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1

Alkaline Hydrolysis of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An alkaline hydrolysis study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-2O thro...

P. Karakaya, M. Sidhourn, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich

2005-01-01

2

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

3

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

4

Spectrophotometric determination of paracetamol with microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of paracetamol to p-aminophenol that reacts with S 2- in the presence of Fe 3+ as oxidant to produce a methylene blue-like dye having an absorptivity maximum at 540 nm. The experiment showed that paracetamol could be hydrolysed quantitatively to p-aminophenol in only 1.5 min under radiation power 640 W using a microwave in NaOH medium. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0-3.0×10 -4 mol l -1 paracetamol. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 3.2×10 3 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.047 ?g cm -2, respectively. The relative standard deviation ( n=11) was 1.7% for 8.0×10 -5 mol l -1 paracetamol. The method has been applied successfully to analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparation.

Xu, Chunli; Li, Baoxin

2004-07-01

5

Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of olive tree wood by steam explosion and alkaline peroxide delignification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive tree wood, a renewable low-cost agricultural residue, was submitted to steam explosion pretreatment at 190, 210, 230 and 240°C for 5min. To improve enzymatic hydrolysis yields, the water-insoluble fiber was further delignified by an alkaline peroxide treatment. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using a commercial cellulolytic complex supplemented with ?-glucosidase at 10% (w\\/v) pretreated material concentration. Delignification did enhance enzymatic

Cristóbal Cara; Encarnación Ruiz; Ignacio Ballesteros; María J. Negro; Eulogio Castro

2006-01-01

6

Survival of prokaryotes in a polluted waste dump during remediation by alkaline hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques was used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities in a highly polluted waste dump and to assess the effect of remediation by alkaline hydrolysis on these communities. This waste dump (Breakwater 42), located in Denmark, contains approximately 100 different toxic compounds including large amounts of organophosphorous pesticides such as parathions. The alkaline hydrolysis (12 months at pH >12) decimated bacterial and archaeal abundances, as estimated by 16S rRNA gene-based qPCR, from 2.1 × 10(4) and 2.9 × 10(3) gene copies per gram wet soil respectively to below the detection limit of the qPCR assay. Clone libraries constructed from PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a significant reduction in bacterial diversity as a result of the alkaline hydrolysis, with preferential survival of Betaproteobacteria, which increased in relative abundance from 0 to 48 %. Many of the bacterial clone sequences and the 27 isolates were related to known xenobiotic degraders. An archaeal clone library from a non-hydrolyzed sample showed the presence of three main clusters, two representing methanogens and one representing marine aerobic ammonia oxidizers. Isolation of alkalitolerant bacterial pure cultures from the hydrolyzed soil confirmed that although alkaline hydrolysis severely reduces microbial community diversity and size certain bacteria survive a prolonged alkaline hydrolysis process. Some of the isolates from the hydrolyzed soil were capable of growing at high pH (pH 10.0) in synthetic media indicating that they could become active in in situ biodegradation upon hydrolysis. PMID:24532314

Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Lever, Mark Alexander; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

2014-04-01

7

Aqueous solubility and alkaline hydrolysis of the novel high explosive hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20).  

PubMed

The recently developed polycyclic nitramine CL-20 is considered as a possible replacement for the monocyclic nitramines RDX and HMX. The present study reports aqueous solubility data for CL-20, as well as the kinetic parameters for its alkaline hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide below and above its solubility limits. Aqueous solubility of CL-20 was measured in the temperature range of 4-69 degrees C and the data were fitted to a generalized solubility model. Alkaline hydrolysis experiments were conducted at 15, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C, with hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 300 mM. Like RDX and HMX, alkaline hydrolysis of CL-20 follows second-order kinetics. CL-20 alkaline hydrolysis was found to proceed at a significantly faster rate than RDX. The temperature dependency of the second-order rate constants was evaluated using the Arrhenius model. The activation energy for CL-20 was found to be within close range of the activation energies reported for RDX and HMX. PMID:15811680

Karakaya, Pelin; Sidhoum, Mohammed; Christodoulatos, Christos; Nicolich, Steve; Balas, Wendy

2005-04-11

8

Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure

GORDON I. KAYE; PETER B. WEBER; ANN EVANS; RICHARD A. VENEZIA

9

[Rapid determination of tetrodotoxin using microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis and spectrofluorometric analysis].  

PubMed

To develop a rapid, simple and sensitive method for determining the concentration of tetrodotoxin(TTX), TTX was hydrolyzed in the strong alkali solution of water mixed with isopropanol. The concentration of TTX can be indirectly analyzed by the fluorescence signal of its alkaline hydrolysis product which can be enhanced by the microwave method. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of the alkaline hydrolysis product of tetrodotoxin were 380 and 496 nm, respectively. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0. 1-10 micromol x L(-1) with r=0. 9991. The limit of detection was 0. 05 micromol x L(-1) , which was twenty times lower than before. A rapid, highly sensitive and accurate method was thus established. It can be used as a quantitative method for detecting TTX. PMID:17361726

Shen, Xiao-shu; Guo, Lei; Gu, Ming-song; Feng, Jian-lin; Xie, Jian-wei

2006-12-01

10

Kinetic study of alkaline protease 894 for the hydrolysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new enzyme (alkaline protease 894) obtained from the marine extremophile Flavobacterium yellowsea (YS-80-122) has exhibited strong substrate-binding and catalytic activity, even at low temperature, but the characteristics of the hydrolysis with this enzyme are still unclear. The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii was used in this study as the raw material to illustrate the kinetic properties of protease 894. After investigating the intrinsic relationship between the degree of hydrolysis and several factors, including initial reaction pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time, the kinetics model was established. This study showed that the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were an initial reaction pH of 5.0, temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 10% (w/v), enzyme concentration of 2 500 U/g, and hydrolysis time of 160 min. The kinetic characteristics of the protease for the hydrolysis of P. martensii were obtained. The inactivation constant was found to be 15.16/min, and the average relative error between the derived kinetics model and the actual measurement was only 3.04%, which indicated a high degree of fitness. Therefore, this study provides a basis for the investigation of the concrete kinetic characteristics of the new protease, which has potential applications in the food industry.

Chen, Xin; Chen, Hua; Cai, Bingna; Liu, Qingqin; Sun, Huili

2013-05-01

11

Mechanisms for the alkaline hydrolysis of dibromodifluoromethane-alkene adducts to ?,?-unsaturated carboxylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative mechanisms for the title reactions are probed. The previously-reported pathway involving double dehydrobromination to a difluorodiene is operative in at least one case, but this route is specifically excluded for systems that cannot dehydrobrominate to dienes yet still yield carboxylates upon alkaline hydrolysis. Although SN2, SN1, SRN1, and monoelimination–addition processes appear formally possible, an SN2? mechanism is implicated by

Seth Elsheimer; JoAnne L. Swanson; Javier Gonzalez

2000-01-01

12

Phosphate monoester hydrolysis by trinuclear alkaline phosphatase; DFT study of transition States and reaction mechanism.  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a trinuclear metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a broad range of phosphate monoesters to form inorganic phosphate and alcohol (or phenol). In this paper, by using density functional theory with a model based on a crystal structure, the AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters is investigated by calculating two substrates, that is, methyl and p-nitrophenyl phosphates, which represent alkyl and aryl phosphates, respectively. The calculations confirm that the AP reaction employs a "ping-pong" mechanism involving two chemical displacement steps, that is, the displacement of the substrate leaving group by a Ser102 alkoxide and the hydrolysis of the phosphoseryl intermediate by a Zn2-bound hydroxide. Both displacement steps proceed via a concerted associative pathway no matter which substrate is used. Other mechanistic aspects are also studied. Comparison of our calculations with linear free energy relationships experiments shows good agreement. PMID:24683174

Chen, Shi-Lu; Liao, Rong-Zhen

2014-08-01

13

DFT M06-2X investigation of alkaline hydrolysis of nitroaromatic compounds.  

PubMed

The nitroaromatic compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are potential environmental contaminants and their transformations under a variety of environmental conditions are consequently of great interest. One possible method to safely degrade these nitrocompounds is alkaline hydrolysis. A mechanism of the initial stages of this reaction was investigated computationally. Simulations of UV-VIS and NMR spectra for this mechanism were also produced. The results obtained were compared to available experimental data on the alkaline hydrolysis of TNT and suggest that the formation of Meisenheimer complexes and an anion of TNT are potential first-step intermediates in the reaction path. As the reaction proceeds, computational results indicate that polynegative complexes dominate the degradation pathway, followed by cycles of carbon chain opening and breaking. A second possible pathway was identified that leads to polymeric products through Janovsky complex formation. Results from this study indicate that the order of increasing resistance to alkaline hydrolysis is TNT, DNT and DNAN. PMID:22513338

Hill, Frances C; Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Blaustein, Gail S; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2012-07-01

14

Alkaline hydrolysis of mouse-adapted scrapie for inactivation and disposal of prion-positive material.  

PubMed

Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, and scrapie pose serious risks to human and animal health due to a host of disease-specific factors, including the resistance of infectious prions (PrP(Sc)) to natural degradation and to most commercial inactivation procedures. In an attempt to address this concern, a mouse model was used to compare the efficacy of an alkaline hydrolysis process with a simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment for disposal of PrP(Sc)-infected biological material. Female C57/BL6 mice (N = 120) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups (n = 30), and each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with their designated treatment inoculum. Treatment groups 1 and 2 served as the positive and negative controls, respectively. Group 3 was inoculated with rendered scrapie-positive mouse brain material to investigate the effectiveness of simulated continuous-flow rendering practices to reduce or eliminate PrP(Sc). Group 4 was inoculated with hydrolyzed scrapie-positive mouse brain material to determine the sterilizing effect of alkaline hydrolysis on PrP(Sc). Mice were monitored for overt signs of disease, and those showing clinical signs were killed to prevent undue suffering. Brains were obtained from all mice that died (or were killed) and analyzed with an ELISA for the presence of PrP(Sc). Results indicated that the simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment used for preparing the rendering treatment group inoculum failed to completely eliminate PrP(Sc). Rendering delayed, but did not stop, clinical mouse-adapted scrapie transmission. Compared with positive controls, the rendering treatment group experienced an approximate 45-d average delay in days to death (250 vs. 205 d for positive controls; P < 0.0001) and a death loss of 73.9% (P = 0.0094). Positive controls suffered 100% death loss. The results validated the efficacy of the alkaline hydrolysis treatment to inactivate all PrP(Sc) because no alkaline hydrolysis treatment group mice succumbed to the disease (P < 0.0001). Based on our results, alkaline hydrolysis should be considered by the animal rendering and beef packing industries as an alternative to incineration, landfill burial, and rendering for disposing of biological material potentially infected or contaminated with prion disease. PMID:19098230

Murphy, R G L; Scanga, J A; Powers, B E; Pilon, J L; Vercauteren, K C; Nash, P B; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

2009-05-01

15

Lignin recovery from alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis of oil palm fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, two types of treatment namely alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis have been conducted for lignin extraction from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. Lignin has been retrieved from two sequential methods, which was the klason lignin from residue and lignin from precipitation of the filtrate. Alkaline hydrolysis was performed using 10% NaOH solution at room condition. This has extracted 13.0 % lignin. On the other hand, glycerolysis was carried out using 70% glycerol catalyzed with 5% of 1 M NaOH at 60-70 °C. This has successfully extracted 16.0% lignin. The SEM micrographs exhibited some physical changes on the surface where the impurities and waxes have been removed, exposing the, lumen. Besides that, FTIR analysis was conducted on untreated EFB, treated EFB and extracted lignin. Delignification of EFB fiber was confirmed based on the intensity reduction at 1245 cm-1 that showed lignin was removed from the fiber. The presence of CO, CC and CC aromatic peaks in the FTIR spectra of the dried filtrate gave an evidence on the presence of lignin.

Hassan, Nur Syakilla; Badri, Khairiah Haji

2014-09-01

16

The Alkaline Hydrolysis of Sulfonate Esters: Challenges in Interpreting Experimental and Theoretical Data  

PubMed Central

Sulfonate ester hydrolysis has been the subject of recent debate, with experimental evidence interpreted in terms of both stepwise and concerted mechanisms. In particular, a recent study of the alkaline hydrolysis of a series of benzene arylsulfonates (Babtie et al., Org. Biomol. Chem.10, 2012, 8095) presented a nonlinear Brønsted plot, which was explained in terms of a change from a stepwise mechanism involving a pentavalent intermediate for poorer leaving groups to a fully concerted mechanism for good leaving groups and supported by a theoretical study. In the present work, we have performed a detailed computational study of the hydrolysis of these compounds and find no computational evidence for a thermodynamically stable intermediate for any of these compounds. Additionally, we have extended the experimental data to include pyridine-3-yl benzene sulfonate and its N-oxide and N-methylpyridinium derivatives. Inclusion of these compounds converts the Brønsted plot to a moderately scattered but linear correlation and gives a very good Hammett correlation. These data suggest a concerted pathway for this reaction that proceeds via an early transition state with little bond cleavage to the leaving group, highlighting the care that needs to be taken with the interpretation of experimental and especially theoretical data. PMID:24279349

2013-01-01

17

Processing poultry feathers into keratin hydrolysate through alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Poultry feathers make up for as much as 8.5% of chicken weight and represent a considerable amount of almost pure keratin waste which is not being adequately utilized at the present time. The present study dealt with the processing of poultry feathers through a two-stage alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis. In the first stage, feathers were mixed with a 0.1 or 0.3% KOH water solution in a 1 : 50 ratio and were incubated at 70°C for 24 h. After adjusting pH to 9, the effects examined in the second processing stage on the amount of degraded feathers were those of proteolytic enzyme additions (1-5%), time (4-8 h) and temperature (50-70°C). Processing feathers in 0.3% KOH and hydrolysing for 8 h in the second stage at 70°C with a 5% dose of enzyme (relative to dry feathers weight) produced approx. 91% degradation. Keratin hydrolysate is distinct for its high nitrogen content and reasonable inorganic solids level. Two-stage technology of alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysing of poultry feathers in an environment of 0.3% KOH achieves high efficiency under quite mild reaction conditions (temperature not exceeding 70°C with pH in a mildly alkaline region), and is feasible from an economic viewpoint. Keratin hydrolysate can find particular application in packaging technology (films, foils and encapsulates). PMID:20483878

Mokrejs, Pavel; Svoboda, Petr; Hrncirik, Josef; Janacova, Dagmar; Vasek, Vladimir

2011-03-01

18

Alkaline Hydrolysis is an Effective Treatment Technology for RDX-Contaminated Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Kinetics and treatability of alkaline hydrolysis were investigated in batch reactor and continuous flow-stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) for remediating groundwater contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The batch system (pH 11 to 13, RDX 1 to 10 mg/L) achieved pseudo first-order RDX transformation rates in the range of 0.2 to 47.5 min-1, corresponding to 57.8 to 0.2 hrs of half-life period, respectively. In the CFSTR system (pH 11 to 11.9, HRT 0.54 to 2 days), the best alkaline RDX transformation was achieved a 99% RDX removal with the longest HRT and the highest reaction pH. Formate ({approx}2 M/M RDXremoved) and nitrite ({approx}0.2 M/M RDXremoved) were produced as the major hydrolysates, indicative of a simultaneous transformation mechanism by RDX ring cleavage and ring nitrogen elimination. The net OH- demand was found to be 1.5, 390 and 130 M OH-/M RDXremoved at the pH of 11.9, 11.5 and 11.0, respectively, in the CFSTR system.

Hqang, Snagchul; Felt, Deborah R.; Bouwer, Edward J.; Brooks, Michael C.; Larson, Steven L.; Davis, Jeffrey L.

2003-03-26

19

Oxygen-18 leaving group kinetic isotope effects on the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl glycosides. 2. Lysozyme and beta-glucosidase: acid and alkaline hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Oxygen-18 leaving group kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been measured for a set of glycosyl transfer reactions with p-nitrophenyl beta-D-glycosides as substrates. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis exhibit KIEs of K16/k18 = 1.0355 +/- 0.0015 and 1.0386 +/- 0.0032, respectively. Lysozyme and beta-glucosidase A show KIEs on Vmax/Km (V/K) of (V/KI)16/(V/K)18 = 1.0467 +/- 0.0015 and 1.0377 +/0 0.0061, respectively. The large magnitude of these KIEs requires that carbon-oxygen bond scission be far advanced in the transition states for these reactions; therefore in the transition states for the first irreversible steps in these reaction sequences, scission of the glycosidic bond must be essentially complete for the reactions catalyzed by lysozyme and beta-glucosidase A, which are thought to proceed via SN1 and SN2 mechanisms, respectively. Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis is shown to proceed through a transition state involving at least 80% C-O bond cleavage and only partially proton transfer to the leaving p-nitrophenyl oxygen atom. PMID:6788083

Rosenberg, S; Kirsch, J F

1981-05-26

20

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most

A. M. Azzam

1989-01-01

21

Hydrolysis and condensation kinetics for liquid-phase tetraethylorthosilicate reactions in alkaline-alcohol solvents  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis and condensation kinetics for the Stober-Fink method of producing monodisperse silica particles have been studied by chemical analyses (i.e., gas chromatography and molybdate for determining monomeric silicic acid concentrations) and laser-light-scattering techniques. Studies have been conducted to determine the effects of temperature, reactant and catalyst concentrations, and solvent type (i.e., 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butyl alcohol, and tert-amyl alcohol) on the rate of hydrolysis, rate of condensation, and particle growth kinetics. The effects of hydrogen bonding and steric hinderance of the solvent on the reaction kinetics are discussed. An important aspect of this research is the chemical evidence that monodisperse silica particles are produced by controlled homogeneous precipitation. This study is of fundamental importance for understanding the chemistry and physics of producing small particles that will be used as precursor materials for ceramics and support material for chromatographic packing.

Harris, M.T.; Byers, C.H.; Brunson, R.R.

1987-01-01

22

Hydrolysis and condensation kinetics for liquid-phase tetraethylorthosilicate reactions in alkaline-alcohol solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis and condensation kinetics for the Stober-Fink method of producing monodisperse silica particles have been studied by chemical analyses (i.e., gas chromatography and molybdate for determining monomeric silicic acid concentrations) and laser-light-scattering techniques. Studies have been conducted to determine the effects of temperature, reactant and catalyst concentrations, and solvent type (i.e., 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, tert-butyl alcohol, and tert-amyl

M. T. Harris; C. H. Byers; R. R. Brunson

1987-01-01

23

Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

Azzam, A.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

1989-01-01

24

Alkaline polyol pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood: effect of pulping severity and pulp properties on cellulase activity and overall sugar yield.  

PubMed

The saccharification of softwood using alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It will be demonstrated that the AlkaPolP process yields high quality pulps which can easily be hydrolyzed by cellulases. Temperature (180-230°C) and duration (15-60 min) of the alkaline glycerol pulping, expressed as pulping severity R0, were varied to find optimum reaction conditions. The obtained pulps were characterized regarding their residual lignin content, kappa number and crystallinity index. Thus, the dependencies of the conversion during enzymatic hydrolysis on severity, pulp composition and pulp characteristics could be observed. In further experiments it was investigated how the enzymatic hydrolysis is affected by pulp drying or by a reduction of enzyme loading. Up to 83% of the initial cellulose in wood and almost 97% of the cellulose in pulp were converted into glucose using cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and ?-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. PMID:23500589

Hundt, Martin; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

2013-04-01

25

Electrolytic redox and electrochemical generated alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) in sand columns.  

PubMed

Sand-packed horizontal flow columns (5 cm i.d. x 65 cm)l were used in laboratory experiments to simulate in situ electrolytic and alkaline hybrid treatment zone for aqueous phase decomposition of RDX. An upgradient cathode and downgradient anode, spaced 35 cm apart were used to create alkaline reducing conditions followed by oxic, acidic conditions to degrade RDX by combination of alkaline hydrolysis and direct electrolysis. A preliminary experiment (25 mg/L RDX influent) with seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day and current density of 9.9 A/m2 was used to determine the treatment feasibility and the aqueous products of RDX decomposition. Three additional column experiments (0.5 mg/L RDX influent) under the same conditions as the preliminary column were used to observe the treatment process repeatability and the alkaline treatment zone development. The results demonstrated approximately 95% decomposition of RDX in the column with an applied current density of 9.9 A/m2. Aqueous end-products formate, nitrite, and nitrate were detected in the effluent. Approximately 75% of the RDX was destroyed near the cathode, presumably by electrolysis, with 23% decomposed downstream of the cathode by alkaline hydrolysis. The preliminary column pseudo first order alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficient of 10.7 x 10(-3) min(-1) was used to estimate a treatment zone length less than 100 cm for RDX treatment below the EPA drinking water lifetime health advisory of 0.002 mg/L. PMID:19746729

Gent, David B; Wani, Altaf H; Davis, Jeffrey L; Alshawabkeh, Akram

2009-08-15

26

Hydrogen bubbles dynamic template preparation of a porous Fe–Co–B\\/Ni foam catalyst for hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a modified electroless plating method, a porous Fe–Co–B catalyst is prepared on Ni foam support in order to generate hydrogen from an alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH4) solution. In this process, hydrogen bubbles originating from electroless deposition function as a dynamic template to form the porous catalyst. The effects of NaBH4, NaOH concentration and reaction temperature on the hydrolysis

Yan Liang; Ping Wang; Hong-Bin Dai

2010-01-01

27

Mechanisms and kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of the energetic nitroaromatic compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN).  

PubMed

The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH(-) has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) was investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH(-). For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediate in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions-and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs-mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs. PMID:23373810

Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Bylaska, Eric J; Ritchie, Julia J; Tratnyek, Paul G

2013-07-01

28

The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.  

PubMed

Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of ?(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of ?(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

2014-02-01

29

The study of the influence of surfactant charge on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) using spectrophotometric methods.  

PubMed

In this research, the effects of micellar systems on alkaline hydrolysis reactions of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and triflusal (TFL) were found to be dependant upon the surfactant charge within the micelle. In cationic micelles, there is a catalytic effect at low concentrations of surfactant. However, this reaction is inhibited at higher surfactant concentrations. In anionic micelles, a catalytic effect occurs, while in zwitterionic and non-ionic micelles there is an inhibitory effect. Such reactions are attributable to changes in reactants on the micellar surface, or to the fact that both reactants are found in different microenvironments. The pseudophase (PS) and ion-exchange (PPIE) models were found to be consistent with the experimental result. Furthermore, the association constants for both drugs could be determined together with micellar rate constants in heterogeneous media. PMID:17498930

Ferrit, Mónica; del Valle, Carmen; Martínez, Fernando

2007-07-01

30

PHTHALATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS: LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Alkaline hydrolysis rate constants were measured for dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, di-iso-butyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate esters in water. A linear free energy relationship (LFER) was established for estimating alkaline hydrolysis rate constants for other phthalate esters...

31

Characterization of Firing Range Soil from Camp Edwards, MA, and the Efficacy of Acid and Alkaline Hydrolysis for the Remediation of M1 105mm M67 Propellant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of alkaline and acid amendments as management techniques for the remediation of firing point soils at Camp Edwards, MA for U.S. Army Engineer District, New England. It was assumed that the major pote...

D. B. Gent, I. T. Osgerby, J. L. Johnson

2013-01-01

32

Inclusion of the insecticide fenitrothion in dimethylated-?-cyclodextrin: unusual guest disorder in the solid state and efficient retardation of the hydrolysis rate of the complexed guest in alkaline solution  

PubMed Central

Summary An anhydrous 1:1 crystalline inclusion complex between the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion [O,O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate] and the host compound heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) was prepared and its structure elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This revealed two independent host molecules in the asymmetric unit. In one of these, the cavity is occupied by two disordered guest components (distinguishable as rotamers with respect to the P–OAr bond) while in the other, three distinct guest components with site-occupancies 0.44, 0.29 and 0.27 appear, the last having a reversed orientation relative to all the other components. Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of fenitrothion in the presence of DIMEB showed a remarkable reduction of 84% in the rate of this reaction relative to that for the free substrate, a value exceeding those previously attained with the native hosts, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin, and fully methylated ?-cyclodextrin. PMID:23400042

Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Rougier, Natalia M; Vico, Raquel V; Bourne, Susan A

2013-01-01

33

Alkalinity Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from GLOBE describes an exercise in which students learn the correct way to measure the alkalinity of water. Topics include definitions of alkaline and pH, and the importance of alkalinity in buffering acidic additions to water. Also included are lab and field guides, and examples of student research.

Globe

34

Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase. PMID:24966474

Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

2014-07-01

35

Are 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5-b:4?,5?-e]pyrazine the main products of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) alkaline hydrolysis? A DFT study of vibrational spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fully optimized geometries and force fields of the most stable conformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane and two tautomers 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine were obtained at the B3LYP level of hybrid density functional theory with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated by scaling of force fields, and the vibrational spectra were interpreted taking into account potential energy distributions. DFT calculations provide good agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational frequencies, obtained for CL-20. The theoretical vibrational spectra of 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine correspond to the experimental FTIR spectrum obtained for the CL-20 alkaline hydrolysis products.

Kholod, Yana; Okovytyy, Sergiy; Kuramshina, Gulnara; Qasim, Mohammad; Gorb, Leonid; Furey, John; Honea, Patricia; Fredrickson, Herbert; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2006-08-01

36

Alkaline battery  

SciTech Connect

A zinc alkaline secondary battery is described having an excellent cycle characteristic, having a negative electrode which comprises a base layer of zinc active material incorporating cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and an outer layer made up of cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and applied to the surface of the base layer of zinc active material.

Furukawa, N.; Inoue, K.; Murakami, S.

1984-01-24

37

Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and

J. M. Hernández-Salas; M. S. Villa-Ramírez; J. S. Veloz-Rendón; K. N. Rivera-Hernández; R. A. González-César; M. A. Plascencia-Espinosa; S. R. Trejo-Estrada

2009-01-01

38

Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils  

E-print Network

(1975), employing corn as the test crop with 30C days and 20C nights, found that in a slightly acid soil both OP and polyphosphate effectively supplied P for plant growth, while in an alkaline-calcareous soil polyphosphate was significantly less... calcareous soils. Most likely the high alkalinity of the calcareous soils obscured any differences in hydrolysis of PP due to texture. The interaction between soil texture and sterilization was also significant (Table 5). Under nonsterile con- ditions...

Stewart, William M.

2012-06-07

39

Homogeneous hydrolysis rate constants for selected chlorinated methanes, ethanes, ethenes, and propanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis rate constants of 18 chlorinated methanes, ethanes, ethenes, and propanes were measured in dilute aqueous solutions within the temperature range of 0 to 180 C and at pH values of 3 to 14. Arrhenius parameters were determined for both neutral and alkaline hydrolysis reactions. Reactivity of these compounds in basic solutions increases in accord with the expected acidity of

Peter M. Jeffers; Lisa M. Ward; Lisa M. Woytowitch; N. Lee Wolfe

1989-01-01

40

Study of the Mechanisms of Interaction between the Hydrolysis Products of Titanyl Sulfate and Sulfate Lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis products of TiOSO4 · 2?2? depending on pH was shown to differently affect an aggregation stability of sulfate lignin. Within the acidic region, these products cause coagulation effect with respect to sulfate lignin, whereas within alkaline region sulfate lignin is the stabilizer preventing the formation and precipitation of the hydrolysis products of titanyl sulfate.

Yu. M. Chernoberezhskii; D. Yu. Mineev; A. B. Dyagileva; A. V. Lorentsson

2002-01-01

41

Towards zero discharge of chromium-containing leather waste through improved alkali hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of chromium-containing leather waste (CCLW), the major solid waste generated at the post-tanning operations of leather processing, has the potential to generate value-added leather chemicals. Various alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis were compared, and calcium oxide was found to be important for effective (but still incomplete) hydrolysis. Three possible reasons are given for the incomplete hydrolysis under alkaline conditions.

Changdao Mu; Wei Lin; Mingrang Zhang; Qingshi Zhu

2003-01-01

42

Progressing batch hydrolysis process  

DOEpatents

A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

Wright, J.D.

1985-01-10

43

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

44

Topochemistry of environmentally friendly pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to fermentable sugar.  

PubMed

In this work, dilute alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were conducted in comparison with hydrotropic pretreatment to improve the delignification of bagasse prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The surface chemical composition of bagasse after pretreatments was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The surface distribution of lignin and extractives on the bagasse fiber was significantly changed by dilute alkaline, alkaline peroxide, and hydrotropic pretreatments. Hydrotropic pretreatment typically showed, other than the decrease of surface coverage by lignin and extractives, dramatic removal of xylan, thereby leading to more cellulose exposed on the fiber surface after pretreatment. Fiber morphology after pretreatments was more favorable for enzyme hydrolysis as well. However, the hydrotropic treatment had clear advantages because the enzymatic hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan of pretreated bagasse were 83.9 and 14.3%, respectively. PMID:24689355

Mou, Hongyan; Heikkilä, Elina; Fardim, Pedro

2014-04-23

45

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

46

Hydrolysis of CL-20.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energetics and Warheads Division of the U.S. Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center has been involved in the development of CL-20. An aqueous hydrolysis study was performed to better understand the fate and transport of CL-20 throu...

J. Pavlov, M. Sidhoum, C. Christodoulatos, W. Balas, S. Nicolich

2005-01-01

47

New Approaches in Modeling Carbonate Alkalinity and Total Alkalinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline measurements (carbonate alkalinity and total alkalinity) are of great importance in analyses of ocean, marine, lake and river waters, and other samples. Carbonate alkalinity (CA) refers to the cases in which only bicarbonate and carbonate species are considered. Total alkalinity (Alk) implies additional species having acid-base properties. Biochemical processes give rise to the organic alkalinity (OA) in natural waters.

Tadeusz Micha?owski; Agustin G. Asuero

2012-01-01

48

A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.  

PubMed

Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

2013-07-01

49

Progressing Batch Hydrolysis Reactor  

SciTech Connect

In all dilute acid hydrolysis processes for glucose production, conditions severe enough to hydrolyze crystalline cellulose to glucose are also severe enough to degrade the glucose into undesirable compounds such as hydroxy-methylfurfural (HMF), levulinic acid, and formic acid. One way to minimize the sugar degradation is to remove the sugars from the reaction zone before substantial degradation occurs. Sugars are most efficiently removed by a reactor system that uses countercurrent flow of liquids and solids, which allows simultaneous achievement of high yields and high sugar concentrations. The progressing batch hydrolysis process, invented and now under development at SERI, uses several percolation reactors in series to simulate countercurrent flow of liquids and solids. In this way, the advantages of countercurrent flow are achieved, and the mechanical and operational simplicity of the percolation reactor is retained. This paper describes the theory and operation of the progressing batch hydrolysis reactor and presents the results of our mathematical modeling of the system. 25 refs., 7 figs.

Wright, J.D.; Bergeron, P.W.; Werdene, P.J.

1985-09-01

50

Potentiometric determination of the ‘formal’ hydrolysis ratio of aluminium species in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘formal’ hydrolysis ratio (h=C(OH?)added\\/C(Al)total) of hydrolysed aluminium-ions is an important parameter required for the exhaustive and quantitative speciation–fractionation of aluminium in aqueous solutions. This paper describes a potentiometric method for determination of the formal hydrolysis ratio based on an automated alkaline titration procedure. The method uses the point of precipitation of aluminium hydroxide as a reference (h=3.0) in order

Agathe C. Fournier; Kirill L. Shafran; Carole C. Perry

2008-01-01

51

Distinct Metal Ion Requirements for the Phosphomonoesterase and Phosphodiesterase Activities of Calf Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase  

PubMed Central

The roles of Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions in promoting phosphoryl transfer catalysed by alkaline phosphatase are yet to be fully characterised. We investigated the divalent metal ion requirements for the monoesterase and diesterase activities of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The synergistic effect of Mg2+ and Zn2+ in promoting the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl phosphate (monoesterase reaction) by alkaline phosphatase is not observed in the hydrolysis of the diesterase substrate, bis-para-nitrophenyl phosphate. Indeed, the diesterase reaction is inhibited by concentrations of Mg2+ that were optimal for the monoesterase reaction. This study reveals that the substrate specificities of alkaline phosphatases and related bimetalloenzymes are subject to regulation by changes in the nature and availability of cofactors, and the different cofactor requirements of the monoesterase and diesterase reactions of mammalian alkaline phosphatases could have significance for the biological functions of the enzymes. PMID:22262982

Igunnu, Adedoyin; Osalaye, Dunsin S; Olorunsogo, Olufunso O; Malomo, Sylvia O; Olorunniji, Femi J

2011-01-01

52

Anodes for alkaline electrolysis  

DOEpatents

A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

2011-02-01

53

Effect of DMSO on the kinetic behavior of alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in aqueous DMSO medium at various compositions starting from 10 to 70 vol. % DMSO at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35°C are reported. The specific rate constant was found to decrease with increasing proportion of DMSO at all the temperatures and the prediction of Parker is not supported. Both isocomposition

Lallan Singh; A. K. Gupta; R. T. Singh; D. K. Verma; R. C. Jha

1984-01-01

54

HOMOGENEOUS HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR SELECTED CHLORINATED METHANES, ETHANES, ETHENES, AND PROPANES  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrolysis rate constants of 18 chlorinated methanes, ethanes, ethenes, and propanes have been measured in dilute aqueous solutions within the temperature range of 0 to 180 oC and at pH values of 3 to l4. rrhenius parapmeters were determined for both neutral and alkaline hydrolys...

55

Secondary Alkaline Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel ox...

J. McBreen

1984-01-01

56

Studies of the forced hydrolysis degradation of copper complexes with different oligosaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive copper complexes with oligosaccharides, pullulan or dextran, are the objective of the present study, because of their possible biomedical applications. The alkaline and acid hydrolysis of the Cu(II) complexes with reduced low-molar pullulan or dextran were carried out by conductometric method. The influence of ligand constitutions on the stability of the complexes was examined on the basis of ligand property. The complexes degradation during alkaline and acid hydrolysis were carried out in sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mol dm-3, at different temperature (25, 40, and 60°C, respectively). According to the obtained results by the conductivity investigation during forced degradation studies, it could be concluded that the Cu(II) complexes show the small pharmaceutical stability to both hydrolysis.

Savic, Ivana M.; Nikolic, G. S.; Savic, Ivan M.; Cakic, M. D.

2010-12-01

57

Hydrolysis and photolysis of oxytetracycline in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Oxytetracycline ((2Z,4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6S,12aS)-2-(amino-hydroxy-methylidene)-4-dimethylamino-5,6,10,11,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-4,4a,5,5a-tetrahydrotetracene-1,3,12-trione) is a member of tetracycline antibiotics family and is widely administered to farm animals for the purpose of therapeutical treatment and health protection. Increasing attention has been paid to the environmental fate of oxytetracycline and other veterinary antibiotics with the occurrence of these antibiotics in the environment. The hydrolysis and photolysis degradation of oxytetracycline was investigated in this study. Oxytetracycline hydrolysis was found to obey the first-order model and similar rate constant values ranging from 0.094 +/- 0.001 to 0.106 +/- 0.003 day(-1) were obtained at different initial concentration ranging from 10 to 230 microM. Solution pH and temperature were shown to have remarked effects on oxytetracycline hydrolysis. The hydrolysis in pH neutral solution appeared to be much faster than in both acidic and alkaline solutions. Oxytetracycline half-life decreased from 1.2 x 10(2) to 0.15 day with the increasing temperature from 4 +/- 0.8 to 60 +/- 1 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) made oxytetracycline hydrolytic degradation kinetics deviate from the simple first-order model to the availability-adjusted first-order model and greatly slowed down the hydrolysis. Oxytetracycline photolysis was found to be very fast with a degradation rate constant at 3.61 +/- 0.06 day(-1), which is comparable to that of hydrolysis at 60 degrees C. The presence of Ca(2+) accelerated oxytetracycline photolysis, implying that oxytetracycline become more vulnerable to sunlight irradiation after chelating with Ca(2+). The photolysis may be the dominant degradation pathway of oxytetracycline in shallow transparent water environment. PMID:20390934

Xuan, Richeng; Arisi, Lestley; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R; Biswas, Keka C

2010-01-01

58

Effect of metal ions on the activity of green crab ( Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. The present paper deals with the study of the effect of some kinds of metal ions on the enzyme. The positive monovalent alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+ and K+) have no effect on the enzyme; positive bivalent alkaline-earth metal ions (Mg2+,

Qing-Xi Chen; Wen-Zhu Zheng; Jing-Yu Lin; Yan Shi; Wen-Zhang Xie; Hai-Meng Zhou

2000-01-01

59

ACID HYDROLYSIS OF AZIRIDINYL PHOSPHORAMIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acid hydrolysis of two model aziridinyl phosphoramides, l-aziridinylbis(dimethylamino)phosphine oxide (11) and bis(l-aziridinyl) (dimethylamino)phosphine oxide (16), in aqueous acetic acid proceeded by an initial aziridine ring opening to give 2-hydroxyethyl phosphoramides 12 and 17, respectively. These intermediates rapidly cyclized to an oxazaphospholidine ring structure 13 or 18, with the subsequent loss of dimethylamine or aziridine. Analysis of ongoing hydrolysis showed

Jerry B. Stokes; Charles W. Woods; Alexej B. Borkovec

1981-01-01

60

TL and ESR based identification of gamma-irradiated frozen fish using different hydrolysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen fish fillets (walleye Pollack and Japanese Spanish mackerel) were selected as samples for irradiation (0-10 kGy) detection trials using different hydrolysis methods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL)-based screening analysis for gamma-irradiated frozen fillets showed low sensitivity due to limited silicate mineral contents on the samples. Same limitations were found in the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis on mineral samples isolated by density separation method. However, acid (HCl) and alkali (KOH) hydrolysis methods were effective in getting enough minerals to carry out TL analysis, which was reconfirmed through the normalization step by calculating the TL ratios (TL1/TL2). For improved electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis, alkali and enzyme (alcalase) hydrolysis methods were compared in separating minute-bone fractions. The enzymatic method provided more clear radiation-specific hydroxyapatite radicals than that of the alkaline method. Different hydrolysis methods could extend the application of TL and ESR techniques in identifying the irradiation history of frozen fish fillets.

Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho

2014-12-01

61

Advances in alkaline batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline rechargeable battery systems have been under development for more than 100 years yet. Different electrochemical couples of positive and negative materials have been subject of research and development, but only the nickel-cadmium system (NiCd) and, since about 10 years, the nickel-metal hydride system (NiMH) have achieved the stage of large volume production. Particularly, sealed NiCd and NiMH cells have been established in a variety of applications. Recent advances with the NiMH system have brought about portable batteries with energy storing capabilities coming close to those of alkaline primary cells. Although representing a technically interesting solution even for electric vehicles, relatively high cost will limit the use of rechargeable alkaline batteries to small high power batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Basic technological developments for materials suitable for high energy and high power design are described.

Köhler, Uwe; Antonius, Christina; Bäuerlein, Peter

62

Secondary alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report on secondary alkaline batteries covers the overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics), electrode structures and materials, and cell construction. The following batteries are studied, nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

McBreen, J.

1984-03-01

63

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect

Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

2011-08-22

64

Effects of Oxodiperoxovanadate (V) Complexes on the Activity of Green Crab (Scylla serrata) Alkaline Phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. The effects of some pollutants in seawater on the activity of the enzyme will result in the loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which will affect the exuviating crab shell and threaten the survival of the animal. In the

X.-W. Zhou; Q.-X. Chen; Z. Chen; Z.-Q. He; H.-M. Zhou

2000-01-01

65

Kinetics of iodine hydrolysis in unbuffered solutions  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of hydrolysis or disproportionation of hypoiodite were studied spectrophotometrically in basic solution at an ionic strength of 0.2 M as a function of pH, iodide and total iodine concentration, and temperature. The existence of three independent pathways for this second-order process was confirmed. The pH-stat method was used to monitor the corresponding reaction of hypoiodous acid in weakly alkaline solution. The generalized rate law for the disproportionation is: /minus/d((HOI) + (OI/sup /minus//))dt = k /sub a/(HOI)/sup 2/ + k/sub b/(HOI) (OI/sup /minus//) + k/sub c/(OI/sup /minus//)/sup 2/ + k/sub d/(I/sub 2/OH/sup /minus//) (OI/sup /minus//). The values of k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ are substantially smaller than previously reported. However, an unexplained contribution to the rate law resulting from the pH-stat measurements was also obtained. The rapid recombination of iodide and iodate in HClO/sub 4/ solutions was followed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry at three ionic strengths, and over a range of iodide and hydrogen ion concentrations, and at eight temperatures. Fifth-order kinetics were observed with no detectable induction period. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Palmer, D.A.; Lyons, L.J.

1988-01-01

66

Pulp properties resulting from different pretreatments of wheat straw and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis rate.  

PubMed

Wheat straw was subjected to three different processes prior to saccharification, namely alkaline pulping, natural pulping and autohydrolysis, in order to study their effect on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Parameters like medium concentration, temperature and time have been varied in order to optimize each method. Milling the raw material to a length of 4mm beforehand showed the best cost-value-ratio compared to other grinding methods studied. Before saccharification the pulp can be stored in dried form, leading to a high yield of glucose. Furthermore the relation of pulp properties (i.e. intrinsic viscosity, Klason-lignin and hemicelluloses content, crystallinity, morphology) to cellulose hydrolysis is discussed. PMID:25058295

Rossberg, Christine; Steffien, Doreen; Bremer, Martina; Koenig, Swetlana; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C; Moniz, Patrícia; Hoernicke, Max; Bertau, Martin; Fischer, Steffen

2014-10-01

67

Solubility of silica in alkaline solutions: Implications for alkaline flooding  

SciTech Connect

The expected loss of useful alkalinity for a pure quartz sand via the slow dissolution of silica is shown for some ''typical'' alkaline flooding solutions (ca. 1% NaOH or 1.25% sodium orthosilicate) to be only about 10-20%. This conclusion is based on the observation that alkaline solutions equilibrate with quartz. Titration curves of the equilibrated solution, when compared to similar curves for the initial alkaline solution show relatively small alkaline losses. Furthermore, the dissolution of quartz in alkaline flooding can be eliminated by employing solutions which are saturated in silica with respect to quartz. Such formulations may be useful in controlling the erosion of the wellbore and gravel pack.

Southwick, J.G.

1984-04-01

68

Upregulation of the Human Alkaline Ceramidase 1 and Acid Ceramidase Mediates Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Epidermal Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular calcium (Cao2+) potently induces the growth arrest and differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs). We report that Cao2+ markedly upregulates the human alkaline ceramidase 1 (haCER1) in HEKs; and its upregulation mediates the Cao2+-induced growth arrest and differentiation of HEKs. haCER1 is the human ortholog of mouse alkaline ceramidase 1 that we previously identified. haCER1 catalyzed the hydrolysis of

Wei Sun; Ruijuan Xu; Wei Hu; Junfei Jin; Heather A. Crellin; Jacek Bielawski; Zdzislaw M. Szulc; Bruce H. Thiers; Lina M. Obeid; Cungui Mao

2008-01-01

69

Solubility of silica in alkaline solutions: Implications for alkaline flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expected loss of useful alkalinity for a pure quartz sand via the slow dissolution of silica is shown for some ''typical'' alkaline flooding solutions (ca. 1% NaOH or 1.25% sodium orthosilicate) to be only about 10-20%. This conclusion is based on the observation that alkaline solutions equilibrate with quartz. Titration curves of the equilibrated solution, when compared to similar

Southwick

1984-01-01

70

Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.  

PubMed

A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

2011-12-01

71

Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121°C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121°C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50°C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25285562

Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

2015-01-01

72

Alkaline fuel cells applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

73

Hydrolysis of esters by staphylococci.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to characterize the hydrolysis of esters by staphylococci in order to understand if they could contribute to the release of free fatty acids in sausage. Cell-free extracts and extracellular concentrates of staphylococci were examined for esterase activities against p-nitrophenyl esters and for lipolytic activities against triolein. Staphylococci showed intracellular and extracellular esterase activities with different esterase electrophoretic patterns. Cell-free extracts of S. xylosus, S. warneri and S. saprophyticus preferentially hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl butyrate whereas their extracellular concentrates were mainly active against p-nitrophenyl butyrate, p-nitrophenyl caproate and p-nitrophenyl caprylate. In addition their extracellular concentrates hydrolysed triolein. The two strains of S. carnosus differed as they did not show pronounced p-nitrophenyl substrate specificity and did not hydrolyse triolein. Staphylococci hydrolysed esters at a high rate between 15 and 25 degrees C; acidic conditions inhibited the hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was also reduced when the water activity was decreased by addition of polyethylene glycol or glycerol. PMID:9217110

Talon, R; Montel, M C

1997-05-20

74

Alkaline phytase from Lilium longiflorum: purification and structural characterization.  

PubMed

Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells. Phytases are of great commercial importance because their use as food and animal feed supplement has been approved by many countries to alleviate environmental and nutritional problems. Although acid phytases have been extensively studied, information regarding alkaline phytases is limited. Alkaline phytases with unique catalytic properties have been identified in plants, however, there is no report on the purification or structural properties. In this paper, we describe the purification of alkaline phytase from plant tissue. The purification was challenging because of contamination from non-specific phosphatases and acid phytases and low endogenous concentration. The purification of alkaline phytase from pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum involved selective precipitation by heat and ammonium sulfate followed by anion exchange and chromatofocusing chromatography and, finally, gel electrophoresis. Alkaline phytase was purified approximately 3000-fold with an overall recovery of 4.2%. The native molecular mass was estimated to be in the range of 118+/-7 kDa by Ferguson plot analysis and Mr of denatured protein in the range of 52-55 kDa by SDS-PAGE suggesting that the enzyme is a homodimer. Separation by 2-D gel and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric analysis of separated proteins indicates the presence of multiple mass and charge isoforms with pI values between 7.3 and 8.3. To our knowledge, this is the first alkaline phytase to be purified from plant sources. The unique properties suggest that the enzyme has the potential to be useful as a feed and food supplement. PMID:16198125

Garchow, Barry G; Jog, Sonali P; Mehta, Bakul Dhagat; Monosso, Jodi M; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

2006-04-01

75

HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrolytic processes provide the baseline loss rate for any chemical in an aqueous envi- ronment. Although various hydrolytic pathways account for significant degradation of certain classes of organic chemicals, other organic structures are completely inert. Strictly speaking, hy...

76

Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

1991-01-01

77

Journal of Crystal Growth 306 (2007) 152158 Co-precipitation of silica and alkaline-earth carbonates using  

E-print Network

of carbonate-silica composite materials known as `biomorphs'. The basic hydrolysis of TEOS furnishes silica1. Barium carbonate composite; B1. Biomorphs; B1. Organic silica; B1. Strontium carbonate composite]. They are built in part of rod- shaped nano-crystallites of the alkaline-earth carbonate, typically 200 nm

Hyde, Stephen

78

Characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich fractions from steam exploded and sequentially alkali delignified bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).  

PubMed

In this study, cellulose-rich fractions from bamboo were prepared with steam explosion pretreatment (SEP) followed by a successive alkaline delignification to improve the enzymatic digestibility for an efficient bioethanol production. The cellulose-rich fractions obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, SEM, and BET surface area. It was found that the SEP alone significantly removed partial hemicelluloses, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification removed most hemicelluloses and lignin. Results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed that SEP alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by 7.9-33.1%, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification enhanced the rate by 45.7-63.9%. The synergistic treatment by SEP at 2.0 MPa for 5 min with water impregnation followed by a successive alkaline delignification with 0.5% NaOH and 70% ethanol containing 1.5% NaOH resulted in a maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 70.6%. PMID:24830378

Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

2014-07-01

79

ATP and ADP hydrolysis in cell membranes from rat myometrium.  

PubMed

Extracellular nucleotides affect female reproductive functions, fertilization, and pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical characteristics of ATP and ADP hydrolysis and identify E-NTPDases in myometrial cell membranes from Wistar albino rats. The apparent K (m) values were 506.4 ± 62.1 and 638.8 ± 31.3 ?M, with a calculated V (max) (app) of 3,973.0 ± 279.5 and 2,853.9 ± 79.8 nmol/min/mg for ATP and ADP, respectively. The enzyme activity described here has common properties characteristic for NTPDases: divalent cation dependence; alkaline pH optimum for both substrates, insensitivity to some of classical ATPase inhibitors (ouabain, oligomycine, theophylline, levamisole) and significant inhibition by suramine and high concentration of sodium azides (5 mM). According to similar apparent K(m) values for both substrates, the ATP/ADP hydrolysis ratio, and Chevillard competition plot, NTPDase1 is dominant ATP/ADP hydrolyzing enzyme in myometrial cell membranes. RT-PCR analysis revealed expression of three members of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase family (NTPDase 1, 2, and 8) in rat uterus. These findings may further elucidate the role of NTPDases and ATP in reproductive physiology. PMID:22956447

Miloševi?, Maja; Petrovi?, Snježana; Veli?kovi?, Nataša; Grkovi?, Ivana; Ignjatovi?, Marija; Horvat, Anica

2012-12-01

80

Alkaline battery, separator therefore  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

1980-01-01

81

Continuous monitoring of phospholipid vesicle hydrolysis by phospholipase D (PLD) reveals differences in hydrolysis by PLDs from 2 Streptomyces species.  

PubMed

Phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) consisting of PC and either glycerol monooleate (GMO) or methyl oleate (MeO) were monitored in situ and in real time by using a choline oxidase-immobilized oxygen electrode. This technique revealed reaction differences between 2 bacterial PLDs. PLD from Streptomyces chromofuscus, which is closely homologous to bacterial alkaline phosphatase, hydrolyzed only 6% of surface PC owing to product inhibition. The catalytic activity of this enzyme was not sensitive to the addition of GMO. On the other hand, typical bacterial PLD from Streptomyces sp. was found to hydrolyze all the PC molecules at the outer surface of LUVs suggesting that this enzyme is free from product inhibition. Introduction of GMO or MeO into the bilayer increased exposure of the PC headgroup and facilitated PC hydrolysis mediated by PLD from Streptomyces sp. GMO and MeO have the same lipophilic tail but the latter lacks hydroxyl groups on its polar head. From kinetic analysis by using the Michaelis-Menten model extended to the reaction at the interface, these compounds were found to activate PLD from Streptomyces sp. in different ways, i.e., MeO increased the protein binding to membranes and GMO stimulated the enzyme-substrate complex formation at membrane surface. PMID:22391322

Hirano, Satomi; Sekine, Kazuhisa; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

2012-06-01

82

Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

Partz, Earl

1998-01-01

83

Increase in ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse was performed to investigate the production of ethanol. The sugarcane bagasse was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline delignification. The lignin content decreased to 83%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolyses was initiated with 8% (w/v) solids loading, and 10 FPU/g cellulose. Then, 1% solids were fed at 12, 24 or 48 h intervals. After 120 h, the hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFPEDA 1238, and a fourfold increase in ethanol production was reached when fed-batch hydrolysis with a 12-h addition period was used for the steam pretreated and delignified bagasse. PMID:23201527

Wanderley, Maria Carolina de Albuquerque; Martín, Carlos; Rocha, George Jackson de Moraes; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

2013-01-01

84

Enhanced polysaccharide recovery from agricultural residues and perennial grasses treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly increases their susceptibility to enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. During the course of the pretreatment reaction (18 hours), the pH rises slowly, increasing from pH 11.5 to a final pH greater than 12. As a result, most of the hemicellulose in the lignocellulosic substrate becomes solubilized. Maintaining the reaction pH near the optimum

J. Michael Gould

1985-01-01

85

Inhibition kinetics of green crab ( Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase activity by dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Scylla serrata) alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1) is a metalloenzyme which catalyzes the nonspecific hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters. Some pollutants in seawater affect the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which affects the exuviating crab-shell and threatens the survival of the animal. The present paper studies the effects of thiohydroxyal compounds on the activity

Rong-Qing Zhang; Qing-Xi Chen; Wen-Zhu Zheng; Jing-Yu Lin; Zhong-Lai Zhuang; Hai-Meng Zhou

2000-01-01

86

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE

E. Yu. Vlasenko; H. Ding; J. M. Labavitch; S. P. Shoemaker

1997-01-01

87

Alkalinity tolerance of peach rootstocks  

E-print Network

OF APPENDICES Appendix Page A. Minimum, normal and toxic levels of several nutrients in leaf samples of peach Prunus persica. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Iron chlorosis has been reported as a problem in alkaline soils in Europe, Asia, South Africa, and North... diseases and the propagation characteristics of the rootstocks (Rom, 1983). Peaches (Prunus persica Batsch L) grown in alkaline soils develop lime-induced Fe chlorosis in young leaves due to Fe deficiency (Egilla and Byme, 1989; Wallace and Lunt, 1960...

Shi, Yan

2012-06-07

88

ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND ORGANOPHOSPHOROTHIONATE ESTERS: APPLICATION OF LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS TO ESTIMATE HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL FATE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydrolysis rate constants required for assessing the environmental fate of certain organophosphate and organophosphorothionate esters may be estimated by use of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). LFERs for the second-order alkaline rate constants and the pKa of the conjuga...

89

The use of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography for studying hydrolysis kinetics of CL-20 and related energetic compounds.  

PubMed

Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) utilizes columns packed with sub-2-mum stationary-phase particles and allows operation with pressures of up to 15,000 psi to yield increased resolution, speed, and sensitivity versus conventional HPLC. This promising new technology was used for the analysis of energetic compounds (RDX, HMX and CL-20) and a selective method was developed on an Acquity UPLC. A fast UHPLC method was applied to determine alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of major energetic compounds. Activation energies of alkaline hydrolysis reaction for CL-20, RDX and HMX were comparable to those in literature, however they were determined in a shorter amount of time due to the speed of analysis of the chromatographic method. The use of liophilic salts (KPF(6)) as mobile-phase additives for the enhancement of separation selectivity of energetic compounds was demonstrated. PMID:18644671

Makarov, Alexey; Lobrutto, Rosario; Christodoulatos, Christos; Jerkovich, Anton

2009-03-15

90

Effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste: a pilot scale study in China.  

PubMed

Co-digestion of wasted sewage sludge, restaurant kitchen waste, and fruit-vegetable waste was carried out in a pilot plant with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Steam was used as heat source for thermal hydrolysis. It was found 38.3% of volatile suspended solids were dissolved after thermal hydrolysis, with digestibility increased by 115%. These results were more significant than those from lab studies using electricity as heat source due to more uniform heating. Anaerobic digesters were then operated under organic loading rates of about 1.5 and 3 kg VS/(m³ d). Little difference was found for digesters with and without thermal pre-treatment in biogas production and volatile solids removal. However, when looking into the digestion process, it was found digestion rate was almost doubled after thermal hydrolysis. Digester was also more stable with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Less volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated and the VFAs/alkalinity ratio was also lower. Batch experiments showed the lag phase can be eliminated by thermal pre-treatment, implying the advantage could be more significant under a shorter hydraulic retention time. Moreover, it was estimated energy cost for thermal hydrolysis can be partly balanced by decreasing viscosity and improving dewaterability of the digestate. PMID:23419457

Zhou, Yingjun; Takaoka, Masaki; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Oshita, Kazuyuki

2013-07-01

91

Functional characterisation and transcript analysis of an alkaline phosphatase from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae.  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatases (ALP) in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been suggested to be involved in transfer of phosphate from the mycorrhizal fungus to the host plant, but exact mechanisms are still unknown, partially due to the lack of molecular information. We isolated a full-length cDNA (FmALP) from the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) showing similarity with putative ALP genes from Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices) and Gigaspora margarita. For functional characterisation FmALP was expressed heterologously in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant FmALP protein had a pH optimum of 9.5, and catalysed the hydrolysis of glycerolphosphate and, to a lesser extent of glucose-1- and 6-phosphate, confirming it to be an alkaline phosphatase belonging to the family of alkaline phosphomonoesterases (EC 3.1.3.1). FmALP did not catalyse the hydrolysis of ATP or polyP. Relative FmALP transcript levels were analysed in intra- and extraradical hyphae isolated from F. mosseae infected ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). FmALP was highly expressed in intraradical hyphae at low P(i) supply, and its expression was repressed by high P(i) supply. Taken together this study provides evidence for mycorrhizal alkaline phosphatases playing a role in P mobilisation from organic substrates under P starvation conditions. PMID:23474124

Liu, Qianhe; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Jones, Chris S; Rasmussen, Susanne

2013-05-01

92

Cardiotoxicity of commercial 5-fluorouracil vials stems from the alkaline hydrolysis of this drug.  

PubMed Central

The cardiotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (FU) was attributed to impurities present in the injected vials. One of these impurities was identified as fluoroacetaldehyde which is metabolised by isolated perfused rabbit hearts into fluoroacetate (FAC), a highly cardiotoxic compound. FAC was also detected in the urine of patients treated with FU. These impurities were found to be degradation products of FU that are formed in the basic medium employed to dissolve this compound. To avoid chemical degradation of this antineoplastic drug, the solution of FU that will be injected should be prepared immediately before use. PMID:1637660

Lemaire, L.; Malet-Martino, M. C.; de Forni, M.; Martino, R.; Lasserre, B.

1992-01-01

93

Molecular and biochemical characterization of a new alkaline active multidomain xylanase from alkaline wastewater sludge.  

PubMed

A xylanase gene, xyn-b39, coding for a multidomain glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 protein was cloned from the genomic DNA of the alkaline wastewater sludge of a paper mill. Its deduced amino acid sequence of 1,481 residues included two carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM) of family CBM_4_9, one catalytic domain of GH 10, one family 9 CBM and three S-layer homology (SLH) domains. xyn-b39 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. Xyn-b39 exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 60 °C, and remained highly active under alkaline conditions (more than 80 % activity at pH 9.0 and 40 % activity at pH 10.0). The enzyme was thermostable at 55 °C, retaining more than 90 % of the initial activity after 2 h pre-incubation. Xyn-b39 had wide substrate specificity and hydrolyzed soluble substrates (birchwood xylan, beechwood xylan, oat spelt xylan, wheat arabinoxylan) and insoluble substrates (oat spelt xylan and wheat arabinoxylan). Hydrolysis product analysis indicated that Xyn-b39 was an endo-type xylanase. The K (m) and V (max) values of Xyn-b39 for birchwood xylan were 1.01 mg/mL and 73.53 U/min/mg, respectively. At the charge of 10 U/g reed pulp for 1 h, Xyn-b39 significantly reduced the Kappa number (P < 0.05) with low consumption of chlorine dioxide alone. PMID:23117673

Zhao, Yanyu; Meng, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Huang, Huoqing; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

2013-02-01

94

Enhanced polysaccharide recovery from agricultural residues and perennial grasses treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly increases their susceptibility to enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. During the course of the pretreatment reaction (18 hours), the pH rises slowly, increasing from pH 11.5 to a final pH greater than 12. As a result, most of the hemicellulose in the lignocellulosic substrate becomes solubilized. Maintaining the reaction pH near the optimum of 11.5 prevents hemicellulose solubilization and decreases the time required for effective pretreatment to about 6 hours. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment is most effective on lignocellulose from monocotyledonous plants, especially members of the family Gramineae. Enzymatic saccharification efficiencies greater than 90% of theoretical were attained from high yielding perennial grasses such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) and Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) after alkaline peroxide pretreatment. 13 references.

Gould, J.M.

1985-06-01

95

Enhanced polysaccharide recovery from agricultural residues and perennial grasses treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly increases their susceptibility to enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. During the course of the pretreatment reaction (18 h), the pH rises slowly, increasing from pH 11.5 to a final pH > 12. As a result, most of the hemicellulose in the lignocellulosic substrate becomes solubilized. Maintaining the reaction pH near the optimum of 11.5 prevents hemicellulose solubilization and decreases the time required for effective pretreatment to about 6 h. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment is most effective on lignocellulose from monocotyledonous plants, especially members of the family Gramineae. Enzymatic saccharification efficiencies > 90% of theoretical were attained from high yielding perennial grasses such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) and Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) after alkaline peroxide pretreatment. PMID:18553753

Gould, J M

1985-06-01

96

Sample preparation in alkaline media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, tertiary amines and strongly alkaline reagents for sample treatment involving extraction and digestion procedures is discussed in this review. The preparation of slurries is also discussed. Based on literature data, alkaline media offer a good alternative for sample preparation involving an appreciable group of analytes in different types of samples. These reagents are also successfully employed in tailored speciation procedures wherein there is a critical dependence on maintenance of chemical forms. The effects of these reagents on measurements performed using spectroanalytical techniques are discussed. Several undesirable effects on transport and atomization processes necessitate use of the method of standard additions to obtain accurate results. It is also evident that alkaline media can improve the performance of techniques such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and accessories, such as autosamplers coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometers.

Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Santos, Mirian C.; de Sousa, Rafael A.; Cadore, Solange; Barnes, Ramon M.; Tatro, Mark

2006-05-01

97

OIBs evolution in the series Tholeiitic, alkaline, and highly alkaline  

E-print Network

in the waning stages of shield building volcanoes. The alkalic basalts form because near the end of its life;Olympus Mons volcano on Mars compared to the principal Hawaiian islands at the same scale. Size Scenario Cyclic pattern of eruptive history 1. Pre-shield-building stage somewhat alkaline and variable 2

Siebel, Wolfgang

98

Modeling cellobiose hydrolysis with integrated kinetic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme cellobiase Novozym 188, which is used for improving hydrolysis of bagasse with cellulase, was characterized in\\u000a its commercial available form and integrated kinetic models were applied to the hydrolysis of cellobiose. The specific activity\\u000a of this enzyme was determined for pH values from 3.0–7.0, and temperatures from 40–75°C, with cellobiose at 2 g\\/L. Thermal\\u000a stability was measured at

Luiza P. V. Calsavara; Flávio F. De Moraes; Gisella M. Zanin

1999-01-01

99

Catalysts for the hydrolysis of thiophosphate triesters  

E-print Network

-bound IBA. 11 1.4 Related nucleophiles 1.4.1 ? effect nucleophiles Other supernucleophiles have also been successfully used as nucleophilic catalysts for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters. Just like iodine carboxylates, PNPDPP...-bound IBA. 11 1.4 Related nucleophiles 1.4.1 ? effect nucleophiles Other supernucleophiles have also been successfully used as nucleophilic catalysts for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters. Just like iodine carboxylates, PNPDPP...

Picot, Alexandre

2005-02-17

100

Separator for alkaline storage batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A separator for alkaline storage batteries is described which is a reticular flexible envelope arranged about an electrode, the envelope being formed by interlacing rods. The first group of rods is arranged substantially parallel with respect to the longitudinal axis of the electrode, and the second group of rods is arranged with an inclination relative to the first group of

S. S. Axelrod; V. G. Belozerov; M. B. Gershman; E. G. Margolin; M. B. Shapot

1977-01-01

101

Low temperature alkaline battery separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several radiated grafted polyethylene membranes were recently found satisfactory for use as separators in alkaline batteries from room temperature up to sterilizable temperatures. This paper presents some advances made in the development of radiation grafted membranes with respect to their low temperature properties and the results are compared with those of cellophane, microporous polypropylene and polyvinylalcohol films. It is concluded

V. Dagostino; J. Lee; R. Coyle

1976-01-01

102

Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte  

SciTech Connect

The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

McBreen, J.

1995-12-31

103

Automated analysis for water alkalinity  

SciTech Connect

As a result of governmental regulations and environmental interest, determination of alkalinity in natural water has become a routine analysis. Tests were performed to find conditions suitable for analysis of alkalinity at both low and high concentrations. Results using the Technicon AutoAnalyzer (TAA) and the Coulter Kem-O-Lab, Industrial Model (IKL) were compared with those obtained by titration. The titration method has greater reproducibility than either of the two automated methods, but it is much slower. About 8 h are required for a set of 80 samples, whereas both the IKL and the TAA take less that 2h for a set of 80. Also, once the standardization is completed, the automated instruments require almost no attention. The IKL and the TAA are equally reproducible, i.e., the coefficient of variation was 2% for four or more samples analyzed on separate days. The largest errors with the TAA occur when a sample containing low alkalinity follows one of high alkalinity. 8 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

Willis, R.B.; Mullins, G.L.

1983-06-01

104

Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production  

PubMed Central

Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process optimization and cost reduction. PMID:23834726

2013-01-01

105

Testing alkalinity in water systems (simulation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This investigation is a laboratory activity in which the alkalinity of 2 types of substrates (carbonate vs. non-carbonate) are compared on the basis of titration. Students will reflect on the relationship of alkalinity and toxic heavy metals.

Juliet Peterson DeLaSalle High School, Minneapolis, MN Teaching ideas from: Project Wet, Water Education for Teachers as found in: "Healthy Water Healthy People, Field Monitoring Guide "(2003)

106

Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease  

DOEpatents

Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

Wilson, David B. (Ithaca, NY); Lao, Guifang (Bethesda, MD)

1998-01-01

107

Enzymatic hydrolysis, adsorption, and recycling during hydrolysis of bagasse sulfite pulp.  

PubMed

The high costs of enzymatic hydrolysis along with the high enzyme dosage are often considered as the major bottlenecks in lignocellulosic bioconversion. This study investigated the hydrolysis efficiency, cellulase adsorption and enzyme recycling during the hydrolysis of bagasse sulfite pulp (BSP). After 48 h of hydrolysis, more than 70% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed, while the protein concentration and cellulase activity in solution remained 31% and 17% of the initial value, respectively. The cellulase adsorption on the fresh BSP was better fitted by a Sips model, suggesting the occurrence of a multilayer adsorption at low cellulase concentration and monolayer adsorption at high concentration on the BSP surfaces. Desorption profile studies showed that the optimum desorption condition was at pH 4.8 and 40 °C. Moreover, considering the limited ability to desorption, directly empolying the bound enzyme with residual substrate is more effective method to recover cellulase during the hydrolysis of BSP. PMID:23948265

Ouyang, Jia; Liu, Baotian; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Yu, Heng

2013-10-01

108

Properties of cellulose separators for alkaline secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses some of the properties of cellulose which influence the performance of battery separators. A review of the viscose process used to manufacture cellulosic separators is given as well as a look at using the viscose process to produce separator composites. Regenerated cellulose has been used as a separator in batteries for many years. In Ag-Zn systems, for example, it has proven effective due to its resistance to silver migration and zinc dendrites. How cellulose works has been investigated by many individuals. In Ag-Zn systems, for example, it is believed regenerated cellulose chemically reacts with soluble silver (which destroys the cellulose) and that it also physically inhibits the zinc dendrite. The tendency for cellulose to degrade in alkaline solutions has been addressed by using multiple layers of the separator in the battery. One way to minimize cellulose degradation in alkaline solutions has been to keep the KOH concentration high (around 45%). The rate of degradation slows down due to the KOH typing up the water used in the hydrolysis reaction. The other important aspects of the regenerated cellulose are molecular weight (degree of polymerization, DP) and purity.

Danko, T. [Viskase Corp., Chicago, IL (United States). Applied Technologies Div.

1995-07-01

109

Development of alkaline fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect

This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

2013-09-01

110

The secondary alkaline zinc electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

1991-02-01

111

A simple spectrophotometric determination of meptyldinocap by its hydrolysis.  

PubMed

A simple spectrophotometric method is proposed for the determination of meptyldinocap (2,4-dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate). The method is based on the hydrolysis of meptyldinocap by hydroxylamine solution in alkaline medium to give 2,4-dinitro-6-octylphenol (2,4-DNOP), having maximum absorption at 380 nm. The reaction is found to be instantaneous in presence of ethanol. Beer's law is valid over the concentration range of 1.2-13 microg mL(-1) with molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of 3.22 x 10(6) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.0001 microg cm(-2) respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.0892 and 0.2703 microg mL(-1), respectively. The tolerance limits of interfering ions are discussed. All variables were studied in order to optimize the reaction conditions. The validity of the method was checked by its simultaneous determination in fruits and water samples and the results were statistically compared with those of a reference method by applying the Student's t-test and F-test. PMID:23841335

Kurup, Sunita; Pillai, Ajai Kumar

2013-01-01

112

Migration and hydrolysis of hydrophobic polylactide plasticizer.  

PubMed

Hydrophobic plasticizer protects polylactide (PLA) against hydrolytic degradation but still migrates to aging medium and there undergoes further hydrolysis contributing to the spectrum of degradation products. PLA plasticized with hydrophobic acetyl tributyl citrate (ATC) plasticizer showed a slower degradation rate compared with pure PLA because of the increased hydrophobicity of the material. The enhanced bulk hydrophobicity also overcame the degradation enhancing effect of hydrophilic surface grafting. In addition to plasticization with ATC, some of the samples were also surface grafted with acrylic acid. The materials were subjected to hydrolysis at 37 and 60 degrees C for up to 364 days to compare the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bulk and surface modifications. Although considered insoluble in water, the plasticizer was detected in the water solutions immediately upon immersion of the materials, and the relative abundance of the ATC degradation products increased with hydrolysis time. PMID:19928814

Höglund, Anders; Hakkarainen, Minna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

2010-01-11

113

Spectrometric study of AOT-hydrolysis reaction in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions using phenolphthalein as a chemical probe.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) in water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions has been studied by monitoring the absorbance change of the phenolphthalein in the system with time. The apparent first-order rate constant k(obs) has been obtained and found to be dependent on both the molar ratio of water to AOT ? and the temperature. The dependences of k(obs) on ? have been analyzed by a pseudophase model which gives the true rate constants k(i) of the AOT-hydrolysis reaction on the interface and the partition coefficients K(wi) for the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases at various temperatures; the latter is almost independent of the temperature and ?. The temperature dependences of the reaction rate constants k(obs) and k(i) have been analyzed to obtain enthalpy ?H(?), entropy ?S(?), and energy E(a) of activation, which indicate that the distribution of OH(-) between aqueous and interface pseudophases increases ?S(?) but makes no contribution to E(a) and ?H(?). The influence of the overall concentration of AOT in the system on the rate constant has been examined and found to be negligible. It contradicts with what was reported by García-Río et al. (1) but confirms that the first-order reaction of the AOT-hydrolysis takes place on the surfactant interface. The study of the influence of AOT-hydrolysis on the kinetics of the alkaline fading of crystal violet or phenolphthalein in the water/AOT/isooctane microemulsions suggests that corrections for the AOT-hydrolysis in these reactions are required. PMID:22168828

Mao, Shiyan; Chen, Zhiyun; Fan, Dashuang; An, Xueqin; Shen, Weiguo

2012-01-12

114

Optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of Enteromorpha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid hydrolysis is a simple and direct way to hydrolyze polysaccharides in biomass into fermentable sugars. To produce fermentable sugars effectively and economically for fuel ethanol, we have investigated the hydrolysis of Enteromorpha using acids that are typically used to hydrolyze biomass: H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and C4H4O4 (maleic acid). 5%(w/w) Enteromorpha biomass was treated for different times (30, 60, and 90 min) and with different acid concentrations (0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2%, w/w) at 121°C. H2SO4 was the most effective acid in this experiment. We then analyzed the hydrolysis process in H2SO4 in detail using high performance liquid chromatography. At a sulfuric acid concentration of 1.8% and treatment time of 60 min, the yield of ethanol fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) was high, (230.5 mg/g dry biomass, comprising 175.2 mg/g glucose and 55.3 mg/g xylose), with 48.6% of total reducing sugars being ethanol fermentable. Therefore, Enteromorpha could be a good candidate for production of fuel ethanol. In future work, the effects of temperature and biomass concentration on hydrolysis, and also the fermentation of the hydrolysates to ethanol fuel should be focused on.

Feng, Dawei; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Qin, Song

2011-11-01

115

PROCESS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CELLULOSE HYDROLYSIS  

E-print Network

a constant reaction temperature. Enzyme and substrate wereenzyme production section (WENZ) is at 30 C, and the desired hydrolysis temperatureTEMPERATURE (both stages) pH (both stages) SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE CELL RECYCLE RATIO AVERAGE CELL CONCENTRATION DILUTION RATE ENZYME

Lindsey, R.R.

2011-01-01

116

Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.  

PubMed

Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase. PMID:23436225

Jooste, T; García-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Görgens, J F

2013-04-01

117

COMPUTERIZED EXTRAPOLATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. ydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and ...

118

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

E-print Network

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

Raines, Ronald T.

119

Membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. Cellobiose hydrolysis by cellobiase was carried out and theoretically analyzed in terms of steady-state conversion and flow rate through the membrane. When the flow rate exceeds a critical value, a significant fraction of the enzyme inside the reactor is localized in the concentration polarization layer

J. Hong; G. T. Tsao; P. C. Wankat

1981-01-01

120

Role of fragmentation activity in cellulose hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of cellulose hydrolysis have been carried out on three components of the cellulolytic systems, viz, endoglucanases, exoglucanases, and cellobiases. Little attention has been paid to the fragmentation activity of certain cellulolytic systems. We have noticed that despite being a more powerful degrader of modified cellulose (CMC), the 7-day grown culture filtrate of Myrothecium verrucaria was less effective than

Abdul Aala Najmus Saqib; Philip John Whitney

2006-01-01

121

Hydrolysis of ionic cellulose to glucose.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of ionic cellulose (IC), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cellulose phosphite, which could be synthesized from cellulose and dimethylimidazolium methylphosphite ([Dmim][(OCH3)(H)PO2]) ionic liquid, was conducted for the synthesis of glucose. The reaction without catalysts at 150°C for 12h produced glucose with 14.6% yield. To increase the hydrolysis yield, various acid catalysts were used, in which the sulfonated active carbon (AC-SO3H) performed the best catalytic activity in the IC hydrolysis. In the presence of AC-SO3H, the yields of glucose reached 42.4% and 53.9% at the reaction condition of 150°C for 12h and 180°C for 1.5h, respectively; however the yield decreased with longer reaction time due to the degradation of glucose. Consecutive catalyst reuse experiments on the IC hydrolysis demonstrated the catalytic activity of AC-SO3H persisted at least through four successive uses. PMID:25011079

Vo, Huyen Thanh; Widyaya, Vania Tanda; Jae, Jungho; Kim, Hoon Sik; Lee, Hyunjoo

2014-09-01

122

Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

1988-01-01

123

Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

1988-01-01

124

Developments in Alkaline Tin Electrorefining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although alkaline stannate baths for electrorefining of tin have been used for some time, there is still room for improvement The effects of alkali concentration, current density and temperature on the cathodic current efficiency have been studied, and a bath temperature of 75°C is recommended. To avoid unstable conditions in the bath, a special treatment to the anode and application of an auxiliary cathode are necessary. Many of the metallic impurities present in the crude tin anode go into the slimes in the form of hydroxides, but lead impurities can only be tolerated if concentrations are less than one percent.

Saba, A. E.; Afifi, S. E.; El Sherief, A. E.

1988-08-01

125

Extremely high alkaline protease from a deep-subsurface bacterium, Alkaliphilus transvaalensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-alkaline protease (ALTP) was purified to homogeneity from a culture of the strictly anaerobic and extremely alkaliphilic\\u000a Alkaliphilus transvaalensis. The molecular mass was 30 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme showed the maximal\\u000a caseinolytic activity higher than pH 12.6 in KCl–NaOH buffer at 40°C. Hydrolysis of the oxidized insulin B-chain followed\\u000a by mass spectrometric analysis of the

Tohru Kobayashi; Jie Lu; Zhijun Li; Vo Si Hung; Atsushi Kurata; Yuji Hatada; Ken Takai; Susumu Ito; Koki Horikoshi

2007-01-01

126

Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer  

E-print Network

Products of the Chlorophosphazene Cyclic Trimer (t). . 30 2. P NMR Spectroscopic Properties of Hydrolyzed Poly(dichlorophosphazene). 46 LIST OP PIGURES FIGURE Page Selected P NMR spectra from a representative hydrolysis study using 1 eq of water... additional peaks tenatively associated with the hydrolyzed species cis-4, trans-4 and 5. Hydrolysis affected with 12 eq water, spectra obtained after 16 hours. 27 Mole fractions of various hydrolysis products of t vs time for a representative hydrolysis...

Gabler, Douglas G

2012-06-07

127

Trypanosoma rangeli: an alkaline ecto-phosphatase activity is involved with survival and growth of the parasite.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate whether an alkaline ecto-phosphatase activity is present in the surface of Trypanosoma rangeli. Intact short epimastigote forms were assayed for ecto-phosphatase activity to study kinetics and modulators using ?-glycerophosphate (?-GP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrates. Its role in parasite development and differentiation was also studied. Competition assays using different proportions of ?-GP and pNPP evidenced the existence of independent and non-interacting alkaline and acid phosphatases. Hydrolysis of ?-GP increased progressively with pH, whereas the opposite was evident using pNPP. The alkaline enzyme was inhibited by levamisole in a non-competitive fashion. The Ca(2+) present in the reaction medium was enough for full activity. Pretreatment with PI-PLC decreased the alkaline but not the acid phosphatase evidence that the former is catalyzed by a GPI-anchored enzyme, with potential intracellular signaling ability. ?-GP supported the growth and differentiation of T. rangeli to the same extent as high orthophosphate (Pi). Levamisole at the IC50 spared significantly parasite growth when ?-GP was the sole source of Pi and stopped it in the absence of ?-GP, indicating that the alkaline enzyme can utilize phosphate monoesters present in serum. These results demonstrate the existence of an alkaline ecto-phosphatase in T. rangeli with selective requirements and sensitivity to inhibitors that participates in key metabolic processes in the parasite life cycle. PMID:23994113

Dos-Santos, André L A; Dick, Claudia F; Silveira, Thaís S; Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

2013-10-01

128

Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

1987-01-01

129

Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration  

SciTech Connect

The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

1995-06-01

130

Furfural Production from Fruit Shells by Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

131

Enzymatic hydrolysis of rawhide using papain and neutrase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rawhide split was hydrolysed separately by two proteolytic enzymes, papain and neutrase. The effects of enzymatic conditions of the hydrolysis reaction were investigated. During the first 10min of the enzymatic hydrolysis, the yield of the hydrolysed protein increased sharply, then it slowly increased or became essentially constant due to the limited availability of the substrate. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of

Siriporn Damrongsakkul; Kongpob Ratanathammapan; Kittinan Komolpis; Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

2008-01-01

132

?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-01-01

133

Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the toxin, a full understanding of the PTA degradation in aqueous environments is important. The kinetics of PTA hydrolysis was examined at 22 degrees C in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 2.88-8.93). The reaction was found to follow first-order kinetics with respect to PTA at all pH and temperature conditions. At pH lower than 4.43 (+/- 0.32), the reaction is acid-mediated, whereas the reaction is base-mediated at pH higher than 6.39 (+/- 0.28). The rate constants for the acid-catalyzed, base-catalyzed, and neutral hydrolysis are 25.70 (+/- 0.96), 4.83 (+/- 0.03) X 10(4), and 9.49 (+/- 6.02) x 10(-4) h(-1), respectively. The PTA hydrolysis at pH 4.46 is strongly dependent on temperature, with an activation energy of 74.4 (+/- 2.6) kJ mol(-1). Stoichiometric calculations, reaction kinetics, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry strongly indicates the formation of an intermediary compound at pH 5.07 and 6.07 via a mechanism comprising two first-order consecutive reactions. Ptaquiloside has the lowest rate of hydrolysis at slightly acidic pH and low temperatures. Therefore, because PTA is not sorbed in soil, slightly acidic sandy soils in cold climates are most prone to PTA leaching to deeper soil layers and aquifers. PMID:17022402

Ayala-Luis, Karina B; Hansen, Pernille B; Rasmussen, Lars H; Hansen, Hans Christian B

2006-10-01

134

Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose  

E-print Network

cellulase from Trichoderma viride at specified optimum conditions of 50 C and pH 4. 8. 2. Identify products from the enzymatic hydrolysis of low DS CMC and measure amounts of glucose and total reducing sugars as a function of time during enzymatic... cellulase enzyme from Trichoderma viride (Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN). Additional experiments were carried out using commercial CMC with an average DS of 0, 5 and 0. 73, courtesy of Hercules Inc. (Wilmington, DE). The following procedure...

Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

2012-06-07

135

Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438

Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2010-01-01

136

Organosolv pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of poplars: I. Enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic residues.  

PubMed

Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) organosolv pulps produced in a wide range of solvent composition (between 30 and 70% by volume of methanol) and catalysts (H(2)SO(4) and H(3)PO(4)) such that the cooking liquor pH hydrolysis residues (pulps) are in the 40-60% range; the acid-catalyzed delignification followed by enzyme hydrolysis can generate 70-88% of the original six-carbon sugars contained in the wood. Glucomannan and arablnogalactan are dissolved into the pulping liquor in the pH range of 2-4.5. Lower pH (hydrolysis residues, 36-41% conversions of wood into fermentable sugars were obtained after enzyme hydrolysis; the starting feedstocks contain 50.8 and 46.6% hexosans, respectively, for aspen and black cotton-wood. The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be formally treated as two simultaneous pseudo-first-order reactions in which fast and slow hydrolyses of cellulose occur. Correlations between the glucan digestibility and the effect of the pretreatment have been made. The higher residual xylan content reduces the amount of the rapidly hydrolyzable glucan fraction and lowers the glucan digestibility. The proposed simple kinetic treatment is very helpful in assessing the effect of the pretreatment on pulp enzyme hydrolyzability. PMID:18584659

Chum, H L; Johnson, D K; Black, S; Baker, J; Grohmann, K; Sarkanen, K V; Wallace, K; Schroeder, H A

1988-05-01

137

Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation

Carl S. Kirby; Charles A. Cravotta

2005-01-01

138

Alkaline Phosphatase Expression in Human Chorionic Villi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical properties and electrophoretic mobility of different isoforms of alkaline phosphatase were studied in chorionic villi. Based on selective inactivation and inhibition studies (thermal stability, inactivation by urea, EDTA and L(+)ascorbic acid and L-amino acid inhibition), evidence was obtained for the existence of two distinct types of alkaline phosphatase in trophoblast cells. One type is peculiar to chorionic villi

Giuseppe Novelli; Ferdinando Mannello; Ermelando V. Cosmi; Stefano Biagioni; Bruno Dallapiccola

1987-01-01

139

The clinical use of alkaline phosphatase enzymes.  

PubMed

The enzyme alkaline phosphatase is an important serum analyte and its elevation in serum is correlated with the pressure of bone, liver, and other diseases. The analysis of the isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase is an aid in diagnosing liver and/or bone disease, especially the high molecular weight isoenzymes that appear in cholestatic liver disease. PMID:3527542

Epstein, E; Kiechle, F L; Artiss, J D; Zak, B

1986-09-01

140

Facile chemiluminescent method for alkaline phosphatase determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of alkaline phosphatase activity is of wide applicability, both as a free enzyme or bound to antibodies (conjugates). Activity determinations employing chemiluminescent substrates have become increasingly important due to their high sensitivity, typically equivalent to or better than assays utilizing radioactive labels. We report here a new chemiluminescent methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity based on

Valdecir F. Ximenes; Ana Campa; Wilhelm J. Baader; Luiz H. Catalani

1999-01-01

141

Study on the hydrolysis/precipitation behavior of Keggin Al13 and Al30 polymers in polyaluminum solutions.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis/precipitation behaviors of Al(3+), Al(13) and Al(30) under conditions typical for flocculation in water treatment were investigated by studying the particulates' size development, charge characteristics, chemical species and speciation transformation of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates. The optimal pH conditions for hydrolysis precipitates formation for AlCl(3), PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were 6.5-7.5, 8.5-9.5, and 7.5-9.5, respectively. The precipitates' formation rate increased with the increase in dosage, and the relative rates were AlCl(3)>PAC(Al30)>PAC(Al13). The precipitates' size increased when the dosage increased from 50 microM to 200 microM, but it decreased when the dosage increased to 800 microM. The Zeta potential of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates decreased with the increase in pH for the three coagulants. The iso-electric points of the freshly formed precipitates for AlCl(3), PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were 7.3, 9.6 and 9.2, respectively. The Zeta potentials of AlCl(3) hydrolysis precipitates were lower than those of PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) when pH>5.0. The Zeta potential of PAC(Al30) hydrolysis precipitates was higher than that of PAC(Al13) at the acidic side, but lower at the alkaline side. The dosage had no obvious effect on the Zeta potential of hydrolysis precipitates under fixed pH conditions. The increase in Zeta potential with the increase in dosage under uncontrolled pH conditions was due to the pH depression caused by coagulant addition. Al-Ferron research indicated that the hydrolysis precipitates of AlCl(3) were composed of amorphous Al(OH)(3) precipitates, but those of PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were composed of aggregates of Al(13) and Al(30), respectively. Al(3+) was the most un-stable species in coagulants, and its hydrolysis was remarkably influenced by solution pH. Al(13) and Al(30) species were very stable, and solution pH and aging had little effect on the chemical species of their hydrolysis products. The research method involving coagulant hydrolysis precipitates based on Al-Ferron reaction kinetics was studied in detail. The Al species classification based on complex reaction kinetic of hydrolysis precipitates and Ferron reagent was different from that measured in a conventional coagulant assay using the Al-Ferron method. The chemical composition of Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) depended on coagulant and solution pH. The Al(b) measured in the current case was different from Keggin Al(13), and the high Al(b) content in the AlCl(3) hydrolysis precipitates could not used as testimony that most of the Al(3+) was converted to highly charged Al(13) species during AlCl(3) coagulation. PMID:19409689

Chen, Zhaoyang; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping; Li, Xiaosen

2009-06-01

142

Partial acid hydrolysis of poplar wood as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Partial acid hydrolysis was studied as a pretreatment to enhance glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis of poplar. The pretreatments were carried out in a continuous flow reactor at temperatures ranging from 162 to 222/sup 0/C, acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5%, and treatment times from 3.6 to 12.7 s. The pretreated slurries were hydrolyzed with Trichoderma reesei C30 cellulase at 50/sup 0/C and a pH of 4.8 for 48 h. Increased yields of glucose were achieved when poplar was pretreated at temperatures higher than 180/sup 0/C. By increasing the cellobiase activity of the cellulase with the addition of NOVO cellobiase, in some cases 100% of the potential glucose content of the substrate was converted to glucose after only 24 h of enzymatic hydrolysis.

Knappert, D.; Grethlein, H.; Converse, A.

1981-01-01

143

Effects of microtubule mechanics on hydrolysis and catastrophes  

E-print Network

We introduce a model for microtubule mechanics containing lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments, bending rigidity of dimers, and repulsive interactions between protofilaments modeling steric constraints to investigate the influence of mechanical forces on hydrolysis and catastrophes. We use the allosteric dimer model, where tubulin dimers are characterized by an equilibrium bending angle, which changes from $0^\\circ$ to $22^\\circ$ by hydrolysis of a dimer. This also affects the lateral interaction and bending energies and, thus, the mechanical equilibrium state of the microtubule. As hydrolysis gives rise to conformational changes in dimers, mechanical forces also influence the hydrolysis rates by mechanical energy changes modulating the hydrolysis rate. The interaction via the microtubule mechanics then gives rise to correlation effects in the hydrolysis dynamics, which have not been taken into account before. Assuming a dominant influence of mechanical energies on hydrolysis rates, we investigate the most probable hydrolysis pathways both for vectorial and random hydrolysis. Investigating the stability with respect to lateral bond rupture, we identify initiation configurations for catastrophes along the hydrolysis pathways and values for a lateral bond rupture force. If we allow for rupturing of lateral bonds between dimers in neighboring protofilaments above this threshold force, our model exhibits avalanche-like catastrophe events.

Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld

2014-06-05

144

Reactive sulfur species: hydrolysis of hypothiocyanite to give thiocarbamate-S-oxide.  

PubMed

Hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) hydrolyzes under alkaline conditions to give thiocarbamate-S-oxide (H2NC(=O)SO-, the conjugate base of carbamothioperoxoic acid) via a mechanism that involves rate-limiting nucleophilic attack of OH- on OSCN-, followed by fast protonation (with no net consumption of H+/OH- at pH 11.7). Thiocarbamate-S-oxide has been characterized by 13C NMR, 15N NMR, UV spectroscopy, and ion chromatography. It has also been independently synthesized by the reaction of thiocarbamate (H2NC(=O)S-) and hypochlorite (OCl-). The properties of thiocarbamate-S-oxide that is produced by hydrolysis of OSCN- and by oxidation of H2NC(=O)S- are the same. The possible relevance of thiocarbamate-S-oxide in human peroxidase defense mechanisms remains to be explored. PMID:18052381

Nagy, Péter; Wang, Xiaoguang; Lemma, Kelemu; Ashby, Michael T

2007-12-26

145

Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution  

SciTech Connect

The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

1996-11-01

146

Urea hydrolysis and calcium carbonate reaction fronts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobility of toxic or radioactive metal contaminants in subsurface environments can be reduced by the formation of mineral precipitates that form co-precipitates with the contaminants or that isolate them from the mobile fluid phase. An engineering challenge is to control the spatial distribution of precipitation reactions with respect to: 1) the location of a contaminant, and 2) where reactants are introduced into the subsurface. One strategy being explored for immobilizing contaminants, such as Sr-90, involves stimulating mineral precipitation by forming carbonate ions and hydroxide via the in situ, microbially mediated hydrolysis of urea. A series of column experiments have been conducted to explore how the construction or design of such an in situ reactant production strategy can affect the temporal and spatial distribution of calcium carbonate precipitation, and how the distribution is coupled to changes in permeability. The columns were constructed with silica gel as the porous media. An interval midway through the column contained an adsorbed urease enzyme in order to simulate a biologically active zone. A series of influent solutions were injected to characterize hydraulic properties of the column (e.g., bromide tracer), profiles of chemical conditions and reaction products as the enzyme catalyzes urea hydrolysis (e.g., pH, ammonia, urea), and changes that occur due to CaCO3 precipitation with the introduction of a calcium+urea solutions. In one experiment, hydraulic conductivity was reduced as precipitate accumulated in a layer within the column that had a higher fraction of fine grained silica gel. Subsequent reduction of permeability and flow (for a constant head condition) resulted in displacement of the hydrolysis and precipitation reaction profiles upstream. In another experiment, which lacked the physical heterogeneity (fine grained layer), the precipitation reaction did not result in loss of permeability or flow velocity and the reaction profile, characterized by the pH profile and hydrolysis reaction species, was extended downstream of the enzyme zone. Downstream extension of the reaction profile was due partially to the partial mobility of the enzyme in the column. The experiments are helping to illustrate the complexity of transient reaction fronts as well as the needs and challenges for advanced modeling approaches. A modeling platform developed at the Idaho National Laboratory, which is capable of simulating tightly coupled physical-chemical processes (the Reactive Transport simulator), is being applied to pre-experimental simulations and post-experimental interpretation of results.

Fox, D. T.; Redden, G. D.; Henriksen, J.; Fujita, Y.; Guo, L.; Huang, H.

2010-12-01

147

Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

1982-09-01

148

Induction of glomerular alkaline phosphatase after challenge with lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Alkaline phosphatase (AP) can be considered as a host defence molecule since this enzyme is able to detoxify bacterial endotoxin at physiological pH. The question emerged whether this anti-endotoxin principle is inducible in the glomerulus and if so, which glomerular cells might be involved in the expression of ectoAP after stimulation with pro-inflammatory agents. Therefore kidneys of rats treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS), E. coli bacteria or non-toxic monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) were examined for AP activity 6 or 24 h after challenge. In addition cultures of endothelial cells or mesangial cells were evaluated for AP activity after stimulation with either LPS, TNF? or IL-6, and mRNA for AP was studied in TNF?-stimulated and control mesangial cells. The results show significant up-regulation of glomerular AP in LPS- or E. coli-injected rats compared to rats injected with MPLA. Endothelial and mesangial cells in vitro showed significant up-regulation of AP activity following stimulation with LPS, TNF? or IL-6, whereas increased mRNA for AP was observed in mesangial cells after TNF? stimulation compared to non-stimulated control cells. Since it appeared that hydrolysis occurred when endotoxin was used as a substrate in the histochemical staining, we concluded that inducible glomerular ectoAP may reflect a local endotoxin detoxifying principle of the kidney. PMID:12974943

Kapojos, Jola J; Poelstra, Klaas; Borghuis, Theo; Van Den Berg, Anke; Baelde, Hans J; Klok, Pieter A; Bakker, Winston W

2003-01-01

149

Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

Sheibley, D. W. (inventor)

1978-01-01

150

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOEpatents

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01

151

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOEpatents

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01

152

Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions  

DOEpatents

A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

153

Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.  

PubMed

The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva

2013-02-01

154

ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

155

Impact of Cell Wall Acetylation on Corn Stover Hydrolysis by Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of variously pretreated corn stover samples showed neutral to mildly acidic pretreatments were more effective at removing xylan from corn stover and more likely to maintain the acetyl to xylopyranosyl ratios present in untreated material than were alkaline treatments. Retention of acetyl groups in the residual solids resulted in greater resistance to hydrolysis by endoxylanase alone, although the synergistic combination of endoxylanase and acetyl xylan esterase enzymes permitted higher xylan conversions to be observed. Acetyl xylan esterase alone did little to improve hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes, although a direct relationship was observed between the enzymatic removal of acetyl groups and improvements in the enzymatic conversion of xylan present in substrates. In all cases, effective xylan conversions were found to significantly improve glucan conversions achievable by cellulolytic enzymes. Additionally, acetyl and xylan removal not only enhanced the respective initial rates of xylan and glucan conversion, but also the overall extents of conversion. This work emphasizes the necessity for xylanolytic enzymes during saccharification processes and specifically for the optimization of acetyl esterase and xylanase synergies when biomass processes include milder pretreatments, such as hot water or sulfite steam explosion.

Selig, M. J.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

2009-01-01

156

Hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by penicillium funiculosum cellulase  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a promising method for the conversion of waste cellulose to glucose. During the past few years, the development of this technology has proceeded rapidly, with significant advances made in enzyme production, pretreatment, and hydrolysis. A variety of fungi are reported to produce cellulases but among these Trichoderma reesei and its mutants are powerful producers of cellulases. However, the search for new and possibly better sources of cellulase is continued due to the low levels of beta-glucosidase of T. reesei. Penicillium funiculosum produces a complete cellulase having endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15-20 U/mL), exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (1.5-2.0 U/mL), and high beta-glucosidase (8-10 U/mL). The saccharification of alkali-treated cotton and bagasse by P. funiculosum enzyme was 70 and 63%, respectively. It was possible to obtain glucose concentration as high as 30% using 50% bagasse. It is of interest that the percent saccharification of cellulosic substrates with the Penicillium enzyme is comparable to that of T. reesei cellulase when the same amount of filter paper activity is used, although the endo-glucanase activity of the latter is two to three times higher. This communication reports the studies on saccharification of lignocelluloses by P. funiculosum cellulase and certain studies on the kinetic aspects. (Refs. 15).

Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Deshpande, V.

1984-04-01

157

Excipient hydrolysis and ester formation increase pH in a parenteral solution over aging.  

PubMed

Recently, the number of drug substances that are poorly water-soluble has increased dramatically. This makes improving solubility one of the most critical tasks in pharmaceutical development today. In this study, the physicochemical stability of an injectable solution of conivaptan hydrochloride salt was investigated. Because its free form is hydrophobic, the drug substance was solubilized in a co-solvent system, 40% of which was composed of different alcohols. Since the free form is also alkaline, lactic acid was added to the co-solvent system to further improve its solubility. Remarkably, the pH of the solution was found to increase gradually over time. Considering the physicochemical nature of the drug substance, uncontrolled increases in pH would pose a potential threat of reducing solubility and forming precipitates. For this reason, a risk evaluation was performed. The evaluation revealed that the pH increase was caused by the hydrolysis of lactic acid oligomers as well as by the ester formation occurring between lactic acid and the alcohols. High concentrations of lactic acid supplied as an excipient usually contain lactic acid oligomers, which are hydrolyzed into lactic acid monomers upon dilution with water. Commercial software was used to determine the pK(a) values of the lactic acid oligomers, which were found to be lower than that of lactic acid monomers. This indicates that hydrolysis causes the pH to increase. Ester formation consumes the acid, which also causes the pH to increase. However, both hydrolysis and ester formation equilibrated by the 16-month time point when stored at 25 degrees C. This information allowed the upper limit of the pH increase to be determined molecularly, thereby ensuring product quality through the prevention of precipitate formation due to reduced solubility. Increased awareness of the importance of risk evaluation in pharmaceutical development is critical as these kinds of chemical reactions between excipients constitute a potential risk factor, but tend to be overlooked. PMID:16860951

Hirakura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Wakasawa, Tatsuyoshi; Ban, Kazutoshi; Yokota, Shoji; Kitamura, Satoshi

2006-11-15

158

2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis FORCE Technology  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................... 24 5.2. Track 2 Atmospheric Plasma Technology1 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis FORCE Technology GreenHydrogen.dk. Technical University Business and Social Science ­ Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)) Final report EUDP 63011

Mosegaard, Klaus

159

Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus  

DOEpatents

A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

2003-01-01

160

Primary alkaline battery containing bismuth metal oxide  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A battery includes a cathode having an oxide containing one or more metals and pentavalent bismuth, an anode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an alkaline electrolyte. The metal(s) can be an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a transition metal, and/or a main group metal. The separator can be ion-selective or capable of substantially preventing soluble bismuth ionic species from diffusing from the cathode to the anode.

2009-05-26

161

Synthesis of nonionic-anionic colloidal systems based on alkaline and ammonium ?-nonylphenol polyethyleneoxy (n = 3-20) propionates/dodecylbenzenesulfonates with prospects for food hygiene  

PubMed Central

Background The main objective of this work was to obtain a binary system of surface-active components (nonionic soap – alkaline and/or ammonium dodecylbenzenesulfonate) with potential competences in food hygiene, by accessing a scheme of classical reactions (cyanoethylation, total acid hydrolysis and stoichiometric neutralization with inorganic alkaline and/or organic ammonium bases) adapted to heterogeneously polyethoxylated nonylphenols (n?=?3-20). In the processing system mentioned, dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid, initially the acid catalyst for the exhaustive hydrolysis of ?-nonylphenolpolyethyleneoxy (n?=?3-20) propionitriles, becomes together with the nonionic soap formed the second surface-active component of the binary system. Results In the reaction scheme adopted the influence of the main operating (duration, temperature, molar ratio of reagents) and structural parameters (degree of oligomerization of the polyoxyethylene chain) on the processing yields for the synthetic steps was followed. The favorable role of the polyoxyethylene chain size is remarked, through its specific conformation and its alkaline cations sequestration competences on the yields of cyanoethylation, but also the beneficial influence of phase-transfer catalysts in the total acid hydrolysis step. The chemical stability of dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSH) at the temperature and strongly acidic pH of the reaction environment is confirmed. The controlled change of the amount of DBSH in the final binary system will later confer it potential colloidal competences in food hygiene receipts. Conclusions The preliminary synthetic tests performed confirmed the prospect of obtaining a broad range of useful colloidal competences in various food hygiene scenarios. PMID:22958389

2012-01-01

162

Mechanisms of hydrolysis of phenyl- and benzyl 4-nitrophenyl-sulfamate esters.  

PubMed

The kinetics of hydrolysis at medium acid strength (pH interval 2-5) of a series of phenylsulfamate esters 1 have been studied and they have been found to react by an associative S(N)2(S) mechanism with water acting as a nucleophile attacking at sulfur, cleaving the S-O bond with simultaneous formation of a new S-O bond to the oxygen of a water molecule leading to sulfamic acid and phenol as products. In neutral to moderate alkaline solution (pH ? ~ 6-9) a dissociative (E1cB) route is followed that involves i) ionization of the amino group followed by ii) unimolecular expulsion of the leaving group from the ionized ester to give N-sulfonylamine [HN=SO(2)] as an intermediate. In more alkaline solution further ionization of the conjugate base of the ester occurs to give a dianionic species which expels the aryloxide leaving group to yield the novel N-sulfonylamine anion [(-)N=SO(2)]; in a final step, rapid attack of hydroxide ion or a water molecule on it leads again to sulfamic acid. A series of substituted benzyl 4-nitrophenylsulfamate esters 4 were hydrolysed in the pH range 6.4-14, giving rise to a Hammett relationship whose reaction constant is shown to be consistent with the E1cB mechanism. PMID:20976313

Spillane, William J; Thea, Sergio; Cevasco, Giorgio; Hynes, Michael J; McCaw, Cheryl J A; Maguire, Neil P

2011-01-21

163

Hydrolysis of Baltic amber during thermal ageing - An infrared spectroscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable conservation of amber in museums, understanding of chemical changes is crucial. While oxidation has been investigated particularly well for this natural polymer, further degradation phenomena in relation to humidity and pollutants are poorly studied or still unknown. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was explored with regard to Baltic amber. A systematic spectroscopic survey of a wide range of thermally aged model amber samples, exposed to different microclimatic conditions, showed significant changes in their spectra. Samples aged in a humid and acidic environment or exposed to a humid and alkaline atmosphere generally exhibited a higher absorbance intensity of carbonyl groups at frequencies assigned to acids than unaged samples, samples aged in drier conditions and samples immersed in an alkaline solution. Baltic amber comprises succinate ester, which may be hydrolysed into communol and succinic acid. The survey thus provided evidence about the progress of hydrolytic reactions during degradation of Baltic amber. Infrared spectroscopy was shown to have significant potential for providing qualitative and quantitative chemical information on hydrolysis of amber, which will be of interest for the development of preventive conservation techniques for museum collections of amber objects.

Pastorelli, Gianluca; Shashoua, Yvonne; Richter, Jane

2013-04-01

164

Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

Jin, Xin; Li, Ju-Fang; Huang, Ping-Ying; Dong, Xu-Yan; Guo, Lu-Lu; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

2010-07-01

165

Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

166

Catalytic zinc complexes for phosphate diester hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Creating efficient artificial catalysts that can compete with biocatalysis has been an enduring challenge which has yet to be met. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of a series of zinc complexes designed to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate diesters. By introducing a hydrated aldehyde into the ligand we achieve turnover for DNA-like substrates which, combined with ligand methylation, increases reactivity by two orders of magnitude. In contrast to current orthodoxy and mechanistic explanations, we propose a mechanism where the nucleophile is not coordinated to the metal ion, but involves a tautomer with a more effective Lewis acid and more reactive nucleophile. This data suggests a new strategy for creating more efficient metal ion based catalysts, and highlights a possible mode of action for metalloenzymes. PMID:24919567

Tirel, Emmanuel Y; Bellamy, Zoë; Adams, Harry; Lebrun, Vincent; Duarte, Fernanda; Williams, Nicholas H

2014-07-28

167

[Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in reverse micelles].  

PubMed

Several types of surfactants were adopted to construct reverse micelles, in order to investigate the characteristics of cellulose hydrolysis, we used the carboxymethyl cellulose as substrate. The electrical conductivity was measured to determine the maximum water solubilization W0( W0 = [H2O]/[SA] ) of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid reverse micellar systems were 15.2, 20.1, 2.3 and 40.3. In this condition we studied the effects of surfactants concentrations and cellulose dosage on the enzymatic hydrolysis of reverse micelle,and compared with aqueous systems. It was shown by the results that when the cellulose dosage was 0.15 FPU/g substrate, the maximum yield of reducing sugar in reverse micelles was obtained at 1 cmc of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid, in which the rhamnolipid yield was the highest of 198.03 mg substrate. When the concentrations of CTAB, SDS, Tween-80 and rhamnolipid were 1 cmc, the productions of reverse micelles systems were higher than that of aqueous systems of 34.36%, 21.24%, 11.44% and 34.62%. In the optimum conditions of the surfactant concentration, taking the saving cost and sugar yield into consideration, the cellulose dosage of 5 FPU substrate was the most suitable. The reducing sugar's yield of biosurfactant rhamnolipid reverse micellar system was higher than those of three chemical surfactant systems, it was shown that the adoption of biosurfactant has technologically promising prospect in constructing reverse micelles and enhancing the stability of reverse micelles. PMID:21072947

Wang, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Xing-Zhong; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Liang, Yun-Shan; Chao, Yang

2010-09-01

168

Kinetic study of the acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic interest in xylitol production can be enhanced if the needed xylose solutions can be obtained from the hydrolysis of low-cost lignocellulosic wastes. Sugar cane bagasse is a renewable, cheap and widely available waste in tropical countries. The hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to obtain xylose solutions has a double consequence, the elimination of a waste and the generation of

R Aguilar; J. A Ram??rez; G Garrote; M Vázquez

2002-01-01

169

Coupling of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two  

E-print Network

OFFPRINT Coupling of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two nucleotide of actin hydrolysis and polymerization: Reduced description with two nucleotide states X. Li1,2 , R PACS 87.15.rp ­ Polymerization Abstract ­ The polymerization of actin filaments is coupled

Kierfeld, Jan

170

Synergistic Catalysis of Dimetilan Hydrolysis by Metal Ions and  

E-print Network

such as extracellular enzymes. Introduction Hydrolysis is believed to be the predominant degradation pathway that dissolved metal ions (1), simple hydrous metal oxides (2-5), and clays (6, 7) can increase hydrolysis rates of agrochemicals dramatically. Catalysis may arise from reaction of the added chemical constituent with the agro

Huang, Ching-Hua

171

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008  

E-print Network

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008 Revised Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg Vest wastewater treatment plant, Denmark PSO-F&U project nr. 2006 This project "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet .DK under the PSO

172

Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007  

E-print Network

Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg

173

Reaction dynamics of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ABC transporter family that confers drug resistance to many tumors by catalyzing their efflux, and it is a major component of drug-drug interactions. P-gp couples drug efflux with ATP hydrolysis by coordinating conformational changes in the drug binding sites with the hydrolysis of ATP and release of ADP. To understand the relative rates of the chemical step for hydrolysis and the conformational changes that follow it, we exploited isotope exchange methods to determine the extent to which the ATP hydrolysis step is reversible. With ?(18)O4-labeled ATP, no positional isotope exchange is detectable at the bridging ?-phosphorus-O-?-phosphorus bond. Furthermore, the phosphate derived from hydrolysis includes a constant ratio of three (18)O/two (18)O/one (18)O that reflects the isotopic composition of the starting ATP in multiple experiments. Thus, H2O-exchange with HPO4(2-) (Pi) was negligible, suggesting that a [P-gp·ADP·Pi] is not long-lived. This further demonstrates that the hydrolysis is essentially irreversible in the active site. These mechanistic details of ATP hydrolysis are consistent with a very fast conformational change immediately following, or concomitant with, hydrolysis of the ?-phosphate linkage that ensures a high commitment to catalysis in both drug-free and drug-bound states. PMID:24506763

Scian, Michele; Acchione, Mauro; Li, Mavis; Atkins, William M

2014-02-18

174

THE MECHANISM OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF METHYLENE CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

chloride with aqueous chloride solution and proposed the mechanism of the reaction!). The kinetics of the hydrolysis of methylene chloride has now been investigated over the pH range from ° to 12 under the same experimental conditions as those in the exchange reaction reported in the foregoing paper!). It has been found that the rate of the hydrolysis is approximately

Kozo TANABE; Masayuki MATSUDA

175

Cationic ester-containing gemini surfactants: Chemical hydrolysis and biodegradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cationic gemini surfactants having ester bonds between the hydrophobic tail and the cationic moiety have been synthesized. The ester bonds were either with the ester carbonyl group away from the positive charge (esterquat type arrangement) or facing the positive charge (betaine ester type arrangement). The chemical hydrolysis of the surfactants was investigated and compared with the hydrolysis of the

A. R. Tehrani-Bagha; H. Oskarsson; C. G. van Ginkel; K. Holmberg

2007-01-01

176

Enzymic mechanisms involving concomitant transfer and hydrolysis reactions  

PubMed Central

The kinetic parameters of ten different enzymic mechanisms in which bimolecular transfer reactions occur concomitantly with the hydrolysis of the donor molecule have been studied. The usefulness of these parameters for making a choice of mechanism is discussed. The analysis has been extended to the use of alternative substrates in bimolecular transfer reactions that proceed without the hydrolysis of the donor molecule. PMID:4772273

Frère, Jean-Marie

1973-01-01

177

Total Energy Production and Phosphocreatine Hydrolysis in the Isotonic Twitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using frog's sartorius muscles we have found no correlation be- tween phosphocreatine hydrolysis and shortening under conditions (iodoacetate poisoning and anoxia) where this reaction was the only expected source of energy. Phosphocreatine hydrolysis did, however, show a constant term corre- sponding to the activation heat of A.V. Hill, and a linear term with work. It was concluded that shortening heat

FRANCIS D. CARLSON; DONNA J. HARDY; DOUGLAS R. WILKIE

2009-01-01

178

Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.  

PubMed

The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs. PMID:21467805

Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang

2011-04-01

179

Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.  

PubMed

Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. PMID:23306125

Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

2013-02-01

180

Uptake of arsenic by alkaline soils near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities.  

PubMed

The attenuation of arsenic in groundwater near alkaline coal fly ash disposal facilities was evaluated by determining the uptake of arsenic from ash leachates by surrounding alkaline soils. Ten different alkaline soils near a retired coal fly ash impoundment were used in this study with pH ranging from 7.6 to 9.0, while representative coal fly ash samples from two different locations in the coal fly ash impoundment were used to produce two alkaline ash leachates with pH 7.4 and 8.2. The arsenic found in the ash leachates was present as arsenate [As(V)]. Adsorption isotherm experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption parameters required for predicting the uptake of arsenic from the ash leachates. For all soils and leachates, the adsorption of arsenic followed the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, indicative of the favorable adsorption of arsenic from leachates onto all soils. The uptake of arsenic was evaluated as a function of ash leachate characteristics and the soil components. The uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates, which occurred mainly as calcium hydrogen arsenate, increased with increasing clay fraction of soil and with increasing soil organic matter of the alkaline soils. Appreciable uptake of arsenic from alkaline ash leachates with different pH and arsenic concentration was observed for the alkaline soils, thus attenuating the contamination of groundwater downstream of the retired coal fly ash impoundment. PMID:23877575

Khodadoust, Amid P; Theis, Thomas L; Murarka, Ishwar P; Naithani, Pratibha; Babaeivelni, Kamel

2013-12-01

181

Uranium(VI) chemistry in strong alkaline solution: speciation and oxygen exchange mechanism.  

PubMed

The mechanism by which oxygen bound in UO2(2+) exchanges with that from water under strong alkaline conditions remains a subject of controversy. Two recent NMR studies independently revealed that the key intermediate species is a binuclear uranyl(VI) hydroxide, presumably of the stoichiometry [(UO2(OH)4(2-))(UO2(OH)5(3-))]. The presence of UO2(OH)5(3-) in highly alkaline solution was postulated in earlier experimental studies, yet the species has been little characterized. Quantum-chemical calculations (DFT and MP2) show that hydrolysis of UO2(OH)4(2-) yields UO3(OH)3(3-) preferentially over UO2(OH)5(3-). X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to study the uranium(VI) speciation in a highly alkaline solution supporting the existence of a species with three U-O bonds, as expected for UO3(OH)3(3-). Therefore, we explored the oxygen exchange pathway through the binuclear adduct [(UO2(OH)4(2-))(UO3(OH)3(3-))] by quantum-chemical calculations. Assuming that the rate-dominating step is proton transfer between the oxygen atoms, the activation Gibbs energy for the intramolecular proton transfer within [(UO2(OH)4(2-))(UO3(OH)3(3-))] at the B3LYP level was estimated to be 64.7 kJ mol(-1). This value is in good agreement with the activation energy for "yl"-oxygen exchange in [(UO2(OH)4(2-))(UO2(OH)5(3-))] obtained from experiment by Szabó and Grenthe (Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 4928-4933), which is 60.8 ± 2.4 kJ mol(-1). Both the presence of UO3(OH)3(3-) and the scenario of an "yl"-oxygen exchange through a binuclear species in strong alkaline solution are supported by the present study. PMID:24428170

Moll, Henry; Rossberg, André; Steudtner, Robin; Drobot, Björn; Müller, Katharina; Tsushima, Satoru

2014-02-01

182

Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.  

PubMed

In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²? by the phytase treatment. The Fe²? content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. PMID:21623782

Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

2011-08-01

183

Factors impeding enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations.  

PubMed

Enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis at high solid concentrations is advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view. However, increased wheat gluten concentrations result in a concentration effect with a decreased hydrolysis rate at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratios and a decreased maximum attainable degree of hydrolysis (DH%). We here identified the underlying factors causing the concentration effect. Wheat gluten was hydrolyzed at solid concentrations from 4.4% to 70%. The decreased hydrolysis rate was present at all solid concentrations and at any time of the reaction. Mass transfer limitations, enzyme inhibition and water activity were shown to not cause this hydrolysis rate limitation up to 50% solids. However, the hydrolysis rate limitation can be, at least partly, explained by a second-order enzyme inactivation process. Furthermore, mass transfer impeded the hydrolysis above 60% solids. Addition of enzyme after 24 h at high solid concentrations scarcely increased the DH%, suggesting that the maximum attainable DH% decreases at high solid concentrations. Reduced enzyme activities caused by low water activities can explain this DH% limitation. Finally, a possible influence of the plastein reaction on the DH% limitation is discussed. PMID:24474643

Hardt, N A; Janssen, A E M; Boom, R M; van der Goot, A J

2014-07-01

184

Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 ?Ahcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

185

Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

Aldissi, Matt

2003-01-01

186

Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics  

DOEpatents

A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

Singh, David Joseph

2013-07-16

187

Hydrolysis and Partial Recycling of a Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid  

PubMed Central

Hydrolysis of the ionic liquid Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 and a process for recycling the triethylamine were studied. When the hydrolysis was carried out at a relatively high temperature, the released HCl could be absorbed more easily. With addition of sodium hydroxide to the aqueous hydrolysis solution, a feasible process for recycling triethylamine was developed, involving first distillation of triethylamine, followed by filtration of the aluminium hydroxide. The yield of recovered triethylamine was about 95%. The triethylhydrogenammonium chloride prepared from the recycled triethylamine was of good purity and could be reused to synthesize new chloroaluminate ionic liquids.

Fang, Ming-Hong; Wang, Li-Sheng

2007-01-01

188

Factors limiting the hydrolysis of casein by subtilisin DY.  

PubMed

It was shown that during the subtilisin DY-induced hydrolysis of casein relatively stable polypeptide structures are formed. In their interior these structures contain peptide bonds which are susceptible to the enzyme used. Heating (up to 100 degrees C) and/or application of ultrasound (25 kHz, 60 W) results in their unfolding. Data are provided, which show that under the enzyme-substrate complex formation does not lead to an enzyme conformation more susceptible to autolysis. Taking into account the described phenomena a higher degree of hydrolysis was attained in comparison to those obtained by standard enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:3322321

Nedkov, P; Lilova, A; Tchorbanov, B

1987-10-01

189

Effect of corosolic acid on the hydrolysis of disaccharides.  

PubMed

The banaba leaf (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) has been used in traditional Oriental medicine to treat diabetes in the Philippines. It contains corosolic acid (CA), a compound which has a hypoglycemic effect. We examined the effect of CA on blood glucose levels and the hydrolysis of disaccharides in the small intestine in mice. CA (10 mg/kg body weight) improved hyperglycemia after an oral administration of sucrose, and significantly reduced the hydrolysis of sucrose in the small intestine. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic activity of CA is derived, at least in part, due to the inhibition of the hydrolysis of sucrose. PMID:18635916

Takagi, Satoshi; Miura, Toshihiro; Ishibashi, Chinami; Kawata, Takanori; Ishihara, Eriko; Gu, Yeunhwa; Ishida, Torao

2008-06-01

190

Synthesis, hydrolysis and stability of psilocin glucuronide.  

PubMed

A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-?-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for ?-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements. PCG showed a greater long-term stability after six months in deep frozen serum and urine samples than psilocin. The short-term stability of PCG for one week in whole blood at room temperature and in deep frozen samples was also better than that of psilocin. Therefore, PCG can be considered to be more stable than the labile psilocin and should always be included if psilocin is analyzed in samples. PMID:24513688

Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Lehr, Matthias; Köhler, Helga

2014-04-01

191

Membrane reactor for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellobiose  

SciTech Connect

A pressurized, stirred vessel attached with an ultrafiltration membrane was used as a membrane reactor. Cellobiose hydrolysis by cellobiase was carried out and theoretically analyzed in terms of steady-state conversion and flow rate through the membrane. When the flow rate exceeds a critical value, a significant fraction of the enzyme inside the reactor is localized in the concentration polarization layer where shear from stirring is high. Consequently, enzyme deactivation inside the concentration polarization layer is accelerated and the conversion decreased due to an exchange of active enzyme in bulk with deactivated enzyme in the polarization layer via convection and back diffusion. Successful operation can be obtained at flow rates lower than the critical point to avoid the polarization and thus the deactivation. It is shown that 6.5 L of 2mg/mL of cellobiose solution is hydrolyzed to glucose with a conversion of 91% in 20 hours with 1.617 mg of cellobiase enzyme in a reactor attached with a PM 10 membrane of an effective surface area of 39.2 sq.cm. (Refs. 17).

Hong, J.; Tsao, G.T.; Wankat, P.C.

1981-07-01

192

General lysosomal hydrolysis can process prorenin accurately.  

PubMed

Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system, is first synthesized as an inactive precursor, prorenin. Prorenin is activated by the proteolytic removal of an amino terminal prosegment in the dense granules of the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney by one or more proteases whose identity is uncertain but commonly referred to as the prorenin-processing enzyme (PPE). Because several extrarenal tissues secrete only prorenin, we tested the hypothesis that the unique ability of JG cells to produce active renin might be explained by the existence of a PPE whose expression is restricted to JG cells. We found that inducing renin production by the mouse kidney by up to 20-fold was not associated with the concomitant induction of candidate PPEs. Because the renin-containing granules of JG cells also contain several lysosomal hydrolases, we engineered mouse Ren1 prorenin to be targeted to the classical vesicular lysosomes of cultured HEK-293 cells, where it was accurately processed and stored. Furthermore, we found that HEK cell lysosomes hydrolyzed any artificial extensions placed on the protein and that active renin was extraordinarily resistant to proteolytic degradation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that accurate processing of prorenin is not restricted to JG cells but can occur in classical vesicular lysosomes of heterologous cells. The implication is that renin production may not require a specific PPE but rather can be achieved by general hydrolysis in the lysosome-like granules of JG cells. PMID:24965790

Xa, Lucie K; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Lazure, Claude; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

2014-09-01

193

Innovative pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using supercritical CO2 followed by alkaline hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

An innovative method for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using sequential combination of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at mild conditions is proposed. This method was found to be superior to the individual pretreatment with scCO2, ultrasound, or H2O2 and the sequential combination of scCO2 and ultrasound regarding the yield of cellulose and hemicellulose, almost twice the yield was observed. Pretreatment with scCO2 could obtain higher amount of cellulose and hemicellulose but also acid-insoluble lignin. Pretreatment with ultrasound or H2O2 could partly depolymerize lignin, however, could not separate cellulose from lignin. The analysis of liquid products via enzymatic hydrolysis by HPLC and the characterization of the solid residues by SEM revealed strong synergetic effects in the sequential combination of scCO2 and H2O2. PMID:24983689

Phan, Duy The; Tan, Chung-Sung

2014-09-01

194

Efficient proteolysis and application of an alkaline protease from halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9.  

PubMed

A salt-stable alkaline protease from moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9, isolated from the western coast of India, is described. This protease was capable of efficiently removing silver from used/waste X-Ray films, as well as hydrolyzing defatted soy flour with 31% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Production of the protease was optimized by using response surface methodology. Ca(2+) and NaCl were the most critical factors in enhancing the yield. Under optimized culture conditions, a maximum of 369 U protease/mL was obtained, which is quite comparable to the yields of commercial proteases. The elevated production level coupled with ability to efficiently hydrolyze protein-laden soy flour and complete recovery of silver from used X-Ray films makes it a prospective industrial enzyme. PMID:24905047

Sinha, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, A K; Khare, S K

2014-10-01

195

MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

196

Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (inventors)

1970-01-01

197

PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY WITH ALKALINE\\/CALCAREOUS SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient required by plants for normal growth and development. The availability of P to plants for uptake and utilization is impaired in alkaline and calcareous soil due to the formation of poorly soluble calcium phosphate minerals. Adding fertilizer P at \\

Bryan Hopkins; Jason Ellsworth

198

ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

199

Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.  

PubMed

Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel ?(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

2014-11-15

200

Hydrolysis of Al3+ from constrained molecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the hydrolysis reactions of Al3+ in AlCl3 aqueous solution using the constrained molecular dynamics based on the Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics method. By employing the proton-aluminum coordination number as a reaction coordinate in the constrained molecular dynamics the deprotonation as well as dehydration processes are successfully realized. From our free-energy difference of ?G0~=8.0 kcal mol-1 the hydrolysis constant pKa1 is roughly estimated as 5.8, comparable to the literature value of 5.07. We show that the free-energy difference for the hydrolysis of Al3+ in acidic conditions is at least 4 kcal mol-1 higher than that in neutral condition, indicating that the hydrolysis reaction is inhibited by the presence of excess protons located around the hydrated ion, in agreement with the change of the predominant species by pH.

Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masaru; Kimura, Takaumi

2006-02-01

201

Kinetic studies of the hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides by phosphotriesterase  

E-print Network

:1 for profenofos. The relative stereochemistry of the enzymatic hydrolysis of both substrates, however, remains unclear. For propetamphos, this ambiguity is due to the failure of developing a method using ³¹P NMR spectroscopy to visualize the individual peaks...

Zaitoun, Basel M.

2012-06-07

202

Hydrolysis of the amorphous cellulose in cotton-based paper.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of cellulose in Whatman no. 42 cotton-based paper was studied using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and uniaxial tensile testing to understand the course and kinetics of the reaction. GPC results suggested that scission reactions passed through three stages. Additionally, the evolution of soluble oligomers in the ESI-MS data and the steady course of strength loss showed that the hydrolysis reaction occurred at a constant rate. These findings are explained with a more detailed description of the cellulose hydrolysis, which includes multiple chain scissions on amorphous segments. The breaks occur with increasing frequency near the ends of amorphous segments, where chains protrude from crystalline domains. Oligomers unattached to crystalline domains are eventually created. Late-stage reactions near the ends of amorphous segments produce a kinetic behavior that falsely suggests that hydrolysis had ceased. Monte Carlo simulations of cellulose degradation corroborated the experimental findings. PMID:18324778

Stephens, Catherine H; Whitmore, Paul M; Morris, Hannah R; Bier, Mark E

2008-04-01

203

ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

204

Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

2002-01-01

205

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corncob and ethanol fermentation from cellulosic hydrolysate were investigated. After corncob was pretreated by 1% H2SO4 at 108°C for 3h, the cellulosic residue was hydrolyzed by cellulase from Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 and the hydrolysis yield was 67.5%. Poor cellobiase activity in T. reesei cellulase restricted the conversion of cellobiose to glucose, and the accumulation of cellobiose caused

Ming Chen; Liming Xia; Peijian Xue

2007-01-01

206

40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory....

2011-07-01

207

40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434...AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory....

2010-07-01

208

40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory....

2010-07-01

209

?-Glutamyl Hydrolase: Kinetic Characterization of Isopeptide Hydrolysis Using Fluorogenic Substrates†  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamyl hydrolase, a cysteine peptidase, catalyzes the hydrolysis of poly-?-glutamate derivatives of folate co-factors and many antifolate drugs. We have used internally quenched fluorogenic derivatives of glutamyl-?-glutamate and (4,4-difluoro)glutamyl-?-glutamate to examine the effect of fluorine substitution adjacent to the scissile isopeptide bond. Using a newly developed continuous fluorescence assay, the hydrolysis of both substrates could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Fluorine substitution resulted in a significant decrease in observed rates of hydrolysis under steady-state conditions due primarily to a ~ 15-fold increase in Km. Using stopped-flow techniques, hydrolysis of the non-fluorinated isopeptide was characterized by a burst phase followed by a steady-state rate, indicating that formation of the acyl enzyme is not rate-limiting for hydrolysis of this isopeptide. This conclusion was confirmed by analysis of the progress curves over a wide range of substrate concentration, which demonstrated that the acylation rate (k2) is ~ 10-fold higher than the deacylation rate (k3). The increased value of Km associated with the difluoro derivative limited the ability to obtain comparable pre-steady-state kinetics data at saturating concentration of substrate due to inner filter effects. However, even under non-saturating conditions, a modest burst was observed for the difluoro derivative. These data indicate that either deacylation or rearrangement of the enzyme-product complex is rate-limiting in this isopeptide hydrolysis reaction. PMID:18171026

Alexander, Jessica P.; Ryan, Thomas J.; Ballou, David P.; Coward, James K.

2008-01-01

210

A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

1983-05-01

211

A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

1983-01-01

212

Inert and oxidative subcritical water hydrolysis of insoluble egg yolk granular protein, functional properties, and comparison to enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The use of enzymes to recover soluble peptides with functional properties from insoluble proteins could prove to be very expensive, implying high reaction times and low yields. In this study, the insoluble granular protein, previously delipidated, was hydrolyzed using enzymes (trypsin) as a comparison to the proposed alternative method: subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) using both nitrogen and oxygen streams. The result of the hydrolysis was characterized in terms of the yield and peptide size distribution as well as different functional properties. The SWH of the delipidated granules resulted in a higher recovery yield than that obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis in half of the time. The foaming capacity of the peptides obtained by SWH was higher than that obtained by trypsin hydrolysis, although the foam stability was lower. Slight differences were detected between these peptides in terms of their emulsifying properties. PMID:25033007

Marcet, Ismael; Alvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

2014-08-13

213

Nonenzymatic glycosylation of alkaline phosphatase alters its biological  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperglycaemia in poorly controlled diabetic patients induces non-enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) of proteins, altering their structure and physiological bioactivity. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a membrane-bound exoenzyme which faces the extracellular compartment. We have investigated the glycation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase in vitro and the consequences of such molecular modifications on certain structural and functional characteristics. The effect of glycation on alkaline

Antonio D. McCarthy; Ana M. Cortizo; Griselda Giménez Segura; Liliana C. Bruzzone; Susana B. Etcheverry

1998-01-01

214

Cactus and Alkalinity By Elton Roberts Ripon, CA  

E-print Network

references to desert soil being alkaline. Maybe this is because there are so many alkali dry lakes in the desert, the assumption is that desert soils must also be alkaline. Cacti in their natural habitat get. As a result soils quickly become intolerably alkaline for the plant. Once this happens, the plant stops

Martin, Ralph R.

215

Increase in the Export of Alkalinity from North America's  

E-print Network

, or terrestrial alkalinity (carbonate and bicarbonate ions) produced during chemical weathering in soils can- tural practices. The production of alkalinity through chem- ical weathering in soils sequesters atmo#12;Increase in the Export of Alkalinity from North America's Largest River Peter A. Raymond1

Berkowitz, Alan R.

216

ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY IN MINE DRAINAGE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and

Carl S. Kirby; Charles A. Cravotta

2004-01-01

217

Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity

Carl S. Kirby; Charles A. Cravotta

2005-01-01

218

Production of vinyl derivatives from alkaline hydrolysates of corn cobs by recombinant Escherichia coli containing the phenolic acid decarboxylase from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T.  

PubMed

The enzyme PAD from Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748T decarboxylates some cinnamic acids namely p-coumaric acid (p-CA), caffeic acid (CA), and ferulic acid (FA) into their corresponding 4-vinyl derivatives (4-VD): 4-vinyl phenol (4-VP), 4-vinyl catechol (4-VC), and 4-vinyl guaiacol (4-VG), respectively, which are valuable food additives mainly employed as flavouring agents. The gene encoding this enzyme was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant E. coli cells overproducing L. plantarum PAD showed a preference to degrade mainly p-CA and CA. Sterilized liquors obtained after alkaline hydrolysis of corn cob or alkaline hydrolysis of the solid residue coming from acid hydrolysis of corn cob were employed as growth media in fermentations performed in shaker or bioreactor. The fermentative process allowed converting 2222.8 mg/L p-CA into 993.9 mg/L 4-VP. The process described here allowed the production with a high-yield of a valuable food additive from a by-product of the food industry. PMID:22621808

Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Solana, Raquel; Curiel, José Antonio; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; Domínguez, José Manuel

2012-08-01

219

Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). PMID:25150520

Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšeni?ka, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

2014-11-15

220

A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

221

A conceptual model of mildly alkaline water discharging from the Zlatibor ultramafic massif, western Serbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultramafic rocks are generally taken to be `waterless' or bearing little water. The mountain Zlatibor, western Serbia, largely built of Upper Jurassic ultramafics, is without perennial springs. However, in Gruda, an area on the NE side of Zlatibor, there are two perennial ascending springs with uniform discharge: Bijela ?esma and Hajdu?ko Vrelo. The water from both springs is naturally mildly alkaline (pH ˜8.4), of Mg-HCO3 type, and temperature ˜11 °C. The springs have been investigated with respect to derivation, dynamics and chemistry with a view to commercial use of the water. The results indicate zones of rocks fractured during tectonic events and/or under lithostatic pressure. Deep ultramafic rocks, equivalent to abyssal peridotites (the least depleted rocks of the upper mantle, rich in magnesium), include fractured aquifers characterized by heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater arriving at the land surface derives from atmospheric precipitation, and its quality is converted through the process of serpentine acid hydrolysis into mildly alkaline Mg-HCO3 water. Both quantity and quality of water from these springs are stable and are unaffected by atmospheric precipitation or other external influences. A conceptual model of the structure, hydrogeological character of the aquifer, and the mechanism of groundwater derivation is developed for both springs.

Niki?, Zoran; Sre?kovi?-Bato?anin, Danica; Burazer, Milenko; Risti?, Ratko; Papi?, Petar; Nikoli?, Vesna

2013-08-01

222

Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase  

SciTech Connect

Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by {approx}3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 {angstrom} X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state.

O'Brien, P.J.; Lassila, J.K.; Fenn, T.D.; Zalatan, J.G.; Herschlag, D.

2009-05-22

223

Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass  

DOEpatents

A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01

224

Biomimetic catalysis for hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover.  

PubMed

Efficient and economical hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides into monomeric sugars is a significant technical hurdle in biomass processing for renewable fuels and chemicals. One possible approach to overcoming this hurdle is a biomimetic approach with dicarboxylic acid catalyst mimicking the catalytic core microenvironment in natural enzymes. This paper reports developments in the use of a dicarboxylic acid catalyst, maleic acid, for hemicellulose hydrolysis in corn stover. Hemicellulose hydrolysis and xylose degradation kinetics in the presence of maleic acid was compared to sulfuric acid. At optimized reaction conditions for each acid, maleic acid hydrolysis results in minimal xylose degradation, whereas sulfuric acid causes 3-10 times more xylose degradation. These results formed the basis for optimizing the hydrolysis of hemicellulose from corn stover using maleic acid. At 40 g/L dry corn stover solid-loading, both acid catalysts can achieve near-quantitative monomeric xylose yield. At higher solids loadings (150-200 g dry stover per liter), sulfuric acid catalyzed hydrolysis results in more than 30% degradation of the xylose, even under the previously reported optimal condition. However, as a result of minimized xylose degradation, optimized biomimetic hydrolysis of hemicellulose by maleic acid can reach approximately 95% monomeric xylose yields with trace amounts of furfural. Fermentation of the resulting unconditioned hydrolysate by recombinant S. cerevisiae results in 87% of theoretical ethanol yield. Enzyme digestibility experiments on the residual corn stover solids show that >90% yields of glucose can be produced in 160 h from the remaining cellulose with cellulases (15 FPU/g-glucan). PMID:17269678

Lu, Yulin; Mosier, Nathan S

2007-01-01

225

Electrochemistry of some new alkaline battery electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

New alkaline battery electrodes used in cells such as nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-zinc have been developed as a result of contracted and in-house research at the Air Force Aero-Propulsion Laboratory. Cathodic hydroxide precipitation techniques are used for preparation of nickel oxide and cadmium electrodes. Bipolar silver oxide-zinc electrodes are fabricated by spray deposition-sintering and vapor

D. F. Pickett; W. S. Bishop; R. A. Marsh

1976-01-01

226

Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution  

DOEpatents

An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

Dietz, Mark (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL)

2003-01-01

227

Rechargeable alkaline zinc\\/ferricyanide battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of the alkaline zinc\\/ferricy anide rechargeable battery for utility load leveling applications was assessed. This battery meets the requirements for this application with cell voltages of 1.94 V on charge and 1.78 V on discharge. Mean energy efficiency is 84% at 760 and 86% at 1110 4 hour cycles in full cell and redox half cell

G. B. Adams; R. P. Hollandsworth; B. D. Webber

1979-01-01

228

The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

1975-01-01

229

Long-life alkaline primary battery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an alkaline primary battery of the type having a negative electrode containing cadmium of amalgamated zinc and a positive electrode containing monovalent silver oxide, mercuric oxide, or mixtures of these oxides with manganese dioxide, the positive electrode having an electrochemically active surface area facing the negative electrode. At positive electrodes, self-discharge can be caused by the solubility of the active material. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved alkaline primary battery designed to reduce this type of self-discharge, without impairing the internal resistance of the battery. To this end, in the alkaline primary battery the improvement comprises at least one electrically conductive, microporous, electrolyte-saturated, optically opaque filter-electrode which covers the entire active surface area of the positive electrode, contains either no monovalent silver oxide nor mercuric oxide or only a substantially smaller amount thereof per unit of volume than the positive electrode, contains electrically conductive material which is not corroded, oxidized, nor dissolved in alkali electrolytes at the given potential of the positive electrode, and is in electrical contact with the positive electrode.

Ruetschi, P.

1980-03-11

230

Hydrolysis of VX on concrete: rate of degradation by direct surface interrogation using an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation when in contact with concrete surfaces. The degradation was directly interrogated at submonolayer concentrations by periodically performing secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses after exposure of the concrete to VX. The abundance of the [VX + H]+ ion in the SIMS spectra was observed to decrease in an exponential fashion, consistent with first-order or pseudo-first-order behavior. This phenomenon enabled the rate constant to be determined at 0.005 min(-1) at 25 degrees C, which corresponds to a half-life of about 3 h on the concrete surface. The decrease in [VX + H]+ was accompanied by an increase in the abundance of the principal degradation product diisopropylaminoethanethiol (DESH), which arises by cleavage of the P-S bond. Degradation to form DESH is accompanied by the formation of ethyl methylphosphonic acid, which is observable only in the negative ion spectrum. A second degradation product was also implicated, which corresponded to a diisopropylvinylamine isomer (perhaps N,N-diisopropyl aziridinium) that arose via cleavage of the S-C bond. No evidence was observed for the formation of the toxic S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothioic acid. The degradation rate constants were measured at four different temperatures (24-50 degrees C), which resulted in a linear Arrhenius relationship and an activation energy of 52 kJ mol(-1). This value agrees with previous values observed for VX hydrolysis in alkaline solutions, which suggests that the degradation of submonolayer VX is dominated by alkaline hydrolysis within the adventitious water film on the concrete surface. PMID:12487301

Groenewold, Gary S; Williams, John M; Appelhans, Anthony D; Gresham, Garold L; Olson, John E; Jeffery, Mark T; Rowland, Brad

2002-11-15

231

Experimental and theoretical insights into the mechanisms of sulfate and sulfamate ester hydrolysis and the end products of type I sulfatase inactivation by aryl sulfamates.  

PubMed

Type I sulfatases catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate esters through S-O bond cleavage and possess a catalytically essential formylglycine (FGly) active-site residue that is post-translationally derived from either cysteine or serine. Type I sulfatases are inactivated by aryl sulfamates in a time-dependent, irreversible, and active-site directed manner consistent with covalent modification of the active site. We report a theoretical (SCS-MP2//B3LYP) and experimental study of the uncatalyzed and enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of aryl sulfates and sulfamates. In solution, aryl sulfate monoanions undergo hydrolysis by an S(N)2 mechanism whereas aryl sulfamate monoanions follow an S(N)1 pathway with SO2NH as an intermediate; theory traces this difference to the markedly greater stability of SO2NH versus SO3. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase-catalyzed aryl sulfate hydrolysis, Brønsted analysis (log(V(max)/K(M)) versus leaving group pK(a) value) reveals ?(LG) = -0.86 ± 0.23, consistent with an S(N)2 at sulfur reaction but substantially smaller than that reported for uncatalyzed hydrolysis (?(LG) = -1.81). Common to all proposed mechanisms of sulfatase catalysis is a sulfated FGly intermediate. Theory indicates a ?26 kcal/mol preference for the intermediate to release HSO4(-) by an E2 mechanism, rather than alkaline phosphatase-like S(N)2 substitution by water. An evaluation of the stabilities of various proposed end-products of sulfamate-induced sulfatase inactivation highlights that an imine N-sulfate derived from FGly is the most likely irreversible adduct. PMID:24555731

Williams, Spencer J; Denehy, Emma; Krenske, Elizabeth H

2014-03-01

232

The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and climate will be also discussed.

Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

2014-05-01

233

Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., E-mail: ruiz.cs@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)] [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

2012-09-15

234

Epidemic based modeling of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

An epidemic based model was developed to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover. The process of substrate getting adsorbed and digested by enzyme was simulated as susceptibles getting infected by viruses and becoming removed and recovered. This model simplified the dynamic enzyme "infection" process and the catalysis of cellulose into a two-parameter controlled, enzyme behavior guided mechanism. Furthermore, the model incorporates the adsorption block by lignin and inhibition effects on cellulose catalysis. The model satisfactorily predicted the enzyme adsorption and hydrolysis, negative role of lignin, and inhibition effects over hydrolysis for a broad range of substrate and enzyme loadings. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the incorporation of lignin and other inhibition effects. Our model will be a useful tool for evaluating the effects of parameters during hydrolysis and guide a design strategy for continuous hydrolysis and the associated process control. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1021-1028, 2014. PMID:25079785

Tai, Chao; Arellano, Maria G; Keshwani, Deepak R

2014-09-01

235

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and various pretreated wood fractions  

SciTech Connect

Three strains of Trichoderma-Trichoderma reesei C30, Trichoderma reesei QM9414, and Trichoderma species E58-were used to study the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wood substrates. Each of the culture filtrates was incubated with a variety of commercially prepared cellulose substrates and pretreated wood substrates. Solka floc was the most easily degraded commercial cellulose. The enzyme accessibility of steam-exploded samples which has been alkali extracted and then stored wet decreased with the duration of the steam treatment. Air drying reduced the extent of hydrolysis of all the samples but had a greater effect on the samples which had previously shown the greatest hydrolysis. Mild pulping using 2% chlorite increased the enzymatic hydrolysis of all the samples. Steam explosion was shown to be an excellent pretreatment method for aspen wood and was much superior to dilute nitric acid pretreatment. The results indicate that the distribution of the lignin as well as the surface area of the cellulosic substrate are important features in enzymatic hydrolysis. (Refs 17).

Saddler, J.N.; Brownell, H.H.; Clermont, L.P.; Levitin, N.

1982-06-01

236

Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than ± 0.15% (w/v) and ± 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis. PMID:21487699

Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

2011-09-01

237

Characterization of casein hydrolysates derived from enzymatic hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Background Casein is the main proteinaceous component of milk and has made us interest due to its wide applications in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries as well as to its importance as an investigation material for elucidating essential questions regarding the protein chemistry. Enzymatic hydrolysis is an important method commonly used in the modification of protein structure in order to enhance the functional properties of proteins. The relationship between enzymatic hydrolysis and structure change of casein need to make more study. Results During hydrolysis, degree of hydrolysis in the casein hydrolysates increased rapidly in the initial 20 minutes, reached a plateau after 45 minutes, and then kept relative constant for the rest of the hydrolysis. The relative percentage of the released peptides with molecular weight of over 50 kD significantly decreased with hydrolyzation, while those with MW of 30–50 kD and below 20 kD increased significantly. The contents of a-helix and ?-turn in the hydrolysates increased compared to the original casein. Moreover, the molecular flexibilities of the casein hydrolysates, estimated by the ratio of ?-helix to ?-structure, were lower than that of original casein protein. Conclusions The significant changes in molecular weight distribution and structure characteristics of casein hydrolysates were found compared to the control sample. This change should be the basis of enhancement of functional properties. PMID:23556455

2013-01-01

238

Theoretical studies of the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin.  

PubMed Central

The ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin was studied using quantum chemical (QM) and molecular dynamics calculations. The initial model compound for QM calculations was constructed on the basis of the energy-minimized structure of the myosin(S1dc)-ATP complex, which was determined by molecular mechanics calculations. The result of QM calculations suggested that the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin consists of a single elementary reaction in which a water molecule nucleophilically attacked gamma-phosphorus of ATP. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the initial and final states of the ATP hydrolysis reaction, that is, the myosin-ATP and myosin-ADP.Pi complexes. These calculations revealed roles of several amino acid residues (Lys185, Thr186, Ser237, Arg238, and Glu459) in the ATPase pocket. Lys185 maintains the conformation of beta- and gamma-phosphate groups of ATP by forming the hydrogen bonds. Thr186 and Ser237 are coordinated to a Mg(2+) ion, which interacts with the phosphates of ATP and therefore contributes to the stabilization of the ATP structure. Arg238 and Glu459, which consisted of the gate of the ATPase pocket, retain the water molecule acting on the hydrolysis at the appropriate position for initiating the hydrolysis. PMID:11606291

Okimoto, N; Yamanaka, K; Ueno, J; Hata, M; Hoshino, T; Tsuda, M

2001-01-01

239

Hydrolysis of N-Alkyl Sulfamates and the Catalytic Efficiency of an S-N Cleaving Sulfamidase  

PubMed Central

The final step in the degradation of heparin sulfate involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of its 2-sulfamido groups. To evaluate the power of the corresponding sulfamidases as catalysts, we examined the reaction of N-neopentyl sulfamate at elevated temperatures and found it to undergo specific acid catalyzed hydrolysis even at alkaline pH. A rate constant of 10?16 s?1 was calculated using the Eyring equation for water attack on the N-protonated species at pH 7, 25 °C. As a model for the pH neutral reaction, a rate constant for hydroxide attack on (CH3)3CCH2N+H2SO3? at pH 7, 25 °C was calculated to be 10?19 s?1. The corresponding rate enhancement (kcat/knon) produced by the N-sulfamidase of F. heparinum is approximately 1016-fold, which is somewhat larger than those generated by most hydrolytic enzymes but considerably smaller than those generated by S-O cleaving sulfatases. PMID:22352783

Lohman, Danielle C.; Wolfenden, Richard; Edwards, David R.

2012-01-01

240

Hydrolysis of N-alkyl sulfamates and the catalytic efficiency of an S-N cleaving sulfamidase.  

PubMed

The final step in the degradation of heparin sulfate involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of its 2-sulfamido groups. To evaluate the power of the corresponding sulfamidases as catalysts, we examined the reaction of N-neopentyl sulfamate at elevated temperatures and found it to undergo specific acid catalyzed hydrolysis even at alkaline pH. A rate constant of 10(-16) s(-1) was calculated using the Eyring equation for water attack on the N-protonated species at pH 7, 25 °C. As a model for the pH neutral reaction, a rate constant for hydroxide attack on (CH(3))(3)CCH(2)N(+)H(2)SO(3)(-) at pH 7, 25 °C was calculated to be 10(-19) s(-1). The corresponding rate enhancement (k(cat)/k(non)) produced by the N-sulfamidase of F. heparinum is approximately 10(16)-fold, which is somewhat larger than those generated by most hydrolytic enzymes but considerably smaller than those generated by S-O cleaving sulfatases. PMID:22352783

Lohman, Danielle C; Wolfenden, Richard; Edwards, David R

2012-03-16

241

Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of buckwheat protein on antigenicity and allergenicity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then performed using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA) with rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein, and direct ELISA with pooled serum of 21 buckwheat-sensitive patients. RESULTS Alkaline protease, classified as serine peptidase, was most effective in reducing allergenicity of buckwheat protein. It caused decomposition of the whole buckwheat protein, as shown on SDS-PAGE, and results of immunoblotting showed that the rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein no longer recognized it as an antigen. Allergenicity showed a decrease of more than 50% when pooled serum of patients was used in ELISA. Two proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus sp. could not hydrolyze buckwheat allergens effectively, and the allergenicity even appeared to increase. CONCLUSIONS Serine-type peptidases appeared to show a relatively effective reduction of buckwheat allergenicity. However, the antigenicity measured using rabbit antiserum did not correspond to the allergenicity measured using sera from human patients. Production of less allergenic buckwheat protein may be possible using enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24944772

Sung, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jeongok; Han, Youngshin; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Ahn, Kangmo

2014-01-01

242

Base hydrolysis and supercritical water oxidation of PBX-9404  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.; Sanchez, J.A.

1994-11-09

243

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, we examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. We also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

1994-12-31

244

Base hydrolysis and hydrothermal processing of PBX-9404 explosive  

SciTech Connect

Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

Sanchez, J.A.; Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.

1995-04-01

245

Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.  

PubMed

Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24755261

Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

2014-07-01

246

Effect of cyclodextrins on the acid hydrolysis of digoxin.  

PubMed

The effects of three cyclodextrins (alpha-, beta-, gamma-CyD) on the acid hydrolysis of digoxin were examined. From the high performance liquid chromatographic tracing of each of the four components (digoxin, bisdigitoxoside, monodigitoxoside, digoxigenin) in reaction mixtures, the individual rate constants (K1-K6) were determined by analogue computer simulation. The hydrolysis was suppressed by CyDs in the order of beta-great than gamma-greater than alpha-greater than-CyD, where beta-CyD inhibited the appearance rates of digoxigenin (k3, K5, and K6) significantly. In the dissolution study of digoxin tablets, the increase in dissolution rate and decrease in acid hydrolysis were attained by inclusion complexation. The data are presented suggesting that CyDs are useful for improving the oral bioavailability of digoxin. PMID:6128384

Uekama, K; Fujinaga, T; Hirayama, F; Otagiri, M; Kurono, Y; Ikeda, K

1982-10-01

247

Microwave-assisted hydrolysis of polysaccharides over polyoxometalate clusters.  

PubMed

Polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were utilized as recyclable acid catalysts and microwave-absorbing agents for the microwave-assisted hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose. Phosphotungstic (PW) and silicotungstic (SiW) acids showed high hydrolyzing activity, while phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) showed lower glucose stability. The PW catalyst could be recycled by ether extraction at least 4 times without changing its catalytic activity. The addition of PW could reduce the energy demand required for running the hydrolysis by 17-23%. The dielectric property of the aqueous PW solution was important for increasing the microwave-absorption capability of the reaction system and reducing the energy consumption. PMID:23859983

Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Ueda, Tadaharu; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

2013-09-01

248

Hydrolysis for direct esterification of lipids from wet microalgae.  

PubMed

Hydrolysis of lipids from microalgae under high water content was investigated as a pretreatment of direct esterification. Results indicated that the hydrolysis process reduced the inhibition by water in FAME production; in addition, FAME obtained by esterification of hydrolysates was increased by 181.7% compared to FAME obtained by direct transesterification under the same amount of water content (80%). This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since it uses no organic solvent, reduces the drying cost and lowers the operating cost compared to any other traditional method. PMID:23856586

Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Yutaka

2013-09-01

249

The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Thybring, Emil E.; Johansen, Katja S.; Felby, Claus

2014-01-01

250

Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1995-05-01

251

Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

Sheibley, D. W. (inventor)

1982-01-01

252

Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress? †  

PubMed Central

The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotide microarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarray data to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The data showed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generally similar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled by unique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma S and sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to be absent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E. coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPase genes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone and protease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) was also elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellum synthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identified regulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of a D. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system. Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated in alkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protective involvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, and two putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 and DVU2580). PMID:17921288

Stolyar, Sergey; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; He, Zhili; Yang, Zamin Koo; Borglin, Sharon E.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric; Hazen, Terry C.; Zhou, Jizhong; Wall, Judy D.; Arkin, Adam P.; Stahl, David A.

2007-01-01

253

DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.  

SciTech Connect

Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

2004-03-24

254

Quantum and classical dynamics simulations of ATP hydrolysis in solution  

PubMed Central

ATP hydrolysis is a key reaction in living cells that drives many cellular processes. The reaction, which involves gamma phosphate cleavage from ATP, converting it to ADP, has been suggested to occur via an associative or dissociative mechanism dependent upon the surrounding environment. Prior quantum chemical studies suffered from short simulation timescales failing to capture free energy contributions due to relaxation of the surrounding aqueous environment. We have developed a highly parallelized QM/MM implementation in the NAMD and OpenAtom simulation packages, using the dual grid, dual length scale method for combined plane-wave and Eular exponential spline-based QM/MM simulations. This approach, using message-driven parallel quantum and classical dynamics, permits sufficient timescale simulations for quantum chemical events such as ATP hydrolysis, and is found to accurately and reliably include the free energy contributions of solvent relaxation to hydrolysis. In this paper we describe the application of the dual grid, dual length plane-wave-based QM/MM method to study both the associative and dissociative mechanisms of ATP hydrolysis, accounting for the free energy contribution from solvent relaxation, as well as for the key role of Mg2+ in the reaction. PMID:23293550

Harrison, Christopher B.; Schulten, Klaus

2012-01-01

255

Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. PMID:25129733

Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

2014-11-01

256

Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides over solid acid catalysts: a review.  

PubMed

Mild fractionation/pretreatment processes are becoming the most preferred choices for biomass processing within the biorefinery framework. To further explore their advantages, new developments are needed, especially to increase the extent of the hydrolysis of poly- and oligosaccharides. A possible way forward is the use of solid acid catalysts that may overcome many current drawbacks of other common methods. In this Review, the advantages and limitations of the use of heterogeneous catalysis for the main groups of solid acid catalysts (zeolites, resins, carbon materials, clays, silicas, and other oxides) and their relation to the hydrolysis of model soluble disaccharides and soluble poly- and oligosaccharides are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and hemicellulose-derived saccharides into monosaccharides, the impact on process performance of potential catalyst poisons originating from biomass and biomass hydrolysates (e.g., proteins, mineral ions, etc.). The data clearly point out the need for studying hemicelluloses in natura rather than in model compound solutions that do not retain the relevant factors influencing process performance. Furthermore, the desirable traits that solid acid catalysts must possess for the efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis are also presented and discussed with regard to the design of new catalysts. PMID:24616436

Vilcocq, Léa; Castilho, Paula C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C

2014-04-01

257

Role of Bulk Water in Hydrolysis of the Rhodopsin Chromophore*  

E-print Network

Role of Bulk Water in Hydrolysis of the Rhodopsin Chromophore* Received for publication,February 24 water molecules in the Rho acti- vation process. Atomic structures of Rho and hydroxyl radical footprinting reveal ordered waters within Rho transmembrane helices that are located close to highly conserved

Palczewski, Krzysztof

258

Actin Polymerization Overshoots and Hydrolysis as Assayed by Pyrene Fluorescence  

E-print Network

Actin Polymerization Overshoots and Hydrolysis as Assayed by Pyrene Fluorescence F. J. Brooks and A observed in the flu- orescence intensity of pyrene-labeled actin during rapid polymerization. We show coefficients: 0.37 for F-ATP actin; 0.55 for F-ADP+Pi actin; and 0.75 for F-ADP actin. Finally, we present

Carlsson, Anders

259

Fractionation and Molecular Characteristics of Cellulose During Enzymatic Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on the molecular characteristics as well as fractional composition of cellulose was studied using the direct size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis in sodium hydroxide. Bleached hardwood pulp was subjected to the action of the cellulase complex Celluclast™ supplemented with Novozyme 188™. The residues after the enzymatic treatment were fractionated by dissolution in 10% NaOH

T. Eremeeva; T. Bikova; M. Eisimonte; U. Viesturs; A. Treimanis

2001-01-01

260

The role of microemulsions in lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the p-nitrophenyl butyrate hydrolysis reaction, catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipase in the water-in-oil microemulsion cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/water/pentanol/hexane, was investigated. The results described in the present manuscript reveal two peculiar characteristics of the reaction: (i) the initial rate of hydrolysis is very fast and (ii) by decreasing the water content of the microemulsion, the reaction rate approaches the typical behavior of reactions performed in aqueous solution. In particular, for microemulsion systems with a high water content, the end points of the reactions are dictated by the shape stability of the microemulsion. For these systems, our methodological approach shows that the process follows a second-order kinetics equation, indicative of the dual role played by water, which is involved both as a component of the microemulsion, i.e., relevant for the microemulsion stability and as a reagent of the hydrolysis reaction. In contrast, for microemulsions containing a small amount of water, after the hydrolysis reaction the system seems to fall in the no existence range of the microemulsion. Accordingly, the kinetics results are more complex: in the initial stage, the reaction follows a zero-order kinetics equation, while for longer reaction times a first-order kinetics equation fits the experimental data, as would be expected for an enzymatic reaction in a homogeneous system. PMID:24585724

Lopez, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Colella, Matilde; De Leonardis, Antonella; Palazzo, Gerardo; Ambrosone, Luigi

2014-01-01

261

DFT STUDY OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF SOME S-TRIAZINES  

EPA Science Inventory

The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine and related 2-chloro-s-triazines to the corresponding 2-hydroxy-s-triazines was investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Gas-phase calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of ...

262

Hydrolysis reactions of the taccalonolides reveal structure-activity relationships.  

PubMed

The taccalonolides are microtubule stabilizers isolated from plants of the genus Tacca that show potent in vivo antitumor activity and the ability to overcome multiple mechanisms of drug resistance. The most potent taccalonolide identified to date, AJ, is a semisynthetic product generated from the major plant metabolite taccalonolide A in a two-step reaction. The first step involves hydrolysis of taccalonolide A to generate taccalonolide B, and then this product is oxidized to generate an epoxide group at C-22-C-23. To generate sufficient taccalonolide AJ for in vivo antitumor efficacy studies, the hydrolysis conditions for the conversion of taccalonolide A to B were optimized. During purification of the hydrolysis products, we identified the new taccalonolide AO (1) along with taccalonolide I. When the same hydrolysis reaction was performed on a taccalonolide E-enriched fraction, four new taccalonolides, assigned as AK, AL, AM, and AN (2-5), were obtained in addition to the expected product taccalonolide N. Biological assays were performed on each of the purified taccalonolides, which allowed for increased refinement of the structure-activity relationship of this class of compounds. PMID:23855953

Li, Jing; Peng, Jiangnan; Risinger, April L; Mooberry, Susan L

2013-07-26

263

Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics  

DOEpatents

A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

2003-12-09

264

Hydrolysis and Soil Adsorption of the Labile Herbicide Isoxaflutole  

E-print Network

Hydrolysis and Soil Adsorption of the Labile Herbicide Isoxaflutole S A R A H T A Y L O R - L O V E) is a new herbicide marketed for broadleaf and grass weed control in corn, but little information has been published on the soil behavior and environmental fate of the compound. The herbicide exhibits an unusual

Sims, Gerald K.

265

Acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Studies were conducted to establish optimal conditions for the acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for maximal ethanol yield. The starch contents of two sweet potato cultivars (Georgia Red and TG-4), based on fresh weight, were 21.1 +/- 0.6% and 27.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. The results of acid hydrolysis experiments showed the following: (1) both hydrolysis rate and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration were a function of HCL concentration, temperature, and time; (2) the reducing sugars were rapidly formed with elevated concentrations of HCl and temperature, but also destroyed quickly; and (3) HMF concentration increased significantly with the concentration of HCl, temperature, and hydrolysis time. Maximum reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% HMF (based on wet weight) was achieved after heating 8% SPS for 15 min in 1N HCl at 110/sup 0/C. Degraded 8% SPS (1N HCl, 97/sup 0/C for 20 min or 110/sup 0/C for 10 min) was utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation and 3.8% ethanol (v/v) was produced from 1400 mL fermented wort. This is equal to 41.6 g ethanol (200 proof) from 400 g of fresh sweet potato tuber (Georgia Red) or an ethanol yield potential of 431 gal of 200-proof ethanol/acre (from 500 bushel tubers/acre).

Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

1985-01-01

266

BSA Treatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose in Lignin  

E-print Network

) pretreated corn stover and Douglas fir treated by SO2 steam explosion and for simultaneous saccharification. Similar improve- ments were also observed for enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX the saccharification rate of cellulose in Sigmacell 100 and steam exploded poplar by as much as a factor of 7 while

California at Riverside, University of

267

Steam explosion pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of eucalyptus wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wood from Eucalyptus globulus Labill has been pretreated under various conditions of acid impregnation and steam explosion. The effects of these pretreatment conditions have been assessed by measuring monomer (xylose and glucose) and oligomer solubilization. Samples pretreated under conditions that yielded optimal hemicellulose solubilization for acid impregnated or non-impregnated wood have been further subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, using a preparation

A. P. Nunes; J. Pourquie

1996-01-01

268

Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol made biologically from a variety of cellulosic biomass sources such as agricultural and forestry residues, grasses, and fast growing wood is widely recognized as a unique sustainable liquid transportation fuel with powerful economic, environmental, and strategic attributes, but production costs must be competitive for these benefits to be realized. Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation processes offer important potential advantages in

Simone Brethauer; Charles E. Wyman

2010-01-01

269

Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic biomass can be utilized to produce ethanol, a promising alternative energy source for the limited crude oil. There are mainly two processes involved in the conversion: hydrolysis of cellulose in the lignocellulosic biomass to produce reducing sugars, and fermentation of the sugars to ethanol. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is relatively high based on current technologies,

Ye Sun; Jiayang Cheng

2002-01-01

270

Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose  

SciTech Connect

This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

2009-12-01

271

Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

1992-06-30

272

Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

1992-06-30

273

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols - Alkalinity (9:59 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video demonstrates students measuring the alkalinity of a water sample, using an alkalinity test kit. The resource includes a video and a written transcript, and is supported by the Alkalinity Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in a 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment), a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

274

A terrestrial model for an alkaline martian hydrosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical evolution of the early hydrospheres on Earth and Mars could have been similar. It may have been characterized by long-lasting highly alkaline conditions. By analogy with sediments produced in terrestrial highly alkaline environments (soda lakes), traces of the martian alkaline hydrosphere could be found by remote sensing and\\/or landing missions in form of (i) Ca?Mg carbonate precipitates, (ii)

S. Kempe; J. Kazmierczak

1997-01-01

275

Jasmonates Induce Intracellular Alkalinization and Closure of Paphiopedilum Guard Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jasmonates (jasmonic acid or methyl jasmonate) promote stomatal closure inPaphiopedilum Supersuk(RHS, 1973) andP. tonsum(Rchb.f) Stein. Studies on guard cells loaded with pH dependent fluorescent dyes show that jasmonates cause intracellular alkalinization of up to 0.5 pH units within 5 to 15 min. Jasmonate-induced alkalinization always preceded stomatal closure and where alkalinization was not detected no closure occurred. Propionic acid inhibited

C. A. GEHRING; H. R. IRVING; R. McCONCHIE; R. W. PARISH

1997-01-01

276

Chromatographic transport of alkaline buffers through reservoir rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of relatively low-pH alkaline buffers, such as sodium carbonate or sodium silicate, is explored as a means for overcoming sodium\\/hydrogen ion-exchange delay in alkaline waterflooding. A local equilibrium chromatographic model is outlined to describe the concentration velocities for injection of alkaline buffers into a linear porous medium which exhibits reversible sodium\\/hydrogen exchange. The theory predicts a buffer ion-exchange wave

J. A. Jensen; C. J. Radke

1985-01-01

277

Tissue alkaline phosphatase activity in selected freshwater teleosts.  

PubMed

1. Kinetic studies of tissue alkaline phosphatase activity were carried out on eight species of teleost fishes taken from the Mississippi River. 2. Liver alkaline phosphatase activity expressed in mumoles of p-nitrophenol released per minute per gram of protein were as follows: Micropterus salmoides, 20.31; Stizostedion vitreum, 19.22; Pomoxis nigromaculatus, 18.76; Lepisosteus platostomus, 16.26; Esox lucius, 16.14; Hiodon tergisus, 13.83; Ictalurus punctatus, 10.87; Aplodinotus grunniens, 7.94. 3. Specific activity of the kidney alkaline phosphatase was about ten times the level of liver alkaline phosphatase for the species examined. PMID:318337

Cvancara, V A; Huang, W M

1978-01-01

278

The Use of FBC Ash for Alkaline Addition at Surface Coal Mines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface coal mines with an abundance of naturally-occurring carbonate-bearing (alkaline) strata typically produce alkaline water. Sites that contain little or no alkaline strata tend to produce acidic drainage. One approach used in Pennsylvania on some alkaline-deficient sites is to import alkaline material and amend the spoil in order to obtain alkaline drainage. The amount of alkaline material needed is determined

Joseph Schueck; Joseph Tarantino; Timothy Kania; Barry Scheetz

279

Effect of the extent of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium on catalysis efficiency in the esterification reaction  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out on the products of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium and their catalytic activity in the esterification reaction. A maximum is observed in the dependence of the reaction rate constant on the extent of the hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium. The maximum effective esterification rate constant corresponds to 60% hydrolysis of tetrabutoxytitanium. The hydrolysis products in this case have largely linear structure. The relationship between the catalytic activity of linear polytitanates and their stability in the reaction medium is discussed.

Chervina, S.I.; Maksimenko, E.G.; Barshtein, R.S.; Shabanova, N.V.; Bulai, A.K.; Kotov, Yu.I.; Slonim, I.Ya.

1988-03-01

280

Kinetic behaviour of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase with pNPP.  

PubMed

The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was investigated with respect to kinetic parameters such as V(max), K(m) and K(cat) under varying pH, buffers, substrate concentration, temperature and period of incubation. Highest activity was obtained with Tris-HCl at pH 11, while in the case of glycine-NaOH buffer the peak activity was recorded at pH 9.5. The enzyme showed the following kinetic characteristics with pNPP in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 11 and 100 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 9.5 at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C: V(max), 3.12 and 1.6 micromoles min(-1) unit(-1); K(m), 7.6 x 10(-4) M and 4 x 10(-4) M; and K(cat), 82.98 s(-1) and 42.55 s(-1), respectively. CIAP displayed a high temperature optimum of 45 degrees C at pH 11. The kinetic behaviour of the enzyme under different parameters suggested that the enzyme might undergo subtle conformational changes in response to the buffers displaying unique characteristics. Bioprecipitation of Cu2+ from 50 ppm of CuCl2 solution was studied where 64.3% of precipitation was obtained. P(i) generated from CIAP-mediated hydrolysis of pNPP was found to bind with copper and precipitated as copper-phosphate. Thus, CIAP could be used as a test candidate in bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastes through generation of metal-phosphate complexes. PMID:23617076

Chaudhuri, Gouri; Chatterjee, Saswata; Venu-Babu, P; Ramasamy, K; Thilagaraj, W Richard

2013-02-01

281

A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer cells q  

E-print Network

A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer-independent prostate cancer cells. Blocking cellular hydrolysis of 2-AG to increase its endogenous concentration to inhibit 2-AG hydrolysis and prostate cancer cell invasion. Compounds containing a thioether b to a TFK

Hammock, Bruce D.

282

Increase in Fluorescence upon the Hydrolysis of Tyrosine Peptides: Application to Proteinase Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic fluorescence of tyrosine increases by a factor of approximately two when the carboxy group is liberated from a peptide bond by hydrolysis. The increase in fluorescence provides a novel way to monitor the hydrolysis of native tyrosine peptides that contain only proteinogenic amino acids. Thus, for example, the hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase of a heptapeptide viral protein fragment

A. G. Peranteau; P. Kuzmic; Y. Angell; C. Garciaecheverria; D. H. Rich

1995-01-01

283

Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

Buchheit, R.G.

1996-02-01

284

Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

1984-04-01

285

GEOCHEMISTRY: The Importance of Being Alkaline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The earliest forms of "protolife" on Earth must have been able to reproduce and replicate; it is likely that they were also cellular. How might such systems have formed? In his Perspective, Russell highlights the report by Hanczyc et al., who show that clay particles can catalyze the formation of lipid vesicles. These particles also adsorb RNA. If the vesicles are forced to divide, RNA is distributed among the daughter vesicles. Similar conditions to those used in the experiments may have existed at mounds created by alkaline, hydrothermal seepages on the ancient ocean floor. However, instead of lipids, polypeptides formed from amino acids may have formed the first organic membranes.

Michael John Russell (Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre;)

2003-10-24

286

Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

1987-01-01

287

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

1987-01-01

288

Alkaline batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forced by the USABC PNGV Program and the EZEV regulation in California, the development of hybrid vehicles become more strong. Hybrids offer flexible and unrestricted mobility, as well as pollution-free driving mode in the city. To achieve these requirements, high-power storage systems are demanded fulfilled by alkaline batteries (e.g., nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride). DAUG has developed nickel/cadmium- and nickel/metal hydride cells in Fibre Technology of different performance types (up to 700 W/kg peak power) and proved in electric vehicles of different projects. A special bipolar cell design will meet even extreme high power requirements with more than 1000 W/kg peak power. The cells make use of the Recom design ensuring high power charge ability at low internal gas pressure. The paper presents laboratory test results of cells and batteries.

Haschka, F.; Warthmann, W.; Benczúr-Ürmössy, G.

289

Thermodynamics of the alkaline transition in phytocyanins.  

PubMed

The thermodynamics of the alkaline transition which influences the spectral and redox properties of the type 1 copper center in phytocyanins has been determined spectroscopically. The proteins investigated include Rhus vernicifera stellacyanin, cucumber basic protein and its Met89Gln variant, and umecyanin, the stellacyanin from horseradish roots, along with its Gln95Met variant. The changes in reaction enthalpy and entropy within the protein series show partial compensatory behavior. Thus, the reaction free energy change (hence the pK (a) value) is rather variable. This indicates that species-dependent differences in reaction thermodynamics, although containing an important contribution from changes in the hydrogen-bonding network of water molecules in the hydration sphere of the protein (which feature enthalpy-entropy compensation), are to a large extent protein-based. The data for axial ligand variants are consistent with the hypothesis of a copper-binding His as the deprotonating residue responsible for this transition. PMID:17569996

Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Dennison, Christopher; Di Rocco, Giulia; Sato, Katsuko; Sola, Marco; Yanagisawa, Sachiko

2007-08-01

290

Hydrologic analyses of acidic and alkaline lakes  

SciTech Connect

Woods and Panther lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York respond differently to the same acidic deposition. A mathematical model study has shown that lake water becomes acidic when hydrologic conditions force precipitation to flow to the lakes as surface flow or as lateral flow through the shallow organic soil horizon. Hydrographic data, capacity of flow through inorganic soil horizons, runoff recession curves, and groundwater level fluctuations of Woods and Panther lake basins provide independent evidence to support the thesis that the acidic state of a lake depends on the paths the tributary water takes as it passes through the terrestrial system. It is concluded that Panther Lake is more alkaline than Woods Lake, because a larger proportion of the precipitation falling on the basin passes through deeper mineral soil horizons.

Chen, C.W.; Gherini, S.A.; Peters, N.E.; Murdoch, P.S.; Newton, R.M.; Goldstein, R.A.

1984-12-01

291

Alkaline degradation of spruce and beech wood  

SciTech Connect

The alkaline delignification of wood (Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) occurred in 3 phases: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd phases resulted in decreases of yield to 80-83%, from 80-83% to 61-64%, and from 61-64% to 46-50%, respectively. The amounts of polysaccharides removed by degradation in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd phases were 22%, 5-6%, and 10% of the total polysaccharides present in the original wood, respectively, whereas the amounts of lignin removed in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd phases of delignification were 9-11%, 53-54%, and 28% of the total lignin present in the wood, respectively.

Masura, V.

1982-01-01

292

Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

1982-01-01

293

The Nickel(111)/Alkaline Electrolyte Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrochemical properties of Ni (111) prepared and characterized in ultra high vacuum, UHV, by surface analytical techniques have been examined in alkaline media by cyclic voltammetry using an UHV-electrochemical cell transfer system designed and built in this laboratory. Prior to the transfer, the Ni(111) surfaces were exposed to saturation coverages of CO in UHV in an attempt to protect the surface from possible contamination with other gases during the transfer. Temperature Programmed Desorption, TPD, of CO-dosed Ni (111) surfaces displaying sharp c(4x2), LEED patterns, subsequently exposed to water-saturated Ar at atmospheric pressure in an auxiliary UHV compatible chamber and finally transferred back to the main UHV chamber, yielded CO2 and water as the only detectable products. This indicates that the CO-dosed surfaces react with water and/or bicarbonate and hydroxide as the most likely products. Based on the integration of the TPD peaks, the combined amounts of H2O and CO2 were found to be on the order of a single monolayer. The reacted c(4x2)CO/Ni(111) layer seems to protect the surface from undergoing spontaneous oxidation in strongly alkaline solutions. This was evidenced by the fact that the open circuit potential observed immediately after contact with deaerated 0.1 M KOH was about 0.38 V vs. DHE, drifting slightly towards more negative values prior to initiating the voltametric scans. The average ratio of the integrated charge obtained in the first positive linear scan in the range of 0.35 to 1.5 V vs. DHE (initiated at the open circuit potential) and the first (and subsequent) linear negative scans in the same solution yielded for various independent runs a value of 3.5 +/- 0.3. Coulometric analysis of the cyclic voltammetry curves indicate that the electrochemically formed oxyhydroxide layer involves a charge equivalent to 3.2 +/- 0.4 layers of Ni metal.

Wang, Kuilong; Chottiner, G. S.; Scherson, D. A.; Reid, Margaret A.

1991-01-01

294

Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of ?-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of lignin structures and compositions could be linked to quantifiable changes in the composition of the cell wall and properties of the lignin including apparent content of the p-hydroxycinnamates while the limitations of S/G estimation in grasses is highlighted. PMID:22672858

2012-01-01

295

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

296

Fluorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in human serum by use of a flow-through biosensor.  

PubMed

A fluorimetric method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity based on the use of a flow-through biosensor is reported. The biochemical basis of the method is the hydrolysis of 4-methyl-umbelliferone-phosphate catalyzed by the analyte with fluorimetric monitoring of the 4-methyl-umbelliferone formed (lambda ex = 365 nm, lambda em = 445 nm). The enhancement of sensitivity achieved when the reaction product is retained on the support packed in the flow-cell makes the method suitable for determination of the analytes in serum samples after 1:50 dilution. The linear range is found to be between 0.1 and 20 U l-1, with relative standard deviation less than 2.2%. The use of this biosensor was tested by the determination of the analyte in human serum from healthy and sick individuals with excellent recoveries (94-103%). PMID:7765454

Sánchez-Cabezudo, M; Fernández-Romero, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

1994-09-30

297

Effect of a T81A mutation at the subunit interface on catalytic properties of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Although alkaline phosphatase (APase) from Escherichia coli crystallizes as a symmetric dimer, it displays deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetics supported by a model describing a dimeric enzyme with conformationally and kinetically non-equivalent subunits. The proposed model, explaining the mechanism of substrate hydrolysis, encompasses a conformational change mediated by subunit interactions [S. Orhanovi?, M. Pavela-Vrancic, Eur. J. Biochem. 270 (2003) 4356-4364]. The significance of interactions at the subunit interface and the involvement of the beta-pleated sheet stretching from underneath the active site to the subunit surface, in the catalytic mechanism, has been probed by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant APase, carrying alanine in place of Thr81, was analyzed in comparison to the wild-type protein. The T81A mutation, introduced at the subunit interface, significantly affected the protein kinetic properties, emphasizing the importance of subunit interactions in the catalytic process. PMID:16859742

Orhanovi?, S; Bucevi?-Popovi?, V; Pavela-Vrancic, M; Vujaklija, D; Gamulin, V

2006-12-15

298

Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase  

SciTech Connect

Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds {var_epsilon}-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.

Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

2010-01-01

299

Hydrolysis and nucleophilic substitution of model and ultimate carcinogens  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis reaction of the Model Carcinogen O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0-10.0) proceeds by was of a nitrenium ion intermediate. The products formed from this process are predominately 2,4-dichloroaniline, and 2-hydroxy-4-chloro-pivalanilide. At pH 10-13 the rate becomes dependent upon hydroxide. The product that is formed is 4-chlorophenylhydroxylamine. 4-Chlorophenyl-hydroxylamine is formed by basic ester hydrolysis determined by an [sup 18]O GC-MS experiment. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)hydroxylamine in an aqueous diethylamine (pH 11.3) buffer gave 4-chlorophenyl-N,N-diethylhydrazine as the substitution product in a 16% yield. The reaction of O-pivaloyl-N-(4-methylphenyl)hydroxylamine with diethylamine gave a 1% yield of the hydrazine product. The reaction of N,N-dimethylanline and aniline with ring-substituted O-pivaloyl-N-arylhydroxylamines in MeOH generates products of nucleophilic attack on the nitrogen of the hydroxylamine derivative. The hydrolysis of the ultimate carcinogen N-(sulfonatooxy)-N-4-aminobiphenyl proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes and generates predominately a product of nucleophilic attack by chloride ion at the ortho position of the aromatic ring. A labile intermediate identified as N-acetypl-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine has been detected by NMR. This intermediate rearranges to form 4-hydroxy-3-phenylacetanilide. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine proceeds by way of two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. The hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-4-methoxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine also proceeds by two consecutive pseudo-first-order processes. Spectroscopic evidence of two diastereomeric intermediates formed from the hydrolysis of the N-benzoyl imines were tentatively identified as N-benzoyl-N-hydroxy-4-hydroxy-4-phenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone imine.

Helmick, J.S.

1992-01-01

300

Switching catalysis from hydrolysis to perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens esterase.  

PubMed

Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k(cat), but K(m) also increased so the specificity constant, k(cat)/K(m), remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of epsilon-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds epsilon-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones. PMID:20112920

Yin, De Lu Tyler; Bernhardt, Peter; Morley, Krista L; Jiang, Yun; Cheeseman, Jeremy D; Purpero, Vincent; Schrag, Joseph D; Kazlauskas, Romas J

2010-03-01

301

Field study and simulation of geochemical mechanisms of soil alkalinization in the Sahelian zone of Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some soils of the Niger valley, alkalinization and sodization are related to the concentration of alteration products of calco?alkaline gneiss to biotite, which releases significant amounts of cations and alkalinity. The result is an oversaturation of the soil solution with respect to calcite, which precipitates with a positive calcite residual alkalinity. Ca molality decreases, while alkalinity and pH increase;

S. Marlet; V. Valles; L. Barbiero

1996-01-01

302

Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.  

PubMed

The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production. PMID:23883395

Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

2013-09-17

303

A general nonaqueous route to crystalline alkaline earth aluminate nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonaqueous route based on the solvothermal reaction of alkaline earth precursors with aluminium isopropoxide in benzyl alcohol is introduced. This simple process leads to crystalline complex nanostructures of alkaline earth aluminates, which, up to now, could only be obtained by solid state reaction at temperatures above 1100 °C or by sol-gel and further calcination at temperatures only slightly lower

M. Karmaoui; M.-G. Willinger; L. Mafra; T. Herntrich; N. Pinna

2009-01-01

304

ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am--the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting their solubility and sorption behavior in tanks, determining whether chemical separations are needed for waste treatment, and designing separations processes. Baseline

Clark-Deaborg

2001-01-01

305

Actinide-aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting their solubility and sorption behavior in tanks, determining whether chemical separations are needed for waste treatment, and designing separations processes. Baseline

David C. Clark; Nikolai N. Krot

2000-01-01

306

ANNUAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting the...

307

Calcification in cyanobacterial biofilms of alkaline salt lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomicrobiological analysis of calcifying biofilms of three alkaline salt lakes characterized by moderate to high carbonate alkalinity indicates that microbial carbonate rock formation is not directly linked to cyanobacterial carbon fixation. The present review summarizes results from two published case studies that have been carried out at Pyramid Lake, USA, and Lake Nuoertu, PR China. New observations and data are

Gernot Arp; Andreas Reimer; Joachim Reitner

1999-01-01

308

Distribution of alkaline sphingomyelinase activity in human beings and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) was first found in rat intestinal brush border. The important roles of this enzyme in digestion of sphingomyelin and in mucosal cell proliferation have been suggested. In the present work, the distribution of the alkaline SMase in the tissues of human beings and animals have been studied. By assaying the enzyme activity in human biopsy samples,

R.-D. Duan; E. Hertervig; L. Nyberg; T. Hauge; B. Sternby; J. Lillienau; A. Farooqi; Å. Nilsson

1996-01-01

309

Dynamic Properties of the Alkaline Vesicle Population at Hippocampal Synapses  

PubMed Central

In compensatory endocytosis, scission of vesicles from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm is a prerequisite for intravesicular reacidification and accumulation of neurotransmitter molecules. Here, we provide time-resolved measurements of the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population which appears upon endocytic retrieval. Using fast perfusion pH-cycling in live-cell microscopy, synapto-pHluorin expressing rat hippocampal neurons were electrically stimulated. We found that the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population depended significantly on the electrical stimulus size: With increasing number of action potentials the relative size of the alkaline vesicle population expanded. In contrast to that, increasing the stimulus frequency reduced the relative size of the population of alkaline vesicles. Measurement of the time constant for reacification and calculation of the time constant for endocytosis revealed that both time constants were variable with regard to the stimulus condition. Furthermore, we show that the dynamics of the alkaline vesicle population can be predicted by a simple mathematical model. In conclusion, here a novel methodical approach to analyze dynamic properties of alkaline vesicles is presented and validated as a convenient method for the detection of intracellular events. Using this method we show that the population of alkaline vesicles is highly dynamic and depends both on stimulus strength and frequency. Our results implicate that determination of the alkaline vesicle population size may provide new insights into the kinetics of endocytic retrieval. PMID:25079223

Rother, Mareike; Brauner, Jan M.; Ebert, Katrin; Welzel, Oliver; Jung, Jasmin; Bauereiss, Anna; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W.

2014-01-01

310

The Chemistry of Paper Preservation Part 4. Alkaline Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problem of the inherent instability of paper due to the presence of acids that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. Focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. Discusses advantages and problems of alkaline papermaking. Contains 48 references. (JRH)

Carter, Henry A.

1997-01-01

311

ChemTeacher: Alkaline Earth Metals = Group 2 (IIA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Alkaline Earth Metals page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery, properties, and uses of the alkaline earth metals.

2011-01-01

312

Induction of overproducing alkaline protease Bacillus mutants through UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus alvei, among alkaline protease producing strains, were used to examine the changes in alkaline protease gene expression following UV irradiation. Induction of mutation in Bacillus mutant strains was carried out by 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. exposure times of UV irradiation and different distances between the treated bacterial cultures and UV source. Results revealed

E. A. M. Solaiman; Wafaa K. Hegazy; Maysa E. Moharam

313

Effect of Calcium Content on Soil Stabilisation with Alkaline Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper in concerned with the role of calcium content in fly ash used to stabilise soft soils through alkaline activation with sodium-based alkaline activators. A 10 molal sodium hydroxide solution was used to activate fly ash at solution: ash ratios of 2: 1 and 4: 1, and at a solution: (soil + ash) ratio of 0.40. Fly ash type

Nuno Cristelo; Stephanie Glendinning; Lisete Fernandes; Amândio Teixeira Pinto

314

CONSTRAINTS TO TREE GROWTH IMPOSED BY URBAN SOIL ALKALINITY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil alkalinity is commonly a limitation to tree growth in urban soils of the Chicago region. Associated chlorosis may sometimes be successfully treated, but longer term modification of the root environment is desirable. Selec- tion and use of trees tolerant of soil alkalinity (calciphytes) are urgent needs. Planning a harmonious tree\\/site system re- quires simultaneous consideration of the limitations of

George Ware

1990-01-01

315

Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas), where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 ?mol kg-1) that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

Cossarini, G.; Lazzari, P.; Solidoro, C.

2014-09-01

316

Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a plant alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Phytases catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-insositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells. Phytic acid constitutes 3-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes such as corn and soybean. The high concentration of phytates in animal feed and the inability of non-ruminant animals such as swine and poultry to digest phytates leads to phosphate contamination of soil and water bodies. The supplementation of animal feed with phytases results in increased bioavailability to animals and decreased environmental contamination. Therefore, phytases are of great commercial importance. Phytases with a range of properties are needed to address the specific digestive needs of different animals. Alkaline phytase (LlALP1 and LlALP2) which possess unique catalytic properties that have the potential to be useful as feed and food supplement has been identified in lily pollen. Substantial quantities of alkaline phytase are needed for animal feed studies. In this paper, we report the heterologous expression of LlALP2 from lily pollen in Pichia pastoris. The expression of recombinant LlALP2 (rLlALP2) was optimized by varying the cDNA coding for LlALP2, host strain and growth conditions. The catalytic properties of recombinant LlALP2 were investigated extensively (substrate specificity, pH- and temperature dependence, and the effect of Ca(2+), EDTA and inhibitors) and found to be very similar to that of the native LlALP2 indicating that rLlALP2 from P. pastoris can serve as a potential source for structural and animal feed studies. PMID:20655385

Johnson, Steven C; Yang, Mimi; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

2010-12-01

317

Comment on “Hydrolysis of neptunium(V) at variable temperatures (10 85 °C)” by L. Rao, T.G. Srinivasan, A.Yu. Garnov, P. Zanonato, P. Di Bernardo, and A. Bismondo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent study [Rao, L., Srinivasan, T.G., Garnov, A.Yu., Zanonato, P., Di Bernardo, P., Bismondo, A., 2004. Hydrolysis of neptunium(V) at variable temperatures (10-85 °C). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 4821-4830.] the hydrolysis of Np(V) was investigated at 10-85 °C by absorption spectroscopy, potentiometry, and microcalorimetry along the titration of Np(V) solutions with tetramethylammonium hydroxide up to pH 10. However, there is strong evidence that the precautions to avoid competing reactions with carbonate were not sufficient and that the measured effects are not caused by the formation of Np(V) hydroxide complexes but primarily by the formation of Np(V) carbonate complexes. The reported equilibrium constants, enthalpies, entropies, and heat capacities for the complexes NpO 2OH(aq) and NpO(OH)2- are severely in error and must not be used for the geochemical modeling of neptunium. If the hydrolysis constants reported by Rao et al. [Rao, L., Srinivasan, T.G., Garnov, A.Yu., Zanonato, P., Di Bernardo, P., Bismondo, A., 2004. Hydrolysis of neptunium(V) at variable temperatures (10-85 °C). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 4821-4830] are used to calculate neptunium solubilities in alkaline solutions relevant for nuclear waste repositories, the Np(V) concentrations are overestimated by orders of magnitude.

Neck, V.

2006-09-01

318

Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.  

PubMed

Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

2014-07-01

319

Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside.  

PubMed

A comparative study on the potential of some biological agents to perform the hydrolysis of stevioside was carried out, aiming at establishing an alternative methodology to achieve the aglycon steviol or its rearranged derivative isosteviol, in high yields to be used in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds. Hydrolysis reactions were performed by using filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus), a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and enzymes (pancreatin and lipases PL250 and VFL 8000). Pancreatin showed the best hydrolytic activity, furnishing isosteviol at 93.9% of yield, at pH 4.0, using toluene as a co-solvent. Steviol was produced using both pancreatin at pH 7.0 (20.2% yield) and A. niger at pH 7 (20.8% yield). PMID:24031374

Milagre, H M S; Martins, L R; Takahashi, J A

2009-04-01

320

Catalysis of a Flavoenzyme-Mediated Amide Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

A new pyrimidine catabolic pathway (the Rut pathway) was recently discovered in Escherichia coli K12. In this pathway, uracil is converted to 3-hydroxypropionate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The seven-gene Rut operon is required for this conversion. Here we demonstrate that the flavoenzyme RutA catalyzes the initial uracil ring-opening reaction to give 3-ureidoacrylate. This reaction, while formally a hydrolysis reaction, proceeds by an oxidative mechanism initiated by the addition of a flavin hydroperoxide to the C4 carbonyl. While peroxide-catalyzed amide hydrolysis has chemical precedent, we are not aware of a prior example of analogous chemistry catalyzed by flavin hydroperoxides. This study further illustrates the extraordinary catalytic versatility of the flavin cofactor.

Mukherjee, Tathagata; Zhang, Yang; Abdelwahed, Sameh; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P. (Cornell); (TAM)

2010-09-13

321

Simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification of wet microalgal lipid using acid.  

PubMed

This research demonstrated hydrolysis of wet microalgal lipid and esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) using acid in one-step process. The investigation of simultaneous hydrolysis-esterification (SHE) of wet microalgal lipid was conducted by using L27 orthogonal design and the effects of water content, volume of sulphuric acid, volume of methanol, temperature and time on SHE were examined. As a result, water content was found to be the most effective factor. The effects of various parameters on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and equilibrium relation between FAME and FFA were also examined under water content 80%. Equimolar amounts of sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid showed similar results. This method has great potential in terms of biodiesel production from microalgae since no organic solvents are used. PMID:24080318

Takisawa, Kenji; Kanemoto, Kazuyo; Kartikawati, Muliasari; Kitamura, Yutaka

2013-12-01

322

Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside  

PubMed Central

A comparative study on the potential of some biological agents to perform the hydrolysis of stevioside was carried out, aiming at establishing an alternative methodology to achieve the aglycon steviol or its rearranged derivative isosteviol, in high yields to be used in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds. Hydrolysis reactions were performed by using filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus), a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and enzymes (pancreatin and lipases PL250 and VFL 8000). Pancreatin showed the best hydrolytic activity, furnishing isosteviol at 93.9% of yield, at pH 4.0, using toluene as a co-solvent. Steviol was produced using both pancreatin at pH 7.0 (20.2% yield) and A. niger at pH 7 (20.8% yield). PMID:24031374

Milagre, H.M.S.; Martins, L.R.; Takahashi, J.A.

2009-01-01

323

Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 °C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution.

Reinscheid, Uwe M.

2009-08-01

324

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover process development and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis of acid treated corn stover with cellulase from T. reesei Rut-C-30 was evaluated. Experiments were conducted with substrate concentrations of 5 to 25% by weight, enzyme activities of 0.5 to 7 IU/ml and residence times of 24 to 48 hours. Maximum conversion was 55% for specific cellulase activity of 25 to 30 IU/g. Optimum cellobiase activity for minimum cellobiose production was found to be approximately 1.8 cellobiase units to 1 FPA unit. Hydrolysis experiments with steam exploded corn stover led to a maximum conversion of 80%, significantly higher than the results obtained for acid treated substrate. Steam exploded corn stover was demonstrated as a suitable carbon source for growth of T. reesei in submerged cultures.

Perez, J.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

1981-12-01

325

Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

ATP-binding cassette transporters are powered by ATP, but the mechanism by which these transporters hydrolyze ATP is unclear. In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF{sub 3}{sup -}, VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, or AlF{sub 4}{sup -}, were determined to 2.2- to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. These structures led to the assignment of two enzymatic states during ATP hydrolysis and demonstrate specific functional roles of highly conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting that ATP-binding cassette transporters catalyze ATP hydrolysis via a general base mechanism.

Oldham, Michael L.; Chen, Jue (Purdue)

2011-12-05

326

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-06-01

327

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-01-01

328

Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on progress in gaining a better understanding of the polymorphic nature of the UO3-water system, one of several important materials associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the fuel cycle. Powder x-ray diffraction, Raman and fluorescence characterization was performed on polymorphic forms of UO3 and UO3 hydrolysis products for the purpose of developing some predictive capability of estimating process history and utility, e.g. for polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Specifically, we have investigated three industrially relevant production pathways of UO3 and discovered a previously unknown low temperature route to ?-UO3. Pure phases of UO3, hydrolysis products and starting materials were used to establish optical spectroscopic signatures for these compounds.

Sweet, Lucas E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

2013-04-01

329

A mechanism of catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Ras protein through magnesium ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrolysis by Ras plays pivotal roles in the activation of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Despite their significant role in human cancer, the hydrolysis mechanism remains unclear. In the present Letter, we propose a GTP hydrolysis mechanism in which the ? phosphate is cut off primarily by magnesium ion. We studied both normal and mutated Ras and the cause of the malfunction of these mutants, compared the effect of Mg2+ and Mn2+. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments and support the new hydrolysis mechanism. This work will benefit both GTPases and ATPases hydrolysis studies.

Lu, Qiang; Nassar, Nicolas; Wang, Jin

2011-11-01

330

Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein,\\u000a resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high\\u000a nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It\\u000a turned out that the optimum enzyme was

Hu Hou; Bafang Li; Xue Zhao

2011-01-01

331

Endo-exo Synergism in Cellulose Hydrolysis Revisited*  

PubMed Central

Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and “steady state” conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the “steady state” rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on 14C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

Jalak, Jurgen; Kurasin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Valjamae, Priit

2012-01-01

332

Fructan Hydrolysis Drives Petal Expansion in the Ephemeral Daylily Flower.  

PubMed Central

Dry weight, water content, soluble carbohydrate content, and carbohydrate composition of daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid cv Cradle Song) flower petals were monitored in the 3 d leading up to full opening and in the first day of senescence. Timing of events was related to the time (hour 0) when flower expansion was 60% complete. Petal dry weight increased linearly from hour -62 (tight bud) to hour 10 (fully developed flower), then fell rapidly to hour 34 as senescence advanced. Increase in water content was proportional to dry weight increase from hour -62 to hour -14, but was more rapid as the bud cracked and the flower opened, giving an increase in fresh weight/dry weight ratio. Soluble carbohydrate was 50% of petal dry weight up to hour 10, then decreased during senescence to reach 4% by hour 34. Up until hour -14, fructan accounted for 80% of the soluble carbohydrate in the petals, whereas hexose accounted for only 2%. Fructan hydrolysis started just prior to bud crack at hour -14, reaching completion by hour 10 when no detectable fructan remained, and fructose plus glucose accounted for more than 80% of the total soluble carbohydrate. The proportion of sucrose remained constant throughout development. Osmolality of petal cell sap increased significantly during fructan hydrolysis, from 0.300 to 0.340 osmolal. Cycloheximide applied to excised buds between hour -38 and hour -14 halted both fructan hydrolysis and flower expansion. The findings suggest that onset of fructan hydrolysis, with the concomitant large increase in osmoticum, is an important event driving flower expansion in daylily. PMID:12231928

Bieleski, R. L.

1993-01-01

333

?-Tricalcium phosphate hydrolysis to hydroxyapatite at and near physiological temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation by direct hydrolysis of a-tricalcium phosphate (a-TCP) [a-Ca3(PO4)2] have been investigated. Transformation kinetics were examined for reactions at 37 °C, 45 °C and 56 °C by isothermal calorimetric analysis. Setting times and morphologies of the resultant HAp were found to be strongly dependent on reaction temperature. XRD analysis accompanied by FTIR confirmed that phase

C. Durucan; P. W. Brown

2000-01-01

334

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g\\/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater

Russell L. Holliday; Jerry W. King; Gary R. List

1997-01-01

335

Endo-exo synergism in cellulose hydrolysis revisited.  

PubMed

Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and "steady state" conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the "steady state" rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on (14)C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

Jalak, Jürgen; Kurašin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Väljamäe, Priit

2012-08-17

336

Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover process development and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of acid treated corn stover with cellulase from T. reesei Rut-C-30 was evaluated. Experiments were conducted with substrate concentrations of 5 to 25% by weight, enzyme activities of 0.5 to 7 IU\\/ml and residence times of 24 to 48 hours. Maximum conversion was 55% for specific cellulase activity of 25 to 30 IU\\/g. Optimum cellobiase activity for minimum

J. Perez; C. R. Wilke; H. W. Blanch

1981-01-01

337

Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

1964-01-01

338

Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics.  

PubMed

The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and ?-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35°C while at 45°C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases. PMID:23608505

Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina

2013-05-10

339

Extrusion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enzymatic hydrolysis  

E-print Network

milling one day and 18. 5% after six days. Enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase from Trichoderma viride gave 38. 2% saccharification after the one-day milling treatment and 58% after the six-day treatment. Both alkali solubility and susceptibility... into the two roll mill, masticated for one minute intervals, and scraped off between intervals. Treated and untreated samples were hydrolyzed by cellulases of Trlchoderma viride QM 9414 and hydrolysates analyzed for total reducing sugar. Results indicated...

Ocana Camacho, Ronay

2012-06-07

340

COS hydrolysis in the presence of oxygen: Experiment and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of COS hydrolysis on Al2O3, with fouling of catalyst, has been developed. Kinetic studies were carried out in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (40-70 °C). The effects of the COS inlet concentration, temperature, and relative humidity were analyzed. Experimental results of breakthrough curves were used to obtain kinetic parameters, which accounted for

Li Wang; Shudong Wang; Quan Yuan; Guanzhong Lu

2008-01-01

341

Composition of organic solutes and respiration in soils derived from alkaline and non-alkaline parent materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parent material greatly influences pedogenesis and soil nutrient availability and consequently we hypothesized that it would significantly affect the amount of organic solutes in soil, many of which have been implicated in rhizosphere processes linked to plant nutrient uptake. Consequently, we investigated the influence of two contrasting parent materials in which calcite was present or absent (alkaline and non-alkaline soils)

K. Nambu; P. A. W. van Hees; D. L. Jones; S. Vinogradoff

2008-01-01

342

Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion  

SciTech Connect

Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering

1998-11-01

343

ATP hydrolysis stimulates large length fluctuations in single actin filaments  

E-print Network

Polymerization dynamics of single actin filaments is investigated theoretically using a stochastic model that takes into account the hydrolysis of ATP-actin subunits, the geometry of actin filament tips, the lateral interactions between the monomers as well as the processes at both ends of the polymer. Exact analytical expressions are obtained for a mean growth velocity and for dispersion in length fluctuations. It is found that the ATP hydrolysis has a strong effect on dynamic properties of single actin filaments. At high concentrations of free actin monomers the mean size of unhydrolyzed ATP-cap is very large, and the dynamics is governed by association/dissociation of ATP-actin subunits. However, at low concentrations the size of the cap becomes finite, and the dissociation of ADP-actin subunits makes a significant contribution to overall dynamics. Actin filament length fluctuations reach the maximum at the boundary between two dynamic regimes, and this boundary is always larger than the critical concentration. Random and vectorial mechanisms of hydrolysis are compared, and it is found that they predict qualitatively similar dynamic properties. The possibility of attachment and detachment of oligomers is also discussed. Our theoretical approach is successfully applied to analyze the latest experiments on the growth and length fluctuations of individual actin filaments.

Evgeny B. Stukalin; Anatoly B. Kolomeisky

2005-07-27

344

A single molecule study of cellulase hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I), a processive exoglucanase secreted by Trichoderma reesei, is one of the key enzyme components in a commercial cellulase mixture currently used for processing biomass to biofuels. CBH I contains a family 7 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), and a highlyglycosylated linker peptide. It has been proposed that the CBH I cellulase initiates the hydrolysis from the reducing end of one cellulose chain and successively cleaves alternate ?-1,4-glycosidic bonds to release cellobiose as its principal end product. The role each module of CBH I plays in the processive hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose has yet to be convincingly elucidated. In this report, we use a single-molecule approach that combines optical (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy, or TIRF-M) and non-optical (Atomic Force Microscopy, or AFM) imaging techniques to analyze the molecular motion of CBM tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP), and to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBM and CBH I. The preliminary results have revealed a confined nanometer-scale movement of the TrCBM1-GFP bound to cellulose, and decreases in cellulose crystal size as well as increases in surface roughness during CBH I hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

Liu, Yu-San; Luo, Yonghua; Baker, John O.; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E.; Smith, Steve; Ding, Shi-You

2010-02-01

345

Treatment of heterotopic ossification through remote ATP hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic development of ectopic bone in soft tissues because of a local or systemic inflammatory insult, such as burn injury or trauma. In HO, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are inappropriately activated to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Through the correlation of in vitro assays and in vivo studies (dorsal scald burn with Achilles tenotomy), we have shown that burn injury enhances the osteogenic potential of MSCs and causes ectopic endochondral heterotopic bone formation and functional contractures through bone morphogenetic protein-mediated canonical SMAD signaling. We further demonstrated a prevention strategy for HO through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis at the burn site using apyrase. Burn site apyrase treatment decreased ATP, increased adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, and decreased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in MSCs in vitro. This ATP hydrolysis also decreased HO formation and mitigated functional impairment in vivo. Similarly, selective inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with LDN-193189 decreased HO formation and increased range of motion at the injury site in our burn model in vivo. Our results suggest that burn injury-exacerbated HO formation can be treated through therapeutics that target burn site ATP hydrolysis and modulation of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. PMID:25253675

Peterson, Jonathan R; De La Rosa, Sara; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S; Xi, Chuanwu; Morris, Michael D; Herndon, David N; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G; Krebsbach, Paul H; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin

2014-09-24

346

Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.  

PubMed

Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were <1000 Da). Hydrolysis at 300 °C for 40 min generated the highest total AA concentration, especially of lysine (8.894 mg/g WPI). Therefore, WPI was successfully hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products. PMID:22122092

Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany

2012-01-01

347

Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphates adsorbed on mineral surfaces.  

PubMed

Esters of phosphoric acid constitute a sizable fraction of the total phosphorus supply in the environment and thus play an important role in the global phosphorus cycle. Enzymatic hydrolysis of these esters to produce orthophosphate is often a required reaction preceding phosphorus uptake by plants and microorganisms. Generally, adsorption to environmental particles is assumed to limit this process. Here we show, however, that the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of glucose-1-phosphate (G1P) adsorbed on goethite by acid phosphatase (AcPase) can be of the same order of magnitude as in aqueous solution. The surface process releases carbon to the solution whereas orthophosphate remains adsorbed on goethite. This hydrolysis reaction is strictly an interfacial process governed by the properties of the interface. A high surface concentration of substrate mediates the formation of a catalytically active layer of AcPase, and although adsorption likely reduces the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme, this reduction is almost balanced by the fact that enzyme and substrate are concentrated at the mineral surfaces. Our results suggest that mineral surfaces with appropriate surface properties can be very effective in concentrating substrates and enzymes thereby creating microchemical environments of high enzymatic activity. Hence, also strongly adsorbed molecules in soils and aquatic environments may be subjected to biodegradation by extracellular enzymes. PMID:22103404

Olsson, Rickard; Giesler, Reiner; Loring, John S; Persson, Per

2012-01-01

348

Obtaining antimicrobial peptides by controlled peptic hydrolysis of bovine hemoglobin.  

PubMed

Under standard conditions, the peptides and specially the active peptides were obtained from either the denatured hemoglobin that all structures are completely modified or either the native hemoglobin where all structures are intact. In these conditions, antibacterial peptides were isolated from a very complex peptidic hydrolysate which contains more than one hundred peptides having various sizes and characteristics, involving a complex purification process. The new hydrolysis conditions were obtained by using 40% methanol, 30% ethanol, 20% propanol or 10% butanol. These conditions, where only the secondary structure of hemoglobin retains intact, were followed in order to enrich the hydrolyzed hemoglobin by active peptides or obtain new antibacterial peptides. In these controlled peptic hydrolysis of hemoglobin, a selective and restrictive hydrolysate contained only 29 peptides was obtained. 26 peptides have an antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Listeria innocua, and Escherichia coli with MIC from 187.1 to 1 ?M. Among these peptides, 13 new antibacterial peptides are obtained only in these new hydrolysis conditions. PMID:21510973

Adje, Estelle Yaba; Balti, Rafik; Kouach, Mostafa; Dhulster, Pascal; Guillochon, Didier; Nedjar-Arroume, Naïma

2011-08-01

349

A new route to improved glucose yields in cellulose hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was discovered for cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Cellulose was completely decrystallized by TFA at 0 °C in less than 2 hours, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. The majority of TFA used in cellulose decrystallization was recycled via a vacuum process. The small remaining amount of TFA was diluted with water to make a 0.5% TFA solution and used as a catalyst in dilute acid hydrolysis. After one minute, under batch conditions at 185 °C, the glucose yield reached 63.5% without production of levulinic acid. In comparison, only 15.0% glucose yield was achieved in the hydrolysis of untreated cellulose by 0.5% H2SO4 under the same condition. Further improvement of glucose yield is possible by optimizing reaction conditions. Alternatively, the remaining TFA can be completely removed by water while keeping the regenerated cellulose in a highly amorphous state. This regenerated cellulose is much more reactive than untreated cellulose in hydrolysis reactions, but still less reactive than corn starch. The lower temperatures and shorter reaction times with this activated cellulose makes it possible to reduce operating costs and decrease byproduct yields such as HMF and levulinic acid.

Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2007-08-01

350

Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles  

SciTech Connect

Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

2012-10-19

351

Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is relatively poor due to hydrolysis limitations. Acid and alkaline pretreatments are effective in enhancing hydrolysis leading to higher methane yields. However, chemical costs often prohibit full-scale application. In this study, 12 V two-chamber electrolysis using an anion exchange membrane alters sludge pH without chemical dosing. pH dropped from 6.9 to 2.5 in the anode chamber and increased to 10.1 in the cathode chamber within 15 h. The volatile suspended solids solubilisation of WAS was 31.1% in the anode chamber and 34.0% in the cathode chamber. As a result, dissolved chemical oxygen demand increased from 164 to 1,787 mg/L and 1,256 mg/L in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. Remixing of sludge from the two chambers brought the pH back to 6.5, hence no chemical neutralisation was required prior to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield during anaerobic digestion at 20 d retention time was 31% higher than that of untreated sludge. An energy balance assessment indicated that the non-optimised process could approximately recover the energy (electricity) expended in the electrolysis process. With suitable optimisation of treatment time and voltages, significant energy savings would be expected in addition to the benefit of decreased sludge volume. PMID:23787324

Charles, W; Ng, B; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Cheng, L; Ho, G; Kayaalp, A

2013-01-01

352

Conversion of fructose, glucose, and cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by alkaline earth phosphate catalysts in hot compressed water.  

PubMed

The phosphates of alkaline earth metals (calcium and strontium) synthesized by precipitation process in acetone-water media system were used as catalysts for converting fructose, glucose, and cellulose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) under hot compressed water condition. It was found that the phosphates of calcium and strontium effectively catalyzed the HMF formation from fructose and glucose dehydration and cellulose hydrolysis/dehydration reaction, as compared with the non-catalytic system. The XRD analysis confirmed the CaP(2)O(6) and ?-Sr(PO(3))(2) crystalline phases of the catalyst samples, while acid strength of both catalysts was in a range of +3.3 ? H(0) ? +4.8. From the study, CaP(2)O(6) and ?-Sr(PO(3))(2) showed similar catalytic performance toward the dehydration of sugars, providing the HMF yields of 20-21% and 34-39% from glucose and fructose, respectively; whereas the total yield of glucose and HMF from the hydrolysis/dehydration of cellulose over ?-Sr(PO(3))(2) (34%) was higher than that over CaP(2)O(6) (17.4%). PMID:23123573

Daorattanachai, Pornlada; Khemthong, Pongtanawat; Viriya-Empikul, Nawin; Laosiripojana, Navadol; Faungnawakij, Kajornsak

2012-12-01

353

Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.  

PubMed

The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered. PMID:19757248

Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

2009-01-01

354

Hydrolysis and esterification in organically modified alkoxysilanes: A {sup 29}Si NMR investigation of methyltrimethoxysilane  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution {sup 29}Si NMR was used to investigate the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and esterification reactions of methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) in methanol. The INEPT experiment, adapted for spin systems with multiple heteronuclear coupling constants, was used to assign the closely spaced resonances of the MTMS hydrolysis products. Due to the rapid reaction rates, only the pseudoequilibrium concentration distributions for the resulting hydrolysis products could be determined. Models based on thermodynamically statistical distributions, irreversible hydrolysis reactions, and reversible hydrolysis reactions were nearly equally successful in accounting for the concentration distributions over a wide range of H{sub 2}O/Si ratios (R{sub w}) and temperatures. However, preparation of hydrolyzed MTMS in a nonpseudoequilibrium state unequivocally demonstrated the reversibility of hydrolysis reactions on a short time scale. By measuring the extent of reaction of MTMS systems at high water concentrations, the ratio of the hydrolysis to esterification rate constant was determined to be approximately 100. 36 refs., 7 figs.

Alam, T.M.; Assink, R.A.; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-09-01

355

40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

2013-07-01

356

40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

2011-07-01

357

21 CFR 862.1050 - Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system...Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1050 Alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test system. (a) Identification. An alkaline phosphatase or isoenzymes test...

2010-04-01

358

40 CFR 721.9680 - Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...Chemical Substances § 721.9680 Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...substance identified generically as an alkaline titania silica gel (PMN...

2010-07-01

359

40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434.40 Section...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. The provisions...

2013-07-01

360

40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434.40 Section...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. The provisions...

2012-07-01

361

40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434.40 Section...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. The provisions...

2011-07-01

362

Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity.  

PubMed

We introduce a new titration methodology, tracer monitored titration (TMT), in which analyses are free of volumetric and gravimetric measurements and insensitive to pump precision and reproducibility. Spectrophotometric monitoring of titrant dilution, rather than volume increment, lays the burden of analytical performance solely on the spectrophotometer. In the method described here, the titrant is a standardized mixture of acid-base indicator and strong acid. Dilution of a pulse of titrant in a titration vessel is tracked using the total indicator concentration measured spectrophotometrically. The concentrations of reacted and unreacted indicator species, derived from Beer's law, are used to calculate the relative proportions of titrant and sample in addition to the equilibrium position (pH) of the titration mixture. Because the method does not require volumetric or gravimetric additions of titrant, simple low-precision pumps can be used. Here, we demonstrate application of TMT for analysis of total alkalinity (A(T)). High-precision, high-accuracy seawater A(T) measurements are crucial for understanding, for example, the marine CaCO3 budget and saturation state, anthropogenic CO2 penetration into the oceans, calcareous phytoplankton blooms, and coral reef dynamics. We present data from 286 titrations on three types of total alkalinity standards: Na2CO3 in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, NaOH in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, and a seawater Certified Reference Material (CRM). Based on Na2CO3 standards, the accuracy and precision are +/-0.2 and +/-0.1% (4 and 2 micromol kg x soln(-1) for A(T) approximately 2100-2500 micromol kg x soln(-1), n = 242), using low-precision solenoid pumps to introduce sample and titrant. Similar accuracy and precision were found for analyses run 42 days after the initial experiments. Excellent performance is achieved by optimizing the spectrophotometric detection system and relying upon basic chemical thermodynamics for calculating the equivalence point. Although applied to acid-base titrations in this paper, the approach should be generally applicable to other types of titrations. PMID:16536416

Martz, Todd R; Dickson, Andrew G; DeGrandpre, Michael D

2006-03-15

363

Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

2009-01-01

364

Formation of hydroxyapatite by hydrolysis of alpha-tricalcium phosphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-temperature cement-type formation of hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAp) has value in terms of developing synthetic compounds similar in compositions to those formed by natural mineralization of bone. Understanding the in vitro kinetics of formation of the synthetic composition could produce insights into developing hard tissue analogs. The kinetics and chemistry of cement-type formation of HAp by hydrolysis of particulate alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-Ca 3(PO4)2 or alpha-TCP) were examined. In particular, the effects of reaction temperature, synthesis route, inorganic salt additives and presence of biodegradable polymers (poly(alpha-hydroxyl acids) on the hydrolysis rate and microstructural/mechanical properties of HAp were determined using the following analytical techniques: isothermal calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscsopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), solution chemistry, diametrical compression and 3-point bending tests. For the phase-pure alpha-TCP/water system the complete reaction times and morphologies of the resultant HAp were found to be strongly dependent on reaction temperature over a range of 37°C to 56°C. Isothermal calorimetry analyses revealed a thermally activated hydrolysis mechanism, leading to higher reaction rates with an increase in hydrolysis temperature. The microstructure of the resultant HAp typically had entangled, flake-like morphology, with HAp formed at 37°C having a smaller crystalline size than that formed at 45°C and 56°C. The cement hardening contributed to entanglement at the microstructural level. In all cases the hydrated product was phase pure calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite [Ca10-x(HPO4) x(PO4)6-x(OH)2-x], and no other intermediates or by-products were formed through the complete transformation. According to the proposed kinetic model, a two-step mechanism was found to control the overall hydrolysis reaction and thereby HAp formation at 37°C. During the first step, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface area of the anhydrous TCP particulates hence controlling their initial dissolution. Subsequently, the reaction rate was controlled by a nucleation and growth mechanism. During the second stage, HAp formation initiates preferentially on alpha-TCP surfaces. Further growth of HAp continues progressively by dissolution and precipitation of unreacted alpha-TCP, analogous to natural biomineralization events. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Durucan, Caner

365

Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production  

PubMed Central

Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the hydrolysis and degree of synergism among enzymes. Conclusions The model was effective in capturing the dynamic behavior of cellulose hydrolysis during action of individual as well as multiple cellulases. Simulations were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Several experimentally observed phenomena were simulated without the need for any additional assumptions or parameter changes and confirmed the validity of using the stochastic molecular modeling approach to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23638989

2013-01-01

366

Francisella DnaK Inhibits Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase*  

PubMed Central

Following pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis, we observed an unexpected but significant reduction of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme normally up-regulated following inflammation. However, no reduction was observed in mice infected with a closely related Gram-negative pneumonic organism (Klebsiella pneumoniae) suggesting the inhibition may be Francisella-specific. In similar fashion to in vivo observations, addition of Francisella lysate to exogenous alkaline phosphatase (tissue-nonspecific isozyme) was inhibitory. Partial purification and subsequent proteomic analysis indicated the inhibitory factor to be the heat shock protein DnaK. Incubation with increasing amounts of anti-DnaK antibody reduced the inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, DnaK contains an adenosine triphosphate binding domain at its N terminus, and addition of adenosine triphosphate enhances dissociation of DnaK with its target protein, e.g. alkaline phosphatase. Addition of adenosine triphosphate resulted in decreased DnaK co-immunoprecipitated with alkaline phosphatase as well as reduction of Francisella-mediated alkaline phosphatase inhibition further supporting the binding of Francisella DnaK to alkaline phosphatase. Release of DnaK via secretion and/or bacterial cell lysis into the extracellular milieu and inhibition of plasma alkaline phosphatase could promote an orchestrated, inflammatory response advantageous to Francisella. PMID:22923614

Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Chetty, Senthilnath Lakshmana; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Leonard, Sean; Klose, Karl; Seshu, Janakiram; Cap, Andrew; Valdes, James J.; Chambers, James P.

2012-01-01

367

Purification and characterization of neutral and alkaline invertase from carrot.  

PubMed Central

Neutral and alkaline invertase were identified in cells of a suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. Neutral invertase is an octamer with a molecular mass of 456 kD and subunits of 57 kD, whereas alkaline invertase is a tetramer with a molecular mass of 504 kD and subunits of 126 kD. Both enzymes had sharp pH profiles, with maximal activities at pH 6.8 for neutral invertase and pH 8.0 for alkaline invertase, and both hydrolyzed sucrose with typical hyperbolic kinetics and similar Km values of about 20 mM at pH 7.5. Neutral invertase also hydrolyzed raffinose and stachyose and, therefore, is a beta-fructofuranosidase. In contrast, alkaline invertase was highly specific for sucrose. Fructose acted as a competitive inhibitor of both enzymes, with Ki values of about 15 mM. Glucose was a noncompetitive inhibitor of both neutral and alkaline invertase, with a Ki of about 30 mM. Neither enzyme was inhibited by HgCl2. Alkaline invertase was markedly inhibited by CaCl2, MgCl2, and MnCl2, and neutral invertase was not. In contrast to alkaline invertase, neutral invertase was inhibited by the nucleotides ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP. PMID:8972597

Lee, H S; Sturm, A

1996-01-01

368

Engineering challenges of ocean alkalinity enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of calcium oxide (CaO) to the ocean as a means of enhancing the capacity of the ocean as a carbon sink was first proposed by Haroon Kheshgi in 1995. Calcium oxide is created by heating high purity limestone in a kiln to temperatures of approximately 1000°C. Addition of this material to the ocean draws carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere (approximately 1 tonne of CaO could sequester 1.3 tonnes of CO2). Abiotic carbonate precipitation is inhibited in the surface ocean. This is a carbon and energy expensive process, where approximately 0.8 tonnes of CO2 are produced at a point source for every tonne sequestered. The feasibility of ocean alkalinity enhancement requires capture and storage of the point source of CO2. We present details of a feasibility study of the engineering challenges of Kheshgi's method focusing on the potential scalability and costs of the proposed process. To draw down a PgC per year would require the extraction and processing of ~6Pg of limestone per year, which is similar in scale to the current coal industry. Costs are estimated at ~USD30-40 per tonne of CO2 sequestered through the process, which is favourable to comparative processes. Kheshgi, H. (1995) Energy 20 (9) 915-922

Kruger, T.; Renforth, P.

2012-04-01

369

Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress  

SciTech Connect

The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

2007-11-30

370

Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans.  

PubMed

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, ?-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

2009-01-01

371

Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans  

PubMed Central

Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, ?-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Helia H

2009-01-01

372

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOEpatents

A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

1995-01-01

373

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOEpatents

A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

Hsu, C.L.W.

1995-07-25

374

Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification  

DOEpatents

According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

Hsu, Chia-lin W.

1994-01-01

375

Efficient utilization of licorice root by alkaline extraction.  

PubMed

Compared to studies of water extracts of plants, those utilising alkaline extracts are limited. Both water and alkaline extracts from licorice root were compared regarding their biological activities. Licorice root was successively extracted first with water or alkaline solution (pH 9 or 12), and the alkaline (pH 12.0) extract was further separated into 50% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions. Viable cell number was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. Antibacterial activity against Porphyromonas gingivalis 381 was determined by turbidity assay. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP)3A4 activity was measured by ?-hydroxylation of testosterone using human recombinant CYP3A4. Radical intensity of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Alkaline extraction yielded slightly higher amounts of dried materials compared to water extraction. Alkaline extract showed higher anti-HIV and antibacterial activities, and similar magnitudes of CYP3A4 inhibitory and superoxide and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, compared to water extract. When alkaline extract was fractionated by 50% ethanol, anti-HIV activity was recovered from the insoluble fraction representing approximately 3% of the alkaline extract, whereas antibacterial activity was concentrated in the soluble fraction rich in glycyrrhizid acid, flavanones and chalcones. All extracts and sub-fractions led to bimodal hormetic dose-response (maximum hormetic response=238%) on the bacterial growth. The present study demonstrated the superiority of alkaline extraction over water extraction for preparing anti-HIV and antibacterial agents at higher yield from licorice root. PMID:25189890

Ohno, Hirokazu; Miyoshi, Shozo; Araho, Daisuke; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tsuda, Tadashi; Sunaga, Katsuyoshi; Amano, Shigeru; Ohkoshi, Emika; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Yamamoto, Masaji

2014-01-01

376

Evaluating the effects of sample processing treatments on alkalinity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe concentration of bicarbonate, the dominant anion in river water, is typically calculated using measured alkalinity concentrations. Alkalinity concentrations also are necessary for analytical charge balance, carbonate speciation, and PCO 2 calculations. Although the Gran titration is the standard method for measuring alkalinity, previous studies have varied in how water samples have been processed prior to analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether variation in filtering, refrigeration, and sample storage time leads to statistically significant differences in alkalinity concentrations in oxic, low-turbidity surface waters and groundwaters ranging from undersaturated to supersaturated with respect to calcite. Samples were collected from the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces of northwestern South Carolina and the Valley and Ridge Province of eastern Tennessee. Each sample was analyzed using four processing treatments: filtered and refrigerated, filtered and unrefrigerated, unfiltered and refrigerated, and unfiltered and unrefrigerated ( n = 3 analyses per treatment combination). All replicates were analyzed within 24 h using the Gran titration method. Samples then were reanalyzed after 17-194 days of storage to determine if storage time affects alkalinity measurements. Overall, alkalinity concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 107 mg/L CaCO 3. Statistically significant differences among the treatments and significant interactions between filtration and refrigeration were limited. For samples in which treatment means differed significantly or in which interactions were significant, differences generally were less than 10% and probably of little biogeochemical importance. For all but one sample locality, storage time did not affect alkalinity. Our results show that for oxic waters that have low concentrations of DOC and reduced metals, filtration, refrigeration and storage time are unlikely to affect measured alkalinity concentrations. However, additional research is needed to determine the degree to which sample processing treatment is important to interpreting the alkalinity concentrations of DOC- and metal-rich samples.

Williams, Amy J.; Brannon Andersen, C.; Lewis, Gregory P.

2009-10-01

377

Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal  

PubMed Central

The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including ? and ? forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n?=?6, p?=?0.118) in ? and ? ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10?2 hr?1 (SE±2.9×10?3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

2014-01-01

378

Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

379

Process for preparing zinc powder for alkaline batteries  

SciTech Connect

A zinc powder having a low gas evolution in an alkaline electrolyte for use in an alkaline battery are obtained by alloying the zinc with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of lead, cadmium, thallium and indium and at least one further metal selected from the group consisting of lead, cadmium, thallium, indium gold, silver, tin and gallium. Thereby it is possible to avoid the use of mercury as an alloying element but nevertheless to obtain a zinc powder which meet all of the requirements for use in alkaline batteries.

Glaeser, W.

1985-10-22

380

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, John A. (Chicago, IL); Turner, Clarence B. (Shorewood, IL); Johnson, Irving (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1982-01-01

381

Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (inventors)

1981-01-01

382

Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents  

DOEpatents

A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

1980-03-13

383

C-lactam derivatives of oleanolic acid. hydrolysis and further acylation of methyl acetyloleanolate C-lactam and C-thiolactam.  

PubMed

Acetyl methyl oleanolate was transformed into a seven-membered C-lactam derivative (2) using Beckmann rearrangement of the corresponding C-oxime during the last step of the synthesis. The C=O group of the lactam system was transformed into a C=S group by Lavesson's reagent. The resulting acetylthiolactam 3 and initial acetyllactam 2 were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to obtain lactam 4 and thiolactam 5 with an unsubstituted C-3 hydroxyl group. Subsequently, compounds 4 and 5 were acylated with either succinic or acetic anhydride in pyridine. Various acylating conditions were tested for hydroxythiolactam 5. The structures of the newly obtained compounds were supported by spectral and mass spectrometric data. PMID:24689221

Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Zaprutko, Lucjusz

2014-03-01

384

Spectroscopic studies of alkaline activated slag geopolymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the work, results of structural studies of different geopolymers, obtained using a granulated blast furnace slag, are presented. The slag was subjected to an alkaline activation process. As activators, NaOH, Na 2CO 3 and liquid glass were applied. IR and NMR spectroscopy were the main experimental methods used, the results obtained were compared with XRD phase analysis and SEM observations. In the IR spectra of raw slag as well as in the spectra of products of paste hydration, the bands due to the characteristic vibrations of bonds observed in both types of oxygen bridges: Si-O-Si and Si-O-Al, were assigned. These bridges constitute basic structural units, forming tetrahedral geopolymer chains. It was found that the slag composition, mainly SiO 2/Al 2O 3 ratio and modification in oxides concentration, influences the presence of the bands connected with the phases (mainly C-S-H) formed during the hydration in the IR spectra. Additionally, significant effect of amorphous phases share on the spectra shape was established. 29Si and 27Al MAS-NMR spectra of initial slag geopolymers and pastes provided information concerning coordination of both atoms in the structures. It was revealed that the kind of slag geopolymers and the conditions of paste hydration influence connectedness of silicooxygen tetrahedra and coordination number of aluminium atoms. Based on IR spectra, it was also possible to determine the influence of the activator type, activation time and hydration conditions on the products formed. Significant changes were observed for the bands assigned to vibrations of carbonate and hydroxide groups. The changes were also noticed in the case of bands due to vibrations of silicate and aluminosilicate bonds.

Mozgawa, W.; Deja, J.

2009-04-01

385

The Martian ocean: First acid, then alkaline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In Mars' distant past, carbon dioxide and water may have been plentiful. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bar are consistent with present knowledge, and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed equal to an equivalent depth of 500 to 1000 m. It is quite reasonable, therefore, to envision an early Mars in which there was a body or bodies of liquid water, perhaps in the northern plains, and a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Under such conditions, the pH of the water will be low, due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the water to form carbonic acid. This acidic water is capable of weathering the available rock quite intensely, particularly because this rock is likely to be heavily fractured (from meteorite bombardment) or even consist of fine particles (such as pyroclastic deposits). As time goes on, however, the carbon dioxide atmosphere will rapidly pass through the ocean to form carbonate deposits. As the density of the atmosphere decreases, so will the flux of carbonic acid into the ocean. Without this input of carbonic acid, the effect of the dissolved weathering products will be to increase the pH of the water. The ocean will then become alkaline. To study this process, I have developed a geochemical cycle model for the atmosphere-hydrosphere-regolith system of Mars. The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success. This method is capable of elegantly handling the interactions between the simultaneous chemical reactions needed to understand such a system.

Schaefer, M. W.

1992-01-01

386

Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

1989-01-01

387

Kinetics of the Fading of Phenolphthalein in Alkaline Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an experiment which illustrates pseudo-first-order kinetics in the fading of a common indicator in an alkaline solution. Included are background information, details of materials used, laboratory procedures, and sample results. (CW)

Nicholson, Lois

1989-01-01

388

Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP)  

E-print Network

Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

Musharova, Darya

2010-07-14

389

21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

2014-04-01

390

21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

2011-04-01

391

21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

2013-04-01

392

21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

2012-04-01

393

Processes affecting the oceanic distributions of dissolved calcium and alkalinity  

SciTech Connect

Recent studies of the CO/sub 2/ system have suggested that chemical processes in addition to the dissolution and precipitation of calcium carbonate affect the oceanic calcium and alkalinity distributions. Calcium and alkalinity data from the North Pacific have been examined both by using the simple physical-chemical model of previous workers and by a study involving the broader oceanographic context of these data. The simple model is shown to be an inadequate basis for these studies. Although a proton flux associated with organic decomposition may affect the alkalinity, previously reported deviations of calcium-alkalinity correlations from expected trends appear to be related to boundary processes that have been neglected rather than to this proton flux. The distribution of calcium in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean is examined.

Shiller, A.M.; Gieskes, J.M.

1980-05-20

394

Abiotic degradation (photodegradation and hydrolysis) of imidazolinone herbicides.  

PubMed

The abiotic degradation of the imidazolinone herbicides imazapyr, imazethapyr and imazaquin was investigated under controlled conditions. Hydrolysis, where it occurred, and photodegradation both followed first-order kinetics for all herbicides. There was no hydrolysis of any of the herbicides in buffer solutions at pH 3 or pH 7; however, slow hydrolysis occurred at pH 9. Estimated half-lives for the three herbicides in solution in the dark were 6.5, 9.2 and 9.6 months for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Degradation of the herbicides in the light was considerably more rapid than in the dark with half lives for the three herbicides of 1.8, 9.8 and 9.1 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. The presence of humic acids in the solution reduced the rate of photodegradation for all three herbicides, with higher concentrations of humic acids generally having greater effect. Photodegradation of imazethapyr was the least sensitive to humic acids. The enantioselectivity of photodegradation was investigated using imazaquin, with photodegradation occurring at the same rate for both enantiomers. Abiotic degradation of imidazolinone herbicides on the soil surface only occurred in the presence of light. The rate of degradation for all herbicides was slower than in solution, with half-lives of 15.3, 24.6 and 30.9 days for imazaquin, imazethapyr and imazapyr, respectively. Abiotic degradation of these herbicides is likely to be slow in the environment and is only likely to occur in clear water or on the soil surface. PMID:18246501

Ramezani, Mohammadkazem; Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Gill, Gurjeet; Preston, Christopher

2008-02-01

395

Enzymatic hydrolysis of poultry meal with endo- and exopeptidases.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine whether commercial proteases are capable of hydrolyzing denatured poultry by-product proteins that have gone through a rendering process. The material used for this research was low-ash poultry meal obtained from a local poultry processor. Samples of poultry meal were treated with the commercial proteases Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Protamex, and Liquipanol that were added individually or as a combination of 2 proteases, which were incorporated either simultaneously or sequentially. Temperature was controlled during the reaction to the optimal level for each enzyme, and pH was initially adjusted to the most favorable level for each enzyme and was maintained during the course of the reaction by addition of NaOH at established intervals. Consumption of NaOH was used to calculate the degree of hydrolysis. At the end of the hydrolysis, the molecular weight of selected hydrolysates was determined by size exclusion chromatography and by gel electrophoresis. In addition, amino acid analysis was performed on selected hydrolysates. Results show that the sequential treatment with Alcalase and Flavourzyme served best for the preparation of poultry meal hydrolysates with a maximum degree of hydrolysis of 11.1% and the highest hydrolyzable material recovered at 58%, which is attributed to the combined nature of the endo- and exocatalytic action of Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively. Hydrolysate with Flavourzyme or the combination of Flavourzyme and Alcalase were both good methods to produce significant amounts of free amino acids. This research shows the feasibility of hydrolyzing poultry by-products that went through a rendering process using different brands of commercial proteases. Findings from this research are important in the preparation of palatants, in which relatively inexpensive hydrolyzed poultry meal could be used to improve the flavor of companion animal food products. PMID:20852119

Nchienzia, H A; Morawicki, R O; Gadang, V P

2010-10-01

396

Alkaline Fluids and Reduced Volatiles in Modern Serpentinizing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alteration of mantle rocks during serpentinization is a fundamental process that has significant geochemical and biological importance in marine systems, subduction zone processes, and present-day weathering of mantle rocks on land. Here we present a comparative geochemical and isotopic study of alkaline fluids and carbonate precipitates at Lost City (Atlantis Massif, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) with high alkaline, Ca-OH springs and

G. L. Frueh-Green; E. M. Schwarzenbach; S. Méhay; M. D. Lilley; S. M. Bernasconi; M. Molinari; L. Marini

2009-01-01

397

A comparison of alkaline and proton exchange membrane electrolyzers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faraday efficiencies and energy consumptions of a small commercial proton exchange membrane (PEM) and an alkaline electrolyzer\\u000a designed at our laboratory and equipped with different cathode materials were determined. Our experimental data indicate that\\u000a the alkaline electrolyzer has a higher Faraday efficiency than the PEM electrolyzer, but, on the other hand, less energy is\\u000a required for the PEM electrolyzer compared

D. Lj. Stoji?; T. D. Grozdi?; B. Umi?evi?; A. D. Maksi?

2008-01-01

398

Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

1999-07-11

399

Optimization of extracellular alkaline protease production from species of Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five strains capable of secreting extracellular alkaline proteases were isolated from the soil and waste water near\\u000a the milk processing plant, slaughterhouse. Strain APP1 with the highest-yield alkaline proteases was identified as Bacillus sp. The cultural conditions were optimized for maximum enzyme production. When the initial pH of the medium was 9.0, the\\u000a culture maintained maximum proteolytic activity for 2,560 U ml?1

Wei-Hua Chu

2007-01-01

400

The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water  

SciTech Connect

Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

1997-12-31

401

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

402

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

403

Maltodextrin hydrolysis in a fluidized-bed immobilized enzyme reactor  

SciTech Connect

The present work deals with maltodextrin hydrolysis by glucoamylase immobilized onto corn stover in a fluidized bed reactor. An industrial enzyme preparation was convalently grafted onto corn stover, yielding an activity of up to 372 U/g and 1700 U/g for support particle sizes of 0.8 and 0.2 mm, respectively. A detailed kinetic study, using a differntial reactor, allowed the characterization of the influence of mass transfer resistance on the reaction catalyzed by immobilized glucoamylase. A simple and general mathematical model was then developed to describe the experimental conversion data and found to be vaild.

Vallat, I.; Monsan, P.; Riba, J.P.

1986-02-01

404

Hollow-fiber enzyme reactors in cellulose hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Immobilized ..beta..-glucosidase from Aspergillus phoenicis has been incorporated into the shell side of hollow-fiber ultrafiltration-membrane cartridges. These cartridge systems served as enzymatic reactors for the hydrolysis of cellobiose and were employed in reaction systems for the saccharification of cellulose. In the latter case a mixture of cellulose and the cellulase enzymes from Trichoderma reesei was circulated through the internal lumens of the hollow fibers. Such systems increase the yield of total sugars produced by enzymatic saccharification of cellulose. The hollow-fiber membranes allowed continuous cellulase enzyme processing and significantly reduced cellulase requirements.

Klei, H.E.; Sundstrom, D.W.; Coughlin, R.W.; Ziolkowski, K.

1981-01-01

405

Stability of commercial glucanase and ?-glucosidase preparations under hydrolysis conditions  

PubMed Central

The cost of enzymes makes enzymatic hydrolysis one of the most expensive steps in the production of lignocellulosic ethanol. Diverse studies have used commercial enzyme cocktails assuming that change in total protein concentration during hydrolysis was solely due to adsorption of endo- and exoglucanases onto the substrate. Given the sensitivity of enzymes and proteins to media conditions this assumption was tested by evaluating and modeling the protein concentration of commercial cocktails at hydrolysis conditions. In the absence of solid substrate, the total protein concentration of a mixture of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 45% at 50 °C after 4 days. The individual cocktails as well as a mixture of both were stable at 20 °C. At 50 °C, the protein concentration of Celluclast 1.5 was relatively constant but Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 77%. It was hypothesized that Novozyme 188 proteins suffer a structural change at 50 °C which leads to protein aggregation and precipitation. Lyophilized ?-glucosidase (P-?-glucosidase) at 50 °C exhibited an aggregation rate which was successfully modeled using first order kinetics (R2 = 0.97). By incorporating the possible presence of chaperone proteins in Novozyme 188, the protein aggregation observed for this cocktail was successfully modeled (R2 = 0.96). To accurately model the increasing protein stability observed at high cocktail loadings, the model was modified to include the presence of additives in the cocktail (R2 = 0.98). By combining the measurement of total protein concentration with the proposed Novozyme 188 protein aggregation model, the endo- and exoglucanases concentration in the solid and liquid phases during hydrolysis can be more accurately determined. This methodology can be applied to various systems leading to optimization of enzyme loading by minimizing the excess of endo- and exoglucanases. In addition, the monitoring of endo- and exoglucanases concentrations can be used to build mass balances of enzyme recycling processes and to techno-economically evaluate the viability of enzyme recycling. PMID:24949230

Rosales-Calderon, Oscar; Duff, Sheldon J.B.

2014-01-01

406

Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

407

Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities for hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass.  

PubMed

Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities are identified for hydrolysis of ionic liquid (IL) pretreated poplar and switchgrass; hemicellulase rich substrates with largely amorphous cellulose. Enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans were expressed and purified: an endoglucanase (EG) a cellobiohydrolase (CBH), an endoxylanase (EX) and an acetylxylan esterase (AXE). ?-Xylosidase (?X) from Selenomonas ruminantium and a commercial ?-glucosidase (?G) from Novozyme 188 were admixed with the A. nidulans enzymes. Statistical analysis indicates that ?G and ?X activities are significant for both glucose and xylose yields for the two substrates. EG is a significant factor for glucan hydrolysis while EX is significant for xylan hydrolysis of the substrates. The CBH, which has activity on crystalline cellulose and negligible activity on amorphous cellulose, was not a significant factor in glucan hydrolysis. EX is significant in glucan hydrolysis for poplar. The addition of AXE significantly improves xylan hydrolysis for poplar but not switchgrass. PMID:22154300

Barr, Christopher J; Mertens, Jeffrey A; Schall, Constance A

2012-01-01

408

Soil Alkalinization and irrigation in the Sahelian zone of Niger II: Agronomic consequences of alkalinity and sodicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils of the terraces of the Niger River have locally undergone, prior to irrigation, a process of alkalinization. The use of the resulting nonsaline sodic soils [pHs 8.5–9.8 (s is “on saturated paste\\

S. Marlet; L. Barbiero; V. Valles

1998-01-01

409

Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute-acid hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of rice straw by dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature and pressure was investigated in one and two stages. The hydrolyses were carried out in a 10-l reactor, where the hydrolysis retention time (3–10min), pressure (10–35bar) and acid concentration (0–1%) were examined. Optimization of first stage hydrolysis is desirable to achieve the highest yield of the sugars from hemicellulose

Keikhosro Karimi; Shauker Kheradmandinia; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

2006-01-01

410

Modeling the hydrolysis of perfluorinated compounds containing carboxylic and phosphoric acid ester functions and sulfonamide groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-dependent rate constants were estimated for the acid- and base-catalyzed and neutral hydrolysis reactions of perfluorinated telomer acrylates (FTAcrs) and phosphate esters (FTPEs), and the SN1 and SN2 hydrolysis reactions of fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs). Under some environmental conditions, hydrolysis of monomeric FTAcrs could be rapid (half-lives of several years in marine systems and as low as several days in some

Sierra Rayne; Kaya Forest

2010-01-01

411

The stereochemistry and reaction mechanism for the enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphorus triesters  

E-print Network

. (December 1987) William Joseph Donarski, B. S. , St. Norbert College Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Prank M. Raushel A phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas has been shown to catalyze the hydrolysis of diethyl p- nitrophenyl phosphate (paraoxon... of Hydrolysis Products Kinetics for Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Methanol Substrate Inhibition Proton Inventory Competitive Inhibition Determination of pKa Data Analysis RESULTS 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 20 20 21 21 23 pH Profile Br...

Donarski, William Joseph

2012-06-07

412

Hydrolysis rates of dissolved volatile organic compounds: Principles, temperature effects and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrhenius parameters, 25 and 10 C rate constants for hydrolysis of most EPA 601\\/602 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their hydrolytic progeny, and selected other VOCs are tabulated. Data include Arrhenius parameters for base-mediated hydrolysis of bromodichloromethane, bromoform, dibromochloromethane, and the acid-mediated hydrolysis of ethylene oxide which have not been published before. The average activation energy of the tabulated values, excepting

John W. Washington

1995-01-01

413

Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter.

Drill, C. [NVIRO International, Toledo, OH (United States); Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources

1998-12-31

414

Factors limiting the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten.  

PubMed

The enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten for the production of seasonings using mixtures of endo- and exopeptidases results in yields typically below 40%. Possible limiting parameters, such as an increasing product inhibition, autopeptidolysis of the enzymes, and lack of cleavage sites, were studied using novel peptidases from Flammulina velutipes or the commercial Flavourzyme preparation. Seven intermittent electrodialysis steps (10 g/L gluten and 10 kaU/mL) for the in situ removal of amino acids minimized the product inhibition. During 16 h, hydrolysis progressed nearly linearly. Compared to the batch control, a 3-fold yield of amino acids released was obtained indicating that an integrated product removal alleviates the problem of product inhibition. Autopeptidolysis, as shown using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and enzyme activity assays, was suppressed with increasing concentrations of competing gluten substrate. Peptidases of F. velutipes showed product inhibition only, whereas a combined effect of product inhibition and lack of cleavage sites was observed for Flavourzyme. PMID:24787755

Giesler, L; Linke, D; Berger, R G

2014-05-21

415

Aluminum hydrolysis constants to 250°C from boehmite solubility measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boehmite solubilities were measured at 150, 200, and 250°C at pH values from 1 to 10 at 100 bars total pressure and used to determine the stability constants for the mononuclear aluminum hydroxide complexes (Al(OH) 2+, Al(OH) 2+, Al(OH) 30, Al(OH) 4-),and the solubility product of boehmite. Buffer solutions of HCl-KCl, acetic acid-sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid, and boric acid-potassium hydroxide were used to control pH. Our solubility data are in good agreement with boehmite solubility measurements in perchloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions reported by KUYUNKO et al. (1983). The stability constants for the aluminum hydroxide species were determined from the solubility data using a Ridge regression technique. The results indicate that aluminum ion hydrolysis becomes stronger at higher temperatures, and the stability field of the neutral complex Al(OH) 30 becomes larger. The results are used to provide a set of equilibrium constants for aluminum hydroxide complex formation and boehmite hydrolysis from 0-300°C.

Bourcier, William L.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Jackson, Kenneth J.

1993-02-01

416

Microporous silica gels from alkylsilicate-water two phase hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Microporous silica gels have been synthesized through a nano-particulate sol-gel route. These gels have uniformly distributed and extremely small pores(< 15 {angstrom} in diameter). Hydrolysis and condensation reactions leading to these gels were carried out in an alkyl silicate-water (ammonia) two phase system. These reactions took place at the alkyl silicate droplet-water interfacial boundary. No alcohol was added. A clear, stable and uniformly distributed colloidal silica suspension having an average particle size less than 6 nm was prepared by this method. Fast hydrolysis, slow condensation and low solubility all contribute to a high supersaturation level and result in the formation of small particles. This process is consistent with classic nucleation theory. When the particles are produced under acidic rather than under basic reaction conditions, smaller particles are formed due to the slower condensation rate and lower solubility of these silica particles in acidic conditions. At the same pH, alkylsilicates having smaller alkyl groups react faster with water leading to smaller primary particles. Homogeneous nucleation conditions are achieved when the water/alkylsilicate ratio is high.

Chu, L.; Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I.; Anderson, M.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program

1994-12-31

417

Aqueous fractionation of biomass based on novel carbohydrate hydrolysis kinetics  

DOEpatents

A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising: a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about 185.degree. C.-205.degree. C. b) allowing the reaction to proceed to a point where about 60% of the hemicellulose has been hydrolyzed in the case of water or complete dissolution in case of acid; c) adding a dilute acid liquid at a pH below about 5 at a temperature of up to about 205.degree. C. for a period ranging from about 5 to about 10 minutes; to hydrolyze the remaining 40% of hemicellulose if water is used. d) quenching the reaction at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to quench all degradation and hydrolysis reactions; and e) introducing into said reaction chamber and simultaneously removing from said reaction chamber, a volumetric flow rate of dilute acid at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to wash out the majority of the solubilized biomass components, to obtain improved hemicellosic sugar yields.

Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)

2001-01-01

418

Steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic material for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment methods were compared with steam explosion, and differing views on the relative importance of mechanical and chemical effects were outlined. Hydrolysis was desirable; pyrolysis was undesirable. The effects of initial moisture content on steam consumption, mechanism and rate of heat transfer, pentosan solubilization, and subsequent glucose yield were summarized. The insignificant effect, after treatment at 240 degrees C, of 90% pressure bleed-down before explosion on subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) yields was described. Treatment at 190 degrees C with complete bleed-down (no explosion), when compared with that at 240 degrees C with explosion from full pressure, showed at least as good solubilization of pentosan, enzymatic hydrolysis, and SSF but showed greater pentosan destruction for the same degree of pentosan removal. Water washing of unexploded steamed aspenwood chips was at least as efficient as that of similarly treated but exploded chips. Scanning electron micrographs of unexploded chips showed extensive rupturing of vessel pit membranes and other morphological features associated with steam-exploded wood. Neither the explosion nor the high temperatures (above 190 degrees C) are necessary. 28 references.

Brownell, H.H.; Saddler, J.N.

1987-02-05

419

Kinetics of the hydrolysis of soluble starch by glucoamylase  

SciTech Connect

The hydrolysis of soluble starch by a commercial glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger was studied in a batch reactor. The experimental variables were the concentration of the substrate, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g/liter; the ratio of enzyme to substrate, 0.6, 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, and 6.0 g enzyme/100 g substrate; and the temperatures, 40 and 50C. The experimental results indicate the synergism between the individual components of the enzyme, because this synergism between the individual components of the enzyme, because this synergism enters into the kinetic expression as E[sub 0][sup 1.32]. However, the experimental data can be fit for conversions less than 40% by the expression r = KS[sub 0]E[sub 0][sup 1.32]/K[sub M]+S[sub 0] [times] exp ([minus]Bx) where K = 1.2 min[sup [minus]1], K[sub M] = 62.4 g DE/liter, and B = 3.28. This equation shows a continual change in the nature of the substrate, which intensifies for conversions more than 0.4 because, at this value, the substrate consists fundamentally of maltose, and, after this point, the most important reaction is the hydrolysis of maltose to glucose.

Tello, P.G.; Rubio, F.C.; Alameda, E.J.; Rodriguez, R.S.

1993-07-01

420

[Optimization of corn stover hydrolysis by fed-batch process].  

PubMed

High-concentration sugars production from stover is an important perspective technology for the cellulosic ethanol industrialization. Fed-batch process is an effective way to achieve this goal in the fermentation industry. In this study, based on fed-batch process, high-concentration sugars were produced from pretreated corn stover by enzymatic hydrolysis. After being pretreated by the dilute sulphuric acid, the impacts of the ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture, the content of supplementary materials and the refilling time on the saccharification rate were investigated. Results showed that the initial ratio of solid raw material to liquid culture was 20% (W/V) and the initial concentrations of enzymes for xylanase, cellulose and pectinase were 220 U, 6 FPU, and 50 U per gram of substrates, respectively. After 24 hours and 48 hours, 8% pretreated corn stovers were added respectively together with the additions of xylanase (20 U) and cellulose (2 FPU) per gram of substrates. After 72 hours, the final concentration of reducing sugar was increased to 138.5 g/L from 48.5 g/L of the non fed-batch process. The rate of enzyme hydrolysis of the raw material was 62.5% of the thoretical value in the fed-batch process. This study demonstrated that the fed-batch process could significantly improve the concentration of reducing sugar. PMID:21650019

Song, Andong; Ren, Tianbao; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui

2011-03-01

421

Online assay of bone specific alkaline phosphatase with a flow injection-bead injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been used as one of the biomarkers for bone resorption and liver diseases. Normally, total alkaline phosphatase is quantified along with other symptoms to determine the releasing source of the alkaline phosphatase. A semi-automated flow injection-bead injection system was proposed to conveniently and selectively assay bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) based on its specific binding to wheat

Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell; Duangporn Somprayoon; Prachya Kongtawelert; Siriwan Ongchai; Olarn Arppornchayanon; Lucksagoon Ganranoo; Somchai Lapanantnoppakhun; Kate Grudpan

2007-01-01

422

Effect of acetate and other cell wall components on enzymatic hydrolysis of aspen wood  

E-print Network

content above the fiber saturation point), In a study of the influence of drying on enzymatic hydrolysis of beech pulp, it was found that the percentage of residue after 68 h hydrolysis at 40OC with T. viride cellulase was less than 1% for ncvcr... content above the fiber saturation point), In a study of the influence of drying on enzymatic hydrolysis of beech pulp, it was found that the percentage of residue after 68 h hydrolysis at 40OC with T. viride cellulase was less than 1% for ncvcr...

Kong, Fanran

2012-06-07

423

Crystal structure of rat intestinal alkaline phosphatase--role of crown domain in mammalian alkaline phosphatases.  

PubMed

Intestinal alkaline phosphatases (IAPs) are involved in the cleavage of phosphate prodrugs to liberate the drug for absorption in the intestine. To facilitate in vitro characterization of phosphate prodrugs, we have cloned, expressed, purified and characterized IAPs from rat and cynomolgus monkey (rIAP and cIAP respectively) which are important pre-clinical species for drug metabolism studies. The recombinant rat and monkey enzymes expressed in Sf9 insect cells (IAP-Ic) were found to be glycosylated and active. Expression of rat IAP in Escherichia coli (rIAP-Ec) led to ~200-fold loss of activity that was partially recovered by the addition of external Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Crystal structures of rIAP-Ec and rIAP-Ic were determined and they provide rationale for the discrepancy in enzyme activities. Rat IAP-Ic retains its activity in presence of both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) whereas activity of most other alkaline phosphatases (APs) including the cIAP was strongly inhibited by excess Zn(2+). Based on our crystal structure, we hypothesized the residue Q317 in rIAP, present within 7 Å of the Mg(2+) at M3, to be important for this difference in activity. The Q317H rIAP and H317Q cIAP mutants showed reversal in effect of Zn(2+), corroborating the hypothesis. Further analysis of the two structures indicated a close linkage between glycosylation and crown domain stability. A triple mutant of rIAP, where all the three putative N-linked glycosylation sites were mutated showed thermal instability and reduced activity. PMID:24076154

Ghosh, Kaushik; Mazumder Tagore, Debarati; Anumula, Rushith; Lakshmaiah, Basanth; Kumar, P P B S; Singaram, Senthuran; Matan, Thangavelu; Kallipatti, Sanjith; Selvam, Sabariya; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Ramarao, Manjunath

2013-11-01

424

The Platanar-Aguas Zarcas volcanic centers, Costa Rica: spatial-temporal association of Quaternary calc-alkaline and alkaline volcanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Platanar volcanic center is dominated by a calc-alkaline, basalt-andesite-dacite-rhyolite magma series with unusual LREE enrichment. Adjacent and overlapping the calc-alkaline rocks are the most alkaline basalts found along the volcanic front of Central America. These basalts are mafic, LIL- and LREE-enriched transitional to alkaline basalts. Several are found on the north flank of Platanar in the Aguas Zarcas region,

G E Alvarado; M J Carr

1993-01-01

425

Enzymatic hydrolysis of esters containing a tetrazole ring.  

PubMed

The lipase-catalyzed enantioselective hydrolysis of acetates containing tetrazole moiety was studied. Among all tested lipases, Novozyme SP 435 allowed to obtain optically active 4-(5-aryl-2H-tetrazol-2yl)butan-2-ol and 1-(5-aryl-2H-tetrazol-2yl)-propan-2-ol and their acetates with the highest optical purities (ee?=?95%-99%) and excellent enantioselectivity (E>100). Some of the synthesized tetrazole derivatives were screened for their antifungal activity. Racemic mixtures of 4-[5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl)butan-2-ol as well as pure enantiomers of this compound showed promising antifungal activity against F. sambucinum, F. oxysporum, C. coccodes, and A. niger. Chirality 26: 811-816, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25065812

Lukowska-Chojnacka, Edyta; Mierzejewska, Jolanta

2014-12-01

426

Carbon dioxide in clastic rocks and silicate hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of carbon dioxide in elastic rocks in sedimentary basins increases with depth. Organic matter, dissolved organic species, and dissolution of carbonate minerals have been suggested as sources of CO2, which increases in abundance with depth and temperature. Isotopic compositions of aqueous HCO-3, gaseous CO2 and calcite from conventional hydrocarbon wells and steam-assisted recovery of heavy oil suggest that calcite, or other carbonate minerals, are the source of CO2, particularly at higher temperatures. Detailed examination of the stability of diagenetic minerals such as kaolinite, smectite, and analcime, among others, relative to the coexisting waters, indicates that silicate hydrolysis is the driving force for dissolution of carbonate minerals and the ultimate source of abundant CO2 in elastic rocks in diagenetic environments at temperatures over approximately 100 °C.

Hutcheon, Ian; Abercrombie, Hugh

1990-06-01

427

Carbon dioxide in clastic rocks and silicate hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The amount of carbon dioxide in clastic rocks in sedimentary basins increases with depth. Organic matter, dissolved organic species, and dissolution of carbonate minerals have been suggested as sources of CO{sub 2}, which increases in abundance with depth and temperature. Isotopic compositions of aqueous HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, gaseous CO{sub 2}, and calcite from conventional hydrocarbon wells and steam-assisted recovery of heavy oil suggest that calcite, or other carbonate minerals, are the source of CO{sub 2}, particularly at higher temperatures. Detailed examination of the stability of diagenetic minerals such as kaolinite, smectite, and analcime, among others, relative to the coexisting waters, indicates that silicate hydrolysis is the driving force for dissolution of carbonate minerals and the ultimate source of abundant CO{sub 2} in clastic rocks in diagenetic environments at temperatures over approximately 100 C.

Hutcheon, I. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Abercrombie, H. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, Albert (Canada))

1990-06-01

428

Polarized-light-stimulated enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan.  

PubMed

The 1- to 2-h illumination of xylanase with visible polarized light (PL) prior to the action of that enzyme upon beechwood xylan significantly increased its activity. The activity only negligibly decreased on 3 months storage. The hydrolysis of xylan proceeded in three well-distinguished stages. In the first and fastest stage the effect of illumination was only slightly positive. The effect of the stimulation was noted in the second, slower stage. Enzyme stimulated with PL, preferably by means of the 2-h illumination, performed better than enzyme stimulated with nonpolarized light and non-stimulated enzyme. In the last, the slowest stage, the rates of the reaction were nearly the same using either stimulated or non-stimulated enzyme. PMID:18315000

Konieczna-Molenda, Anna; Lai, Vivian M F; Fiedorowicz, Maciej; Khachatryan, Gohar; Tomasik, Piotr

2008-01-01

429

Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant  

SciTech Connect

Effects of surfactants on enzymatic saccharification of cellulose have been studied. Nonionic, amphoteric, and cationic surfactants enhanced the saccharification, while anionic surfactant did not. Cationic and anionic surfactants denatured cellulase in their relatively low concentrations, namely, more than 0.008 and 0.001%, respectively. Using nonionic surfactant Tween 20, which is most effective to the enhancement (e.g., the fractional conversion attained by 72 h saccharification of 5 wt % Avicel in the presence of 0.05 wt % Tween 20 is increased by 35%), actions of surfactant have been examined. As the results, it was suggested that Tween 20 plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and that Tween 20 disturbs the adsorption of endoglucanase on cellulose, i.e., varies the adsorption balance of endo- and exoglucanase, resulting in enhancing the reaction. The influence of Tween 20 to the saccharification was found to remain in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Avicel.

Ooshima, H.; Sakata, M.; Harano, Y.

1986-01-01

430

Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

1997-03-01

431

Study of the hydrolysis of TEOS-TMOS mixtures under ultrasound stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure and mixed tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) were hydrolyzed at 35°C, using oxalic acid as a catalyst and ultrasound stimulation. The hydrolysis reaction was carried out in a specially designed device, in which a heat flow steady state, between the ultrasound source and an external thermostatic bath, was maintained, in the absence of reactions. The exothermic hydrolysis causes a

D. A. Donatti; D. R. Vollet

1996-01-01

432

Actin Polymerization and Depolymerization Coupled to Cooperative Hydrolysis Jan Kierfeld,3  

E-print Network

Actin Polymerization and Depolymerization Coupled to Cooperative Hydrolysis Xin Li,1,2 Jan Kierfeld; published 23 July 2009) The hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during actin (de states of each actin protomer. A new theoretical model that explicitly incorporates these different

Kierfeld, Jan

433

Utilization of b-glucosidase from aspergillus species in the hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

The batch hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulase was considerably enhanced by the addition of very small amounts of B-glucosidase derived from Aspergillus niger. Addition of larger amounts had no further effect. In simultaneous cellulose hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation experiments the addition of B-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger had no significant effect on alcohol production by the fermenting yeast.

Nybergh, P.M.A.; Bailey, M.J.

1980-01-01

434

Hydrolysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL) in Aqueous Acetonitrile Solutions: Autocatalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a hydrolytically degradable aliphatic polyester. The rate of polymer hydrolysis increases with time, and that has been attributed to the high reactivity of the terminal ester and the kinetics of autocatalysis. Hydrolysis is carried out in an acetonitrile\\/water solution to eliminate any solid-state contributions such as diffusion and crystallinity to the degradation process. A kinetic equation

Georgette L. Siparsky; Kent J. Voorhees; Fudu Miao

1998-01-01

435

Effect of Hydrolysis on the Properties of a New Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Acid  

E-print Network

to analyze the hydrolysis products of the VES. Coreflood tests were also conducted on Indiana limestone to determine the effects of the hydrolysis products on the permeability of these cores. The temperature was set at 250°F and the flow rate at 2.5 cm^(3)/s...

He, Zhenhua

2013-08-07

436

Effect of acetylation of biodegradable polyrotaxanes on its supramolecular dissociation via terminal ester hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylation of biodegradable polyrotaxanes was examined to estimate the effect on its supramolecular dissociation via terminal ester hydrolysis. The biodegradable polyrotaxanes, in which many ?-cyclodextrins (?-CD) are threaded onto a poly(ethylene glycol) chain capped with L-phenylalanine via ester linkages, were acetylated using acetic anhydride; ?-CD release behavior was then characterized by in vitro hydrolysis. The degree of acetylation was changed

Junji Watanabe; Tooru Ooya; Nobuhiko Yui

1999-01-01

437

Organosolv pretreatment by crude glycerol from oleochemicals industry for enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to defray the cost of biodiesel production, the ensuing work was to further investigate utilization of the crude glycerol (CG) from oleochemicals industry in the atmospheric autocatalytic organosolv pretreatment (AAOP) to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis.The AAOP–CG enabled wheat straw to achieve with reasonable enzymatic hydrolysis yields, reaching ?75% for the wet substrate and ?63% for the dried. Lipophilic compounds

Fubao Sun; Hongzhang Chen

2008-01-01

438

Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol  

E-print Network

Study of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose for Production of Fuel Ethanol by the Simultaneous to ethanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be carried out efficiently and economically using are presented in light of the impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on fuel ethanol production. Key words: enzymatic

California at Riverside, University of

439

Batchwise hydrolysis of olive oil by lipase in AOT-isooctane reverse micelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Olive oil was almost completely hydrolyzed by lipase in reverse micelles. R value and initial water content were found to be the most important factors that determine the hydrolyzing rate and degree of hydrolysis, respectively. The hydrolysis rate and the stability of the enzyme were affected by stirring and addition of histidine or glycerol.

Daeseok Han; Joon Shick Rhee

1985-01-01

440

Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic determination of fenofibrate and vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several spectrophotometric and HPLC methods are presented for the determination of fenofibrate, vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products. The resolution of either fenofibrate or vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products has been accomplished by using numerical spectrophotometric methods as partial least squares (PLS-1) and principal component regression (PCR) applied to UV spectra; and graphical spectrophotometric methods as first derivative of ratio spectra

Alaa El-Gindy; Samy Emara; Mostafa K. Mesbah; Ghada M. Hadad

2005-01-01

441

Kinetics of cellobiose hydrolysis using cellobiase composites from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose involves the formation of cellobiose as an intermediate. It has been found necessary to add cellobiase from Aspergillus niger (NOVO) to the cellobiase component of Trichoderma reesei mutant Rut C-30 (Natick) cellulase enzymes in order to obtain after 48 h complete conversion of the cellobiose formed in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. This

W. Grous; A. Converse; H. Grethlein; L. Lynd

1985-01-01

442

The generation of fermentation inhibitors during dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the severity of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of spruce (softwood) on sugar yield and on the fermentability of the hydrolysate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) was investigated. Fermentability was assessed as the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars (mannose and glucose) and the mean volumetric productivity (4 h). The hydrolysis conditions, residence time, temperature, and sulfuric acid concentration

Simona Larsson; Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Charlotte Tengborg; Kerstin Stenberg; Guido Zacchi; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant

1999-01-01

443

Potential enzyme cost reduction with the addition of surfactant during the hydrolysis of pretreated softwood.  

PubMed

The potential economic benefits of surfactants addition on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol-pretreated lodgepole pine (EPLP) were investigated in this study. Free cellulase readsorption on fresh substrate was used to recover and recycle cellulase enzymes during the hydrolysis of SELP and EPLP substrate. Supplementing Tween 80 during the hydrolysis could facilitate enzyme recycling for EPLP substrate. A logarithmic correlation was established between surfactant concentration and free cellulase content after lignocellulosic hydrolysis, which was used to compute enzyme cost savings over various Tween 80 concentrations. A simple economic analysis of enzyme cost savings versus the cost of surfactant was undertaken. The results indicated that the addition of Tween 80 (priced at US $0.25/kg) during the hydrolysis of the EPLP substrate could save 60% of the total enzyme cost at concentrations in the 0.025% to 0.2% range. The addition of Tween for the hydrolysis of the SELP substrate significantly reduced the material cost by 24% per 1 gal of ethanol produced, and the ethanol production cost could be reduced by 8.6% with the addition of Tween and enzymes recycle for the hydrolysis of SELP substrate. A schematic concept of recycling enzyme and surfactant was also presented with a recirculation of process streams during hydrolysis. Further analysis indicated a 66% reduction in total enzyme cost could potentially be achieved under the concept. PMID:19946759

Tu, Maobing; Saddler, Jack N

2010-05-01

444

Influence of Crop Residues and Organic Manures on the Hydrolysis of Urea in a Typic Haplustept  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis on integrated use of organic amendments and fertilizers has made it imperative to study the effect of crop residues and organic manures on urea hydrolysis, which governs the release of N from urea fertilizer. Urea hydrolysis in soils is an enzymatic decomposition process facilitated by the extracellular enzyme urease. Our aim was to assess the influence of crop

M. S. Mavi; Balwinder Singh

2007-01-01

445

Alkaline/peracetic acid as a pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol fuel production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peracetic acid is a lignin oxidation pretreatment with low energy input by which biomass can be treated in a silo type system for improving enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. Experimentally, ground hybrid poplar wood and sugar cane bagasse are placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass in different concentrations based on oven-dry biomass. The ratio of solution to biomass is 6:1; after initial mixing of the resulting paste, a seven-day storage period at about 20°C is used in this study. As a complementary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetyl content in the biomass is been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the biomass in a ratio of 14:1 solution to biomass; the slurry is mixed for 24 hours at ambient temperature. The above procedures give high xylan content substrates. Consequently, xylanase/beta-glucosidase combinations are more effective than cellulase preparations in hydrolyzing these materials. The pretreatment effectiveness is evaluated using standard enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) procedures. Hybrid poplar wood pretreated with 15 and 21% peracetic acid based on oven-dry weight of wood gives glucan conversion yields of 76.5 and 98.3%, respectively. Sugar cane bagasse pretreated with the same loadings gives corresponding yields of 85.9 and 93.1%. Raw wood and raw bagasse give corresponding yields of 6.8 and 28.8%, respectively. The combined 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreatments increase the glucan conversion yields from 76.5 to 100.0% for hybrid poplar wood and from 85.9 to 97.6% for sugar cane bagasse. Respective ethanol yields of 92.8 and 91.9% are obtained from 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreated materials using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5. Peracetic acid pretreatment improves enzymatic digestibility of hybrid poplar wood and sugar cane bagasse. Based on reduction of acetyl groups in the two lignocellulosic materials, alkaline pre-pretreatments are helpful in reducing peracetic acid requirements in the pretreatment and consequently diminishing growth inhibition of the bacteria that was observed using higher peracetic acid loadings.

Teixeira, Lincoln Cambraia

446

Alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment of softwood: hemicellulose degradation pathways.  

PubMed

This study investigated softwood hemicelluloses degradation pathways during alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment of Douglas fir. It was found that glucomannan is much more susceptible to alkaline pretreatment than xylan. Organic acids, including lactic, succinic, glycolic and formic acid are the predominant products from glucomannan degradation. At low treatment temperature (90°C), a small amount of formic acid is produced from glucomannan, whereas glucomannan degradation to lactic acid and succinic acid becomes the main reactions at 140°C and 180°C. The addition of H2O2 during alkaline pretreatment of D. fir led to a significant removal of lignin, which subsequently facilitated glucomannan solubilization. However, H2O2 has little direct effect on the glucomannan degradation reaction. The main degradation pathways involved in glucomannan conversion to organics acids are elucidated. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to optimize pretreatment conditions to maximize the value of biomass hemicellulose. PMID:24185034

Alvarez-Vasco, Carlos; Zhang, Xiao

2013-12-01

447

Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

2001-12-21

448

Delayed upper-airway injury after accidental alkaline ingestion.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

Ryan, Matthew F; Fernandez, Mindy; Laauwe, Karen

2014-01-01

449

Significant contribution of dissolved organic matter to seawater alkalinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study shows a previously undocumented role of dissolved organic matter in the marine carbonate system. During photosynthesis, phytoplankton release dissolved organic compounds containing basic functional groups that readily react with protons during seawater titration, and thereby contribute to alkalinity (a measure of buffering capacity). The magnitude of the contribution of dissolved organic compounds to seawater alkalinity is species dependent, suggesting that individual phytoplankton species exude dissolved organic compounds with unique proton accepting capacities. Our study shows that dissolved organic matter produced by marine phytoplankton during photosynthesis is a newly identified buffering component in the ocean, and indicates that the contribution of dissolved organic matter to seawater alkalinity can be significant in the biologically productive upper ocean, where to date it has been unrecognized or considered insignificant.

Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Lee, Kitack

2009-10-01