Sample records for alkaline hydrolysis

  1. Acylglucuronide in alkaline conditions: migration vs. hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, Florent; Steel, Michele; Nicolas, Picard; Marquet, Pierre; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Trouillas, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    This work rationalizes the glucuronidation process (one of the reactions of the phase II metabolism) for drugs having a carboxylic acid moiety. At this stage, acylglucuronides (AG) metabolites are produced, that have largely been reported in the literature for various drugs (e.g., mycophenolic acid (MPA), diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylacetic acids). The competition between migration and hydrolysis is rationalized by adequate quantum calculations, combing MP2 and density functional theory (DFT) methods. At the molecular scale, the former process is a real rotation of the drug around the glucuconic acid. This chemical-engine provides four different metabolites with various toxicities. Migration definitely appears feasible under alkaline conditions, making proton release from the OH groups. The latter reaction (hydrolysis) releases the free drug, so the competition is of crucial importance to tackle drug action and elimination. From the theoretical data, both migration and hydrolysis appear kinetically and thermodynamically favored, respectively. PMID:23420401

  2. Management of spent solvents by alkaline hydrolysis process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smitha Manohar; C. Srinivas; Tessy Vincent; P. K. Wattal

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the treatment method for the management of spent solvents of reprocessing origin (30% tri-n-butyl phosphate in n-dodecane) using the ‘alkaline hydrolysis process’. The consolidated work reported herein has established total conversion of TBP to aqueous soluble reaction products and transfer of near total radioactivity associated with the waste into this aqueous phase. It was also observed

  3. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Alaniya

    1977-01-01

    Summary  1. In a study of the kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of flavone glycosides it has been found that derivatives of 3,3?,4?,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone\\u000a hydrolyze faster than derivatives of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone and of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3?-methoxyflavone.\\u000a \\u000a 2. In the hydrolysis of diglycosides of 3,3?,4?,5,7-pentahydroxyflavones the maximum amount of intermediate product is formed\\u000a after 2 min (3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone glycoside), and in the case of 3,4?,5,7-tetrahydroxy-3?-methoxyflavone glycosides\\u000a after

  4. Alkaline Phosphatase Revisited: Hydrolysis of Alkyl Phosphates Patrick J. O'Brien and Daniel Herschlag*

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Alkaline Phosphatase Revisited: Hydrolysis of Alkyl Phosphates Patrick J. O'Brien and DanielVed December 18, 2001 ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is the prototypical two metal ion enhancements of two metal ion catalysts are among the largest known (3, 4). E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP)1

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of paracetamol with microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunli; Li, Baoxin

    2004-07-01

    A novel and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of paracetamol to p-aminophenol that reacts with S 2- in the presence of Fe 3+ as oxidant to produce a methylene blue-like dye having an absorptivity maximum at 540 nm. The experiment showed that paracetamol could be hydrolysed quantitatively to p-aminophenol in only 1.5 min under radiation power 640 W using a microwave in NaOH medium. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0-3.0×10 -4 mol l -1 paracetamol. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 3.2×10 3 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.047 ?g cm -2, respectively. The relative standard deviation ( n=11) was 1.7% for 8.0×10 -5 mol l -1 paracetamol. The method has been applied successfully to analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparation.

  6. Determination of Poly(3?Hydroxybutyrate) using a Combination of Enzymatic Spectrophotometry and Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Cui; John Barford; Reinhard Renneberg

    2006-01-01

    A combination of enzyme?based spectrophotometric analysis and alkaline hydrolysis was developed for the measurement of poly(3?hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). The principle of the determination is as follows: alkaline hydrolysis decomposes PHB into its monomer product 3?hydroxybutyrate, which is followed with enzymatic reaction catalyzed by 3?hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in the presence of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD). The product, nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide with hydrogen (NADH)

  7. Susceptibility of a Polycaprolactone-Based Root Canal Filling Material to Degradation. I. Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin R. Tay; David H. Pashley; M. Chad Williams; Rakesh Raina; Robert J. Loushine; R. Norman Weller; W. Frank Kimbrough; Nigel M. King

    2005-01-01

    Polycaprolactone, a thermoplastic aliphatic polyester, is reportedly susceptible to both alkaline and enzymatic hydrolyzes. This screening study examined the susceptibility of Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based root filling composite, to alkaline hydrolysis. There were 15-mm diameter disks of Resilon and Obtura gutta-percha prepared by compressive molding and immersed in 20% sodium ethoxide for 20 or 60 min. Control disks were immersed in

  8. Survival of prokaryotes in a polluted waste dump during remediation by alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Bank; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Lever, Mark Alexander; Ingvorsen, Kjeld

    2014-04-01

    A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques was used to characterize bacterial and archaeal communities in a highly polluted waste dump and to assess the effect of remediation by alkaline hydrolysis on these communities. This waste dump (Breakwater 42), located in Denmark, contains approximately 100 different toxic compounds including large amounts of organophosphorous pesticides such as parathions. The alkaline hydrolysis (12 months at pH >12) decimated bacterial and archaeal abundances, as estimated by 16S rRNA gene-based qPCR, from 2.1 × 10(4) and 2.9 × 10(3) gene copies per gram wet soil respectively to below the detection limit of the qPCR assay. Clone libraries constructed from PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a significant reduction in bacterial diversity as a result of the alkaline hydrolysis, with preferential survival of Betaproteobacteria, which increased in relative abundance from 0 to 48 %. Many of the bacterial clone sequences and the 27 isolates were related to known xenobiotic degraders. An archaeal clone library from a non-hydrolyzed sample showed the presence of three main clusters, two representing methanogens and one representing marine aerobic ammonia oxidizers. Isolation of alkalitolerant bacterial pure cultures from the hydrolyzed soil confirmed that although alkaline hydrolysis severely reduces microbial community diversity and size certain bacteria survive a prolonged alkaline hydrolysis process. Some of the isolates from the hydrolyzed soil were capable of growing at high pH (pH 10.0) in synthetic media indicating that they could become active in in situ biodegradation upon hydrolysis. PMID:24532314

  9. Recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen from alkaline hydrolysis supernatant of excess sludge by magnesium ammonium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Li, Yiyong; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-08-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) method was used to recover orthophosphate (PO?(3-)-P) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from the alkaline hydrolysis supernatant of excess sludge. To reduce alkali consumption and decrease the pH of the supernatant, two-stage alkaline hydrolysis process (TSAHP) was designed. The results showed that the release efficiencies of PO?(3-)-P and NH?(+)-N were 41.96% and 7.78%, respectively, and the pH of the supernatant was below 10.5 under the running conditions with initial pH of 13, volume ratio (sludge dosage/water dosage) of 1.75 in second-stage alkaline hydrolysis reactor, 20 g/L of sludge concentration in first-stage alkaline hydrolysis reactor. The order of parameters influencing MAP reaction was analyzed and the optimized conditions of MAP reaction were predicted through the response surface methodology. The recovery rates of PO?(3-)-P and NH?(+)-N were 46.88% and 16.54%, respectively under the optimized conditions of Mg/P of 1.8, pH 9.7 and reaction time of 15 min. PMID:24880806

  10. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON I. KAYE; PETER B. WEBER; ANN EVANS; RICHARD A. VENEZIA

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure

  11. Aqueous solubility and alkaline hydrolysis of the novel high explosive hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20).

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Pelin; Sidhoum, Mohammed; Christodoulatos, Christos; Nicolich, Steve; Balas, Wendy

    2005-04-11

    The recently developed polycyclic nitramine CL-20 is considered as a possible replacement for the monocyclic nitramines RDX and HMX. The present study reports aqueous solubility data for CL-20, as well as the kinetic parameters for its alkaline hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide below and above its solubility limits. Aqueous solubility of CL-20 was measured in the temperature range of 4-69 degrees C and the data were fitted to a generalized solubility model. Alkaline hydrolysis experiments were conducted at 15, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C, with hydroxide concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 300 mM. Like RDX and HMX, alkaline hydrolysis of CL-20 follows second-order kinetics. CL-20 alkaline hydrolysis was found to proceed at a significantly faster rate than RDX. The temperature dependency of the second-order rate constants was evaluated using the Arrhenius model. The activation energy for CL-20 was found to be within close range of the activation energies reported for RDX and HMX. PMID:15811680

  12. Fast and sensitive collagen quantification by alkaline hydrolysis/hydroxyproline assay.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cassia Maria Lins; Spinelli, Eliani; Rodrigues, Silvana Vianna

    2015-04-15

    A preparative protein alkaline hydrolysis procedure, as part of a spectrophotometric collagen quantification method, is presented. The procedure is suitable for small amounts of fresh solid or liquid samples. Various aspects of the procedure, such as the NaOH concentration, time needed to hydrolyse different collagen contents, buffer strength of the reagent solution, pH control of the hydrolysate and spectrophotometric conditions, were evaluated. Compared to other procedures that use alkaline hydrolysis, the sensitivity of this procedure was increased by a factor of 5. Compared to the conventionally used Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) acid hydrolysis method, the reaction time was reduced from 16 h to 40 min and the amount of sample from 4 g to 3-20 mg, producing equivalent results when applied to porcine liver and sausage samples. PMID:25466067

  13. Biochemistry 1993,32, 8737-8741 8737 Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of Phosphorylated Pyridines by Alkaline Phosphatase

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    by Alkaline Phosphatase Has Little or No Dependence on the PKa of the Leaving Group? Brian I. Labow, Daniel alkaline phosphatase is an active catalyst for the hydrolysis of N-phosphorylated pyridines, with values limiting for turnover of the enzyme at low substrate concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase is a highly

  14. Alkaline hydrolysis of organophosphorus pesticides: the dependence of the reaction mechanism on the incoming group conformation.

    PubMed

    Dyguda-Kazimierowicz, Edyta; Roszak, Szczepan; Sokalski, W Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    The fundamental mechanism of organophosphate hydrolysis is the subject of a growing interest resulting from the need for safe disposal of phosphoroorganic pesticides. Herein, we present a detailed ab initio study of the gas-phase mechanisms of alkaline hydrolysis of P-O and P-S bonds in a number of organophosphorus pesticides, including paraoxon, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, demeton-S, acephate, phosalone, azinophos-ethyl, and malathion. Our main finding is that the incoming group conformation influences the mechanism of decomposition of organophosphate and organothiophosphate compounds. Depending on the orientation of the attacking nucleophile, hydrolysis reaction might follow either a multistep pathway characterized by the presence of a pentavalent intermediate or a one-step mechanism proceeding through a single transition state. Despite a widely accepted view of the phosphotriester P-O bonds being decomposed exclusively via a direct-displacement mechanism, the occurrence of alternative, qualitatively distinct reaction pathways was confirmed for alkaline hydrolysis of both P-O and P-S bonds. As the pesticides included in our quantum chemical analysis involve organophosphate, phosphorothioate, and phosphorodithioate compounds, the influence of oxygen to sulfur substitution on the structural and energetic characteristics of the hydrolysis pathway is also discussed. PMID:24912103

  15. [Rapid determination of tetrodotoxin using microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis and spectrofluorometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-shu; Guo, Lei; Gu, Ming-song; Feng, Jian-lin; Xie, Jian-wei

    2006-12-01

    To develop a rapid, simple and sensitive method for determining the concentration of tetrodotoxin(TTX), TTX was hydrolyzed in the strong alkali solution of water mixed with isopropanol. The concentration of TTX can be indirectly analyzed by the fluorescence signal of its alkaline hydrolysis product which can be enhanced by the microwave method. The maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of the alkaline hydrolysis product of tetrodotoxin were 380 and 496 nm, respectively. The linear range of the calibration curve was 0. 1-10 micromol x L(-1) with r=0. 9991. The limit of detection was 0. 05 micromol x L(-1) , which was twenty times lower than before. A rapid, highly sensitive and accurate method was thus established. It can be used as a quantitative method for detecting TTX. PMID:17361726

  16. Kinetic study of alkaline protease 894 for the hydrolysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Chen, Hua; Cai, Bingna; Liu, Qingqin; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    A new enzyme (alkaline protease 894) obtained from the marine extremophile Flavobacterium yellowsea (YS-80-122) has exhibited strong substrate-binding and catalytic activity, even at low temperature, but the characteristics of the hydrolysis with this enzyme are still unclear. The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii was used in this study as the raw material to illustrate the kinetic properties of protease 894. After investigating the intrinsic relationship between the degree of hydrolysis and several factors, including initial reaction pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time, the kinetics model was established. This study showed that the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were an initial reaction pH of 5.0, temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 10% (w/v), enzyme concentration of 2 500 U/g, and hydrolysis time of 160 min. The kinetic characteristics of the protease for the hydrolysis of P. martensii were obtained. The inactivation constant was found to be 15.16/min, and the average relative error between the derived kinetics model and the actual measurement was only 3.04%, which indicated a high degree of fitness. Therefore, this study provides a basis for the investigation of the concrete kinetic characteristics of the new protease, which has potential applications in the food industry.

  17. DFT M06-2X investigation of alkaline hydrolysis of nitroaromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hill, Frances C; Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Blaustein, Gail S; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2012-07-01

    The nitroaromatic compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) are potential environmental contaminants and their transformations under a variety of environmental conditions are consequently of great interest. One possible method to safely degrade these nitrocompounds is alkaline hydrolysis. A mechanism of the initial stages of this reaction was investigated computationally. Simulations of UV-VIS and NMR spectra for this mechanism were also produced. The results obtained were compared to available experimental data on the alkaline hydrolysis of TNT and suggest that the formation of Meisenheimer complexes and an anion of TNT are potential first-step intermediates in the reaction path. As the reaction proceeds, computational results indicate that polynegative complexes dominate the degradation pathway, followed by cycles of carbon chain opening and breaking. A second possible pathway was identified that leads to polymeric products through Janovsky complex formation. Results from this study indicate that the order of increasing resistance to alkaline hydrolysis is TNT, DNT and DNAN. PMID:22513338

  18. Effect of acid hydrolysis on regenerated kenaf core membrane produced using aqueous alkaline-urea systems.

    PubMed

    Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Kaco, Hatika; Gan, Sinyee; Ng, Peivun

    2015-06-25

    Bleached kenaf core pulps (BKC) were hydrolyzed in H2SO4 (0.5M) at different time (0min to 90min) at room temperature. After the hydrolysis process, the viscosity average molecular weight (M?) for BKC sample has reduced from 14.5×10(4) to 2.55×10(4). The hydrolyzed BKC was then dissolved in NaOH:urea:water and in LiOH:urea:water mixed solvent at the ratio of 7:12:81 and 4.6:15:80.4, respectively. The increased in hydrolysis time has decreased M? of cellulose leading to easy dissolution process. Higher porosity and transparency with lower crystallinity index (CrI) of regenerated membrane produced can be achieved as the M? reduced. The properties of membrane were observed through FESEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer and XRD. This study has proven that acid hydrolysis has reduced the M? of cellulose, thus, enhanced the properties of regenerated membrane produced with assisted by alkaline/urea system. PMID:25839807

  19. Enhanced alkaline hydrolysis and biodegradability studies of nitrocellulose-bearing missile propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidhoum, Mohammed; Christodoulatos, Christos; Su, Tsan-Liang; Redis, Mercurios

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of energetic materials which have been accumulated over the years in various manufacturing and military installations must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Historically, the method of choice for destruction of obsolete or aging energetic materials has been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD). This destruction approach has become undesirable due to air pollution problems. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies which will effectively and economically deal with the disposal of energetic materials. Along those lines, we have investigated a chemical/biological process for the safe destruction and disposal of a double base solid rocket propellant (AHH), which was used in several 8 inch projectile systems. The solid propellant is made of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin as energetic components, two lead salts which act as ballistic modifiers, triacetin as a plasticizer and 2-Nitrodiphenylamine (2-NDPA) as a stabilizer. A process train is being developed to convert the organic components of the propellant to biodegradable products and remove the lead from the process stream. The solid propellant is first hydrolyzed through an enhanced alkaline hydrolysis process step. Following lead removal and neutralization, the digested liquor rich in nitrates and nitrites is found to be easily biodegradable. The digestion rate of the intact ground propellant as well as the release of nitrite and nitrate groups were substantially increased when ultrasound were supplied to the alkaline reaction medium compared to the conventional alkaline hydrolysis. The effects of reaction time, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration and other relevant parameters on the digestion efficiency and biodegradability have been studied. The present work indicates that the AHH propellant can be disposed of safely with a combination of physiochemical and biological processes.

  20. Scale-up and integration of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and ethanolic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana; Liu, Tongjun; Williams, Daniel L; Meza, Sarynna López; Walton, Jonathan D; Hodge, David B

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) has several attractive features as a pretreatment in the lignocellulosic biomass-to-ethanol pipeline. Here, the feasibility of scaling-up the AHP process and integrating it with enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was studied. Corn stover (1?kg) was subjected to AHP pretreatment, hydrolyzed enzymatically, and the resulting sugars fermented to ethanol. The AHP pretreatment was performed at 0.125?g H(2) O(2) /g biomass, 22°C, and atmospheric pressure for 48?h with periodic pH readjustment. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed in the same reactor following pH neutralization of the biomass slurry and without washing. After 48?h, glucose and xylose yields were 75% and 71% of the theoretical maximum. Sterility was maintained during pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis without the use of antibiotics. During fermentation using a glucose- and xylose-utilizing strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of the Glc and 67% of the Xyl were consumed in 120?h. The final ethanol titer was 13.7?g/L. Treatment of the enzymatic hydrolysate with activated carbon prior to fermentation had little effect on Glc fermentation but markedly improved utilization of Xyl, presumably due to the removal of soluble aromatic inhibitors. The results indicate that AHP is readily scalable and can be integrated with enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation. Compared to other leading pretreatments for lignocellulosic biomass, AHP has potential advantages with regard to capital costs, process simplicity, feedstock handling, and compatibility with enzymatic deconstruction and fermentation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012; 109:922-931. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22125119

  1. Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Gordon; Weber, Peter; Evans, Ann; Venezia, Richard

    1998-05-01

    The efficacy of alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative for incineration or autoclaving during treatment and disposal of infectious waste was evaluated by testing for the destruction of samples of pure cultures of selected infectious microorganisms during digestion of 114 to 136-kg loads of animal carcasses in an animal tissue digestor at the Albany Medical College. Ten milliliter samples of pure cultures of each microorganism were divided among 3 dialysis bags made from narrow diameter dialysis tubing, and each of these bags was placed inside another dialysis bag made from larger diameter dialysis tubing. Each double-bagged sample was suspended from the cover of the carcass basket of the tissue digestor so that it was completely covered by hot alkaline digestion solution during the carcass digestion process. The following organisms were required by the New York State Department of Health as representative pathogens for testing sterilization capabilities of the procedure: Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium fortuitum, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus fumigatus, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, MS-2 bacteriophage, and Giardia muris. Animal carcasses included pigs, sheep, rabbits, dogs, rats, mice, and guinea pigs. The tissue digestor was operated at 110 to 120 C and approximately 15 lb/in2 (gauge) for 18 h before the system was allowed to cool to 50 C and dialysis bags were retrieved and submitted for microbial culture. None of the samples obtained from the dialysis bags after the digestion process yielded indicator bacteria or yeast. Giardia cysts were completely destroyed; only small fragments of what appeared to be cyst wall could be recognized with light microscopic examination. No plaque-forming units were detected with MS-2 bacteriophage after digestion. Samples of the hydrolyzate also did not yield growth on culture media. Animal carcasses were completely solubilized and digested, with only the inorganic components of the bones and teeth remaining after draining and rinsing of the digestion vessel. Alkaline hydrolysis, as performed in this tissue digestor, completely destroyed all representative classes of potentially infectious agents as well as disposing of animal carcasses by solubilization and digestion. PMID:12456159

  2. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to microbial or chemical degradation of the polymeric materials remain unknown.

  3. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and ?-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two-stage pretreatment process is well suited for converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars and biofuels, such as ethanol. This approach achieved high enzymatic sugars yields from pretreated corn stover using substantially lower oxidant loadings than have been reported previously in the literature. This pretreatment approach allows for many possible process configurations involving novel alkali recovery approaches and novel uses of alkaline pre-extraction liquors. Further work is required to identify the most economical configuration, including process designs using techno-economic analysis and investigating processing strategies that economize water use. PMID:24693882

  4. Carbon source recovery from waste activated sludge by alkaline hydrolysis and gamma-ray irradiation for biological denitrification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tak-Hyun; Nam, Youn-Ku; Park, Chulhwan; Lee, Myunjoo

    2009-12-01

    The recovery of an organic carbon source from a waste activated sludge by using alkaline hydrolysis and radiation treatment was studied, and the feasibility of the solubilized sludge carbon source for a biological denitrification was also investigated. The effects of an alkaline treatment and gamma-ray irradiation on a biodegradability enhancement of the sludge were also studied. A modified continuous bioreactor for a denitrification (MLE reactor) was operated by using a synthetic wastewater for 47 days. Alkaline treatment of pH 10 and gamma-ray irradiation of 20 kGy were found to be the optimum carbon source recovery conditions. COD removal of 84% and T-N removal of 51% could be obtained by using the solubilized sludge carbon source through the MLE denitrification process. It can be concluded that the carbon source recovered from the waste activated sludge was successfully employed as an alternative carbon source for a biological denitrification. PMID:19596570

  5. Occupational asthma from reactivity to an alkaline hydrolysis derivative of gluten.

    PubMed

    Lachance, P; Cartier, A; Dolovich, J; Malo, J L

    1988-02-01

    A 29-year-old female subject had been working for 13 years in a company producing biscuits. She was exposed intermittently to an alkaline hydrolysis wheat gluten derivative (AHGD) that was incorporated into marshmallows. Five years before being referred, she started reporting rhinoconjunctivitis and asthmatic symptoms immediately after handling AHGD. When she was first assessed, she had avoided contact with AHGD for 1 year, and she was asymptomatic. Normal spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine (provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1, 22 mg/ml) were obtained. There was a positive allergy skin test to ragweed pollen and to AHGD at 0.01 mg/ml. Skin tests with individual extracts of cereals, including wheat, were negative. Inhalation challenge with AHGD for 15 seconds caused immediate rhinoconjunctivitis and bronchoconstriction (maximum fall of 40% in FEV1 30 minutes after the exposure) with complete recovery 2 hours later. There was no reaction thereafter, and the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 was not significantly changed (13.1 mg/ml) 9 hours after the challenge. Inhalation challenge with wheat flour containing native gluten for 30 minutes did not cause any symptoms or significant change in FEV1. IgE RAST counts were greater with the AHGD than with gluten and the whole wheat extract; the opposite was generally found with sera from individuals with baker's asthma and wheat food allergy. With the serum of the affected worker, AHGD completely inhibited the corresponding RAST, but gluten did not. With wheat food allergy, AHGD was relatively inactive inhibition of the wheat and gluten RAST, but gluten was effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3339195

  6. Probing the Origins of Catalytic Discrimination between Phosphate and Sulfate Monoester Hydrolysis: Comparative Analysis of Alkaline

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    : Comparative Analysis of Alkaline Phosphatase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases Logan D. Andrews, Jesse G an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline and properties used to optimize catalysis of the cognate reaction.1-4 Members of the alkaline phosphatase

  7. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in aqueous solution and highly contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Emmrich, M.

    1999-11-01

    During the two World Wars, large amounts of TNT were released into the environment. Until today, high concentrations of TNT can be found in the soil of former ammunition plants. To obtain basic data for a novel treatment process for highly contaminated soils, the homogeneous aqueous hydrolysis of TNT in the pH range from 10 to 12 and the alkaline treatment of two contaminated soils at pH 11 and pH 12 were investigated. The experimental data were described for their respective pH values using a pseudo-first-order model. In the homogeneous experiments, 95--97% of the TNT was hydrolyzed. During alkaline hydrolysis, up to two nitrogroups per TNT molecule were released, indicating the irreversible destruction of TNT. Except for the formation of small traces of amino dinitrotoluenes and trinitrobenzenes, no nitroaromatic benzenes or toluenes were detected during GC analysis. For the less contaminated soil, ELBP2, with an initial TNT concentration of 116 mg/kg, a destruction of 99% was achieved. The highly contaminated soil, HTNT2 (16.1 g of TNT/kg), showed a hydrolyzation level of 90-94%. The results show that the alkaline treatment of highly contaminated soils may prove to be effective as an alternative treatment technology.

  8. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  9. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Qian, Zhong Ji; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 µm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63. PMID:21487174

  10. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikuan; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yehong; Dai, Yujie; Guo, Changlu; Zheng, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R(2)(adj)) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R(2)(cv)) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters. PMID:23016923

  11. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R2adj) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R2cv) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters. PMID:23016923

  12. Alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl.2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Lixu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)]. E-mail: lixu.lei@seu.edu.cn1; Zhang Weifeng [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Hu Meng [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Zheng Hegen [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2006-11-15

    The alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl has been investigated to demonstrate a possible application of anion exchange facility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to control chemical reactions. The results show that (i) in the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl, most of the interlayer Cl{sup -} of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl is quickly replaced by OH{sup -} in the alkaline solution because the LDH host favors OH{sup -} more; (ii) the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl is faster than the reaction of DMT and [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH; (iii) The hydrolysis of DMT in a buffer solution of pH{approx}8 takes longer time to reach equilibrium than the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl. It is believed that the selective anion exchange chemistry of the LDH plays a key role in storage and controlled release of active reactant, that is, OH{sup -}, thus make the hydrolysis proceeds in a controlled way. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the solid products of the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl at 70 deg. C halted at different time, which shows that [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl turns out to be [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH, and [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}TP forms gradually. In this reaction, the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT is controlled by replacement of Cl{sup -} in [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl by OH{sup -}, and subsequent replacement of OH{sup -} in [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH by terephthalate anion.

  13. Hydrogen generation from hydrolysis of alkaline sodium borohydride solution using Pt\\/C catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongyan Xu; Huamin Zhang; Wei Ye

    2007-01-01

    Hydrogen generation from catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous NaOH-stabilized sodium borohydride solutions was investigated using platinum catalysts dispersed on active carbon, carbon black, and alumina supports. The Pt\\/C catalyst shows high catalytic activity due to the large BET surface area of active carbon support. The investigations on the effects of Pt loading and calcination temperature on the performance of Pt\\/C catalyst

  14. Environmentally friendly chemical recycling of poly(bisphenol-A carbonate) through phase transfer-catalysed alkaline hydrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsintzou, Georgia P; Antonakou, Eleni V; Achilias, Dimitris S

    2012-11-30

    The various and widespread uses of polycarbonate (PC) polymers require a meaningful and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this study, depolymerisation of polycarbonate with water in a microwave reactor is suggested as a recycling method. Hydrolysis was investigated in an alkaline (NaOH) solution using a phase-transfer catalyst. All of the experiments were carried out in a sealed microwave reactor, in which the reaction pressure, temperature and microwave power were continuously controlled and recorded. In the hydrolysis products, bisphenol-A monomer was obtained and identified by FTIR measurements. PC degradation higher than 80% can be obtained at 160°C after a microwave irradiation time of either 40 min or 10 min using either a 5 or 10% (w/v) NaOH solution, respectively. GPC, TGA and DSC measurements of the PC residues revealed that surface erosion is the degradation mechanism. First-order reaction kinetics were estimated by implementing a simple kinetic model. Finally, greater than 85% degradation was achieved when waste CDs were treated with the same method. The results confirm the importance of the microwave power technique as a promising recycling method for PC-based waste plastics, resulting in monomer recovery in addition to substantial energy savings. PMID:23044197

  15. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis of the Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Ritchie, Julia J.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2013-07-02

    The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH? has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) were investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH?. For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediat in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions - and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs - mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs.

  16. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-02-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of ?(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of ?(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  17. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  18. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D; Williams, Daniel L; Magee, Timothy D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B

    2015-07-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  19. Probing the origins of catalytic discrimination between phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis: comparative analysis of alkaline phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Logan D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, the ability of enzymes to catalyze multiple reactions, provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes both phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis reactions with a ?10(10)-fold preference for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, despite the similarity between these reactions. The preponderance of formal positive charge in the AP active site, particularly from three divalent metal ions, was proposed to be responsible for this preference by providing stronger electrostatic interactions with the more negatively charged phosphoryl group versus the sulfuryl group. To test whether positively charged metal ions are required to achieve a high preference for the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction, the catalytic preference of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which do not contain metal ions, were measured. Their preferences ranged from 5 × 10(6) to 7 × 10(7), lower than that for AP but still substantial, indicating that metal ions and a high preponderance of formal positive charge within the active site are not required to achieve a strong catalytic preference for phosphate monoester over sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The observed ionic strength dependences of kcat/KM values for phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis are steeper for the more highly charged phosphate ester with both AP and the PTP Stp1, following the dependence expected based on the charge difference of these two substrates. However, the dependences for AP were not greater than those of Stp1 and were rather shallow for both enzymes. These results suggest that overall electrostatics from formal positive charge within the active site is not the major driving force in distinguishing between these reactions and that substantial discrimination can be attained without metal ions. Thus, local properties of the active site, presumably including multiple positioned dipolar hydrogen bond donors within the active site, dominate in defining this reaction specificity. PMID:25299936

  20. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. PMID:24841574

  1. Improved gas chromatographic method for determination of daminozide by alkaline hydrolysis and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde derivatization and survey results of daminozide in agricultural products.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, K; Saxton, W L; Oehler, G A

    1990-01-01

    An improved method was developed for the quantitative determination of daminozide. This new method combines the alkaline hydrolysis and distillation steps of the PAM II method for daminozide with the derivatization, cleanup, and gas chromatographic determination steps of the Wright method for unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH). The minimum detectable level is 0.05 ppm. Recoveries range from 85 to 110% when daminozide is added at 0.1 to 1.0 ppm, and are generally 40% at the 0.05 ppm level. A variety of domestic and imported products were analyzed by this improved method and daminozide was detected in 33 of the 98 samples analyzed. Levels detected ranged from a trace amount to 0.80 ppm. The identity of UDMH hydrazone was confirmed by mass spectrometry in many samples, thus confirming the presence of daminozide. Two samples containing daminozide were analyzed independently by a second laboratory and the findings were closely duplicated. PMID:2211471

  2. A study on the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam exploded napiergrass with alkaline treatment using artificial neural networks and regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Wei Chang; Wan-Chin Yu; Wen-Jang Chen; Ruey-Fong Chang; Wen-Shiow Kao

    2011-01-01

    To facilitate the enzymatic saccharification of widely available lignocellulosic biomass, napiergrass was subjected to a two-stage pretreatment process consisting of steam explosion (SE) followed by alkaline delignification. SE was performed under various reaction temperatures, reaction times, and particle sizes. The experimental results show that the two-stage pretreatment process was effective at removing xylan and lignin and significantly enhanced the enzymatic

  3. Hydrogen generation by hydrolysis of alkaline NaBH 4 solution with Cr-promoted Co–B amorphous catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Fernandes; N. Patel; A. Miotello

    2009-01-01

    Cr-modified Co–B (Co–Cr–B) catalyst alloy powders have been synthesized by chemical reduction of cobalt and chromium salt at room temperature to study the hydrogen production by catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4. The Cr\\/Co molar ratio was varied in the catalyst in order to study the effect of Cr doping on surface modification and catalytic efficiency of Co–B catalyst. The resulting catalyst

  4. The hydrolysis of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, P. D.; Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of aspartic acid produces a polysuccinimide (I), a chain of aspartoyl residues. An investigation was made of the alkaline hydrolysis of the imide rings of (I) which converts the polyimide to a polypeptide. The alkaline hydrolysis of polyimides can be expected to be kinetically complex due to increasing negative charge generated by carboxylate groups. For this reason, a diimide, phthaloyl-DL-aspartoyl-beta-alanine (IIA) was synthesized for a progressive study of the hydrolysis of polyimides. In addition, this diimide (IIA) can be related to thalidomide and might be expected to exhibit similar reactivity during hydrolysis of the phthalimide ring.

  5. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerre, A.B.; Olesen, A.B.; Fernqvist, T.; Ploeger, A.; Schmidt, A.S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Environmental Science and Technology Dept.] [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Environmental Science and Technology Dept.

    1996-03-05

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain the main goal: to break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-{beta}-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment.

  6. Antischistosomal effects of praziquantel, its alkaline hydrolysis and sun decomposed products on experimentally S. mansoni infected albino mice. (A) Efficacy assessment based on clinicopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, M I; Akarim, E I; Ibrahim, K E E; Saad, A M; Mohammed, A E; Ahmed, B M; Sulaiman, S M

    2004-04-01

    The antischistosomal activity of praziquantel (PZQ), its alkaline hydrolysis product (HP) and its sun-decomposed (SD) products was investigated in S. mansoni experimentally infected mice. The evaluation was made depending on the degree of clinico-pathological changes. The results obtained revealed that, PZQ, HP and the SD have induced partial suppression of worm fecundity as judged by the significant reduction in eggs per gram of faeces in comparison with the infected untreated control. The effect on tissue egg deposition in the treated groups was comparable to the infection of untrea ted control. Worm recovery showed large reduction in the number of worms for SD (47.6%) and HP (28.6%) compared to PZQ (16.6%) treated groups. So, the former two compounds have the superior antischistosomal activities. Glutamate pyruvate transominase (GPT) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) concentrations were measured. The GOT values for all treated groups were significantly higher than those for the healthy control group (p=0.01). The SD group enzyme concentration was even higher than the infected untreated control. The GPT values of all groups were greater than the uninfected control and the difference was significant for the infected untreated, PZQ and the SD treated groups (p=0.05). PMID:15143740

  7. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Results Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and ?-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and ?-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. Conclusion The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw. PMID:24766728

  8. PHTHALATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS: LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alkaline hydrolysis rate constants were measured for dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, di-iso-butyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate esters in water. A linear free energy relationship (LFER) was established for estimating alkaline hydrolysis rate constants for other phthalate esters...

  9. QM/MM analysis suggests that Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase slightly tighten the transition state for phosphate diester hydrolysis relative to solution: implication for catalytic promiscuity in the AP superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) superfamily exhibit a high level of catalytic proficiency and promiscuity in structurally similar active sites. A thorough characterization of the nature of transition state for different substrates in these enzymes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern those remarkable catalytic properties. In this work, we study the hydrolysis of a phosphate diester, MpNPP?, in solution, two experimentally well-characterized variants of AP (R166S AP, R166S/E322Y AP) and wild type Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) by QM/MM calculations in which the QM method is an approximate density functional theory previously parameterized for phosphate hydrolysis (SCC-DFTBPR). The general agreements found between these calculations and available experimental data for both solution and enzymes support the use of SCC-DFTBPR/MM for a semi-quantitative analysis of the catalytic mechanism and nature of transition state in AP and NPP. Although phosphate diesters are cognate substrates for NPP but promiscuous substrates for AP, the calculations suggest that their hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by AP and NPP feature similar synchronous transition states that are slightly tighter in nature compared to that in solution, due in part to the geometry of the bimetallic zinc motif. Therefore, this study provides the first direct computational support to the hypothesis that enzymes in the AP superfamily catalyze cognate and promiscuous substrates via similar transition states to those in solution. Our calculations do not support the finding of recent QM/MM studies by López-Canut and coworkers, who suggested that the same diester substrate goes through a much looser transition state in NPP/AP than in solution, a result likely biased by the large structural distortion of the bimetallic zinc site in their simulations. Finally, our calculations for different phosphate diester orientations and phosphorothioate diesters highlight that the interpretation of thio-substitution experiments is not always straightforward. PMID:22097879

  10. ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

  11. Alkaline phosphatase activity of water column fractions and seagrass in a tropical carbonate estuary, Florida Bay

    E-print Network

    Koch-Rose, Marguerite

    Alkaline phosphatase activity of water column fractions and seagrass in a tropical carbonate Keywords: alkaline phosphatase activity phosphorus cyanobacteria Florida Bay enzyme hydrolysis to hydrolyze phos- phomonoesters. We examined seasonal (August 2006­April 2007) alkaline phosphatase activity

  12. Alkalinity Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    'The purpose of the resource is to meaure the alkalinity of a water sample. Students will use an alkalinity kit to measure the alkalinity in the water at their hydrology site. The exact procedure depends on the instructions in the alkalinity kit used.

  13. CAPTAN HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Captan (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) undergoes hydrolysis readily in water with a maximum half-life of 710 min. Over the pH range 2-6, the reaction is pH independent and the pseudo-first-order rate constant is (1.8 + or - 0.1) x 10 to the -5th power/s....

  14. Are 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5-b:4?,5?-e]pyrazine the main products of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) alkaline hydrolysis? A DFT study of vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholod, Yana; Okovytyy, Sergiy; Kuramshina, Gulnara; Qasim, Mohammad; Gorb, Leonid; Furey, John; Honea, Patricia; Fredrickson, Herbert; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2006-08-01

    The fully optimized geometries and force fields of the most stable conformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane and two tautomers 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine were obtained at the B3LYP level of hybrid density functional theory with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The vibrational frequencies were calculated by scaling of force fields, and the vibrational spectra were interpreted taking into account potential energy distributions. DFT calculations provide good agreement between calculated and experimental vibrational frequencies, obtained for CL-20. The theoretical vibrational spectra of 1,5- and 1,7-dihydrodiimidazo[4,5- b:4',5'- e]pyrazine correspond to the experimental FTIR spectrum obtained for the CL-20 alkaline hydrolysis products.

  15. Reproductive and sphingolipid metabolic effects of fumonisin B1 and its alkaline hydrolysis product in LM/Bc mice: hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 did not cause neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides. They are toxic to animals and exert their effects through mechanisms involving disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisins and their hydrolyzed analogues are found in alkaline-cooked, maize-based foods such as tortillas and the c...

  16. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase Mono-and Diesterase Reactions: Comparative Transition State Analysis

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Alkaline Phosphatase Mono- and Diesterase Reactions: Comparative Transition State Analysis Jesse G that are altered from their solution counterparts. Previous work with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP activities. Introduction Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of a broad range

  18. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)?10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentation of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse and rice straw for bioethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alkaline wet oxidation was used as pretreatment method of sugarcane bagasse (SB) and rice straw (RS) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. At high enzyme loadings, the enzymatic hydrolysis of wet oxidized sugarcane bagasse (SBWO) resulted in the highest degree of saccharification compared to wet oxidized rice straw (RSWO). However, at enzyme concentrations below 10 FPU\\/g-cellulose,

  20. Towards zero discharge of chromium-containing leather waste through improved alkali hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changdao Mu; Wei Lin; Mingrang Zhang; Qingshi Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of chromium-containing leather waste (CCLW), the major solid waste generated at the post-tanning operations of leather processing, has the potential to generate value-added leather chemicals. Various alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis were compared, and calcium oxide was found to be important for effective (but still incomplete) hydrolysis. Three possible reasons are given for the incomplete hydrolysis under alkaline conditions.

  1. Hydrolysis of hydroxybenzoate saxitoxin analogues originating from Gymnodinium catenatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Vale

    2011-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin producer Gymnodinium catenatum produces several hydrophobic analogues of saxitoxin (STX). These are poorly studied due to their recent discovery and lack of standards. It was previously observed these hydrophobic analogues could be partially hydrolysed, loosing its benzoate moiety during alkaline oxidation to obtain fluorescent products measurable by HPLC analysis. The hydrolysis reaction was further

  2. Structure-activity correlations for organophosphorus ester anticholinesterases. Part 2: CNDO/2 calculations applied to ester hydrolysis rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships are presented for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. CNDO/2 calculations provide values for molecular parameters that correlate with alkaline hydrolysis rates. For each subset of esters with the same leaving group, X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constants. For the whole set of esters with different leaving groups, equations are derived that relate charge, orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constants.

  3. Reaction pathways and free energy profiles for spontaneous hydrolysis of urea and tetramethylurea: Unexpected substituent effects

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Min; Tu, Wenlong; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    It has been difficult to directly measure the spontaneous hydrolysis rate of urea and, thus, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylurea (Me4U) was used as a model to determine the “experimental” rate constant for urea hydrolysis. The use of Me4U was based on an assumption that the rate of urea hydrolysis should be 2.8 times that of Me4U hydrolysis because the rate of acetamide hydrolysis is 2.8 times that of N,N-dimethyl-acetamide hydrolysis. The present first-principles electronic-structure calculations on the competing non-enzymatic hydrolysis pathways have demonstrated that the dominant pathway is the neutral hydrolysis via the CN addition for both urea (when pH<~11.6) and Me4U (regardless of pH), unlike the non-enzymatic hydrolysis of amides where alkaline hydrolysis is dominant. Based on the computational data, the substituent shift of free energy barrier calculated for the neutral hydrolysis is remarkably different from that for the alkaline hydrolysis, and the rate constant for the urea hydrolysis should be ~1.3×109-fold lower than that (4.2×10?12 s?1) measured for the Me4U hydrolysis. As a result, the rate enhancement and catalytic proficiency of urease should be 1.2×1025 and 3×1027 M?1, respectively, suggesting that urease surpasses proteases and all other enzymes in its power to enhance the rate of reaction. All of the computational results are consistent with available experimental data for Me4U, suggesting that the computational prediction for urea is reliable. PMID:24097048

  4. OIBs evolution in the series Tholeiitic, alkaline, and highly alkaline

    E-print Network

    Siebel, Wolfgang

    OIBs ­ evolution in the series Tholeiitic, alkaline, and highly alkaline IUGS Volcanic chemical differences ­ Alkaline series (subordinate) ­ Ocean island alkaline basalt, OIA ­ Two principal alkaline sub- series · slightly silica oversaturated · silica undersaturated #12;Hawaiian Scenario #12

  5. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  6. Comparative study on chemical pretreatments to accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis of aquatic macrophyte biomass used in water purification processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mishima; M. Tateda; M. Ike; M. Fujita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis of two floating aquatic plants which are suitable for water purification, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.), was performed to produce sugars. Twenty chemical pretreatments were comparatively examined in order to improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. As a result, the alkaline\\/oxidative (A\\/O) pretreatment, in which sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide

  7. Hydrolysis of a sulfonamide by a novel elimination mechanism generated by carbanion formation in the leaving group.

    PubMed

    Wood, J Matthew; Hinchliffe, Paul S; Davis, Andy M; Austin, Rupert P; Page, Michael I

    2002-04-01

    The alkaline hydrolysis of N-alpha-methoxycarbonyl benzyl-beta-sultam occurs 10(3) times faster than the corresponding carboxylate and with rapid D-exchange at the alpha-carbon: the pH rate profile indicates pre-equilibirum CH ionisation and together with formation of benzoyl formate as a product this suggests a novel mechanism for hydrolysis. PMID:12119716

  8. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  9. Hydrogen production from catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution using nickel boride catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Hua; Yang Hanxi; Ai Xinping; Cha Chuansin

    2003-01-01

    A highly stable and active nickel boride catalyst (NixB) was prepared and tested for the catalytic hydrolysis of alkaline NaBH4 solution. It was found that after heat treatment at 150°C in vacuum the NixB catalyst shows greatly enhanced catalytic activity and operational stability. In the experimental conditions, the hydrolysis reaction can produce 6.75wt% hydrogen at 45°C and >4.0wt% hydrogen even

  10. The effect of acrylic comonomers on the hydrolytic stability of polyacrylamides at high temperature in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, R.W.; Ryles, R.G.

    1988-05-01

    A major cause of instability in acrylamide-based polymers used in tertiary oil recovery is hydrolysis of the amide groups, especially at alkaline pH and high temperatures. Changes in polymer composition resulting from hydrolysis can cause precipitation from sea-water solutions. This work has studied the effects of the sodium salts of acrylic acid and acrylamidomethyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) on the rate of hydrolysis of acrylamide copolymers in alkaline solutions at high temperatures. Copolymers were prepared containing 0 - 50% of the anionic comonomers and hydrolyzed in aqueous solution at pH 8.5 at 90/sup 0/, 107/sup 0/, and 120/sup 0/C. The extent of hydrolysis was measured by a conductimetric method, analyzing for the total carboxylate content. It was found that the rate of hydrolysis decreased as the mole ratio of either of the anionic comonomers increased and that AMPS was more effective in preventing hydrolysis at all of the temperatures studied.

  11. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 ?m. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  12. Alkali-hydrolysis kinetics of alkali-clearable azo disperse dyes containing a fluorosulphonyl group and their fastness properties on PET\\/cotton blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonseok Koh

    2005-01-01

    The alkali-hydrolysis kinetics of a series of 4-amino-4?-fluorosulphonylazobenzene disperse dyes were investigated using HPLC and their fastness properties on PET\\/cotton blends were examined. Most of the dyes showed reasonable level of hydrolysis (%) under relatively mild alkaline condition and the dyes having more electron-accepting group in diazo component exhibited lower rate of hydrolysis. The application of fluorosulphonyl containing disperse dyes

  13. Effect of DMSO on the kinetic behavior of alkali catalyzed hydrolysis of methyl salicylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lallan Singh; A. K. Gupta; R. T. Singh; D. K. Verma; R. C. Jha

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl salicylate in aqueous DMSO medium at various compositions starting from 10 to 70 vol. % DMSO at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35°C are reported. The specific rate constant was found to decrease with increasing proportion of DMSO at all the temperatures and the prediction of Parker is not supported. Both isocomposition

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Ghasem D; Shan, Cheong Poi

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis of molasses were conducted using glucoamylase. Central Sugar Refinery SDN BHD contains 13-20% glucose. The molasses was diluted and the kinetic experiments were conducted at 67 degrees C with 100-1000 mg/l of glucoamylase. The glucose contents of the molasses were enhanced after hydrolysis of molasses solution with 1000 mg/l glucoamylase. A Lineweaver-Burk plot was obtained based on enzyme kinetic data. The rate constant, Km and maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase were 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and 5 mmol/l min (0.9 g/l min), respectively. The maximum reaction rate, Vmax for 1000 mg/l of glucoamylase was doubled, to 100 mmol/l (18 g/l) and the rate constant, Km was the same for 500 mg/l of glucoamylase. The substrate inhibition model was noncompetitive based on the resulting Lineweaver-Burk plot for enzyme concentration of 500 and 1000 mg/l. PMID:12421015

  15. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wakabayashi; E. Torikai; Y. Kawami; H. Takenaka

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a

  16. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  17. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  18. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  19. Studies of the forced hydrolysis degradation of copper complexes with different oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savic, Ivana M.; Nikolic, G. S.; Savic, Ivan M.; Cakic, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Bioactive copper complexes with oligosaccharides, pullulan or dextran, are the objective of the present study, because of their possible biomedical applications. The alkaline and acid hydrolysis of the Cu(II) complexes with reduced low-molar pullulan or dextran were carried out by conductometric method. The influence of ligand constitutions on the stability of the complexes was examined on the basis of ligand property. The complexes degradation during alkaline and acid hydrolysis were carried out in sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid solutions of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mol dm-3, at different temperature (25, 40, and 60°C, respectively). According to the obtained results by the conductivity investigation during forced degradation studies, it could be concluded that the Cu(II) complexes show the small pharmaceutical stability to both hydrolysis.

  20. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  1. Alkaline phosphatase activity in subtropical Central North Pacific waters using a sensitive fluorometric method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Perry

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a fluorometric method for assaying low levels of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase in seawater. The assay is based on the hydrolysis of the monophosphate ester bond of 3-0-methylfluorescein phosphate. This enzyme is synthesized by many microorganisms when phosphate becomes limiting. Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in phytoplankton from the nutrient-impoverished surface waters of the subtropical Central North

  2. A Continuous Spectrophotometric Method for Measuring the Activity of Serum Alkaline Phosphatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Bowers; Robert B. McComb

    A continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring serum alkaline phosphatase activity is described. The effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, type and molarity of the buffer, sample size, cofactors, and inhibitors on the enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate were studied. The optimal conditions for assay of serum alkaline phosphatase at 300 were found to be 0.75 M 2-amino-2- methyl-1-propanol buffer, pH3o0

  3. TL and ESR based identification of gamma-irradiated frozen fish using different hydrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Frozen fish fillets (walleye Pollack and Japanese Spanish mackerel) were selected as samples for irradiation (0-10 kGy) detection trials using different hydrolysis methods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL)-based screening analysis for gamma-irradiated frozen fillets showed low sensitivity due to limited silicate mineral contents on the samples. Same limitations were found in the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis on mineral samples isolated by density separation method. However, acid (HCl) and alkali (KOH) hydrolysis methods were effective in getting enough minerals to carry out TL analysis, which was reconfirmed through the normalization step by calculating the TL ratios (TL1/TL2). For improved electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis, alkali and enzyme (alcalase) hydrolysis methods were compared in separating minute-bone fractions. The enzymatic method provided more clear radiation-specific hydroxyapatite radicals than that of the alkaline method. Different hydrolysis methods could extend the application of TL and ESR techniques in identifying the irradiation history of frozen fish fillets.

  4. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  5. Enzymatic fat hydrolysis and synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warner M. Linfield; Robert A. Barauskas; Lorraine Sivieri; Samuel Serota; Robert W. Stevenson

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis of tallow, coconut oil and olive oil, by lipase fromCandida rugosa, was studied. The reaction approximates a firstorder kinetics model. Its rate is unaffected by temperature in the range of\\u000a 26–46 C. Olive oil is more rapidly hydrolyzed compared to tallow and coconut oil. Hydrolysis is adversely affected by hydrocarbon\\u000a solvents and a nonionic surfactant. Since amounts of

  6. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. N.

    1981-03-01

    A fourth generation computer program was prepared to determine the economics of manufacturing hydrogen via alkaline water electrolysis. The program was tested by identifying the relative economic merits of the TES-C-AN cathode, the electrolysis module operating temperature range, the optimal module design current density and by comparing the published goals of the advanced alkaline technology to the published SPE goals. The stability of the TES-C-AN cathode structure is verified. The improvements possible via new node structures and new, thinner electrode separators are investigated.

  7. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  8. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a standard method "hot peroxide" acidity titration, provided that labs report negative values. The authors recommend the third approach; i.e., net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of cell wall acetylation on corn stover hydrolysis by cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Selig; William S. Adney; Michael E. Himmel; Stephen R. Decker

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of variously pretreated corn stover samples showed neutral to mildly acidic pretreatments were more effective at\\u000a removing xylan from corn stover and more likely to maintain the acetyl to xylopyranosyl ratios present in untreated material\\u000a than were alkaline treatments. Retention of acetyl groups in the residual solids resulted in greater resistance to hydrolysis\\u000a by endoxylanase alone, although the synergistic

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis is an alternative means for characterizing organic phosphorus (Po) in animal manure. The approach is not only simple and fast, but can also provide information difficult to obtain by other methods. Currently, commercially available phosphatases are mainl...

  11. Obtaining fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose and fast pyrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Zheng, Anqing; Zhao, Zengli; He, Fang; Li, Haibin; Liu, Weiguo

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to get fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose and fast pyrolysis of cellulose from sugarcane bagasse. Hemicellulose could be easily hydrolyzed by dilute acid as sugars. The remained solid residue of acid hydrolysis was utilized to get levoglucosan by fast pyrolysis economically. Levoglucosan yield from crystalline cellulose could be as high as 61.47%. Dilute acid hydrolysis was also a promising pretreatment for levoglucosan production from lignocellulose. The dilute acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse resulted in higher levoglucosan yield (40.50%) in fast pyrolysis by micropyrolyzer, which was more effective than water washed (29.10%) and un-pretreated (12.84%). It was mainly ascribed to the effective removal of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the accumulation of crystalline cellulose. This strategy seems a promising route to achieve inexpensive fermentable sugars from lignocellulose for biorefinery. PMID:25690683

  12. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  13. High solids enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic materials with a powerful stirrer concept.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Daniel; Michael, Buchmann; Hirth, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we present a powerful stirred tank reactor system that can efficiently hydrolyse lignocellulosic material at high solid content to produce hydrolysates with glucose concentration > 100 g/kg. As lignocellulosic substrates alkaline-pretreated wheat straw and organosolv-pretreated beech wood were used. The developed vertical reactor was equipped with a segmented helical stirrer, which was specially designed for high biomass hydrolysis. The stirrer was characterised according to mixing behaviour and power input. To minimise the cellulase dosage, a response surface plan was used. With the empirical relationship between glucose yield, cellulase loading and solid content, the minimal cellulase dosage was calculated to reach at least 70% yield at high glucose and high substrate concentrations within 48 h. The optimisation resulted in a minimal enzyme dosage of 30 FPU/g dry matter (DM) for the hydrolysis of wheat straw and 20 FPU/g DM for the hydrolysis of beech wood. By transferring the hydrolysis reaction from shaking flasks to the stirred tank reactor, the glucose yields could be increased. Using the developed stirred tank reactor system, alkaline-pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 110 g/kg glucose (76%) at a solid content of 20% (w/w) after 48 h. Organosolv-pretreated beech wood could be efficiently hydrolysed even at 30% (w/w) DM, giving 150 g/kg glucose (72%). PMID:24242162

  14. Cellulase hydrolysis of unsorted MSW.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2011-12-01

    A recent development in waste management and engineering has shown that the cellulase can be used for the liquefaction of organic fractions in household waste. The focus of this study was to optimize the enzyme hydrolysis of thermally treated municipal solid waste (MSW) by the addition of surfactant. Concurrently, the enzyme performance was analysed on pure cellulose in a solution of MSW wastewater. Results showed no effect of surfactant addition to the hydrolysis media as measured by viscosity and particle size distribution. MSW treatment wastewater was found to contain a high amount of calcium, potassium, sodium, chloride and others that may affect cellulolytic enzymes. Cellulase performance showed no effect of adding the metal ion-chelating agent EDTA to the solution. The cellulases were stable, tolerated and functioned in the presence of several contaminants. PMID:21989799

  15. Hydrolysis of imidazole-2-ylidenes.

    PubMed

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Terleczky, Péter; Szieberth, Dénes; Mourgas, Georgios; Gudat, Dietrich; Nyulászi, László

    2011-02-01

    The direct reaction of an imidazole-2-ylidene in a predominantly aqueous environment [about 0.1 M solution in a H(2)O (>60%)/THF solvent system] was investigated for the first time. The reaction yielded a stable solution of the corresponding imidazolium-hydroxide of pH 13, which is in agreement with results from an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. In contrast, hydrolysis of the carbene in a mainly aprotic environment (>80% THF) gives a hydrogen-bridged carbene-water complex which could be detected by NMR and IR spectroscopies for the first time. This complex converts slowly to two isomeric ring opened products and is at higher water concentration in dynamic equilibrium with the imidazolium hydroxide. A computational mechanistic study of the carbene hydrolysis with a gradually increasing number of water molecules revealed that the imidazolium-hydroxide structure can only be optimized with three or more water molecules as reactants, and with the increasing number of water molecules its stability is increasing with respect to the carbene-water complex. In agreement with the experimental results, these findings point out that solvent stabilization and basicity of the hydroxide ion plays a crucial role in the reaction. With increasing number of water molecules the barriers connecting the reaction intermediates are getting smaller, and the ring opened hydrolysis products can be derived from imidazolium-hydroxide type intermediates. Computational studies on the hydrolysis of a nonaromatic imidazolidine-2-ylidene analogue clearly indicated the analogous ring-opened product to be by 10-12 kcal/mol more stable than the appropriate ion pair and the carbene-water complex, in agreement with the known aromatic stabilization of imidazol-2-ylidenes. Accordingly, these molecules hydrolyze with exclusive formation of the ring-opened product. PMID:21174475

  16. Alkaline phosphatase activity of water column fractions and seagrass in a tropical carbonate estuary, Florida Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Marguerite S.; Kletou, Demetris C.; Tursi, Rosanna

    2009-08-01

    Few phosphorus-depleted coastal ecosystems have been examined for their ability to hydrolyze phosphomonoesters. We examined seasonal (August 2006-April 2007) alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay, a phosphorus-limited shallow estuary, using fluorescent substrate at low concentrations (?2.0 ?M). In situ dissolved inorganic and organic phosphorus levels and phosphomonoester concentrations were also determined. Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was partitioned into two particulate size fractions (>1.2 and 0.2-1.2 ?m) and freely dissolved enzymes (<0.2 ?m). Water column alkaline phosphatase activity was also compared to leaf and epiphyte activity of the dominant tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum. Our results indicate: (1) potential alkaline phosphatase activity in Florida Bay is high compared to other marine ecosystems, resulting in rapid phosphomonoester turnover times (˜2 h). (2) Water column alkaline phosphatase activity dominates, and is split equally between particulate and dissolved fractions. (3) Alkaline phosphatase activity was highest during cyanobacterial blooms, but not when normalized to chl a. These results suggest that dissolved, heterotrophic and autotrophic alkaline phosphatase activity is stimulated by phytoplankton blooms. (4) The dissolved alkaline phosphatase activity is relatively constant, while the particulate activity is seasonally and spatially dynamic, typically associated with phytoplankton blooms. (5) Phosphomonoester concentrations throughout the bay are low, even though potential hydrolysis rates are high. We propose that bioavailable dissolved organic P is hydrolyzed by dissolved and microbial alkaline phosphatase enzymes in Florida Bay. High alkaline phosphatase activity in the bay is also promoted by long hydraulic residence times. This background activity is primarily driven by carbon and phosphorus limitation of microorganisms, and regeneration of enzymes associated with cell lysis. Pulses of inorganic phosphorus and labile organic phosphorus and nitrogen may stimulate autotrophs, particularly cyanobacteria, which in turn promote biological activity that increase alkaline phosphatase activity of both autotrophs and heterotrophs in the bay.

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase Assay for Freshwater Sediments: Application to Perturbed Sediment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, Gary S.; Puziss, Marla; Silver, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis-phosphatase assay was modified for use in freshwater sediment. Laboratory studies indicated that the recovery of purified alkaline phosphatase activity was 100% efficient in sterile freshwater sediments when optimized incubation and sonication conditions were used. Field studies of diverse freshwater sediments demonstrated the potential use of this assay for determining stream perturbation. Significant correlations between phosphatase and total viable cell counts, as well as adenosine triphosphate biomass, suggested that alkaline phosphatase activity has utility as an indicator of microbial population density and biomass in freshwater sediments. PMID:16345464

  18. Stereochemistry of phospho group transfer catalyzed by a mutant alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Butler-Ransohoff, J.E.; Kendall, D.A.; Freeman, S.; Knowles, J.R.; Kaiser, E.T.

    1988-06-28

    The stereochemical course of the phospho group transfer catalyzed by mutant (S102C) alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli was investigated by using /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Transphosphorylation from 4-nitrophenyl (R/sub P/)-/sup 17/O, /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O)phosphate to (S)-propane-1,2-diol occurs with overall retention of configuration at phosphorus. This result is consistent with the view that the hydrolysis of substrates by this mutant enzyme proceeds by way of a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate in the same manner as the wild-type alkaline phosphatase.

  19. Hydrolytic depolymerization of hydrolysis lignin: Effects of catalysts and solvents.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nubla; Yuan, Zhongshun; Schmidt, John; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2015-08-01

    Hydrolytic depolymerization of hydrolysis lignin (HL) in water and water-ethanol co-solvent was investigated at 250°C for 1h with 20% (w/v) HL substrate concentration with or without catalyst (H2SO4 or NaOH). The obtained depolymerized HLs (DHLs) were characterized with GPC-UV, FTIR, GC-MS, (1)H NMR and elemental analyzer. In view of the utilization of depolymerized HL (DHL) for the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams/resins un-catalyzed depolymerization of HL employing water-ethanol mixture appeared to be a viable route with high yield of DHL ?70.5wt.% (SR yield of ?9.8wt.%) and with Mw as low as ?1000g/mole with suitable aliphatic (227.1mgKOH/g) and phenolic (215mgKOH/g) hydroxyl numbers. The overall % carbon recovery under the selected best route was ?87%. Acid catalyzed depolymerization of HL in water and water-ethanol mixture lead to slightly increased Mw. Alkaline hydrolysis helped in reducing Mw in water and opposite trend was observed in water-ethanol mixture. PMID:25936442

  20. HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolytic processes provide the baseline loss rate for any chemical in an aqueous envi- ronment. Although various hydrolytic pathways account for significant degradation of certain classes of organic chemicals, other organic structures are completely inert. Strictly speaking, hy...

  1. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  2. Subcellular localization of marine bacterial alkaline phosphatases

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jianjun

    Subcellular localization of marine bacterial alkaline phosphatases Haiwei Luoa,1 , Ronald Bennera) Bacterial alkaline phosphatases (APases) are important enzymes in organophosphate utilization in the ocean microorganisms. Alkaline phosphatases (APases) occur in a broad diversity of microorganisms and are important

  3. A comparative study of alkaline phosphatase activity in two species of Gelidium (Gelidiales, Rhodophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hernández; J. A. Fernández; F. X. Niell

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) was carried out on repeat samples of representative populations of two species of Gelidium (Rhodophyta), G. latifolium and G. sesquipedale, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrate. The APA kinetics of both species exhibited an apparent negative cooperativity for the hydrolysis of pNPP. Differences were found in phosphatase activities of the two species:

  4. ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND ORGANOPHOSPHOROTHIONATE ESTERS: APPLICATION OF LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS TO ESTIMATE HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL FATE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolysis rate constants required for assessing the environmental fate of certain organophosphate and organophosphorothionate esters may be estimated by use of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). LFERs for the second-order alkaline rate constants and the pKa of the conjuga...

  5. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor) and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass) have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as ?-arabinofuranosidase and ?-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline pretreatment technology indicates that the main challenge for commercialization is chemical recovery. However, repurposing or co-locating a biorefinery with a paper mill would be advantageous from an economic point of view. PMID:23356733

  6. The use of ultra high-performance liquid chromatography for studying hydrolysis kinetics of CL-20 and related energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Alexey; Lobrutto, Rosario; Christodoulatos, Christos; Jerkovich, Anton

    2009-03-15

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) utilizes columns packed with sub-2-mum stationary-phase particles and allows operation with pressures of up to 15,000 psi to yield increased resolution, speed, and sensitivity versus conventional HPLC. This promising new technology was used for the analysis of energetic compounds (RDX, HMX and CL-20) and a selective method was developed on an Acquity UPLC. A fast UHPLC method was applied to determine alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of major energetic compounds. Activation energies of alkaline hydrolysis reaction for CL-20, RDX and HMX were comparable to those in literature, however they were determined in a shorter amount of time due to the speed of analysis of the chromatographic method. The use of liophilic salts (KPF(6)) as mobile-phase additives for the enhancement of separation selectivity of energetic compounds was demonstrated. PMID:18644671

  7. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Mikova, Gizela; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van der Wielen, Luuk Am; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0.2 w/v% SDS) could reach 99% purity, with more than 90% recovery. The lost PHB could be mostly attributed to PHB hydrolysis during the alkaline treatment. PHB hydrolysis could be moderated by increasing the crystallinity of the PHB granules, for example, by biomass pretreatment (e.g. freezing or lyophilization) or by effective cell lysis (e.g. adjusting alkali concentration). The suitability of the purified PHB by alkaline treatment for polymer applications was evaluated by molecular weight and thermal stability. A solvent based purification method was also performed for comparison purposes. As result, PHB produced by mixed enriched cultures was found suitable for thermoplastic applications when purified by the solvent method. While the alkaline method resulted in purity, recovery yield and molecular weight comparable to values reported in literature for PHB produced by pure cultures, it was found unsuitable for thermoplastic applications. Given the potential low cost and favorable environmental impact of this method, it is expected that PHB purified by alkaline method may be suitable for other non-thermal polymer applications, and as a platform chemical. PMID:25642402

  8. Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts that generally are designed to do one job well, but to do one job only. Therefore, the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar do not break down the sugars. Thus, enzymatic processes are capable of yields approaching 100%. Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been under development for only 10 years. Although improvements have been

  9. Dilute acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lenihan; A. Orozco; E. O’Neill; M. N. M. Ahmad; D. W. Rooney; G. M. Walker

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to establish the optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of hemicellulosic biomass in the form of potato peel. The hydrolysis reaction was undertaken in a 1l high pressure pilot batch reactor using dilute phosphoric acid. Analysis of the decomposition rate of hemicellulosic biomass (namely Cellulose, Hemicellulose and lignin) was undertaken using HPLC of the

  10. SELECTIVE HYDROLYSIS OF POLAR TRIACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many lipases display some degree of sn-1, sn-3 selectivity toward acyl groups linked to the glycerol backbone. We have found conditions which provide selective hydrolysis of acyl chains from the triacylglycerol. These conditions depend on the lipase itself, the solvent in which hydrolysis or alcohol...

  11. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  12. Hydrolysis of phosphotriesters: a theoretical analysis of the enzymatic and solution mechanisms.

    PubMed

    López-Canut, Violeta; Ruiz-Pernía, J Javier; Castillo, Raquel; Moliner, Vicent; Tuñón, Iñaki

    2012-07-27

    A theoretical study on the alkaline hydrolysis of paraoxon, one of the most popular organophosphorus pesticides, in aqueous solution and in the active site of Pseudomonas diminuta phosphotriesterase (PTE) is presented. Simulations by means of hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) potentials show that the hydrolysis of paraoxon takes place through an A(N)D(N) or associative mechanism both in solution and in the active site of PTE. The results correctly reproduce the magnitude of the activation free energies and can be used to rationalize the observed kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for the hydrolysis of paraoxon in both media. Enzymatic hydrolysis of O,O-diethyl p-chlorophenyl phosphate, a phosphotriester having a leaving group with higher pK(a) than paraoxon, was also simulated. Hydrolysis of this phosphotriester by PTE follows a A(N)+D(N) mechanism with a pentacoordinate intermediate. Moreover, the leaving group of this new substrate coordinates to one of the zinc ions of the bimetallic active site in order to stabilize the large negative charge developed on the oxygen atom of the leaving group when the P-O bond is broken in the products state. To accommodate this new ligand in the coordination shell, carbamylated Lys169 must be displaced from one zinc ion to the other, which in turn affects the acidity of Asp301, a residue originally bound to the second zinc ion. This ability to displace some of the ligands of the coordination shell of the zinc centers would explain the promiscuity of this enzyme, which is capable of catalyzing hydrolysis of different substrate by means of different mechanisms. PMID:22745111

  13. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    under the various treatments LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page I Effect of soil temperature on hydrolysis of pyrophosphate 2 Effect of soil pH on hydrolysis of pyrophosphate 30 3 Pyrophosphate hydrolysis plotted accot. ding to first order kinetics 34... 4 Effect of soil temperature on hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ 37 5 Effect of soil pH on hydrolysis of tripolyphosphate 38 6 Tripolyphosphate hydrolysis plotted according to first order kinetics 4l INTRODUCTION Phosphorous...

  14. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank R. McLarnon; Elton J. Cairns

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc\\/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc\\/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and

  15. Spectrophotometric and liquid chromatographic determination of fenofibrate and vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mesbah, Mostafa K; Hadad, Ghada M

    2005-05-01

    Several spectrophotometric and HPLC methods are presented for the determination of fenofibrate, vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products. The resolution of either fenofibrate or vinpocetine and their hydrolysis products has been accomplished by using numerical spectrophotometric methods as partial least squares (PLS-1) and principal component regression (PCR) applied to UV spectra; and graphical spectrophotometric methods as first derivative of ratio spectra (1DD) or first (1D) and second (2D) derivative spectrophotometry for vinpocetine and fenofibrate, respectively. In addition HPLC methods were developed using ODS column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v, pH 4) with UV detection at 287 nm for fenofibrate and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-10 mM KH2PO4, containing 0.1% diethylamine (60:40, v/v, pH 4.6) with UV detection at 270 nm for vinpocetine. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of each drug and its hydrolysis product in laboratory-prepared mixture and pharmaceutical preparation. The proposed HPLC and derivative spectrophotometric methods were used to investigate the kinetics of acidic and alkaline hydrolytic processes of each drug. The pH-rate profile of hydrolysis of each drug in Britton-Robinson buffer solutions was studied. PMID:15910815

  16. Solid/solution interaction: the effect of carbonate alkalinity on adsorbed thorium

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlamme, B.D.; Murray, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    Elevated activities of dissolved Th have been found in Soap Lake, an alkaline lake in Eastern Washington. Dissolved /sup 232/Th ranges from less than 0.001 to 4.9 dpm/L compared to about 1.3 x 10/sup -5/ dpm/L in sea water. The enhanced activity in the lake coincides with an increase in carbonate alkalinity. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of pH, ionic strength and carbonate alkalinity on Th adsorption on goethite. Thorium (10/sup -13/ M total) in the presence of 5.22 mg/L ..cap alpha..-FeOOH and 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ has an adsorption edge from pH 2-5. At pH 9.0 +/- 0.6 the percent Th absorbed on the solid began to decrease from 100% at 100 meq/L carbonate alkalinity and exhibited no adsorption above 300 meq/L. The experimental data were modeled to obtain the intrinsic adsorption equilibrium constants for Th hydrolysis species. These adsorption constants were incorporated in the model to interpret the observed effect of carbonate alkalinity on Th adsorption. There are two main effects of the alkalinity. To a significant degree the decrease in Th adsorption is due to competition of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ ions for surface sites. Dissolved Th carbonate complexes also contribute to the increase of Th in solution.

  17. Vacuolar Acid Hydrolysis as a Physiological Mechanism for Sucrose Breakdown 1

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, Ed; Burns, Jacqueline K.

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose breakdown in mature acidic `Persian' limes (Citrus aurantifolia [Christm.] Swing.) occurred at a rate of 30.6 picomoles per milliliter per day during 9 weeks storage at 15°C. Neither enzyme of sucrose catabolism (sucrose synthase or acid/alkaline invertase) was present in extracts of mature storage tissue. The average vacuolar pH, estimated by direct measurement of sap from isolated vacuoles and by the methylamine method, was about 2.0 to 2.2. In vitro acid hydrolysis of sucrose at physiological concentrations in a buffered solution (pH 2.2) occurred at identical rates as in matured limes. The results indicate that sucrose breakdown in stored mature acidic limes occurs by acid hydrolysis. PMID:16666803

  18. Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian transcurrent tectonics,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution of calc-alkaline to alkaline magmatism through Carboniferous convergence to Permian features of the Early-Middle Permian granitoids indicate an evolution from high- K calc-alkaline towards alkaline series. In other places of the North Tianshan, alkaline magmatism occurred together with deep

  19. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in cases of phenobarbital poisoning as multiple-dose activated charcoal is superior. Supportive care, including the infusion of dextrose, is invariably adequate in chlorpropamide poisoning. A substantial diuresis is required in addition to urine alkalinization in the chlorophenoxy herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and mecoprop, if clinically important herbicide elimination is to be achieved. Volunteer studies strongly suggest that urine alkalinization increases fluoride elimination, but this is yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Although urine alkalinization is employed clinically in methotrexate toxicity, currently there is only one study that supports its use. Urine alkalinization enhances diflunisal excretion, but this technique is unlikely to be of value in diflunisal poisoning. In conclusion, urine alkalinization should be considered first line treatment in patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization and high urine flow (approximately 600 mL/h) should also be considered in patients with severe 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop poisoning. Administration of bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine results in alkalemia (an increase in blood pH or reduction in its hydrogen ion concentration); pH values approaching 7.70 have been recorded. Hypokalemia is the most common complication but can be corrected by giving potassium supplements. Alkalotic tetany occurs occasionally, but hypocalcemia is rare. There is no evidence to suggest that relatively short-duration alkalemia (more than a few hours) poses a risk to life in normal individuals or in those with coronary and cerebral arterial disease. PMID:15083932

  20. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  1. Effect of alkaline pre-treatment on enzyme synergy for efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis in sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha Beukes; Brett I. Pletschke

    2011-01-01

    This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pre-treatment on the digestibility of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by hemicellulase action. It was found that pre-treatment of SCB with NH4OH removed a larger percentage of the SCB lignin and effectively increased SCB digestibility 13.13 fold. The greatest amount of reducing sugar (1194.88?mol\\/min)

  2. Surface potential and osteoblast attraction to calcium phosphate compounds is affected by selected alkaline hydrolysis processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. O. Smith; M. J. Baumann; L. Obadia; J.-M. Bouler

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the link(s) between the suspension behavior of calcium deficient apatites (CDAs) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), as measured by the ?-potential, with respect to both whole bone and osteoblasts. CDA is fabricated by hydrolyzing an acidic CaP such as dicalcium diphosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4·2H2O) and has a structure and composition close to bone apatite. Sintering CDA results

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose

    E-print Network

    Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

    1984-01-01

    ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Approved as to style and content by: Cady R. Engler airman) Ed. J. Soltes (Member...

  4. Lactose Utilization and Hydrolysis in Saccharomyces fragilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. DAVIES

    1964-01-01

    SUMMARY Sodium azide, 2,4-dinitrophenol and iodoacetate did not inhibit hydrolysis of lactose by cell-free preparations of Sacchuromyces fragilis ,8-galactosidase, but with intact organisms fermentation and hydrolysis were inhibited to a similar extent. This suggests that these inhibitors may interfere with the transport of lactose into the cell. Galactose fermentation was inhibited by sodium azide and dinitrophenol to a much greater

  5. Hydrolysis of steam-pretreated lignocellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Karlsson; József Medve; Folke Tjerneld

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism of hydrolysis of cellulose is important for improving the enzymatic conversion in bioprocesses based on lignocellulose.\\u000a Adsorption and hydrolysis experiments were performed with cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) and endoglucanase II (EG II) from Trichoderma reesei on a realistic lignocellulose substrates: steam-pretreated willow. The enzymes were studied both alone and in equimolar mixtures.\\u000a Adsorption isotherms were determined at 4

  6. Isolation and characterization of a mucosal triacylglycerol pool undergoing hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton AD IV; Frase, S.; Mansbach, C.M. II (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Absorbed and processed mucosal neutral lipid has been shown to be composed of at least two pools of triacylglycerol. One is likely to subserve chylomicron formation, and the other appears to be transported from the intestine via a nonlymphatic route. In the present study, 50 +/- 5% of the mucosal lipid pellets was centrifuged at 75,000 g.min (low-speed pellet (LSP)). Discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation of LSP showed that 61 +/- 7% of the lipid banded at the 0.25-0.86 M sucrose interface. Neutral lipid analysis showed that this subfraction was only 58% triacylglycerol, suggesting it was undergoing hydrolysis. Active lipolytic activity in vitro was found on incubation. The lipase had an alkaline pH optimum (pH 8.5) and persisted despite pancreatic ductular diversion. Lipolysis in vivo in a LSP fraction was shown by infusing (14C)glyceryltrioleate for 3.5 h followed by (3H)glyceryltrioleate for 30 min. Discontinuous sucrose density centrifugation of the LSP followed by an analysis of the lipids at the 0.25-0.86 M sucrose interface showed that 14C-neutral lipids were only 70 +/- 6% triacylglycerol, whereas 3H-neutral lipids were 88 +/- 2% triacylglycerol. 3H entered LSP slowly compared with the floating lipid in the same centrifuge tube. These studies suggest both in vivo and in vitro mucosal lipolysis by a specific, alkaline-active lipase. The turnover rate of LSP is likely to be slow by comparison with neutral lipid floating to the top of the centrifuge tube.

  7. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  8. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  9. Alkaline solution water electrolysis - '81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Murray

    1981-01-01

    During the last two years several improvements in the alkaline solution electrolysis technology have been implemented in form of practical hardware. Attention is given to the catalyst system 'C-AN', alternative anode structures, a new proprietary anode electrocatalyst, alternates to the conventional chrysotile asbestos separator, the current status of hardware development, and the employment of simplistic and complex models for establishing

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase-Mimicking Peptide Nanofibers for Osteogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gulseren, Gulcihan; Yasa, I Ceren; Ustahuseyin, Oya; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2015-07-13

    Recognition of molecules and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis are some of the functions of enzymes in addition to their catalytic activity. While a diverse array of enzyme-like materials have been developed, these efforts have largely been confined to the imitation of the chemical structure and catalytic activity of the enzymes, and it is unclear whether enzyme-mimetic molecules can also be used to replicate the matrix-regulatory roles ordinarily performed by natural enzymes. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers can provide multifunctional enzyme-mimetic properties, as the active sequences of the target enzymes can be directly incorporated into the peptides. Here, we report enhanced bone regeneration efficiency through peptide nanofibers carrying both catalytic and matrix-regulatory functions of alkaline phosphatase, a versatile enzyme that plays a critical role in bone formation by regulating phosphate homeostasis and calcifiable bone matrix formation. Histidine presenting peptide nanostructures were developed to function as phosphatases. These molecules are able to catalyze phosphate hydrolysis and serve as bone-like nodule inducing scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase-like peptide nanofibers enabled osteogenesis for both osteoblast-like and mesenchymal cell lines. PMID:26039144

  11. Ethanol from biomass by enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    Enzymes are biological catalysts that generally are designed to do one job well, but to do one job only. Therefore, the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar do not break down the sugars. Thus, enzymatic processes are capable of yields approaching 100%. Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have been under development for only 10 years. Although improvements have been made in enzymatic technology, more are both possible and necessary. The important research issues include understanding the processes necessary to render the crystalline cellulose easily digestible, understanding and improving the basic mechanisms in the hydrolysis step, and developing better and less expensive enzymes. The hemicellulose fraction (25%) is primarily composed of xylan, which is simple to convert to the simple sugar xylose, but the xylose is difficult to ferment to ethanol. There were no practical systems for xylose fermentation 10 years ago. Today, methods have been identified using new yeasts, fungi, bacteria, and processes combining enzymes and yeasts. Although none of the fermentations is yet ready for commercial use, considerable progress has been made. The following sections describe current research efforts in each of the major areas (cellulose hydrolysis, xylose fermentation, and lignin conversion), with an emphasis on enzymatic hydrolysis using fungal enzymes.

  12. Estimated average annual alkalinity of six streams entering Deep Creek Lake Garrett County, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, A.L. (Geological Survey, Dover, DE (USA))

    1986-01-01

    There is concern that acid rain combined with acid mine drainage from coal mining in the basin will exceed the capacity of the lake to buffer the acid input from these sources. This study was done during 1983 to determine the sources of alkalinity to the lake, and to make a rough estimate of the amount of alkalinity that enters the lake from six streams that drain carbonate and noncarbonate bedrock formations. The Mississippian Greenbrier Formation, which crops out in 5% of the basin, is the only calcareous rock unit. Four streams draining the Greenbrier and two streams draining noncarbonate formations were sampled to assess the contribution of alkalinity to Deep Creek lake. The average annual alkalinity of six sampled streams ranged from 7.6 to 36.8 tons/yr/sq mi of drainage area. The average total alkalinity contributed to Deep Creek Lake by these streams is 161 tons/yr as calcium carbonate. Mass-balance calculations based on very limited data indicate that this alkalinity is derived from both carbonate rocks (Greenbrier Formation) and from weathering and hydrolysis of silicate minerals. Other sources may contribute alkalinity to Deep Creek lake, but could not be quantified within the scope of this study. No changes in stream-water quality were found that could be directly attributed to the stream having crossed the boundary from one noncarbonate bedrock formation to another. Inflow to streams from adjacent or underlying carbonate bedrock was apparent in several streams from increased values of pH and conductance. 20 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Wilson; Guifang Lao

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence

  14. Hydrolysis of iodine: equilibria at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Ramette, R.W.; Mesmer, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrolysis (or disproportionation) of molecular iodine to form iodate and iodide ions has been studied by emf measurements over the temperature range, 3.8/sup 0/ to 209.0/sup 0/C. The interpretation of these results required a knowledge of the formation constant for triiodide ion and the acid dissociation constant of iodic acid, both of which were measured as a function of temperature. The resulting thermodynamic data have been incorporated into a general computer model describing the hydrolysis equilibria of iodine as a function of initial concentration, pH and temperature.

  15. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  16. Alkaline solution water electrolysis - '81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. N.

    During the last two years several improvements in the alkaline solution electrolysis technology have been implemented in form of practical hardware. Attention is given to the catalyst system 'C-AN', alternative anode structures, a new proprietary anode electrocatalyst, alternates to the conventional chrysotile asbestos separator, the current status of hardware development, and the employment of simplistic and complex models for establishing the economics of hydrogen via water electrolysis.

  17. Advances in the design of heavy alkaline earth metal complexes as precursors for chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Anna Yosick

    The heavy alkaline earth metals, calcium, strontium, and barium, are components in thin films with electronic properties such as high-capacitance, superconductance and electroluminescence. The formation of these thin films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods requires precursors that are volatile, but the high reactivity of the heavy alkaline earth metal precursors has made this challenging. Historically, heavy alkaline earth metal beta-diketonates have been utilized as precursors, but their tendency towards aggregation and hydrolysis affords high molecular weight compounds with low volatility. The lack of a suitable heavy alkaline earth metal precursor is a major limiting factor in the production of these electronic thin films by CVD. As a result, improved precursor materials have been pursued, yet a number of drawbacks, including limited synthetic methodologies, lack of availability, and incorporation of undesired elements into the films, have prevented their widespread use in industry. This thesis work focuses on the development of novel alkaline earth metal precursors based on pyrazolate and beta-ketoiminate ligand systems, which are thermally robust, readily available, and devoid of undesired elements such as silicon and fluorine. One of the key factors in precursor design is control of the coordination environment of the metal, to prevent aggregation and hydrolysis, and to keep the volatility high. However, the coordination chemistry of the heavy alkaline earth metals is only in its infancy, which is a major roadblock in the design of future precursors. Concurrently with the development of new precursors, this thesis work uncovers new insights into their coordination chemistry, most significantly, the effects of agostic interactions on the thermal stability of the compounds. Secondary interactions, such as agostics and pi-bonding, appear to play a large role in the coordination chemistry of these metals, with implications in the design of future precursors. Additional findings in this work reveal the reproducible formation of an alkaline earth metal-hydroxide framework with triply bridging pyrazolate ligands in novel binding modes. Furthermore, the effect of synthetic methodologies on a beta-ketoiminate ligand system is presented, specifically, the use of direct metallation by ammonia activation.

  18. Lipase-mediated hydrolysis of blackcurrant oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Vacek; Marie Zarevúcka; Zden?k Wimmerb; Karel Stránský; Bohum??r Koutek; Martina Macková; Kate?ina Demnerová

    2000-01-01

    Four commercially available lipases, both free and immobilized, were tested for their ability to catalyze hydrolysis of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) oil using two different approaches. The lipase from Mucor miehei was studied free and immobilized in two different ways. The former series of enzymic reactions were performed in tap water at 40°C, but the latter series of enzymic processes were

  19. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in microgels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aiping; Wu, Qingshi; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Jianda; Wu, Weitai

    2015-06-16

    A cellulose-based microgel, where an individual microgel contains approximately one cellulose chain on average, is synthesized via free radical polymerization of a difunctional small-molecule N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in cellulose solution. This microgelation leads to a low-ordered cellulose, favoring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to generate glucose. PMID:26035077

  20. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. biofuel carbohydrate ethanol fermentation ionic liquid, diluted with water, and heated was trans- formed into a fermentable sugar (17, 18). The concentrated acid

  1. COMPUTERIZED EXTRAPOLATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. ydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and ...

  2. HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR ENHANCING PROPERTY-REACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rate constants for hydrolysis in water of ten classes of organic compounds are examined with the objective of establishing new, or expanding existing, property reactivity correlations. These relationships then can be used to predict the environmental hydrolysis of chemicals that ...

  3. Treatment of cotton with an alkaline Bacillus spp cellulase: activity towards crystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Caparrós, Cristina; López, Carmen; Torrell, Marc; Lant, Neil; Smets, Johan; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2012-02-01

    We analysed the influence of several enzymatic treatment processes using an alkaline cellulase enzyme from Bacillus spp. on the sorption properties of cotton fabrics. Although cellulases are commonly applied in detergent formulations due to their anti-redeposition and depilling benefits, determining the mechanism of action of alkaline cellulases on cotton fibres requires a deeper understanding of the morphology and structure of cotton fibres in terms of fibre cleaning. The accessibility of cellulose fibres was studied by evaluating the iodine sorption value and by fluorescent-labelled enzyme microscopy; the surface morphology of fabrics was analysed by scanning microscopy. The action of enzyme hydrolysis over short time periods can produce fibrillation on cotton fibre surface without any release of cellulosic material. The results indicate that several short consecutive treatments were more effective in increasing the fibre accessibility than one long treatment. In addition, no detectable hydrolytic activity, in terms of reducing sugar production, was found. PMID:21953804

  4. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L?1 day?1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus.

  5. The catalytic-centre activity and kinetic properties of bovine milk alkaline phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Barman, T. E.; Gutfreund, H.

    1966-01-01

    1. The phosphorylation of milk alkaline phosphatase was studied under various conditions: maximum incorporation occurred at pH5·0 and 50% incorporation at pH6·6–7·0. 2. The phosphorylation was shown to be specific and the results suggest that the active centre of the enzyme is involved in the process. 3. Phosphoryl-enzyme is rapidly hydrolysed at alkaline pH. at pH7·0 the results suggest that a phosphoryl-enzyme could occur as a transient intermediate in the hydrolysis of phosphate esters by the phosphatase. 4. The catalytic-centre activity of the enzyme was found to be 2700sec.?1 at pH10·0 and 25° with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. PMID:5966282

  6. ?-Tocopheryl phosphate: uptake, hydrolysis, and antioxidant action in cultured cells and mouse.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Keiko; Ishida, Noriko; Saito, Yoshiro; Ogawa-Akazawa, Yoko; Shichiri, Mototada; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Noguchi, Noriko; Chirico, John; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Niki, Etsuo

    2011-06-15

    ?-Tocopheryl phosphate (?-TP), a water-soluble analogue of ?-tocopherol, is found in humans, animals, and plants. ?-TP is resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis and may exert its own function in this form in vivo. In this study, the uptake, hydrolysis, and antioxidant action of ?-TP were measured using ?-TP with a deuterated methyl group, CD(3), at position 5 of the chroman ring (?-TP(CD3)). The hydrolysis of ?-TP(CD3) was followed by measuring ?-tocopherol containing the CD(3) group, ?-T(CD3), in comparison to unlabeled ?-tocopherol, ?-T(CH3). ?-TP(CD3) was incubated with cultured cells, and the intracellular ?-T(CD3) formed was measured with HPLC-ECD and GC-MS. ?-TP(CD3) was also administered to mice for 4 weeks by mixing in the diet, and ?-T(CD3) was measured in plasma, liver, brain, heart, and testis to compare with endogenous unlabeled ?-T(CH3). It was found that ?-TP(CD3) was taken in and hydrolyzed readily to ?-T(CD3) in cultured cells and in mice. The hydrolysis of ?-TP(CD3) in cell culture medium was not observed. ?-TP protected primary cortical neuronal cells from glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, and ?-TP given to mice reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma and liver. These results suggest that ?-TP is readily hydrolyzed in vivo to ?-T, which acts as an antioxidant, and that ?-TP may be used as a water-soluble ?-T precursor in intravenous fluids, in eye drops, or as a dietary supplement. PMID:21443945

  7. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components. PMID:20639116

  8. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-10-05

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF).

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rawhide using papain and neutrase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriporn Damrongsakkul; Kongpob Ratanathammapan; Kittinan Komolpis; Wiwut Tanthapanichakoon

    2008-01-01

    Rawhide split was hydrolysed separately by two proteolytic enzymes, papain and neutrase. The effects of enzymatic conditions of the hydrolysis reaction were investigated. During the first 10min of the enzymatic hydrolysis, the yield of the hydrolysed protein increased sharply, then it slowly increased or became essentially constant due to the limited availability of the substrate. The optimum hydrolysis conditions of

  10. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  11. Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.

    PubMed

    Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

  12. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  13. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  14. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  15. ?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60°C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50°C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  16. Kinetics of ptaquiloside hydrolysis in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Luis, Karina B; Hansen, Pernille B; Rasmussen, Lars H; Hansen, Hans Christian B

    2006-10-01

    Ptaquiloside (PTA) is a well-known toxin produced by the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn). It is proposed that PTA from bracken stands can leach through soil and sediments into drinking-water reservoirs, thus representing a concern for human health. To predict the persistence of the toxin, a full understanding of the PTA degradation in aqueous environments is important. The kinetics of PTA hydrolysis was examined at 22 degrees C in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 2.88-8.93). The reaction was found to follow first-order kinetics with respect to PTA at all pH and temperature conditions. At pH lower than 4.43 (+/- 0.32), the reaction is acid-mediated, whereas the reaction is base-mediated at pH higher than 6.39 (+/- 0.28). The rate constants for the acid-catalyzed, base-catalyzed, and neutral hydrolysis are 25.70 (+/- 0.96), 4.83 (+/- 0.03) X 10(4), and 9.49 (+/- 6.02) x 10(-4) h(-1), respectively. The PTA hydrolysis at pH 4.46 is strongly dependent on temperature, with an activation energy of 74.4 (+/- 2.6) kJ mol(-1). Stoichiometric calculations, reaction kinetics, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry strongly indicates the formation of an intermediary compound at pH 5.07 and 6.07 via a mechanism comprising two first-order consecutive reactions. Ptaquiloside has the lowest rate of hydrolysis at slightly acidic pH and low temperatures. Therefore, because PTA is not sorbed in soil, slightly acidic sandy soils in cold climates are most prone to PTA leaching to deeper soil layers and aquifers. PMID:17022402

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of PTT polymers and oligomers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Eberl; S. Heumann; R. Kotek; F. Kaufmann; S. Mitsche; A. Cavaco-Paulo; G. M. Gübitz

    2008-01-01

    Oligomers and polymers (film, fabrics) of the linear aromatic polyester poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were treated with polyesterases from Thermomyces lanuginosus, Penicillium citrinum, Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani pisi. The cutinase from T. fusca was found to release the highest amounts of hydrolysis products from PTT materials and was able to open and hydrolyse a cyclic PTT dimer according to RP-HPLC–UV

  18. Functional Interrelationships in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily: Phosphodiesterase Activity of Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Functional Interrelationships in the Alkaline Phosphatase Superfamily: Phosphodiesterase Activity of Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase Patrick J. O'Brien and Daniel Herschlag* Department of BiochemistryVised Manuscript ReceiVed March 15, 2001 ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) is a proficient

  19. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  20. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  1. Palm date fibers: analysis and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-01-01

    Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin) settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin) formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes. PMID:21151438

  2. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  3. Hydrogen generation from borohydride hydrolysis on surface-alloyed Ni foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. P.; Ma, S. L.; Li, G. R.; Liu, B. H.

    2013-11-01

    This work explores the use of falling film technology to generate hydrogen from BH hydrolysis reaction. A technique to create catalytic sites on Ni foam struts by surface alloying is also developed. Mg-Ni and Al-Ni intermetallic compounds (catalyst precursor) are formed when Ni foams loaded with Mg and Al powders are heated to 600 °C under N2 atmosphere, respectively. The catalytic sites of Mg2Ni and Raney Ni are formed on Ni foam struts after treating surface-alloyed Ni foams with an alkaline BH solution. Raney Ni on Ni foam struts (Raney Ni foam) has higher catalytic activity than Mg2Ni on Ni foam struts. The Raney Ni foam reaction plate in falling film reactor demonstrates high catalytic activity and quick response to fuel feed in H2 generation.

  4. A mechanistic study of thioester hydrolysis with heavy atom kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Marlier, John F; Fogle, Emily J; Redman, Richard L; Stillman, Anthony D; Denison, Matthew A; Robins, Lori I

    2015-02-01

    The carbonyl-C, carbonyl-O, and leaving-S kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were determined for the hydrolysis of formylthiocholine. Under acidic conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.0312, (18)k(obs) = 0.997, and (34)k(obs) = 0.995; for neutral conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.022, (18)k(obs) = 1.010, and (34)k(obs) = 0.996; and for alkaline conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.0263, (18)k(obs) = 0.992, and (34)k(obs) = 1.000. The observed KIEs provided helpful insights into a qualitative description of the bond orders in the transition state structure. PMID:25545007

  5. High-performance alkaline ionomer for alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells L. Zeng, T.S. Zhao

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    High-performance alkaline ionomer for alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells L. Zeng, T.S. Zhao 2013 Keywords: Fuel cells Polysulfone Alkaline ionomer Cross-linking Diamine An alkaline ionomer the peak power density of H2/O2 alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells to 342 mW cm-2 . © 2013 Elsevier B

  6. Migration of Alkaline Pulses in Reservoir Sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Bunge; C. J. Radke

    1982-01-01

    Establishing the amount of alkali loss by rock reactions is critical because successful application of most alkaline flooding techniques requires that hydroxide propagate through a large portion of the reservoir. This paper presents a mathematical analysis of the chromatographic movement of alkaline pulses when they are scaled to reservoir flow rates and distances. Using only this analysis and laboratory data,

  7. Alkalinity changes generated by phytoplankton growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER G. BREWER; JOEL C. GOLDMAN

    1976-01-01

    Continuous cultures of three marine phytoplankton species, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Monochrysis lutheri, were monitored for changes in alkalinity of the culture medium resulting from NOâ⁻ and NIIâ\\/sup +\\/ uptake. Uptake of NOâ⁻ caused an increase in alkalinity, whereas uptake of NIIâ\\/sup +\\/ produced a decrease. These results are consistent with the type of schematic equation proposed by Redfield,

  8. Zinc-air alkaline batteries - A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chakkaravarthy; A. K. Abdul Waheed; H. V. K. Udupa

    1981-01-01

    The basic principles involved in the operation of an alkaline zinc-air system are considered. Fully developed primary and mechanically rechargeable cells and their applications are reviewed. Various obstacles pertaining to the development of an electrically rechargeable zinc-air alkaline battery and possible means of overcoming them to some degree are summarized.

  9. Organosolv pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of poplars: I. enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic residues

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H.L.; Johnson, D.K.; Black, S.; Baker, J.; Grohmann, K.; Sarkanen, K.V.; Wallace, K.; Schroeder, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) organosolv pulps produced in a wide range of solvent composition (between 30 and 70% by volume of methanol) and catalysts (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) such that the cooking liquor pH less than or equal to 3 are easily digested by enzymes. The total yields of hydrolysis residues (pulps) are in the 40-60% range; the acid-catalyzed delignification followed by enzyme hydrolysis can generate 70-88% of the original six-carbon sugars contained in the wood. Glucomannan and arabinogalactan are dissolved in to the pulping liquor in the pH range of 2-4.5. Lower pH (less than or equal to 3) leads to additional solubilization of six-carbon sugars. These sugars may be fermented directly. From the insoluble hydrolysis residues, 36-41% conversions of wood into fermentable sugars were obtained after enzyme hydrolysis; the starting feedstocks contain 50.8 and 46.6% hexosans, respectively, for aspen and black cottonwood. The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be formally treated as two simultaneous pseudo-first-order reactions in which fast and slow hydrolysis of cellulose occur. Correlations between the glucan digestibility and the effect of the pretreatment have been made. The higher residual xylan content reduces the amount of the rapidly hydrolyzable glucan fraction and lowers the glucan digestibility. The proposed simple kinetic treatment is very helpful in assessing the effect of the pretreatment on pulp enzyme hydrolyzability.

  10. Xylan as limiting factor in enzymatic hydrolysis of nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Várnai, Anikó; Pere, Jaakko; Tammelin, Tekla; Salmén, Lennart; Siika-aho, Matti; Viikari, Liisa; Serimaa, Ritva

    2013-02-01

    The role of xylan as a limiting factor in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was studied by hydrolysing nanocellulose samples prepared by mechanical fibrillation of birch pulp with varying xylan content. Analyzing the nanocelluloses and their hydrolysis residues with dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that a certain fraction of xylan remained tightly attached to cellulose fibrils despite partial hydrolysis of xylan with xylanase prior to pulp fibrillation and that this fraction remained in the structure during the hydrolysis of nanocellulose with cellulase mixture as well. Thus, a loosely bound fraction of xylan was predicted to have been more likely removed by purified xylanase. The presence of loosely bound xylan seemed to limit the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, indicated by an increase in cellulose crystallinity and by preserved crystal width measured with wide-angle X-ray scattering. Removing loosely bound xylan led to a proportional hydrolysis of xylan and cellulose with the cellulase mixture. PMID:23238342

  11. Influence of clay minerals on the hydrolysis of carbamate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wei, J; Furrer, G; Kaufmann, S; Schulin, R

    2001-06-01

    Using batch experiments, we investigated the influence of clay minerals (montmorillonite, beidellite, illite, and vermiculite) on the hydrolysis of five carbamate pesticides: carbosulfan, carbofuran, aldicarb, pirimicarb, and chlorpropham. Compared to the other minerals, montmorillonite had the strongest influence on the hydrolysis of these carbamates. Montmorillonite enhanced the hydrolysis of carbosulfan and aldicarb. In contrast, the hydrolysis of chlorpropham was inhibited by montmorillonite, probably because of its strong adsorption on montmorillonite. The hydrolysis of pirimicarb was not affected by montmorillonite. The presence of organic substances, phosphate, and fluoride in suspensions decreased the catalytic activity of montmorillonite. Surface acidity of montmorillonite and/or formation of surface chelates are probably the key factors of surface catalysis in the case of the hydrolysis of carbosulfan. PMID:11414023

  12. Ultrasound enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of Parthenium hysterophorus: A mechanistic investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shuchi; Agarwal, Mayank; Bhatt, Aditya; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-09-01

    This study has attempted to establish the mechanism of the ultrasound-induced enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated and delignified biomass of Parthenium hysterophorus. A dual approach of statistical optimization of hydrolysis followed by application of sonication at optimum conditions has been adopted. The kinetics of hydrolysis shows a marked 6× increase with sonication, while net sugar yield shows marginal rise of ?20%. The statistical experimental design reveals the hydrolysis process to be enzyme limited. Profile of sugar yield in ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis has been analyzed using HCH-1 model coupled with Genetic Algorithm optimization. The trends in the kinetic and physiological parameters of HCH-1 model reveal that sonication enhances enzyme/substrate affinity and reaction velocity of hydrolysis. The product inhibition of enzyme in all forms (free, adsorbed, complexed) also reduces with ultrasound. These effects are attributed to intense micro-convection induced by ultrasound and cavitation in the liquid medium. PMID:26094188

  13. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  14. Cytoskeleton Dynamics: A Continuum Cooperative Hydrolysis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Cheng, Bo; Feng, Yu-Yu; Wang, Zi-Qing; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Cytoskeleton is a network of filamentous proteins, such as actin filaments and microtubules. We propose a continuum cooperative hydrolysis model which possesses exactly analytical solution to describe the dynamics of filament. The results show that the cooperativity leads to non negative-exponential distribution of T (ATP or GTP) subunits. As an application, we investigate the treadmilling phenomenon using our model. It is shown that the cooperativity remarkably affects the length of filament. Supported by Chinese Universities Scientific Fund under Grant No. 2014YB029 and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205123

  15. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

  16. Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer

    E-print Network

    Gabler, Douglas G

    1991-01-01

    been previously proposed as a polymerization catalyst. Two of the species are oxo-bridged dimers of two trimer rings that may be useful as model compounds for hydrolytic cross-linking reactions in the polymer. Hydrolysis of poly... Experiments 1 4 8 9 II. TRIMER HYDROLYSIS. Background. NMR Experiments Sample Preparation. Results and Discussion. Dimer Formation Trends in NMR Spectroscopic Parameters. 11 14 19 21 31 37 III. POLYMER HYDROLYSIS. 38 Background. Sample...

  17. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid translocase thought to play a role in facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids into cells. gIAP, but not dIAP, is able to modulate the phosphorylation status of FAT/CD36. dIAP, even though it is expressed in the duodenum, is shed into the gut lumen and is active in LPS dephosphorylation throughout the gut lumen and in the feces. Akp3 (-/-) mice display gut dysbiosis and are more prone to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis than wild-type mice. Of relevance, oral administration of recombinant calf IAP prevents the dysbiosis and protects the gut from chronic colitis. Analogous to the role of IAP in the gut, TNAP expression in the liver may have a proactive role from bacterial endotoxin insult. Finally, more recent studies suggest that neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease may also be associated with TNAP function on certain brain-specific phosphoproteins. This review recounts the established roles of TNAP and IAP and briefly discusses new areas of investigation related to multisystemic functions of these isozymes. PMID:23860646

  18. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Ju-Fang; Huang, Ping-Ying; Dong, Xu-Yan; Guo, Lu-Lu; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-07-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  20. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  1. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  2. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  3. Human liver alkaline phosphatase purified by affinity chromatography, ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Latner, A L; Hodson, A W

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of human liver alkaline phosphatase (orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.1). The method gives a purification factor of 12.5 X 10(3) over the initial aq. butan-1-ol extract, a recovery of 6.0% and a specific activity for the preparation of 1450-1550 units/mg of protein, 1 unit being defined as the amount of enzyme catalysing the hydrolysis of 1mumol of p-nitrophenyl phosphate/min at 35 degrees C in 0.1 M-2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol/HCl buffer, pH 10.5, containing 10mM-p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Homogeneity was studied by ultracentrifugation, by immunoelectrophoresis and by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A single contaminating protein was present which was less than 5% of the total. Ultracentrifugation and equilibrium-gradient-pore electrophoresis techniques indicated a mol.wt. of 156000 and 160000 respectively. Equilibrium-gradient-pore electrophoresis indicated that the alkaline phosphatase molecule is possibly a dimer, comprising two subunits of about 80000 mol.wt. Amino acid analysis proved remarkably similar to that for alkaline phosphatase from other sources, regardless of species. Images PLATE 1 PMID:1008827

  4. The acid and enzymic hydrolysis of O-acetylated sialic acid residues from rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, A.; Ratcliffe, Wendy A.

    1972-01-01

    Rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein and bovine submaxillary glycoprotein were both found to contain sialic acid residues which are released at a slow rate by the standard conditions of acid hydrolysis. These residues are also resistant to neuraminidases from Vibrio cholerae and Clostridium perfringens. This behaviour was attributed to the presence of O-acetylated sialic acid, since the removal of O-acetyl groups by mild alkaline treatment normalized the subsequent release of sialic acid from rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein by acid and by enzymic hydrolysis. Determination of the O-acetyl residues in rabbit Tamm–Horsfall glycoprotein indicated that on average two hydroxyl groups of sialic acid are O-acetylated, and these were located on the polyhydroxy side-chain of sialic acid or on C-4 and C-8. These findings confirm the assumption that certain O-acetylated forms of sialic acid are not substrates for bacterial neuraminidases. Several explanations have been suggested to explain the effect of O-acetylation of the side-chain on the rate of acidcatalysed hydrolysis of sialic acid residues. PMID:4349114

  5. Enhanced nitrogen removal in a wastewater treatment process characterized by carbon source manipulation with biological adsorption and sludge hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhao, Fang; Mao, Boyang; Wen, Xianghua

    2012-06-01

    An innovative adsorption/nitrification/denitrification/sludge-hydrolysis wastewater treatment process (ENRS) characterized by carbon source manipulation with a biological adsorption unit and a sludge hydrolysis unit was developed to enhance nitrogen removal and reduce sludge production for municipal wastewater treatment. The system presented good performance in pollutants removal, yielding the effluent with average COD, NH(4)(+)-N, TN and TP of 48.5, 0.6, 13.2 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively. Sixty percent of the total carbon source in the influent was concentrated and separated by the quick adsorption of activated sludge, providing the possibilities of reusing waste carbon source in the denitrification tank and accumulating nitrobacteria in the nitrification tank. Low temperature of 6-15 °C and high hydraulic loading rate of 3.0-15.0 m(3)/d did not affect NH(4)(+)-N removal performance, yielding the NH(4)(+)-N of lower 1.0 mg/L in the effluent. Furthermore, 50% of the residual sludge in the ENRS system could be transformed into soluble COD (SCOD) by alkaline thermal hydrolysis with temperature of 60 °C and pH of 11, and the hydrolyzed carbon could completely substitute methanol as a good quality carbon to support high efficient denitrification. PMID:22487133

  6. Industrial-scale steam explosion pretreatment of sugarcane straw for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for production of second generation ethanol and value-added products.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando M V; Pinheiro, Irapuan O; Souto-Maior, Ana M; Martin, Carlos; Gonçalves, Adilson R; Rocha, George J M

    2013-02-01

    Steam explosion at 180, 190 and 200°C for 15min was applied to sugarcane straw in an industrial sugar/ethanol reactor (2.5m(3)). The pretreated straw was delignificated by sodium hydroxide and hydrolyzed with cellulases, or submitted directly to enzymatic hydrolysis after the pretreatment. The pretreatments led to remarkable hemicellulose solubilization, with the maximum (92.7%) for pretreatment performed at 200°C. Alkaline treatment of the pretreated materials led to lignin solubilization of 86.7% at 180°C, and only to 81.3% in the material pretreated at 200°C. All pretreatment conditions led to high hydrolysis conversion of cellulose, with the maximum (80.0%) achieved at 200°C. Delignification increase the enzymatic conversion (from 58.8% in the cellulignin to 85.1% in the delignificated pulp) of the material pretreated at 180°C, but for the material pretreated at 190°C, the improvement was less remarkable, while for the pretreated at 200°C the hydrolysis conversion decreased after the alkaline treatment. PMID:23306125

  7. The effect of varying organosolv pretreatment chemicals on the physicochemical properties and cellulolytic hydrolysis of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Luis F; Chandra, Richard P; Saddler, Jack N

    2010-05-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) chips were pretreated using the organosolv process, and their ease of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed. The effect of varying pretreatment chemicals and solvents on the substrate's physicochemical characteristics was also investigated. The chemicals employed were MgCl2, H2SO4, SO2, and NaOH, and the solvents were ethanol and butanol. It was apparent that the different pretreatments resulted in variations in both the chemical composition of the solid and liquid fractions as well in the extent of cellulolytic hydrolysis (ranging from 21% to 82% hydrolysis after 12 h). Pretreatment under acidic conditions resulted in substrates that were readily hydrolyzed despite the apparent contradiction that pretreatment under alkaline conditions resulted in increased delignification (approximately 7% and 10% residual lignin for alkaline conditions versus 17% to 19% for acidic conditions). Acidic pretreatments also resulted in lower cellulose degree of polymerization, shorter fiber lengths, and increased substrate porosity. The substrates generated when butanol/water mixtures were used as the pretreatment solvent were also hydrolyzed more readily than those generated with ethanol/water. This was likely due to the limited miscibility of the solvents resulting in an increased concentration of pretreatment chemicals in the aqueous layer and thus a higher pretreatment severity. PMID:19820908

  8. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  9. Toxicity of alkalinity to Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasier, P.J.; Winger, P.V.; Reinert, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of sediment pore water have been suggested for use in sediment quality assessments and sediment toxicity identification evaluations. However, caution should be exercised in interpreting pore-water chemistry and toxicity due to inherent chemical characteristics and confounding relationships. High concentrations of alkalinity, which are typical of sediment pore waters from many regions, have been shown to be toxic to test animals. A series of tests were conducted to assess the significance of elevated alkalinity concentrations to Hyalella azteca, an amphipod commonly used for sediment and pore-water toxicity testing. Toxicity tests with 14-d old and 7-d old animals were conducted in serial dilutions of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions producing alkalinities ranging between 250 to 2000 mg/L as CaCO3. A sodium chloride (NaCl) toxicity test was also conducted to verify that toxicity was due to bicarbonate and not sodium. Alkalinity was toxic at concentrations frequently encountered in sediment pore water. There was also a significant difference in the toxicity of alkalinity between 14-d old and 7-d old animals. The average 96-h LC50 for alkalinity was 1212 mg/L (as CaCO3) for 14-d old animals and 662 mg/L for the younger animals. Sodium was not toxic at levels present in the NaHCO3 toxicity tests. Alkalinity should be routinely measured in pore-water toxicity tests, and interpretation of toxicity should consider alkalinity concentration and test-organism tolerance.

  10. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. PMID:25643957

  11. Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment

    E-print Network

    Heal, Kate

    1 Alkaline industrial waters and wetlands: prospects for effective treatment Will Mayes1 & Jon(OH)2 Ca2+ + 2OH- · NaOH-derived alkalinity at some sites: Bayer Process sources Alkaline leachates pentavalent form prevails Extremely alkaline waters Drainage from a former lime works at Harpur Hill near

  12. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH BY USING A SONIFIER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilek Kiliç Apar; Meltem Turhan; Belma Özbek

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the ultrasonication method was used to investigate the effect of ultrasonic energy on the hydrolysis of corn, rice, and wheat starch by using the alpha-amylase enzymes produced by Bacillus species and Bacillus licheniformis. The effects of sonifier operation variables such as duty cycle and acoustic power rate on the stability of alpha-amylase enzymes and hydrolysis degrees

  13. Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

  14. Acid hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulose from corn residue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Bienkowski; M. R. Ladisch; M. Voloch; G. T. Tsao

    1984-01-01

    The lignocellulose derived from the hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn residue was steeped in 15 to 25% sulfuric acid at 40 to 103 degrees C, filtered to recover solids, and then dried in a fluidized bed dryer to concentrate the acid. Acid concentration, steeping temperature, drying time, and temperature effects are described by the current work. Hydrolysis of the pretreated lignocelloses

  15. Acid hydrolysis and pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates: Final subcontract report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Grethlein; A. Converse; J. VickRoy; J. Holland; W. Grous; J. Ward

    1987-01-01

    This report presents findings on acid hydrolysis and pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates. Acetone was incorporated as a major fluid component to promote the hydrolysis of wood in the presence of dilute sulfuric acid and water. The use of a novel cyclone reactor design was explored through computer simulation and prototype construction. An investigation of using sulfur dioxide near the critical

  16. Hydrolysis of dietary fat by pancreatic lipase stimulates cholecystokinin release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pius Hildebrand; Christophe Petrig; Beat Burckhardt; Silvia Ketterer; Hans Lengsfeld; André Fleury; Paul Hadváry; Christoph Beglinger

    1998-01-01

    Background & Aims: The hypothesis that cholecystokinin release requires adequate dietary fat digestion in the small intestine was investigated in 10 healthy volunteers, and the consequences of reduced fat hydrolysis on pancreaticobiliary secretions were assessed. Methods: Fat hydrolysis was inhibited by intraduodenal perfusion of tetrahydrolipstatin, an irreversible lipase inhibitor. An oil emulsion containing 0, 30, 60, or 120 mg tetrahydrolipstatin

  17. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008

    E-print Network

    Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, December 2008 Revised Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg Vest wastewater treatment plant, Denmark PSO-F&U project nr. 2006 This project "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet .DK under the PSO

  18. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007

    E-print Network

    Report Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge Part 1, September 2007 Model calculations and cost "Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge" is supported by EnergiNet.DK under the PSO-F&U projects having National Laboratory, Rambøll, the Estate of Overgaard and SamRas. The wastewater treatment plant Esbjerg

  19. Avicel hydrolysis by cellulase enzyme in supercritical CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zheng; George T. Tsao

    1996-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis reaction in supercritical CO2 to produce glucose from cellulosic material Avicel was investigated. In comparison with the result from the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction of Avicel without CO2 introduced as a reaction medium, the reaction rate and glucose concentration are increased.

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide explosion as a pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zheng; Ho-Mu Lin; Jingquan Wen; Ningjun Cao; Xuezhi Yu; George T. Tsao

    1995-01-01

    Cellulosic material Avicel was treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of

  1. Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang

    2011-04-01

    The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs. PMID:21467805

  2. DNA-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Esters and Aromatic Amides

    PubMed Central

    Brandsen, Benjamin M.; Hesser, Anthony R.; Castner, Marissa A.; Chandra, Madhavaiah

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) can hydrolyze DNA phosphodiester linkages, but DNA-catalyzed amide bond hydrolysis has been elusive. Here we used in vitro selection to identify DNA catalysts that hydrolyze ester linkages as well as DNA catalysts that hydrolyze aromatic amides, for which the leaving group is an aniline moiety. The aromatic amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes were examined using linear free energy relationship analysis. The hydrolysis reaction is unaffected by substituents on the aromatic ring (? ? 0), suggesting general acid-catalyzed elimination as the likely rate-determining step of the addition-elimination hydrolysis mechanism. These findings establish that DNA has the catalytic ability to achieve hydrolysis of esters and aromatic amides as carbonyl-based substrates, and they suggest a mechanism-based approach to achieve DNA-catalyzed aliphatic amide hydrolysis. PMID:24127695

  3. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

  4. Storage oil hydrolysis during early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Quettier, Anne-Laure; Eastmond, Peter J

    2009-06-01

    Storage oil breakdown plays an important role in the life cycle of many plants by providing the carbon skeletons that support seedling growth immediately following germination. This metabolic process is initiated by lipases (EC: 3.1.1.3), which catalyze the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) to release free fatty acids and glycerol. A number of lipases have been purified to near homogeneity from seed tissues and analysed for their in vitro activities. Furthermore, several genes encoding lipases have been cloned and characterised from plants. However, only recently has data been presented to establish the molecular identity of a lipase that has been shown to be required for TAG breakdown in seeds. In this review we briefly outline the processes of TAG synthesis and breakdown. We then discuss some of the biochemical literature on seed lipases and describe the cloning and characterisation of a lipase called SUGAR-DEPENDENT1, which is required for TAG breakdown in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. PMID:19136267

  5. Dilute acid hydrolysis of paper birch: kinetics studies of xylan and acetyl-group hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Maloney, M T; Chapman, T W; Baker, A J

    1985-03-01

    Batch hydrolysis kinetics of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) xylan and its associated acetyl groups in dilute sulfuric acid have been measured for acid concentrations of between 0.04 and 0.18M and temperatures of between 100 and 170 degrees C. Only 5% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed for up to 85% xylan removal. Rate data were correlated well by a parallel reaction model based on the existence of reactive and resistant xylan portions. The resulting rate equation predicts the experimental xylan concentrations in the residue to within 10%. Hydrolysis of xylan-associated acetyl groups was found to occur at the same rate as that of xylan, except at 100 degrees C, where acetyl is released preferentially. No effect of acid concentration on the rate of acetyl removal relative to that of xylan was evident. PMID:18553680

  6. Effects of acid/alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation on extracellular polymeric substances from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuibo; Wu, Yuqi; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Jingsong; Luo, Zhiping; Li, Shiyou

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) influencing sludge characteristics, variations of extractable EPS from municipal sewage sludge by acid/alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation were studied. The changes in constituents of EPS were analyzed by UV-vis spectra and SEM images. The effects of alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation on the functional groups in EPS were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Results showed that the extractable EPS increased clearly with increasing irradiation dose from 0 to 15 kGy. UV-vis spectra indicated that a new absorption band from 240 nm to 300 nm existed in all irradiated samples, apart from acid condition. The results of FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that, irradiation influenced major functional groups in EPS, such as protein and polysaccharide, and these effects were clearer under alkaline condition. SEM images provided that after alkaline hydrolysis, gamma-ray irradiation was more effective in resulting in the sludge flocs and cells broken, compared with acid pretreatment (pH 2.50).

  7. Near-infrared fluorescence probe for the determination of alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siyu; Pang, Shu; Na, Weidan; Su, Xingguang

    2014-05-15

    Water-soluble CuInS2 quantum dots (QDs) were directly synthesized in an aqueous solution with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as stabilizers, and were functionalized using tryptophan molecules to form tryptophan-functionalized CuInS2 QDs (W-CuInS2 QDs) that had a strong fluorescence emission around 689 nm. The fluorescence of W-CuInS2 QDs could be quenched by Cu(2+) and then the addition of pyrophosphate (PPi) could effectively turn on the quenched fluorescence due to the strong interaction between Cu(2+) and PPi. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) could catalyze the hydrolysis of PPi that would disassemble the complex of PPi-Cu(2+)-PPi. Therefore, the recovered fluorescence could be quenched again by the addition of ALP. In this paper, we developed a novel near-infrared fluorescence probe for the simple and convenient assay of ALP. PMID:24388906

  8. Physical Properties of R-PET\\/CD-PET Polyblended Hollow Filaments and Their Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Jen Hsiao; Zhi-Feng Jen; Jen-Chang Yang; Lien-Tai Chen

    2002-01-01

    Cationic dyeable poly(ethylene terephthalate) (CD-PET) was formed by copolymerizing dimethylterephthalate (DMT),5-sodium sulfonate dimethyl isophthalate (SIPM) with a molar ratio of 2% and ethylene glycol (EG). Blends of regular poly(ethylene terephthalate) (R-PET) and CD-PET were spun into hollow filaments. The filaments were then treated with aqueous NaOH. This study investigated the physical properties of R-PET\\/CD-PET polyblended hollow filaments and their kinetic

  9. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  10. Degradation of halogenated carbons in alkaline alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    2002-02-01

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane, 1,2-dibromo-tetrafluoroethane, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole were dissolved in alkaline isopropyl alcohol and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after purged with pure nitrogen gas. The concentration of the hydroxide ions and the parent molecules decreased with the dose, while that of the halide ions and the organic products, with less halogen atoms than the parent, increased. Chain degradation will occur in alkaline isopropyl alcohol.

  11. Mineralogical, petrological and geochemical aspects of alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite associations from Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, L.; Gomes, C. B.; Beccaluva, L.; Brotzu, P.; Conte, A. M.; Ruberti, E.; Traversa, G.

    1995-12-01

    A general description of Mesozoic and Tertiary (Fortaleza) Brazilian alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite districts is presented with reference to mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and geochronology. It mainly refers to scientific results obtained during the last decade by an Italo-Brazilian research team. Alkaline occurrences are distributed across Brazilian territory from the southern (Piratini, Rio Grande do Sul State) to the northeastern (Fortaleza, Ceará State) regions and are mainly concentrated along the borders of the Paraná Basin generally coinciding with important tectonic lineaments. The most noteworthy characteristics of these alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite suites are: (i) prevalence of intrusive forms; (ii) abundance of cumulate assemblages (minor dunites, frequent clinopyroxenites and members of the ijolite series) and (iii) abundance of evolved rock-types. Many data demonstrate that crystal fractionation was the main process responsible for magma evolution of all Brazilian alkaline rocks. A hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of carbonatite liquids by immiscibility processes. The incidence of REE and trace elements for different major groups of lithotypes, belonging both to carbonatite-bearing and carbonatite-free districts, are documented. Sr and preliminary Nd isotopic data are indicative of a mantle origin for the least evolved magmas of all the studied occurrences. Mantle source material and melting models for the generation of the Brazilian alkaline magma types are also discussed.

  12. Hydrolysis of hydrogen cyanide in ammonia liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamennykh, B.M.; Nazarov, V.G.; Rus'yanova, N.D.; Lebedeva, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis was performed on the conversion of hydrocyanic acid to anhydrous ammonia in concentrated ammonia liquors obtained from overall purification schemes used for coke oven gas. The temperature range of treatment (90 to 140/sup 0/C) was chosen in view of the standard low pressure (to 588 kPa) available for the process, and with consideration for the industrial liquor regeneration regime. Samples were collected while retaining the liquor in the reactor without agitation at a constant temperature. Changes in the HCN concentration as a function of retention time are described by logarithmic functions. An effective rate constant was calculated. Results show that in comprehensive schemes for gas treatment by cyclic methods with production of anhydrous ammonia and with ammonia, sulfur and cyanide removal, the principal part of the HCN extracted from the gas in the regneration of the wash liquors and treatment of the NH/sub 3/ liquors will be hydrolyzed at high temperature, and the hydrolysis products will be removed. 4 figures, 1 table.

  13. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory....

  14. 40 CFR 420.110 - Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory. 420.110...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Alkaline Cleaning Subcategory § 420.110 Applicability; description of the alkaline cleaning subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434...AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory....

  16. 40 CFR 434.40 - Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory. 434...AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Alkaline Mine Drainage § 434.40 Applicability; description of the alkaline mine drainage subcategory....

  17. Actin Polymerization Overshoots and Hydrolysis as Assayed by Pyrene Fluorescence

    E-print Network

    Carlsson, Anders

    undergo a two-step hydrolysis (12). First, the ATP con- taining subunits (F-ATP) hydrolyze to a state- ing an independent measurement of the amount of polymerized actin that had completely hydrolyzed (F

  18. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis by simultaneous attrition of cellulosic substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, M.J.; Kelsey, R.G.; Shafizadeh, F.

    1982-02-01

    It has been shown that simultaneous attrition of cellulose in an attritor containing stainless-steel beads results in a substantial enhancement of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The attrition exerts two opposing effects, continuous delamination and comminution of the substrate with formation of new reactive sites and a gradual denaturation and inactivation of the enzyme. Consequently, the hydrolysis proceeds very rapidly at first and levels off at about 70% saccharification of the substrate. Accumulation of hydrolysis products is also responsible for inhibition of the enzyme. The attrition method is effective for the saccharification of wood, lignocellulose, holocellulose, and cellulose with simultaneous attrition showed that the lignin component provided more hindrance toward the saccharification process than hemicelluloses, which are themselves subject to enzymatic hydrolysis.

  19. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars.

    PubMed

    Collares, Renata M; Miklasevicius, Luiza V S; Bassaco, Mariana M; Salau, Nina P G; Mazutti, Marcio A; Bisognin, Dilson A; Terra, Lisiane M

    2012-07-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, ?-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction. A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process: after its addition to the reaction media, a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed. At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h). PMID:22761249

  20. Energetic approach of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Danilo A; Vaquerizo, Luis; Mato, Fidel; Bermejo, M Dolores; Cocero, M José

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis can be performed in supercritical water with a high selectivity of soluble sugars. The process produces high-pressure steam that can be integrated, from an energy point of view, with the whole biomass treating process. This work investigates the integration of biomass hydrolysis reactors with commercial combined heat and power (CHP) schemes, with special attention to reactor outlet streams. The innovation developed in this work allows adequate energy integration possibilities for heating and compression by using high temperature of the flue gases and direct shaft work from the turbine. The integration of biomass hydrolysis with a CHP process allows the selective conversion of biomass into sugars with low heat requirements. Integrating these two processes, the CHP scheme yield is enhanced around 10% by injecting water in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the hydrolysis reactor can be held at 400°C and 23 MPa using only the gas turbine outlet streams. PMID:25536511

  1. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  2. Hydrolysis of phosphodiesters through transformation of the bacterial phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Shim, H; Hong, S B; Raushel, F M

    1998-07-10

    The phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide array of phosphotriesters and related phosphonates, including organophosphate pesticides and military nerve agents. It has now been shown that this enzyme can also catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters, albeit at a greatly reduced rate. However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ethyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (compound I) by the wild-type enzyme was >10(8) times faster than the uncatalyzed reaction (kcat = 0.06 s-1 and Km = 38 mM). Upon the addition of various alkylamines to the reaction mixture, the kcat/Km for the phosphodiester (compound I) increased up to 200-fold. Four mutant enzymes of the phosphotriesterase were constructed in a preliminary attempt to improve phosphodiester hydrolysis activity of the native enzyme. Met-317, which is thought to reside in close proximity to the pro-S-ethoxy arm of the paraoxon substrate, was mutated to arginine, alanine, histidine, and lysine. These mutant enzymes showed slight improvements in the catalytic hydrolysis of organophosphate diesters. The M317K mutant enzyme displayed the most improvement in catalytic activity (kcat = 0.34 s-1 and Km = 30 mM). The M317A mutant enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester (compound I) in the presence of alkylamines up to 200 times faster than the wild-type enzyme in the absence of added amines. The neutralization of the negative charge on the oxygen atom of the phosphodiester by the ammonium cation within the active site is thought to be responsible for the rate enhancement by these amines in the hydrolytic reaction. These results demonstrate that an active site optimized for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters can be made to catalyze the hydrolysis of organophosphate diesters. PMID:9651332

  3. Hydrolysis of the chlorophosphazenes: cyclic trimer and linear polymer 

    E-print Network

    Gabler, Douglas G

    1991-01-01

    . Haw The hydrolysis chemistry of the chlorophosphazene cyclic trimer (phosphonitrilic chloride) has long been of interest, because of its possible relevance to polymerization catalysis, as well as the undesirable role of water in the cross-linking... been previously proposed as a polymerization catalyst. Two of the species are oxo-bridged dimers of two trimer rings that may be useful as model compounds for hydrolytic cross-linking reactions in the polymer. Hydrolysis of poly...

  4. Dilute-acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse at varying conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Neureiter; Herbert Danner; Christiane Thomasser; Bamusi Saidi; Rudolf Braun

    2002-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, a byproduct of the cane sugar industry, is an abundant source of hemicellulose that could be hydrolyzed\\u000a to yield a fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol and chemicals. The effects of sulfuric acid concentration,\\u000a temperature, time, and dry matter concentration on hemicellulose hydrolysis were studied with a 20-L batch hydrolysis reactor\\u000a using a statistical experimental design.

  5. Hydrolysis of esters in subcritical and supercritical water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Krammer; Herbert Vogel

    2000-01-01

    The task of this work was to gain a better understanding of the hydrolysis of esters in sub- and supercritical water (SCW). Therefore, the kinetics of the hydrolysis of ethyl acetate as a model reaction was studied in the pressure and temperature range of 23–30MPa and 250–400°C, respectively. The corresponding reaction mechanisms in sub- and supercritical water were discussed.

  6. Stereospecificity in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cyclosarin (GF)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Harvey; Jan E. Kolakowski; Tu-Chen Cheng; Vipin K. Rastogi; Louis P. Reiff; Joseph J. DeFrank; Frank M. Raushel; Craig Hill

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic catalysis is one means of accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of G-type organophosphorus nerve agents. Here, the stereospecificity of the catalysis of cyclosarin (GF, O-cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate) hydrolysis by several enzymes was investigated. Stereospecificity was not evident at 3mM GF but was evident at 0.5mM GF. The differential effect was apparently due to fluoride-catalyzed racemization of the substrate. Alteromonas sp.

  7. The effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengdong Zhu; Yuanxin Wu; Ziniu Yu; Xia Zhang; Hui Li; Ming Gao

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments involving microwave irradiation were carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Compared with microwave irradiation free hydrolysis, rice straw pretreated by combining microwave irradiation with alkali could increase the initial hydrolysis rate but the hydrolysis yield remained unchanged. When the enzyme solution was treated by microwave irradiation, the

  8. Toxicology 212 (2005) 107115 Carbofuran and malathion inhibit nucleotide hydrolysis in

    E-print Network

    Eizirik, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Toxicology 212 (2005) 107­115 Carbofuran and malathion inhibit nucleotide hydrolysis in zebrafish and ADP hydrolysis in an uncompetitive manner, but no effect was observed on AMP hydrolysis. Malathion decreased ATP and ADP hydrolysis in competitive and an uncompetitive manner, respectively, but not altered

  9. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K; Dean, Dennis R; Hoffman, Brian M; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2013-10-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s(-1), 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s(-1), 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s(-1), 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein-protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Fe(ox)(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  10. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  11. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  12. Interaction of alkaline phosphatase with cytochrome c

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimír Dadák; Old?ich Vrána; Olga Nováková; Marián Antalík

    1996-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) a protein which exhibits long-lived phosphorescence lifetime and ferricytochrome c as a phosphorescence quenching agent were examined. The excitation of the tryptophan triplet state resulted in cytochrome c reduction confirming long-range electron transfer as the quenching mechanism. The rate of electron transfer was not related to the length of the illumination interval; an additional reaction between the

  13. Technical developments in alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kincaide

    1982-01-01

    A new series of alkaline water electrolysis Hydrogen Generation Systems (HGS) is under development at Teledyne Energy Systems (TES). When introduced to the marketplace in mid 1982, the HGS will be the largest capacity single unit manufactured in the United States. The HGS is the product of a joint development program with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and TES,

  14. Long-life alkaline primary battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruetschi

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an alkaline primary battery of the type having a negative electrode containing cadmium of amalgamated zinc and a positive electrode containing monovalent silver oxide, mercuric oxide, or mixtures of these oxides with manganese dioxide, the positive electrode having an electrochemically active surface area facing the negative electrode. At positive electrodes, self-discharge can be caused by the

  15. De-ashing treatment of corn stover improves the efficiencies of enzymatic hydrolysis and consequent ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yanqing; Fang, Zhenhong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xinliang; Bao, Jie

    2014-10-01

    In this study, corn stover with different ash content was pretreated using dry dilute acid pretreatment method at high solids loading of 67% (w/w). The results indicate that the hydrolysis yield of corn stover is increased from 43.30% to 70.99%, and ethanol yield is increased from 51.74% to 73.52% when ash is removed from 9.60% to 4.98%. The pH measurement of corn stover slurry indicates that the decrease of pretreatment efficiency is due to the neutralization of sulfuric acid by alkaline compounds in the ash. The elemental analysis reveals that the ash has the similar composition with the farmland soil. This study demonstrates the importance of ash removal from lignocellulose feedstock under high solids content pretreatment. PMID:25089897

  16. Intramolecular general base catalyzed ester hydrolysis. The hydrolysis of 2-aminobenzoate esters.

    PubMed

    Fife, Thomas H; Singh, Randhir; Bembi, Ramesh

    2002-05-17

    Rate constants have been obtained for the hydrolysis of the trifluoroethyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl esters of 2-aminobenzoic acid at 50 degrees C in H(2)O. The pseudo-first-order rate constants, k(obsd), are pH independent from pH 8 to pH 4 (the pK(a) of the amine group conjugate acid). The 2-aminobenzoate esters hydrolyze with similar rate constants in the pH-independent reactions, and these water reactions are approximately 2-fold slower in D(2)O than in H(2)O. The most likely mechanism involves intramolecular general base catalysis by the neighboring amine group. The rate enhancements in the pH-independent reaction in comparison with the pH-independent hydrolysis of the corresponding para substituted esters or the benzoate esters are 50-100-fold. In comparison with the hydroxide ion catalyzed reaction, the enhancement in k(obsd) at pH 4 with the phenyl ester is 10(5)-fold. Intramolecular general base catalyzed reactions are assessed in respect to their relative advantages and disadvantages in enzyme catalysis. A general base catalyzed reaction can be more rapid at low pH than a nucleophilic reaction that has a marked dependence on pH and the leaving group. PMID:12003523

  17. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  18. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell System Break-Out Session

    E-print Network

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop System Break-Out Session Anil Trehan (CommScope) Huyen Dinh on anode + Alkaline membrane on cathode ­ High temperature operation ­ KOH to capture carbonate · System

  19. Matrix diffusion of some alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, H.; Byegaard, J.; Skarnemark, G.; Skaalberg, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Static through-diffusion experiments were performed to study the diffusion of alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in fine-grained granite and medium-grained Aespoe-diorite. Tritiated water was used as an inert reference tracer. Radionuclides of the alkali- and alkaline earth-metals (mono- and divalent elements which are not influenced by hydrolysis in the pH-range studied) were used as tracers, i.e., {sup 22}Na{sup +}, {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and {sup 85}Sr{sup 2+}. The effective diffusivity and the rock capacity factor were calculated by fitting the breakthrough curve to the one-dimensional solution of the diffusion equation. Sorption coefficients, K{sub d}, that were derived from the rock capacity factor (diffusion experiments) were compared with K{sub d} determined in batch experiments using crushed material of different size fractions. The results show that the tracers were retarded in the same order as was expected from the measured batch K{sub d}. Furthermore, the largest size fraction was the most representative when comparing batch K{sub d} with K{sub d} evaluated from the diffusion experiments. The observed effective diffusivities tended to decrease with increasing cell lengths, indicating that the transport porosity decreases with increasing sample lengths used in the diffusion experiments.

  20. Novel alkaline proteases from alkaliphilic bacteria grown on chicken feather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amare Gessesse; Rajni Hatti-Kaul; Berhanu A Gashe; Bo Mattiasson

    2003-01-01

    Two alkaline protease producing alkaliphilic bacterial strains, designated as AL-20 and AL-89, were isolated from a naturally occurring alkaline habitat. The two strains were identified as Nesternkonia sp. and Bacillus pseudofirmus, respectively. Both strains grew and produced alkaline protease using feather as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Addition of 0.5% glucose to the feather medium increased protease production

  1. ACIDITY AND ALKALINITY IN MINE DRAINAGE: THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl S. Kirby; Charles A. Cravotta

    2004-01-01

    Acidity, net acidity, and net alkalinity are widely used parameters for the characterization of mine drainage, but these terms are not well defined and are often misunderstood. Incorrect interpretation of acidity, alkalinity, and derivative terms can lead to inadequate treatment design or poor regulatory decisions. We briefly explain derivations of theoretical expressions of three types of alkalinities (caustic, phenolphthalein, and

  2. Author's personal copy Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Author's personal copy Sensitive fluorogenic substrate for alkaline phosphatase Michael N. Levine 2011 Available online 24 July 2011 Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase ELISA Latent fluorophore Rhodamine Trimethyl lock a b s t r a c t Alkaline phosphatase serves both as a model enzyme for studies

  3. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of alkaline phosphatase and --glutamyl transferase

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of alkaline phosphatase and --glutamyl transferase the suitability of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and -glutamyl transferase (GGT) as markers for the heat treatment-resistant, nonspore-forming pathogens found in milk (Wiliska et al. 2007). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC 3

  4. Tailoring electrode hydrophobicity to improve anode performance in alkaline media

    E-print Network

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Tailoring electrode hydrophobicity to improve anode performance in alkaline media Matt S. Naughton t s Backing layers may be permeable to catalyst solvent. 20 wt% PTFE optimal for alkaline anode. High Received in revised form 9 May 2013 Accepted 13 May 2013 Available online 29 May 2013 Keywords: Alkaline

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Alkalinity

    E-print Network

    Hansell, Dennis

    ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Alkalinity on the Density of Arctic Ocean that is needed to determine its thermodynamic properties. Density (q), total alkalinity (TA), and dissolved Seawater. This excess is due to the higher values of the normalized total alkalinity (NTA = TA * 35/S) (up

  6. Identification of Carboxylesterase-Dependent Dabigatran Etexilate Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert B.; Herring, Vanessa L.; Hu, Zhe-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Dabigatran etexilate (DABE) is an oral prodrug that is rapidly converted to the active thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran (DAB), by serine esterases. The aims of the present study were to investigate the in vitro kinetics and pathway of DABE hydrolysis by human carboxylesterase enzymes, and the effect of alcohol on these transformations. The kinetics of DABE hydrolysis in two human recombinant carboxylesterase enzymes (CES1 and CES2) and in human intestinal microsomes and human liver S9 fractions were determined. The effects of alcohol (a known CES1 inhibitor) on the formation of DABE metabolites in carboxylesterase enzymes and human liver S9 fractions were also examined. The inhibitory effect of bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate on the carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism of DABE and the effect of alcohol on the hydrolysis of a classic carboxylesterase substrate (cocaine) were studied to validate the in vitro model. The ethyl ester of DABE was hydrolyzed exclusively by CES1 to M1 (Km 24.9 ± 2.9 ?M, Vmax 676 ± 26 pmol/min per milligram protein) and the carbamate ester of DABE was exclusively hydrolyzed by CES2 to M2 (Km 5.5 ± 0.8 ?M; Vmax 71.1 ± 2.4 pmol/min per milligram protein). Sequential hydrolysis of DABE in human intestinal microsomes followed by hydrolysis in human liver S9 fractions resulted in complete conversion to DAB. These results suggest that after oral administration of DABE to humans, DABE is hydrolyzed by intestinal CES2 to the intermediate M2 metabolite followed by hydrolysis of M2 to DAB in the liver by CES1. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of DABE was not inhibited by alcohol. PMID:24212379

  7. Enhanced cellulase hydrolysis of eucalyptus waste fibers from pulp mill by Tween80-assisted ferric chloride pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liheng; Fu, Shiyu

    2013-04-01

    Pretreatment combining FeCl3 and Tween80 was performed for cellulose-to-ethanol conversion of eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste fibers (EAWFs). The FeCl3 pretreatment alone showed a good effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of EAWFs, but inhibited enzyme activity to some extent. A surfactant, Tween80, added during FeCl3 pretreatment was shown to significantly enhance enzyme reaction by eluting enzymatic inhibitors such as iron(III) that are present at the surface of the pretreated biomass. Treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, treatment time, FeCl3 concentration, and Tween80 dosage for pretreatment were optimized as follows: 180 °C, 8:1, 30 min, 0.15 mol/L, and 1% (w/v). Pretreated EAWFs under such optimal conditions provided enzymatic glucose (based on 100 g of oven-dried feedstock) and substrate enzymatic digestibility of EAWFs of 34.8 g and 91.3% after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, with an initial cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. PMID:23480567

  8. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Torget, R.W.; Padukone, N.; Hatzis, C.; Wyman, C.E.

    2000-02-08

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0--5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160 C for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0--5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94--220 C for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0--5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180--280 C for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0--5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180--280 C for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  9. Effect of ketogenic diet on nucleotide hydrolysis and hepatic enzymes in blood serum of rats in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Müller, Alexandre Pastoris; Figueiró, Fabrício; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos L Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, used for treating refractory epilepsy in children. We have previously shown alterations in nucleotidase activities from the central nervous system and blood serum of rats submitted to different models of epilepsy. In this study we investigated the effect of KD on nucleotidase activities in the blood serum, as well if KD has any influence in the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in Wistar rats submitted to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. At 21 days of age, rats received an injection of lithium chloride and, 18-19 h later, they received an injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride for status epilepticus induction. The results reported herein show that seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine elicit a significant increase in ATP hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as a decrease in ADP hydrolysis and aspartate aminotransferase activity. The KD is a rigorous regimen that can be associated with hepatic damage, as shown herein by the elevated activities of liver enzymes and 5'-nucleotidase in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of lithium on nucleotidases in blood serum. PMID:20443057

  10. STIMULATION OF MICROBIAL UREA HYDROLYSIS IN GROUNDWATER TO ENHANCE CALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Joanna L. Taylor; Tina L. Gresham; Mark E. Delwiche; Frederick S. Colwell; Travis McLing; Lynn Petzke; Robert W. Smith

    2008-04-01

    Sequential addition of molasses and urea was tested as a means of stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho. Ureolysis is an integral component of a novel remediation approach for divalent trace metal and radionuclide contaminants in groundwater and associated geomedia, where the contaminants are immobilized by coprecipitation in calcite. The generation of carbonate alkalinity from ureolysis promotes calcite precipitation. In calcite-saturated aquifers, this represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. In a single well experiment, dilute molasses was injected three times over two weeks to promote overall microbial growth, followed by one urea injection. With molasses addition, total cell numbers in the groundwater increased one to two orders of magnitude. Estimated ureolysis rates in recovered groundwater samples increased from <0.1 nmol L-1 hr-1 to >25 nmol L-1 hr-1. A quantitative PCR assay for the bacterial ureC gene indicated that urease gene numbers increased up to 170 times above pre-injection levels. Following urea injection, calcite precipitates were recovered. Estimated values for an in situ first order ureolysis rate constant ranged from 0.016 to 0.057 day-1. The results are promising with respect to the potential to manipulate in situ biogeochemical processes to promote contaminant sequestration.

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fractionated products from oil thermally oxidated

    SciTech Connect

    Yashida, H.; Alexander, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acylglycerol products obtained from thermally oxidized vegetable oils was studied. Corn, sunflower and soybean oils were heated in the laboratory at 180/sup 0/C for 50, 70 and 100 hr with aeration and directly fractionated by silicic acid column chromatography. By successive elution with 20%, then 60% isopropyl ether in n-hexane, and diethyl ether, the thermally oxidized oils were separated into three fractions: the nonpolar fraction (monomeric compounds), slightly polar fraction (dimeric compounds), and polar fraction comprising oligomeric compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase showed that the monomers were hydrolyzed as rapidly as the corresponding unheated oils, the dimers much more slowly, and the oligomeric compounds barely at all. Overall, the hydrolysis of the dimers was less than 23% of that for the monomers, with small differences among the oils. Longer heating periods resulted in greater reductions in hydrolysis of the dimeric compounds. These results suggest that the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of the fractionated acylglycerol compounds is related to differences in the thermal oxidative deterioration, and amounts of polar compounds in the products. (33 Refs.)

  12. Opiates inhibit adenylate cyclase by stimulating GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Koski, G; Klee, W A

    1981-01-01

    Specific, GTP hydrolysis catalyzed by membranes prepared from neuroblastoma--glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells can be measured in the presence of adenosine-5'-[beta, gamma-imido] triphosphate (p[NH]ppA), ATP, and a nucleotide triphosphate-regenerating system. Opiates and opioid peptides stimulate low Km GTP hydrolysis when measured in the presence of Na+ and Mg2+. Opiate stimulation is rapid, stereospecific, and reserved by the antagonist naloxone. Potencies of opiates as stimulators of GTP hydrolysis and as inhibitors of adenylate cyclase are closely correlated. Agents that stimulate adenylate cyclase, including prostaglandin E1, 2-Cl-adenosine, secretin, and NaF, have little or no effect upon the rate of GTP hydrolysis. Opiates have no effect upon either adenylate cyclase or GTPase activity in membranes prepared from C6-BU1 glioma cells, which lack opiate receptors. In view of the pivotal role of GTP in the activation of adenylate cyclase, we conclude that receptor-mediated stimulation of GTP hydrolysis is the mechanism by which opiates and other inhibitory hormones lower adenylate cyclase activity in NG108-15 cell membranes. PMID:6117072

  13. Hydrolysis and photolysis of flumioxazin in aqueous buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Armbrust, Kevin L; Grey, Timothy L

    2004-09-01

    To determine the degradation rates and degradation products of the herbicide flumioxazin in aqueous buffer solutions (pH 5, 7 and 9), its hydrolysis and photolysis were investigated at 30 degrees C in the dark, and in a growth chamber fitted with fluorescent lamps simulating the UV output of sunlight. The rate of hydrolysis of flumioxazin was accelerated by increasing pH. The t(1/2) values at pH 5, 7 and 9 were 16.4, 9.1 and 0.25 h, respectively. Two degradation products were detected and their structural assignments were made on the basis of LC-MS data. Degradation product I was detected in all buffer solutions while degradation product II was detected in acidic buffer only. Both degradation products appeared to be stable to further hydrolysis. After correcting for the effects of hydrolysis, the photolytic degradation rate also increased as a function of pH and was approximately 10 times higher at pH 7 than that at pH 5, showing t(1/2) values of 4.9 and 41.5 h, respectively. Degradation products formed by photolysis were the same as those formed by hydrolysis. Flumioxazin was degraded more extensively at high pH and should degrade in surface water. PMID:15382510

  14. Benefits from Tween during enzymic hydrolysis of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Kaar, W.E.; Holtzapple, M.T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-08-20

    Corn stover is a potential substrate for fermentation processes. Previous work with corn stover demonstrated that lime pretreatment rendered it digestible by cellulase; however, high sugar yields required very high enzyme loadings. Because cellulase is a significant cost in biomass conversion processes, the present study focused on improving the enzyme efficiency using Tween 20 and Tween 80; Tween 20 is slightly more effective than Tween 80. The recommended pretreatment conditions for the biomass remained unchanged regardless of whether Tween was added during the hydrolysis. The recommended Tween loading was 0.15 g Tween/g dry biomass. The critical relationship was the Tween loading on the biomass, not the Tween concentration in solution. The 72-h enzymic conversion of pretreated corn stover using 5 FPU cellulase/g dry biomass at 50 C with Tween 20 as part of the medium was 0.85 g/g for cellulose, 0.66 g/g for xylan, and 0.75 for total polysaccharide; addition of Tween improved the cellulose, xylan, and total polysaccharide conversions by 42, 40, and 42%, respectively. Kinetic analyses showed that Tween improved the enzymic absorption constants, which increased the effective hydrolysis rate compared to hydrolysis without Tween. Furthermore, Tween prevented thermal deactivation of the enzymes, which allows for the kinetic advantage of higher temperature hydrolysis. Ultimate digestion studies showed higher conversions for samples containing Tween, indicating a substrate effect. It appears that Tween improves corn stover hydrolysis through three effects: enzyme stabilizer, lignocellulose disrupter, and enzyme effector.

  15. Preparation of composite alkaline polymer electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Chen Yang; Sheng-Jen Lin

    2002-01-01

    A composite solid-state polymer electrolyte composed of PVA polymer with a glass-fiber-cloth mat, KOH and H2O, was prepared by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of alkaline composite PVA polymer electrolyte is about 0.047 S cm?1 at room temperature. The characteristic properties of composite PVA polymer electrolyte films were studied by DSC, TGA, SEM, cyclic voltammetry, and AC impedance

  16. Ceramic diaphragms for advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wendt; H. Hofmann

    1989-01-01

    Chemically stable and physically strong, but relatively expensive diaphragms with low electrical surface-specific resistance have been developed for alkaline water electrolysis intended to work at temperature around and above 120°C at increased current densities and yet reduced cell voltage. These diaphragms are made of a porous cermet produced from ceramic particles (group 2A titanates) and NiO by reductive sintering. Two

  17. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Alkaline extraction of wastewater activated sludge biosolids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Y. García Becerra; Edgar J. Acosta; D. Grant Allen

    2010-01-01

    Activated sludge produced by wastewater treatment facilities are a sub-utilized by-product whose handling and disposal represent significant costs to these facilities. In this work, we introduced a simple and effective alkaline extraction technique that extracts up to 75% of the sludge’s organic matter into a liquor containing potentially useful organic material (proteins, carbohydrates, etc.). The results suggest that at pH

  19. Electrospinning of an Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Dong, Zexuan; Wu, Yiquan; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane is a key component of the low temperature fuel cell to block fuel and electron crossover, while enabling ions to pass and complete the half-cell reactions. Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are anion-containing polymers, such as Nafion, which offer proton conduction pathways. Alkaline polymer electrolytes utilize hydroxyl anions as charge carriers and are currently being researched as an alternative to PEMs because they may offer the use of inexpensive metal catalysts. However, hydroxyl anion in an alkaline electrolyte has relatively low mobility compared to that of protons in an acid electrolyte; hence a high concentration of OH^- is required to obtain high ionic conductivity. Here, we report the use of an electrospinning process to prepare nonwoven membranes. Polysulfones are first functionalized with varied ionic content of quaternary ammonium functional groups and then are electrospun to get alkaline electrolyte mat. The morphology at various ionic content, mechanical property, and in-plane conductivity of resulting films will be discussed and compared to solvent-cast films of the same material.

  20. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and climate will be also discussed.

  1. Alkaline and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatment for intensification of delignification process from sustainable raw-material.

    PubMed

    Subhedar, Preeti B; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasound-assisted alkaline pretreatment under mild operating conditions have been investigated for intensification of delignification. The effect of NaOH concentration, biomass loading, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the delignification has been studied. Most favorable conditions for only alkaline pretreatment were alkali concentration of 1.75 N, solid loading of 0.8% (w/v), temperature of 353 K and pretreatment time of 6 h and under these conditions, 40.2% delignification was obtained. In case of ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach, most favorable conditions obtained were alkali concentration of 1N, paper loading of 0.5% (w/v), sonication power of 100 W, duty cycle of 80% and pretreatment time of 70 min and the delignification obtained in ultrasound-assisted alkaline approach under these conditions was 80%. The material samples were characterized by FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA technique. The lignin was recovered from solution by precipitation method and was characterized by FTIR, GPC and TGA technique. PMID:23978705

  2. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C., E-mail: ruiz.cs@ietcc.csic.es [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Skibsted, J. [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Instrument Centre for Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)] [Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), c/Serrano Galvache, n Degree-Sign 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  3. Gas-phase hydrolysis of SOF2 and SOF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Brunt, R. J.; Sauers, I.

    1986-10-01

    The rates for gas-phase hydrolysis of SOF2 (thionylfluoride) and SOF4 (thionyl tetrafluoride) have been measured at a temperature of 298 K. The second order rate constant for SOF2 hydrolysis in SF6 buffer gas was found to have the value (1.2±0.3)×10-23 cm3/s which agrees with previous estimates of Sauers et al., but is three orders of magnitude lower than the value obtained by Rüegsegger et al. at 340 K. The rate constant for SOF4 hydrolysis has not previously been measured and its value in both SF6 and N2 buffer gases was found here to be (1.0±0.3)×10-21 cm3/s.

  4. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24755261

  5. Bacterial hydrolysis and methane fermentation of lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.

    1992-01-01

    In order for methane fermentation of lignocellulosic materials to be an effective method for providing both a renewable energy source and a means to reduce the volume of municipal solids wastes, a better understanding of the fermentation process is required, because this process has been generally observed to be a slow and incomplete one. This dissertation focused on understanding of the rate-limiting mechanisms of methane fermentation, including the influence of the type of lignocellulosic materials, bacterial culture characteristics, bacterial concentration, pH, and temperature. Lignocellulosic materials selected for this study were: corn stover, wheat straw, napier grass, wood grass, newspaper, and white fir. Four methanogenic cultures grown on monosaccharides, purified holocellulose, wheat straw, and mixed municipal sludge, respectively, were developed at 35[degrees]C and neutral pH. Each of the four bacterial cultures developed a glucose and cellobiose consumption potential higher than the methanogenic potential, which in turn was higher than the lignocellulosic hydrolysis potential. Further examination of lignocellulosic hydrolysis revealed that it is the step in which bacteria and enzymes can have access to holocellulosic polymers that limits the hydrolysis rate. Microscopic examination revealed that hydrolysis appears to have occurred only at the points of physical contact between the hydrolytic bacteria and the particle surface. Both fermentation rate and extent were greatly influenced by the lignocellulosic material used and by pH and temperature, but they were much less affected by the bacterial culture employed. Lignocellulosic hydrolysis reached a maximum rate at relatively low bacterial concentrations. Both hydrolysis and fermentation processes can be adequately modeled by a first-order rate equation. Linear correlations between lignin content and biodegradability or methane conversion rate were very poor.

  6. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis of polysaccharides over polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Ueda, Tadaharu; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-01

    Polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were utilized as recyclable acid catalysts and microwave-absorbing agents for the microwave-assisted hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose. Phosphotungstic (PW) and silicotungstic (SiW) acids showed high hydrolyzing activity, while phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) showed lower glucose stability. The PW catalyst could be recycled by ether extraction at least 4 times without changing its catalytic activity. The addition of PW could reduce the energy demand required for running the hydrolysis by 17-23%. The dielectric property of the aqueous PW solution was important for increasing the microwave-absorption capability of the reaction system and reducing the energy consumption. PMID:23859983

  7. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R A [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.

    1989-09-18

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  8. The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Thybring, Emil E.; Johansen, Katja S.; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

  9. In situ 31P nuclear magnetic resonance for observation of polyphosphate and catabolite responses of chemostat-cultivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae after alkalinization.

    PubMed Central

    Castro, C D; Meehan, A J; Koretsky, A P; Domach, M M

    1995-01-01

    The proposed pH buffering and phosphagenic functions of polyphosphate were investigated by subjecting chemostat-cultivated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to alkalinization (NaOH addition) and anaerobiosis. The subsequent changes in intracellular phosphate-containing species were observed in situ by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by using the NMR cultivator we developed. For the alkalinization experiments, changes in catabolite secretion were also measured in parallel experiments. Additionally, a range of potential neutralization capacity was investigated: a dilute culture and concentrated cultures with low or high polyphosphate content. The concentrated cultures displayed increased cytosolic pH and rapid polyphosphate degradation to small chains. The pH changes and extent of polyphosphate degradation depended inversely on initial polyphosphate content. The dilute culture restored extracellular pH rapidly and secreted acetate. The concentrated culture with low polyphosphate reserves also secreted acetate. In contrast to the alkalinization-induced polyphosphate dynamics, anaerobiosis resulted in the complete hydrolysis of polyphosphate to P(i), as opposed to small chains, and reduced cytosolic pH. The results and calculations suggest that the bulk of NMR-observable polyphosphate (vacuolar) degradation to short polymers conceivably contributes to neutralizing added alkalinity. In other circumstances, such as anaerobiosis, degradation serves other functions, such as phosphorylation potential regulation. PMID:8534109

  10. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50°C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55°C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1?h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3?h of hydrolysis at 45°C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process. PMID:22312476

  11. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates...hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica,...

  13. Energy Optimization of Bioethanol Production via Hydrolysis of Switchgrass

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of syngas and planning the construction of commercial plants in the near future. Two different production routes can be used to produce ethanol from lignocellulosic switchgrass, either biomass hydrolysis or biomass gasification. A previous paper by the authors8 proposed an optimized conceptual production process

  14. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170°C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155min, carbonization temperature of 215°C, and carbonization reaction time of 100min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar. PMID:26051497

  15. Perspective How does ATP hydrolysis control actin's associations?

    E-print Network

    Spudich, James A.

    Perspective How does ATP hydrolysis control actin's associations? Elena P. Sablin*, John F. Dawson in the DNaseI-binding loop from a random coil to a helix in the ADP-bound actin (3) was suggested (4 is similar to that used by other families of nucleotide- hydrolyzing proteins (NTPases). Various families

  16. Synergistic Catalysis of Dimetilan Hydrolysis by Metal Ions and

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    catalyzed by +II transition metal ions exhibiting strong affinities for nitrogen- and oxygen-donor ligands that dissolved metal ions (1), simple hydrous metal oxides (2-5), and clays (6, 7) can increase hydrolysis rates- chemicalorwiththeattackingnucleophile(e.g.,H2OorOH- ). In other situations, dissolved metal ions and metal oxides decrease

  17. Pancreatic Lipase Hydrolysis of Cow Milk Fat1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Jack; C. P. Freeman; L. M. Smith; J. B. Mickle

    1963-01-01

    SUMMARY Knowledge of the position of individual fatty acids within the trig'lycerides is necessary to the understanding of the utilization of a fat. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis to convert triglycerides to 2-monoglycerides has been used to study this type of glyceride structure in roany food fats, but it has recently been claimed that it cannot be used with cow milk fat

  18. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  19. Recycling of cellulose enzyme complex after cellulose hydrolysis. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clesceri

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low-cost process for the recycling of enzymes used in cellulose hydrolysis. The enzymes can be used in an advanced technology to convert cellulose, a component of wood and paper, to sugar for the production of fuel ethanol. The market for fuel ethanol, used as an octane booster in gasoline, is growing. New York

  20. [A rate-limiting stage of enteropeptidase hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lova, A G; Likhareva, V V; Rumsh, L D

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown for the first time that deacylation is the rate-limiting stage in the enteropeptidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of highly efficient oligopeptide substrates containing four Asp residues in positions P2-P5. On the other hand, the rate-limiting stage in the hydrolysis of low-efficiency peptide substrates containing less than four Asp or Glu residues in positions P2-P5 is acylation, as has previously been suggested for all amide and peptide substrates of serine proteases on the basis of the classic studies by Bender et al. The method of introduction of an additional nucleophile or another effector that selectively affects the deacylation stage was used to determine the rate-limiting stage in the enteropeptidase hydrolysis of Nalpha-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine thiobenzyl ester, the highly efficient amide substrate GlyAsp4-Lys beta-naphthyl amide, and the low-efficiency peptide substrate VLSAADK-GNVKAAWG (where a hyphen denotes the hydrolysis site). The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2008, vol. 34, no. 2; see also http://www.maik.ru. PMID:18522276

  1. Kinetic Modeling of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A semimechanistic multi-reaction kinetic model was developed to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, creeping wild ryegrass (CWR; Leymus triticoides). This model incorporated one homogeneous reaction of cellobiose-to-glucose and two heterogeneous reactions of cellulose-to...

  2. Production of alcohol fuels via acid-hydrolysis extrusion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.; Hochstetler, T.

    1981-01-01

    Pilot plant data obtained using a modified single screw grain extruder to facilitate the conversion of raw cellulosic materials into fermentable monosaccharides via acid hydrolysis are analyzed. The following are discussed: cellulose availability and cost, cellulose conversion theory, cellulose conversion performance of extrusion technology, system analysis, and economics. (MHR)

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of tannery fleshings using chicken intestine proteases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Annapurna Raju; C. Rose; N. Muralidhara Rao

    1997-01-01

    Chicken intestine and tannery fleshings, the major wastes from poultry and tannery industries posing wide disposal problems, are used in this study for the recovery of proteins through biodegradation. Chicken intestines have been investigated as a source of proteolytic and autolytic enzymes for the hydrolysis of tannery fleshings. A combination of tannery fleshings and chicken intestines at acidic pH, when

  4. Edinburgh Research Explorer Organotrifluoroborate Hydrolysis: Boronic Acid Release

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    and an Acid­Base Paradox in Cross-Coupling Citation for published version: Lennox, AJJ & Lloyd-jones, GC 2012, 'Organotrifluoroborate Hydrolysis: Boronic Acid Release Mechanism and an Acid­Base Paradox in Cross-Coupling' Journal: Boronic Acid Release Mechanism and an Acid­Base Paradox in Cross-Coupling** Alastair J. J. Lennox1 and Guy

  5. Hydrolysis of oligosaccharides over solid acid catalysts: a review.

    PubMed

    Vilcocq, Léa; Castilho, Paula C; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Luís C

    2014-04-01

    Mild fractionation/pretreatment processes are becoming the most preferred choices for biomass processing within the biorefinery framework. To further explore their advantages, new developments are needed, especially to increase the extent of the hydrolysis of poly- and oligosaccharides. A possible way forward is the use of solid acid catalysts that may overcome many current drawbacks of other common methods. In this Review, the advantages and limitations of the use of heterogeneous catalysis for the main groups of solid acid catalysts (zeolites, resins, carbon materials, clays, silicas, and other oxides) and their relation to the hydrolysis of model soluble disaccharides and soluble poly- and oligosaccharides are presented and discussed. Special attention is given to the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and hemicellulose-derived saccharides into monosaccharides, the impact on process performance of potential catalyst poisons originating from biomass and biomass hydrolysates (e.g., proteins, mineral ions, etc.). The data clearly point out the need for studying hemicelluloses in natura rather than in model compound solutions that do not retain the relevant factors influencing process performance. Furthermore, the desirable traits that solid acid catalysts must possess for the efficient hemicellulose hydrolysis are also presented and discussed with regard to the design of new catalysts. PMID:24616436

  6. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  7. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  8. Steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic material for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold H. Brownell; John N. Saddler

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment methods were compared with steam explosion, and differing views on the relative importance of mechanical and chemical effects were outlined. Hydrolysis was desirable; pyrolysis was undesirable. The effects of initial moisture content on steam consumption, mechanism and rate of heat transfer, pentosan solubilization, and subsequent glucose yield were summarized. The insignificant effect, after treatment at 240 degrees C, of

  9. Designer xylanosomes: protein nanostructures for enhanced xylan hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work is the first report of the successful design, construction, and application of multi-functional, self-assembling biocatalysts for targeted xylan hydrolysis, termed xylanosomes. Using the architecture of cellulosomes found in some anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, four different xylanosomes...

  10. Fractionation and Molecular Characteristics of Cellulose During Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Eremeeva; T. Bikova; M. Eisimonte; U. Viesturs; A. Treimanis

    2001-01-01

    The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on the molecular characteristics as well as fractional composition of cellulose was studied using the direct size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis in sodium hydroxide. Bleached hardwood pulp was subjected to the action of the cellulase complex Celluclast™ supplemented with Novozyme 188™. The residues after the enzymatic treatment were fractionated by dissolution in 10% NaOH

  11. Hydrolysis of methyloleate using immobilized lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. R. C. Murthy; Z. Aslam Basha; T. Swaminathan

    1998-01-01

    Various lipases were screened for their hydrolytic efficiency towards methyloleate. Lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum gave highest hydrolysis efficiency of 92% in 24 h. Different cation exchange resins were screened to immobilize lipase from Chromobacterium viscosum. A weakly acidic macroreticular type resin, IRC-50 having carboxyl end group functionality gave highest activity yield of 18.8%. Strongly acidic cation exchange resins with sulphonic

  12. Catalytic hydrolysis of ammonia borane via cobalt palladium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daohua; Mazumder, Vismadeb; Metin, Önder; Sun, Shouheng

    2011-08-23

    Monodisperse 8 nm CoPd nanoparticles (NPs) with controlled compositions were synthesized by the reduction of cobalt acetylacetonate and palladium bromide in the presence of oleylamine and trioctylphosphine. These NPs were active catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB), and their activities were composition dependent. Among the 8 nm CoPd catalysts tested for the hydrolysis of AB, the Co(35)Pd(65) NPs exhibited the highest catalytic activity and durability. Their hydrolysis completion time and activation energy were 5.5 min and 27.5 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which were comparable to the best Pt-based catalyst reported. The catalytic performance of the CoPd/C could be further enhanced by a preannealing treatment at 300 °C under air for 15 h with the hydrolysis completion time reduced to 3.5 min. This high catalytic performance of Co(35)Pd(65) NP catalyst makes it an exciting alternative in pursuit of practical implementation of AB as a hydrogen storage material for fuel cell applications. PMID:21766875

  13. Evaluation of Cation Hydrolysis Schemes with a Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Brian W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the use of two models of pocket calculators. The Hewlett-Packard HP67 and the Texas Instruments TI59, to solve problems arising in connection with ionic equilibria in solution. A three-parameter regression program is described and listed as a specific example, the hydrolysis of hexavalent uranium, is provided. (BT)

  14. Non-ionic surfactants do not consistently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Qi, Feng; Zhao, Xuebing; Liu, Dehua

    2015-04-01

    Non-ionic surfactants have been frequently reported to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass and pure cellulose. However, how the hydrolysis condition, substrate structure and cellulase formulation affect the beneficial action of surfactants has not been well elucidated. In this work, it was found that the enzymatic hydrolysis of pure cellulose was not consistently improved by surfactants. Contrarily, high surfactant concentration, e.g. 5 g/L, which greatly improved the hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated substrates, actually showed notable inhibition to pure cellulose conversion in the late phase of hydrolysis. Under an optimal hydrolysis condition, the improvement by surfactant was limited, but under harsh conditions surfactant indeed could enhance cellulose conversion. It was proposed that non-ionic surfactants could interact with substrates and cellulases to impact the adsorption behaviors of cellulases. Therefore, the beneficial action of surfactants on pure cellulose hydrolysis is influenced by hydrolysis condition, cellulose structural features and cellulase formulation. PMID:25689307

  15. On a Three Step Model of Anaerobic Digestion Including the Hydrolysis of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On a Three Step Model of Anaerobic Digestion Including the Hydrolysis of Particulate Matter R degradation, chemostat, models, growth rate, equilibrium, bistability. 1. INTRODUCTION Anaerobic digestion, the anaerobic digestion is generally considered as a three step process: hydrolysis and liquefaction

  16. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer Available online 14 December 2009 Keywords: Continuous fermentation Enzymatic hydrolysis Fuel ethanol Lignocellulosic biomass Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) a b s t r a c t Ethanol made

  17. Alkalinity and carbon budgets in the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Copin-Montegut, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Villefranche sur Mer (France))

    1993-12-01

    The carbon budget of the Mediterranean Sea has never been assessed. This paper reports the results of numerous measurements of pH and alkalinity in the spring of 1991. This concentration in inorganic carbon was deduced from the measurements. The existence of simple relationships between alkalinity and salinity or inorganic carbon and salinity made it possible to assess the budget of alkalinity and carbon in the Mediterranean Sea. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A particulate non-specific alkaline phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, James Kent

    1980-01-01

    -nahthyl Phosphate Phosphatase in V'M tH' f~SI '. . . . 50 6. Partial Purification of Particulate Alkaline Phosphatase 52 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Titer of an antiserum directed against the soluble Page repressible alkaline phosphatase 26 2 . Electrophoretic...- phatases 35 6. Effect of pH on parti. culate alkaline phosphatase activity 37 7. Effect of substrate concentration of particulate alka- line phosphatase activity 38 8. Molecular weight determination of the particulate al- kaline phosphatase 42 9...

  19. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  20. Advanced membranes for alkaline primary and rechargeable alkaline cells with zinc anodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harlan Lewis; Patricia Jackson; Alvin Salkind; Thomas Danko; Roger Bell

    2001-01-01

    Several advanced cellulosic and radiation grafted polypropylene membrane materials are currently under evaluation in the laboratories at Navsea Crane and Rutgers University, for application to alkaline primary and rechargeable cell chemistries which employ zinc as the anode material. A portion of these tests involve model cell evaluations of cellulosic membranes for silver migration rates through the membranes as a function

  1. Alkaline battery with reducing agents in the electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Magahed, E.

    1983-08-09

    An alkaline cell is disclosed, containing an effective amount of an electrolyte soluble reducing agent of alkali metal borohydrides, quaternary ammonium borohydrides, complex aluminum hydrides or hydrazine.

  2. /sup 18/O isotope effect in /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 9. Hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate by phosphatase enzymes and in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Parente, J.E.; Risley, J.M.; Van Etten, R.L.

    1984-12-26

    The /sup 18/O isotope-induced shifts in /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the position of bond cleavage in the phosphatase-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions of benzyl phosphate. The application of the /sup 18/O-isotope effect in NMR spectroscopy affords a continuous, nondestructive assay method for following the kinetics and position of bond cleavage in the hydrolytic process. The technique provides advantages over most discontinuous methods in which the reaction components must be isolated and converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. In the present study, (..cap alpha..-/sup 13/C,ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate and (ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate were synthesized for use in enzymatic and nonenzymatic studies. Hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase from E. coli and by the acid phosphatases isolated from human prostate and human liver were all accompanied by cleavage of the substrate phosphorus-oxygen bond consistent with previously postulated mechanisms involving covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates. An extensive study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate at 75/sup 0/C revealed that the site of bond cleavage is dependent on pH. At pH less than or equal to 1.3, the hydrolysis proceeds with C-O bond cleavage; at 1.3 < pH < 2.0, there is a mixture of C-O and P-O bond scission, the latter progressively predominating as the pH is raised; at pH greater than or equal to 2.0, the hydrolysis proceeds with exclusive P-O bond scission. (S)-(+)-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)Benzyl phosphate was also synthesized. Hydrolysis of this chiral benzyl derivative demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed C-O bond scission of benzyl phosphate proceeds by an A-1 (S/sub N/1) mechanism with 70% racemization and 30% inversion at carbon. 37 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer cells q

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    A new class of inhibitors of 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis and invasion of prostate cancer-independent prostate cancer cells. Blocking cellular hydrolysis of 2-AG to increase its endogenous concentration to inhibit 2-AG hydrolysis and prostate cancer cell invasion. Compounds containing a thioether b to a TFK

  4. Kinetic study on hydrolysis of oils by lipase with ultrasonic emulsification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Ramachandran; Sulaiman Al-Zuhair; C. S. Fong; C. W. Gak

    2006-01-01

    The hydrolysis of oil by lipase takes place at the interface between the oil and the aqueous solution containing the enzyme. For such systems, interfacial area between the oil phase and the aqueous phase influences the rate of hydrolysis. In this study, to enhance the hydrolysis rates of lipids, ultrasonication instead of mechanical agitation was used for interfacial area generation.

  5. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  6. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  7. MacromolecularAlkaline Phosphataseand an lmmunoglobulinG That InhibitedAlkaline Phosphatasein a Patient'sSerum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nakagawa; K. Umeki; K. Yamanaka; N. Kid; S. Ohtaki

    globulins A and G (lgG). Placental alkaline phosphatase, complexed with either the patient's serum or IgG purified from the patient's serum, remained at the origin on electro- phoresis, with significant loss of activity. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase, complexed with either the patient's serum or the patient's IgG, migrated to a position similar to that of the macromolecular alkaline phosphatase in the

  8. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of ?-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of lignin structures and compositions could be linked to quantifiable changes in the composition of the cell wall and properties of the lignin including apparent content of the p-hydroxycinnamates while the limitations of S/G estimation in grasses is highlighted. PMID:22672858

  9. The influence of solid\\/liquid separation techniques on the sugar yield in two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood followed by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanam Monavari; Mats Galbe; Guido Zacchi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood, either as a stand-alone process or as pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis, is considered to result in higher sugar yields than one-step acid hydrolysis. However, this requires removal of the liquid between the two steps. In an industrial process, filtration and washing of the material between the two steps is difficult, as it should

  10. Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

    1994-05-01

    Magnetite, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, is the dominant oxide constituent of the indigenous corrosion layers that form on iron base alloys in high purity, high temperature water. The apparent simultaneous stability of two distinct oxidation states of iron in this metal oxide is responsible for its unique solubility behavior. The present work was undertaken to extend the experimental and theoretical bases for estimating solubilities of an iron corrosion product (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe(OH){sub 2}) over a broader temperature range and in the presence of complexing, pH-controlling reagents. These results indicate that a surface layer of ferrous hydroxide controls magnetite solubility behavior at low temperatures in much the same manner as a surface layer of nickel(II) hydroxide was previously reported to control the low temperature solubility behavior of NiO. The importance of Fe(III) ion complexes implies not only that most previously-derived thermodynamic properties of the Fe(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion are incorrect, but that magnetite phase stability probably shifts to favor a sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate compound in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures. The test methodology involved pumping alkaline solutions of known composition through a bed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} granules and analyzing the emerging solution for Fe. Two pH-controlling reagents were tested: sodium phosphate and ammonia. Equilibria for the following reactions were described in thermodynamic terms: (a) Fe(OH){sub 2}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} dissolution and transformation, (b) Fe(II) and Fe(III) ion hydroxocomplex formation (hydrolysis), (c) Fe(II) ion amminocomplex formation, and (d) Fe(II) and Fe(III) ion phosphatocomplex formation. 36 refs.

  11. Effect of banana pulp and peel flour on physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestibility of yellow alkaline noodles.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Saifullah; Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Shin Yong, Yeoh; Min-Tze, Liong; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the utilization of banana--Cavendish (Musa acuminata L., cv cavendshii) and Dream (Musa acuminata colla. AAA, cv 'Berangan')--pulp and peel flours as functional ingredients in yellow alkaline noodles. Noodles were prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with ripe banana pulp or peel flours. In most cases, the starch hydrolysis index, predicted glycaemic index (pGI) and physicochemical properties of cooked noodles were affected by banana flour addition. In general, the pGI values of cooked noodles were in the order; banana peel noodles < banana pulp noodles < control noodles. Since the peel flour was higher in total dietary fibre but lower in resistant starch contents than the pulp flour, the low pGI of banana peel noodles was mainly due to its high dietary fibre content. In conclusion, banana pulp and peel flour could be useful for controlling starch hydrolysis of yellow noodles, even though some physicochemical properties of the noodles were altered. PMID:19757248

  12. Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Charles, W; Ng, B; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Cheng, L; Ho, G; Kayaalp, A

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is relatively poor due to hydrolysis limitations. Acid and alkaline pretreatments are effective in enhancing hydrolysis leading to higher methane yields. However, chemical costs often prohibit full-scale application. In this study, 12 V two-chamber electrolysis using an anion exchange membrane alters sludge pH without chemical dosing. pH dropped from 6.9 to 2.5 in the anode chamber and increased to 10.1 in the cathode chamber within 15 h. The volatile suspended solids solubilisation of WAS was 31.1% in the anode chamber and 34.0% in the cathode chamber. As a result, dissolved chemical oxygen demand increased from 164 to 1,787 mg/L and 1,256 mg/L in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. Remixing of sludge from the two chambers brought the pH back to 6.5, hence no chemical neutralisation was required prior to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield during anaerobic digestion at 20 d retention time was 31% higher than that of untreated sludge. An energy balance assessment indicated that the non-optimised process could approximately recover the energy (electricity) expended in the electrolysis process. With suitable optimisation of treatment time and voltages, significant energy savings would be expected in addition to the benefit of decreased sludge volume. PMID:23787324

  13. Alkalinity regulation in soft-water Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Pollman, C.D.; Eilers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Major ion chemistry data collected as part of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Eastern Lake Survey was examined to evaluate the mechanisms and extent of alkalinity regulation in 37 undisturbed, soft-water lakes in Florida. Comparison of major ion-Cl ratios in atmospheric deposition and in lake water shows the reactions resulting in retention of sulfate and nitrate are the dominant sources of alkalinity; production of organic acids and ammonium retention are the major alkalinity-consuming processes. Based on average reactions, enrichment of major cations accounted for only 12% of net alkalinity generation in the study lakes. In general, calcium and potassium were depleted in low-ANC lakes, presumably by in-lake sinks, and were enriched in most higher ANC lakes by ground water inputs. Differences in alkalinity among these lakes reflect hydrologic factors and the proximity of clay and carbonate deposits to the lake bed. Overall, net-alkalinity generation nearly balanced H+ predicted from evaporative concentration of atmospheric acid inputs; the close balance suggests that the alkalinity status of these lakes is very sensitive to changes in atmospheric loadings and groundwater alkalinity inputs.

  14. ChemTeacher: Alkaline Earth Metals = Group 2 (IIA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-20

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Alkaline Earth Metals page includes resources for teaching students about the discovery, properties, and uses of the alkaline earth metals.

  15. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Margolis, J.; Heimer, E.; Felix, A.; Udenfriend, S.

    1985-09-01

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). The authors have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts.

  16. ANNUAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting the...

  17. Actinide-aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Clark; Nikolai N. Krot

    2000-01-01

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting their solubility and sorption behavior in tanks, determining whether chemical separations are needed for waste treatment, and designing separations processes. Baseline

  18. Dynamic model of in-lake alkalinity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    In-lake alkalinity generation (IAG) is important in regulation of alkalinity in lakes with long residence times, particularly seepage lakes. An IAG model based on input/output modeling concepts is presented that describes budgets for each ion involved in alkalinity regulation by a single differential equation that includes inputs, outputs, and a first-order sink term. These equations are linked to an alkalinity balance equation that includes inputs, outputs, IAG (by sulfate and nitrate reduction), and internal alkalinity consumption (by ammonium assimilation). Calibration using published lake budgets shows that rate constants are generally similar among soft water lakes (k/sub SO/sub 4// approx. 0.5 m/yr; k/sub NO/sub 3// approx. = 1.3 yr/sup -1/; k/sub NH/sub 4// approx. 1.5 yr/sup -1/). Sensitivity analysis shows that predicted alkalinity is sensitive to water residence time, but less sensitive to modest changes in rate constants. The model reflects the homeostatic nature of internal alkalinity generation, in which internal alkalinity production increases with increasing acid input and decreases with decreasing acid inputs of HNO/sub 3/ or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.

  19. TOTAL ALKALINITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map provides a synoptic illustration of the national patterns of surface water alkalinity in the conterminous United States. Alkalinity is the most readily available measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of surface waters and provides a reasonable estimate o...

  20. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  1. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  2. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  3. GEOCHEMISTRY: The Importance of Being Alkaline

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael John Russell (Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre; )

    2003-10-24

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The earliest forms of "protolife" on Earth must have been able to reproduce and replicate; it is likely that they were also cellular. How might such systems have formed? In his Perspective, Russell highlights the report by Hanczyc et al., who show that clay particles can catalyze the formation of lipid vesicles. These particles also adsorb RNA. If the vesicles are forced to divide, RNA is distributed among the daughter vesicles. Similar conditions to those used in the experiments may have existed at mounds created by alkaline, hydrothermal seepages on the ancient ocean floor. However, instead of lipids, polypeptides formed from amino acids may have formed the first organic membranes.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Russian-VX by organophosphorus hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, V K; DeFrank, J J; Cheng, T C; Wild, J R

    1997-12-18

    The Russian-VX (R-VX) is the principle V-type nerve agent in the chemical warfare (CW) arsenal of the Former Soviet Union. We here report the enzymatic hydrolysis of the P-S bond of Russian-VX by organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) from Pseudomonas diminuta. While the Michaelis constant, K(m) for R-VX (474 microM), was similar to that for VX (434 microM), the Vmax for R-VX (2.1 mumoles/mg/min) was about four-fold higher compared to that for VX (0.56 mumoles/mg/min). A 50% inhibition in the rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis of R-VX was observed in the presence of 0.5% ethanol, isoamyl-alcohol, or isopropanol. The presence of acetonitrile, diethylene glycol, or methanol had marginal effects. These results comprise the first demonstration of enzymatic detoxification of R-VX. PMID:9425265

  5. Unambiguous stereochemical course of rabbit liver fructose bisphosphatase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Domanico, P L; Rahil, J F; Benkovic, S J

    1985-03-26

    The stereochemical course of rabbit liver fructose bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) was determined by hydrolyzing the substrate analogue (Sp)-[1-18O]fructose 1-phosphorothioate 6-phosphate in H(2)17O, incorporating the chiral, inorganic phosphorothioate product into adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiotriphosphate) (ATP beta S), and analyzing the isotopic distribution of 18O in ATP beta S by 31P NMR. The result indicates that the 1-phosphoryl group is transferred with inversion of configuration. A series of single-turnover experiments ruled out an acyl phosphate intermediate in the hydrolysis. Consequently, fructose bisphosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate via a direct transfer of the phosphoryl moiety to water. PMID:2988606

  6. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  7. Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-04-01

    This work focuses on progress in gaining a better understanding of the polymorphic nature of the UO3-water system, one of several important materials associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the fuel cycle. Powder x-ray diffraction, Raman and fluorescence characterization was performed on polymorphic forms of UO3 and UO3 hydrolysis products for the purpose of developing some predictive capability of estimating process history and utility, e.g. for polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Specifically, we have investigated three industrially relevant production pathways of UO3 and discovered a previously unknown low temperature route to ?-UO3. Pure phases of UO3, hydrolysis products and starting materials were used to establish optical spectroscopic signatures for these compounds.

  8. Kinetics of the surface hydrolysis of raw starch by glucoamylase.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Katano, Hajime

    2005-10-19

    The hydrolysis of raw starch catalyzed by glucoamylase has been studied with starch granules of different sizes by use of an amperometric glucose sensor by which the direct and continuous observation of the concentration of glucose can be achieved even in a thick raw starch suspension. The initial rate of the enzymatic hydrolysis in the raw starch suspension increased with increasing concentration of the enzyme to approach a saturation value and was proportional to the amount of substrate. Also, the rate was proportional to the specific surface area of the substrate. The experimental results can be explained well by the rate equations derived from a three-step mechanism, which consists of adsorption of the free enzyme onto the surface of the substrate, reaction of the adsorbed enzyme with the substrate, and liberation of the product. PMID:16218653

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials: a kinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Sarto, V.

    1984-01-01

    A kinetic study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of two celluloses with different structural features was performed at various temperatures (26-50/sup 0/C). The enzymatic system consisted of three types of enzymes: E/sub 1/-..beta..-1,4-glucan glucanohydrolase; E/sub 2/-..beta..-1,4-glucan cellobiohydrolase; and E/sub 3/-..beta..-glucosidase. A mathematical model for the mechanism of the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials catalyzed by a multienzymatic system was checked and a good rationalization of the experimental results was achieved. Uncompetitive and competitive glucose inhibition on E/sub 1/ and E/sub 2/, respectively, appeared to occur for both substrates. Inhibition by cellobiose was checked at 34/sup 0/C on one substrate. The V/sub max/, K/sub m/, and glucose inhibition constants were optimized and their dependence on temperature determined.

  10. Redesign of a mononuclear zinc metalloenzyme for organophosphate hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Sagar D.; Kipnis, Yakov; Greisen, Per; Takeuchi, Ryo; Ashani, Yacov; Goldsmith, Moshe; Song, Yifan; Gallaher, Jasmine L.; Silman, Israel; Leader, Haim; Sussman, Joel L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Tawfik, Dan S.; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze non-cognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of active site functional groups of metalloenzymes to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing murine adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency kcat/Km ~104 M?1s?1 after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation. The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzed the hydrolysis of the RP-isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and showed striking substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving-groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers a general approach for exploring their untapped catalytic potential for new reactivities. PMID:22306579

  11. Computational redesign of a mononuclear zinc metalloenzyme for organophosphate hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Khare, Sagar D; Kipnis, Yakov; Greisen, Per; Takeuchi, Ryo; Ashani, Yacov; Goldsmith, Moshe; Song, Yifan; Gallaher, Jasmine L; Silman, Israel; Leader, Haim; Sussman, Joel L; Stoddard, Barry L; Tawfik, Dan S; Baker, David

    2012-03-01

    The ability to redesign enzymes to catalyze noncognate chemical transformations would have wide-ranging applications. We developed a computational method for repurposing the reactivity of metalloenzyme active site functional groups to catalyze new reactions. Using this method, we engineered a zinc-containing mouse adenosine deaminase to catalyze the hydrolysis of a model organophosphate with a catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) of ~10(4) M(-1) s(-1) after directed evolution. In the high-resolution crystal structure of the enzyme, all but one of the designed residues adopt the designed conformation. The designed enzyme efficiently catalyzes the hydrolysis of the R(P) isomer of a coumarinyl analog of the nerve agent cyclosarin, and it shows marked substrate selectivity for coumarinyl leaving groups. Computational redesign of native enzyme active sites complements directed evolution methods and offers a general approach for exploring their untapped catalytic potential for new reactivities. PMID:22306579

  12. Bioabatement with hemicellulase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangli; Ximenes, Eduardo; Nichols, Nancy N; Frazer, Sarah E; Kim, Daehwan; Cotta, Michael A; Ladisch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    A stepwise removal of inhibitory compounds by bioabatement combined with hemicellulase supplementation was conducted to enhance cellulose hydrolysis of liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover. Results showed that the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 eliminated most of the enzyme and fermentation inhibitors from liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover hydrolysates. Moreover, addition of hemicellulases after bioabatement and before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose achieved 20% higher glucose yields compared to non-treated samples. This work presents the mechanisms by which supplementation of the fungus with hemicellulase enzymes enables maximal conversion, and confirms the inhibitory effect of xylo-oligosaccharides in corn stover hydrolysates once the dominant inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds is removed. PMID:25958134

  13. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  14. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of human intestinal alkaline phosphatase: close homology to placental alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Henthorn, P.S.; Raducha, M.; Edwards, Y.H.; Weiss, M.J.; Slaughter, C.; Lafferty, M.A.; Harris, H.

    1987-03-01

    A cDNA clone for human adult intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase (alkaline optimum); EC 3.1.3.1) was isolated from a lambdagt11 expression library. The cDNA insert of this clone is 2513 base pairs in length and contains an open reading frame that encodes a 528-amino acid polypeptide. This deduced polypeptide contains the first 40 amino acids of human intestinal ALP, as determined by direct protein sequencing. Intestinal ALP shows 86.5% amino acid identity to placental (type 1) ALP and 56.6% amino acid identity to liver/bone/kidney ALP. In the 3'-untranslated regions, intestinal and placental ALP cDNAs are 73.5% identical (excluding gaps). The evolution of this multigene enzyme family is discussed.

  15. Effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Hiraide, Hatsue; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2013-06-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to filter paper during the hydrolysis of cellulase. Adding BSA before the addition of the cellulase enhances enzyme activity in the solution, thereby increasing the conversion rate of cellulose. After 48 h of BSA treatment, the BSA adsorption quantities are 3.3, 4.6, 7.8, 17.2, and 28.3 mg/g substrate, each with different initial BSA concentration treatments at 50 °C; in addition, more cellulase was adsorbed onto the filter paper at 50 °C compared with 35 °C. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the free-enzyme activity could not be measured without the BSA treatment, whereas the remaining activity of the filter paper activity was approximately 41 % when treated with 1.0 mg/mL BSA. Even after 96 h of hydrolysis, 25 % still remained. Meanwhile, after 48 h of incubation without substrate, the remaining enzyme activities were increased 20.7 % (from 43.7 to 52.7 %) and 94.8 % (from 23.3 to 45.5 %) at 35 and 50 °C, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the BSA was more obvious at 35 °C compared with 50 °C. When using 15 filter paper cellulase units per gram substrate cellulase loading at 50 °C, the cellulose conversion was increased from 75 % (without BSA treatment) to ?90 % when using BSA dosages between 0.1 and 1.5 mg/mL. Overall, these results suggest that there are promising strategies for BSA treatment in the reduction of enzyme requirements during the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:23553108

  16. Hydrolysis of black soybean isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lun-Cheng Kuo; Wei-Yi Cheng; Ren-Yu Wu; Ching-Jang Huang; Kung-Ta Lee

    2006-01-01

    Hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides by Bacillus subtilis natto NTU-18 in black soymilk is reported. At the concentration of 3–5% (w\\/v), black soymilk in flask cultures, the isoflavones, daidzin, and genistin were highly deglycosylated within 24 h. Deglycosylation of isoflavones was further carried out in a 7-l fermenter with 5% black soymilk. During the fermentation, viable cells increased from 103 to 109 CFU

  17. Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina

    2013-05-10

    The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and ?-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35°C while at 45°C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases. PMID:23608505

  18. Preparation of icariside II from icariin by enzymatic hydrolysis method.

    PubMed

    Xia, Quan; Xu, Dujuan; Huang, Zhaogang; Liu, Jianjun; Wang, Xinqun; Wang, Xiu; Liu, Shangquan

    2010-07-01

    It has been reported that icariin and icariside II, two flavonoid glycosides coming from herba epimedii, which have a closely structural relationship, show some pharmacological effects such as preventing osteoporosis, cancer and depression. The content of natural icariside II is very low in herba epimedii, but it is the main component in vivo after the administration of herba epimedii. More icariside II can be obtained from icariin by enzymatic hydrolysis method than by traditional isolation method. This study focuses on finding a simple and feasible method to prepare icariside II from icariin by enzymatic hydrolysis, so as to meet the request for further pharmacologic actions study. Icariin was obtained successively with 90% ethanol extraction, isolation on macroporous resin and purification on silica gel chromatography. Enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were tested for the bioconversion of icariin into icariside II by orthogonal array design. The structures of isolated icariin and produced icariside II were identified by UV, IR, ESIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and DEPT spectroscope. Enzymatic hydrolysis experiment showed that icariin could be transformed into icariside II with the action of beta-glucosidase and the optimum reaction conditions were determined as follows: 50 degrees C, 0.2 M disodium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid buffer system (pH6.0), the ratio of icariin/enzyme is 1:1 and reaction time 5 h. By using this enzymatic condition, 95.5 mg icariside II (with the purity of 99.1%) was obtained eventually by transforming 200 mg icariin. PMID:20026390

  19. Endo-exo synergism in cellulose hydrolysis revisited.

    PubMed

    Jalak, Jürgen; Kurašin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Väljamäe, Priit

    2012-08-17

    Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and "steady state" conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the "steady state" rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on (14)C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

  20. Pt Catalysed Hydrogen Generation by Hydrolysis of Sodium Tetrahydroborate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. B. Demirci; F. Garin

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis of sodium tetrahydroborate is a promising way for generating hydrogen. The key element of this process is the catalyst. The present study reports the performances of Pt-based catalysts (supported over various metal oxides like TiO2 or ZrO2, with different Pt loadings, or doped with metal-‘impurities’ like Ag or Pd). TiO2 is the best support and the optimal Pt

  1. Cellobiose hydrolysis using Pichia etchellsii cells immobilized in calcium alginate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jain; T. K. Ghose

    1984-01-01

    The rate of cellulose degradation, limited by inhibition by cellobiose, can be increased by hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose using immobilized ..beta..-glucosidase. Production of ..beta..-glucosidase in four yeasts was studied and a maximum activity of 1.22 IU\\/mg cells was obtained in cells of Pichia etchellsii when grown on 3% cellobiose as the sole carbon source. Immobilization of ..beta..-glucosidase containing cells

  2. Calcium stimulation of glutamine hydrolysis in synaptosomes from rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kvamme; G. Svenneby; I. Aa. Torgner

    1983-01-01

    Calcium stimulates the hydrolysis of glutamine in synaptosomes prepared from rat brain both by the sucrose- (12) and the Ficoll\\/sucrose-gradient techniques (13). The calcium activation is phosphate-dependent and maximal effect is obtained at a calcium concentration of 0.5–1.0 mM. It is reduced by increasing the numbers of synaptosomes in the incubation mixture, and abolished by the product inhibitors of glutaminase,

  3. Supercritical CO 2 pretreatment of lignocellulose enhances enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoung Heon Kim; Juan Hong

    2001-01-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (SC–CO2) pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated. Aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) with moisture contents in the range of 0–73% (w\\/w) were pretreated with SC–CO2 at 3100 and 4000 psi and at 112–165°C for 10–60 min. Each pretreated lignocellulose was hydrolyzed with commercial cellulase to assess its enzymatic digestibility. Untreated

  4. Biological pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Hatakka

    1984-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials is considered as the rate-limiting step in an economically feasible process for\\u000a enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Biological delignification techniques have not been developed as intensively as physical\\u000a and chemical methods. However, white-rot fungi are effective degraders of lignin, and some of them even preferentially remove\\u000a lignin from wood compared with carbohydrates, and therefore might be suitable

  5. Pancreatic lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides by a semimicro technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Luddy; R. A. Barford; S. F. Herb; P. Magidman; R. W. Riemenschneider

    1964-01-01

    Procedures are described for rapid lipase hydrolysis of triglycerides, isolation of the hydrolytic products by TLC and their\\u000a conversion to methyl esters and fatty acid analysis by GLC. The techniques are applicable to a few mg of triglycerides or\\u000a fats. Examples of data obtained with purified triglycerides indicate that the specific action of pancreatic lipase for the\\u000a 1,3 ester groups

  6. Application of immobilized lipase to hydrolysis of triacylglyceride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiharu Kimura; Atsuo Tanaka; Kenji Sonomoto; Takuya Nihira; Saburo Fukui

    1983-01-01

    Lipase from Candida cylindracea was immobilized by entrapment with photo-crosslinkable resin prepolymers or urethane prepolymers, and by covalent binding or by adsorption to different types of porous inorganic or organic supports. All of the immobilized lipase preparations thus obtained showed some activity for hydrolysis of olive oil. Lipase entrapped with a hydrophobic photo-cross-linkable resin prepolymer exhibited the highest activity, which

  7. Reduced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated softwood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Tengborg; Mats Galbe; Guido Zacchi

    2001-01-01

    Softwood constitutes the main source of lignocellulosic material in Sweden which can be used for ethanol production from renewable resources. To make the biomass-to-ethanol process more economically feasible, it is preferable to include the sugar-rich prehydrolysate, i.e. the liquid obtained after the pretreatment step, in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction. This study shows that the prehydrolysate inhibits cellulose

  8. Further studies on the pancreatic hydrolysis of some natural fats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Coleman

    1961-01-01

    A series of animal and vegetable fats has been subjected to hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase. From the results obtained,\\u000a the triglyceride compositions of the original fats have been calculated by the method previously proposed by Coleman and Fulton.\\u000a \\u000a These compositions show substantial agreement with those obtained by other methods. Similarities and differences between fats\\u000a are shown to be reflections of

  9. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4668 - Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...Substances § 721.4668 Hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid oxyanions. ...substance identified as hydrated alkaline earth metal salts of metalloid...

  12. Alkaline hemolysis fragility is dependent on cell shape: results from a morphology tracker

    E-print Network

    Hughey, Richard

    Alkaline hemolysis fragility is dependent on cell shape: results from a morphology tracker Cristian., University of California, Santa Cruz Background: Viral capsids, bacterial toxins, alkaline solutions display increased alkaline hemolysis fragility (shorter lifetimes), providing an explanation

  13. Structural and Functional Comparisons of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/ Phosphodiesterase and Alkaline Phosphatase: Implications for Mechanism and

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Structural and Functional Comparisons of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/ Phosphodiesterase and Alkaline of enzymes and the evolutionary changes that can lead to different enzyme activities. The alkaline to discriminate between phosphate diester and monoester substrates. Enzymes in the alkaline phosphatase (AP)1

  14. 40 CFR 721.9680 - Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...Chemical Substances § 721.9680 Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...substance identified generically as an alkaline titania silica gel (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9680 - Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...Chemical Substances § 721.9680 Alkaline titania silica gel (generic name...substance identified generically as an alkaline titania silica gel (PMN...

  16. Variability of alkalinity and the alkalinity-salinity relationship in the tropical and subtropical surface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zong-Pei; Tyrrell, Toby; Hydes, David J.; Dai, Minhan; Hartman, Susan E.

    2014-07-01

    The variability of total alkalinity (TA) and its relationship with salinity in the tropical and subtropical surface ocean were examined using data collected in various marine environments from a ship of opportunity. In the open ocean regions of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, sea surface TA variability was observed to be mainly controlled by the simple dilution or concentration (SDC) effect of precipitation and evaporation, and the measured concentrations of TA agreed well with those predicted from salinity and temperature. Non-SDC changes in alkalinity in ocean margins and inland seas were examined by comparing the salinity-normalized alkalinity with that of the open ocean end-member. Non-SDC alkalinity additions to the western North Atlantic margin, eastern North Pacific margin, and Mediterranean Sea were identified, which mainly resulted from river inputs and shelf currents. In contrast, removal of TA through formation and sedimentation of calcium carbonate was observed to be an important control in the Red Sea. The concentration of the river end-member can only be reliably derived from the y intercept of TA-S regression (TAS0) in river-dominated systems such as estuaries and river plumes. In coastal regions where other processes (evaporation, shelf currents, upwelling, calcification, etc.) are more influential, TAS0 can significantly deviate from the river water concentration and hence be an unreliable indicator of it. Negative values of TAS0 can result from non-SDC TA removal at the low salinity end (relative to the salinity of the oceanic end-member) and/or non-SDC TA addition at high salinities (as occurs in the Mediterranean Sea).

  17. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Yaffe; J. N. Murray

    1980-01-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60°C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for

  18. Alkaline secretion by amphibian duodenum. I. General characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simson, J N; Merhav, A; Silen, W

    1981-05-01

    Stripped, proximal bullfrog duodenum was mounted in an Ussing chamber between HCO3--buffered nutrient (serosal) and unbuffered secretory (luminal) solutions. This preparation showed stable electrical parameters and caused alkalinization of the secretory solution at a rate of 0.95 +/- 0.03 mueq.cm-2.h-1 (mean +/- SE; n = 100). Anoxia and 2,4-dinitrophenol each reduced alkalinization by 50-60%, but acetazolamide (5 X 10(-4)M) had no effect. Removal of nutrient HCO3- and CO2 reduced alkalinization by over 90%, whereas increasing nutrient [HCO3-] at constant partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) or increasing nutrient PCO2 at constant [HCO3-] each caused saturable increases in alkalinization, despite opposite effects on nutrient pH. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid, but not dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid, increased luminal alkalinization to 167 +/- 21% of control. Removal of nutrient, but not secretory, Na+ reduced alkalinization by 74%. Changes in the rate of alkalinization were accompanied by corresponding changes in potential difference and short-circuit current. Removal of Cl- or nutrient K+ or addition of histamine, thiocyanate, or catecholamines had no effect on electrical or secretory characteristics. We conclude that a) the amphibian duodenum transports alkali from nutrient to secretory solutions by both active and passive processes, b) there is a small secretion of endogenous HCO3-, c) alkaline secretion is electrogenic, d) Cl- does not contribute to the short-circuit current, e) alkaline secretion is partially dependent on nutrient Na+ that acts in a facilitatory, not cotransport, role, f) there is no Cl--HCO3- exchange, and g) alkaline secretion is independent of nutrient pH. PMID:6263107

  19. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the hydrolysis and degree of synergism among enzymes. Conclusions The model was effective in capturing the dynamic behavior of cellulose hydrolysis during action of individual as well as multiple cellulases. Simulations were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Several experimentally observed phenomena were simulated without the need for any additional assumptions or parameter changes and confirmed the validity of using the stochastic molecular modeling approach to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23638989

  20. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Lab of Renewable Resources Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50°, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  2. Lysosomal cholesterol accumulation inhibits subsequent hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesteryl ester.

    PubMed

    Jerome, W Gray; Cox, Brian E; Griffin, Evelyn E; Ullery, Jody C

    2008-04-01

    Human macrophages incubated for prolonged periods with mildly oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cholesteryl ester-rich lipid dispersions (DISP) accumulate free and esterified cholesterol within large, swollen lysosomes similar to those in foam cells of atherosclerosis. The cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation is, in part, the result of inhibition of lysosomal hydrolysis due to increased lysosomal pH mediated by excessive lysosomal free cholesterol (FC). To determine if the inhibition of hydrolysis was long lived and further define the extent of the lysosomal defect, we incubated THP-1 macrophages with oxLDL or DISP to produce lysosome sterol engorgement and then chased with acetylated LDL (acLDL). Unlike oxLDL or DISP, CE from acLDL normally is hydrolyzed rapidly. Three days of incubation with oxLDL or DISP produced an excess of CE in lipid-engorged lysosomes, indicative of inhibition. After prolonged oxLDL or DISP pretreatment, subsequent hydrolysis of acLDL CE was inhibited. Coincident with the inhibition, the lipid-engorged lysosomes failed to maintain an acidic pH during both the initial pretreatment and subsequent acLDL incubation. This indicates that the alterations in lysosomes were general, long lived, and affected subsequent lipoprotein metabolism. This same phenomenon, occurring within atherosclerotic foam cells, could significantly affect lesion progression. PMID:18312718

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2?±?7.7%, 87.1?±?9.6% and 91.8?±?7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p?hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts. PMID:25481434

  4. Programmed Hydrolysis in Designing Paclitaxel Prodrug for Nanocarrier Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Zhang, D.; Fallon, J. K.; Yang, X.; Liu, D.; He, Z.; Liu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocarriers delivering prodrugs are a way of improving in vivo effectiveness and efficiency. For therapeutic efficacy, the prodrug must hydrolyze to its parent drug after administration. Based on the fact that the hydrolysis is impeded by steric hindrance and improved by sufficient polarity, in this study, we proposed the PTX-S-S-VE, the conjugation of paclitaxel (PTX) to vitamin E (VE) through a disulfide bridge. This conjugate possessed the following advantages: first, it can be encapsulated in the VE/VE2-PEG2000/water nanoemulsions because of favorable hydrophobic interactions; second, the nanoemulsions had a long blood circulation time; finally, the concentrated glutathione in the tumor microenvironment could cleave the disulfide bond to weaken the steric hindrance and increase the polarity, promoting the hydrolysis to PTX and increasing the anticancer activity. It was demonstrated in vitro that the hydrolysis of PTX-S-S-VE was enhanced and the cytotoxicity was increased. In addition, PTX-S-S-VE had greater anticancer activity against the KB-3-1 cell line tumor xenograft and the tumor size was smaller after the 4th injection. The present result suggests a new way, use of reduction, to improve the in vivo anticancer activity of a prodrug for nanocarrier delivery by unshielding the ester bond and taking off the steric block. PMID:26166066

  5. Lysosomal Cholesterol Accumulation Inhibits Subsequent Hydrolysis Of Lipoprotein Cholesteryl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, W. Gray; Cox, Brian E.; Griffin, Evelyn E.; Ullery, Jody C.

    2010-01-01

    Human macrophages incubated for prolonged periods with mildly oxidized LDL (oxLDL) or cholesteryl ester-rich lipid dispersions (DISP) accumulate free and esterified cholesterol within large, swollen lysosomes similar to those in foam cells of atherosclerosis. The cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation is, in part, the result of inhibition of lysosomal hydrolysis due to increased lysosomal pH mediated by excessive lysosomal free cholesterol (FC). To determine if the inhibition of hydrolysis was long lived and further define the extent of the lysosomal defect, we incubated THP-1 macrophages with oxLDL or DISP to produce lysosome sterol engorgement and then chased with acetylated LDL (acLDL). Unlike oxLDL or DISP, CE from acLDL normally is hydrolyzed rapidly. Three days of incubation with oxLDL or DISP produced an excess of CE in lipid-engorged lysosomes, indicative of inhibition. After prolonged oxLDL or DISP pretreatment, subsequent hydrolysis of acLDL CE was inhibited. Coincident with the inhibition, the lipid-engorged lysosomes failed to maintain an acidic pH during both the initial pretreatment and subsequent acLDL incubation. This indicates that the alterations in lysosomes were general, long-lived and affected subsequent lipoprotein metabolism. This same phenomenon, occurring within atherosclerotic foam cells, could significantly affect lesion progression. PMID:18312718

  6. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  7. Alkaline earth metal anode-containing cell having electrolyte of organometallic alkaline earth metal salt and organic solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R.J.; Winterton, R.C.; Gregory, T.D.

    1990-01-16

    This patent describes an improvement in an electrochemical cell containing an alkaline earth metal anode, an intercalation cathode, and a nonaqueous, liquid electrolyte. It comprises: using as the electrolyte at least one organic solvent and at least one electrolytically active alkaline earth metal salt. In the cell, the intercalation cathode is capable of containing an intercalated ionic species in its structure.

  8. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

  9. Chemical structures of corn stover and its residue after dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis: Insight into factors limiting enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced solid-state NMR techniques and wet chemical analyses were applied to investigate untreated corn stover (UCS) and its residues after dilute acid prehydrolysis (DAP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (RES) to provide evidence for the limitations to the effectiveness of enzyme hydrolysis. Advanced soli...

  10. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including ? and ? forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n?=?6, p?=?0.118) in ? and ? ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10?2 hr?1 (SE±2.9×10?3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  11. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  12. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the Hot Acidities were comparable for fresh and most aged samples. A meaningful "net" acidity can be determined from a measured Hot Acidity or by calculation from the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved metals concentrations. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Hot Aciditymeasured) to design mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling aluminum and alkalinity concentrations in watershed receiving acidic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.C.H.

    1985-01-01

    To decide what is the controlling mineral phase for aluminum activity in dilute natural water systems, four methods were investigated under the hypothesis that aluminum is released from primary minerals (such as feldspars) and the activity is regulated by the secondary mineral precipitation of gibbsite (Al(OH)/sub 3/). The aluminum speciation submodel ALEQ was developed, which included temperature effects as well as complex formations with fluoride sulfate and organics. Three years simulation results for Lake Vandercook were presented by application of the Trickle-Down model. Field data of lake stage and groundwater level at the nearshore piezometer were used for hydrological model calibration. Field alkalinity and pH data were used for alkalinity/pH model calibration. Hydrological budget calculations showed that almost all of the water in the lake came from precipitation falling directly on its surface. Alkalinity budget calculations indicated that 76% of the alkalinity produced came from internal processes, and the rest of the alkalinity (24%) was supplied from groundwater inputs. Model results were within one standard deviation of field data for alkalinity at all times except the winter period of 1981-1982. The coupling of ALEQ into the existing Trickle-Down model provided a better simulation result with small, but distinct, increases in alkalinity predicted during the winter.

  14. Batteries: from alkaline to zinc-air.

    PubMed

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    There is no perfect disposable battery--one that will sit on the shelf for 20 years, then continually provide unlimited current, at a completely constant voltage until exhausted, without producing heat. There is no perfect rechargeable battery--one with all of the above characteristics and will also withstand an infinite overcharge while providing an equally infinite cycle life. There are only compromises. Every battery selection is a compromise between the ideally required characteristics, the advantages, and the limitations of each battery type. General selection of a battery type to power a medical device is largely outside the purview of the biomed. Initially, these are engineering decisions made at the time of medical equipment design and are intended to be followed in perpetuity. However, since newer cell types evolve and the manufacturer's literature is fixed at the time of printing, some intelligent substitutions may be made as long as the biomed understands the characteristics of both the recommended cell and the replacement cell. For example, when the manufacturer recommends alkaline, it is usually because of the almost constant voltage it produces under the devices' design load. Over time, other battery types may be developed that will meet the intent of the manufacturer, at a lower cost, providing longer operational life, at a lower environmental cost, or with a combination of these advantages. In the Obstetrical Doppler cited at the beginning of this article, the user had put in carbon-zinc cells, and the biomed had unknowingly replaced them with carbonzinc cells. If the alkaline cells recommended by the manufacturer had been used, there would have been the proper output voltage at the battery terminals when the [table: see text] cells were at their half-life. Instead, the device refused to operate since the battery voltage was below presumed design voltage. While battery-type substitutions may be easily and relatively successfully made in disposable applications (for example, zinc-air for alkaline--if it is cost-effective), this is absolutely forbidden for secondary cells. Because of the differing cell voltages, charge characteristics and overcharge tolerance between different types of secondary cells, substituting a nickel-cadmium battery pack for the more expensive lithium-ion pack (if it is physically able to fit into the battery compartment), might appear to save money (e.g. $50 vs. $100) but it would be very ill advised. Since the cell characteristics are very different, it would be downright fatal to anyone within the 'kill radius' when the pack explodes. Those outside the kill radius would receive chemical burns from the electrolyte. Substitutions of secondary cell battery packs are generally not a good idea for biomeds to engage in. These are engineering decisions best left to either aftermarket battery pack manufacturers or the medical device manufacturer as a design engineering change. PMID:15106428

  15. FTIR analysis of the hydrolysis rate in the sol–gel formation of gadolinia-doped ceria with acetylacetonate precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunhui Shen; Leon L. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    This study reveals that Fourier transform infrared is an effective analytical tool in probing the extent of hydrolysis of\\u000a cerium and gadolinium acetylacetonates dissolved in methanol. It is found that these acetylacetonates have relatively fast\\u000a hydrolysis rates at the early stage of hydrolysis (<6 h). However, their hydrolysis rates become very slow beyond 6-h of hydrolysis\\u000a and decrease to near zero

  16. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  17. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A. (Chicago, IL); Turner, Clarence B. (Shorewood, IL); Johnson, Irving (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  18. Reduction of Proteinuria through Podocyte Alkalinization*

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Mehmet M.; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Wei, Changli; Möller, Clemens C.; Flesche, Jan; Li, Jing; Yaddanapudi, Suma; Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Gödel, Markus; Huber, Tobias B.; Preston, Richard A.; Jiang, Jean X.; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Sever, Sanja; Reiser, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are highly differentiated cells and critical elements for the filtration barrier of the kidney. Loss of their foot process (FP) architecture (FP effacement) results in urinary protein loss. Here we show a novel role for the neutral amino acid glutamine in structural and functional regulation of the kidney filtration barrier. Metabolic flux analysis of cultured podocytes using genetic, toxic, and immunologic injury models identified increased glutamine utilization pathways. We show that glutamine uptake is increased in diseased podocytes to couple nutrient support to increased demand during the disease state of FP effacement. This feature can be utilized to transport increased amounts of glutamine into damaged podocytes. The availability of glutamine determines the regulation of podocyte intracellular pH (pHi). Podocyte alkalinization reduces cytosolic cathepsin L protease activity and protects the podocyte cytoskeleton. Podocyte glutamine supplementation reduces proteinuria in LPS-treated mice, whereas acidification increases glomerular injury. In summary, our data provide a metabolic opportunity to combat urinary protein loss through modulation of podocyte amino acid utilization and pHi. PMID:24817115

  19. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  20. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  1. Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active 4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as squalene synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tarui, Naoki; Nakahama, Kazuo; Nagano, Yoichi; Izawa, Motowo; Matsumoto, Kiyoharu; Kori, Masakuni; Nagata, Toshiaki; Miki, Takashi; Yukimasa, Hidefumi

    2002-01-01

    Microbial enantioselective ester hydrolysis for the preparation of optically active (3R,5S)-(-)-5-phenyl-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid derivatives as potent squalene synthase inhibitors was investigated. Pseudomonas diminuta and Pseudomonas taetrolens hydrolyzed the racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-chlorophenyl) analogue to yield the (-)-carboxylic acid with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99% ee). We found that the (-)-enantiomer was an active inhibitor. Bulkiness of the ester moiety did not affect the enantioselectivity but did affect reactivity. The racemic ethyl ester of the 5-(2-methoxyphenyl) analogue, 5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue and 5-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl) analogue were also hydrolyzed with Pseudomonas taetrolens to afford enantiomerically pure (-)-carboxylic acids in large scale. As another route to (3R,5S)-(-)-7-chloro-5-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-neopentyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-4,1-benzoxazepine-3-acetic acid [(-)-1c], the earlier intermediate (-)-2-amino-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)benzyl alcohol [(-)-12] was successfully obtained by asymmetric hydrolysis of (+/-)-5-chloro-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-pivaloylaminobenzyl acetate with Pseudomonas sp. S-13 with >99% ee in kilogram scale followed by alkaline treatment. The product (-)-12 was converted to (-)-1c without racemization. PMID:11824586

  2. Study of enzymatic hydrolysis of fructans from Agave salmiana characterization and kinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Ortiz-Cerda, Imelda; Moreno-Vilet, Lorena; Grajales-Lagunes, Alicia; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; Bonnin, Johanne; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ruiz-Cabrera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Fructans were extracted from Agave salmiana juice, characterized and subjected to hydrolysis process using a commercial inulinase preparation acting freely. To compare the performance of the enzymatic preparation, a batch of experiments were also conducted with chicory inulin (reference). Hydrolysis was performed for 6 h at two temperatures (50, 60 °C) and two substrate concentrations (40, 60 mg/ml). Hydrolysis process was monitored by measuring the sugars released and residual substrate by HPLC. A mathematical model which describes the kinetics of substrate degradation as well as fructose production was proposed to analyze the hydrolysis assessment. It was found that kinetics were significantly influenced by temperature, substrate concentration, and type of substrate (P < 0.01). The extent of substrate hydrolysis varied from 82 to 99%. Hydrolysis product was mainly constituted of fructose, obtaining from 77 to 96.4% of total reducing sugars. PMID:22629216

  3. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Fructans from Agave salmiana Characterization and Kinetic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Michel-Cuello, Christian; Ortiz-Cerda, Imelda; Moreno-Vilet, Lorena; Grajales-Lagunes, Alicia; Moscosa-Santillán, Mario; Bonnin, Johanne; González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ruiz-Cabrera, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Fructans were extracted from Agave salmiana juice, characterized and subjected to hydrolysis process using a commercial inulinase preparation acting freely. To compare the performance of the enzymatic preparation, a batch of experiments were also conducted with chicory inulin (reference). Hydrolysis was performed for 6?h at two temperatures (50, 60°C) and two substrate concentrations (40, 60?mg/ml). Hydrolysis process was monitored by measuring the sugars released and residual substrate by HPLC. A mathematical model which describes the kinetics of substrate degradation as well as fructose production was proposed to analyze the hydrolysis assessment. It was found that kinetics were significantly influenced by temperature, substrate concentration, and type of substrate (P < 0.01). The extent of substrate hydrolysis varied from 82 to 99%. Hydrolysis product was mainly constituted of fructose, obtaining from 77 to 96.4% of total reducing sugars. PMID:22629216

  4. Mechanism for the hydrolysis of organophosphates by the bacterial phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Sarah D; Li, Yingchun; Raushel, Frank M

    2004-05-18

    Phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta is a zinc metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes a variety of organophosphorus compounds. The kinetic parameters of Zn/Zn PTE, Cd/Cd PTE, and a mixed-metal Zn/Cd hybrid PTE were obtained with a variety of substrates to determine the role of each metal ion in binding and catalysis. pH-rate profiles for the hydrolysis of diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (I) and diethyl p-chlorophenyl phosphate (II) demonstrated that the ionization of a single group in the pH range of 5-10 was critical for substrate turnover. The pK(a) values determined from the kinetic assays were dependent on the identity of the metal ion that occupied the alpha site within the binuclear metal center. These results suggest that the hydrolytic nucleophile is activated as a hydroxide via the ionization of a water molecule attached to the alpha-metal ion. The kinetic constants for the hydrolysis of II and diethyl p-chlorophenyl thiophosphate (IV) were determined for the metal substituted forms of PTE. The kinetic constants for IV were greater than those for II. The inverse thio effect is consistent with the polarization of the phosphoryl oxygen/sulfur bond via a direct ligation to the metal center. The rate enhancement is greater when Cd(2+) occupies the beta-metal-ion position. A series of alanine and asparagine mutations were used to characterize the catalytic roles of Asp233, His254, and Asp301. Mutations to either Asp233 or His254 resulted in an enhanced rate of hydrolysis for the sluggish substrate, diethyl p-chlorophenyl phosphate, and a decrease in the kinetic constants for paraoxon (I). These results are consistent with the existence of a proton relay from Asp301 to His254 to Asp233 that is used to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group phenol. A mechanism for the hydrolysis of organophosphates by the bacterial PTE has been proposed. PMID:15134445

  5. Hydroxypropylation of cellulose as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis

    E-print Network

    Brix, Scott Tyson

    1986-01-01

    hours using Trichoderma cellulase (Allen, 1983). Optimal hydrolysis conditions for Trirhoderme cellulase are at a pH of 4. 8 and a temperature of 50'C. It is also reported that approximately 14mg of enzyme is needed per gram of cellulosic substrate... oxide (Fig. 3). This step was done to achieve a consistent amount of swelling of the pulp by the alkali. Reaction times reported in Table 1 are based on the amount of time the reactor was held at the indicated temperature. The heating time between...

  6. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared by hydrolysis in polyol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechay, Abderrahmen; Feki, Hafed E. L.; Schoenstein, Fréderic; Jouini, Noureddine

    2012-07-01

    This Letter describes a new approach for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, which involves precipitation and hydrolysis reactions conducted in polyol medium. In fact, ammonium-hydrogen phosphate and calcium nitrate were dissolved in polyol, and then heated at the boiling point of the polyol (ethane1, 2diol or propane1, 2diol). Besides, the phase and composition of the polycrystalline were studied by TGA/DTA, FT-IR, TEM and XRD techniques. The nanoparticles thus obtained present interesting morphological characters varying from needle to very thin platelet. Moreover, the hydroxyapatite prepared in ployol shows higher cristallinity in comparison with that obtained by other 'chimie douce' methods.

  7. Factors affecting hydrolysis of condensed phosphates in soils 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, William M.

    1983-01-01

    in two soils (pH 8. 40 and 7. 56) 24 to 96 hours after application of 2 x 10 4 M sodium PP. This increase in OP concentration was attributed to hydrolysis of the sodium PP. As previously mentioned, the half-life of TPP in soils has been found to range..., found PP to be less effective than OP on an acid soil (pH 4. 0), while there were only very slight differences i. n the effectiveness of the two sources in a soil with a pH value of 7. 2. Reported results have shown that increasing the pH of acid...

  8. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  9. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  10. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  11. Hydrolysis of synthetic triacylglycerols by pancreatic and lipoprotein lipase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. H. Morley; A. Kuksis; D. Buchnea

    1974-01-01

    The stereochemical course of the hydrolysis of synthetic sn-glycerol-1-palmitate-2-oleate-3-linoleate, sn-glycerol-1,2-dipalmitate-3-oleate\\u000a and their antipodes by pancreatic and milk lipoprotein lipase was investigated by thin layer and gas liquid chromatographies\\u000a of the diacylglycerol intermediates. The enzymic hydrolyses were made with bile salts or lysolecithin in a 1?1 molar ratio\\u000a to the substrate as emulsifiers and were limited to short time intervals which

  12. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    SciTech Connect

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  13. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of methamidophos using online hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jan, Mohammad Rasul; Shah, Jasmin; Bashir, Nadia; Salman, M

    2010-08-01

    A new protocol for the online spectrophotometric determination of methamidophos has been developed. The method is based on online hydrolysis of methamidophos, and the resulting hydrolyzed product is reacted with sodium nitroproside to form a colored complex. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 0.5-20 microgml(-1), with a molar absorptivity of 2.5x10(4) L mol(-1) cm(-1). The method is fast and reproducible with a sample throughput of 90 samples/h. The method is successfully applied to formulations and real samples. PMID:19609695

  14. Enhanced Oil Recovery Using the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) 

    E-print Network

    Musharova, Darya

    2010-07-14

    Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) process is a tertiary method of oil recovery that has promising results for future development. It has already been implemented in different areas of the United States such as Wyoming, west Texas, also in Canada...

  15. Effect of alkalinity in irrigation water on selected greenhouse crops 

    E-print Network

    Valdez Aguilar, Luis Alonso

    2005-11-01

    Effect of Alkalinity in Irrigation Water on Selected Greenhouse Crops. (August 2004) Luis Alonso Valdez Aguilar, B.S., Universidad Aut??noma de Nuevo Le??n, Mexico; M.S., Universidad Aut??noma Chapingo, Mexico Chair of ...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a)...

  20. Design considerations and construction techniques for successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Skovran, G.A. [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Somerset, PA (United States); Clouser, C.R. [Southern Alleghenies Conservancy, Bedford, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) have been utilized for several years for the passive treatment of acid mine drainage. The SAPS technology is an effective method for inducing alkalinity to neutralize acid mine water and promote the precipitation of contaminating metals. Several design considerations and construction techniques are important for proper system function and longevity. This paper discusses SAPS design, water collection and introduction to the SAPS, hydraulics of SAPS, construction, operation and maintenance, and safety, and found that these factors were critical to obtaining maximum alkalinity at several SAPS treatment sites in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Taking care to incorporate these factors into future SAPS will aid effective treatment, reduce maintenance costs, and maximize long term effectiveness of successive alkalinity producing systems.

  1. Kinetics of the Fading of Phenolphthalein in Alkaline Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which illustrates pseudo-first-order kinetics in the fading of a common indicator in an alkaline solution. Included are background information, details of materials used, laboratory procedures, and sample results. (CW)

  2. Dedicated to Sharing Information About Water Management and the Florida LAKEWATCH Program Volume 66 (2014) Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Volume 66 (2014) Florida LAKEWATCH Total Color and Total Alkalinity Analysis Recently divided into two groups of total alkalinity. Total alkalinity is a measure alkalinity is milligrams per liter of total alkalinity as equive- lant calcium

  3. Microtubule assembly and disassembly at alkaline pH

    PubMed Central

    Regula, CS; Pfeiffer; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    Although it is now apparent that the intracellular pH may rise considerably above neutrality under physiological conditions, information on the effect of alkaline pH on microtubule assembly and disassembly is still quite fragmentay. We have studied the assembly/disassembly of bovine brain microtubule protein at alkaline pH in vitro. When microtubules are assembled to a new steady state at pH less than 7 and pH is then made more alkaline, they undergo a rapid disassembly to a new steady state. This disassembly is reversed by acidification. The degree of disassembly is determined largely by the pH- dependence of the critical concentration, which increases five to eight times, from pH 7 to 8. A fraction of assembly-incompetent tubulin is identified that increases with pH, but its incompetency is largely reversed with acidification. Measurements of microtubule lengths are used to indicate that disassembly occurs by uniform shortening of microtubules. A comparison of shortening by alkalinization with dilution suggests that the intrinsic rate of disassembly is accelerated by increasing pH. The capacity for initiating assembly is progressively lost with incubation at alkaline pH (although some protection is afforded by sulfhydryl-reducing agents). However, direct assembly from depolymerized mixtures is possible at least up to pH 8.3, and the steady state achieved at these alkaline pH values is stable. Such preparations are readily disassembled by cold and podophyllotoxin (PLN). Disassembly induced by PLN is also markedly enhanced at alkaline pH, suggesting a corresponding enhancement of “treadmilling.” The implications of physiological events leading to alkaline shifts of pH for microtubule assembly/disassembly are discussed, particularly in the light of recent hypotheses regarding treadmilling and its role in controlling the distribution of microtubules in vivo. PMID:7228899

  4. Projects for industrial development of advanced alkaline electrolysers in France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Aureille; J. Pottier

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the prospects for the development in France of an off-peak nuclear electricity water-electrolysis system for the generation of hydrogen. Detailed studies on such a system in 1977-1978 have focused attention on advanced alkaline electrolysis, with the dual objective of process efficiency improvement and electrolyzer cost reduction. An assessment has been made of 20-30 kW alkaline electrolysis

  5. Endurance test and evaluation of alkaline water electrolysis cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Burke; F. H. Schubert

    1981-01-01

    Utilization in the development of multi-kW low orbit power systems is discussed. The following technological developments of alkaline water electrolysis cells for space power application were demonstrated: (1) four 92.9 cm2 single water electrolysis cells, two using LST's advanced anodes and two using LST's super anodes; (2) four single cell endurance test stands for life testing of alkaline water electrolyte

  6. Placental-type alkaline phosphatase in cervical neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PJ McLaughlin; PH Warne; GE Hutchinson; PM Johnson; DF Tucker

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with placental-type alkaline phosphatase have formed the basis of methods for detection of this oncodevelopmental antigen in patients with pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia, with or without evidence of papilloma virus infection. Disease-related elevations of placental-type alkaline phosphatase were not observed in patients' sera. Solubilised cervical smears or biopsy material, and cervical mucus swabs, often contained substantial

  7. Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose at Varying Solids Concentration

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Xylose Monomer and Oligomer Yields for Uncatalyzed Hydrolysis of Sugarcane Bagasse Hemicellulose of varying sugarcane bagasse concentrations on xylose monomer and oligomer yields was experimentally measured

  8. Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  9. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media. PMID:25569300

  10. An acid phosphatase from Manihot glaziovii as an alternative to alkaline phosphatase for molecular cloning experiments

    E-print Network

    Yeoh, Hock Hin

    An acid phosphatase from Manihot glaziovii as an alternative to alkaline phosphatase for molecular intestine alkaline phosphatase. Introduction Alkaline phosphatases from calf intestine and shrimp are widely-linked immunosor- bant assays (ELISA). Phosphatases are tradi- tionally classified as alkaline or acid phosphatases

  11. Postdoctoral Associate to study Surface Ocean Alkalinity: Temporal and Spatial Variability from Satellite Derived Products

    E-print Network

    Miami, University of

    Postdoctoral Associate to study Surface Ocean Alkalinity: Temporal and Spatial Variability from of the temporal and spatial variability of surface ocean alkalinity. In the oceans, alkalinity is a gauge on the ability of seawater to neutralize acids. Alkalinity is a major component of seawater

  12. Solvent processible, high-performance partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) alkaline ionomers for alkaline electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junfeng; Ünlü, Murat; Anestis-Richard, Irene; Kim, Hyea; Kohl, Paul A.

    2011-10-01

    A solvent processable, low water uptake, partially fluorinated copoly(arylene ether) functionalized with pendant quaternary ammonium groups (QAPAE) was synthesized and uses as the ionomer in alkaline electrodes on fuel cells. The quaternized polymers containing fluorinated biphenyl groups were synthesized via chloromethylation of copoly(arylene ether) followed by amination with trimethylamine. The resulting ionomers were very soluble in polar, aprotic solvents. Highly aminated ionomers had conductivities approaching 10 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Compared to previous ionomers based on quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone) (QAPSF) with similar ion exchange capacity (IEC), the water uptake of QAPAE was significantly less due to the hydrophobic octafluoro-biphenyl groups in the backbone. The performance of the fuel cell electrodes made with the QAPAE ionomers was evaluated as the cathode on a hybrid AEM/PEM fuel cell. The QAPAE alkaline ionomer electrode with IEC = 1.22 meq g-1 had superior performance to the electrodes prepared with QAPSF, IEC = 1.21 meq g-1 at 25 and 60 °C in a H2/O2 fuel cell. The peak power densities at 60 °C were 315 mW cm-2 for QAPAE electrodes and 215 mW cm-2 for QAPSF electrodes.

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  14. Technical developments in alkaline water electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaide, W.C.

    1982-03-01

    A new series of alkaline water electrolysis Hydrogen Generation Systems (HGS) is under development at Teledyne Energy Systems (TES). When introduced to the marketplace in mid 1982, the HGS will be the largest capacity single unit manufactured in the United States. The HGS is the product of a joint development program with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and TES, with specific design objectives that were defined by the electric utilities. Those design objectives, as listed below, were quite naturally in concert with the objectives that would be specified for a general purpose industrial machine and the HGS is able to serve a broad range of industrial applications. The utility design objectives were to: Develop a system with a hydrogen delivery capacity of 500 SCFH that would serve the present utility requirement for electrical generator cooling and provide the industry with hands-on experience in operating these units should it become attractive to operate larger units for commercial hydrogen generation. Design the equipment so that it required scheduled maintenance on an annual basis and only one week's down time for unscheduled maintenance during a year's period. Improve the overall process efficiency from 17 KwHr/100 SCF (typical of present commercial equipment) to 12 KwHr/100 SCF. Reduce equipment capital costs to $180/SLM ($90/SCFH). The HGS program calls for the building of a first article prototype to serve both as an in-house test unit and the first field test unit. At the time of this writing the prototype unit is well into the in-house test program, and by the time this paper is presented, the unit should be installed and under test at Pleasants Power Station of the Monongahela Power Company.

  15. Parameter and Process Significance in Mechanistic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotter, B.; Barry, A.; Gerhard, J.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2005-12-01

    The rate of cellulose hydrolysis, and of associated microbial processes, is important in determining the stability of landfills and their potential impact on the environment, as well as associated time scales. To permit further exploration in this field, a process-based model of cellulose hydrolysis was developed. The model, which is relevant to both landfill and anaerobic digesters, includes a novel approach to biomass transfer between a cellulose-bound biofilm and biomass in the surrounding liquid. Model results highlight the significance of the bacterial colonization of cellulose particles by attachment through contact in solution. Simulations revealed that enhanced colonization, and therefore cellulose degradation, was associated with reduced cellulose particle size, higher biomass populations in solution, and increased cellulose-binding ability of the biomass. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters revealed different sensitivities to model parameters for a typical landfill scenario versus that for an anaerobic digester. The results indicate that relative surface area of cellulose and proximity of hydrolyzing bacteria are key factors determining the cellulose degradation rate.

  16. Spectroscopy techniques for analyzing the hydrolysis of PLGA and PLLA.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Yun; Widjaja, Effendi; Boey, Freddy; Loo, Say Chye Joachim

    2009-10-01

    The in vitro hydrolytic degradation of irradiated biodegradable polymers was studied. Poly(L-lactide), poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)(80:20), and PLGA(50:50) polymers were first electron beam irradiated at 5 Mrad before hydrolytic degradation. Hydrolysis of these films was characterized through their physical properties--mass loss, average molecular weight, and thermal properties. Changes to the chemical structures of these polyesters were also analyzed using Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and the spectra results were correlated to their physical properties. The results showed that an increase in hydroxyl (OH) group, observed from the FTIR spectroscopy, indicates that the polymer is degrading through hydrolysis--first-stage degradation. Subsequently, a decrease in C==O group, observed from Raman spectroscopy, indicates that the polymer is experiencing mass loss--second-stage degradation. Therefore, a good correlation exists in determining the extent of polymer degradation through the use of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy by observing changes to the OH and C==O groups from the spectra of these nondestructive techniques. PMID:19489010

  17. [Municipal biowaste thermal-hydrolysis and ASBR anaerobic digestion].

    PubMed

    Hou, Hua-hua; Wang, Wei; Hu, Song; Xu, Yi-xian

    2010-02-01

    Thermal-hydrolysis can remarkably improve the solid organics dissolving efficiency of urban biomass waste, and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to improve the efficiency of urban biomass waste anaerobic digestion. The optimum thermal-hydrolysis temperature and holding time was 175 degrees C and 60 min, the volatile suspended solid (VSS) dissolving ratio of kitchen waste, fruit-and-vegetable waste and sludge were 31.3%, 31.9% and 49.7%, respectively. Two ASBR and one continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were started at hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 20 d, COD organic loading rate (OLR) = 3.2-3.6 kg/(m3 x d). The biogas production volumes were 5656 mL/d(A1), 6335 mL/d(A2) and 3 103 mL/d(CSTR), respectively; VSS degradation ratios were 45.3% (A1), 50.87% (A2), 20.81% (CSTR), and the total COD (TCOD) removal rates were 88.1% (A1), 90% (A2), 72.6% (CSTR). In ASBR, organic solid and anaerobic microorganism were remained in the reactor during settling period. When HRT was 20 d, the solid retention time (SRT) was over 130 d, which made ASBR higher efficiency than CSTR. PMID:20391728

  18. Aqueous fractionation of biomass based on novel carbohydrate hydrolysis kinetics

    DOEpatents

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-function process for hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components comprising extractives and proteins; a portion of a solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising: a) introducing either solid fresh biomass or partially fractioned lignocellulosic biomass material with entrained acid or water into a reactor and heating to a temperature of up to about 185.degree. C.-205.degree. C. b) allowing the reaction to proceed to a point where about 60% of the hemicellulose has been hydrolyzed in the case of water or complete dissolution in case of acid; c) adding a dilute acid liquid at a pH below about 5 at a temperature of up to about 205.degree. C. for a period ranging from about 5 to about 10 minutes; to hydrolyze the remaining 40% of hemicellulose if water is used. d) quenching the reaction at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to quench all degradation and hydrolysis reactions; and e) introducing into said reaction chamber and simultaneously removing from said reaction chamber, a volumetric flow rate of dilute acid at a temperature of up to about 140.degree. C. to wash out the majority of the solubilized biomass components, to obtain improved hemicellosic sugar yields.

  19. Catalytic hydrolysis of a phosphate triester by tetracoordinated zinc complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Gellman, S.H.; Petter, R.; Breslow, R.

    1986-04-30

    A zinc complex of a tetraaza macrocycle catalyzes the hydrolysis of diphenyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate is aqueous acetonitrile. The principal products derive from loss of p-nitrophenol, but some alternative hydrolysis with loss of phenol is also observed. Kinetic studies show that the catalytic zinc species is a zinc hydroxide complex with a pK/sub a/ of 8.7 (or its kinetic equivalent). The greater kinetic effectiveness of this weak base than of free hydroxide ion itself, on a molar basis, indicates a bifunctional mechanism in which bound hydroxide acts as a nucleophile, while zinc acts as a electrophilic catalyst. This process is relatively strainless at phosphorus, in contrast to reactions at carbon with the same species in which the bifunctional mechanism would be strained and is not seen. A derivative of the zinc macrocycle complex carrying a long alkyl chain was examined as the catalyst for the same substrate in a Brij micelle. This lipophilic complex is even more effective, acting as a zinc hydroxide species with pK/sub a/ = 9.1, but in the micellar reaction there are contributions from kinetic terms higher than first order in the zinc complex. Thus, in this system, catalysis by aggregates is apparently also occurring.

  20. Ionic conductivity of alkaline (Li 2O, Na 2O) and alkaline-earth (BaO) borates in crystallization (vitrification) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solntsev, V. P.; Davydov, A. V.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we report the existence of abnormal behavior of electric properties of alkaline (Li 2O,Na 2O) and alkaline-earth (BaO) borate in the melt—a crystal (glass) transition region. Results of measurement of conductivity in the mentioned interval evidence the existence of a strong variation of electric properties depending on the concentration of alkaline and alkaline-earth ions. The reasons of such behavior are discussed.

  1. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Drill, C. [NVIRO International, Toledo, OH (United States); Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources

    1998-12-31

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter.

  2. Augmented hydrolysis of diisopropyl fluorophosphate in engineered mutants of phosphotriesterase.

    PubMed

    Watkins, L M; Mahoney, H J; McCulloch, J K; Raushel, F M

    1997-10-10

    The phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta hydrolyzes a wide variety of organophosphate insecticides and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The rate of hydrolysis depends on the substrate and can range from 6000 s-1 for paraoxon to 0.03 s-1 for the slower substrates such as diethylphenylphosphate. Increases in the reactivity of phosphotriesterase toward the slower substrates were attempted by the placement of a potential proton donor group at the active site. Distances from active site residues in the wild type protein to a bound substrate analog were measured, and Trp131, Phe132, and Phe306 were found to be located within 5.0 A of the oxygen atom of the leaving group. Eleven mutants were created using site-directed mutagenesis and purified to homogeneity. Phe132 and Phe306 were replaced by tyrosine and/or histidine to generate all combinations of single and double mutants at these two sites. The single mutants W131K, F306K, and F306E were also constructed. Kinetic constants were measured for all of the mutants with the substrates paraoxon, diethylphenylphosphate, acephate, and diisopropylfluorophosphate. Vmax values for the mutant enzymes with the substrate paraoxon varied from near wild type values to a 4-order of magnitude decrease for the W131K mutant. There were significant increases in the Km for paraoxon for all mutants except F132H. Vmax values measured using diethylphenylphosphate decreased for all mutants except for F132H and F132Y, whereas Km values ranged from near wild type levels to increases of 25-fold. Vmax values for acephate hydrolysis ranged from near wild type values to a 10(3)-fold decrease for W131K. Km values for acephate ranged from near wild type to a 5-fold increase. Vmax values for the mutants tested with the substrate diisopropylfluorophosphate showed an increase in all cases except for the W131K, F306K, and F306E mutants. The Vmax value for the F132H/F306H mutant was increased to 3100 s-1. These studies demonstrated for the first time that it is possible to significantly enhance the ability of the native phosphotriesterase to hydrolyze phosphorus-fluorine bonds at rates that rival the hydrolysis of paraoxon. PMID:9325279

  3. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  4. Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound Accelerates Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Plant Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The work reported here is based on acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass substrate by introduction of low intensity, uniform ultrasound field into a reaction chamber (bio-reactor). This method may serve as an improvement of rates in the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to sugars, ...

  5. Comparative study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of acid-pretreated white pine and mixed hardwood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Grethlein; D. C. Allen; A. O. Converse

    1984-01-01

    Removal of hemicellulose by acid pretreatment in a flow reactor followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the neutralized slurry has resulted in glucose yields as high as 95% for mixed hardwood. For white pine, however, the maximum glucose yield is 65%. Although pine has a higher extractives content, removal of the extractives prior to enzymatic hydrolysis does not increase the glucose

  6. Microcalorimetric study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch: An ?-amylase catalyzed reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Salieri; G. Vinci; M. L. Antonelli

    1995-01-01

    Microcalorimetric studies of enzyme activities have been made on the hydrolysis of starch catalyzed by ?-amylase. The best conditions for the hydrolysis of starch in the presence of ?-amylase have been pointed out and the ?-amylase activity was determined by isothermal batch microcalorimetry. The heat changes involved during the hydrolytic reaction can be related to the starch concentrations in a

  7. Casein hydrolysis in PEG-salt two phase system by Eudragit-chymotrypsin bioconjugate.

    PubMed

    Teotia, Sunita; Sharma, Shweta; Gupta, M N

    2003-04-01

    A bioconjugate of alpha-chymotrypsin and Eudragit S-100 was used in an aqueous two-phase system (polyethylene glycol/phosphate) for casein hydrolysis. More product was obtained by replacing the lower salt phase with a fresh one during the reaction. The bioconjugate could be reused six times for casein hydrolysis. PMID:12882158

  8. Casein hydrolysis in PEG-salt two phase system by Eudragit-chymotrypsin bioconjugate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunita Teotia; Shweta Sharma; M. N. Gupta

    2003-01-01

    A bioconjugate of a-chymotrypsin and Eudragit S-100 was used in an aqueous two-phase system (polyethylene glycol\\/phosphate) for casein hydrolysis. More product was obtained by replacing the lower salt phase with a fresh one during the reaction. The bioconjugate could be reused six times for casein hydrolysis.

  9. Hydrolysis and Coagulation of Aluminum Salts in the Initial Stage of Mixing of Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Dolgonosov

    2005-01-01

    The turbulent mixing of a solution of a coagulant with water is studied in the initial process step, when, in the bulk of the system, regions of different liquids can still be individualized. The mixing is accompanied by the hydrolysis of metal salt and coagulation of the hydrolysis product (mixing is considered within a small vicinity of the interface between

  10. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Hydrolysis Rates in Axenic Cultures of Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae): Comparison with Heterotrophic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Mine Berg; Daniel J. Repeta; Julie Laroche

    2002-01-01

    The marine autotroph Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae) was rendered axenic in order to inves- tigate hydrolysis rates of peptides, chitobiose, acetamide, and urea as indicators of the ability to support growth on dissolved organic nitrogen. Specific rates of hydrolysis varied between 8 and 700% of rates observed in associated heterotrophic marine bacteria.

  11. Advances in lignocellulosics hydrolysis and in the utilization of the hydrolyzates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federico Parisi

    The debate if acid or enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosics will prevail over the other in the near future is still open. Different types of acid hydrolysis (use of concentrated acids, or diluted acids, and in this case use of extreme temperatures, or attempts to realize semi-continuous or continuous processes) are described. Advantages and inconveniences are described for each case.

  12. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. PMID:25618189

  13. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the hydrolysis of silicon alkoxides in acidic alcohol solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.; McCormick, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1992-10-29

    Though the relevant literature offers little consistency in the kinetic data of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of silicon alkoxides, reliable rate constants are essential for the development of kinetic models for sol-gel processing. Si-29 NMR was used in conjunction with numerical simulations to measure hydrolysis rate constants for tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), tetramethoxysilane (TMOS), and hexaethoxydisiloxane. Unlike previous efforts, we have used conditions where the effects of hydrolysis and condensation reactions can be decoupled. We have verified our rate constants using a range of solution compositions. Implications regarding the influence of the synthesis protocol on gel homogeneity are discussed. We have also estimated the enthalpies, entropies, and activation energies for the hydrolysis of TEOS. We find that each subsequent hydrolysis reaction has a higher rate constant, confirming some earlier studies. However, we also find that each hydrolysis step becomes thermodynamically less favorable. These opposing kinetic and thermodynamic tends explain why acid-catalyzed hydrolysis produces a distribution of hydrolyzed intermediates rather than just fully hydrolyzed products. They also suggest that complete and immediate hydrolysis would be difficult to achieve except at very high water concentration. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The generation of fermentation inhibitors during dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Larsson; Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Charlotte Tengborg; Kerstin Stenberg; Guido Zacchi; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant

    1999-01-01

    The influence of the severity of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of spruce (softwood) on sugar yield and on the fermentability of the hydrolysate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast) was investigated. Fermentability was assessed as the ethanol yield on fermentable sugars (mannose and glucose) and the mean volumetric productivity (4 h). The hydrolysis conditions, residence time, temperature, and sulfuric acid concentration

  15. Hydrolysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL) in Aqueous Acetonitrile Solutions: Autocatalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgette L. Siparsky; Kent J. Voorhees; Fudu Miao

    1998-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a hydrolytically degradable aliphatic polyester. The rate of polymer hydrolysis increases with time, and that has been attributed to the high reactivity of the terminal ester and the kinetics of autocatalysis. Hydrolysis is carried out in an acetonitrile\\/water solution to eliminate any solid-state contributions such as diffusion and crystallinity to the degradation process. A kinetic equation

  16. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    The comparative wave planetology [1, 5] successfully overcomes the most principal martian test having now analyses of alkaline rocks from Columbia Hills [2, 3, 4]. This kind of rocks was predicted earlier on basis of the wave paradigm having stated that "the higher planetary relief range - the higher density difference between lithologies composing hypsometrically (tectonically) contrasting blocks [5]. This paradigm declares that "celestial bodies are dichotomic"(Theorem 1), "celestial bodies are sectoral" (Theorem 2), "celestial bodies are granular"(Theorem 3), "angular momenta of different level blocks tend to be equal" (Theorem 4)[1, 5]. Mars is a typical terrestrial planet but the farthest from Sun and thus with the smallest tide effects. Nevertheless it has the highest relief range and seems to be most distorted (ellipsoid in shape) and broken by deep fissures. The wave approach explains this by a warping action of standing waves of 4 ortho- and diagonal directions - they are the longest and highest in the martian case. These interfering warping waves caused by the elliptic keplerian orbits implying periodically changing accelerations and inertia-gravity forces produce inevitable tectonic dichotomy (the fundamental wave 1 long 2?R), sectoring (wave 2, ?R, and other overtones), granulation. A granule size depends on an orbital frequency: the higher frequency the smaller granule. The Earth's granule, as a scale, is ?R/4 (see it in NASA's PIA04159), Venus ` ?R/6, Mercury's ?R/16, Mars' ?R/2 (the sizes are strictly tied to orb. fr.). Along with the granule sizes increase relief ranges ( Mercury ˜5 km, Venus 14, Earth 20, Mars ˜30) and compositional (density) difference between lowland and highland lithologies [5]. The lowland compositions become Fericher and denser: enstatite (Mercury), Mg-basalt (Venus), tholeiite (Earth), Fe-basalt (Mars). The highland compositions get less dense, lighter: anorthosite, alkaline basalt, andesite and conditional "albitite" (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6] Mittlefehldt D.W.

  17. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ishibashi, Matsujiro [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Tokunaga, Hiroko [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Blaber, Michael [Florida State University, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4300 (United States); Tokunaga, Masao [Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the halophilic characteristics of an alkaline phosphatase derived from the moderate halophile Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP), the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined to 2.1 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structural properties of surface negative charge and core hydrophobicity were shown to be intermediate between those characteristic of halophiles and non-halophiles, and may explain the unique functional adaptation to a wide range of salt concentrations. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4 M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1 Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C{sup ?} r.m.s.d. of 0.82 Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations.

  18. Alkaline/peracetic acid as a pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Lincoln Cambraia

    Peracetic acid is a lignin oxidation pretreatment with low energy input by which biomass can be treated in a silo type system for improving enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials for ethanol production. Experimentally, ground hybrid poplar wood and sugar cane bagasse are placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass in different concentrations based on oven-dry biomass. The ratio of solution to biomass is 6:1; after initial mixing of the resulting paste, a seven-day storage period at about 20°C is used in this study. As a complementary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetyl content in the biomass is been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the biomass in a ratio of 14:1 solution to biomass; the slurry is mixed for 24 hours at ambient temperature. The above procedures give high xylan content substrates. Consequently, xylanase/beta-glucosidase combinations are more effective than cellulase preparations in hydrolyzing these materials. The pretreatment effectiveness is evaluated using standard enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) procedures. Hybrid poplar wood pretreated with 15 and 21% peracetic acid based on oven-dry weight of wood gives glucan conversion yields of 76.5 and 98.3%, respectively. Sugar cane bagasse pretreated with the same loadings gives corresponding yields of 85.9 and 93.1%. Raw wood and raw bagasse give corresponding yields of 6.8 and 28.8%, respectively. The combined 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreatments increase the glucan conversion yields from 76.5 to 100.0% for hybrid poplar wood and from 85.9 to 97.6% for sugar cane bagasse. Respective ethanol yields of 92.8 and 91.9% are obtained from 6% NaOH/15% peracetic acid pretreated materials using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5. Peracetic acid pretreatment improves enzymatic digestibility of hybrid poplar wood and sugar cane bagasse. Based on reduction of acetyl groups in the two lignocellulosic materials, alkaline pre-pretreatments are helpful in reducing peracetic acid requirements in the pretreatment and consequently diminishing growth inhibition of the bacteria that was observed using higher peracetic acid loadings.

  19. Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Nesbit, Lance A.

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular pH (pHe) of many solid tumors is acidic as a result of glycolytic metabolism and poor perfusion. Acidity promotes invasion and enhances metastatic potential. Tumor acidity can be buffered by systemic administration of an alkaline agent such as sodium bicarbonate. Tumor-bearing mice maintained on sodium bicarbonate drinking water exhibit fewer metastases and survive longer than untreated controls. We predict this effect is due to inhibition of tumor invasion. Reducing tumor invasion should result in fewer circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We report that bicarbonate-treated MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice exhibited significantly lower numbers of CTCs than untreated mice (P < 0.01). Tumor pHe buffering may reduce optimal conditions for enzymes involved in tumor invasion such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs). To address this, we tested the effect of transient alkalinization on cathepsin and MMP activity using enzyme activatable fluorescence agents in mice bearing MDA-MB-231 mammary xenografts. Transient alkalinization significantly reduced the fluorescent signal of protease-specific activatable agents in vivo (P ? 0.003). Alkalinization, however, did not affect expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). The findings suggest a possible mechanism in a live model system for breast cancer where systemic alkalinization slows the rate of invasion. PMID:23936808

  20. The alkalinity of pristine lakes in the high Sierra Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    El-Amamy, M.M.; Bradford, G.R.; Page, A.L.; Nodvin, S.C.; Fox, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    In most natural waters of low electrolyte concentration and low pH, the acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is greater than expected base on equilibrium with atmospheric CO/sub 2/. The differences between the measured ANC and the theoretical ANC is attributable to weak organic bases and inorganic aluminum. In Sierra lakes with a pH range of approximately 6 to 8, the non-carbonate alkalinity makes only a relatively small contribution to the total alkalinity. The carbonate alkalinity can be accurately computed from measured values of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved CO/sub 2/ at a specified temperature. This suggests that under the above specified conditions, it is not necessary to conduct a time-consuming measure of alkalinity and its value can be obtained from the more convenient, less time consuming measure of pH and dissolved CO/sub 2/. To test the applicability of this technique, which compared the alkalinity of 124 high Sierra lakes as measured by Gran titration to that computed from pH and dissolved CO/sub 2/.

  1. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  2. Field measurement of alkalinity and pH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Ivan

    1964-01-01

    The behavior of electrometric pH equipment under field conditions departs from the behavior predicted from Nernst's law. The response is a linear function of pH, and hence measured pH values may be corrected to true pH if the instrument is calibrated with two reference solutions for each measurement. Alkalinity titrations may also be made in terms of true pH. Standard methods, such as colorimetric titrations, were rejected as unreliable or too cumbersome for rapid field use. The true pH of the end point of the alkalinity titration as a function of temperature, ionic strength, and total alkalinity has been calculated. Total alkalinity in potable waters is the most important factor influencing the end point pH, which varies from 5.38 (0 ? C, 5 ppm (parts per million) HC0a-) to 4.32 (300 ppm HC0a-,35 ? C), for the ranges of variables considered. With proper precautions, the pH may be determined to =i:0.02 pH and the alkalinity to =i:0.6 ppm HCO3- for many naturally occurring bodies of fresh water.

  3. Reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride using buffered alkaline ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Ting; Liang, Chenju

    2015-10-01

    Alkaline ascorbic acid (AA) was recently discovered as a novel in-situ chemical reduction (ISCR) reagent for remediating chlorinated solvents in the subsurface. For this ISCR process, the maintenance of an alkaline pH is essential. This study investigated the possibility of the reduction of carbon tetrachloride (CT) using alkaline AA solution buffered by phosphate and by NaOH. The results indicated that CT was reduced by AA, and chloroform (CF) was a major byproduct at a phosphate buffered pH of 12. However, CT was completely reduced by AA in 2M NaOH without CF formation. In the presence of iron/soil minerals, iron could be reduced by AA and Fe(2+) tends to precipitate on the mineral surface to accelerate CT degradation. A simultaneous transfer of hydrogenolysis and dichloroelimination would occur under phosphate buffered pH 12. This implies that a high alkaline environment is a crucial factor for maintaining the dominant pathway of two electron transfer from dianionic AA to dehydroascorbic acid, and to undergo dichloroelimination of CT. Moreover, threonic acid and oxalic acid were identified to be the major AA decomposition products in alkaline solutions. PMID:25912910

  4. Pilot-scale base hydrolysis processing of HMX-based plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Dell`orco, P.C.; Spontarelli, T.; Bishop, R.L.; Skidmore, C.; Uher, K.J.; Kramer, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated that many energetic materials can be rendered non-energetic via reaction with sodium hydroxide or ammonia. This process is known as base hydrolysis. A pilot scale reactor has been developed to process up to 20 kg of plastic bonded explosive in a single batch operation. In this report, we discuss the design and operation of the pilot scale reactor for the processing of PBX 9404, a standard Department of Energy plastic bonded explosive containing HMX and nitrocellulose. Products from base hydrolysis, although non-energetic, still require additional processing before release to the environment Decomposition products, destruction efficiencies, and rates of reaction for base hydrolysis will be presented. Hydrothermal processing, previously known as supercritical water oxidation, has been proposed for converting organic products from hydrolysis to carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide. Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing may yield a viable alternative to open burning/open detonation for destruction of many energetic materials.

  5. Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

    2014-10-13

    The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure. PMID:25037336

  6. Studying Cellulose Fiber Structure by SEM, XRD, NMR and Acid Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad; Brown, Heather M.; Arey, Bruce W.; Holladay, John E.

    2007-03-21

    Cotton linters were partially hydrolyzed in dilute acid and the morphology of remaining macrofibrils studied with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) under various magnifications. The crystal region (microfibril bundles) in the macrofibrils was not altered by hydrolysis, and only amorphous cellulose was hydrolyzed and leached out from the macrofibrils. The diameter of microfibril bundles was 20-30 nm after the amorphous cellulose was removed by hydrolysis. XRD experiments confirm the unaltered diameter of the microfibrils after hydrolysis. The strong stability of these microfibril bundles in hydrolysis limits both the total sugar monomer yield and the size of nano particles or rods produced in hydrolysis. The large surface potential on the remaining microfibril bundles drives the agglomeration of macrofibrils.

  7. Hydrolysis behavior of regenerated celluloses with different degree of polymerization under microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinping; Teng, Na; Chen, Haizhen; Wang, Jinggang; Zhu, Jin; Na, Haining

    2015-09-01

    This work studied the hydrolysis behavior of regenerated celluloses (RCs) with different degree of polymerization (DP) by using the catalyst of dilute acid under microwave radiation. Results showed that the DP had a considerable influence on hydrolysis of cellulose. The reactivity of RCs was significantly improved when DP was lower than 51. The highest sugar yield of 59.2% was achieved from RC with lowest DP of 23 at 160°C for 15min. But the lowest yield of 32.6% was obtained when RC with highest DP of 132 was used. Recrystallization of cellulose was found to hinder the further hydrolysis particularly with the high DP. The effect of recrystallization can be reduced by the decrease of DP of RCs. This research demonstrates that the DP of RCs plays a crucial role on hydrolysis and it provides a preliminary guide based on DP to find a suitable pretreatment method for cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:25997012

  8. Effect of Acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2015-07-01

    Acid hydrolysis is an important chemical modification that can significantly change the structural and functional properties of starch without disrupting its granular morphology. A deep understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality is of great importance for starch scientific research and its industrial applications. During acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions are hydrolyzed preferentially, which enhances the crystallinity and double helical content of acid hydrolyzed starch. This review discusses current understanding of the effect of acid hydrolysis on starch structure and functionality. The effects of acid hydrolysis on amylose content, chain length distribution of amylopectin molecules, molecular and crystalline organization (including lamellar structure) and granular morphology are considered. Functional properties discussed include swelling power, gelatinization, retrogradation, pasting, gel texture, and in vitro enzyme digestibility. The paper also highlights some promising applications of acid hydrolyzed starch (starch nanocrystals) in the preparation of biodegradable nanocomposites, bio-hydrogen, and slowly digestible starch-based healthy foods. PMID:24915341

  9. Dehydration and oxidation of cellulose hydrolysis products in acidic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Garves, K.

    1981-01-01

    The dehydration of cotton cellulose in aqueous solutions in the presence of Ac/sub 2/O, AcOH, HCl, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or HBr proceeded by hydrolysis to carbohydrates with acetate groups, followed by conversion to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (I) and then, to levulinic acid (II) accompanied by humic acids. For the formation of I, HCl was a more efficient and selective catalyst than H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the formation of II was promoted by high acid and H/sub 2/O concentrations in the medium. The addition of FeCl/sub 3/ to the dehydration mixture with HCl and continuous distillation led to the isolation of furfural.

  10. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Sakata, M.; Harano, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of surfactants on enzymatic saccharification of cellulose have been studied. Nonionic, amphoteric, and cationic surfactants enhanced the saccharification, while anionic surfactant did not. Cationic and anionic surfactants denatured cellulase in their relatively low concentrations, namely, more than 0.008 and 0.001%, respectively. Using nonionic surfactant Tween 20, which is most effective to the enhancement (e.g., the fractional conversion attained by 72 h saccharification of 5 wt % Avicel in the presence of 0.05 wt % Tween 20 is increased by 35%), actions of surfactant have been examined. As the results, it was suggested that Tween 20 plays an important role in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and that Tween 20 disturbs the adsorption of endoglucanase on cellulose, i.e., varies the adsorption balance of endo- and exoglucanase, resulting in enhancing the reaction. The influence of Tween 20 to the saccharification was found to remain in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of Avicel.

  11. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R. [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)] [National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

  12. Hydrolysis of chlorine nitrate and its possible atmospheric significance

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, F.S.; Sato, H.; Khwaja, H.; Elliott, S.M.

    1986-05-08

    The hydrolysis of ClONO/sub 2/ takes place very readily on a variety of laboratory surfaces and may also occur catalytically on particulate surfaces in the stratosphere. The reaction can be considered as an oxide exchange between two X-O-Y molecules with X and Y = H, Cl, or NO/sub 2/. Two other reactions in this class which might occur in the stratosphere are HOCl plus HOCl, and HOCl plus ClONO/sub 2/. Each of these three is approximately thermoneutral and should be accompanied by the reverse reaction with a comparable reaction rate constant. Current atmospheric models have not explained the very large ozone depletions which have taken place during Antarctic spring in the past decade. The chemical reactions included in these models may need to include heterogeneous catalysis of one or more of these oxide exchange reactions. 26 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  13. Adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) hydrolysis by dynein.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Katsura, T; Domanico, P L; Marchese-Ragona, S P; Johnson, K A

    1989-08-22

    The interaction of dynein with ATP gamma S, a phosphorothioate analogue of ATP, has been investigated in depth. The hydrolyses of ATP gamma S and of ATP were shown to be mutually competitive. ATP gamma S induced complete dissociation of the microtubule-dynein complex such that the time course of dissociation monitored by stopped-flow light-scattering methods followed a single exponential. The ATP gamma S concentration dependence of the rate of dissociation was hyperbolic, indicating that the dissociation is at least a two-step process: M.D + ATP gamma S in equilibrium M.D.ATP gamma S----M + D.ATP gamma S. The fit to the hyperbola gives an apparent Kd = 0.5 mM for the binding of ATP gamma S to the microtubule-dynein complex, and the maximal rate of 45 s-1 defines the rate of dissociation of the ternary M.D.ATP gamma S complex. Rapid quench-flow experiments demonstrated that the hydrolysis of ATP gamma S by dynein exhibited an initial burst of product formation. The size of the burst was 1.2 mol/10(6) g of dynein, comparable to that in the case of ATP hydrolysis. The steady-state rate of ATP gamma S turnover by dynein was activated by MAP-free microtubules. Because the rate of ATP gamma S turnover is severalfold (4-8) slower than ATP turnover, the rate-limiting step must be release of thiophosphate, not ADP. Thus, microtubules can activate the rate of thiophosphate release. The stereochemical course of phosphoric residue transfer was determined by using ATP gamma S stereospecifically labeled in the gamma position with 18O.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2531007

  14. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  15. Delayed Upper-Airway Injury after Accidental Alkaline Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department one week after accidentally drinking an alkaline cleaning agent stored in unlabeled bottle. The day of the incident the patient presented to an outside hospital where he was admitted for an upper endoscopy of the esophagus which was found to be negative for acute injury. An initial chest X-ray taken the day of the incident was also found to be normal. After discharge the patient continued to have a sore throat and marked dysphagia which caused him to vomit repeatedly. Moreover, the patient began to develop chest pain with associated shortness of breath. We present a case of delayed airway injury and tracheal thickening and associated chest pain after alkaline ingestion and we discuss herein the pathophysiology and management of alkaline ingestions. PMID:25013732

  16. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  17. Structural characteristics of alkaline phosphatase from the moderately halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shigeki; Yonezawa, Yasushi; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Matsumoto, Fumiko; Adachi, Motoyasu; Tamada, Taro; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Blaber, Michael; Tokunaga, Masao; Kuroki, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) from the moderate halophilic bacterium Halomonas sp. 593 (HaAP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters over a wide salt-concentration range (1–4?M NaCl). In order to clarify the structural basis of its halophilic characteristics and its wide-range adaptation to salt concentration, the tertiary structure of HaAP was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.1?Å resolution. The unit cell of HaAP contained one dimer unit corresponding to the biological unit. The monomer structure of HaAP contains a domain comprised of an 11-stranded ?-sheet core with 19 surrounding ?-helices similar to those of APs from other species, and a unique ‘crown’ domain containing an extended ‘arm’ structure that participates in formation of a hydrophobic cluster at the entrance to the substrate-binding site. The HaAP structure also displays a unique distribution of negatively charged residues and hydrophobic residues in comparison to other known AP structures. AP from Vibrio sp. G15-21 (VAP; a slight halophile) has the highest similarity in sequence (70.0% identity) and structure (C? r.m.s.d. of 0.82?Å for the monomer) to HaAP. The surface of the HaAP dimer is substantially more acidic than that of the VAP dimer (144 exposed Asp/Glu residues versus 114, respectively), and thus may enable the solubility of HaAP under high-salt conditions. Conversely, the monomer unit of HaAP formed a substantially larger hydrophobic interior comprising 329 C atoms from completely buried residues, whereas that of VAP comprised 264 C atoms, which may maintain the stability of HaAP under low-salt conditions. These characteristics of HaAP may be responsible for its unique functional adaptation permitting activity over a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:24598750

  18. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Alexandra M. F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer.

  19. Design factors and performance efficiencies of successive alkalinity producing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jage, C.R.; Zipper, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Successive Alkalinity Producing Systems (SAPS) are passive treatment wetlands that have been used successfully in renovating acidic mine drainage (AMD) for several years. Unfortunately, design parameters and treatment efficiency of these systems vary widely due to a lack of clear, consistent design and construction guidelines. This study is investigating ten operating SAPS systems in Virginia and West Virginia for the purpose of identifying the relationship of design and construction factors to system performance. Influent and effluent water samples were collected for a period of two years or longer by the operators of each system. Each sample was analyzed for pH, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, total iron, total manganese, and aluminum. The individual systems were also characterized according to system age, size, and construction materials. Residence times for the ten systems ranged from 4.5 hours to 13.31 days. On average, they were able to raise the pH 0.65 units and generate a net alkalinity of 84.84 mg/l as CaCO{sub 3}. Iron and manganese removal did occur in the SAPS cells, but the majority of the removal took place in post-SAPS settling ponds. Net alkalinity generation was positively correlated with residence time and iron removal rates suggesting a synergistic effect. Seasonal variation in alkalinity production was also noted, possibly indicating changes in alkalinity generation rates by dissimilatory sulfate reduction. These data provide the foundation for the development of a user-oriented SAPS design model based solely on influent AMD chemistry and final treatment goals as input parameters.

  20. Hydrolysis of Naptalam and Structurally Related Amides: Inhibition by Dissolved Metal Ions and Metal (Hydr)Oxide Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    hydrolysis between pH 3.6 and pH 6.5. Metal ion-naptalam complex formation is important since addition by these groups makes interpretation of hydrolysis experiments more complex than in the case of simple amides ions and cyclodextrin on naptalam hydrolysis. The pH value employed (pH ) 2.0) may have been unsuitable

  1. Thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinsuke Yamanaka; Ken Kurosaki; Takuji Maekawa; Tetsushi Matsuda; Shin-Ichi Kobayashi; Masayoshi Uno

    2005-01-01

    In order to contribute to safety evaluation of high burnup oxide fuels, we studied the thermochemical and thermophysical properties of alkaline-earth perovskites known as oxide inclusions. Polycrystalline samples of alkaline-earth perovskites, BaUO3, BaZrO3, BaCeO3, BaMoO3, SrTiO3, SrZrO3, SrCeO3, SrMoO3, SrHfO3 and SrRuO3, were prepared and the thermal expansion coefficient, melting temperature, elastic moduli, Debye temperature, microhardness, heat capacity, and thermal

  2. Alkaline Phosphatase and Mortality in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinhui; Guo, Qunying; Feng, Xiaoran; Wang, Juan; Wu, Juan; Mao, Haiping; Huang, Fengxian; Yu, Xueqing

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Elevated total serum alkaline phosphatase levels have been associated with higher mortality in the general population, CKD patients, and hemodialysis patients. However, in peritoneal dialysis patients, this association has received little attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single center retrospective cohort study, 1021 incident peritoneal dialysis patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010 with baseline serum alkaline phosphatase values were enrolled. Collected baseline data included demographic characteristics and clinical and laboratory measurements. All patients were followed until December 31, 2012. The associations of total serum alkaline phosphatase levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Results Of 1021 patients, mean age was 47.5 (±15.5) years, 59.1% of patients were men, and 22.8% of patients were diabetic. The median serum alkaline phosphatase level was 64 U/L (interquartile range=52–82 U/L). During a median 31-month (interquartile range=19–45 months) follow-up period, 203 patients died, of which 109 deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, liver function, and bone metabolism parameters, the highest alkaline phosphatase quartile was significantly associated with a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.74, P=0.03) and a hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.72, P=0.04). Each 10 U/L higher baseline alkaline phosphatase level was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.08, P=0.04) and 7% (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.11, P=0.003) higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. Conclusion Higher total serum alkaline phosphatase levels at the commencement of peritoneal dialysis were independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:24458081

  3. Surfactant-enhanced low-pH alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A. (Grace (W.R.) and Co., Columbia, MD (USA). Research Div.); Lorenz, P.B. (National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports sodium bicarbonate investigated as a potential alkaline agent in surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding because it has very little tendency to dissolve silicate minerals. In experiments performed with Wilmington, CA, crude oil and three types of surfactants, the bicarbonate/surfactant combination caused a marked lowering of interfacial tension (IFT). Bicarbonate protected the surfactant against divalent cations and reduced adsorption of surfactant and polymer on various minerals. Coreflood test confirm that sodium bicarbonate plus surfactant can be an effective alternative to the high-pH flooding process.

  4. Highly doped alkaline earth nanofluorides synthesized from ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorbeer, C.; Cybinska, J.; Zych, E.; Mudring, A.-V.

    2011-12-01

    Bulk alkaline earth fluorides co-doped with optically active ions are prominent materials for luminescent applications. However, for phosphor materials the changeover to the nanoscale is a tightrope walk between achieving desirable features of small particles such as reduced light scattering and unwanted drawbacks such as a high surface defect concentration which is likely to result in quenching of luminescence. A new preparation route via ionic liquids allows obtaining pure and oxygen-free alkaline earth fluorides co-doped with Eu 3+ and Gd 3+ on the nanoscale with excellent quantum cutting abilities.

  5. Characterization of Apatite Formed on Alkaline-heat-treated Ti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Chosa; M. Taira; S. Saitoh; N. Sato; Y. Araki

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline-heat-treated titanium self-forms an apatite surface layer in vivo. The aim of the present study was to materialistically characterize the surface of alkaline-heat-treated titanium immersed in simulated body fluid (AHS-TI) and to examine the differentiation behavior of osteoblasts on AHS-TI. SEM, thin-film XRD, FTIR, and XPS analyses revealed that AHS-TI contained a 1.0-?m-thick, low-crystalline, and [002] direction-oriented carbonate apatite surface.

  6. Regulation of intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Watson, W. C.; Murray, Elspeth S.; Gardner, Mary D.

    1967-01-01

    Bilateral adrenalectomy produces a reduction in the alkaline phosphatase concentration in rat intestine, which is not prevented by the administration of saline, but is prevented by the administration of cortisone. The administration of A.C.T.H. to normal rats leads to a rise in intestinal alkaline phosphatase levels associated with a small increase in the weight of the adrenals, while the administration of hydrocortisone produces large increases in the enzyme, even with doses which cause significant hypoplasia of the adrenal glands. The significance of these findings in relation to mechanisms of fat absorption and the treatment of steatorrhoea is discussed. PMID:4301410

  7. Advanced technology for extended endurance alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Martin, R. A.

    Advanced components have been developed for alkaline fuel cells with a view to the satisfaction of NASA Space Station design requirements for extended endurance. The components include a platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode, a potassium titanate-bonded electrolyte matrix, a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate, a gold-plated nickel-perforated foil electrode substrate, a polyphenylene sulfide cell edge frame material, and a nonmagnesium cooler concept. When incorporated into the alkaline fuel cell unit, these components are expected to yield regenerative operation in a low earth orbit Space Station with a design life greater than 5 years.

  8. Projects for industrial development of advanced alkaline electrolysers in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aureille, R.; Pottier, J.

    Attention is given to the prospects for the development in France of an off-peak nuclear electricity water-electrolysis system for the generation of hydrogen. Detailed studies on such a system in 1977-1978 have focused attention on advanced alkaline electrolysis, with the dual objective of process efficiency improvement and electrolyzer cost reduction. An assessment has been made of 20-30 kW alkaline electrolysis equipment, and a 2-3 MW pilot plant electrolyzer design has been elaborated.

  9. Isolation of a novel alkaline-stable lipase from a metagenomic library and its specific application for milkfat flavor production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipolytic enzymes are commonly used to produce desired flavors in lipolyzed milkfat (LMF) manufacturing processes. However, the choice of enzyme is critical because it determines the final profile of fatty acids released and the consequent flavor of the product. We previously constructed a metagenomic library from marine sediments, to explore the novel enzymes which have unique properties useful in flavor-enhancing LMF. Results A novel lipase Est_p6 was isolated from a metagenomic library and was expressed highly in E.coli. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that Est_p6 belongs to lipolytic enzyme family IV, the molecular weight of purified Est_p6 was estimated at 36 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The hydrolytic activity of the enzyme was stable under alkaline condition and the optimal temperature was 50°C. It had a high specific activity (2500 U/mg) toward pNP butyrate (pNP-C4), with Km and Vmax values of 1.148 mM and 3497 ?mol?min-1?mg-1, respectively. The enzyme activity was enhanced by DTT and was not significantly inhibited by PMSF, EDTA or SDS. This enzyme also showed high hydrolysis specificity for myristate (C14) and palmitate (C16). It seems that Est_p6 has safety for commercial LMF flavor production and food manufacturing processes. Conclusions The ocean is a vast and largely unexplored resource for enzymes. According the outstanding alkaline-stability of Est_p6 and it produced myristic acid and palmitic acid more efficiently than other free fatty acids in lipolyzed milkfat. This novel lipase may be used to impart a distinctive and desirable flavor and odor in milkfat flavor production. PMID:24387764

  10. [Response surface method optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis preparation genistein].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-04-01

    This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production. PMID:22799038

  11. Examining the efficiency of muffle furnance-induced alkaline hydrolysis in determining the titanium content of environmental samples containing engineered titanium dioxide particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium hydroxide (KOH) fusion digestion technique was developed and its comparative digestion and dissolution efficacy for different titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs)/environmental matrices was evaluated. Digestion of different enviro...

  12. Examining the efficiency of muffle furnace-induced alkaline hydrolysis in determining the titanium content of environmental samples containing engineered titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rendahandi G; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N; Webster, Jill; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Hristovski, Kiril D; Ford, Robert G; Patterson, Craig L; Impellitteri, Christopher A

    2013-03-01

    A novel muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium hydroxide (KOH) fusion digestion technique was developed and evaluated for different titanium dioxide materials in various solid matrices. Digestion of different environmental samples containing sediments, clay minerals and humic acid with and without TiO(2) particles was first performed utilizing the MF-based KOH fusion technique and its dissolution efficacy was compared to a Bunsen burner (BB)-based KOH fusion method. The three types of TiO(2) particles (anatase, brookite and rutile) were then digested with the KOH fusion techniques and microwave (MW)-based nitric (HNO3)–hydrofluoric (HF) mixed acid digestion methods. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that Ti recoveries were comparable for the KOH fusion methods (BB and MF). For pure TiO(2) particles, the measured Ti recoveries compared to calculated values were 96%, 85% and 87% for anatase, brookite and rutile TiO(2) materials, respectively, by the MF-based fusion technique. These recoveries were consistent and less variable than the BB-based fusion technique recoveries of 104%, 97% and 72% and MW-based HNO3–HF mixed acids digestion recoveries of 80%, 81% and 14%, respectively, for anatase, brookite and rutile. Ti percent recoveries and measurement precision decreased for both the BB and MF methods when TiO(2) was spiked into sediment, clay minerals, and humic acid. This drop in efficacy was counteracted by more thorough homogenization of the spiked mixtures and by increasing the mass of KOH in the MF fusion process from 1.6 g to 10.0 g. The MF-based fusion technique is consistently superior in digestion efficiency for all three TiO(2) polymorphs. The MF-based fusion technique required 20 minutes for digestion of 25 samples (based on in-house Lindberg MF capacity) compared to 8 hours for the same number of samples using the BB-based fusion technique. Thus, the MF-based fusion technique can be used to dissolve a large number of samples in a shorter time (e.g., 500 samples per 8 hours) while conserving energy and eliminating health and safety risks from methods involving HF. PMID:23738363

  13. Nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis of SO3 in the formation of sulfuric acid: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Bo; Chang, Chun-Ran; Long, Zheng-Wen; Wang, Yi-Bo; Tan, Xing-Feng; Zhang, Wei-Jun

    2013-08-01

    The gas-phase hydrolysis of SO3 in the presence of one water molecule, two water molecules, and nitric acid is investigated utilizing high level quantum chemical methods and transition state theory. The calculated results demonstrate that nitric acid exerts a strong catalytic role in the hydrolysis of SO3 because the activated barrier of hydrolysis of SO3 with the assistance of nitric acid is reduced to about 3.7 kcal/mol, which is about 20 kcal/mol lower than that of the SO3 reaction with water relative to the respective pre-reactive complex.

  14. Hydrolysis of chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole in various pH buffer solutions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Zimmerman, William T; Lowrie, Chris; Chapleo, Simon

    2014-04-23

    The hydrolysis reactions of [(14)C]-chlorantraniliprole (CLAP) and cyantraniliprole (CNAP) were investigated in sterile buffer solutions at pH 4, 7, and 9. Both compounds displayed similar degradation reactions. The reactions observed were intramolecular cyclizations and rearrangements instead of the anticipated amide hydrolysis to carboxylic acids. Despite a minor difference in their structures, the degradation rates for the two compounds were substantially different. The reaction rates were examined at multiple temperatures to understand the mechanistic aspects of the underlying transformations. Similarities and differences in the hydrolysis behavior of these compounds in various pH values and temperatures are described. PMID:24694259

  15. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Balazs, G. Bryan (Livermore, CA); Hsu, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Lewis, Patricia R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  16. Effect of alkaline pH on staphylococcal biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Marino, Andreana; Blanco, Anna Rita; Favaloro, Angelo; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Giuseppe

    2012-09-01

    Biofilms are a serious problem, cause of severe inconvenience in the biomedical, food and industrial environment. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis are important pathogenic bacteria able to form thick and resistant biofilms on various surfaces. Therefore, strategies aimed at preventing or at least interfering with the initial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are a considerable achievement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alkaline pH on bacterial adhesion and further biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains by biofilm biomass, cell-surface hydrophobicity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The results demonstrated that the amount of biofilm biomass formed and the surface hydrophobicity were significantly less than what were observed at higher levels of pH. SEM and CLSM images revealed a poorly structured and very thin biofilm (2.5-3 times thinner than that of the controls). The inhibiting effect of the alkaline pH on the bacterial attachment impaired the normal development of biofilm that arrested at the microcolony stage. Alkaline formulations could be promising towards the control of bacterial colonization and therefore the reduction of the biofilm-related hazard. In the clinical setting, alkaline solutions or cleaners could be promising to prevent the bacterial colonization, by treating surfaces such as catheters or indwelling medical devices, reducing the risk of biofilm related infections. PMID:22882263

  17. Recommendations for conducting the in vivo alkaline Comet assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hartmann; E. Agurell; C. Beevers; S. Brendler-Schwaab; B. Burlinson; P. Clay; A. Collins; A. Smith; G. Speit; V. Thybaud; R. R. Tice

    2003-01-01

    The in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay, hereafter the Comet assay, can be used to investigate the genotoxicity of industrial chemicals, biocides, agrochem- icals and pharmaceuticals. The major advantages of this assay include the relative ease of application to any tissue of interest, the detection of multiple classes of DNA damage and the generation of data at the

  18. Process of treating cellulosic membrane and alkaline with membrane separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (inventors)

    1970-01-01

    The improvement of water-soluble cellulose ether membranes for use as separators in concentrated alkaline battery cells is discussed. The process of contacting membranes with an aqueous alkali solution of concentration less than that of the alkali solution to be used in the battery but above that at which the membrane is soluble is described.

  19. The Effect of River Alkalinity on Coastal Aragonite Saturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. de Meo; J. Salisbury

    2008-01-01

    As atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, concern about ocean acidification is rising. Although a great deal of recent research has been focused on this topic, little has been done to explore how land and ocean interactions are affecting coastal acidification. This study addresses the regional variability of total alkalinity (TA) in rivers and its effect on the aragonite saturation state

  20. Degradation of Technora aramid fibres in alkaline and neutral environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Derombise; Laëtitia Vouyovitch Van Schoors; Peter Davies

    2009-01-01

    Technora fibres are high performance aramid fibres which have been used in ropes and protective clothing for many years. They are also now being proposed as geotextiles for soil reinforcement. However, there is a lack of experience on the long-term behaviour of Technora fibres in an alkaline environment (lime-treated ground…). Consequently, aging studies have been performed under different conditions (deionised

  1. Field screening of cowpea cultivars for alkaline soil tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  2. NEW INSIGHTS INTO CERIUM ANOMALIES IN ORGANIC RICH ALKALINE WATERS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NEW INSIGHTS INTO CERIUM ANOMALIES IN ORGANIC RICH ALKALINE WATERS Olivier Pourret1, 2, * , Mélanie.chemgeo.2008.03.002 #12;Abstract ­ Cerium anomaly development in natural waters is commonly related to the mechanism of oxidative scavenging of tetravalent cerium by iron and/or manganese oxides. In this study

  3. Enhanced Recovery of Oil by Alkaline Steam Flooding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Okoye; Djebbar Tiab

    1982-01-01

    The results of the laboratory studies of alkaline steam flooding of previously water flooded sandpacks and cores are presented in this paper. In these studies the applicability of alkali as chemical additives to steam in tertiary recovery of heavy oil was investigated. Four kinds of alkali: Sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, sodium carbonate and potassium hydroxide were added to steam, each

  4. Metagenomics and recovery of enzyme genes from alkaline saline environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Grant; Shaun Heaphy

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes functioning at alkaline pH are widely used in the detergent industry as additives to improve the stain removal properties of domestic and industrial cleaning products. This industry provides by far the major mass market for enzymes. With constantly changing formulations in detergents and concerns over energy demands, new and improved enzymes are constantly in demand. Soda lakes host dense

  5. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase preserves the normal homeostasis of gut microbiota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Malo; S Nasrin Alam; G Mostafa; S J Zeller; P V Johnson; N Mohammad; K T Chen; A K Moss; S Ramasamy; A Faruqui; S Hodin; P S Malo; F Ebrahimi; B Biswas; S Narisawa; J L Millán; H S Warren; J B Kaplan; C L Kitts; E L Hohmann; R A Hodin

    2010-01-01

    Background and aimsThe intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human health; however, the mechanisms governing the normal homeostatic number and composition of these microbes are largely unknown. Previously it was shown that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a small intestinal brush border enzyme, functions as a gut mucosal defence factor limiting the translocation of gut bacteria to mesenteric lymph

  6. Geochemical response of acid groundwater to neutralization by alkaline recharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Donovan; Kevin W. Frysinger; Thomas P. Maher

    1996-01-01

    Solute transport and chemical neutralization (pH 3 to 7) within a shallow heterogeneous aquifer producing acid mine drainage (AMD) are examined at an abandoned surface coal mine in West Virginia. The aquifer is undergoing partial neutralization by mixing with alkalinity from a leaking sludge disposal pond, extending in preferential zones controlled by aquifer heterogeneity. Hydraulic heads interpolated from wells indicate

  7. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. H. Schubert; M. A. Reid; R. E. Martin

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

  8. Backstay and Irvine: Alkaline Volcanic Rocks from Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Ruff, S. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Gellert, R.

    2006-03-01

    Unweathered alkaline lava samples found on Husband Hill appear to have formed by low-pressure fractionation of olivine-rich basaltic magmas like those on the Gusev plains. Their mode of occurrence may suggest a local magmatic source under the crater.

  9. Ohmic potential drop during alkaline water electrolysis at forced convection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. D. van Stralen; E. Barendrecht; B. E. Bongenaar-Schlenter; L. J. J. Janssen; C. W. M. P. Sillen

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the results of a comprehensive research program on the alkaline water electrolysis, which has been carried out by the Working Group ''Gas evolution on electrodes'' during the last decade. The research includes both fundamental and practically applicable studies, and is characterized by the combination of experiment and the development of theoretical models. A part of

  10. Recent developments on IME-alkaline water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vandenborre; L. H. Baetsle; W. Hebel; R. Leysen; H. Nackaerts; G. Spaepen

    1981-01-01

    Demonstration on a laboratory scale is reported for the substitution of the conventional asbestos diaphragm in alkaline water electrolysis processes by thin sheets of polyantimonic acid and polysulfone. The membranes investigated withstand concentrated KOH solutions at up to 120 C, and have the necessary ion-conducting and gas-separating properties. It was also found that, by increasing the amount of polyantimonic acid

  11. Photovoltaic-assisted alkaline water electrolysis: Basic principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Djafour; M. Matoug; H. Bouras; B. Bouchekima; M. S. Aida; B. Azoui

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some general characteristics concerning the coupling of a lab scale alkaline water electrolyser powered by a set of photovoltaic panels. A description of the different tests made on this system and the development of a program under Matlab for the simulation of direct coupling (photovoltaic panels – electrolyser) is provided. Experimental results

  12. Improvements leading to high efficiency alkaline electrolysis cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Murray; M. R. Yaffe

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the improvement of the operating efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis cells for hydrogen production is discussed. Development efforts have been concentrated on the replacement of the conventional asbestos electrode separator by a porous electrode separator fabricated from polybenzimidazole, advanced electrode screening modules, extended duration tests of the improved electrocatalyst\\/electrode systems, and an engineering design and economics evaluation

  13. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  14. Enzymatic method of determining lead using alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhovtsova, T.N.; Kucheryaeva, V.V.; Dolmanova, I.F.

    1986-03-20

    The purpose of this work was to determine the possibility of using alkaline phosphatase to determine trace amounts of ions of a number of metals - Mg, Ba, Ca, Sr, Cd, Pb - for which there are virtually no sensitive and simple methods of determination.

  15. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  16. Mobility of Alkaline Earth Ions in Liquid Xenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wade Taylor; Shie-Chang Jeng; Kendy Hall; J. R. Fairbank; Mitsuhiro Miyajima

    2003-01-01

    Mobility studies of ions in super fluid helium have revealed snowball and bubble formations in the surrounding liquid. Unfortunately, experimental results and theoretical predictions are scarce for the structure and mobility of ions in the other noble gas liquids. The mobility of alkaline earth ions in liquid Xe has been measured for the first time in a temperature range from

  17. Electrooxidation of methanol on silver in alkaline medium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Orozco; M. C Pérez; A Rincón; C Gutiérrez

    2000-01-01

    The electrooxidation of methanol on silver in alkaline medium has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. It has been found that methanol electrooxidation starts together with the formation of multilayer Ag(II) oxide, which acts as a catalyst for the former process. The only oxidation product of methanol was formate, according to in situ FTIR spectroscopy results. In

  18. Cost engineering of power plants with alkaline fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olle Lindstrom; William Lavers

    1997-01-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for direct conversion of hydrogen energy to electricity. The technology is here in the form of state of the art ammonia processes and the alkaline fuel cell (AFC), the reliable power source in the Apollo spacecrafts and the space shuttles. Cost engineering analysis of ammonia plants converted to terrestrial AFC power plants

  19. Alkalinity and hardness: Critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total alkalinity and total hardness are familiar variables to those involved in aquatic animal production. Aquaculturists – both scientists and practitioners alike – tend to have some understanding of the two variables and of methods for adjusting their concentrations. The chemistry and the biolog...

  20. Total Alkalinity of Surface Waters—A National Map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Omernik; Charles F. Powers

    1983-01-01

    This map illustrates the regional patterns of mean annual alkalinity of surface water in the conterminous United States. As such, it affords a qualitative graphic overview to the sensitivity of surface waters to acidification. The map is based on data from approximately 2,500 streams and lakes and apparent spatial correlations between these data and macrowatershed characteristics, especially land use.