrode and an external electrolyte circulation means which has an electrolyte reservoir external to the battery case including filter means to filter solids out of the electrolyte as it circulates to the external reservoir and pump means for recirculating electrolyte from the external reservoir to the zinc electrode.

  4. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  5. A universial gas absorber for sealed alkaline storage batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Tsenter, B.I.; Laurenov, V.M.

    1986-02-01

    The authors describe a universal gas absorber for all types of sealed alkaline storage batteries. The absorber is illustrated and consists of matrix-type nickel-gas cells which are connected in series, have a common gas compartment, and are electrolytically insulated from each other. The gas electrode of the nickel gas cell is bifunctional; it functions in oxygen ionization and in hydrogen ionization. The solid-phase nickel-oxide electrode is a powder-metallurgical design. Absorbers of the present type are universal, both in the sense that they will absorb oxygen, hydrogen, or a mixture of these gases, and in the sense that they can be used for sealed alkaline storage batteries of any type.

  6. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  7. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  8. Fundamental principals of battery design: Porous electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Deyang

    2014-06-01

    The fundamental aspects of a porous electrode from electrochemistry and material chemistry standpoints are discussed in the light of battery engineering designs. For example, the ionic diffusion, the electrode-electrolyte interface, interfacial charge transfer and electrode catalytic processes are discussed. The discussion of such fundamental electrochemical aspects is in conjunction with the design of batteries, e.g. the electrochemical assessable surface area for porous electrode, electrode catalytic reactions. The porous electrodes used as a gas diffusion electrode and the electrode in a supercapacitor are discussed to demonstrate the application of electrochemical principals in battery design.

  9. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable

  10. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  11. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  12. Fabrication of high-performance flexible alkaline batteries by implementing multiwalled carbon nanotubes and copolymer separator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqian; Wu, Zheqiong; Bramnik, Natalia; Mitra, Somenath

    2014-02-12

    A flexible alkaline battery with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) enhanced composite electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) copolymer separator has been developed. Purified MWCNTs appear to be the most effective conductive additive, while the flexible copolymer separator not only enhances flexibility but also serves as electrolyte storage. PMID:24510667

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  15. Separator for alkaline batteries and method of making same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    The preparation of membranes suitable for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells by selective solvolysis of copolymers of methacrylate esters with acrylate esters followed by addition of a base and to the resultant products is described. The method of making copolymers by first copolymerizing a methacrylate ester (or esters) with a more readily hydrolyzable ester, followed by a selective saponification whereby the methacrylate ester moieties remain essentially intact and the readily hydrolyzable ester moiety is suponified and to the partial or complete neutralization of the relatively brittle copolymer acid with a base to make membranes which are sufficiently flexible in the dry state so that they may be wrapped around electrodes without damage by handling is described.

  16. Diffusion induced stresses in buckling battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandakkar, Tanmay K.; Johnson, Harley T.

    2012-06-01

    Highly networked nanostructured battery electrode materials offer the possibility of achieving both rapid battery charge-discharge rates and high storage capacity. Recently, lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes based on a 2-D honeycomb architecture were shown to undergo remarkable and reversible morphological changes during the lithiation process. Charge-discharge rates in 3-D composite electrode have also been shown to benefit from sandwiching the electrolytically active material between highly conductive ion and electron transport pathways to reduce electrical resistance and solid-state diffusion lengths. In the present work we simulate and analyze the observed morphological changes in honeycomb electrodes, with and without the presence of conductive pathways, during the lithiation-delithiation process. Diffusion induced stresses are analyzed for such structures undergoing elastic-plastic deformation during cycling. The results show that such a periodic, nanostructured electrode geometry allows for the presence of buckling-like deformation modes, which effectively reduce the resulting mechanical stresses that lead to electrode failure.

  17. Fabrication of a three-electrode battery using hydrogen-storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chi-Woo; Seo, Jung-Yong; Moon, Hyung-Seok; Park, Hyun-Young; Nam, Na-Yun; Cho, Sung Min; Yoo, Pil J.; Chung, Chan-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an energy storage device using a three-electrode battery is fabricated. The charging process takes place during electrolysis of the alkaline electrolyte where hydrogen is stored at the palladium bifunctional electrode. Upon discharging, power is generated by operating the alkaline fuel cell using hydrogen which is accumulated in the palladium hydride bifunctional electrode during the charging process. The bifunctional palladium electrode is prepared by electrodeposition using a hydrogen bubble template followed by a galvanic displacement reaction of platinum in order to functionalize the electrode to work not only as a hydrogen storage material but also as an anode in a fuel cell. This bifunctional electrode has a sufficiently high surface area and the platinum catalyst populates at the surface of electrode to operate the fuel cell. The charging and discharging performance of the three-electrode battery are characterized. In addition, the cycle stability is investigated.

  18. A facile chemical route for recovery of high quality zinc oxide nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Deep, Akash; Sharma, Amit L; Mohanta, Girish C; Kumar, Parveen; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of spent domestic batteries has gained a great environmental significance. In the present research, we propose a new and simple technique for the recovery of high-purity zinc oxide nanoparticles from the electrode waste of spent alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries. The electrode material was collected by the manual dismantling and mixed with 5M HCl for reaction with a phosphine oxide reagent Cyanex 923® at 250°C for 30min. The desired ZnO nanoparticles were restored from the Zn-Cyanex 923 complex through an ethanolic precipitation step. The recovered particle product with about 5nm diameter exhibited fluorescent properties (emission peak at 400nm) when excited by UV radiation (excitation energy of 300nm). Thus, the proposed technique offered a simple and efficient route for recovering high purity ZnO nanoparticles from spent alkaline batteries. PMID:26851168

  19. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  20. Silver manganese oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2006-05-09

    This invention relates to electrodes for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries with silver manganese oxide positive electrodes, denoted AgxMnOy, in which x and y are such that the manganese ions in the charged or partially charged electrodes cells have an average oxidation state greater than 3.5. The silver manganese oxide electrodes optionally contain silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrodes and to improve the power capability of the cells or batteries. The invention relates also to a method for preparing AgxMnOy electrodes by decomposition of a permanganate salt, such as AgMnO4, or by the decomposition of KMnO4 or LiMnO4 in the presence of a silver salt.

  1. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R.; Lu, Wenquan

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In some embodiments the additives include a substituted or unsubstituted cyclic or spirocyclic hydrocarbon containing at least one oxygen atom and at least one alkenyl or alkynyl group. When used in electrochemical devices with, e.g., lithium manganese oxide spinel electrodes or olivine or carbon-coated olivine electrodes, the new electrolytes provide batteries with improved calendar and cycle life.

  2. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  3. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  4. Light Weight Design Nickel-Alkaline Cells Using Fiber Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, David F.; Willis, Bob; Britton, Doris; Saelens, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Using fiber electrode technology, currently produced by Bekaert Corporation (Bekaert), Electro Energy, Inc., (EEI) Mobile Energy Products Group (formerly, Eagle-Picher Technologies, LLC., Power Systems Department) in Colorado Springs, CO has demonstrated that it is feasible to manufacture flight weight nickel-hydrogen cells having about twice the specific energy (80 vs. 40 watt-hr/kg) as state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen cells that are flown on geosynchronous communications satellites. Although lithium-ion battery technology has made large in-roads to replace the nickel-alkaline technology (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride), the technology offered here competes with lithium-ion weight and offers alternatives not present in the lithium-ion chemistry such as ability to undergo continuous overcharge, reversal on discharge and sustain rate capability sufficient to start automotive and aircraft engines at subzero temperatures. In development to date seven 50 ampere-hour nickel-hydrogen have been constructed, acceptance tested and briefly tested in a low earth orbit (LEO) cycle regime. The effort was jointly funded by Electro Energy, Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH. Five of the seven cells have been shipped to NASA GRC for further cycle testing. Two of the cells experienced failure due to internal short circuits during initial cycle testing at EEL Destructive Physical Analysis (DPA) of one of the cells has shown the failure mode to be due to inadequate hydrogen catalyst electrodes that were not capacity balanced with the higher energy density nickel oxide electrodes. In the investigators opinion, rebuild of the cells using proper electrode balance would result in cells that could sustain over 30,000 cycles at moderate depths-of-discharge in a LEO regime or endure over 20 years of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) cycling while realizing a two-fold increase in specific energy for the battery or a 1.1 kg weight savings per 50 ampere-hour cell. Additional

  5. Negative electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Vaughey, John T.; Fransson, Linda M.; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2005-02-15

    A negative electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell. The electrode has an intermetallic compound as its basic structural unit with the formula M.sub.2 M' in which M and M' are selected from two or more metal elements including Si, and the M.sub.2 M' structure is a Cu.sub.2 Sb-type structure. Preferably M is Cu, Mn and/or Li, and M' is Sb. Also disclosed is a non-aqueous electrochemical cell having a negative electrode of the type described, an electrolyte and a positive electrode. A plurality of cells may be arranged to form a battery.

  6. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  7. Polymeric metallic electrodes for rechargeable battery applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented on the status of plastic metal electrodes, emphasizing the use of polyacetylene as a prototype polymeric material. The electrochemical characteristics of polyacetylene are examined; and the potential use of this material, as well as other types of plastic metal electrodes, in batteries is evaluated. Several problem areas which must be solved before polyacetylene can be widely used in battery applications are discussed, including the problem of electrolyte stability, the problem that the depth of discharge and the energy density is limited by the metal-semiconductor transition, and also the poor electrochemical performance of impure material.

  8. Separator Materials Used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries Characterized and Evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium (Ni/Cd) and nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) secondary alkaline batteries are vital to aerospace applications. Battery performance and cycle life are significantly affected by the type of separators used in those batteries. A team from NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch developed standardized testing procedures to characterize and evaluate new and existing separator materials to improve performance and cycle life of secondary alkaline batteries. Battery separators must function as good electronic insulators and as efficient electrolyte reservoirs. At present, new types of organic and inorganic separator materials are being developed for Ni/Cd and Ni/H2 batteries. The separator material previously used in the NASA standard Ni/Cd was Pellon 2505, a 100-percent nylon-6 polymer that must be treated with zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to bond the fibers. Because of stricter Environmental Protection Agency regulation of ZnCl2 emissions, the battery community has been searching for new separators to replace Pellon 2505. As of today, two candidate separator materials have been identified; however, neither of the two materials have performed as well as Pellon 2505. The separator test procedures that were devised at Lewis are being implemented to expedite the search for new battery separators. The new test procedures, which are being carried out in the Separator Laboratory at Lewis, have been designed to guarantee accurate evaluations of the properties that are critical for sustaining proper battery operation. These properties include physical and chemical stability, chemical purity, gas permeability, electrolyte retention and distribution, uniformity, porosity, and area resistivity. A manual containing a detailed description of 12 separator test procedures has been drafted and will be used by the battery community to evaluate candidate separator materials for specific applications. These standardized procedures will allow for consistent, uniform

  9. Stability in alkaline aqueous electrolyte of air electrode protected with fluorinated interpenetrating polymer network membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Messaoudi, Houssam; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    We developed original anion exchange membranes to protect air electrodes operating in aqueous lithium-air battery configuration, i.e. supplied with atmospheric air and in concentrated aqueous lithium hydroxide. These protective membranes have an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture combining a hydrogenated cationic polyelectrolyte network based on poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) and a fluorinated neutral network based on perfluoropolyether (Fluorolink® MD700). Two phases, each one rich in one of the polymer, are co-continuous in the materials. This morphology allows combining their properties according to the weight proportions of each polymer. Thus, PECH/Fluorolink IPNs show ionic conductivity varying from 1 to 2 mS cm-1, water uptake from 30 to 90 wt.% and anionic transport number from 0.65 to 0.80 when the PECH proportion varies from 40 to 90 wt.%. These membranes have been systematically assembled on air electrodes. Air electrode protected with PECH/Fluorolink 70/30 IPN shows outstanding stability higher than 1000 h, i.e. a 20-fold increase in the lifetime of the non-modified electrode. This efficient membrane/air electrode assembly is promising for development of alkaline electrolyte based storage or production energy systems, such as metal air batteries or alkaline fuel cells.

  10. Performance of alkaline battery cells used in emergency locator transmitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, G. A.; Sokol, S.; Motley, W. R., III; Mcclelland, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics of battery power supplies for emergency locator transmitters (ELT's) were investigated by testing alkaline zinc/manganese dioxide cells of the type typically used in ELT's. Cells from four manufacturers were tested. The cells were subjected to simulated environmental and load conditions representative of those required for survival and operation. Battery cell characteristics that may contribute to ELT malfunctions and limitations were evaluated. Experimental results from the battery cell study are discussed, and an evaluation of ELT performance while operating under a representative worst-case environmental condition is presented.

  11. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  12. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Kang, Sun-Ho; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2009-12-22

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor thereof a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0.5electrode and 0.ltoreq.y<1 in which the Li.sub.2MnO.sub.3 and LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 components have layered and spinel-type structures, respectively, and in which M is one or more metal cations. The electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  14. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  15. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  16. Electrodeposited inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, W. N., Jr.; Consiglio, J. A.; Mc Quade, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Coating electrodes of silver-cadmium cells with thermostable electrodeposits of calcium hydroxide or magnesium hydroxide reduces silver migration and increases cell life. Absence of organic matter enables assembled cells to be sterilized without oxidation of the material of the separators.

  17. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  18. Manganese oxide composite electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Li, Naichao

    2007-12-04

    An activated electrode for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell is disclosed with a precursor of a lithium metal oxide with the formula xLi.sub.2MnO.sub.3.(1-x)LiMn.sub.2-yM.sub.yO.sub.4 for 0electrode is activated by removing lithia, or lithium and lithia, from the precursor. A cell and battery are also disclosed incorporating the disclosed positive electrode.

  19. Life capability of the silver electrode in alkaline electrochemical cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    Estimates of silver electrode degradation rates were made by comparing the recently measured capacities with the reported early life capacities. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the extent of silver loss from the electrode and its distribution throughout the cell components. The results established that the silver electrode is very stable when stored at reduced temperatures in the range of 0 to -51 C, in which it exhibits a permanent degradation in capacity of 0.5%/year. The results also indicated that the silver electrode is not quite as stable when operated and stored at room temperature, where it exhibits permanent degradation in the range of 3% to 14%/year. These results were employed in predicting the life capability of the proposed new Ag-H2 cell and also in assessing the merits of employing silver electrodes in long-life probe batteries.

  20. Aqueous Rechargeable Alkaline CoxNi2-xS2/TiO2 Battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Ku, Zhiliang; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Lili; Lin, Jianyi; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-26

    An electrochemical energy storage system with high energy density, stringent safety, and reliability is highly desirable for next-generation energy storage devices. Here an aqueous rechargeable alkaline CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery system is designed by integrating two reversible electrode processes associated with OH(-) insertion/extraction in the cathode part and Li ion insertion/extraction in the anode part, respectively. The prototype CoxNi2-xS2 // TiO2 battery is able to deliver high energy/power densities of 83.7 Wh/kg at 609 W/kg (based on the total mass of active materials) and good cycling stabilities (capacity retention 75.2% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles). A maximum volumetric energy density of 21 Wh/l (based on the whole packaged cell) has been achieved, which is comparable to that of a thin-film battery and better than that of typical commercial supercapacitors, benefiting from the unique battery and hierarchical electrode design. This hybrid system would enrich the existing aqueous rechargeable LIB chemistry and be a promising battery technology for large-scale energy storage. PMID:26593375

  1. Solvent processible, high-performance partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) alkaline ionomers for alkaline electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junfeng; Ünlü, Murat; Anestis-Richard, Irene; Kim, Hyea; Kohl, Paul A.

    2011-10-01

    A solvent processable, low water uptake, partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) functionalized with pendant quaternary ammonium groups (QAPAE) was synthesized and uses as the ionomer in alkaline electrodes on fuel cells. The quaternized polymers containing fluorinated biphenyl groups were synthesized via chloromethylation of copoly(arylene ether) followed by amination with trimethylamine. The resulting ionomers were very soluble in polar, aprotic solvents. Highly aminated ionomers had conductivities approaching 10 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Compared to previous ionomers based on quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone) (QAPSF) with similar ion exchange capacity (IEC), the water uptake of QAPAE was significantly less due to the hydrophobic octafluoro-biphenyl groups in the backbone. The performance of the fuel cell electrodes made with the QAPAE ionomers was evaluated as the cathode on a hybrid AEM/PEM fuel cell. The QAPAE alkaline ionomer electrode with IEC = 1.22 meq g-1 had superior performance to the electrodes prepared with QAPSF, IEC = 1.21 meq g-1 at 25 and 60 °C in a H2/O2 fuel cell. The peak power densities at 60 °C were 315 mW cm-2 for QAPAE electrodes and 215 mW cm-2 for QAPSF electrodes.

  2. Graphene-based battery electrodes having continuous flow paths

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Xu, Wu; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu

    2014-05-24

    Some batteries can exhibit greatly improved performance by utilizing electrodes having randomly arranged graphene nanosheets forming a network of channels defining continuous flow paths through the electrode. The network of channels can provide a diffusion pathway for the liquid electrolyte and/or for reactant gases. Metal-air batteries can benefit from such electrodes. In particular Li-air batteries show extremely high capacities, wherein the network of channels allow oxygen to diffuse through the electrode and mesopores in the electrode can store discharge products.

  3. Hybrid Air-Electrode for Li/Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-01-20

    A novel hybrid air-electrode is designed to improve the power density of Li/air batteries operating in an ambient environment. Three lithium insertion materials, MnO2, V2O5, and CFx (x = 1.0 to 1.15), are mixed with activated carbon to prepare different hybrid air-electrodes used in Li/air batteries. When compared with pure carbon-based Li/air batteries, the batteries using hybrid air-electrodes demonstrate significantly improved power capacities, especially for the CFx-based hybrid Li/air batteries. Because it is hydrophobic, CFx also facilitates the formation of air-flow channels in the carbon matrix, and alleviates air-electrode blocking problem during the discharge process. These hybrid air-electrodes provide a promising approach to improve the power density of Li/air batteries.

  4. Battery Electrode Materials with High Cycle Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Brent Fultz

    2001-06-29

    In an effort to understand the capacity fade of nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries, we performed a systematic study of the effects of solute additions on the cycle life of metal hydride electrodes. We also performed a series of measurements on hydrogen absorption capacities of novel carbon and graphite-based materials including graphite nanofibers and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Towards the end of this project we turned our attention to work on Li-ion cells with a focus on anode materials.

  5. Spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    1999-11-10

    This paper gives a historical account of the development of spinel electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research in the late 1970's and early 1980's on high-temperature . Li/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cells led to the evaluation of lithium spinels Li[B{sub 2}]X{sub 4} at room temperature (B = metal cation). This work highlighted the importance of the [B{sub 2}]X{sub 4}spinel framework as a host electrode structure and the ability to tailor the cell voltage by selection of different B cations. Examples of lithium-ion cells that operate with spinel anode/spinel cathode couples are provided. Particular attention is paid to spinels within the solid solution system Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33).

  6. Lightweight Fibrous Ni Electrodes For Ni/H2 Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibrous nickel plaque electrode material reduces weight of nickel/hydrogen batteries by 40 percent. Discharge voltage and discharge time of fibrous electrode greater than those of equivalent standard sintered-powder electrode. Expected to lead to improvements in performances, increases in energy densities, and decreases in costs of nickel electrodes.

  7. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Vissers, Donald R; Lu, Wenquan

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes having electrode stabilizing additives, stabilized electrodes, and electrochemical devices containing the same. Thus the present invention provides electrolytes containing an alkali metal salt, a polar aprotic solvent, and an electrode stabilizing additive. In certain electrolytes, the alkali metal salt is a bis(chelato)borate and the additives include substituted or unsubstituted linear, branched or cyclic hydrocarbons comprising at least one oxygen atom and at least one aryl, alkenyl or alkynyl group. In other electrolytes, the additives include a substituted aryl compound or a substituted or unsubstituted heteroaryl compound wherein the additive comprises at least one oxygen atom. There are also provided methods of making the electrolytes and batteries employing the electrolytes. The invention also provides for electrode materials. Cathodes of the present invention may be further stabilized by surface coating the particles of the spinel or olivine with a material that can neutralize acid or otherwise lessen or prevent leaching of the manganese or iron ions. In some embodiments the coating is polymeric and in other embodiments the coating is a metal oxide such as ZrO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2, ZnO, WO.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, MgO, SiO.sub.2, SnO.sub.2 AlPO.sub.4, Al(OH).sub.3, a mixture of any two or more thereof.

  8. Lithium electronic environments in rechargeable battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hightower, Adrian

    This work investigates the electronic environments of lithium in the electrodes of rechargeable batteries. The use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a novel approach, which when coupled with conventional electrochemical experiments, yield a thorough picture of the electrode interior. Relatively few EELS experiments have been preformed on lithium compounds owing to their reactivity. Experimental techniques were established to minimize sample contamination and control electron beam damage to studied compounds. Lithium hydroxide was found to be the most common product of beam damaged lithium alloys. Under an intense electron beam, halogen atoms desorbed by radiolysis in lithium halides. EELS spectra from a number of standard lithium compounds were obtained in order to identify the variety of spectra encountered in lithium rechargeable battery electrodes. Lithium alloys all displayed characteristically broad Li K-edge spectra, consistent with transitions to continuum states. Transitions to bound states were observed in the Li K and oxygen K-edge spectra of lithium oxides. Lithium halides were distinguished by their systematic chemical shift proportional to the anion electronegativity. Good agreement was found with measured lithium halide spectra and electron structure calculations using a self-consistant multiscattering code. The specific electrode environments of LiC6, LiCoO2, and Li-SnO were investigated. Contrary to published XPS predictions, lithium in intercalated graphite was determined to be in more metallic than ionic. We present the first experimental evidence of charge compensation by oxygen ions in deintercalated LiCoO2. Mossbauer studies on cycled Li-SnO reveal severely defective structures on an atomic scale. Metal hydride systems are presented in the appendices of this thesis. The mechanical alloying of immiscible Fe and Mg powders resulted in single-phase bcc alloys of less than 20

  9. Advanced Flow Battery Electrodes: Low-cost, High-Performance 50-Year Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Primus Power is developing zinc-based, rechargeable liquid flow batteries that could produce substantially more energy at lower cost than conventional batteries. A flow battery is similar to a conventional battery, except instead of storing its energy inside the cell it stores that energy for future use in chemicals that are kept in tanks that sit outside the cell. One of the most costly components in a flow battery is the electrode, where the electrochemical reactions actually occur. Primus Power is investigating and developing mixed-metal materials for their electrodes that could ultimately reduce the lifetime cost of flow batteries because they are more durable and long-lasting than electrodes found in traditional batteries. Using these electrodes, Primus Power’s flow batteries can be grouped together into robust, containerized storage pods for use by utilities, renewable energy developers, businesses, and campuses.

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  11. A simple solvent method for the recovery of LixCoO2 and its applications in alkaline rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Song, Dawei; Li, Li; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, LiFang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-04-01

    A simple solvent method is proposed for the recovery of waste LixCoO2 from lithium-ion batteries, which employs inexpensive DMF to remove the binder of PVDF. This method is convenient to manipulate and low-cost to apply. Electrochemical investigations indicate that recovered LixCoO2 materials with a small amount of S-doping exhibit excellent properties as negative materials for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries. At the discharge current density of 100 mA g-1, the LixCoO2 + 1% S electrode displays the max discharge capacity of 357 mAh g-1 and outstanding capacity retention rate of 85.5% after 100 cycles. It could overcome not only the sophisticated, energy-intensive shortcomings of conventional recycling methods, but also the high-cost restriction on alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries.

  12. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  13. The alkaline zinc electrode as a mixed potential system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielder, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Cathodic and anodic processes for the alkaline zinc electrode in 0.01 molar zincate electrolyte (9 molar hydroxide) were investigated. Cyclic voltammograms and current-voltage curves were obtained by supplying pulses through a potentiostat to a zinc rotating disk electrode. The data are interpreted by treating the system as one with a mixed potential; the processes are termed The zincate and corrosion reactions. The relative proportions of the two processes vary with the supplied potential. For the cathodic region, the cathodic corrosion process predominates at higher potentials while both processes occur simultaneously at a lower potential (i.e., 50 mV). For the anodic region, the anodic zincate process predominates at higher potentials while the anodic corrosion process is dominant at lower potential (i.e., 50 mV) if H2 is present.

  14. Evaluation parameters for the alkaline fuel cell oxygen electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, J.; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were made of Pt- and Au-catalyzed porous electrodes, designed for the cathode of the alkaline H2/O2 fuel cell, employing cyclic voltammetry and the floating half-cell method. The purpose was to obtain parameters from the cyclic voltammograms which could predict performance in the fuel cell. It was found that a satisfactory relationship between these two types of measurement could not be established; however, useful observations were made of relative performance of several types of carbon used as supports for noble metal catalysts and of some Au catalysts. The best half-cell performance with H2/O2 in a 35 percent KOH electrolyte at 80 C was given by unsupported fine particle Au on Teflon; this electrode is used in the Orbiter fuel cell.

  15. Electrodes for H2 and O2 in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Sachin Maruti; Sharon, Madhuri; Sharon, Maheshwar

    2013-06-01

    Pumice plate and carbon felt are tried as electrode for the oxidation for hydrogen and reduction of oxygen in 30% KOH solution. Pumice plate is found to be not suitable for making large area electrode. Carbon felt after depositing conducting carbon by pyrolysis of camphor is found to be hydrophobic. This was used as an electrode for hydrogen oxidation process after depositing platinum (0.2 mg/cm2). This system gives current density of 9.0mA/cm2 and opens circuit potential of 0.423V VsZn/ZnO22-. It is observed that for oxygen reduction process, carbon felt deposited with conducting carbon is sufficient and there is no need to use any electrocatalyst. It is observed that with carbon felt a current density of 89.56mA/cm2 and open circuit potential 1.272 V VsZn/ZnO22- canbe obtained. An over potential of 37mV and 56mV were obtained with carbon felt electrode for hydrogen oxidation process and oxygen reduction process respectively. It is concluded that carbon felt coated with conducting carbon can be used for hydrogen/oxygen alkaline fuel cell.

  16. Intercalation compounds and electrodes for batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Sadoway, Donald R.; Jang, Young-Il; Huang, Biyan

    2004-09-07

    This invention concerns intercalation compounds and in particular lithium intercalation compounds which have improved properties for use in batteries. Compositions of the invention include particulate metal oxide material having particles of multicomponent metal oxide, each including an oxide core of at least first and second metals in a first ratio, and each including a surface coating of metal oxide or hydroxide that does not include the first and second metals in the first ratio formed by segregation of at least one of the first and second metals from the core. The core may preferably comprise Li.sub.x M.sub.y N.sub.z O.sub.2 wherein M and N are metal atom or main group elements, x, y and z are numbers from about 0 to about 1 and y and z are such that a formal charge on M.sub.y N.sub.z portion of the compound is (4-x), and having a charging voltage of at least about 2.5V. The invention may also be characterized as a multicomponent oxide microstructure usable as a lithium intercalation material including a multiphase oxide core and a surface layer of one material, which is a component of the multiphase oxide core, that protects the underlying intercalation material from chemical dissolution or reaction. In a particular preferred example the multicomponent oxide may be an aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide composition. Such aluminum-doped lithium manganese oxide compositions, having an orthorhombic structure, also form a part of the invention. In addition, the invention includes articles, particularly electrodes, for batteries formed from the compositions of the invention, and batteries including such electrodes. The invention further relates to a composite intercalation material comprising at least two compounds in which at least one compound has an orthorhombic structure Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2, where y is nonzero, or a mixture of orthorhombic and monoclinic Li.sub.x Al.sub.y Mn.sub.1-y O.sub.2.

  17. AC impedance study of degradation of porous nickel battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenhart, Stephen J.; Macdonald, D. D.; Pound, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    AC impedance spectra of porous nickel battery electrodes were recorded periodically during charge/discharge cycling in concentrated KOH solution at various temperatures. A transmission line model (TLM) was adopted to represent the impedance of the porous electrodes, and various model parameters were adjusted in a curve fitting routine to reproduce the experimental impedances. Degradation processes were deduced from changes in model parameters with electrode cycling time. In developing the TLM, impedance spectra of planar (nonporous) electrodes were used to represent the pore wall and backing plate interfacial impedances. These data were measured over a range of potentials and temperatures, and an equivalent circuit model was adopted to represent the planar electrode data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the characteristics of the oxygen evolution reaction on planar nickel electrodes during charging, since oxygen evolution can affect battery electrode charging efficiency and ultimately electrode cycle life if the overpotential for oxygen evolution is sufficiently low.

  18. An investigation of zinc electrodes relevant to zinc-air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.S.

    1986-12-01

    The particulate electrode (fluidized bed electrode or moving bed electrode) has been studied to evaluate its possible application to energy storage. The first part of this study is concerned with the effect of current fluctuation on the morphology of zinc electrodeposited on the rotating disc electrode from alkaline zincate electrolyte. The effect of the fluctuation on the morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The deposits under the condition of fluctuating current density were smoother than those formed under constant current density. The second part is concerned with the electrodeposition of zinc from alkaline electrolyte with the cell employing a fluidized bed electrode which simulates the recharge process of the secondary battery employing a particulate electrode. Except at high current density, energy consumption per unit production was less than 3 to 4 kWh/kg which is the characteristic value of conventional electrowinning from acidic solution. A laboratory cell with a particulate zinc electrode and an air counter electrode was constructed and discharge characteristics were studied to evaluate the cell. Energy efficiencies during discharge at 5 and 2.5A were about 20 and 30% respectively.

  19. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.; Turchan, M.; Hopkins, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell are discussed. The key element is the development of cadmium electrodes with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, the following electrode structures were manufactured and their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated: (1) silver-sinter-based Cd electrodes, (2) Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes, (3) electrodeposited Cd sponge, and (4) Cd-sinter structures.

  20. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cross-linking methods were investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. The pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide - zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  1. Cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol films as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1983-01-01

    Cross-linking methods have been investigated to determine their effect on the performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films as alkaline battery separators. The following types of cross-linked PVA films are discussed: (1) PVA-dialdehyde blends post-treated with an acid or acid periodate solution (two-step method) and (2) PVA-dialdehyde blends cross-linked during film formation (drying) by using a reagent with both aldehyde and acid functionality (one-step method). Laboratory samples of each cross-linked type of film were prepared and evaluated in standard separator screening tests. Then pilot-plant batches of films were prepared and compared to measure differences due to the cross-linking method. The pilot-plant materials were then tested in nickel oxide-zinc cells to compare the two methods with respect to performance characteristics and cycle life. Cell test results are compared with those from tests with Celgard.

  2. Assemblies of protective anion exchange membrane on air electrode for its efficient operation in aqueous alkaline electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Bruno; Chikh, Linda; Vancaeyzeele, Cédric; Alfonsi, Séverine; Fichet, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous alkaline metal-air batteries represent promising energy storage devices when supplied with atmospheric air. However, under this condition, the air electrode shows a very short life time (i.e. 50 h of operation in 5 M LiOH at -10 mA cm-2), mainly due to the precipitation of carbonates inside the electrode porosity. The air electrode can then be protected by an anion exchange membrane on the electrolyte side. In this paper, we demonstrate that the efficiency of this protective membrane depends on the assembly method on the electrode. When a modified poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH) network is synthesized directly on the electrode, the polymer seeps inside the electrode porosity, and a suitable interface inducing negligible additional polarization in comparison with classical pressure-assembled membranes is obtained. This protected electrode shows improved stability of up to 160 h of operation in 5 M LiOH. This performance is improved to 350 h by adjusting the conductivity and the ionic exchange capacity. Finally, the interest of interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) architecture compared to a single network is confirmed. Indeed, an electrode protected with a PECH/poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) IPN is stable for 650 h in 5 M LiOH. In addition, degradation process becomes reversible since the assembly can be regenerated, which is not possible for the bare electrode.

  3. Rechargeability of alkaline Zn-MnO2 batteries: Experimental and mathematical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, Nilesh D.

    Batteries based on manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathodes are good candidates for grid-scale electrical energy storage, as MnO2 is low-cost, relatively energy dense, safe, water-compatible, and non-toxic. Alkaline Zn-MnO2 cells, if cycled at reduced depth of discharge (DOD), have been found to achieve substantial cycle life with battery costs projected to be in the range of $100 to 150/kWh (delivered). Commercialization of rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries has in the past been hampered due to poor cycle life. In view of this, the work reported here focuses on the long-term rechargeability of prismatic MnO2 cathodes at reduced DOD when exposed to the effects of Zn anodes and with no additives or specialty materials. Over 3000 cycles is shown to be obtainable at 10% DOD with energy efficiency >80%. The causes of capacity fade during long-term cycling are also investigated and appear to be mainly due to the formation of irreversible manganese oxides in the cathode. Analysis of the data indicates that capacity loss is rapid in the first 250 cycles, followed by a regime of stability that can last for thousands of cycles. A model has been developed that captures the behavior of the cells investigated using measured state of charge (SOC) data as input. An approximate economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the economic viability of Zn-MnO2 batteries based on the experiments reported here. The potential of Zn-MnO2 batteries as starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries was also investigated. The impedance contributing parameters at high discharge rates were identified and their effect at high currents was investigated. It was found that prismatic configuration; optimized electrode thickness, electrolyte concentration and electrode size help to achieve high currents for short period of time. In this work, the potential of Zn-MnO 2 batteries for energy as well as power supply has been successfully investigated.

  4. Thermally Regenerative Battery with Intercalatable Electrodes and Selective Heating Means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Hickey, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The battery contains at least one electrode such as graphite that intercalates a first species from the electrolyte disposed in a first compartment such as bromine to form a thermally decomposable complex during discharge. The other electrode can also be graphite which supplies another species such as lithium to the electrolyte in a second electrode compartment. The thermally decomposable complex is stable at room temperature but decomposes at elevated temperatures such as 50 C. to 150 C. The electrode compartments are separated by a selective ion permeable membrane that is impermeable to the first species. Charging is effected by selectively heating the first electrode.

  5. Hydrogen electrode in lead-hydrogen storage batteries. Influence of macroscopic electrode structure on the electrode's electrochemical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Burmistrov, O.A.; Lyzlov, N.Yu.

    1988-03-01

    Optimum matrix materials and features of a hydrogen gas electrode of lead-hydrogen storage batteries were examined. Carbon materials AG-3, SKT-6A and acetylene black were used as the current-collecting base of the electrode in contact with the sulfuric acid electrolyte. High-pressure polyethylene powder or fluoropolymer were used as wetproofing agents and as electrode binders. Platinum was applied to the electrodes, tested in a gaseous hydrogen saturated cell and linear-scan voltammograms of the electrodes were recorded. Polarization comparable with that found for the lead-dioxide electrode was produced when current was drawn from the hydrogen electrodes.

  6. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-04-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  7. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  8. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  9. Positive electrodes of nickel-cadmium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, D. W.; Kandler, L.; Krienke, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ni hydroxide sintered electrodes which are filled electrochemically are superior to chemically treated electrodes. In the electrochemical process, the hydroxide grows on the Ni grains and possesses a well-defined porous structure. Diffusion and conducting mechanisms are therefore facilitated.

  10. NiCd battery electrodes, C-150

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    A research program to develop and evaluate electrodes for a nongassing negative limited nickel-cadmium cell is described. The concept of the negative limited cell and its implications on electrode structure are discussed. The key element is the development of a cadmium electrode with high hydrogen overvoltage. For this, Teflon-bonded Cd electrodes and silver-sinter based Gc electrodes were manufactured and in preliminary experiments their physical and electrochemical characteristics were evaluated. Hydrogen evolution on cadmium was found to occur approximately 100 mV more cathodic than on silver. Both electrode structures exhibit a fairly sharp potential rise at the end of the charging cycle and the advent of gas evolution occurs at potentials between -1.2 and -1.3 V versus a Hg/HgO reference electrode. These results are compared with conventional Ni-sinter based Cd electrodes.

  11. Alkali metal ion battery with bimetallic electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, Dane A; Bradwell, David J; Jiang, Kai; Kim, Hojong; Ortiz, Luis A; Sadoway, Donald R; Tomaszowska, Alina A; Wei, Weifeng; Wang, Kangli

    2015-04-07

    Electrochemical cells having molten electrodes having an alkali metal provide receipt and delivery of power by transporting atoms of the alkali metal between electrode environments of disparate chemical potentials through an electrochemical pathway comprising a salt of the alkali metal. The chemical potential of the alkali metal is decreased when combined with one or more non-alkali metals, thus producing a voltage between an electrode comprising the molten the alkali metal and the electrode comprising the combined alkali/non-alkali metals.

  12. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. FeS anchored reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as advanced anode material with superior high-rate performance for alkaline secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Guo, Litan; Li, Fei; Wang, Qin; Li, Jing; Li, Quanmin; Chang, Zhaorong; Yuan, Xiao-Zi

    2016-09-01

    A new nanocomposite formulation of the iron-based anode for alkaline secondary batteries is proposed. For the first time, FeS nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets are synthesized via a facile, environmentally friendly direct-precipitation approach. In this nanocomposite, FeS nanoparticles are anchored uniformly and tightly on the surface of RGO nanosheets. As an alkaline battery anode, the FeS@RGO electrode delivers a superior high-rate charge/discharge capability and outstanding cycling stability, even at a condition without any conductive additives and a high electrode loading of ∼40 mg cm-2. At high charge/discharge rates of 5C, 10C and 20C (6000 mA g-1), the FeS@RGO electrode presents a specific capacity of ∼288, 258 and 220 mAh g-1, respectively. Moreover, the FeS@RGO electrode exhibits an admirable long cycling stability with a superior capacity retention of 87.6% for 300 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 2C. The excellent electrochemical properties of the FeS@RGO electrode can be stemmed from the high specific surface area, peculiar electric conductivity and robust sheet-anchored structure of the FeS@RGO nanocomposite. By virtue of its superior fast charge/discharge properties, the FeS@RGO nanocomposite is suitable as an advanced anode material for high-performance alkaline secondary batteries.

  15. Synthesis of cobalt oxide-reduced graphene nanocomposite and its enhanced electrochemical properties as negative material for alkaline secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    A potential negative electrode material Co3O4@rGO is synthesized via a facile reflux condensation route. The electrochemical performances of Co3O4@rGO composite for alkaline rechargeable Ni/Co batteries have been systemically investigated for the first time. The reduced-graphene can remarkably enhance the electrochemical activity of Co3O4 materials, leading to a notable improvement of discharge capacity, cycle stability and rate capability. Interestingly, the maximum discharge capacity of Co3O4@rGO-20 (additive amount of GO is 20 mg) electrode can reach 511.4 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 89.1% after 100 cycles at a discharge current of 100 mA g-1. A properly electrochemical reaction mechanism of Co3O4@rGO electrode is also constructed in detail.

  16. Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    1998-09-03

    This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

  17. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries and method of making the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator includes a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte, (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group, and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrode. The mixture comprises at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 sq meters/gram, at last one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram. The volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder. The filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle.

  18. Reinforced Electrode Architecture for a Flexible Battery with Paperlike Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaikwad, AM; Chu, HN; Qeraj, R; Zamarayeva, AM; Steingart, DA

    2013-02-10

    Compliant energy storage has not kept pace with flexible electronics. Herein we demonstrate a technique to reinforce arbitrary battery electrodes by supporting them with mechanically tough, low-cost fibrous membranes, which also serve as the separator. The membranes were laminated to form a full cell, and this stacked membrane reinforcement bears the loads during flexing. This technique was used to make a high energy density, nontoxic Zn-MnO2 battery with printed current collectors. The Zn and MnO2 electrodes were prepared by using a solution-based embedding process. The cell had a nominal potential of 1.5 V and an effective capacity of approximately 3 mA h cm(-2). We investigated the effect of bending and fatigue on the electrochemical performance and mechanical integrity of the battery. The battery was able to maintain its capacity even after 1000 flex cycles to a bend radius of 2.54 cm. The battery showed an improvement in discharge capacity (ca. 10%) if the MnO2 electrode was flexed to tension as a result of the improvement of particle-to-particle contact. In a demonstration, the flexible battery was used to power a light-emitting diode display integrated with a strain sensor and microcontroller.

  19. Recovery of pure ZnO nanoparticles from spent Zn-MnO₂ alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Deep, Akash; Kumar, Kamal; Kumar, Parveen; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Amit L; Gupta, Bina; Bharadwaj, Lalit M

    2011-12-15

    The recovery of pure ZnO (zinc oxide) nanoparticles from spent Zn-Mn dry alkaline batteries is reported. Spent batteries were dismantled to separate the contained valuable metals of the cell electrodes in the form of black powder. Treatment of this black powder with 5 mol L(-1) HCl produced leach liquor, primarily containing 2.90 g L(-1) Zn and 2.02 g L(-1) Mn. Selective and quantitative liquid-liquid extraction of Zn(II) was then carried out in three counter current steps by using Cyanex 923 (0.10 mol L(-1) in n-hexane). Zn(II) distributed in the organic phase as complex ZnCl(2)·2R (R = Cyanex 923 molecule). The metal loaded organic phase was subjected to combust at 600 °C to yield pure ZnO nanoparticles (40-50 nm). Important characteristics of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:22050779

  20. Graphene-based integrated electrodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Wen, Lei; Zhou, Guangmin; Chen, Jing; Pei, Songfeng; Huang, Kun; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Li, Feng

    2015-06-01

    We have prepared flexible free-standing electrodes with anode and cathode active materials deposited on a highly conductive graphene membrane by a two-step filtration method. Compared with conventional electrodes using metal as current collectors, these electrodes have displayed stronger adhesion, superior electrochemical performance, higher energy density, and better flexibility. A full lithium ion battery assembled by adopting these graphene-based electrodes has showed high rate capability and long cyclic life. We have also assembled a thin, lightweight, and flexible lithium ion battery with poly-(dimethyl siloxane) sheets as packaging material to light a red light-emitting diode. This flexible battery can be easily bent without structural failure or performance loss and operated well under a bent state. The fabrication process of these graphene-based integrated electrodes only has two filtration steps; thus it is easy to scale up. These results suggest great potential for these graphene-based flexible batteries in lightweight, bendable, and wearable electronic devices.

  1. Disc electrode and busbar for an electrochemical battery

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; McHugh, W.T.

    1993-07-13

    An electrochemical battery is described comprising: a case having a cover; a pair of positive and negative polarity terminals extending externally of the battery; a pair of busbar assemblies, one for each of the terminals and connected thereto within the case, each assembly comprising: a pair of inner busbars; and an outer busbar adjacent the inner busbars between the inner busbars and the case; a stack of separate partially open disc electrodes comprising a first plurality of anode elements and a second plurality of cathode elements, the respective anode and cathode elements having electrode tabs welded to the inner and outer busbars of corresponding assemblies; separator means positioned between adjacent pairs of the disc electrodes; and an electrolyte solution surrounding the disc electrodes, separator means and busbars.

  2. Novel configuration of bifunctional air electrodes for rechargeable zinc-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Chieh; Chien, Yu-Ju; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-01

    A novel configuration of two electrodes containing electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) pressed into a bifunctional air electrode is designed for rechargeable Zn-air batteries. MOC/25BC carbon paper (MOC consisting of α-MnO2 and XC-72 carbon black) and Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4/Ti mesh on this air electrode mainly serve as the cathode for the ORR and the anode for the OER, respectively. The morphology and physicochemical properties of Fe0.1Ni0.9Co2O4 are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies comprise linear sweep voltammetry, rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, and the full-cell charge-discharge-cycling test. The discharge peak power density of the Zn-air battery with the unique air electrode reaches 88.8 mW cm-2 at 133.6 mA cm-2 and 0.66 V in an alkaline electrolyte under an ambient atmosphere. After 100 charge-discharge cycles at 10 mA cm-2, an increase of 0.3 V between charge and discharge cell voltages is observed. The deep charge-discharge curve (10 h in each step) indicates that the cell voltages of discharge (1.3 V) and charge (1.97 V) remain constant throughout the process. The performance of the proposed rechargeable Zn-air battery is superior to that of most other similar batteries reported in recent studies.

  3. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, D.S.

    1984-02-16

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  4. Secondary battery containing zinc electrode with modified separator and method

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1985-01-01

    A battery containing a zinc electrode with a porous separator between the anode and cathode. The separator is a microporous substrate carrying therewith an organic solvent of benzene, toluene or xylene with a tertiary organic amine therein, wherein the tertiary amine has three carbon chains each containing from six to eight carbon atoms. The separator reduces the rate of zinc dentrite growth in the separator during battery operation prolonging battery life by preventing short circuits. A method of making the separator is also disclosed.

  5. Frequency response measurements in battery electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    Electrical impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the behavior of porous zinc, silver, cadmium, and nickel electrodes. State of charge could be correlated with impedance data for all but the nickel electrodes. State of health was correlated with impedance data for two AgZn cells, one apparently good and the other bad. The impedance data was fit to equivalent circuit models.

  6. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1996-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study, the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  7. High performance positive electrode for a lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Wen-Hong (Inventor); Bullock, Norma K. (Inventor); Petersen, Ralph A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electrode suitable for use as a lead-acid battery plate is formed of a paste composition which enhances the performance of the plate. The paste composition includes a basic lead sulfate, a persulfate and water. The paste may also include lead oxide and fibers. An electrode according to the invention is characterized by good strength in combination with high power density, porosity and surface area.

  8. Non-gassing nickel-cadmium battery electrodes and cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luksha, E.; Gordy, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of a negative limited nongassing nickel-cadmium battery was demonstrated by constructing and testing practical size experimental cells of approximately 25 Ah capacity. These batteries operated in a gas-free manner and had measured energy densities of 10-11 Wh/lb. Thirty cells were constructed for extensive testing. Some small cells were tested for over 200 cycles at 100% depth. For example, a small cell with an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a silver screen still had 55% of its theoretical capacity (initial efficiency was 85%). There was no evidence of deterioration of gassing properties with cycling of the nickel electrodes. The charge temperature was observed to be the most critical variable governing nickel electrode gassing. This variable was shown to be age dependent. Four types of cadmium electrodes were tested: an electrodeposited cadmium active mass on a cadmium or silver substrate, a porous sintered silver substrate based electrode, and a Teflon bonded pressed cadmium electrode. The electrodeposited cadmium mass on a silver screen was found to be the best all-around electrode from a performance point of view and from the point of view of manufacturing them in a size required for a 25 Ah size battery.

  9. Alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte for Zn-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lin, Sheng-Jen

    An alkaline composite PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat polymer electrolyte with high ionic conductivity (10 -2 S cm -1) at room temperature has been prepared and applied to solid-state primary Zn-air batteries. The electrolyte shows excellent mechanical strength. The electrochemical characteristics of the batteries were experimentally investigated by means of ac impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic discharge. The results indicate that the PEO-PVA-glass-fibre-mat composite polymer electrolyte is a promising candidate for application in alkaline primary Zn-air batteries.

  10. Predoped conductive polymers as battery electrode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.; Shacklette, L.W.

    1989-02-14

    An improved battery is described. The anode consists of one or more conjugated backbone polymers and one or more electroactive materials selected from the group consisting of metals which alloy with alkali metals and alkali metal cation inserting material. The electrolyte consists of an organic solvent and an alkali-metal salt. There is also a cathode alkali-metal cations from the electrolyte being inserted into the anode as a metal alloy or as an inserted ion in the alkali metal cation inserting material during the charging of the battery; the improvement comprises an anode in which the conjugated backbone polymers contained in the anode have been predoped with one or more alkali metal cations to the reduced state prior to incorporation of the anode into the battery.

  11. Workshop on electrodes for flowing solution batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanis, L.

    1981-02-01

    The electrochemical technology of aqueous secondary cells with flowing electrolyte solutions was addressed. Emphasis was placed on the significant parameters believed to govern the performance of the two basic types of electrodes now in use: a porous flow through electrode (PFTE), and an impervious flow by electrode. Progress, problems, and prospects were informally discussed. Key topics included: (current distribution in FTPE; conversion efficiency, segmented FTPE studies; general discussion on FTPE parameters; surface activation; application of FTPE to waste recovery; Exxon zinc bromine flow by system, FTPE in NASA redox energy storage; and application of FTPE in Lockheed zinc ferricyanide redox system). In generally comparing flow through to flow by electrodes, there were some surprising differences arising from experimental results that did not fit conventional thinking.

  12. Direct Solar Charging of an Organic-Inorganic, Stable, and Aqueous Alkaline Redox Flow Battery with a Hematite Photoanode.

    PubMed

    Wedege, Kristina; Azevedo, João; Khataee, Amirreza; Bentien, Anders; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-06-13

    The intermittent nature of the sunlight and its increasing contribution to electricity generation is fostering the energy storage research. Direct solar charging of an auspicious type of redox flow battery could make solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. The first solar aqueous alkaline redox flow battery using low cost and environmentally safe materials is demonstrated. The electrolytes consist of the redox couples ferrocyanide and anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate in sodium hydroxide solution, yielding a standard cell potential of 0.74 V. Photovoltage enhancement strategies are demonstrated for the ferrocyanide-hematite junction by employing an annealing treatment and growing a layer of a conductive polyaniline polymer on the electrode surface, which decreases electron-hole recombination. PMID:27151516

  13. Lightweight fibrous nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently developing nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries. These electrodes are lighter in weight and have higher energy densities than the heavier state-of-the-art sintered nickel electrodes. Lightweight fibrous materials or plaques are used as conductive supports for the nickel hydroxide active material. These materials are commercial products that are fabricated into nickel electrodes by electrochemically impregnating them with active material. Evaluation is performed in half cells structured in the bipolar configuration. Initial performance tests include capacity measurements at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0C, 1.37C, 2.0C, and 2.74C. The electrodes that pass the initial tests are life cycle-tested in a low Earth orbit regime at 80 percent depth of discharge.

  14. Hierarchically porous graphene as a lithium-air battery electrode.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaolin; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Graff, Gordon L; Bennett, Wendy D; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Aksay, Ilhan A; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2011-11-01

    The lithium-air battery is one of the most promising technologies among various electrochemical energy storage systems. We demonstrate that a novel air electrode consisting of an unusual hierarchical arrangement of functionalized graphene sheets (with no catalyst) delivers an exceptionally high capacity of 15000 mAh/g in lithium-O(2) batteries which is the highest value ever reported in this field. This excellent performance is attributed to the unique bimodal porous structure of the electrode which consists of microporous channels facilitating rapid O(2) diffusion while the highly connected nanoscale pores provide a high density of reactive sites for Li-O(2) reactions. Further, we show that the defects and functional groups on graphene favor the formation of isolated nanosized Li(2)O(2) particles and help prevent air blocking in the air electrode. The hierarchically ordered porous structure in bulk graphene enables its practical applications by promoting accessibility to most graphene sheets in this structure. PMID:21985448

  15. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  16. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOEpatents

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  17. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Johnson; Christopher S. , Thackeray; Michael M. , Vaughey; John T. , Kahaian; Arthur J. , Kim; Jeom-Soo

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  18. High voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William C. (Inventor); Blanco, Mario (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides high capacity and high voltage Li-ion batteries that have a carbonaceous cathode and a nonaqueous electrolyte solution comprising LiF salt and an anion receptor that binds the fluoride ion. The batteries can comprise dual intercalating electrode Li ion batteries. Methods of the present invention use a cathode and electrode pair, wherein each of the electrodes reversibly intercalate ions provided by a LiF salt to make a high voltage and high specific capacity dual intercalating electrode Li-ion battery. The present methods and systems provide high-capacity batteries particularly useful in powering devices where minimizing battery mass is important.

  19. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James V.; Savaskan, Gultekin

    1991-01-01

    A zinc-air battery in a case including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit.

  20. Battery using a metal particle bed electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.V.; Savaskan, G.

    1991-04-09

    A zinc-air battery in a case is described including a zinc particle bed supported adjacent the current feeder and diaphragm on a porous support plate which holds the particles but passes electrolyte solution. Electrolyte is recycled through a conduit between the support plate and top of the bed by convective forces created by a density of differential caused by a higher concentration of high density discharge products in the interstices of the bed than in the electrolyte recycle conduit. 7 figures.

  1. Toward Uniformly Dispersed Battery Electrode Composite Materials: Characteristics and Performance.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yo Han; Huie, Matthew M; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-02-10

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches for improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. The study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials. PMID:26765041

  2. Towards uniformly dispersed battery electrode composite materials: Characteristics and performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yo Han Kwon; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Huie, Matthew M.; Choi, Dalsu; Chang, Mincheol; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Reichmanis, Elsa

    2016-01-14

    Battery electrodes are complex mesoscale systems comprised of electroactive components, conductive additives, and binders. In this report, methods for processing electrodes with dispersion of the components are described. To investigate the degree of material dispersion, a spin-coating technique was adopted to provide a thin, uniform layer that enabled observation of the morphology. Distinct differences in the distribution profile of the electrode components arising from individual materials physical affinities were readily identified. Hansen solubility parameter (HSP) analysis revealed pertinent surface interactions associated with materials dispersivity. Further studies demonstrated that HSPs can provide an effective strategy to identify surface modification approaches formore » improved dispersions of battery electrode materials. Specifically, introduction of surfactantlike functionality such as oleic acid (OA) capping and P3HT-conjugated polymer wrapping on the surface of nanomaterials significantly enhanced material dispersity over the composite electrode. The approach to the surface treatment on the basis of HSP study can facilitate design of composite electrodes with uniformly dispersed morphology and may contribute to enhancing their electrical and electrochemical behaviors. The conductivity of the composites and their electrochemical performance was also characterized. In conclusion, the study illustrates the importance of considering electronic conductivity, electron transfer, and ion transport in the design of environments incorporating active nanomaterials.« less

  3. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  4. Lightweight nickel electrode for nickel hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.

    1986-01-01

    The nickel electrode was identified as the heaviest component of the nickel hydrogen (NiH2) battery. The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing nickel electrodes for NiH2 battery devices which will be lighter in weight and have higher energy densities when cycled under a low Earth orbit regime at deep depths of discharge. Lightweight plaques are first exposed to 31 percent potassium hydroxide for 3 months to determine their suitability for use as electrode substrates from a chemical corrosion standpoint. Pore size distribution and porosity of the plaques are then measured. The lightweight plaques examined are nickel foam, nickel felt, nickel plastic and nickel plated graphite. Plaques are then electrochemically impregnated in an aqueous solution. Initial characterization tests of the impregnated plaques are performed at five discharge levels, C/2, 1.0 C, 1.37 C, 2.0 C, and 2.74 C rates. Electrodes that passed the initial characterization screening test will be life cycle tested. Lightweight electrodes are approximately 30 to 50 percent lighter in weight than the sintered nickel electrode.

  5. Effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yamamoto, Yui

    2015-10-01

    The effect of various alkaline metal ions on electrochemical behavior of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution has been investigated. It was found that "the specific anodic oxidation peak" appears at the cathodic scan in cyclic voltammogram of lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing Li2SO4, K2SO4, Na2SO4, Rb2SO4, or Cs2SO4. The height of the specific anodic oxidation peak varies with the alkaline sulfate in the solution; K2SO4 >> Na2SO4 > Cs2SO4 > Rb2SO4 > Li2SO4. It should be note that alkaline ions exist in lead sulfate formed on lead electrode in sulfuric acid solution containing potassium sulfate when the electrode was immersed in the solution at the rest potential for more than 1 h.

  6. Porosity measurements of electrodes used in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Loyson, P.; Rust, N.

    A method is presented that determines the porosity of a complete electrode plate used in lead-acid batteries. It requires only elementary equipment and is simple to operate, so that laboratory workers can use it as a routine method during manufacturing to determine the complete electrode's average porosity over a range of electrode sizes and types of both flat plate and tubular configuration. The method makes use of Archimedes' principle and uses glycerol as displacement medium. This allows for the porosity determination of both cured and formed positive and negative electrodes, without the detrimental effect of lead oxidation, which is common when using water as a displacement medium. The study showed that the method of using glycerol as a displacement medium gave on average, good repeatable results for both cured and formed positive and negative electrode plates used in the manufacture of automotive lead-acid batteries. The porosity results of the method were compared to the results obtained using Hg porosimetry, where a statistical paired t-test showed the two techniques to produce comparable results for all types of plates analyzed. The porosity of various plates was compared to the surface area of the respective active material of both positive and negative electrodes. These results showed unusual trends in that, depending on the manufacturing conditions, the surface area of formed positive electrodes could vary significantly from sample to sample of different batches without little change in its respective porosity. The surface area of different formed negative electrodes, however, would only vary slightly with significant changes in their corresponding porosity. The glycerol displacement method was also shown to be suitable to determine the effective porosity of cured and formed positive tubular electrodes.

  7. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Hudak, Nicholas S.

    2013-12-01

    This report is a summary of research results from an Early Career LDRD project con-ducted from January 2012 to December 2013 at Sandia National Laboratories. Demonstrated here is the use of conducting polymers as active materials in the posi-tive electrodes of rechargeable aluminum-based batteries operating at room tempera-ture. The battery chemistry is based on chloroaluminate ionic liquid electrolytes, which allow reversible stripping and plating of aluminum metal at the negative elec-trode. Characterization of electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole films revealed doping of the polymers with chloroaluminate anions, which is a quasi-reversible reac-tion that facilitates battery cycling. Stable galvanostatic cycling of polypyrrole and polythiophene cells was demonstrated, with capacities at near-theoretical levels (30-100 mAh g-1) and coulombic efficiencies approaching 100%. The energy density of a sealed sandwich-type cell with polythiophene at the positive electrode was estimated as 44 Wh kg-1, which is competitive with state-of-the-art battery chemistries for grid-scale energy storage.

  8. Silver-Copper Nanoalloy Catalyst Layer for Bifunctional Air Electrodes in Alkaline Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Fuyi; Jin, Yachao; Zhang, Nan; Johnston, Roy L

    2015-08-19

    A carbon-free and binder-free catalyst layer composed of a Ag-Cu nanoalloy on Ni foam was used as the air cathode in a zinc-air battery for the first time. The Ag-Cu catalyst was prepared using pulsed laser deposition. The structures of the catalysts were found to consist of crystalline Ag-Cu nanoalloy particles with an average size of 2.58 nm embedded in amorphous Cu films. As observed in the X-ray photoelectron spectra, the Ag 3d core levels shifted to higher binding energies, whereas the Cu 2p core levels shifted to lower binding energies, indicating alloying of the silver and copper. Rotating disk electrode measurements indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) proceeded through a four-electron pathway on the Ag50Cu50 and Ag90Cu10 nanoalloy catalysts in alkaline solution. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Ag50Cu50 in the ORR is more efficient than that of Ag90Cu10. By performing charge and discharge cycling measurements, the Ag50Cu50 catalyst layer was confirmed to have a maximum power density of approximately 86.3 mW cm(-2) and an acceptable cell voltage at 0.863 V for current densities up to 100 mA cm(-2) in primary zinc-air batteries. In addition, a round-trip efficiency of approximately 50% at a current density of 20 mA cm(-2) was also obtained in the test. PMID:26200807

  9. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal[trademark

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA's ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal[trademark] Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal[trademark] batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  10. Environmental technology verification report: Rechargeable alkaline household battery system, Rayovac Corporation Renewal{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Escarda, T.; Lewis, N.

    1999-03-01

    The EPA`s ETV Program, in partnership with recognized testing organizations, objectively and systematically documents the performance of commercial ready technologies. Together, with the full participation of the technology developer, they develop plans, conduct tests, collect and analyze data, and report findings. Rayovac redesigned their alkaline household batteries so that they could be recharged. The additional charge cycles extend battery life by increasing the energy capacity, which benefits the environment by generating less waste. The design changes include increased void space, and addition of lead and silver. The Rayovac Renewal{trademark} Rechargeable Alkaline Battery System consists of rechargable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide 1.5 volt batteries, in sizes AAA, AA, C, and D, and a recharging device for the batteries. Typical consumer applications of household batteries include toys and games, portable audio equipment, cameras, sporting goods equipment, test equipment, personal care products, hearing aids, portable data terminals, sub-notebook computers and personal digital assistants, watches, flashlights, lanterns, and cellular phones. Such applications typically require continuous currents of up to 400 milliamperes (mA), which is within the range of the Renewal{trademark} batteries, sized AA, C, and D. Size AAA can supply up to 150 mA continuous current, which is sufficient for applications such as clocks.

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  12. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  13. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  14. Characterization of gas diffusion electrodes for metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Timo; Eswara, Santhana; Schulz, Volker P.; Latz, Arnulf

    2016-08-01

    Gas diffusion electrodes are commonly used in high energy density metal-air batteries for the supply of oxygen. Hydrophobic binder materials ensure the coexistence of gas and liquid phase in the pore network. The phase distribution has a strong influence on transport processes and electrochemical reactions. In this article we present 2D and 3D Rothman-Keller type multiphase Lattice-Boltzmann models which take into account the heterogeneous wetting behavior of gas diffusion electrodes. The simulations are performed on FIB-SEM 3D reconstructions of an Ag model electrode for predefined saturation of the pore space with the liquid phase. The resulting pressure-saturation characteristics and transport correlations are important input parameters for modeling approaches on the continuum scale and allow for an efficient development of improved gas diffusion electrodes.

  15. High-performance battery electrodes via magnetic templating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, J. S.; Erb, R. M.; Li, L.; Gurijala, A.; Chiang, Y.-M.

    2016-08-01

    In lithium-ion batteries, the critical need for high-energy-density, low-cost storage for applications ranging from wearable computing to megawatt-scale stationary storage has created an unmet need for facile methods to produce high-density, low-tortuosity, kinetically accessible storage electrodes. Here we show that magnetic control of sacrificial features enables the creation of directional pore arrays in lithium-ion electrodes. The directional pores result in faster charge transport kinetics and enable electrodes with more than threefold higher area capacity (for example, >12 mAh cm‑2 versus <4 mAh cm‑2 in conventional electrodes) at practical charge–discharge rates. We demonstrate these capabilities in laboratory cells under various test conditions, including an electric vehicle model drive cycle.

  16. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  17. Probing the electrochemical properties of biopolymer modified EMD nanoflakes through electrodeposition for high performance alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Biswal, Avijit; Minakshi, Manickam; Tripathy, Bankim Chandra

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, a novel biopolymer approach has been made to electrodeposit manganese dioxide from manganese sulphate in a sulphuric acid bath containing chitosan in the absence and presence of glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. Galvanostatically synthesised electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) nanoflakes were used as electrode materials and their electrochemical properties with the influence of biopolymer chitosan were systematically characterized. The structural determination, surface morphology and porosity of nanostructured EMD were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. The results obtained were compared with that of blank EMD (polymer free). The results indicated that the EMD having chitosan cross-linked with glutaraldehyde possesses a reduced particle size and more porous structure than the blank and EMDs synthesized in the presence of chitosan but without glutaraldehyde. The results revealed that chitosan was unable to play any significant role on its own but chitosan in the presence of glutaraldehyde forms a cross-linking structure, which in turn influences the nucleation and growth of the EMDs during electrodeposition. EMDs obtained in the presence of chitosan (1 g dm(-3)) and glutaraldehyde (1% glutaraldehyde) exhibited a reversible and better discharge capacity upon cycling than the blank which showed its typical capacity fading behaviour with cycling. In addition, EMD synthesized in the presence of 1 g dm(-3) chitosan and 2% glutaraldehyde exhibited a superior electrochemical performance than the blank and lower amounts (1%; 1.5%) of glutaraldehyde, showing a stable discharge capacity of 60 mA h g(-1) recorded up to 40 cycles in alkaline KOH electrolyte for a Zn-MnO2 system. Our results demonstrate the potential of using polymer modified EMDs as a new generation of alkaline battery materials. The XPS data show that

  18. Metal | polypyrrole battery with the air regenerated positive electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgur, Branimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Recharge characteristics of the battery based on the electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole cathode and aluminum, zinc, or magnesium anode in 2 M NH4Cl are investigated. It is shown that polypyrrole electrode can be regenerated by the reoxidation with the dissolved oxygen from the air. Using the polypyrrole synthesized on high surface graphite-felt electrode under modest discharge conditions, stable discharge voltage of 1.1 V is obtained. Such behavior is explained by the complex interaction of polypyrrole and hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical characteristics are compared with the zinc-manganese dioxide and zinc-air systems.

  19. Sandwich electrode designed for high performance lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunsong; Luo, Xi; Chen, Chengmeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g(-1). PMID:27117447

  20. Aluminum-ferricyanide battery

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, C.; Licht, S.L.

    1993-11-29

    A battery capable of producing high current densities with high charge capacity is described which includes an aluminum anode, a ferricyanide electrolyte and a second electrode capable of reducing ferricyanide electrolyte which is either dissolved in an alkaline solution or alkaline seawater solution. The performance of the battery is enhanced by high temperature and high electrolyte flow rates.

  1. Test Procedures for Characterizing, Evaluating, and Managing Separator Materials used in Secondary Alkaline Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guasp, Edwin; Manzo, Michelle A.

    1997-01-01

    Secondary alkaline batteries, such as nickel-cadmium and silver-zinc, are commonly used for aerospace applications. The uniform evaluation and comparison of separator properties for these systems is dependent upon the measurement techniques. This manual presents a series of standard test procedures that can be used to evaluate, compare, and select separator materials for use in alkaline batteries. Detailed test procedures evaluating the following characteristics are included in this manual: physical measurements of thickness and area weight, dimensional stability measurements, electrolyte retention, resistivity, permeability as measured via bubble pressure, surface evaluation via SEM, chemical stability, and tensile strength.

  2. Modelling of nickel-cadmium batteries using porous electrode theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Glueck, Peter R.; Perrone, David E.

    1991-01-01

    A porous electrode modeling technique is discussed which is considered a viable means for quantitatively predicting Ni-Cd cell performance. The authors describe the integration of the cell model into a battery model useful in the design and operation of aerospace applications. Test data from a sealed boilerplate cell are presented for constant current charge and discharge conditions. Performance predictions for similar cases have been performed, and a comparison to the boilerplate data is made. Areas for further development are also noted.

  3. Composite electrode for storage batteries and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, P.

    1980-09-16

    A metal/synthetic-resin composite electrode for a storage battery or the like is comprised of a perforate metal support which is flanked on both sides by openworks of polyolefin, e.g., partially fluorinated polyolefin, which are welded together within the openings of the support and carry the active material. The polyolefin openworks, together with the active material, are covered in turn with polyester fabric or polyester felt permeable fine porous cover layers.

  4. Microfibrous nickel substrates and electrodes for battery system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenhua H.; Durben, Peter J.; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    The use of microfibrous nickel substrates is advantageous for increasing the surface area available for the deposition of active material and reducing the substrate weight and consequently, yields a higher specific capacity for nickel hydroxide electrodes. Porous, microfiber-based nickel substrates were produced by sintering a composite preform. The preforms, consisting of nickel fibers with diameters as small as 2 μm and cellulose fibers, were formed using a papermaking process. The fabricated nickel electrodes that included a supporting nickel mesh in the substrate tested in a 26% KOH half-cell delivered a specific capacity of more than 250 mAh/g of the electrode weight (i.e. fibrous substrate, nickel mesh, and active material) at a 1.0 C discharge rate. An Auburn electrode without a nickel mesh tested in the same half-cell attained a higher specific capacity of 268 mAh/g at a 1.37 C discharge rate. The substrates used in these electrodes had porosities of 95-97%, and greatly improved the specific capacity of the nickel electrode. With the use of the microfibrous electrode, improved specific energies of nickel-based cell and battery designs are possible. When assembled in a nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H 2) boilerplate cell, the specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh/g was observed for the nickel electrode at a 0.5 C rate during the 127th cycle test. The results of high specific capacity and quick rise in utilization of microfibrous nickel hydroxide electrodes make these electrodes good candidates for significantly improving the energy density and performance of nickel-hydrogen cells.

  5. Internally folded expanded metal electrode for battery construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korinek, Paul D. (Inventor); Morgan, Maurice C. (Inventor); Pierce, Doug C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A battery system is disclosed which includes folded grids of expanded metal inserted through non-conductive substrates and pasted with electrochemically active materials. In the most preferred embodiment, a frame is provided with a plastic insert, and slots are provided in the latter to receive the expanded metal grid. After suitable coinage of the grid and insertion through the plastic film, the grid is sealed and pasted on opposite sides with positive and negative active material. A battery is assembled using one or a plurality of the resulting electrode elements, with separators, to produce a high-power, lead-acid battery. The folded grid provides many of the design benefits of standard bipolar construction.

  6. Calcium-Antimony Alloys as Electrodes for Liquid Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchi, T; Kim, H; Ning, XH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-08-08

    The performance of a calcium-antimony (Ca-Sb) alloy serving as the positive electrode in a Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery was investigated in an electrochemical cell, Ca(in Bi) vertical bar LiCl-NaCl-CaCl2 vertical bar Ca(in Sb). The equilibrium potential of the Ca-Sb electrode was found to lie on the interval, 1.2-0.95 V versus Ca, in good agreement with electromotive force (emf) measurements in the literature. During both alloying and dealloying of Ca at the Sb electrode, the charge transfer and mass transport at the interface are facile enough that the electrode potential varies linearly from 0.95 to 0.75 V vs Ca(s) as current density varies from 50 to 500 mA cm(-2). The discharge capacity of the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb cells increases as the operating temperature increases due to the higher solubility and diffusivity of Ca in Sb. The cell was successfully cycled with high coulombic efficiency (similar to 100%) and small fade rate (<0.01% cycle(-1)). These data combined with the favorable costs of these metals and salts make the Ca vertical bar vertical bar Sb liquid metal battery attractive for grid-scale energy storage. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  7. Sandwich electrode designed for high performance lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunsong; Luo, Xi; Chen, Chengmeng; Wu, Hui

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1.We fabricated a sandwich structure Li-ion battery electrode by trapping micron-sized silicon between a copper current collector and a graphene coating. During dynamic electrochemical cycles, the volume change of the silicon can be buffered by the coating through the deformation of soft graphenes. This structure can effectively prevent the silicon particles from escaping from the current collector while keeping the buffered graphene coating integrated and unbroken during deformation. The electrodes could be maintained for 400 cycles at a constant charge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09049k

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine and its derivatives on the surface of metal electrodes in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asazawa, Koichiro; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Hirohisa; Taniguchi, Masatoshi; Oguro, Keisuke

    Electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine and its derivatives on the surface of various metal electrodes in alkaline media was investigated. A comparison of various polycrystalline metal electrodes (Ni, Co, Fe, Cu, Ag, Au, and Pt) showed that Co and Ni electrodes have a lower onset potential for hydrazine oxidation than the Pt electrode. The onset oxidation potential of APA (aminopolyacrylamide), a hydrazine derivative (-0.127 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE), was similar to that of hydrazine hydrate (-0.178 V vs. RHE) in the case of the Co electrode. APA oxidation was possible because of hydrazine desorption that was caused by APA hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction was brought about by a heat treatment. This result suggests that the hydrazine hydrolysis reaction of hydrazine derivatives makes it possible to store hydrazine hydrate safely.

  9. Development of anion-conducting ionomer binder solutions for electrodes of solid alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mun-Sik; Kang, Moon-Sung; Park, Jin-Soo

    2014-10-01

    For solid alkaline fuel cell applications, membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) should be prepared. Thus, in this study, anion-conducting ionomer binder was prepared for electrodes of MEAs. Specifically, we synthesized water soluble anionic binder solutions based on quaternized chitosan derivatives (QCDs) and cross-linked QCDs and prepared a novel electrode. The electrochemical and physicochemical properties of ionomer binder and electrode were investigated by FT-IR, NMR and ionic conductivity. The ionic conductivity of these cross-linked QCDs was 9.7 x 10(-3) S cm(-1) in deionized water at room temperature. The membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared by a spray method and were investigated in terms of cyclic voltammetry, impedance and fuel cell performance. The MEA with the 35 wt% QCD ionomer showed the highest performance and confirmed the successful formation of ionomer binder at the electrode of the MEA by the on-site crosslinking reaction. PMID:25942868

  10. Ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers. [separators for alkaline batteries and dfuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenevey, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    Mats were made from ultrafine polybenzimidazole (PBI) fibers to provide an alternate to the use of asbestos as separators in fuel cells and alkaline batteries. To minimize distortion during mat drying, a process to provide a dry fibrid was developed. Two fibrid types were developed: one coarse, making mats for battery separators; the other fine, making low permeability matrices for fuel cells. Eventually, it was demonstrated that suitable mat fabrication techniques yielded fuel cell separators from the coarser alkaline battery fibrids. The stability of PBI mats to 45% KOH at 123 C can be increased by heat treatment at high temperatures. Weight loss data to 1000 hours exposure show the alkali resistance of the mats to be superior to that of asbestos.

  11. Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Jie; Mei, Donghai; Li, Xiaolin; Xu, Wu; Wang, Deyu; Graff, Gordon L.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2011-11-09

    Functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) are successfully utilized as a novel air electrode for Li-O2 batteries. An extremely high capacity of 15,000 mAh/g was achieved by using the as-prepared graphene air electrode at a current density of 0.1 mA/cm2 in the pure oxygen environment. Although there is no pore in the two-dimensional FGS the as-prepared graphene air electrode consists of randomly arranged graphene nano-sheets which automatically form tunnels with different sizes. The large tunnels work as highways for the oxygen to quickly flow into the air electrode while the small pore-like tunnels can be considered as the numerous exits where the discharge products are accumulated. Combined with an appropriate electrolyte, the ideal discharge product Li2O2 is obtained without any carbonates byproducts in this system. Even when operated in ambient environment with a relative humidity of ~20% the specific capacity delivered from the pouch type cell achieves more than 5000 mAh/g making the graphene-based air electrode extremely attractive in the energy storage applications.

  12. Charging/discharging stability of a metal hydride battery electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, M.; Han, J.; Feng, F.; Northwood, D.O.

    1999-07-01

    The metal hydride (MH) alloy powder for the negative electrode of the Ni/MH battery was first pulverized and oxidized by electrochemically charging and discharging for a number of cycles. The plate of the negative electrode of an experimental cell in this study was made from a mixture of a multicomponent AB{sub 5}-based alloy powder, nickel powder, and polytetra fluoroethylene (PTFE). The characteristics of the negative electrode, including discharge capacity, exchange current density, and hydrogen diffusivity, were studied by means of the electrochemical experiments and analysis in an experimental cell. The exchange current density of a Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} alloy electrode increases with increasing number of charge/discharge cycles and then remains almost constant after 20 cycles. A microcracking activation, resulting from an increase in reaction surface area and an improvement in the electrode surface activation, increases the hydrogen exchange current densities. Measurement of hydrogen diffusivities for Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} alloy powder shows that the ratio of D/a{sup 2} (D = hydrogen diffusivity; a = sphere radius) increases with increasing number of cycles but remains constant after 20 cycles.

  13. Phosphate glass electrode with good selectivity for alkaline-earth cations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Pommer, A.M.

    1963-01-01

    A phosphate glass has been found to have a significant electrode specificity toward alkaline-earth ions. The order of selectivity is 2H + > Ba++ > Sr++ > Ca++ > 2K+ > 2Na+ > Mg++. Exchange properties are discussed in relation to possible structure. Its use to determine activity of Ca++ in natural systems containing Mg++ is suggested.

  14. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, Manuel F. Xara, Susana M.; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-15

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1 h at 1273 K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300 K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  15. Laboratory study on the behaviour of spent AA household alkaline batteries in incineration.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel F; Xará, Susana M; Delgado, Julanda; Costa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of emissions from incineration is essential when Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies consider this process as an end-of-life solution for some wastes. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the main gaseous emissions produced when spent AA alkaline batteries are incinerated. With this aim, batteries were kept for 1h at 1273K in a refractory steel tube hold in a horizontal electric furnace with temperature control. At one end of the refractory steel tube, a constant air flow input assures the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and guides the gaseous emissions to a filter system followed by a set of two bubbler flasks having an aqueous solution of 10% (v/v) nitric acid. After each set of experiments, sulphur, chlorides and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl and Zn) were analyzed in both the solutions obtained from the steel tube washing and from the bubblers. Sulphur, chlorides and metals were quantified, respectively, using barium sulfate gravimetry, the Volhard method and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The emissions of zinc, the most emitted metal, represent about 6.5% of the zinc content in the batteries. Emissions of manganese (whose oxide is the main component of the cathode) and iron (from the cathode collector) are negligible when compared with their amount in AA alkaline batteries. Mercury is the metal with higher volatility in the composition of the batteries and was collected even in the second bubbler flask. The amount of chlorides collected corresponds to about 36% of the chlorine in the battery sleeve that is made from PVC. A considerable part of the HCl formed in PVC plastic sleeve incineration is neutralized with KOH, zinc and manganese oxides and, thus, it is not totally released in the gas. Some of the emissions are predictable through a thermodynamic data analysis at temperatures in the range of 1200-1300K taking into account the composition of the batteries. This analysis was done

  16. Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Senyarich, Stephane; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel

    2000-03-07

    A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

  17. Separator for alkaline electric batteries and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor); Hoyt, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Battery separator membranes of high electrolytic conductivity comprising a cellulose ether and a compatible metallic salt of water soluble aliphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives are described. It was found that methyl cellulose can be modified by another class of materials, nonpolymeric in nature, to form battery separator membranes of low electrolytic resistance but which have the flexibility of membranes made of unmodified methyl cellulose, and which in many cases enhance flexibility over membranes made with unmodified methyl cellulose. Separator membranes for electrochemical cells comprising a cellulose ether and a modified selected from the group consisting of metallic salts of water soluble alphatic acids and their hydroxy derivatives and to electrochemical cells utilizing said membranes are described.

  18. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  20. Performance Enhancement and Side Reactions in Rechargeable Nickel-Iron Batteries with Nanostructured Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lei, Danni; Lee, Dong-Chan; Magasinski, Alexandre; Zhao, Enbo; Steingart, Daniel; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-01-27

    We report for the first time a solution-based synthesis of strongly coupled nanoFe/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoNiO/MWCNT nanocomposite materials for use as anodes and cathodes in rechargeable alkaline Ni-Fe batteries. The produced aqueous batteries demonstrate very high discharge capacities (800 mAh gFe(-1) at 200 mA g(-1) current density), which exceed that of commercial Ni-Fe cells by nearly 1 order of magnitude at comparable current densities. These cells also showed the lack of any "activation", typical in commercial batteries, where low initial capacity slowly increases during the initial 20-50 cycles. The use of a highly conductive MWCNT network allows for high-capacity utilization because of rapid and efficient electron transport to active metal nanoparticles in oxidized [such as Fe(OH)2 or Fe3O4] states. The flexible nature of MWCNTs accommodates significant volume changes taking place during phase transformation accompanying reduction-oxidation reactions in metal electrodes. At the same time, we report and discuss that high surface areas of active nanoparticles lead to multiple side reactions. Dissolution of Fe anodes leads to reprecipitation of significantly larger anode particles. Dissolution of Ni cathodes leads to precipitation of Ni metal on the anode, thus blocking transport of OH(-) anions. The electrolyte molarity and composition have a significant impact on the capacity utilization and cycling stability. PMID:26720271

  1. FeS/C composite as high-performance anode material for alkaline nickel-iron rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangguan, Enbo; Li, Fei; Li, Jing; Chang, Zhaorong; Li, Quanmin; Yuan, Xiao-Zi; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-09-01

    FeS and its composite, FeS/C, are synthesized via a simple calcination method followed by a co-precipitation process. The electrochemical properties of the bare FeS and FeS/C composite as anode materials for alkaline nickel-iron batteries are investigated. The results show that the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 325 mAh g-1 at a current density of 300 mA g-1 with a faradaic efficiency of 90.3% and retains 99.2% of the initial capacity after 200 cycles. For the first time, it is demonstrated that even at a discharge rate as high as 1500 mA g-1 (5C) the FeS/C-3wt%Bi2O3-mixed electrode delivers a specific capacity of nearly 230 mAh g-1. SEM results confirm that after 200 discharge-charge cycles, the size of FeS/C particles reduces from 5 to 15 μm to less than 300 nm in diameter and the particles are highly dispersed on the surface of carbon black, which is likely caused by the dissolution-deposition process of Fe(OH)2 and Fe via intermediate iron species. As a result, the FeS/C composite exhibits considerably high charge efficiency, high discharge capacities, excellent rate capability and superior cycling stability. We believe that this composite is a potential candidate of high-performance anode materials for alkaline iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  2. Development of a benchmarking model for lithium battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergholz, Timm; Korte, Carsten; Stolten, Detlef

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a benchmarking model to enable systematic selection of anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries in stationary applications, hybrid and battery electric vehicles. The model incorporates parameters for energy density, power density, safety, lifetime, costs and raw materials. Combinations of carbon anodes, Li4Ti5O12 or TiO2 with LiFePO4 cathodes comprise interesting combinations for application in hybrid power trains. Higher cost and raw material prioritization of stationary applications hinders the breakthrough of Li4Ti5O12, while a combination of TiO2 and LiFePO4 is suggested. The favored combinations resemble state-of-the-art materials, whereas novel cell chemistries must be optimized for cells in battery electric vehicles. In contrast to actual research efforts, sulfur as a cathode material is excluded due to its low volumetric energy density and its known lifetime and safety issues. Lithium as anode materials is discarded due to safety issues linked to electrode melting and dendrite formation. A high capacity composite Li2MnO3·LiNi0.5Co0.5O2 and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode with silicon as anode material promise high energy densities with sufficient lifetime and safety properties if electrochemical and thermal stabilization of the electrolyte/electrode interfaces and bulk materials is achieved. The model allows a systematic top-down orientation of research on lithium batteries.

  3. Electrode performance of romanechite for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Masayuki; Arai, Hajime; Nemoto, Yasue; Sakurai, Yoji

    We studied romanechite, (2×3) tunnel type manganese dioxide, as a positive electrode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. We synthesized the sample by soft chemical techniques, and its chemical composition was Ba 0.18MnO 2.10·0.42H 2O. We obtained a first discharge capacity of 120 mAh g -1 (energy density 264 mWh g -1). The capacity decreased with cycling. We examined the thermal behavior of this material, revealing its high thermal stability.

  4. Polypyrrole composite electrodes in an all-polymer battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, J.G.; Coffey, B.M.; Gao, F.; Poehler, T.O.; Searson, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    The authors have fabricated an all-polymer battery utilizing the redox properties of electrically conducting polymers for the anode and cathode in conjunction with an ionic conducting polymer gel electrolyte. The anode and cathode consist of pyrrole electropolymerized onto a graphite fiber substrate resulting in a high-surface-area, composite electrode. A polymer gel electrolyte, based on polyacrylonitrile, was solution cast onto the electrodes to form an all-polymer cell. This system exhibits a specific charge capacity of 22 mAh/g based on the electroactive mass of the cathode and discharging the system to 0.4 V. These cells show no loss of capacity when cycled to 100 cycles.

  5. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for

  6. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances.

  7. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  8. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution.

    PubMed

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  9. An unusual electrical burn caused by alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Roan, Tyng-Luen; Yeong, Eng-Kean; Tang, Yueh-Bih

    2015-02-01

    Electrical burns caused by low-voltage batteries are rarely reported. We recently encountered a male patient who suffered from a superficial second-degree burn over his left elbow and back. The total body surface area of the burn was estimated to be 6%. After interviewing the patient, the cause was suspected to be related to the explosion of a music player on the left-side of his waist, carried on his belt while he was painting a bathroom wall. Elevated creatine kinase levels and hematuria indicated rhabdomyolysis and suggested an electrical burn. Initial treatment was done in the burn intensive care unit with fluid challenge and wound care. The creatine kinase level decreased gradually and the hematuria was gone after 4 days in the intensive care unit. He was then transferred to the general ward for further wound management and discharged from our burn center after a total of 11 days without surgical intervention. PMID:25678181

  10. Factors influence flexibility resistivity and zinc dendrite penetration rate of inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Developmental work resulted in a formulation which can improve the flexibility of the inorganic-organic-type separator for silver-zinc and nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The effects of various fillers and reactive organic additives on separator volume resistivity are described. The effects of various inert fillers on the zinc dendrite penetration rate of the separator are shown. Conclusions regarding the operating mechanism of the separator are presented.

  11. Seeking effective dyes for a mediated glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eustis, Ross; Tsang, Tsz Ming; Yang, Brigham; Scott, Daniel; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-02-01

    A significant level of power generation from an abiotic, air breathing, mediated reducing sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell has been achieved in our laboratories at room temperature without complicated catalysis or membrane separation in the reaction chamber. Our prior studies suggested that mass transport limitation by the mediator is a limiting factor in power generation. New and effective mediators were sought here to improve charge transfer and power density. Forty-five redox dyes were studied to identify if any can facilitate mass transport in alkaline electrolyte solution; namely, by increasing the solubility and mobility of the dye, and the valence charge carried per molecule. Indigo dyes were studied more closely to understand the complexity involved in mass transport. The viability of water-miscible co-solvents was also explored to understand their effect on solubility and mass transport of the dyes. Using a 2.0 mL solution, 20% methanol by volume, with 100 mM indigo carmine, 1.0 M glucose and 2.5 M sodium hydroxide, the glucose-air alkaline battery/fuel cell attained 8 mA cm-2 at short-circuit and 800 μW cm-2 at the maximum power point. This work shall aid future optimization of mediated charge transfer mechanism in batteries or fuel cells.

  12. Polyphase alloys as rechargeable electrodes in advanced battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The rechargeability of electrochemical cells is often limited by negative electrode problems. These may include loss of capacity, increased impedance, macroscopic shape change, dendrite growth, or a tendency for filamentary or whisker growth. In principle, these problems can be reduced or eliminated by the use of alloys that undergo either displacement or insertion reactions at reactant species activities less than unity, rather than pure elements. The fundamental reasons for some of these problems with elemental electrodes, as well as the basic principles involved in the different behavior of alloys, are briefly discussed. More information is now available concerning the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a number of alloys of potential interest for use as electrodes in elevated temperature lithium battery systems. Recent results have extended these results down to ambient temperatures, indicating that some such materials may be of interest for use with new low temperature molten salt electrolytes, or with organic solvent electrolytes. The all solid mixed conductor matrix concept is also reviewed.

  13. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  14. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-02-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results.

  15. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results. PMID:26916054

  16. Surface functionality and electrochemical investigations of a graphitic electrode as a candidate for alkaline energy conversion and storage devices.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed B; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S; Hassan, Hamdy H

    2016-01-01

    Graphite is a typical electrocatalyst support in alkaline energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells, supercapacitores and lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical behaviour of a graphite electrode in 0.5 M NaOH was studied to elucidate its surface structure/electrochemical activity relationship. Graphite voltammograms are characterized by an anodic shoulder AI and a cathodic peak CI in addition to the oxygen reduction reaction plateaus, PI and PII. AI and CI were attributed to oxidation and reduction of some graphite surface function groups, respectively. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) study revealed two different oxygen types assigned as inner and outer oxygen. The inner oxygen was reduced via the more efficient 4-electron pathway. The outer oxygen reduction proceeded with a lower efficient 2-electron pathway. The calculated percentages of the 4-electron pathway were ranged from 70% to 90%. A full mechanism for the graphite surface function groups changes over the studied potential window was suggested through the combination between the voltammetric, FT-IR and Raman results. PMID:26916054

  17. Development and testing of an economic grid-scale flow-assisted zinc/nickel-hydroxide alkaline battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Damon E.; Shmukler, Michael; Galloway, Kevin; Klein, Martin; Ito, Yasumasa; Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua W.; Nyce, Michael; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-10-01

    An economic design for an alkaline zinc-anode flow-assisted battery without membrane separators was tested at grid-scale of 25 kWh with a string of thirty 833 Wh cells in series, and also at bench scale with individual 28 Wh cells. The bench-scale tests allowed optimization of parameters such as electrolyte flow, choice of hardware material, electrolyte composition, and charge/discharge protocol. The best-performing bench scale cell cycled for over 3300 cycles with energy efficiency above 80%, and was selected as the design basis for scale-up to the 25 kWh battery string. Testing of the grid-scale string demonstrated 1000+ cycles with round trip energy efficiency above 80%. Two challenges observed at the bench scale were overcome for successful scale-up, namely a) passivation of the anode surface, which occurred when the anode experienced voltages 100 mV above zinc's rest voltage, and b) zinc particulates that jammed the gap between the electrodes and caused cathode degradation and passivation of the anode surface. Best practices to overcome these challenges and achieve long cycle life are presented.

  18. Workshop on electrodes for flowing solution batteries. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Nanis, L.

    1981-02-01

    The electrochemical technology of aqueous secondary cells with flowing electrolyte solutions was the subject of a workshop sponsored by EPRI with the cooperation of DOE. The workshop was held in Tampa, Florida, 5-7 November 1979, and was attended by a select group drawn from advanced battery developers, government agencies, universities, and research organizations. The workshop general objectives were to look at the significant parameters believed to govern the performance of the two basic types of electrodes now in use; namely, a porous flow-through electrode (PFTE), and an impervious flow-by electrode. Progress, problems, and prospects were informally discussed. Brief critical reviews were given by session chairmen as a means of introducing each of the key topics (Current Distribution in FTPE, Conversion Efficiency, Segmented FTPE Studies, General Discussion on FTPF Parameters, Surface Activation, Application of FTPE to Waste Recovery, Exxon Zinc-Bromine Flow-By System, FTPE In NASA Redox Energy Storage, and Application of FTPE In Lockheed Zinc/Ferricyanide Redox System). The interaction of this diverse group of engineers and scientists was said by all to be of great benefit in widening understanding of the problems and possible future approaches to new work. The main needs for future work that were identified in the final discussion session among the participants were: (1) engineering analysis, (2) porous structures, (3) materials characteristics, and (4) chemical characteristics. In generally comparing flow-through to flow-by electrodes, there were some surprising differences arising from experimental results that did not fit conventional thinking.

  19. Evaluation residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes and its effect on electrode performance

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L.; An, Seong Jin

    2016-01-11

    Removing residual moisture in lithium-ion battery electrodes is essential for desired electrochemical performance. In this manuscript, the residual moisture in LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 cathodes produced by conventional solvent-based and aqueous processing is characterized and compared. The electrochemical performance has also been investigated for various residual moisture contents. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the residual moisture lowers the first cycle coulombic efficiency, but its effect on short term cycle life is insignificant.

  20. Alkaline battery containing a separator of a cross-linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol and unsaturated carboxylic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, L. C.; Philipp, W. H.; Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A battery separator for an alkaline battery is described. The separator comprises a cross linked copolymer of vinyl alcohol units and unsaturated carboxylic acid units. The cross linked copolymer is insoluble in water, has excellent zincate diffusion and oxygen gas barrier properties and a low electrical resistivity. Cross linking with a polyaldehyde cross linking agent is preferred.

  1. Synthesis of Graphene from a Used Battery Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M. K. Punith; Srivastava, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Graphene was produced by electrochemical exfoliation of a used battery electrode. Aqueous solutions of cationic (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and nonionic (poly vinyl pyrrolidone) surfactants, along with NaCl and combinations of these surfactants with NaCl, were used as the electrolyte. The following observations were made: (I) up to several micrometer sized graphene sheets were produced, (II) the addition of NaCl into the electrolytes significantly enhanced the yield of the exfoliated graphene, (III) the type of surfactant affected the defect density of the exfoliated product, and (IV) electrochemical impedance spectroscopy provided insight into the reason for the changes in the defect density ratio between the graphene samples.

  2. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  3. Charge control of nickel-cadmium batteries by coulometer and third electrode method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F.; Paulkovitch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Combined coulometer/third electrode control circuit for a nickel-cadmium battery included at least one cell of the third electrode type is illustrated. The coulometer/third electrode sensing circuit controls the series regulator as necessary to maintain the sensing voltage at the preset sensing level.

  4. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Hierarchical Co@C Nanoflowers: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties as an Advanced Negative Material for Alkaline Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ma, Jianmin; Zhang, Zichao; Cao, Bingqiang; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2015-11-01

    Hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers have been facilely synthesized via a simple route based on a low-temperature solid-phase reaction. The obtained hierarchical Co@C nanoflowers, each constructed of a number of nanosheets, display a three-dimensional architecture with an average grain size of about 300 nm. The electrochemical properties of the Co@C nanoflowers as the negative material for Ni/Co cells have been systemically researched. In particular, Co@C material exhibits high discharge-specific capacity and good cycling stability. The discharge-specific capacity of our Co@C-3 electrode can reach 612.1 mA h g(-1), and the specific capacity of 415.3 mA h g(-1) is retained at a current density of 500 mA g(-1) after 120 cycles, indicating its great potential for high-performance Ni/Co batteries. Interestingly, the as-synthesized Co@C electrode also exhibits favorable rate capability. These desirable properties can be attributed to porous pathways, which allow fast transportation of ions and electrons and easy accessibility to the electrolyte. The dominant electrochemical mechanism of Co@C can be attributed to the reduction-oxidation reaction between metallic cobalt and cobalt hydroxide in alkaline solution. PMID:26460934

  6. Progress towards high-power Li/CFx batteries: electrode architectures using carbon nanotubes with CFx.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S; Marschilok, Amy C

    2015-09-21

    Carbon monofluoride (CFx) has a high energy density, exceeding 2000 W h kg(-1), yet its application in primary lithium batteries is limited by its power capability. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are appealing additives for high-power batteries, due to their outstanding electronic transport properties, high aspect ratio necessitating low volume fraction for percolation, and high tensile strength. This perspective describes the current state of the art in lithium-carbon monofluoride (Li/CFx) batteries and highlights the opportunities for the development of high-power Li/CFx batteries via utilization of carbon nanotubes. In this report, we generated several electrode architectures using CFx/CNT combinations, and demonstrated the effectiveness of CNTs in enhancing the rate capability and energy density of Li/CFx batteries. First, we investigated the resistivity of CFx combined with CNTs and compared the CFx/CNT composites with conventional carbon additives. Second, we built CFx-CNT electrodes without metallic current collectors using CNTs as substrates, and compared their electrochemical performance with conventional CFx electrodes using aluminum foil as a current collector. Furthermore, we fabricated multi-layered CNT-CFx-CNT composite electrodes (sandwich electrodes) and studied the impact of the structure on the performance of the electrode. Our work demonstrates some of the opportunities for utilization of CNTs in CFx electrodes and the resultant implementation of CFx as a battery cathode in next-generation high-power batteries. PMID:26280394

  7. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.

  8. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified intomore » porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.« less

  9. Electrochromic & magnetic properties of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Fei, Guo; Kun, Pan; Xue-Jin, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Progress in electrochromic lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is reviewed, highlighting advances and possible research directions. Methods for using the LIB electrode materials’ magnetic properties are also described, using several examples. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) film is discussed as an electrochromic material and insertion compound. The opto-electrical properties of the LTO film have been characterized by electrical measurements and UV-Vis spectra. A prototype bi-functional electrochromic LIB, incorporating LTO as both electrochromic layer and anode, has also been characterized by charge- discharge measurements and UV-Vis transmittance. The results show that the bi-functional electrochromic LIB prototype works well. Magnetic measurement has proven to be a powerful tool to evaluate the quality of electrode materials. We introduce briefly the magnetism of solids in general, and then discuss the magnetic characteristics of layered oxides, spinel oxides, olivine phosphate LiFePO4, and Nasicon-type Li3Fe2(PO4)3. We also discuss what kind of impurities can be detected, which will guide us to fabricate high quality films and high performance devices. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA034201) and the Chinese Universities Scientific Fund (Grant No. 2015LX002).

  10. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  11. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  12. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  13. Life cycle assessment of three different management options for spent alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Xará, Susana; Almeida, Manuel Fonseca; Costa, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    The potential environmental impact of Landfilling, Incineration and Recycling of spent household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal was compared using LCA methodology and the Recipe Impact Assessment method. Major contributors and improvement opportunities for each system were identified and scenarios for 2012 and 2016 legislation targets were evaluated. For 13 out of the 18 impact categories, the Recycling system is the worst alternative, Incineration is the worst option for 4 and Landfill is the worst option only for one impact category. However if additionally in each system the recovery of materials and energy is taken into account there is a noticeable advantage of the Recycling system for all the impact categories. The environmental profiles for 2012 and 2016 scenarios (25% and 45% recycling rates, respectively) show the dominance of the Recycling system for most of the impact categories. Based on the results of this study, it is questioned whether there are environmental benefits of recycling abroad the household alkaline batteries collected in continental Portugal and, since the low environmental performance of the Recycling system is particularly due to the international transport of the batteries to the recycling plant, is foreseen that a recycling facility located in Portugal, could bring a positive contribution to the environmental impact of the legislation compliance. PMID:26119009

  14. Process for the recycling of alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferella, Francesco; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco

    In this paper a recycling process for the recovery of zinc and manganese from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries is proposed. Laboratory tests are performed to obtain a purified pregnant solution from which metallic zinc (purity 99.6%) can be recovered by electrolysis; manganese is recovered as a mixture of oxides by roasting of solid residue coming from the leaching stage. Nearly 99% of zinc and 20% of manganese are extracted after 3 h, at 80 °C with 10% w/v pulp density and 1.5 M sulphuric acid concentration. The leach liquor is purified by a selective precipitation of iron, whereas metallic impurities, such as copper, nickel and cadmium are removed by cementation with zinc powder. The solid residue of leaching is roasted for 30 min at 900 °C, removing graphite completely and obtaining a mixture of Mn 3O 4 and Mn 2O 3 with 70% grade of Mn. After that a technical-economic assessment is carried out for a recycling plant with a feed capacity of 5000 t y -1 of only alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. This analysis shows the economic feasibility of that plant, supposing a battery price surcharge of 0.5 € kg -1, with a return on investment of 34.5%, gross margin of 35.8% and around 3 years payback time.

  15. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    The introduction of the first commercially produced Li-ion battery by Sony in 1990 sparked a period of unprecedented growth in the consumer electronics industry. Now, with increasing efforts to move away from fossil-fuel-derived energy sources, a substantial amount of current research is focused on the development of an electrified transportation fleet. Unfortunately, existent battery technologies are unable to provide the necessary performance for electric vehicles (EV's) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV's) vehicles at a competitive cost. The cost and performance metrics of current Li-ion batteries are mainly determined by the positive electrode materials. The work here is concerned with understanding the structural and electrochemical consequences of cost-lowering mechanisms in two separate classes of Li-ion cathode materials; the LiMO2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) layered oxides and the LiMPO4 olivine materials; with the goal of improving performance. Al-substitution for Co in LiNizMnzCo1-2zO 2 ("NMC") materials not only decreases the costly Co-content, but also improves the safety aspects and, notably, enhances the cycling stability of the layered oxide electrodes. The structural and electrochemical effects of Al-substitution are investigated here in a model NMC compound, LiNi0.45 Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2. In addition to electrochemical measurements, various synchrotron-based characterization methods are utilized, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ X-ray diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Al-substitution causes a slight distortion of the as-synthesized hexagonal layered oxide lattice, lowering the inherent octahedral strain within the transition metal layer. The presence of Al also is observed to limit the structural variation of the NMC materials upon Li-deintercalation, as well as extended cycling of the electrodes. Various olivine materials, Li

  16. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1983-11-07

    A battery electrode material comprises a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  17. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1987-01-01

    A battery electrode material comprising a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  18. Simultaneous recovery of zinc and manganese dioxide from household alkaline batteries through hydrometallurgical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Cleusa Cristina Bueno Martha; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    This paper describes the leaching experiments and the electrowinning tests to recover Zn and Mn from spent household alkaline batteries. After the dismantling of the batteries, the black powder was analyzed and found to contain 21 wt.% Zn and 45%wt. Mn. Therefore, it was considered that recovery of these metals would be interesting due to their relatively large amounts in this kind of waste. Batch laboratory experiments were carried out to develop an acid leaching procedure and to determine appropriate leaching conditions to maximize zinc extraction and to study the leaching behavior of Mn. An experimental study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of simultaneous recovery of zinc and particulate manganese dioxide using a laboratory cell. The results from these electrowinning experiments are also presented in this paper.

  19. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S. Zia

    1996-01-01

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery.

  20. Method and apparatus for indicating electric charge remaining in batteries based on electrode weight and center of gravity

    DOEpatents

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1996-12-03

    In most electrochemical batteries which generate electricity through the reaction of a battery electrode with an electrolyte solution, the chemical composition, and thus the weight and density, of the electrode changes as the battery discharges. The invention measures a parameter of the battery which changes as the weight of the electrode changes as the battery discharges and relates that parameter to the value of the parameter when the battery is fully charged and when the battery is functionally discharged to determine the state-of-charge of the battery at the time the parameter is measured. In one embodiment, the weight of a battery electrode or electrode unit is measured to determine the state-of-charge. In other embodiments, where a battery electrode is located away from the geometrical center of the battery, the position of the center of gravity of the battery or shift in the position of the center of gravity of the battery is measured (the position of the center of gravity changes with the change in weight of the electrode) and indicates the state-of-charge of the battery. 35 figs.

  1. Characterization of solid electrode materials using chronoamperometry: A study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malloy, Aaron P.; Donne, Scott W.

    Large voltage step chronoamperometry is shown to be a time-efficient means to examine solid electrode materials compared with conventional electrochemical methods such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPECS), all the while providing comparable information concerning the rate capability of a material and its capacity. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated through a study of the alkaline γ-MnO 2 electrode. By sampling the current (and hence the charge) at various times after the chronoamperometric voltage step, the compatibility between chronoamperometry and LSV is disclosed. Furthermore, modelling of the chronoamperometric data using two curves based on a spherical diffusion model representing fast and slow discharge processes are found to be statistically suitable. From this modelling, values of A√ D (where A is the electrochemically active surface area and D is the diffusion coefficient) for the two processes are 3.89 × 10 -4 and 0.70 × 10 -4 cm 3 s -1/2 g -1, respectively, both of which are comparable with A√ D data extracted from a SPECS experiment on an identical electrode.

  2. Recent research progress on iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials for rechargeable sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Komaba, Shinichi

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale high-energy batteries with electrode materials made from the Earth-abundant elements are needed to achieve sustainable energy development. On the basis of material abundance, rechargeable sodium batteries with iron- and manganese-based positive electrode materials are the ideal candidates for large-scale batteries. In this review, iron- and manganese-based electrode materials, oxides, phosphates, fluorides, etc, as positive electrodes for rechargeable sodium batteries are reviewed. Iron and manganese compounds with sodium ions provide high structural flexibility. Two layered polymorphs, O3- and P2-type layered structures, show different electrode performance in Na cells related to the different phase transition and sodium migration processes on sodium extraction/insertion. Similar to layered oxides, iron/manganese phosphates and pyrophosphates also provide the different framework structures, which are used as sodium insertion host materials. Electrode performance and reaction mechanisms of the iron- and manganese-based electrode materials in Na cells are described and the similarities and differences with lithium counterparts are also discussed. Together with these results, the possibility of the high-energy battery system with electrode materials made from only Earth-abundant elements is reviewed.

  3. Highly Oriented Carbon Nanotube Sheets for Rechargeable Lithium Oxygen Battery Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seongwoo; Kim, Byung Gon; Choi, Jang Wook; Lee, Haeshin

    2015-10-01

    Lithium oxygen batteries are one of the next generation rechargeable batteries. High energy density of lithium oxygen batteries have been considered as a very attractive power option for electric vehicles and many other electronic devices. However, they still faced substantial challenges such as short cycle life, large voltage hysteresis, low gravimetric and volumetric power. Here we developed a highly aligned CNT structured sheet for favorable lithium oxygen cathode electrodes. We fabricated highly oriented CNT sheets by rolling vertically aligned CNT arrays. Highly oriented CNT sheets provide excellent electrical conductivity with favorable mesoporous structure for cathode electrode. As a result, the CNT sheet performed maximum discharging capacity of 1810 mA/gc. We found that electrical conductivity and pore distribution plays important rolls for improving performance in lithium oxygen batteries. This study suggests new strategies of designing highly efficient porous carbon electrodes for lithium oxygen batteries. PMID:26726383

  4. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  5. High performance binderless TiO2 nanowire arrays electrode for lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueming; Lv, Xiaojun; Li, Jinghong

    2009-09-01

    Binderless lithium ion battery electrode fabricated by anodizing Ti foil, in which TiO2 nanowire serves as active materials and unreacted Ti foil as the current collector, exhibited high electrochemical performance.

  6. Tin nanoparticle thin film electrodes fabricated by the vacuum filtration method for enhanced battery performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Kong, Byung-Seon; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Yang, Seung Bo; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2009-06-10

    A novel method for fabricating tin nanoparticle thin film electrodes that show good performance in lithium ion batteries during cycling is reported. The vacuum filtration method has the advantage of affording a high degree of dispersion of the electrode components, thereby providing good electrical contacts between the tin nanoparticles and the conductive carbon or current collector. The reversible capacity and initial Coulombic efficiency are 726 mA h g(-1) and 85.3%, respectively, with this thin film electrode. Cycle life performance tests under real battery conditions show that the battery capacity and reaction peaks remained stable for up to 50 cycles. SEM shows that the uniform morphology of the vacuum filtered film was maintained throughout the cycle life test. This novel vacuum filtration method for providing nanoparticle-based film electrodes has further potential applications for use in various devices such as high power, thin film batteries, supercapacitors and organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic cells. PMID:19448286

  7. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  8. Investigation of the Alkaline Electrochemical Interface and Development of Composite Metal/Metal-Oxides for Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Michael

    Understanding the fundamentals of electrochemical interfaces will undoubtedly reveal a path forward towards a society based on clean and renewable energy. In particular, it has been proposed that hydrogen can play a major role as an energy carrier of the future. To fully utilize the clean energy potential of a hydrogen economy, it is vital to produce hydrogen via water electrolysis, thus avoiding co-production of CO2 inherent to reformate hydrogen. While significant research efforts elsewhere are focused on photo-chemical hydrogen production from water, the inherent low efficiency of this method would require a massive land-use footprint to achieve sufficient hydrogen production rates to integrate hydrogen into energy markets. Thus, this research has primarily focused on the water splitting reactions on base-metal catalysts in the alkaline environment. Development of high-performance base-metal catalysts will help move alkaline water electrolysis to the forefront of hydrogen production methods, and when paired with solar and wind energy production, represents a clean and renewable energy economy. In addition to the water electrolysis reactions, research was conducted to understand the de-activation of reversible hydrogen electrodes in the corrosive environment of the hydrogen-bromine redox flow battery. Redox flow batteries represent a promising energy storage option to overcome the intermittency challenge of wind and solar energy production methods. Optimization of modular and scalable energy storage technology will allow higher penetration of renewable wind and solar energy into the grid. In Chapter 1, an overview of renewable energy production methods and energy storage options is presented. In addition, the fundamentals of electrochemical analysis and physical characterization of the catalysts are discussed. Chapter 2 reports the development of a Ni-Cr/C electrocatalyst with unprecedented mass-activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline

  9. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  10. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  11. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  12. Sulfonated polyaniline, a conducting polymer electrode for ion transfer batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, C.; Miras, M.C.; Koetz, R.; Haas, O.

    1994-12-31

    Sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) was synthesized by sulfonation of polyaniline base with f6ming sulfuric acid. The polymer films were characterized by XPS, FFIR and UV-vis-NIR. XPS in combination with FTIR shows that the preparation procedure leads to a ca. 47% sulfonation of an otherwise unchanged polyaniline backbone. Electrodes modified with SPAN films exhibited two redox steps in aqueous as well as in nonaqueous electrolytes. Probe Beam Deflection and Quartz Crystal Microbalance were used to study the ion exchange mechanism. Protons are predominantly expelled during the first and second oxidation steps in acidic aqueous solution, accompanied by a counterflux of solvent. In nonaqueous electrolyte, expulsion of cations seems to be the dominant flux during SPAN oxidation, while solvent counterflux plays a significant role. The specific charge of SPAN films was found to be ca. 37 Ah/kg in aqueous solution (only first redox process used) and ca. 68 Ah/kg in nonaqueous media (both redox processes). Based on their experimental results, an estimation for a practical SPAN/Li battery would have 50% more specific energy than a PANI/Li one.

  13. Polymer nanofiber-guided uniform lithium deposition for battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zheng; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liu, Chong; Liu, Nian; Li, Weiyang; Yan, Kai; Yao, Hongbin; Hsu, Po-Chun; Chu, Steven; Cui, Yi

    2015-05-13

    Lithium metal is one of the most promising candidates as an anode material for next-generation energy storage systems due to its highest specific capacity (3860 mAh/g) and lowest redox potential of all. The uncontrolled lithium dendrite growth that causes a poor cycling performance and serious safety hazards, however, presents a significant challenge for the realization of lithium metal-based batteries. Here, we demonstrate a novel electrode design by placing a three-dimensional (3D) oxidized polyacrylonitrile nanofiber network on top of the current collector. The polymer fiber with polar surface functional groups could guide the lithium ions to form uniform lithium metal deposits confined on the polymer fiber surface and in the 3D polymer layer. We showed stable cycling of lithium metal anode with an average Coulombic efficiency of 97.4% over 120 cycles in ether-based electrolyte at a current density of 3 mA/cm(2) for a total of 1 mAh/cm(2) of lithium. PMID:25822282

  14. Nitrogen-doped carbonaceous catalysts for gas-diffusion cathodes for alkaline aluminum-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, E. S.; Atamanyuk, I. N.; Ilyukhin, A. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt tetramethoxyphenyl porphyrin and polyacrylonitrile - based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction were synthesized and characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, limited evaporation method, rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrode methods. Half-cell and Al-air cell tests were carried out to determine the characteristics of gas-diffusion cathodes. Effect of active layer thickness and its composition on the characteristics of the gas-diffusion cathodes was investigated. Power density of 300 mW cm-2 was achieved for alkaline Al-air cell with an air-breathing polyacrylonitrile-based cathode.

  15. Effect of the length and surface area on electrochemical performance of cobalt oxide nanowires for alkaline secondary battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaofeng; An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-12-01

    One-dimensional porous Co3O4 nanowires with different length have been successfully synthesized by thermal decomposition of Co-NA polymer precursors at various hydrothermal reaction times. The positive effects of longer nanowires and larger surface area on electrochemical performance of Co3O4 samples were investigated systematically. All the as-prepared Co3O4 samples display excellent discharge capacities and cycle stability on account of large surface area and porous structure, indicating great potential application of porous Co3O4 nanowires for alkaline rechargeable batteries. The Co3O4-24 h sample with the longest length shows the most outstanding electrochemical performance, and displays the maximum discharge capacity of 450.1 mAh g-1 with the capacity retention of 90.4% after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. Electrochemical reactions between Co and Co(OH)2 occurring on the Co3O4 electrodes are investigated by XRD, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and charge-discharge measurements.

  16. Corrosion and anodic behaviour of zinc and its ternary alloys in alkaline battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Kannan, A. R.; Muralidharan, S.; Sarangapani, K. B.; Balaramachandran, V.; Kapali, V.

    Several attempts are being made to avoid the use of mercury-bearing zinc/zinc alloys as anodes in alkaline power sources. The work presented here suggests the possible use of some ternary alloys based on zinc of purity 99.9 to 99.95 wt.% as anodes in 10 M NaOH solution with sodium citrate, sodium stannate and calcium oxide as complexing agents and inhibitors. The corrosion of zinc and its alloys in 10 M NaOH solution is under cathodic control; in other alkaline electrolytes, it is under anodic control. Anode efficiency of up to 99.0% is achieved. The corrosion rates of zinc and its alloys are found to be comparable with those of mercury-bearing zinc in the chosen electrolytes. It is concluded that both dry cells and Zn-air batteries can be constructed with the above anodes and alkaline electrolytes. Thus, the presence of mercury, either in the anode or in the electrolyte, is avoided.

  17. Optimized Silicon Electrode Architecture, Interface, and Microgeometry for Next-Generation Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Molina Piper, Daniela; Evans, Tyler; Xu, Shanshan; Kim, Seul Cham; Han, Sang Sub; Liu, Ken Liang; Oh, Kyu Hwan; Yang, Ronggui; Lee, Se-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Optimized performance of silicon-ionic- liquid lithium-ion batteries through the implementation of a new electrode-microgeometry. The incorporation of 1D silicon nanowires into the cyclized-polyacrylonitrile-based electrode-architecture allows for greatly improved active material utilization, higher rate capabilities, and reduced interfacial reactions. PMID:26506084

  18. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  19. R&D on lithium batteries in the USA: high-energy electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Boone B.; Smyrl, William H.; Xu, Jun John

    Recent trends in R&D on lithium battery technology in the USA continue to focus on high-performance batteries, polymer electrolyte systems and the development and production of batteries for specialty markets. Research on sol-gel derived amorphous vanadium and manganese oxides as high capacity, high-energy electrode materials has shown these morphologies are capable of reversibly intercalating very large amounts of lithium and they are attractive cathode candidates. Methods to improve the kinetics of these positive electrodes are showing promise.

  20. Gradient porous electrode architectures for rechargeable metal-air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Dudney, Nancy J.; Klett, James W.; Nanda, Jagjit; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2016-03-22

    A cathode for a metal air battery includes a cathode structure having pores. The cathode structure has a metal side and an air side. The porosity decreases from the air side to the metal side. A metal air battery and a method of making a cathode for a metal air battery are also disclosed.

  1. Surface modification of battery electrodes via electroless deposition with improved performance for Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Olschewski, Mark; Gustus, René; Borisenko, Natalia; Endres, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are emerging as potential stationary energy storage devices due to the abundance and low cost of sodium. A simple and energy efficient strategy to develop electrodes for SIBs with a high charge/discharge rate is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate that by surface modification of Ge, using electroless deposition in SbCl3/ionic liquids, the stability and performance of the anode can be improved. This is due to the formation of GexSb1-x at the surface leading to better diffusion of Na, and the formation of a stable twin organic and inorganic SEI which protects the electrode. By judicious control of the surface modification, an improvement in the capacity to between 50% and 300% has been achieved at high current densities (0.83-8.4 A g(-1)) in an ionic liquid electrolyte NaFSI-[Py1,4]FSI. The results clearly demonstrate that an electroless deposition based surface modification strategy in ionic liquids offers exciting opportunities in developing superior energy storage devices. PMID:27189079

  2. Electrochemical investigation of polyhalide ion oxidation-reduction on carbon nanotube electrodes for redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-10-01

    Polyhalide ions (Br-/BrCl2-) are an important redox couple for redox flow batteries. The oxidation-reduction behavior of polyhalide ions on a carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode has been investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The onset oxidation potential of Br-/BrCl2- is negatively shifted by >100 mV, and the redox current peaks are greatly enhanced on a CNT electrode compared with that on the most widely-used graphite electrode. The reaction resistance of the redox couple (Br-/BrCl2-) is decreased on a CNT electrode. The redox reversibility is increased on a CNT electrode even though it still needs further improvement. CNT is a promising electrode material for redox flow batteries.

  3. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  4. Nanostructured electrode materials for Li-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaya, Palani; Saravanan, Kuppan; Hariharan, Srirama

    2010-04-01

    Nanostructured materials have triggered a great excitement in recent times due to both fundamental interest as well as technological impact relevant for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Size reduction in nanocrystals leads to a variety of unexpected exciting phenomena due to enhanced surface-to-volume ratio and reduced transport length. We will consider a few examples of nanostructured electrode materials in the context of lithium batteries for achieving high storage and high rate performances: 1) LiFePO4 nanoplates synthesized using solvothermal method could store Li-ions comparable to its theoretical capacity at C/10, while at 30C, they exhibit storage capacity up to 45 mAh/g. Size reduction (~30 nm) at the b-axis favors the fast Li-ion diffusion. In addition to this, uniform ~5 nm carbon coating throughout the plates provides excellent electronically conducting path for electrons. This nano architecture enables fast insertion/extraction of both Li-ions as well as electrons; 2) Mesporous-TiO2 with high surface area (135m2/g) synthesized using soft-template method exhibits high volumetric density compared to commercial nanopowder (P25), with excellent Li-storage behavior. C16 meso-TiO2 synthesized from CTAB exhibits reversible storage capacity of 288mAh/g at 0.2C and 109 mAh/g at 30C; 3) Zero strain Li4Ti5O12 anode material has been synthesized using several wet chemical routes. The best condition has been optimized to achieve storage capability close to theoretical limit of 175mAh/g at C/10. At 10C, we could retain lithium storage up to 88 mAh/g; 4) We report our recent results on α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 using conversion reaction, providing insight for a better storage capability in γ-phase than the α-phase at 2C resulting solely from the nanocrystallinity.

  5. In situ preparation of 1D Co@C composite nanorods as negative materials for alkaline secondary batteries.

    PubMed

    An, Cuihua; Wang, Yijing; Xu, Yanan; Wang, Ying; Huang, Yanan; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang

    2014-03-26

    Cobalt-based coordination compounds were successfully prepared via employing nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as a complexing agent through a mild surfactant-free solvothermal process. Cobalt ions are linked with the amino group or carboxyl groups of NTA to become one-dimensional nanorods that can be proved by Fourier transform infrared measurement findings. The morphologies of the precursor Co-NTA highly depend on the solvent composition, the reaction time and temperature. The probable growth mechanism has been proposed. After heat treatment, the Co-NTA precursor can be completely converted into Co@C nanorods assembled by numerous core-shell-like Co@C nanoparticles, which preserved the rodlike morphology. The as-prepared Co@C composites display a rodlike morphology with 4 μm length and 100 nm diameter. The electrochemical performances of this novel Co@C material as the alkaline secondary Ni/Co battery negative electrode have been systematically researched. The discharge capacity of the Co@C-1 composite electrode can attain 609 mAh g(-1) and retains about 383.3 mAh g(-1) after 120 cycles (the discharge current density of 500 mA g(-1)). The novel material exhibits a high discharge capacity of 610 and 470 mAh g(-1) at discharge currents of 100 and 1000 mA g(-1), respectively. This suggests that approximately 77% of the discharge capacity is kept when the discharge current density is increased to 1000 mA g(-1) (10 times the initial current density of 100 mA g(-1)). The excellent electrochemical properties could be ascribed to the porous channels of the novel Co@C materials, which is beneficial to electrolyte diffusion and electrons and ions transportation. PMID:24571638

  6. Method of Making a Nickel Fiber Electrode for a Nickel Based Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The general purpose of the invention is to develop a high specific energy nickel electrode for a nickel based battery system. The invention discloses a method of producing a lightweight nickel electrode which can be cycled to deep depths of discharge (i.e., 40% or greater of electrode capacity). These deep depths of discharge can be accomplished by depositing the required amount of nickel hydroxide active material into a lightweight nickel fiber substrate.

  7. Nanostructured Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries (Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Meilin Liu, James Gole

    2006-12-14

    The objective of this study was to explore new ways to create nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Of particular interests are unique nanostructures created by electrochemical deposition, etching and combustion chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Three-dimensional nanoporous Cu6Sn5 alloy has been successfully prepared using an electrochemical co-deposition process. The walls of the foam structure are highly-porous and consist of numerous small grains. This represents a novel way of creating porous structures that allow not only fast transport of gas and liquid but also rapid electrochemical reactions due to high surface area. The Cu6Sn5 samples display a reversible capacity of {approx}400 mAhg-1. Furthermore, these materials exhibit superior rate capability. At a current drain of 10 mA/cm2(20C rate), the obtainable capacity was more than 50% of the capacity at 0.5 mA/cm2 (1C rate). Highly open and porous SnO2 thin films with columnar structure were obtained on Si/SiO2/Au substrates by CCVD. The thickness was readily controlled by the deposition time, varying from 1 to 5 microns. The columnar grains were covered by nanoparticles less than 20 nm. These thin film electrodes exhibited substantially high specific capacity. The reversible specific capacity of {approx}3.3 mAH/cm2 was demonstrated for up to 80 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.3 mA/cm2. When discharged at 0.9 mA/cm2, the capacity was about 2.1 mAH/cm2. Tin dioxide box beams or tubes with square or rectangular cross sections were synthesized using CCVD. The cross-sectional width of the SnO2 tubules was tunable from 50 nm to sub-micrometer depending on synthesis temperature. The tubes are readily aligned in the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface to form tube arrays. Silicon wafers were electrochemically etched to produce porous silicon (PS) with honeycomb-type channels and nanoporous walls. The diameters of the channels are about 1 to 3 microns and the depth of the

  8. Study on microstructures of electrodes in lithium-ion batteries using variational multi-scale enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangmin; Sastry, Ann Marie; Park, Jonghyun

    2016-05-01

    Performance and degradation of a Li-ion battery reflect the transport and kinetics of related species within the battery's electrode microstructures. The variational multi-scale principle is adapted to a Li-ion battery system in order to improve the predictions of battery performance by including multi-scale and multiphysics phenomena among the particle aggregates in the electrode; this physics cannot be addressed by conventional homogenized approaches. The developed model is verified through the direct numerical solutions and compared with the conventional pseudo-2D (P2D) model method. The developed model has revealed more dynamic battery behaviors related to the variation of the microstructure-such as particle shape, tortuosity, and material composition-while the corresponding result from P2D shows a monotonous change within different structures.

  9. Layered perovskite oxide: a reversible air electrode for oxygen evolution/reduction in rechargeable metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takahashi, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Orikasa, Yuki; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Takano, Hiroshi; Ohguri, Nobuaki; Matsuda, Motofumi; Murota, Tadatoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueda, Wataru

    2013-07-31

    For the development of a rechargeable metal-air battery, which is expected to become one of the most widely used batteries in the future, slow kinetics of discharging and charging reactions at the air electrode, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively, are the most critical problems. Here we report that Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 (n = 3), functions as a reversible air electrode catalyst for both ORR and OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. The function of RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an ORR catalyst was confirmed by using an alkaline fuel cell composed of Pd/LaSr3Fe3O10-2x(OH)2x·H2O/RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of 1.23 V was obtained. RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 also catalyzed OER at an equilibrium potential of 1.23 V with almost no overpotentials. Reversible ORR and OER are achieved because of the easily removable oxygen present in RP-LaSr3Fe3O10. Thus, RP-LaSr3Fe3O10 minimizes efficiency losses caused by reactions during charging and discharging at the air electrode and can be considered to be the ORR/OER electrocatalyst for rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:23802735

  10. High rate, long cycle life battery electrode materials with an open framework structure

    DOEpatents

    Wessells, Colin; Huggins, Robert; Cui, Yi; Pasta, Mauro

    2015-02-10

    A battery includes a cathode, an anode, and an aqueous electrolyte disposed between the cathode and the anode and including a cation A. At least one of the cathode and the anode includes an electrode material having an open framework crystal structure into which the cation A is reversibly inserted during operation of the battery. The battery has a reference specific capacity when cycled at a reference rate, and at least 75% of the reference specific capacity is retained when the battery is cycled at 10 times the reference rate.

  11. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of preparing a battery electrode comprising providing an electrode-active material selected from chalogen-containing compounds of Ni, Fe, Pb, Co, Cu and mixtures thereof for a positive electrode and selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Si, Al, Pb and alloys thereof for the negative electrode, mixing a ligand in the form of an electrically conductive polymer with the electrode-active material wherein the polymer is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, to provide metal ion or negative ion vacancies in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.1 atom percent, the ligands for a positive electrode being selected from the class consisting of polyacetylene polymers having molecular weights in excess of 10,000 and cyclic polyamide with 3-5 functional groups. The ligands for a negative electrode are selected from the class consisting of tertiary butyl cyclohexyl-15-crown-5, TTF-TCNQ, and polymers of polyethylene oxide and one or more of LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/, LiBr, Na/sub 2/S, and NaCN, mixing a binder with the electrode-active material and polymer, and forming the mixed electrode-active material and polymer and binder into a battery electrode.

  12. Nickel hydroxide deposited indium tin oxide electrodes as electrocatalysts for direct oxidation of carbohydrates in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesh, V.; Farzana, S.; Berchmans, Sheela

    In this work, the direct electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates using nickel hydroxide modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes in alkaline medium is demonstrated; suggesting the feasibility of using carbohydrates as a novel fuel in alkaline fuel cells applications. The chosen monosaccharides are namely glucose and fructose; disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose; and sugar acid like ascorbic acid for this study. ITO electrodes are chemically modified using a hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystalline phase template electrodeposition of nickel. Structural morphology, growth, orientation and electrochemical behaviour of Ni deposits are characterized using SEM, XRD, XPS and cyclic voltammetry (CV), respectively. Further electrochemical potential cycling process in alkaline medium is employed to convert these Ni deposits into corresponding nickel hydroxide modified electrodes. These electrodes are used as novel platform to perform the electrocatalytic oxidation of various carbohydrates in alkaline medium. It was found that bare and Ni coated ITO electrodes are inactive towards carbohydrates oxidation. The heterogeneous rate constant values are determined and calculated to be two orders of magnitude higher in the case of template method when compared to non-template technique. The observed effect is attributed to the synergistic effect of higher surface area of these deposits and catalytic ability of Ni(II)/Ni(III) redox couple.

  13. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for use in lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruetschi, Paul

    Electrochemical properties of silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes for lead-acid batteries are described, and the following possible applications discussed: Determination of individual capacities of positive and negative plates. Monitoring individual electrode behavior during deep discharge and cell reversal. Optimization charge or discharge parameters, by controlling the current such that pre-determined limits of positive or negative half-cell potential are respected. Observation of acid concentration differences, for example due to acid stratification, by measuring diffusion potentials (concentration-cell voltages). Detection of defective cells, and defective plate sets, in a string of cells, at the end of their service life. Silver-silver sulfate reference electrodes, permanently installed in lead-acid cells, may be a means to improve battery management, and therewith to improve reliability and service life. In vented batteries, reference electrodes may be used to limit positive plate polarization during charge, or float-charge. Limiting the positive half-cell potential to an upper, pre-set value would permit to keep anodic corrosion as low as possible. During cycling, discharge could be terminated when the half-cell potential of the positive electrode has dropped to a pre-set limit. This would prevent excessive discharge of the positive electrodes, which could result in an improvement of cycle life. In valve-regulated batteries, reference electrodes may be used to adjust float-charge conditions such as to assure sufficient cathodic polarization of the negative electrodes, in order to avoid sulfation. The use of such reference electrodes could be beneficial particularly in multi-cell batteries, with overall voltages above 12 V, operated in a partial-state-of-charge.

  14. Novel air electrode for metal-air battery with new carbon material and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    This invention relates to a rechargeable battery or fuel cell. More particularly, this invention relates to a novel air electrode comprising a new carbon electrode support material and a method of making same. 3 figs.

  15. Organo-sulfur molecules enable iron-based battery electrodes to meet the challenges of large-scale electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B; Malkhandi, S; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2014-07-03

    Rechargeable iron-air and nickel-iron batteries are attractive as sustainable and inexpensive solutions for large-scale electrical energy storage because of the global abundance and eco-friendliness of iron, and the robustness of iron-based batteries to extended cycling. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of iron-based batteries has been limited by their low charging efficiency. This limitation arises from the iron electrodes evolving hydrogen extensively during charging. The total suppression of hydrogen evolution has been a significant challenge. We have found that organo-sulfur compounds with various structural motifs (linear and cyclic thiols, dithiols, thioethers and aromatic thiols) when added in milli-molar concentration to the aqueous alkaline electrolyte, reduce the hydrogen evolution rate by 90%. These organo-sulfur compounds form strongly adsorbed layers on the iron electrode and block the electrochemical process of hydrogen evolution. The charge-transfer resistance and double-layer capacitance of the iron/electrolyte interface confirm that the extent of suppression of hydrogen evolution depends on the degree of surface coverage and the molecular structure of the organo-sulfur compound. An unanticipated electrochemical effect of the adsorption of organo-sulfur molecules is "de-passivation" that allows the iron electrode to be discharged at high current values. The strongly adsorbed organo-sulfur compounds were also found to resist electro-oxidation even at the positive electrode potentials at which oxygen evolution can occur. Through testing on practical rechargeable battery electrodes we have verified the substantial improvements to the efficiency during charging and the increased capability to discharge at high rates. We expect these performance advances to enable the design of efficient, inexpensive and eco-friendly iron-based batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage.

  16. Formation of Nanocrystalline Surface of Cu-Sn Alloy Foam Electrochemically Produced for Li-Ion Battery Electrode.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bora; Kim, Sunjung

    2015-10-01

    Cu-Sn alloy foam is a promising electrode material for Li-ion batteries. In this study, Cu-Sn alloy foam was produced by diffusion-limited electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte using polyurethane (PU) foam template. Our major concern is to form Cu-Sn alloy foam with nanocrystalline surface morphology by adjusting electrodeposition conditions such as deposition potential and metal ion concentration. Cu-Sn alloy layers comprising of nanoclusters such as nanospheres, nanoellipsoids, and nanoflakes were created depending on electrodeposition conditions. Larger surface area of nanocluster-interconnected Cu-Sn alloy layer was created when both Sn concentration and negative deposition potential were higher. After decomposing PU template thermally, Cu-Sn alloy foam of Cu, Cu6Sn5, and Cu3Sn phases was finally produced. PMID:26726491

  17. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-11-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (< 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  18. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco, J.; Chiappetti, D.; Coates, D.

    1996-02-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  19. High energy density micro-fiber based nickel electrode for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francisco, Jennifer; Chiappetti, Dennis; Coates, Dwaine

    1996-01-01

    The nickel electrode is the specific energy limiting component in battery systems such as nickel-hydrogen, nickel-metal hydride and nickel-zinc. Lightweight, high energy density nickel electrodes have been developed which deliver in excess of 180 mAh/g at the one-hour discharge rate. These electrodes are based on a highly porous, nickel micro-fiber (less than 10 micron diameter) substrate, electrochemically impregnated with nickel-hydroxide active material. Electrodes are being tested both as a flooded half-cell and in full nickel-hydrogen and nickel-metal hydride cells. The electrode technology developed is applicable to commercial nickel-based batteries for applications such as electric vehicles, cellular telephones and laptop computers and for low-cost, high energy density military and aerospace applications.

  20. Recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, I.; Ferella, F.; Karakaya, E.; Beolchini, F.; Vegliò, F.

    This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. The metals were dissolved by a reductive-acid leaching with sulphuric acid in the presence of oxalic acid as reductant. Leaching tests were realised according to a full factorial design, then simple regression equations for Mn, Zn and Fe extraction were determined from the experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature and oxalic acid concentration. The main effects and interactions were investigated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA). This analysis evidenced the best operating conditions of the reductive acid leaching: 70% of manganese and 100% of zinc were extracted after 5 h, at 80 °C with 20% of pulp density, 1.8 M sulphuric acid concentration and 59.4 g L -1 of oxalic acid. Both manganese and zinc extraction yields higher than 96% were obtained by using two sequential leaching steps.

  1. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, D; Wei, X; Steingart, DA; Banerjee, S

    2014-06-15

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 (2) over bar2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to similar to 60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrodeposition of preferentially oriented zinc for flow-assisted alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Divyaraj; Wei, Xia; Steingart, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2014-06-01

    Preferred orientation of zinc deposits during charging is shown to significantly improve performance and cycle life in flow-assisted alkaline zinc batteries, which has not been demonstrated earlier. The preferred orientation of zinc deposits was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Compact zinc is found to have (11 2 bar 2) preferred orientation on brass, which contributes to ∼60% of the texture. The effect of charging current and zincate concentration on morphology was investigated in a rotating hull cell and correlated with anodic efficiency. Compact zinc deposits are found to have a fine-grained, bright finish and the highest anodic efficiency. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proves that compact zinc corresponds to the minimum in the half-cell resistance. Morphological control using compact zinc could be accomplished using innovations such as pulse charging or enhanced mass-transfer to improve anode performance without affecting the cathode.

  3. Evaluation of electrode materials for all-copper hybrid flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Puiki; Palma, Jesus; Garcia-Quismondo, Enrique; Sanz, Laura; Mohamed, M. R.; Anderson, Marc

    2016-04-01

    This work evaluates a number of two- and three-dimensional electrodes for the reactions of an all-copper hybrid flow battery. Half- and full-cell experiments are conducted by minimizing the crossover effect of the copper(II) species. The battery incorporates a Nafion® cation exchange membrane and the negative electrolyte is maintained at the monovalent (colourless) state by the incorporating copper turnings in the electrolyte reservoir. Under such conditions, the half-cell coulombic efficiencies of the negative electrode reactions are all higher than 90% regardless of electrode materials and the state-of-charge (SOC). With charge-discharge cycling the half-cell from a 0% SOC, the coulombic efficiencies of the positive electrode reactions are lower than 76% with the planar carbon electrode, which further decrease in shorter charge-discharge cycles. Polarization and half-cell charge-discharge experiments suggest that the high-surface-area electrodes effectively reduce the overpotentials and improve the coulombic efficiencies of both electrode reactions. When copper fibres and carbon felt are used as the negative and positive electrodes, the average coulombic and voltage efficiencies of an all-copper flow battery are as high as c.a. 99% and c.a. 60% at 50 mA cm-2 for 35 cycles.

  4. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Kunz, Martin; Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2010-07-02

    We describe a method for direct determination and visualization of the distribution of charge in a composite electrode. Using synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction, state-of-charge profiles in-plane and normal to the current collector were measured. In electrodes charged at high rate, the signatures of nonuniform current distribution were evident. The portion of a prismatic cell electrode closest to the current collector tab had the highest state of charge due to electronic resistance in the composite electrode and supporting foil. In a coin cell electrode, the active material at the electrode surface was more fully charged than that close to the current collector because the limiting factor in this case is ion conduction in the electrolyte contained within the porous electrode.

  5. Expansion and shrinkage of the sulfur composite electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiangming; Ren, Jianguo; Wang, Li; Pu, Weihua; Jiang, Changyin; Wan, Chunrong

    The expansion and shrinkage characteristics of sulfur composite cathode electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries have been investigated. It was found that the sulfur composites electrodes expanded when discharging and shrank when charging again. The thickness change of the electrode was measured to be about 22%. The thickness of lithium metal anodes was also changed when lithium deposition and dissolution, while the sulfur composites electrodes expanded and shrank conversely. The investigation showed that the thickness changes of lithium anode and sulfur composite cathode could be compensated with each other to keep the total thickness of the cell not to change so much.

  6. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at

  7. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-02-21

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. Additionally, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMCmore » 532 electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. In conclusion, this study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.« less

  8. Effect of electrode manufacturing defects on electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries: Cognizance of the battery failure sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, D.; Hockaday, E.; Li, J.; Hensley, D. K.; Daniel, C.; Wood, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    During LIB electrode manufacturing, it is difficult to avoid the certain defects that diminish LIB performance and shorten the life span of the batteries. This study provides a systematic investigation correlating the different plausible defects (agglomeration/blisters, pinholes/divots, metal particle contamination, and non-uniform coating) in a LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 positive electrode with its electrochemical performance. In addition, an infrared thermography technique was demonstrated as a nondestructive tool to detect these defects. The findings show that cathode agglomerates aggravated cycle efficiency, and resulted in faster capacity fading at high current density. Electrode pinholes showed substantially lower discharge capacities at higher current densities than baseline NMC 532electrodes. Metal particle contaminants have an extremely negative effect on performance, at higher C-rates. The electrodes with more coated and uncoated interfaces (non-uniform coatings) showed poor cycle life compared with electrodes with fewer coated and uncoated interfaces. Further, microstructural investigation provided evidence of presence of carbon-rich region in the agglomerated region and uneven electrode coating thickness in the coated and uncoated interfacial regions that may lead to the inferior electrochemical performance. This study provides the importance of monitoring and early detection of the electrode defects during LIB manufacturing processes to minimize the cell rejection rate after fabrication and testing.

  9. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1991-12-31

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.

  10. EXAFS studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used at extensively at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study materials and electrodes of several battery systems. The power and the general applicability of the technique is illustrated by studies of several battery materials such as PEO-salt complexes, PbO{sub 2}, and in situ studies of mossy zinc deposition in alkaline electrolyte.