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Sample records for alkaline hydrolysis

  1. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  2. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  3. Hydrolysis of enaminoamides in an alkaline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kurbatova, T.Yu.; Kiselev, S.S.; Rubtsov, N.M.; Granik, V.G.; Sheinker, u.N.

    1988-12-20

    The hydrolysis of the derivatives of /alpha/-cyano-/beta/-aminoacrylamide and /alpha/cyano-/beta/-aminocrotonamide in an alkaline medium was studied. First order with respect to the hydroxide ion is observed for the /beta/-dimethylamino derivatives, whereas the hydrolysis rate of the /beta/-arylamino derivatives depends very little on the concentration of hydroxide ions. Derivatives of /alpha/-cyano-/beta/-hydroxyacrylamide and /alpha/-cyano-/beta/-hydroxycrotonamide were obtained as reaction products. The hydrolysis was conducted at 60/degree/C in a 0.1 N solution of sodium hydroxide. A decrease in the intensity of the absorption maxima for initial enamines with time and an increase in the absorption corresponding to the hydrolysis products were observed.

  4. Release of bound procyanidins from cranberry pomace by alkaline hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Procyanidins in plant products are present as extractable or unextractable/bound forms. We optimized alkaline hydrolysis conditions to liberate bound procyanidins from dried cranberry pomace. Five mL of sodium hydroxide (2, 4, or 6N) was added to 0.5 g of cranberry pomace in screw top glass tubes,...

  5. Efficiency of alkaline hydrolysis method in environment protection.

    PubMed

    Kricka, Tajana; Toth, Ivan; Kalambura, Sanja; Jovici?, Nives

    2014-06-01

    Development of new technologies for the efficient use of proteins of animal origin, apart from heat treatment in rendering facilities that was used to date, has become the primary goal of the integral waste management system. The emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Europe and in the World in the 1990s opened up new questions regarding medical safety and use of meat bone meal in the animal feed, which is produced by processing animal waste. Animal waste is divided into three categories, out of which the first category is high-risk waste. Alkaline hydrolysis is alternative method for management of animal by-products not intended for human diet and imposes itself as one of the solutions for disposal of high-risk proteins. The paper will present the analyses of animal by-products not intended for human diet treated in laboratory reactor for alkaline hydrolysis, as one of the two recognized methods in EU for the disposal of this type of material and use in fertilization. PMID:25144977

  6. Alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments at mild temperature to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of rice hulls and straw.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Emir; Muoz, Mara J; Martn, Ricardo; Caro, Ildefonso; Curbelo, Caridad; Daz, Ana B

    2014-09-01

    The current study explores alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments in order to achieve a method to improve saccharification of agricultural residues for ethanol production. The effects of reagent concentration and pretreatment time at 30C and atmospheric pressure on biomass dissolution after the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass were investigated. In fact, although all pretreatments tested improved enzymatic hydrolysis of native residues, the best results were not achieved for the highest biomass loss. The maximum conversions to reducing sugars in the hydrolysis stage of 77.5% and 92.6% were obtained for rice hulls and straw pretreated by alkaline peroxide (4%, 24h) and alkaline (1%, 48 h) methods, respectively. For both pretreated residues, the reduction to more than half the recommended enzyme loading allowed obtaining more than 94% the reducing sugars attained with the recommended dose. PMID:24952164

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of paracetamol with microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunli; Li, Baoxin

    2004-07-01

    A novel and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of paracetamol is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the microwave assisted alkaline hydrolysis of paracetamol to p-aminophenol that reacts with S 2- in the presence of Fe 3+ as oxidant to produce a methylene blue-like dye having an absorptivity maximum at 540 nm. The experiment showed that paracetamol could be hydrolysed quantitatively to p-aminophenol in only 1.5 min under radiation power 640 W using a microwave in NaOH medium. The system obeys Beer's law in the range of 0-3.010 -4 mol l -1 paracetamol. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 3.210 3 l mol -1 cm -1 and 0.047 ?g cm -2, respectively. The relative standard deviation ( n=11) was 1.7% for 8.010 -5 mol l -1 paracetamol. The method has been applied successfully to analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparation.

  8. AN ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS TISSUE DIGESTION SYSTEM FOR A BSL-3-AG CONTAINMENT FACILITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alkaline hydrolysis tissue digestion system was installed at the Arthropod-borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory (ABADRL) Biosafety Level (BSL) 3-AG containment facility in 2000 to replace the antiquated pathologic waste incinerator because of significant costs for upgrading this incinerator ...

  9. Fast and sensitive collagen quantification by alkaline hydrolysis/hydroxyproline assay.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cassia Maria Lins; Spinelli, Eliani; Rodrigues, Silvana Vianna

    2015-04-15

    A preparative protein alkaline hydrolysis procedure, as part of a spectrophotometric collagen quantification method, is presented. The procedure is suitable for small amounts of fresh solid or liquid samples. Various aspects of the procedure, such as the NaOH concentration, time needed to hydrolyse different collagen contents, buffer strength of the reagent solution, pH control of the hydrolysate and spectrophotometric conditions, were evaluated. Compared to other procedures that use alkaline hydrolysis, the sensitivity of this procedure was increased by a factor of 5. Compared to the conventionally used Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) acid hydrolysis method, the reaction time was reduced from 16 h to 40 min and the amount of sample from 4 g to 3-20 mg, producing equivalent results when applied to porcine liver and sausage samples. PMID:25466067

  10. Integrating alkaline extraction of proteins with enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from wet distiller's grains and solubles.

    PubMed

    Bals, Bryan; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce

    2009-12-01

    Fractionation of distiller's grains into value added products may serve to improve the economic viability of dry grind corn ethanol facilities in the wake of variable corn and ethanol prices. This research is aimed at creating a high protein, high lysine product from the grain using alkaline protein extractions in conjunction with hydrolysis of the remaining fiber to sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. Alkaline extractions improved the lysine content in protein products, although protein solubility did not exceed 45% of the total protein. In addition, oligomeric carbohydrates, starch, and other water solubles were also extracted, leading to a low purity protein product. Resulting sugar yields following ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pretreatment were also lower for extracted distiller's grains. From these experiments, it does not appear likely that alkaline extraction is a useful tool for fractionation of distiller's grains. However, pretreatment and hydrolysis can be an effective tool for further fractionation of protein. PMID:19620002

  11. Kinetic study of alkaline protease 894 for the hydrolysis of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Chen, Hua; Cai, Bingna; Liu, Qingqin; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    A new enzyme (alkaline protease 894) obtained from the marine extremophile Flavobacterium yellowsea (YS-80-122) has exhibited strong substrate-binding and catalytic activity, even at low temperature, but the characteristics of the hydrolysis with this enzyme are still unclear. The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii was used in this study as the raw material to illustrate the kinetic properties of protease 894. After investigating the intrinsic relationship between the degree of hydrolysis and several factors, including initial reaction pH, temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and hydrolysis time, the kinetics model was established. This study showed that the optimal conditions for the enzymatic hydrolysis were an initial reaction pH of 5.0, temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 10% (w/v), enzyme concentration of 2 500 U/g, and hydrolysis time of 160 min. The kinetic characteristics of the protease for the hydrolysis of P. martensii were obtained. The inactivation constant was found to be 15.16/min, and the average relative error between the derived kinetics model and the actual measurement was only 3.04%, which indicated a high degree of fitness. Therefore, this study provides a basis for the investigation of the concrete kinetic characteristics of the new protease, which has potential applications in the food industry.

  12. A dimethacrylate cross-linker cleavable under thermolysis or alkaline hydrolysis conditions: synthesis, polymerization, and degradation.

    PubMed

    Elladiou, Marios; Patrickios, Costas S

    2016-02-11

    We develop a new platform based on 2,6-pyridinediethanol diesters for introducing polymer degradability under thermolysis or alkaline hydrolysis conditions, with the latter being rare in polymers. Such labile diesters can be cross-linkers, bifunctional initiators and inimers. We demonstrate the power of this platform through the synthesis of the 2,6-pyridinediethanol dimethacrylate cross-linker, its controlled (co)polymerization, and the thermal and hydrolytic cleavage of its (co)polymers. PMID:26803938

  13. Alkaline hydrolysis of mouse-adapted scrapie for inactivation and disposal of prion-positive material.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R G L; Scanga, J A; Powers, B E; Pilon, J L; Vercauteren, K C; Nash, P B; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2009-05-01

    Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, and scrapie pose serious risks to human and animal health due to a host of disease-specific factors, including the resistance of infectious prions (PrP(Sc)) to natural degradation and to most commercial inactivation procedures. In an attempt to address this concern, a mouse model was used to compare the efficacy of an alkaline hydrolysis process with a simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment for disposal of PrP(Sc)-infected biological material. Female C57/BL6 mice (N = 120) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups (n = 30), and each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with their designated treatment inoculum. Treatment groups 1 and 2 served as the positive and negative controls, respectively. Group 3 was inoculated with rendered scrapie-positive mouse brain material to investigate the effectiveness of simulated continuous-flow rendering practices to reduce or eliminate PrP(Sc). Group 4 was inoculated with hydrolyzed scrapie-positive mouse brain material to determine the sterilizing effect of alkaline hydrolysis on PrP(Sc). Mice were monitored for overt signs of disease, and those showing clinical signs were killed to prevent undue suffering. Brains were obtained from all mice that died (or were killed) and analyzed with an ELISA for the presence of PrP(Sc). Results indicated that the simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment used for preparing the rendering treatment group inoculum failed to completely eliminate PrP(Sc). Rendering delayed, but did not stop, clinical mouse-adapted scrapie transmission. Compared with positive controls, the rendering treatment group experienced an approximate 45-d average delay in days to death (250 vs. 205 d for positive controls; P < 0.0001) and a death loss of 73.9% (P = 0.0094). Positive controls suffered 100% death loss. The results validated the efficacy of the alkaline hydrolysis treatment to inactivate all PrP(Sc) because no alkaline hydrolysis treatment group mice succumbed to the disease (P < 0.0001). Based on our results, alkaline hydrolysis should be considered by the animal rendering and beef packing industries as an alternative to incineration, landfill burial, and rendering for disposing of biological material potentially infected or contaminated with prion disease. PMID:19098230

  14. Low temperature alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free Titan tholins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, Coralie; Buch, Arnaud; Raulin, Franois; Coll, Patrice; Poch, Olivier; Ramirez, Sandra

    2014-05-01

    The largest moon of Saturn, Titan, is known for its dense, nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are of great astrobiological interest, particularly because of their potential evolution when they reach the surface and may interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Urea has been identified as one of the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins. One explanation is a possible oxygen leak in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis[2]. Following this preliminary study the synthesis protocol has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the laboratory atmosphere. Once we confirmed the non-presence of oxygen in tholins, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins. Then we verify that the organic compounds cited above are still produced in-situ. Moreover, a recent study shows that the subsurface ocean may contain a lower fraction of ammonia (about 5wt% or less[3]), than the one used until now in this kind of experimental study[2, 4]. Thus, we have carried out new hydrolysis experiments which take this lower value into account. Additional studies have provided new highlights on the bulk composition of Titan for various gas species. Indeed, the observed Saturn's atmosphere enrichment constrains the composition of the planetesimals present in the feeding zone of Saturn. The enrichment in volatiles in Saturn's atmosphere has been reproduced by assuming the presence of specific gas species[5, 6], in particular CO2 and H2S. In the present study we assume that those gas species have been trapped in the likely internal ocean. Then by taking into account the plausible acid-alkaline properties of the water-ammonia ocean, we determine a new probable composition of the cryomagma which could potentially interact with deposited Titan's aerosols. They were also included in our hydrolysis experiments. Taking into account these new data, four different hydrolyses have been applied to oxygen-free tholins. For each type of hydrolysis, we also follow the influence of the hydrolysis temperature on the organic molecules production. References: [1] Mitri et al., 2008. Resurfacing of Titan by ammonia-water cryomagma. Icarus. 196, 216-224. [2] Poch et al., 2011. Production yields of organics of astrobiological interest from H2O-NH3 hydrolysis of Titan's tholins. Planetary and Space Science. 61, 114-123. [3] Tobie et al. 2012. Titan's Bulk Composition Constrained by Cassini-Huygens: implication for internal outgassing. The Astrophysical Journal. 752, 125. [4] Neish et al., 2009. Low temperature hydrolysis of laboratory tholins in ammonia-water solutions: Implications for prebiotic chemistry on Titan. Icarus. 201, 412-421. [5] Hersant et al., 2004. Enrichment in volatiles in the giant planets of the Solar System. Planetary and Space Science. 52, 623-641. [6] Hersant et al., 2008. Interpretation of the carbon abundance in Saturn measured by Cassini. Planetary and Space Science. 56, 1103-1111. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  15. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on the alkaline hydrolysis of carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, S. )

    1990-02-01

    The stability of carbon disulfide in aqueous alkaline solutions has been compared in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide, by a headspace gas chromatography technique. Reactant decay is first order in CS{sub 2} and OH{sup {minus}} in solutions containing sodium hydroxide alone. At room temperature, the second-order rate constant 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} matches previous measurements for basic hydrolysis and, along with the activation energy 22 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}, is consistent with rate control in a carbonate-like hydration step. In alkaline hydrogen peroxide solutions, loss is also first order in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, suggesting reaction between CS{sub 2} and the HO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} anion with a second-order rate constant in the range 10-100 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}.

  16. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Slvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80C, 100C and 110C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80C and 100C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5M and 0.75M. The D-values obtained at 110C (2.3-0.5min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100C (8.8-1.6min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5min at 100C-0.1M NaOH and 110C-1M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste. PMID:26150372

  17. Lignin recovery from alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis of oil palm fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Nur Syakilla; Badri, Khairiah Haji

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, two types of treatment namely alkaline hydrolysis and glycerolysis have been conducted for lignin extraction from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) fiber. Lignin has been retrieved from two sequential methods, which was the klason lignin from residue and lignin from precipitation of the filtrate. Alkaline hydrolysis was performed using 10% NaOH solution at room condition. This has extracted 13.0 % lignin. On the other hand, glycerolysis was carried out using 70% glycerol catalyzed with 5% of 1 M NaOH at 60-70 C. This has successfully extracted 16.0% lignin. The SEM micrographs exhibited some physical changes on the surface where the impurities and waxes have been removed, exposing the, lumen. Besides that, FTIR analysis was conducted on untreated EFB, treated EFB and extracted lignin. Delignification of EFB fiber was confirmed based on the intensity reduction at 1245 cm-1 that showed lignin was removed from the fiber. The presence of CO, CC and CC aromatic peaks in the FTIR spectra of the dried filtrate gave an evidence on the presence of lignin.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Jessyca Aline; Marques, Jos Edvan; Gonalves, Luciana Rocha Barros; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte

    2015-03-01

    The effect of combinations and ratios between different enzymes has been investigated in order to assess the optimal conditions for hydrolysis of cashew apple bagasse pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (the solids named CAB-AHP). The separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes were evaluated in the ethanol production. The enzymatic hydrolysis conducted with cellulase complex and ?-glucosidase in a ratio of 0.61:0.39, enzyme loading of 30FPU/g(CAB-AHP) and 66CBU/g(CAB-AHP), respectively, using 4% cellulose from CAB-AHP, turned out to be the most effective conditions, with glucose and xylose yields of 511.68 mg/g(CAB-AHP) and 237.8 mg/g(CAB-AHP), respectively. Fermentation of the pure hydrolysate by Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 led to an ethanol yield of 61.8kg/ton(CAB), corresponding to 15 g/L ethanol and productivity of 3.75 g/( Lh). The ethanol production obtained for SSF process using K. marxianus ATCC 36907 was 18 g/L corresponding to 80% yield and 74.2kg/ton(CAB). PMID:25545094

  19. Effect of acid hydrolysis on regenerated kenaf core membrane produced using aqueous alkaline-urea systems.

    PubMed

    Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Kaco, Hatika; Gan, Sinyee; Ng, Peivun

    2015-06-25

    Bleached kenaf core pulps (BKC) were hydrolyzed in H2SO4 (0.5M) at different time (0min to 90min) at room temperature. After the hydrolysis process, the viscosity average molecular weight (Mŋ) for BKC sample has reduced from 14.5×10(4) to 2.55×10(4). The hydrolyzed BKC was then dissolved in NaOH:urea:water and in LiOH:urea:water mixed solvent at the ratio of 7:12:81 and 4.6:15:80.4, respectively. The increased in hydrolysis time has decreased Mŋ of cellulose leading to easy dissolution process. Higher porosity and transparency with lower crystallinity index (CrI) of regenerated membrane produced can be achieved as the Mŋ reduced. The properties of membrane were observed through FESEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer and XRD. This study has proven that acid hydrolysis has reduced the Mŋ of cellulose, thus, enhanced the properties of regenerated membrane produced with assisted by alkaline/urea system. PMID:25839807

  20. Enhanced alkaline hydrolysis and biodegradability studies of nitrocellulose-bearing missile propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidhoum, Mohammed; Christodoulatos, Christos; Su, Tsan-Liang; Redis, Mercurios

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of energetic materials which have been accumulated over the years in various manufacturing and military installations must be disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Historically, the method of choice for destruction of obsolete or aging energetic materials has been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD). This destruction approach has become undesirable due to air pollution problems. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies which will effectively and economically deal with the disposal of energetic materials. Along those lines, we have investigated a chemical/biological process for the safe destruction and disposal of a double base solid rocket propellant (AHH), which was used in several 8 inch projectile systems. The solid propellant is made of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin as energetic components, two lead salts which act as ballistic modifiers, triacetin as a plasticizer and 2-Nitrodiphenylamine (2-NDPA) as a stabilizer. A process train is being developed to convert the organic components of the propellant to biodegradable products and remove the lead from the process stream. The solid propellant is first hydrolyzed through an enhanced alkaline hydrolysis process step. Following lead removal and neutralization, the digested liquor rich in nitrates and nitrites is found to be easily biodegradable. The digestion rate of the intact ground propellant as well as the release of nitrite and nitrate groups were substantially increased when ultrasound were supplied to the alkaline reaction medium compared to the conventional alkaline hydrolysis. The effects of reaction time, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration and other relevant parameters on the digestion efficiency and biodegradability have been studied. The present work indicates that the AHH propellant can be disposed of safely with a combination of physiochemical and biological processes.

  1. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  2. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativexa cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 C with 2,500 units ?-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7105.3 %, imprecision 1.46.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.592.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.347.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  3. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. PMID:26540023

  4. Effect of cosolvent on alkaline hydrolysis of monomethyl ester of terephtalic acid. Experimental and theoretical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Benko, J.; Cernusak, I.; Holba, V.

    1987-06-01

    The kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of monomethyl ester of terephtalic (MET) acid was studied in water-glycol mixtures. The transfer functions of the monoester anion from water to mixtures with glycol, methanol and t-butanol were evaluated from solubilities of the sodium monomethylterephtalate (NaMET). In order to explain the role of the cosolvent on the molecular level, the interaction energies of the hydroxyl ion with water, methanol, and glycol were calculated by means of the ab initio HF/4-31G procedure. The correlations of interaction energies with transfer functions of the hydroxyl ion and with the kinetic parameters of the reaction were investigated. The influence of the organic cosolvent on the solvation of initial and transition state is discussed.

  5. Alkaline Hydrolysis is an Effective Treatment Technology for RDX-Contaminated Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hqang, Snagchul; Felt, Deborah R.; Bouwer, Edward J.; Brooks, Michael C.; Larson, Steven L.; Davis, Jeffrey L.

    2003-03-26

    Kinetics and treatability of alkaline hydrolysis were investigated in batch reactor and continuous flow-stirred tank reactor (CFSTR) for remediating groundwater contaminated with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The batch system (pH 11 to 13, RDX 1 to 10 mg/L) achieved pseudo first-order RDX transformation rates in the range of 0.2 to 47.5 min-1, corresponding to 57.8 to 0.2 hrs of half-life period, respectively. In the CFSTR system (pH 11 to 11.9, HRT 0.54 to 2 days), the best alkaline RDX transformation was achieved a 99% RDX removal with the longest HRT and the highest reaction pH. Formate ({approx}2 M/M RDXremoved) and nitrite ({approx}0.2 M/M RDXremoved) were produced as the major hydrolysates, indicative of a simultaneous transformation mechanism by RDX ring cleavage and ring nitrogen elimination. The net OH- demand was found to be 1.5, 390 and 130 M OH-/M RDXremoved at the pH of 11.9, 11.5 and 11.0, respectively, in the CFSTR system.

  6. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to microbial or chemical degradation of the polymeric materials remain unknown.

  7. Coupling alkaline pre-extraction with alkaline-oxidative post-treatment of corn stover to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts. Results Mild NaOH pre-extraction of corn stover uses less than 0.1 g NaOH per g corn stover at 80°C. The resulting substrates were highly digestible by cellulolytic enzymes at relatively low enzyme loadings and had a strong susceptibility to drying-induced hydrolysis yield losses. Alkaline pre-extraction was highly selective for lignin removal over xylan removal; xylan removal was relatively minimal (~20%). During alkaline pre-extraction, up to 0.10 g of alkali was consumed per g of corn stover. AHP post-treatment at low oxidant loading (25 mg H2O2 per g pre-extracted biomass) increased glucose hydrolysis yields by 5%, which approached near-theoretical yields. ELISA screening of alkali pre-extraction liquors and the AHP post-treatment liquors demonstrated that xyloglucan and β-glucans likely remained tightly bound in the biomass whereas the majority of the soluble polymeric xylans were glucurono (arabino) xylans and potentially homoxylans. Pectic polysaccharides were depleted in the AHP post-treatment liquor relative to the alkaline pre-extraction liquor. Because the already-low inhibitor content was further decreased in the alkaline pre-extraction, the hydrolysates generated by this two-stage pretreatment were highly fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that were metabolically engineered and evolved for xylose fermentation. Conclusions This work demonstrates that this two-stage pretreatment process is well suited for converting lignocellulose to fermentable sugars and biofuels, such as ethanol. This approach achieved high enzymatic sugars yields from pretreated corn stover using substantially lower oxidant loadings than have been reported previously in the literature. This pretreatment approach allows for many possible process configurations involving novel alkali recovery approaches and novel uses of alkaline pre-extraction liquors. Further work is required to identify the most economical configuration, including process designs using techno-economic analysis and investigating processing strategies that economize water use. PMID:24693882

  8. Inorganic nanofibers with tailored placement of nanocatalysts for hydrogen production via alkaline hydrolysis of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Nathaniel S.; Ferguson, Thomas E.; Panels, Jeanne E.; Alissa Park, Ah-Hyung; Lak Joo, Yong

    2011-08-01

    Monoaxial silica nanofibers containing iron species as well as coaxial nanofibers with a pure silica core and a silica shell containing high concentrations of iron nanocrystals were fabricated via electrospinning precursor solutions, followed by thermal treatment. Tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) and iron nitrate (Fe(NO3)3) were used as the precursors for the silica and iron phases, respectively. Thermal treatments of as-spun precursor fibers were applied to generate nanocrystals of iron with various oxidation states (pure iron and hematite). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to probe the fiber morphology and crystal structures. The results indicated that the size, phase, and placement of iron nanocrystals can be tuned by varying the precursor concentration, thermal treatment conditions, and processing scheme. The resulting nanofiber/metal systems obtained via both monoaxial and coaxial electrospinning were applied as catalysts to the alkaline hydrolysis of glucose for the production of fuel gas. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and bulk weight change in a furnace with residual gas analysis (RGA) were used to evaluate the performance of the catalysts for various ratios of both Fe to Si, and catalyst to glucose, and the oxidation state of the iron nanocrystals. The product gas is composed of mostly H2 (>96 mol%) and CH4 with very low concentrations of CO2 and CO. Due to the clear separation of reaction temperature for H2 and CH4 production, pure hydrogen can be obtained at low reaction temperatures. Our coaxial approach demonstrates that placing the iron species selectively near the fiber surface can lead to two to three fold reduction in catalytic consumption compared to the monoaxial fibers with uniform distribution of catalysts.

  9. Evaluation of white-rot fungi-assisted alkaline/oxidative pretreatment of corn straw undergoing enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Song, Lili; Ke, Jing; Xu, Chunyan; Du, Wanqing; Zhang, Ji

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the effects of biological treatment prior to alkaline/oxidative (A/O) pretreatment using three white-rot fungi (Ganoderma lucidum, Trametes versicolor and Echinodontium taxodii) were evaluated for the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn straw. Among these fungi, Echinodontium taxodii significantly enhanced the efficiency of chemical pretreatment. Subsequent to treatment of corn straw with Echinodontium taxodii for 15 days, the straw was subjected to digestion by 0.0016% NaOH and 3% H?O? at room temperature for 24 h, which increased the reducing sugar yield by 50.7%. The hydrolysis model and kinetic parameters were determined from time course data collected throughout the hydrolysis. The initial hydrolysis rate, V?, of the corn straw increased by 68.5% compared to A/O pretreatment alone, which resulted from an increase in the initial adsorption. The lignin content of the corn straw decreased more significantly after biological and A/O pretreatment than after A/O pretreatment alone. After 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, the adsorbed cellulase decreased by 24.8% (from 3.67 to 2.76 mg ml?) compared to A/O pretreatment alone. These results indicate that biological treatment improves the desorption of cellulase by enhancing delignification during A/O pretreatment. PMID:20817594

  10. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in aqueous solution and highly contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Emmrich, M.

    1999-11-01

    During the two World Wars, large amounts of TNT were released into the environment. Until today, high concentrations of TNT can be found in the soil of former ammunition plants. To obtain basic data for a novel treatment process for highly contaminated soils, the homogeneous aqueous hydrolysis of TNT in the pH range from 10 to 12 and the alkaline treatment of two contaminated soils at pH 11 and pH 12 were investigated. The experimental data were described for their respective pH values using a pseudo-first-order model. In the homogeneous experiments, 95--97% of the TNT was hydrolyzed. During alkaline hydrolysis, up to two nitrogroups per TNT molecule were released, indicating the irreversible destruction of TNT. Except for the formation of small traces of amino dinitrotoluenes and trinitrobenzenes, no nitroaromatic benzenes or toluenes were detected during GC analysis. For the less contaminated soil, ELBP2, with an initial TNT concentration of 116 mg/kg, a destruction of 99% was achieved. The highly contaminated soil, HTNT2 (16.1 g of TNT/kg), showed a hydrolyzation level of 90-94%. The results show that the alkaline treatment of highly contaminated soils may prove to be effective as an alternative treatment technology.

  11. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Jssica Faria; Ferraz, Andr; Aguiar, Andr

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70% of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8% m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5% at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64%) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5gl(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75%. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 562% for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2% m/m NaOH and 4% m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 253 to 39.51%. PMID:26718203

  12. [Influencing Factors for Hydrolysis of Sewage Sludge Pretreated by Microwave-H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui-lai; Wei, Yuan-song; Liu, Ji-bao

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment can improve carbon source utilization of sludge. In this study, influencing factors of hydrolysis including hydrolysis time, ratio of seed sludge and temperature were investigated for sewage sludge pretreated by microwave-H2O2-alkaline process through batch experiments. Meanwhile, effects of hydrolysis and releasing characteristics of organic matters were also investigated under the optimized conditions. The results showed that the optimal hydrolysis time was 12 h and the optimized inoculum to substrate ratio (I/S) was 0.07. Under optimized conditions (12 h, I/S =0.07), SCOD, soluble proteins, soluble sugars and total VFAs content increased with increasing temperature, reaching the maximum at 65 degrees C. Acetic, propionic and iso-valeric acids were the dominant VFAs produced, and the percentage of acetic acid accounting for total VFAs was between 42.7% and 59.7%. In terms of carbon source composition, SCOD accounted for 37.8%-40.8% of total COD, soluble proteins accounted for 38.3%-41.3% of SCOD, soluble sugars accounted for 9.0%-9.3% of SCOD and total VFAs accounted for 3.3%-5.5% of SCOD. The COD/TN watio was between 15.79 and 16.50 in the sludge supernatant. The results of the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra and apparent molecular weight distributions showed that the fluorescence intensity of tyrosine-like substances in the soluble microbial products was the highest and increased with the increasing temperature in the sludge supernatant. After the sewage sludge was pretreated by microwave-H2O2-OH process, a lot of organic matters were released, including small molecule organics (M 100-350), while after hydrolysis, M, 3000-60,000 organics were degraded. PMID:26387329

  13. Alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine: M06-2X investigation.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynska, Danuta; Okovytyy, Sergiy I; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis mechanism of possible environmental contaminant RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) was investigated computationally at the PCM(Pauling)/M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Results obtained show that the initial deprotonation of RDX by hydroxide leads to nitrite elimination and formation of a denitrated cyclohexene intermediate. Further nucleophilic attack by hydroxide onto cyclic CN double bond results in ring opening. It was shown that the presence of hydroxide is crucial for this stage of the reaction. The dominant decomposition pathway leading to a ring-opened intermediate was found to be formation of 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal. Hydrolytic transformation of its byproduct (methylene nitramine) leads to end products such as formaldehyde and nitrous oxide. Computational results are in a good agreement with experimental data on hydrolysis of RDX, suggesting that 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal, nitrite, formaldehyde, and nitrous oxide are main products for early stages of RDX decomposition under alkaline conditions. PMID:25911044

  14. Extraction of phenolic acids by alkaline hydrolysis from the solid residue obtained after prehydrolysis of trimming vine shoots.

    PubMed

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-02-10

    Contents of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids were determined in trimming vine shoots after sequential treatments of prehydrolysis and alkaline hydrolysis. These treatments allow the complete use of the main fractions involved: cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. The alkaline hydrolysis was studied using a factorial design where reaction time (in the range 30-120 min), temperature (50-130 degrees C), and NaOH concentration (4-12 wt % of solution) were the independent variables. The interrelationship between dependent and operational variables was well fitted (R(2) > 0.90) to models including linear, interaction and quadratic terms. Ferulic acid was the most abundant hydroxycinnamate with concentrations ranging from 25.7 to 141.0 mg/L followed by p-coumaric acid (15.5-31.5 mg/L). Gallic acid was the hydroxybenzoic acid released in higher concentration (in the range 2.5-164.6 mg/L). Because of their properties and low toxicity, these compounds are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Additionally, ferulic acid is used as feedstock for the biotechnological production of flavorings and aroma compounds, including vanillin and vinylguaiacol, or as a constituent in the preparation of foods and skin protection agents, or as a cross-linking agent for the elaboration of food gels. Consequently, ferulic acid solutions can be obtained from renewable plant cell wall materials as a prospective pathway. PMID:20000463

  15. QSAR study and the hydrolysis activity prediction of three alkaline lipases from different lipase-producing microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hydrolysis activities of three alkaline lipases, L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 secreted by different lipase-producing microorganisms isolated from the Bay of Bohai, P. R. China were characterized with 16 kinds of esters. It was found that all the lipases have the ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycerides, methyl esters, ethyl esters, especially for triglycerides, which shows that they have broad substrate spectra, and this property is very important for them to be used in detergent industry. Three QSAR models were built for L-A1, L-A2 and L-A3 respectively with GFA using Discovery studio 2.1. The models equations 1, 2 and 3 can explain 95.80%, 97.45% and 97.09% of the variances (R2adj) respectively while they could predict 95.44%, 89.61% and 93.41% of the variances (R2cv) respectively. With these models the hydrolysis activities of these lipases to mixed esters were predicted and the result showed that the predicted values are in good agreement with the measured values, which indicates that this method can be used as a simple tool to predict the lipase activities for single or mixed esters. PMID:23016923

  16. Kinetics of hydrolysis and oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and application to carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Adewuyi, Y.G.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic studies of the oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium were made spectrophotometrically. The reaction of CS/sub 2/ with OH/sup -/ ion was found to be rate controlling and proceeded by the formation of a dithiocarbonate complex. The major reaction product was sulfate with sulfur occurring as colloidal suspensions only at pH values less than 8. The formation of sulfate increased exponentially with time and was also found to be dependent on the rate of hydrolysis of CS/sub 2/. In addition, the production of sulfate showed large induction periods, suggesting either a complex mechanism or formation by secondary reactions. The results obtained for carbon disulfide were extended to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) oxidation in alkaline solutions. The removal of OCS (acid gas) from mixtures of gases by alkaline liquid absorbents (e.g. NaOH) and oxidation of subsequent solutions to sulfate is an important industrial practice. 42 references, 14 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in…

  18. Investigation of Unexpected Reaction Intermediates in the Alkaline Hydrolysis of Methyl 3,5-Dinitrobenzoate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Clesia C.; Silva, Ricardo O.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. F.; Navarro, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    An experimental project aimed at identifying stable reaction intermediates is described. Initially, the studied reaction appears to involve the simple hydrolysis, by aqueous sodium hydroxide, of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. On mixing the substrates, however, the reaction mixture unexpectedly turns an intense red in

  19. [Effect of Residual Hydrogen Peroxide on Hydrolysis Acidification of Sludge Pretreated by Microwave -H2O2-Alkaline Process].

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui-lai; Liu, Ji-bao; Wei, Yuan-song; Cai, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have found that in the hydrolysis acidification process, sludge after microwave -H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2-OH, pH = 10) pretreatment had an acid production lag due to the residual hydrogen peroxide. In this study, effects of residual hydrogen peroxide after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment on the sludge hydrolysis acidification were investigated through batch experiments. Our results showed that catalase had a higher catalytic efficiency than manganese dioxide for hydrogen peroxide, which could completely degraded hydrogen peroxide within 10 min. During the 8 d of hydrolysis acidification time, both SCOD concentrations and the total VFAs concentrations of four groups were firstly increased and then decreased. The optimized hydrolysis times were 0.5 d for four groups, and the optimized hydrolysis acidification times were 3 d for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group. The optimized hydrolysis acidification time for MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group was 4 d. Residual hydrogen peroxide inhibited acid production for sludge after MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) pretreatment, resulting in a lag in acidification stage. Compared with MW-H2O2-OH ( pH = 10) pretreatment, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11 ) pretreatment released more SCOD by 19.29% and more organic matters, which resulted in the increase of total VFAs production significantly by 84.80% at 5 d of hydrolysis acidification time and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group could shorten the lag time slightly. Dosing catalase (100 mg x -L(-1)) after the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10 or pH = 11) pretreatment not only significantly shortened the lag time (0.5 d) in acidification stage, but also produced more total VFAs by 23.61% and 50.12% in the MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) + catalase group, compared with MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group at 3d of hydrolysis acidification time. For MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) group, MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 10) + catalase group and MW-H2O2-OH(pH = 11) + catalase group, the dominant VFAs were acetic, iso-valeric and n-butyric acids. For MW-H2O2-OH (pH = 11) group, the dominant VFAs were acetic, propionic and iso-valeric acids. In the optimized hydrolysis acidification time for each group, percentages of the three main acids accounted for more than 75% of total VFAs, and percentages of acetic acid accounted for more than 41% of total VFAs. PMID:26841615

  20. Alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl.2H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Lixu . E-mail: lixu.lei@seu.edu.cn1; Zhang Weifeng; Hu Meng; Zheng Hegen

    2006-11-15

    The alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl has been investigated to demonstrate a possible application of anion exchange facility of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) to control chemical reactions. The results show that (i) in the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl, most of the interlayer Cl{sup -} of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl is quickly replaced by OH{sup -} in the alkaline solution because the LDH host favors OH{sup -} more; (ii) the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl is faster than the reaction of DMT and [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH; (iii) The hydrolysis of DMT in a buffer solution of pH{approx}8 takes longer time to reach equilibrium than the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl. It is believed that the selective anion exchange chemistry of the LDH plays a key role in storage and controlled release of active reactant, that is, OH{sup -}, thus make the hydrolysis proceeds in a controlled way. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the solid products of the alkaline hydrolysis of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) in the presence of [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl at 70 deg. C halted at different time, which shows that [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl turns out to be [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH, and [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}TP forms gradually. In this reaction, the alkaline hydrolysis of DMT is controlled by replacement of Cl{sup -} in [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]Cl by OH{sup -}, and subsequent replacement of OH{sup -} in [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]OH by terephthalate anion.

  1. Pretreatment of cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Azzam, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of the agrocellulosic waste, cane bagasse with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly enhances its susceptibility to enzymatic cellulolysis and thus the ethanol production from it. Various process conditions have been studied to optimize the enzymate effectiveness. These conditions include the contact time, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the pretreatment temperature. Results obtained show, that about 50% of lignin and most of hemicellulose content of can bagasse was solubilized, by 2% alkaline hydrogen peroxide at 30{sup 0}C within 8 h. The cellulose content was consequently increased from 42% in the original cane bagasse to 75% in the oxidized pulp. Saccharification of this pulp residue with cellulase from Trichorderma viride at 45{sup 0}C for 24 h, yielded glucose with 95% efficiency. The efficiency of ethanol production from the insoluble fraction with S. cervisiae was 90% compared to about 50% for untreated cane bagasse.

  2. Comprehensive investigations of kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene), and DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole).

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla; Kinney, Chad; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Bednar, Anthony J; Okovytyy, Sergiy; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    Combined experimental and computational techniques were used to analyze multistep chemical reactions in the alkaline hydrolysis of three nitroaromatic compounds: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The study reveals common features and differences in the kinetic behavior of these compounds. The analysis of the predicted pathways includes modeling of the reactions, along with simulation of UV-vis spectra, experimental monitoring of reactions using LC/MS techniques, development of the kinetic model by designing and solving the system of differential equations, and obtaining computationally predicted kinetics for decay and accumulation of reactants and products. Obtained results suggest that DNT and DNAN are more resistant to alkaline hydrolysis than TNT. The direct substitution of a nitro group by a hydroxide represents the most favorable pathway for all considered compounds. The formation of Meisenheimer complexes leads to the kinetic first-step intermediates in the hydrolysis of TNT. Janovsky complexes can also be formed during hydrolysis of TNT and DNT but in small quantities. Methyl group abstraction is one of the suggested pathways of DNAN transformation during alkaline hydrolysis. PMID:25083594

  3. EFFECT OF ANATOMICAL FRACTIONATION ON THE ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ACID AND ALKALINE PRETREATED CORN STOVER

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Duguid; M. D. Montross; C. W. Radtke; C. L. Crofcheck; L. M. Wendt; S. A. Shearer

    2009-11-01

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated by hand and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0, 0.4, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 hours at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs.

  4. Effect of anatomical fractionation on the enzymatic hydrolysis of acid and alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    PubMed

    Duguid, K B; Montross, M D; Radtke, C W; Crofcheck, C L; Wendt, L M; Shearer, S A

    2009-11-01

    Due to concerns with biomass collection systems and soil sustainability there are opportunities to investigate the optimal plant fractions to collect for conversion. An ideal feedstock would require a low severity pretreatment to release a maximum amount of sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis. Corn stover fractions were separated manually and analyzed for glucan, xylan, acid soluble lignin, acid insoluble lignin, and ash composition. The stover fractions were also pretreated with either 0%, 0.4%, or 0.8% NaOH for 2 h at room temperature, washed, autoclaved and saccharified. In addition, dilute sulfuric acid pretreated samples underwent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol. In general, the two pretreatments produced similar trends with cobs, husks, and leaves responding best to the pretreatments, the tops of stalks responding slightly less, and the bottom of the stalks responding the least. For example, corn husks pretreated with 0.8% NaOH released over 90% (standard error of 3.8%) of the available glucan, while only 45% (standard error of 1.1%) of the glucan was produced from identically treated stalk bottoms. Estimates of the theoretical ethanol yield using acid pretreatment followed by SSF were 65% (standard error of 15.9%) for husks and 29% (standard error of 1.8%) for stalk bottoms. This suggests that integration of biomass collection systems to remove sustainable feedstocks could be integrated with the processes within a biorefinery to minimize overall ethanol production costs. PMID:19560347

  5. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n = 3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3 min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1M sodium hydroxide for 1h at 60 C). PMID:25562808

  6. Electrolytic redox and electrochemical generated alkaline hydrolysis of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5 triazine (RDX) in sand columns.

    PubMed

    Gent, David B; Wani, Altaf H; Davis, Jeffrey L; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2009-08-15

    Sand-packed horizontal flow columns (5 cm i.d. x 65 cm)l were used in laboratory experiments to simulate in situ electrolytic and alkaline hybrid treatment zone for aqueous phase decomposition of RDX. An upgradient cathode and downgradient anode, spaced 35 cm apart were used to create alkaline reducing conditions followed by oxic, acidic conditions to degrade RDX by combination of alkaline hydrolysis and direct electrolysis. A preliminary experiment (25 mg/L RDX influent) with seepage velocity of 30.5 cm/day and current density of 9.9 A/m2 was used to determine the treatment feasibility and the aqueous products of RDX decomposition. Three additional column experiments (0.5 mg/L RDX influent) under the same conditions as the preliminary column were used to observe the treatment process repeatability and the alkaline treatment zone development. The results demonstrated approximately 95% decomposition of RDX in the column with an applied current density of 9.9 A/m2. Aqueous end-products formate, nitrite, and nitrate were detected in the effluent. Approximately 75% of the RDX was destroyed near the cathode, presumably by electrolysis, with 23% decomposed downstream of the cathode by alkaline hydrolysis. The preliminary column pseudo first order alkaline hydrolysis rate coefficient of 10.7 x 10(-3) min(-1) was used to estimate a treatment zone length less than 100 cm for RDX treatment below the EPA drinking water lifetime health advisory of 0.002 mg/L. PMID:19746729

  7. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Clara; Aud-Mir, Carme; Bordeleau, Genevive; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mnica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of ?(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 3) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of ?(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  8. Mechanisms and Kinetics of Alkaline Hydrolysis of the Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Ritchie, Julia J.; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2013-07-02

    The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH− has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) were investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH−. For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediat in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions - and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs - mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs.

  9. Mechanisms and kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of the energetic nitroaromatic compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN).

    PubMed

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra J; Bylaska, Eric J; Ritchie, Julia J; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2013-07-01

    The environmental impacts of energetic compounds can be minimized through the design and selection of new energetic materials with favorable fate properties. Building predictive models to inform this process, however, is difficult because of uncertainties and complexities in some major fate-determining transformation reactions such as the alkaline hydrolysis of energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs). Prior work on the mechanisms of the reaction between NACs and OH(-) has yielded inconsistent results. In this study, the alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) was investigated with coordinated experimental kinetic measurements and molecular modeling calculations. For TNT, the results suggest reversible formation of an initial product, which is likely either a Meisenheimer complex or a TNT anion formed by abstraction of a methyl proton by OH(-). For DNAN, the results suggest that a Meisenheimer complex is an intermediate in the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenolate. Despite these advances, the remaining uncertainties in the mechanisms of these reactions-and potential variability between the hydrolysis mechanisms for different NACs-mean that it is not yet possible to generalize the results into predictive models (e.g., quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSARs) for hydrolysis of other NACs. PMID:23373810

  10. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D.; Williams, Daniel L.; Magee, Timothy D.; Kaeppler, Shawn M.; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B.

    2015-01-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  11. Cell-wall properties contributing to improved deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis in diverse maize (Zea mays L.) lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Muyang; Heckwolf, Marlies; Crowe, Jacob D; Williams, Daniel L; Magee, Timothy D; Kaeppler, Shawn M; de Leon, Natalia; Hodge, David B

    2015-07-01

    A maize (Zea mays L. subsp. mays) diversity panel consisting of 26 maize lines exhibiting a wide range of cell-wall properties and responses to hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes was employed to investigate the relationship between cell-wall properties, cell-wall responses to mild NaOH pre-treatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis yields. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose in the untreated maize was found to be positively correlated with the water retention value, which is a measure of cell-wall susceptibility to swelling. It was also positively correlated with the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl ratio and negatively correlated with the initial cell-wall lignin, xylan, acetate, and p-coumaric acid (pCA) content, as well as pCA released from the cell wall by pre-treatment. The hydrolysis yield following pre-treatment exhibited statistically significant negative correlations to the lignin content after pre-treatment and positive correlations to the solubilized ferulic acid and pCA. Several unanticipated results were observed, including a positive correlation between initial lignin and acetate content, lack of correlation between acetate content and initial xylan content, and negative correlation between each of these three variables to the hydrolysis yields for untreated maize. Another surprising result was that pCA release was negatively correlated with hydrolysis yields for untreated maize and, along with ferulic acid release, was positively correlated with the pre-treated maize hydrolysis yields. This indicates that these properties that may negatively contribute to the recalcitrance in untreated cell walls may positively contribute to their deconstruction by alkaline pre-treatment. PMID:25871649

  12. A calixpyridinium-based supramolecular tandem assay for alkaline phosphatase and its application to ATP hydrolysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kui; Cui, Jian-Hua; Xing, Si-Yang; Dou, Hong-Xi

    2016-02-24

    We have successfully implemented the supramolecular tandem assay principle for the real-time, continuous, direct, and label-free monitoring of alkaline phosphatase activity through a fluorescence "switch-off" assay based on a novel calixpyridinium/dye reporter pair. Because several diseases can be preliminarily diagnosed in light of an abnormal level of alkaline phosphatase in serum, the application of tandem assays to selectively monitor alkaline phosphatase activity has feasible implications in disease diagnosis. PMID:26830788

  13. Probing the Origins of Catalytic Discrimination between Phosphate and Sulfate Monoester Hydrolysis: Comparative Analysis of Alkaline Phosphatase and Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, the ability of enzymes to catalyze multiple reactions, provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes both phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis reactions with a ?1010-fold preference for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, despite the similarity between these reactions. The preponderance of formal positive charge in the AP active site, particularly from three divalent metal ions, was proposed to be responsible for this preference by providing stronger electrostatic interactions with the more negatively charged phosphoryl group versus the sulfuryl group. To test whether positively charged metal ions are required to achieve a high preference for the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction, the catalytic preference of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which do not contain metal ions, were measured. Their preferences ranged from 5 106 to 7 107, lower than that for AP but still substantial, indicating that metal ions and a high preponderance of formal positive charge within the active site are not required to achieve a strong catalytic preference for phosphate monoester over sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The observed ionic strength dependences of kcat/KM values for phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis are steeper for the more highly charged phosphate ester with both AP and the PTP Stp1, following the dependence expected based on the charge difference of these two substrates. However, the dependences for AP were not greater than those of Stp1 and were rather shallow for both enzymes. These results suggest that overall electrostatics from formal positive charge within the active site is not the major driving force in distinguishing between these reactions and that substantial discrimination can be attained without metal ions. Thus, local properties of the active site, presumably including multiple positioned dipolar hydrogen bond donors within the active site, dominate in defining this reaction specificity. PMID:25299936

  14. Probing the origins of catalytic discrimination between phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis: comparative analysis of alkaline phosphatase and protein tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Logan D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, the ability of enzymes to catalyze multiple reactions, provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the origins of catalysis and substrate specificity. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) catalyzes both phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis reactions with a ?10(10)-fold preference for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, despite the similarity between these reactions. The preponderance of formal positive charge in the AP active site, particularly from three divalent metal ions, was proposed to be responsible for this preference by providing stronger electrostatic interactions with the more negatively charged phosphoryl group versus the sulfuryl group. To test whether positively charged metal ions are required to achieve a high preference for the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction, the catalytic preference of three protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which do not contain metal ions, were measured. Their preferences ranged from 5 10(6) to 7 10(7), lower than that for AP but still substantial, indicating that metal ions and a high preponderance of formal positive charge within the active site are not required to achieve a strong catalytic preference for phosphate monoester over sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The observed ionic strength dependences of kcat/KM values for phosphate and sulfate monoester hydrolysis are steeper for the more highly charged phosphate ester with both AP and the PTP Stp1, following the dependence expected based on the charge difference of these two substrates. However, the dependences for AP were not greater than those of Stp1 and were rather shallow for both enzymes. These results suggest that overall electrostatics from formal positive charge within the active site is not the major driving force in distinguishing between these reactions and that substantial discrimination can be attained without metal ions. Thus, local properties of the active site, presumably including multiple positioned dipolar hydrogen bond donors within the active site, dominate in defining this reaction specificity. PMID:25299936

  15. Asparagus stem as a new lignocellulosic biomass feedstock for anaerobic digestion: increasing hydrolysis rate, methane production and biodegradability by alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Gu, Yu; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2014-07-01

    Recently, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass for methane production has attracted considerable attention. However, there is little information regarding methane production from asparagus stem, a typical lignocellulosic biomass, by anaerobic digestion. In this study, alkaline pretreatment of asparagus stem was investigated for its ability to increase hydrolysis rate and methane production and to improve biodegradability (BD). The hydrolysis rate increased with increasing NaOH dose, due to higher removal rates of lignin and hemicelluloses. However, the optimal NaOH dose was 6% (w/w) according to the specific methane production (SMP). Under this condition, the SMP and the technical digestion time of the NaOH-treated asparagus stem were 242.3 mL/g VS and 18 days, which were 38.4% higher and 51.4% shorter than those of the untreated sample, respectively. The BD was improved from 40.1% to 55.4%. These results indicate that alkaline pretreatment could be an efficient method for increasing methane production from asparagus stem. PMID:24841574

  16. Functionalization of poly(ε-caprolactone) surface with lactose-modified chitosan via alkaline hydrolysis: ToF-SIMS characterization.

    PubMed

    Tortora, Luca; Concolato, Sofia; Urbini, Marco; Giannitelli, Sara Maria; Basoli, Francesco; Rainer, Alberto; Trombetta, Marcella; Orsini, Monica; Mozetic, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Functionalization of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was performed via hydrolysis and subsequent grafting of lactose-modified chitosan (chitlac) at two different degrees of derivatization (9% and 64%). Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and multivariate analysis (principal component analysis) were successfully applied to the characterization of PCL surface chemistry, evidencing changes in the biopolymer surface following base-catalyzed hydrolysis treatment. ToF-SIMS analysis also confirmed positive EDC/NHS-catalyzed (EDC: N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide; NHS: N-hydroxysuccinimide) immobilization of chitlac onto activated PCL surface, with formation of amide bonds between PCL surface carboxyl groups and amine residues of chitlac. Yield of grafting reaction was also shown to be dependent upon the lactosilation degree of chitlac. PMID:26905217

  17. Effect of ethylene glycol on micellization and micellar-catalyzed alkaline hydrolysis reaction of a cationic surfactant at 293-313 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanxian; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Wang, Xiufang; Zhang, Weiqiang; Pan, Zhongwen

    2009-12-01

    Changes in critical micellar concentrations (CMCs) of gemini surfactant, ?, ?-ethane bis(dimethyl cetyl ammonium bromide) (C16-2-C16) with different concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG) addition have been investigated by electrical conductivity method. Subsequently, alkaline hydrolysis of ethyl acetate (EA) in the presence of C16-2-C16 and C16-2-C16-EG has been studied conductometrically at 303.2 and 313.2 K, respectively. It was found that an increase in concentrations of EG added to C16-2-C16 aqueous solutions caused an increase in CMCs of C16-2-C16, provoked by the decrease in the interfacial Gibbs energy contribution to G {M/?}. The hydrolysis of EA showed catalytic and restrained dual behavior in the presence of surfactant, it may be related to higher microviscosity and change of morphology with increased surfactant for C16-2-C16 at higher concentration. Addition of EG did not change microenvironment in micellar interfacial region significantly, which had less effect on gemini C16-2-C16 micellar catalytic efficiency.

  18. Preparation and some functional properties of rice bran protein concentrate at different degree of hydrolysis using bromelain and alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Apinunjarupong, Suthep; Lapnirun, Surawoot; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    Rice bran protein was extracted by using defatted rice bran and water at 1:6 (w/w) and 6% of bromelain at pH 9.0, 50 degrees C, 500 rpm for 15 and 30 mins. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) of rice bran protein extract (RBPE) was 19 and 36.5%, respectively, and their nitrogen solubility was higher than the controls. Rice bran protein concentrate (RBPC) was prepared by spray drying. Emulsion activity of RBPC produced from 19% DH RBPE was increased while emulsion stability index was not significantly different from the control. Foam capacity and rehydration ability of RBPC were greater than the control. PMID:19291580

  19. Reactivity of Tannic Acid with Common Corrosion Products and Its Influence on the Hydrolysis of Iron in Alkaline Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, J. A.; Araz, E. Y.; Iglesias, J.; Delgado, Y.

    2003-06-01

    To ascertain the role of tannic acid in the anticorrosive protection of steels, the reaction between 5% tannic acid aqueous solutions with lepidocrocite, goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, akaganeite, poorly crystalline maghemite, magnetite and hematite was studied using color changes, infrared and Mssbauer spectroscopy. After three months of interaction with lepidocrocite, the formation of an iron tannate complex was detected by its dark blue color and confirmed by infrared and Mssbauer analysis. Evidence for the chemical transformation was obtained for goethite in nanoparticles and poorly crystalline maghemite after reaction for six months. The other iron compounds do not transform to another oxide or phase upon treatment with the tannic acid solution. These results showed that lepidocrocite is the most reactive phase and that the size and degree of crystallinity have strong influence on the formation of the tannate complexes. The precipitation of iron phases from alkaline solutions of iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate containing different amount of tannic acid and potassium nitrate as oxidative agent was also studied. Mssbauer and infrared results show that in the absence of tannic acid some common rust components are obtained (viz. goethite, superparamagnetic goethite, maghemite and non-stoichiometric magnetite). The presence of 0.1% tannic acid in a low alkalinity solution results in the precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides and some iron tannates. Concentrations of 1% tannic acid are required for the formation of the tannates complexes as main reaction product.

  20. Pretreatment of wheat straw using combined wet oxidation and alkaline hydrolysis resulting in convertible cellulose and hemicellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Bjerre, A.B.; Olesen, A.B.; Fernqvist, T.; Ploeger, A.; Schmidt, A.S.

    1996-03-05

    The wet oxidation process of wheat straw has been studied as a pretreatment method to attain the main goal: to break down cellulose to glucose enzymatic, and secondly, to dissolve hemicellulose (e.g., for fermentation) without producing microbial inhibitors. Wet oxidation combined with base addition readily oxidizes lignin from wheat straw facilitating the polysaccharides for enzymatic hydrolysis. By using a specially constructed autoclave system, the wet oxidation process was optimized with respect to both reaction time and temperature. The best conditions (20 g/L straw, 170 C, 5 to 10 min) gave about 85% w/w yield of converting cellulose to glucose. The process water, containing dissolved hemicellulose and carboxylic acids, has proven to be a direct nutrient source for the fungus Aspergillus niger producing exo-{beta}-xylosidase. Furfural and hydroxymethyl-furfural, known inhibitors of microbial growth when other pretreatment systems have been applied, were not observed following the wet oxidation treatment.

  1. The hydrolysis of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, P. D.; Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of aspartic acid produces a polysuccinimide (I), a chain of aspartoyl residues. An investigation was made of the alkaline hydrolysis of the imide rings of (I) which converts the polyimide to a polypeptide. The alkaline hydrolysis of polyimides can be expected to be kinetically complex due to increasing negative charge generated by carboxylate groups. For this reason, a diimide, phthaloyl-DL-aspartoyl-beta-alanine (IIA) was synthesized for a progressive study of the hydrolysis of polyimides. In addition, this diimide (IIA) can be related to thalidomide and might be expected to exhibit similar reactivity during hydrolysis of the phthalimide ring.

  2. Phosphate Hydrolysis by the Fe2-Ca3-Dependent Alkaline Phosphatase PhoX: Mechanistic Insights from DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Siegbahn, Per E M

    2015-12-21

    PhoX is a pentanuclear metalloenzyme that employs two ferric ions and three calcium ions to catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphomonoesters. On the basis of the X-ray structure of PhoX ( Science 2014 , 345 , 1170 - 1173 ), a model of the active site is designed, and quantum chemical calculations are used to investigate the reaction mechanism of this enzyme. The calculations support the experimental suggestion, in which the two high spin ferric ions interact in an antiferromagnetic fashion. The two step mechanism proposed by experimentalists has been investigated. The nucleophilic attack of a trinuclear bridging oxo group on the phosphorus center was calculated to be the first step, which is concomitant with the departure of the phenolate, which is stabilized by a calcium ion. The second step is a reverse attack by a water molecule activated by a calcium-bound hydroxide, leading to the regeneration of the bridging oxo group. The second step was calculated to have a barrier of 27.6 kcal/mol. The high barrier suggests that the alternative mechanism involving phosphate release directly from the active site seems to be more likely. All five metal ions are involved in the catalysis by stabilizing the pentacoordinated trigonal bipyramidal transition states. PMID:26651528

  3. Unimolecular and hydrolysis channels for the detachment of water from microsolvated alkaline earth dication (Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+) clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-02-07

    We examine theoretically the three channels that are associated with the detachment of a single water molecule from the aqueous clusters of the alkaline earth dications, [M(H2O)n]2+, M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, n ≤ 6. These are the unimolecular water loss (M2+(H2O)n-1 + H2O) and the two hydrolysis channels resulting to the loss of hydronium ([MOH(H2O)n-2]+ + H3O+) and Zundel ([MOH(H2O)n-3]+ + H3O+(H2O)) cations. The Potential Energy Curves (PECs) corresponding to those three channels were constructed at the Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) level of theory with basis sets of double- and triple-ζ quality. We furthermore investigated the water and hydronium loss channels from the mono-hydroxide water clusters with up to four water molecules, [MOH(H2O)n]+, 1 ≤ n ≤ 4. Our results indicate the preference of the hydronium loss and possibly the Zundel cation loss channels for the smallest size clusters, whereas the unimolecular water loss channel is preferred for the larger ones as well as the mono-hydroxide clusters. Although the charge separation (hydronium and Zundel cation loss) channels produce more stable products when compared to the ones for the unimolecular water loss, they also require the surmounting of high energy barriers, a fact that makes the experimental observation of fragments related to these hydrolysis channels difficult.

  4. Analysis of the effect of temperature changes combined with different alkaline pH on the β-lactoglobulin trypsin hydrolysis pattern using MALDI-TOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chelulei Cheison, Seronei; Brand, Janina; Leeb, Elena; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Temperature and pH influence the conformation of the whey protein β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) monomer, dimer, and octamer formation, its denaturation, and solubility. Most hydrolyses have been reported at trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) optimum conditions (pH 7.8 and 37 °C), while the hydrolysate mass spectrometry was largely limited to peptides with <4 kDa. There are few reports on trypsin peptide release patterns away from optimum. This work investigated the influence of alkaline (8.65 and 9.5) and optimum (7.8) pH at different temperatures (25, 37.5, and 50 °C) on β-Lg (7.5%, w/v) hydrolysis. Sample aliquots were drawn out before the addition of trypsin (blank sample) and at various time intervals (15 s to 10 min) thereafter. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS) was used to monitor peptide evolution over time with the use of two matrixes: α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCCA) and 2.5-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP). Mass analysis showed that the N- and C-terminals (Lys(8)-Gly(9), Lys(100)-Lys(101), Arg(124)-Thr(125), Lys(141)-Ala(142), and Arg(148)-Leu(149)) of β-Lg were cleaved early (15 s) implying the ease of trypsinolysis at the exposed terminals. Hydrolyses at 25 °C and pH 7.8 as well as at 50 °C and pH 9.5 were slowed down and ordered. Nonspecific chymotrypsin-like behavior occurred more at higher temperatures (50 °C) than at lower ones (25 and 37.5 °C). In addition to our earlier work in the acid pH region, it can be concluded that there is potential for controlled hydrolysis outside the trypsin optimum, where different target peptides with predictable biofunctionalities could be produced. PMID:21319805

  5. Formulation of enzyme blends to maximize the hydrolysis of alkaline peroxide pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw by rumen enzymes and commercial cellulases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Efficient conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars requires the synergistic action of multiple enzymes; consequently enzyme mixtures must be properly formulated for effective hydrolysis. The nature of an optimal enzyme blends depends on the type of pretreatment employed as well the characteristics of the substrate. In this study, statistical experimental design was used to develop mixtures of recombinant glycosyl hydrolases from thermophilic and anaerobic fungi that enhanced the digestion of alkaline peroxide treated alfalfa hay and barley straw by mixed rumen enzymes as well as commercial cellulases (Accelerase 1500, A1500; Accelerase XC, AXC). Results Combinations of feruloyl and acetyl xylan esterases (FAE1a; AXE16A_ASPNG), endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and polygalacturonase (PGA28A_ASPNG) with rumen enzymes improved straw digestion. Inclusion of pectinase (PGA28A_ASPNG), endoxylanase (XYN11A_THITE), feruloyl esterase (FAE1a) and β-glucosidase (E-BGLUC) with A1500 or endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) and β-xylosidase (E-BXSRB) with AXC increased glucose release from alfalfa hay. Glucose yield from straw was improved when FAE1a and endoglucanase GH7 (EGL7A_THITE) were added to A1500, while FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG enhanced the activity of AXC on straw. Xylose release from alfalfa hay was augmented by supplementing A1500 with E-BGLUC, or AXC with EGL7A_THITE and XYN11A_THITE. Adding arabinofuranosidase (ABF54B_ASPNG) and esterases (AXE16A_ASPNG; AXE16B_ASPNG) to A1500, or FAE1a and AXE16A_ASPNG to AXC enhanced xylose release from barley straw, a response confirmed in a scaled up assay. Conclusion The efficacy of commercial enzyme mixtures as well as mixed enzymes from the rumen was improved through formulation with synergetic recombinant enzymes. This approach reliably identified supplemental enzymes that enhanced sugar release from alkaline pretreated alfalfa hay and barley straw. PMID:24766728

  6. Alkaline hydrolysis of the cyclic nitramine explosives RDX, HMX, and CL-20: new insights into degradation pathways obtained by the observation of novel intermediates.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Vimal K; Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-05-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, I) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) hydrolyze at pH > 10 to form end products including NO2-, HCHO, HCOOH, NH3, and N2O, but little information is available on intermediates, apart from the tentatively identified pentahydro-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohex-1-ene (II). Despite suggestions that RDX and HMX contaminated groundwater could be economically treated via alkaline hydrolysis, the optimization of such a process requires more detailed knowledge of intermediates and degradation pathways. In this study, we hydrolyzed the monocyclic nitramines RDX, MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX in aqueous solution (pH 10-12.3) and found that nitramine removal was accompanied by formation of 1 molar equiv of nitrite and the accumulation of the key ring cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (4-NDAB, O2NNHCH2NHCHO). Most of the remaining C and N content of RDX, MNX, and HMX was found in HCHO, N2O, HCOOH, and NH3. Consequently, we selected RDX as a model compound and hydrolyzed it in aqueous acetonitrile solutions (pH 12.3) in the presence and absence of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) to explore other early intermediates in more detail. We observed a transient LC-MS peak with a [M-H] at 192 Da that was tentatively identified as 4,6-dinitro-2,4,6-triaza-hexanal (O2NNHCH2NNO2CH2NHCHO, III) considered as the hydrolyzed product of II. In addition, we detected another novel intermediate with a [M-H] at 148 Da that was tentatively identified as a hydrolyzed product of III, namely, 5-hydroxy-4-nitro-2,4-diaza-pentanal (HOCH2NNO2CH2NHCHO, IV). Both III and IV can act as precursors to 4-NDAB. In the case of the polycyclic nitramine 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), denitration (two NO2-) also led to the formation of HCOOH, NH3, and N2O, but neither HCHO nor 4-NDAB were detected. The results provide strong evidence that initial denitration of cyclic nitramines in water is sufficient to cause ring cleavage followed by spontaneous decomposition to form the final products. PMID:12775055

  7. PHTHALATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS: LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alkaline hydrolysis rate constants were measured for dimethyl, diethyl, di-n-butyl, di-iso-butyl, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate esters in water. A linear free energy relationship (LFER) was established for estimating alkaline hydrolysis rate constants for other phthalate esters...

  8. QM/MM analysis suggests that Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) and Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase slightly tighten the transition state for phosphate diester hydrolysis relative to solution: implication for catalytic promiscuity in the AP superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua

    2011-01-01

    Several members of the Alkaline Phosphatase (AP) superfamily exhibit a high level of catalytic proficiency and promiscuity in structurally similar active sites. A thorough characterization of the nature of transition state for different substrates in these enzymes is crucial for understanding the molecular mechanisms that govern those remarkable catalytic properties. In this work, we study the hydrolysis of a phosphate diester, MpNPP−, in solution, two experimentally well-characterized variants of AP (R166S AP, R166S/E322Y AP) and wild type Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) by QM/MM calculations in which the QM method is an approximate density functional theory previously parameterized for phosphate hydrolysis (SCC-DFTBPR). The general agreements found between these calculations and available experimental data for both solution and enzymes support the use of SCC-DFTBPR/MM for a semi-quantitative analysis of the catalytic mechanism and nature of transition state in AP and NPP. Although phosphate diesters are cognate substrates for NPP but promiscuous substrates for AP, the calculations suggest that their hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by AP and NPP feature similar synchronous transition states that are slightly tighter in nature compared to that in solution, due in part to the geometry of the bimetallic zinc motif. Therefore, this study provides the first direct computational support to the hypothesis that enzymes in the AP superfamily catalyze cognate and promiscuous substrates via similar transition states to those in solution. Our calculations do not support the finding of recent QM/MM studies by López-Canut and coworkers, who suggested that the same diester substrate goes through a much looser transition state in NPP/AP than in solution, a result likely biased by the large structural distortion of the bimetallic zinc site in their simulations. Finally, our calculations for different phosphate diester orientations and phosphorothioate diesters highlight that the interpretation of thio-substitution experiments is not always straightforward. PMID:22097879

  9. Inclusion of the insecticide fenitrothion in dimethylated-?-cyclodextrin: unusual guest disorder in the solid state and efficient retardation of the hydrolysis rate of the complexed guest in alkaline solution

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Rougier, Natalia M; Vico, Raquel V; Bourne, Susan A

    2013-01-01

    Summary An anhydrous 1:1 crystalline inclusion complex between the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion [O,O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)phosphorothioate] and the host compound heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DIMEB) was prepared and its structure elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. This revealed two independent host molecules in the asymmetric unit. In one of these, the cavity is occupied by two disordered guest components (distinguishable as rotamers with respect to the POAr bond) while in the other, three distinct guest components with site-occupancies 0.44, 0.29 and 0.27 appear, the last having a reversed orientation relative to all the other components. Kinetic studies of the alkaline hydrolysis of fenitrothion in the presence of DIMEB showed a remarkable reduction of 84% in the rate of this reaction relative to that for the free substrate, a value exceeding those previously attained with the native hosts, ?- and ?-cyclodextrin, and fully methylated ?-cyclodextrin. PMID:23400042

  10. ABIOTIC HYDROLYSIS OF SORBED PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrolysis of pesticides that are sorbed to sterilized natural sediments has been investigated in aqueous systems at acid, neutral and alkaline pH's. The results show that the rate constants of pH independent ('neutral') hydrolyses are the same within experimental uncertainti...

  11. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Teresa R; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-07-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8beta,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference standards. Limits of quantification ranged from 10 to 15 ng/g, and calibration curves were linear to 500 ng/g. Bias and intra-day and inter-day imprecision were <12.3%. Hydrolysis efficiencies were analyte-dependent; THC-glucuronide was effectively cleaved by enzyme, but not base. Conversely, THCCOOH-glucuronide was most sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis. Enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis maximized efficiency for both glucuronides. Identification of cannabinoid-positive meconium specimens nearly doubled following alkaline and enzyme-alkaline hydrolysis. Although no 11-OH-THC glucuronide standard is available, enzymatic hydrolysis improved 11-OH-THC detection in authentic specimens. Maximal identification of cannabis-exposed neonates and the widest range of cannabis biomarkers are achieved with enzyme-alkaline tandem hydrolysis. PMID:20517601

  12. CAPTAN HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Captan (N-(trichloromethylthio)-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide) undergoes hydrolysis readily in water with a maximum half-life of 710 min. Over the pH range 2-6, the reaction is pH independent and the pseudo-first-order rate constant is (1.8 + or - 0.1) x 10 to the -5th power/s....

  13. Results of the hydrolysis of fusinitic brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Perednikova, Z.M.; Garstman, B.B.; Rakitina, E.V.; Rumyantseva, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of debituminized fusinitic brown coals have been separated into relatively homogeneous groups of substances with the aid of extraction, chromatography, and alkaline saponification. The group compositions of the substances isolated have been studied by IR spectroscopy.

  14. Reproductive and sphingolipid metabolic effects of fumonisin B1 and its alkaline hydrolysis product in LM/Bc mice: hydrolyzed fumonisin B1 did not cause neural tube defects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticillioides. They are toxic to animals and exert their effects through mechanisms involving disruption of sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisins and their hydrolyzed analogues are found in alkaline-cooked, maize-based foods such as tortillas and the c...

  15. Simultaneous GC-EI-MS determination of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in human urine following tandem enzyme-alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Tsadik T; Lowe, Ross H; Pirnay, Stephane O; Darwin, William D; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2007-10-01

    A sensitive and specific method for extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in human urine was developed and fully validated. To ensure complete hydrolysis of conjugates and capture of total analyte content, urine samples were hydrolyzed by two methods in series. Initial hydrolysis was with Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (Type IX-A) followed by a second hydrolysis utilizing 10N NaOH. Specimens were adjusted to pH 5-6.5, treated with acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and centrifuged, and the supernatants were subjected to solid-phase extraction. Extracted analytes were derivatized with BSTFA and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization. Standard curves were linear from 2.5 to 300 ng/mL. Extraction efficiencies were 57.0-59.3% for THC, 68.3-75.5% for 11-OH-THC, and 71.5-79.7% for THCCOOH. Intra- and interassay precision across the linear range of the assay ranged from 0.1 to 4.3% and 2.6 to 7.4%, respectively. Accuracy was within 15% of target concentrations. This method was applied to the analysis of urine specimens collected from individuals participating in controlled administration cannabis studies, and it may be a useful analytical procedure for determining recency of cannabis use in forensic toxicology applications. PMID:17988462

  16. Simultaneous GCEI-MS Determination of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-Hydroxy-?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-Carboxy-?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Human Urine Following Tandem Enzyme-Alkaline Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Tsadik T.; Lowe, Ross H.; Pirnay, Stephane O.; Darwin, William D.; Huesti, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method for extraction and quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in human urine was developed and fully validated. To ensure complete hydrolysis of conjugates and capture of total analyte content, urine samples were hydrolyzed by two methods in series. Initial hydrolysis was with Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase (Type IXA) followed by a second hydrolysis utilizing 10N NaOH. Specimens were adjusted to pH 5?6.5, treated with acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and centrifuged, and the supernatants were subjected to solid-phase extraction. Extracted analytes were derivatized with BSTFA and quantified by gas chromatographymass spectrometry with electron impact ionization. Standard curves were linear from 2.5 to 300 ng/mL. Extraction efficiencies were 57.0?59.3% for THC, 68.3?75.5% for 11-OH-THC, and 71.5?79.7% for THCCOOH. Intra- and interassay precision across the linear range of the assay ranged from 0.1 to 4.3% and 2.6 to 7.4%, respectively. Accuracy was within 15% of target concentrations. This method was applied to the analysis of urine specimens collected from individuals participating in controlled administration cannabis studies, and it may be a useful analytical procedure for determining recency of cannabis use in forensic toxicology applications. PMID:17988462

  17. Hydrolysis kinetics of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers from flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Ping; Li, Xin; Xu, Shi-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Xin

    2008-11-12

    Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and contains the largest amount of SDG oligomers, which are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of SDG oligomers from flaxseed and the acid hydrolysis process of SDG and other glucosides were investigated. For the kinetic modeling, a pseudo-first-order reaction was assumed. The results showed that the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers followed first-order reaction kinetics under mild alkaline hydrolytic conditions and that the concentration of sodium hydroxide had a strong influence on the activation energy of the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers. The results also indicated that the main acid hydrolysates of SDG included secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG), SECO, and anhydrosecoisolariciresinol (anhydro-SECO) and that the extent and the main hydrolysates of the acid hydrolysis reaction depended on the acid concentration, hydrolysis temperature, and time. In addition, the production and change of p-coumaric acid glucoside, ferulic acid glucoside and their methyl esters and p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and their methyl esters during the process of hydrolysis was also investigated. PMID:18925741

  18. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  19. Alkaline battery

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, N.; Inoue, K.; Murakami, S.

    1984-01-24

    A zinc alkaline secondary battery is described having an excellent cycle characteristic, having a negative electrode which comprises a base layer of zinc active material incorporating cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and an outer layer made up of cadmium metal and/or a cadmium compound and applied to the surface of the base layer of zinc active material.

  20. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. PMID:25898249

  1. Structure-activity correlations for organophosphorus ester anticholinesterases. Part 2: CNDO/2 calculations applied to ester hydrolysis rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships are presented for the hydrolysis of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. CNDO/2 calculations provide values for molecular parameters that correlate with alkaline hydrolysis rates. For each subset of esters with the same leaving group, X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constants. For the whole set of esters with different leaving groups, equations are derived that relate charge, orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constants.

  2. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  3. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  4. Topochemistry of environmentally friendly pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse to fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Mou, Hongyan; Heikkil, Elina; Fardim, Pedro

    2014-04-23

    In this work, dilute alkaline and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were conducted in comparison with hydrotropic pretreatment to improve the delignification of bagasse prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The surface chemical composition of bagasse after pretreatments was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The surface distribution of lignin and extractives on the bagasse fiber was significantly changed by dilute alkaline, alkaline peroxide, and hydrotropic pretreatments. Hydrotropic pretreatment typically showed, other than the decrease of surface coverage by lignin and extractives, dramatic removal of xylan, thereby leading to more cellulose exposed on the fiber surface after pretreatment. Fiber morphology after pretreatments was more favorable for enzyme hydrolysis as well. However, the hydrotropic treatment had clear advantages because the enzymatic hydrolysis yields of glucan and xylan of pretreated bagasse were 83.9 and 14.3%, respectively. PMID:24689355

  5. Thermodynamics of actinide hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hromadka, P.M.; Wong, P.J.; Sullivan, J.C.; Choppin, G.R.

    1996-10-01

    Thermodynamic parameters of Np(V), U(VI), and Pu(VI) hydrolysis have been measured at 5-45{degrees}C via calorimetric titration. These parameters are needed to evaluate actinide migration behavior in the near field of nuclear waste repositories which are expected to reach temperatures of 100{degrees}C. The enthalpies determined exhibit both a temperature as well as an ionic media dependence. Calorimetry provides a direct, quantitative method to observe the energetic consequences of hydrolysis and the solute-solvent interactions between actinide metals and their coordination spheres in aqueous solution. The different enthalpies of hydrolysis in 1M Me{sub 4}NCl and NaClO{sub 4} provide further insight concerning their second sphere salvation structures. Our results suggest {Delta}Cp is linear over the 40{degrees} temperature range. The linear correlation between {Delta}{Delta}H and {Delta}Cp reflects the dominance of solvent reorganization in the {Delta}Cp term. Based on our values of {Delta}Cp for Np(V), U(VI), and Pu(VI) hydrolysis, the Van`t Hoff equation (assumes {Delta}Cp=O) may not be used to estimate hydrolysis constants at elevated temperatures.

  6. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D. (Denver, CO)

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  7. Chemostat Culture of Escherichia coli K-12 Limited by the Activity of Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    King, Stagg L.; Francis, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The growth-limiting reaction of a chemostat culture of Escherichia coli K-12 was the hydrolysis of β-glycerophosphate by alkaline phosphatase. The culture was buffered at pH 5.2 where alkaline phosphatase was unable to supply phosphate to the cell at a rate sufficient to sustain the maximum rate of growth. Alkaline phosphatase activity in this system is discussed in terms of the so-called Flip-Flop mechanism. PMID:240310

  8. A novel alkaline oxidation pretreatment for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Kallioinen, Anne; Hakola, Maija; Riekkola, Tiina; Repo, Timo; Leskelä, Markku; von Weymarn, Niklas; Siika-aho, Matti

    2013-07-01

    Alkaline oxidation pretreatment was developed for spruce, birch and sugar cane bagasse. The reaction was carried out in alkaline water solution under 10 bar oxygen pressure and at mild reaction temperature of 120-140°C. Most of the lignin was solubilised by the alkaline oxidation pretreatment and an easily hydrolysable carbohydrate fraction was obtained. After 72 h hydrolysis with a 10 FPU/g enzyme dosage, glucose yields of 80%, 91%, and 97%, for spruce, birch and bagasse, respectively, were achieved. The enzyme dosage could be decreased to 4 FPU/g without a major effect in terms of the hydrolysis performance. Compared to steam explosion alkaline oxidation was found to be significantly better in the conditions tested, especially for the pretreatment of spruce. In hydrolysis and fermentation at 12% d.m. consistency an ethanol yield of 80% could be obtained with both bagasse and spruce in 1-3 days. PMID:23711947

  9. Hydrolysis of biomass material

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Orth, Rick J.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail

    2004-02-17

    A method for selective hydrolysis of the hemicellulose component of a biomass material. The selective hydrolysis produces water-soluble small molecules, particularly monosaccharides. One embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A second embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose and subsequently enzymatically hydrolyzing the solubilized hemicellulose to produce at least one monosaccharide. A third embodiment includes solubilizing at least a portion of the hemicellulose by heating the biomass material to greater than 110.degree. C. resulting in an aqueous portion that includes the solubilized hemicellulose and a water insoluble solids portion and subsequently separating the aqueous portion from the water insoluble solids portion. A fourth embodiment is a method for making a composition that includes cellulose, at least one protein and less than about 30 weight % hemicellulose, the method including solubilizing at least a portion of hemicellulose present in a biomass material that also includes cellulose and at least one protein and subsequently separating the solubilized hemicellulose from the cellulose and at least one protein.

  10. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  11. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY)

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  12. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is

  13. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  14. HOMOGENEOUS HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR SELECTED CHLORINATED METHANES, ETHANES, ETHENES, AND PROPANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolysis rate constants of 18 chlorinated methanes, ethanes, ethenes, and propanes have been measured in dilute aqueous solutions within the temperature range of 0 to 180 oC and at pH values of 3 to l4. rrhenius parapmeters were determined for both neutral and alkaline hydrolys...

  15. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  16. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Jemmerson, R; Low, M G

    1987-09-01

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either 3H-fatty acids or [3H]ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the 3H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of [3H]ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from 3H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the 3H-fatty acid and the [3H]ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the [3H]ethanolamine-labeled from purified alkaline phosphatase. The 3H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from [3H]ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic [3H]ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the 3H-fatty acid and [3H]ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase. PMID:3676279

  17. Vacuolar Acid hydrolysis as a physiological mechanism for sucrose breakdown.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, E; Burns, J K

    1989-06-01

    Sucrose breakdown in mature acidic ;Persian' limes (Citrus aurantifolia [Christm.] Swing.) occurred at a rate of 30.6 picomoles per milliliter per day during 9 weeks storage at 15 degrees C. Neither enzyme of sucrose catabolism (sucrose synthase or acid/alkaline invertase) was present in extracts of mature storage tissue. The average vacuolar pH, estimated by direct measurement of sap from isolated vacuoles and by the methylamine method, was about 2.0 to 2.2. In vitro acid hydrolysis of sucrose at physiological concentrations in a buffered solution (pH 2.2) occurred at identical rates as in matured limes. The results indicate that sucrose breakdown in stored mature acidic limes occurs by acid hydrolysis. PMID:16666803

  18. Effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on the structural features and the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, C.J.; Cheng, C.Y.

    1985-10-01

    Assessment was made to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on the change of the structural features and the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Changes in the lignin content, weight loss, accessibility for Cadoxen, water holding capacity, and crystallinity of straw were measured during pretreatment to express the modification of the lignocellulosic structure of straw. The rates and the extents of enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulase adsorption, and cellobiose accumulation in the initial stage of hydrolysis were determined to study the pretreatment effect on hydrolysis. Pretreatment at 60 degrees C for 5 hours in a solution with 1% (w/w) H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH resulted in 60% delignification, 40% weight loss, a fivefold increase in the accessibility for Cadoxen, an one times increase in the water-holding capacity, and only a slight decrease in crystallinity as compared with that of the untreated straw. Improvement on the pretreatment effect could be made by increasing the initial alkalinity and the pretreatment temperature of hydrogen peroxide solution. A saturated improvement on the structural features was found when the weight ratio of hydrogen peroxide to straw was above 0.25 g H/sub 2/O/sub 2//g straw in an alkaline H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ solution with 1% (w/w) NaOH at 32 degrees C. The initial rates and extents of hydrolysis, cellulase adsorption, and cellobiose accumulation in hydrolysis were enhanced in acordance with the improved structural features of straw pretreated. A four times increase in the extent of the enzymatic hydrolysis of straw for 24 hours was attributed to the alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment. 29 references.

  19. The enzymatic hydrolysis of leather waste with chromium recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.S.; Clesceri, L.S.

    1996-11-01

    The work of Taylor et al. (1990) has shown the potential for alkaline hydrolase enzymes for the solubilization of waste from the tanning industry. The authors have carried this work further to examine the mechanism whereby enzymes release chromium from leather waste. An alkaline digest of waste leather was used in this work. Treatment with strong alkali produced a thick slurry that contained 7,000 ppm chromium. The objective of this work is to optimize a closed cycle system for the recycling of chromium salts for tanning as well as a chrome-free product for use as a fertilizer. The authors are able to track the progress of the leather protein hydrolysis with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By means of PAGE, it is possible to determine the relationship between chromium release and the extent of protein hydrolysis. Rate constant for hydrolysis and chromium release have been developed for various hydrolysis conditions. Chemical precipitation of chromium from the hydrolysate results in a purified product for reuse in tanning. The chrome-free hydrolysate can be applied as a fertilizer either directly or as a dried product. There are more than 56,000 metric tons of tannery waste produced annually in the US. The majority of the organic solids can be converted into high quality fertilizers. Since the nitrogen is organic rather than inorganic, release is at a controlled rate since the microbody in the soil must make the nitrogen available for plant growth. Leather manufacturing is a world-wide industry. Conversion of leather waste to fertilizers can improve global productivity as well as solve a waste problem.

  20. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  1. [Heroin. II. Preparation, hydrolysis, stability, pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, S

    2001-10-01

    Heroin is prepared by treating morphine with acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride. It is a simple reaction and the yields are generally quantitative. Nowadays the whole process is illegal. Morphine is the major alkaloid present in the opium poppy. Opium is manufactured illicitly then morphine is extracted from it in clandestine laboratories. Numerous studies were carried out on heroin to investigate its rate of hydrolysis. It has been shown that heroin is rapidly deacylated in aqueous solution at alkaline or acidic pH to form 6-acethylmorphine and finally, to morphine. Heroin also rapidly decomposes in biological medium yielding first 6-acetylmorphine and then morphine. Hydrolysis can be performed in blood and in tissue homogenates. Heroin can be administered by several routes. Smoking and intravenous administration are preferred, but intranasal, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration are also common. Recently, there has been a shift in heroin use patterns from injection to sniffing and smoking. Sharing of the injection equipment can result in several severe infectious diseases, such as AIDS, hepatitis B and C. Soon after administration, heroin metabolizes to 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. Most of the pharmacological activities of heroin are due to these active metabolites. Therefore, knowledge of distribution of 6-acetylmorphine and morphine is essential to understand pharmacological properties of heroin. Heroin, which is relatively nonpolar compound compared with morphine, has high lipid solubility facilitating rapid absorption from the bloodstream and passage through the blood-brain barrier. When heroin is administered by intravenously the drug takes 10 s to reach the brain i.e. pharmacological effects appear quickly. PMID:11961908

  2. TL and ESR based identification of gamma-irradiated frozen fish using different hydrolysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Jun; Akram, Kashif; Shahbaz, Hafiz Muhammad; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Frozen fish fillets (walleye Pollack and Japanese Spanish mackerel) were selected as samples for irradiation (0-10 kGy) detection trials using different hydrolysis methods. Photostimulated luminescence (PSL)-based screening analysis for gamma-irradiated frozen fillets showed low sensitivity due to limited silicate mineral contents on the samples. Same limitations were found in the thermoluminescence (TL) analysis on mineral samples isolated by density separation method. However, acid (HCl) and alkali (KOH) hydrolysis methods were effective in getting enough minerals to carry out TL analysis, which was reconfirmed through the normalization step by calculating the TL ratios (TL1/TL2). For improved electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis, alkali and enzyme (alcalase) hydrolysis methods were compared in separating minute-bone fractions. The enzymatic method provided more clear radiation-specific hydroxyapatite radicals than that of the alkaline method. Different hydrolysis methods could extend the application of TL and ESR techniques in identifying the irradiation history of frozen fish fillets.

  3. Precambrian alkaline magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blichert-Toft, J.; Arndt, N. T.; Ludden, J. N.

    1996-04-01

    There are very few alkaline rocks in Precambrian terrains. The oldest well-documented examples are 2.7 Ga trachytes and leucite phonolites from the Kirkland Lake region of Canada. These rocks are highly potassic, with major- and trace-element characteristics closely resembling those of shoshonitic lavas in modern island arcs. Other examples of Archean alkaline rocks are limited to rare, volumetrically insignificant lamprophyric dikes and syenitic intrusions. Archean alkaline rocks similar to those of modern oceanic islands have not been reported. The oldest oceanic island suites are found in the 2.0-1.9 Ga Circum-Superior Belt of Canada which contains several successions of transitional to strongly alkaline volcanic rocks. Explanations for the paucity of Precambrian alkaline rocks fall into two main categories. (a) Alkaline magmatism was not uncommon in the Precambrian, but the rocks that formed did not survive. The alkaline rocks may have been destroyed preferentially because they formed late-stage volcanoes composed of friable pyroclastics and unstable feldspathoids, and were thus particularly vulnerable to erosion. Alternatively, the alkaline rock sequences may have erupted as part of a volcanic series that did not normally become incorporated in growing Archean continents, as would have been the case if oceanic plateaus made up the bulk of greenstone belts. (b) Alkaline rocks may indeed have been very rare because conditions in the Archean mantle were not appropriate for the formation of this type of magma. Higher temperatures may have led to more extensive partial melting, such that low-degree melts either were not produced or were overwhelmed by high-degree melts. Other possible factors include lower CO 2 contents in melting regions, which inhibited the formation of silica-undersaturated magmas, and the absence of metasomatized lower lithosphere, which precluded the formation of rift-type magmas. The late-Archean shoshonites apparently formed in a subduction environment. At present our knowledge of Archean volcanic rocks and Archean tectonic processes is insufficient to decide between the various possible interpretations.

  4. Alkaline phosphatase mono- and diesterase reactions: comparative transition state analysis.

    PubMed

    Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2006-02-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions have frequently been suggested to proceed through transition states that are altered from their solution counterparts. Previous work with Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), however, suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters through a loose, dissociative transition state, similar to that in solution. AP also exhibits catalytic promiscuity, with a low level of phosphodiesterase activity, despite the tighter, more associative transition state for phosphate diester hydrolysis in solution. Because AP is evolutionarily optimized for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, it is possible that the active site environment alters the transition state for diester hydrolysis to be looser in its bonding to the incoming and outgoing groups. To test this possibility, we have measured the nonenzymatic and AP-catalyzed rate of reaction for a series of substituted methyl phenyl phosphate diesters. The values of beta(lg) and additional data suggest that the transition state for AP-catalyzed phosphate diester hydrolysis is indistinguishable from that in solution. Instead of altering transition state structure, AP catalyzes phosphoryl transfer reactions by recognizing and stabilizing transition states similar to those in aqueous solution. The AP active site therefore has the ability to recognize different transition states, a property that could assist in the evolutionary optimization of promiscuous activities. PMID:16433548

  5. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. N.

    1981-03-01

    A fourth generation computer program was prepared to determine the economics of manufacturing hydrogen via alkaline water electrolysis. The program was tested by identifying the relative economic merits of the TES-C-AN cathode, the electrolysis module operating temperature range, the optimal module design current density and by comparing the published goals of the advanced alkaline technology to the published SPE goals. The stability of the TES-C-AN cathode structure is verified. The improvements possible via new node structures and new, thinner electrode separators are investigated.

  6. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-08-22

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  7. Kinetics of iodine hydrolysis in unbuffered solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.A.; Lyons, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis or disproportionation of hypoiodite were studied spectrophotometrically in basic solution at an ionic strength of 0.2 M as a function of pH, iodide and total iodine concentration, and temperature. The existence of three independent pathways for this second-order process was confirmed. The pH-stat method was used to monitor the corresponding reaction of hypoiodous acid in weakly alkaline solution. The generalized rate law for the disproportionation is: /minus/d((HOI) + (OI/sup /minus//))dt = k /sub a/(HOI)/sup 2/ + k/sub b/(HOI) (OI/sup /minus//) + k/sub c/(OI/sup /minus//)/sup 2/ + k/sub d/(I/sub 2/OH/sup /minus//) (OI/sup /minus//). The values of k/sub a/ and k/sub b/ are substantially smaller than previously reported. However, an unexplained contribution to the rate law resulting from the pH-stat measurements was also obtained. The rapid recombination of iodide and iodate in HClO/sub 4/ solutions was followed by stopped-flow spectrophotometry at three ionic strengths, and over a range of iodide and hydrogen ion concentrations, and at eight temperatures. Fifth-order kinetics were observed with no detectable induction period. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. HYDROLYSIS OF CHLOROSTILBENE OXIDE: I. HYDROLYSIS IN HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrolysis kinetics of 4-chlorostilbene oxide (CSO) in buffered distilled water, in natural waters, and in sediment associated water are reported. he disappearance of CSO followed pseudo-first-order kinetics in buffered water over the experimental pH range of 3 to 11. elow pH...

  9. Pulp properties resulting from different pretreatments of wheat straw and their influence on enzymatic hydrolysis rate.

    PubMed

    Rossberg, Christine; Steffien, Doreen; Bremer, Martina; Koenig, Swetlana; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Duarte, Lus C; Moniz, Patrcia; Hoernicke, Max; Bertau, Martin; Fischer, Steffen

    2014-10-01

    Wheat straw was subjected to three different processes prior to saccharification, namely alkaline pulping, natural pulping and autohydrolysis, in order to study their effect on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. Parameters like medium concentration, temperature and time have been varied in order to optimize each method. Milling the raw material to a length of 4mm beforehand showed the best cost-value-ratio compared to other grinding methods studied. Before saccharification the pulp can be stored in dried form, leading to a high yield of glucose. Furthermore the relation of pulp properties (i.e. intrinsic viscosity, Klason-lignin and hemicelluloses content, crystallinity, morphology) to cellulose hydrolysis is discussed. PMID:25058295

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orthophosphate-releasing enzymatic hydrolysis is an alternative means for characterizing organic phosphorus (Po) in animal manure. The approach is not only simple and fast, but can also provide information difficult to obtain by other methods. Currently, commercially available phosphatases are mainl...

  11. Economics of enzymatic hydrolysis processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis processes have the ability to produce high yields of sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. However, these systems have been plagued with yields, product concentrations, and reactions rates far below those that are theoretically possible. Engineering and economic analyses are presented on several fungal enzyme hydrolysis processes to illustrate the effects of the important process parameters, to quantify the progress that has been made to date, and to estimate the cost reductions that can be made through research improvements. All enzymatic hydrolysis processes require pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and enzyme production. The key effect of pretreatment is to allow access of the enzymes to the substrate. Pretreatments have been devised that make the biomass completely digestible that increase the xylose yield and concentration, and that integrate pretreatment with lignin utilization. Major improvements in enzyme activity and use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) have greatly reduced the inhibition of the enzymes. It now appears that ethanol inhibition of the yeast is the limiting factor. Enzyme production costs have been dramatically reduced because use of SSF has reduced enzyme loading. However, further improvements may be possible by using soluble carbon sources for production. Over the past decade, the predicted cost of ethanol from such processes has dropped from more than $4.00/gallon to approximately $1.60. Research is currently under way in the United States and has the potential to reduce the projected cost to less than $1.00/gallon. 65 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A review on alkaline pretreatment technology for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Y Y; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The native form of lignocellulosic biomass is resistant to enzymatic breakdown. A well-designed pretreatment that can promote enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass with reasonable processing cost is therefore necessary. To this end, a number of different types of pretreatment technologies have been developed with a common goal of making biomass more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Among those, a pretreatment method using alkaline reagent has emerged as one of the most viable process options due primarily to its strong pretreatment effect and relatively simple process scheme. The main features of alkaline pretreatment are that it selectively removes lignin without degrading carbohydrates, and increases porosity and surface area, thereby enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. In this review, the leading alkaline pretreatment technologies are described and their features and comparative performances are discussed from a process viewpoint. Attempts were also made to give insights into the chemical and physical changes of biomass brought about by pretreatment. PMID:26341010

  13. Ozonation and alkaline-peroxide pretreatment of wheat straw for Cryptococcus curvatus fermentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwalt, C. J.; Hunter, J. B.; Lin, S.; McKenzie, S.; Denvir, A.

    2000-01-01

    Crop residues in an Advanced Life Support System (ALS) contain many valuable components that could be recovered and used. Wheat is 60% inedible, with approximately 90% of the total sugars in the residue cellulose and hemicellulose. To release these sugars requires pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Cryptococcus curvatus, an oleaginous yeast, uses the sugars in cellulose and hemicellulose for growth and production of storage triglycerides. In this investigation, alkaline-peroxide and ozonation pretreatment methods were compared for their efficiency to release glucose and xylose to be used in the cultivation of C. curvatus. Leaching the biomass with water at 65 degrees C for 4 h prior to pretreatment facilitated saccharification. Alkaline-peroxide and ozone pretreatment were almost 100% and 80% saccharification efficient, respectively. The sugars derived from the hydrolysis of alkaline-peroxide-treated wheat straw supported the growth of C. curvatus and the production of edible single-cell oil.

  14. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a standard method "hot peroxide" acidity titration, provided that labs report negative values. The authors recommend the third approach; i.e., net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, N.; Torikai, E.; Kawami, Y.; Takenaka, H.

    Results are presented of experimental studies of possible separators and electrodes for use in advanced, high-temperature, high-pressure alkaline water electrolyzers. Material evaluations in alkaline water electrolyzers at temperatures from 100 to 120 C have shown a new type polytetrafluoroethylene membrane impregnated with potassium titanate to be the most promising when the separator is prepared by the hydrothermal treatment of a porous PFTE membrane impregnated with hydrated titanium oxide. Measurements of cell voltages in 30% KOH at current densities from 5 to 100 A/sq dm at temperatures up to 120 C with nickel electrodes of various structures have shown the foamed nickel electrode, with an average pore size of 1-1.5 mm, to have the best performance. When the foamed nickel is coated by fine powdered nickel, carbonyl nickel or Raney nickel to increase electrode surface areas, even lower cell voltages were found, indicating better performance.

  16. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  17. Evaluation of high solids alkaline pretreatment of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Zheng, Yi; Yu, Chao Wei; Dooley, Todd M; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-11-01

    Fresh-harvested, air-dried rice straw was pretreated at a water content of 5 g H(2)O/g straw using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and compared to pretreatment at 10 g H(2)O/g straw by hydrated lime (Ca(OH)(2)). Full factorial experiments including parallel wash-only treatments were completed with both sources of alkali. The experiments were designed to measure the effects of alkaline loading and pretreatment time on delignification and sugar yield upon enzymatic hydrolysis. Reaction temperature was held constant at 95 degrees C for lime pretreatment and 55 degrees C for NaOH pretreatment. The range of delignification was 13.1% to 27.0% for lime pretreatments and was 8.6% to 23.1% for NaOH pretreatments. Both alkaline loading and reaction time had significant positive effects (p < 0.001) on delignification under the design conditions, but only alkaline loading had a significant positive effect on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment at higher temperature also improved delignification; delignification with water alone ranged from 9.9% to 14.5% for pretreatment at 95 degrees C, but there was little effect observed at 55 degrees C. Post-pretreatment washing of biomass was not necessary for subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum glucose yields were 176.3 mg/g dried biomass (48.5% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in lime-pretreated and unwashed biomass and were 142.3 mg/g dried biomass (39.2% conversion efficiency of total glucose) in NaOH-pretreated and unwashed biomass. PMID:20440580

  18. Chemical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) by hydrolysis and glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Carta, Daniela; Cao, Giacomo; D'Angeli, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we review an interesting method of PET recycling, i.e. chemical recycling; it is based on the concept of depolymerizing the condensation polymer through solvolytic chain cleavage into low molecular products which can be purified and reused as raw materials for the production of high-quality chemical products. In this work our attention is confined to the hydrolysis (neutral, acid and alkaline) and glycolysis processes of PET chemical recycling; operating conditions and mechanism of each method are reported and described. The neutral hydrolysis has an auto accelerating character; two kinetic models have been proposed: an half-order and a second order kinetic model. The acid hydrolysis could be explained by a modified shrinking core model under chemical reaction control and the alkaline hydrolysis by a first-order model with respect to hydroxide ion concentration. To describe glycolysis, two different kinetic models have been proposed where EG can act or not as internal catalyst. Further experimental and theoretical investigations are required to shed light on the promising processes of PET chemical recycling reviewed in this work. PMID:14699998

  19. High solids enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic materials with a powerful stirrer concept.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Daniel; Michael, Buchmann; Hirth, Thomas; Rupp, Steffen; Zibek, Susanne

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we present a powerful stirred tank reactor system that can efficiently hydrolyse lignocellulosic material at high solid content to produce hydrolysates with glucose concentration > 100 g/kg. As lignocellulosic substrates alkaline-pretreated wheat straw and organosolv-pretreated beech wood were used. The developed vertical reactor was equipped with a segmented helical stirrer, which was specially designed for high biomass hydrolysis. The stirrer was characterised according to mixing behaviour and power input. To minimise the cellulase dosage, a response surface plan was used. With the empirical relationship between glucose yield, cellulase loading and solid content, the minimal cellulase dosage was calculated to reach at least 70% yield at high glucose and high substrate concentrations within 48 h. The optimisation resulted in a minimal enzyme dosage of 30 FPU/g dry matter (DM) for the hydrolysis of wheat straw and 20 FPU/g DM for the hydrolysis of beech wood. By transferring the hydrolysis reaction from shaking flasks to the stirred tank reactor, the glucose yields could be increased. Using the developed stirred tank reactor system, alkaline-pretreated wheat straw could be converted to 110 g/kg glucose (76%) at a solid content of 20% (w/w) after 48 h. Organosolv-pretreated beech wood could be efficiently hydrolysed even at 30% (w/w) DM, giving 150 g/kg glucose (72%). PMID:24242162

  20. Cellulose degradation in alkaline media upon acidic pretreatment and stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Testova, Lidia; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Penttilä, Paavo A; Serimaa, Ritva; Potthast, Antje; Sixta, Herbert

    2014-01-16

    The present study reports on a revised kinetic model for alkaline degradation of cellulose accounting for primary peeling/stopping reactions as well as for alkaline hydrolysis followed by secondary peeling. Oxalic acid pretreated cotton linters was utilised as the model substrate for the prehydrolysis-soda anthraquinone process. The main emphasis was investigating the effect of end-group stabilising additives such as sodium borohydride (BH), anthraquinone (AQ), and anthraquinone-2-sulphonic acid sodium salt (AQS) on the rates of the yield loss reactions. BH and AQS ensured a cellulose yield gain of 13% and 11%, respectively, compared to the reference. Both stabilisation agents decreased the content of the reducing end groups in the samples, while in the case of AQS stabilisation a 25% increase in carboxyl group content compared to the reference was also observed. As expected, the addition of end group stabilisers resulted in a significant decrease in the peeling-to-stopping rate constants ratio. PMID:24188853

  1. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on delignification of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Umar; Irfan, Muhammad; Iram, Mehvish; Huma, Zile; Nelofer, Rubina; Nadeem, Muhammad; Syed, Quratulain

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyse structural changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) after alkaline pretreatment of wheat straw for optimum steaming period. During the study, 2 mm size of substrate was soaked in 2.5% NaOH for 1 h at room temperature and then autoclaved at 121C for various steaming time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Results revealed that residence time of 90 min at 121C has strong effect on substrate, achieving a maximum cellulose content of 83%, delignification of 81% and hemicellulose content of 10.5%. Further SEM and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed structural modification caused by alkaline pretreatment in substrate. Maximum saccharification yield of 52.93% was achieved with 0.5% enzyme concentration using 2.5% substrate concentration for 8 h of incubation at 50C. This result indicates that the above-mentioned pretreatment conditions create accessible areas for enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25285562

  2. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    tefkov, Kate?ina; Prochzkov, Ji?ina; Pachernk, Ji?

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  3. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  4. HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolytic processes provide the baseline loss rate for any chemical in an aqueous envi- ronment. Although various hydrolytic pathways account for significant degradation of certain classes of organic chemicals, other organic structures are completely inert. Strictly speaking, hy...

  5. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment process was effective in pretreating hybrid poplar for its conversion into fermentable sugars. Results showed sugar yields near the theoretical maximum were achieved from enzymatically hydrolyzed hybrid poplar by incorporating an alkaline extraction step prior to pretreatment and by efficiently utilizing H2O2 during the Cu-AHP process. Significantly, this study reports high sugar yields from woody biomass treated with an AHP pretreatment under mild reaction conditions.« less

  6. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  7. Hydrolases in Polymer Chemistry: Part III: Synthesis and Limited Surface Hydrolysis of Polyesters and Other Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guebitz, Georg M.

    Limited enzymatic surface hydrolysis of polyamides, polyethyleneterphthalates (PET) and polyacrylonitriles has been demonstrated to be a powerful and yet mild strategy for directly improving polymer surface properties (e.g., hydrophilicity) or activating materials for further processing. Recently, mechanistic details on enzymatic surface hydrolysis have become available, especially for the functionalisation of PET, which has been investigated in most detail. Generally, enzymes show a strong preference for amorphous regions of polymers. Consequently, during hydrolysis, the degree of crystallinity increases according to FTIR and DSC analysis. MALDI-TOF analysis has shown that PET hydrolases (i.e. cutinases and lipases) cleave the polymer endo-wise, in contrast to alkaline hydrolysis. As a result, an increase in the amount of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups has been found upon enzymatic hydrolysis, according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and various derivatisation and titration methods recently adapted for this purpose. These mechanistic data, combined with advances in structural and molecular biology, help to explain the considerably different activities of closely related enzymes (e.g. cutinases) on polymers.

  8. Characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose-rich fractions from steam exploded and sequentially alkali delignified bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Ni; Cao, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Xue-Ming; Xu, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang; Jones, Gwynn Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    In this study, cellulose-rich fractions from bamboo were prepared with steam explosion pretreatment (SEP) followed by a successive alkaline delignification to improve the enzymatic digestibility for an efficient bioethanol production. The cellulose-rich fractions obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, CP/MAS (13)C NMR, SEM, and BET surface area. It was found that the SEP alone significantly removed partial hemicelluloses, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification removed most hemicelluloses and lignin. Results from enzymatic hydrolysis showed that SEP alone improved the enzymatic hydrolysis rate by 7.9-33.1%, while the synergistic treatment by SEP and alkaline delignification enhanced the rate by 45.7-63.9%. The synergistic treatment by SEP at 2.0 MPa for 5 min with water impregnation followed by a successive alkaline delignification with 0.5% NaOH and 70% ethanol containing 1.5% NaOH resulted in a maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 70.6%. PMID:24830378

  9. Hydrolytic depolymerization of hydrolysis lignin: Effects of catalysts and solvents.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nubla; Yuan, Zhongshun; Schmidt, John; Xu, Chunbao Charles

    2015-08-01

    Hydrolytic depolymerization of hydrolysis lignin (HL) in water and water-ethanol co-solvent was investigated at 250C for 1h with 20% (w/v) HL substrate concentration with or without catalyst (H2SO4 or NaOH). The obtained depolymerized HLs (DHLs) were characterized with GPC-UV, FTIR, GC-MS, (1)H NMR and elemental analyzer. In view of the utilization of depolymerized HL (DHL) for the preparation of rigid polyurethane foams/resins un-catalyzed depolymerization of HL employing water-ethanol mixture appeared to be a viable route with high yield of DHL ?70.5wt.% (SR yield of ?9.8wt.%) and with Mw as low as ?1000g/mole with suitable aliphatic (227.1mgKOH/g) and phenolic (215mgKOH/g) hydroxyl numbers. The overall % carbon recovery under the selected best route was ?87%. Acid catalyzed depolymerization of HL in water and water-ethanol mixture lead to slightly increased Mw. Alkaline hydrolysis helped in reducing Mw in water and opposite trend was observed in water-ethanol mixture. PMID:25936442

  10. Acid Hydrolysis of Trioxalatocobaltate (III) Ion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggans, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an investigation involving acid hydrolysis and using both volumetric and kinetic techniques. Presents examples of the determination of the rate constant and its variation with temperature. (GS)

  11. Evaluation of microwave-assisted pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass immersed in alkaline glycerol for fermentable sugars production.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Moretti, Marcia Maria de Souza; Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Carreira Nunes, Christiane da Costa; Blandino, Ana; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    A pretreatment with microwave irradiation was applied to enhance enzyme hydrolysis of corn straw and rice husk immersed in water, aqueous glycerol or alkaline glycerol. Native and pretreated solids underwent enzyme hydrolysis using the extract obtained from the fermentation of Myceliophthora heterothallica, comparing its efficiency with that of the commercial cellulose cocktail Celluclast®. The highest saccharification yields, for both corn straw and rice husk, were attained when biomass was pretreated in alkaline glycerol, method that has not been previously reported in literature. Moreover, FTIR, TG and SEM analysis revealed a more significant modification in the structure of corn straw subjected to this pretreatment. Highest global yields were attained with the crude enzyme extract, which might be the result of its content in a great variety of hydrolytic enzymes, as revealed zymogram analysis. Moreover, its hydrolysis efficiency can be improved by its supplementation with commercial β-glucosidase. PMID:25795445

  12. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  13. Rate of Hydrolysis of Tertiary Halogeno Alkanes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an experiment to measure the relative rate of hydrolysis of the 2-x-2 methylpropanes, where x is bromo, chloro or iodo. The results are plotted on a graph from which the relative rate of hydrolysis can be deduced. (Author/GA)

  14. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  15. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali concentration in pretreatment solution (g alkali/g pretreatment liquor or g alkali/L pretreatment liquor) and alkali loading based on biomass solids (g alkali/g dry biomass) have been widely used. The dual approaches make it difficult to compare the chemical consumption in different process scenarios while evaluating the cost effectiveness of this pretreatment technology. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment of corn stover at various combinations of pretreatment conditions. Enzymatic hydrolysis with different enzyme blends was subsequently performed to identify the effects of pretreatment parameters on substrate digestibility as well as process operational and capital costs. Results The results showed that sodium hydroxide loading is the most dominant variable for enzymatic digestibility. To reach 70% glucan conversion while avoiding extensive degradation of hemicellulose, approximately 0.08 g NaOH/g corn stover was required. It was also concluded that alkali loading based on total solids (g NaOH/g dry biomass) governs the pretreatment efficiency. Supplementing cellulase with accessory enzymes such as α-arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase significantly improved the conversion of the hemicellulose by 6–17%. Conclusions The current work presents the impact of alkaline pretreatment parameters on the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover as well as the process operational and capital investment costs. The high chemical consumption for alkaline pretreatment technology indicates that the main challenge for commercialization is chemical recovery. However, repurposing or co-locating a biorefinery with a paper mill would be advantageous from an economic point of view. PMID:23356733

  16. Synthesis of oxygen-free Titan tholins: implications in organic molecules product from hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brass, C.; Raulin, F.; Coll, P.; Buch, A.

    2013-09-01

    Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, is known for its dense and nitrogen-rich atmosphere. The organic aerosols which are produced in Titan's atmosphere are objects of astrobiological interest. In this paper we focus on their potential chemical evolution when they reach the surface and interact with putative ammonia-water cryomagma[1]. In this context we have followed the evolution of alkaline pH hydrolysis (25wt% ammonia-water) of Titan tholins (produced by an experimental setup using a plasma DC discharge named PLASMA) at low temperature. Our group identified urea as the main product of tholins hydrolysis along with several amino acids (alanine, glycine and aspartic acid). However, those molecules have also been detected in non-hydrolyzed tholins meaning that oxygen gets in the PLASMA reactor during the tholins synthesis [2]. So the synthesis system has been improved by isolating the whole device in a specially designed glove box which protect the PLASMA experiment from the terrestrial atmosphere. After confirming the non-presence of oxygen in tholins produced with this new experimental setup, we performed alkaline pH hydrolysis of oxygen-free tholins in order to verify that organic molecules cited above are indeed in-situ produced. Those results will be exposed on the poster.

  17. ORGANOPHOSPHATE AND ORGANOPHOSPHOROTHIONATE ESTERS: APPLICATION OF LINEAR FREE ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS TO ESTIMATE HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS FOR USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL FATE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrolysis rate constants required for assessing the environmental fate of certain organophosphate and organophosphorothionate esters may be estimated by use of linear free energy relationships (LFERs). LFERs for the second-order alkaline rate constants and the pKa of the conjuga...

  18. Thermal-alkaline solubilization of waste activated sludge as a pre-treatment stage for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, A G; Karlis, P K

    2004-01-01

    This work studied the hydrolysis kinetics and the solubilization of waste activated sludge under a medium range temperature (50-90 degrees C) and pH in the alkaline region (8-11), as a pretreatment stage for anaerobic digestion. The hydrolysis rate for the solubilization of volatile suspended solids (VSS) followed a first-order rate. A linear polynomial hydrolysis model was derived from the experimental results leading to a satisfactory correlation between the hydrolysis rate coefficient, pH, and temperature. At pH 11 and a temperature of 90 degrees C the concentration of the VSS was 6.82%, the VSS reduction reached 45% within ten hours and at the same time the soluble COD was 70.000 mg/l and the total efficiency for methane production 0.28 l of CH4 per g of VSS loading. PMID:14592751

  19. Effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste: a pilot scale study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjun; Takaoka, Masaki; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Co-digestion of wasted sewage sludge, restaurant kitchen waste, and fruit-vegetable waste was carried out in a pilot plant with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Steam was used as heat source for thermal hydrolysis. It was found 38.3% of volatile suspended solids were dissolved after thermal hydrolysis, with digestibility increased by 115%. These results were more significant than those from lab studies using electricity as heat source due to more uniform heating. Anaerobic digesters were then operated under organic loading rates of about 1.5 and 3 kg VS/(m³ d). Little difference was found for digesters with and without thermal pre-treatment in biogas production and volatile solids removal. However, when looking into the digestion process, it was found digestion rate was almost doubled after thermal hydrolysis. Digester was also more stable with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Less volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated and the VFAs/alkalinity ratio was also lower. Batch experiments showed the lag phase can be eliminated by thermal pre-treatment, implying the advantage could be more significant under a shorter hydraulic retention time. Moreover, it was estimated energy cost for thermal hydrolysis can be partly balanced by decreasing viscosity and improving dewaterability of the digestate. PMID:23419457

  20. Hydrolysis of cellulose with superconcentrated hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, I.S.; Pereira, H.; Pittman, J.L.; Strouse, B.A.; Scaringelli, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    Batch hydrolysis of pure cellulose and cellulose in prehydrolyzed sweetgum wood with superconcentrated hydrochloric acid (15-16N) has been studied at moderate temperatures (20-50/sup 0/C). In the absence of agitation the hydrolysis does not go to completion at low liquid-to-solid ratios, but does appear to follow diffusion-controlled first-order kinetics. With agitation, hydrolysis goes to completion with glucose yields of 85-90%, and the higher activation energy associated with the homogeneous hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds is observed. The first-order rate constants are about 5-20 times greater than without agitation. Complete hydrolysis can be effected in 10 min at 50/sup 0/C and 60 min at 30/sup 0/C. Cellulose hydrolysis in the absence of agitation can be increased from less than 60% to over 90% by the addition of lithium or zinc ions. Even with agitation the hydrolysis of wood chips is diffusion controlled. 14 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Effects of ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatments on the enzymolysis and structural characteristics of rice protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyun; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Liang, Qiufang; Qu, Wenjuan; He, Ronghai; Zhou, Cunshan; Mahunu, Gustav Komla

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of multi-frequency energy-gathered ultrasound (MFEGU) and MFEGU assisted alkaline pretreatments on the enzymolysis and the mechanism of two pretreatments accelerating the rice protein (RP) proteolysis process. The results showed that MFEGU and MFEGU assisted alkaline pretreatments improved significantly (P<0.05) the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the protein elution amount of RP. Furthermore under the same DH conditions, ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkaline pretreatments were more save the enzymolysis time than the unpretreatment. The changes in UV-vis spectra, fluorescence emission spectra indicated unfolding and destruction of RP by MFEGU and MFEGU assisted alkaline pretreatments. The circular dichroism analysis showed that both pretreatments decreased α-helix but increased β-sheet and random coil of RP. Amino acid composition revealed that MFEGU and MFEGU assisted alkaline pretreatments could increase the protein elution amount and the ratio of hydrophobic amino acids. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that both pretreatments destroyed the microstructures and reduced the particle size of RP. Therefore, MFEGU and MFEGU assisted alkaline pretreatments are beneficial to improving the degree of hydrolysis due to its sonochemistry effect on the molecular conformation as well as on the microstructure of protein. PMID:26964920

  2. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Mikova, Gizela; Kleerebezem, Robbert; van der Wielen, Luuk Am; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-12-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0.2w/v% SDS) could reach 99% purity, with more than 90% recovery. The lost PHB could be mostly attributed to PHB hydrolysis during the alkaline treatment. PHB hydrolysis could be moderated by increasing the crystallinity of the PHB granules, for example, by biomass pretreatment (e.g. freezing or lyophilization) or by effective cell lysis (e.g. adjusting alkali concentration). The suitability of the purified PHB by alkaline treatment for polymer applications was evaluated by molecular weight and thermal stability. A solvent based purification method was also performed for comparison purposes. As result, PHB produced by mixed enriched cultures was found suitable for thermoplastic applications when purified by the solvent method. While the alkaline method resulted in purity, recovery yield and molecular weight comparable to values reported in literature for PHB produced by pure cultures, it was found unsuitable for thermoplastic applications. Given the potential low cost and favorable environmental impact of this method, it is expected that PHB purified by alkaline method may be suitable for other non-thermal polymer applications, and as a platform chemical. PMID:25642402

  3. Functional characterisation and transcript analysis of an alkaline phosphatase from the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianhe; Parsons, Anthony J; Xue, Hong; Jones, Chris S; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatases (ALP) in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been suggested to be involved in transfer of phosphate from the mycorrhizal fungus to the host plant, but exact mechanisms are still unknown, partially due to the lack of molecular information. We isolated a full-length cDNA (FmALP) from the AM fungus Funneliformis mosseae (syn. Glomus mosseae) showing similarity with putative ALP genes from Rhizophagus intraradices (syn. Glomus intraradices) and Gigaspora margarita. For functional characterisation FmALP was expressed heterologously in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant FmALP protein had a pH optimum of 9.5, and catalysed the hydrolysis of glycerolphosphate and, to a lesser extent of glucose-1- and 6-phosphate, confirming it to be an alkaline phosphatase belonging to the family of alkaline phosphomonoesterases (EC 3.1.3.1). FmALP did not catalyse the hydrolysis of ATP or polyP. Relative FmALP transcript levels were analysed in intra- and extraradical hyphae isolated from F. mosseae infected ryegrass (Lolium perenne) using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). FmALP was highly expressed in intraradical hyphae at low P(i) supply, and its expression was repressed by high P(i) supply. Taken together this study provides evidence for mycorrhizal alkaline phosphatases playing a role in P mobilisation from organic substrates under P starvation conditions. PMID:23474124

  4. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  5. Enhanced polysaccharide recovery from agricultural residues and perennial grasses treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials with alkaline hydrogen peroxide greatly increases their susceptibility to enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. During the course of the pretreatment reaction (18 hours), the pH rises slowly, increasing from pH 11.5 to a final pH greater than 12. As a result, most of the hemicellulose in the lignocellulosic substrate becomes solubilized. Maintaining the reaction pH near the optimum of 11.5 prevents hemicellulose solubilization and decreases the time required for effective pretreatment to about 6 hours. Alkaline peroxide pretreatment is most effective on lignocellulose from monocotyledonous plants, especially members of the family Gramineae. Enzymatic saccharification efficiencies greater than 90% of theoretical were attained from high yielding perennial grasses such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi) and Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) after alkaline peroxide pretreatment. 13 references.

  6. Modeling the mechanisms of biological GTP hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Szeler, Klaudia; Vavitsas, Konstantinos; Åqvist, Johan; Kamerlin, Shina C L

    2015-09-15

    Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP are currently in the spotlight, due to their molecular switch mechanism that controls many cellular processes. One of the best-known classes of these enzymes are small GTPases such as members of the Ras superfamily, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the γ-phosphate bond in GTP. In addition, the availability of an increasing number of crystal structures of translational GTPases such as EF-Tu and EF-G have made it possible to probe the molecular details of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome. However, despite a wealth of biochemical, structural and computational data, the way in which GTP hydrolysis is activated and regulated is still a controversial topic and well-designed simulations can play an important role in resolving and rationalizing the experimental data. In this review, we discuss the contributions of computational biology to our understanding of GTP hydrolysis on the ribosome and in small GTPases. PMID:25731854

  7. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  8. Modeling of percolation process in hemicellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cahela, D R; Lee, Y Y; Chambers, R P

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for a percolation reactor in connection with consecutive first-order reactions. The model was designed to simulated acid-catalyzed cellulose or hemicellulose hydrolysis. The modeling process resulted in an analytically derived reactor equation, including mass-transfer effects, which was found to be useful in process desing and reactor optimization. The modedl was verified by experimental data obtained from hemicellulose hydrolysis. PMID:18548535

  9. Modification of potato peel waste with base hydrolysis and subsequent cationization.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Joensuu, Päivi; Lajunen, Marja

    2015-11-01

    Potato peel waste (PW) is a starch containing biomaterial produced in large amounts by food processing industry. In this work, the treatment of PW by alkaline hydrolysis and cationization in the water phase is reported. In order to improve the cationization of starch, PW was hydrolyzed by heating with alkaline (NaOH) ethanol solution (80%) in a water bath. The impact of variable molar ratios of anhydroglucose unit (AGU):NaOH, heating temperatures and times was studied on the degradation of starch and the molecular size distribution of the product. The hydrolyzed PW was cationized subsequently in water by using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and catalyzed by NaOH under microwave irradiation or in an oil bath. The impact of the various reaction conditions on the cationization and degree of substitution of starch was studied. The degree of substitution of the cationized starch varied in the range of 0-0.35. PMID:26256329

  10. Alkaline Phosphatase Mono- and Di-esterase Reactions: Comparative Transition State Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions have frequently been suggested to proceed through transition states that are altered from their solution counterparts. Previous work with E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP), however, suggests that this enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters through a loose, dissociative transition state, similar to that in solution. AP also exhibits catalytic promiscuity, with a low level of phosphodiesterase activity, despite the tighter, more associative transition state for phosphate diester hydrolysis in solution. Because AP is evolutionarily optimized for phosphate monoester hydrolysis, it is possible that the active site environment alters the transition state for diester hydrolysis to be looser in its bonding to the incoming and outgoing groups. To test this possibility, we have measured the non-enzymatic and AP-catalyzed rate of reaction for a series of substituted methyl phenyl phosphate diesters. The values of ?lg and additional data suggest that the transition state for AP-catalyzed phosphate diester hydrolysis is indistinguishable from that in solution. Instead of altering transition state structure, AP catalyzes phosphoryl transfer reactions by recognizing and stabilizing transition states similar to those in aqueous solution. The AP active site therefore has the ability to recognize different transition states, a property that could assist in the evolutionary optimization of promiscuous activities. PMID:16433548

  11. Alkaline protease from Neurospora crassa. Purification and partial characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, R.A.; Eirich, L.D.; Price, J.S.; Wolfinbarger, L. Jr.; Drucker, H.

    1981-01-25

    A simple purification procedure was developed for the extracellular alkaline protease from Neurospora crassa. Key steps in the purification were: (1) the choice of gelatin as the protein inducer, which induces optimally at a much lower concentration than other commonly employed protein inducers; (2) heat treatment, during which the inducer is digested by the protease; and (3) a concentration step that eliminates the usual precipitation procedures and removes much of the digested protein inducer. The preparation was homogeneous and had a molecular weight of approx. 30,500. The protease has 100% activity from pH 6.0 to 10.0, is heat labile above 45/sup 0/C, and susceptible to autodigestion. Hydrolysis of the ..beta.. chain from insulin indicates a preferential cleavage on the carboxyl group side of neutral and aromatic amino acids.

  12. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  13. Zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The zinc electrode in alkaline electrolyte is unusual in that supersaturated zincate solutions can form during discharge and spongy or mossy zinc deposits can form on charge at low overvoltages. The effect of additives on regular pasted ZnO electrodes and calcium zincate electrodes is discussed. The paper also reports on in situ x-ray absorption (XAS) results on mossy zinc deposits.

  14. Alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment for fermentable sugar production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inevitable depletion of fossil fuels has resulted in an increasing worldwide interest in exploring alternative and sustainable energy sources. Lignocellulose, which is the most abundant biomass on earth, is widely regarded as a promising raw material to produce fuel ethanol. Pretreatment is an essential step to disrupt the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic matrix for enzymatic saccharification and bioethanol production. This paper established an ATSE (alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment) process using a specially designed twin-screw extruder in the presence of alkaline solution to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover for the production of fermentable sugars. Results The ATSE pretreatment was conducted with a biomass/liquid ratio of 1/2 (w/w) at a temperature of 99°C without heating equipment. The results indicated that ATSE pretreatment is effective in improving the enzymatic digestibility of corn stover. Sodium hydroxide loading is more influential factor affecting both sugar yield and lignin degradation than heat preservation time. After ATSE pretreatment under the proper conditions (NaOH loading of 0.06 g/g biomass during ATSE and 1 hour heat preservation after extrusion), 71% lignin removal was achieved and the conversions of glucan and xylan in the pretreated biomass can reach to 83% and 89% respectively via subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g-biomass and substrate consistency of 2%). About 78% of the original polysaccharides were converted into fermentable sugars. Conclusions With the physicochemical functions in extrusion, the ATSE method can effectively overcome the recalcitrance of lignocellulose for the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover. This process can be considered as a promising pretreatment method due to its relatively low temperature (99°C), high biomass/liquid ratio (1/2) and satisfied total sugar yield (78%), despite further study is needed for process optimization and cost reduction. PMID:23834726

  15. Scale formation during alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Krumrine, P.H.; Brock, G.F.; Mayer, E.H.

    1984-04-01

    Alkaline chemicals in enhanced recovery operations have been and are being used: 1) as preflush agents, 2) with polymers and surfactants, and 3) as a principal recovery agent. In these chemical flooding techniques the reactions of multivalent hardness ions with alkalis to form precipitates are of particular concern. These reactions can be prevented at the injection wells through adequate preflushing and/or the use of good quality softened water; filtration can be used to remove any precipitates. These practices minimize the precipitation and subsequent damage to the well equipment and to the formation around the injectors, and reduce the chance for injectivity impairment. In the formation a host of reactions which significantly alter the injected slug occur including: dissolution, mixing, neutralization, and ion exchange. These may lead to fluid diversion as precipitates form to block high flow channels. At the producing wells, however, precipitation and deposition phenomena are undesirable since scales can form to restrict production and foul well equipment. With the higher concentrations of alkali being used in the field, the development of well scaling has become noticeable and difficult to control using previously accepted practices. This paper describes the progress and experience gained at the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington, CA alkaline pilot dealing with scales formed in producing wells. These scales have been made up variously of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate, and amorphous silica. In particular, the reservoir characteristics and chemical conditions leading to the scale formation are discussed in detail showing what, how, and why the scale forms. For the Wilmington alkaline pilot, the mixing during production of very hard waters from one subzone with moderately alkaline water from other subzones, and the dissolution of formation solids has led to scale formation in producers closest to the alkaline injection.

  16. Review: Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bin; Dai, Ziyu; Ding, Shi-You; Wyman, Charles E.

    2011-07-16

    Biological conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals offers the high yields to products vital to economic success and the potential for very low costs. Enzymatic hydrolysis that converts lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars may be the most complex step in this process due to substrate-related and enzyme-related effects and their interactions. Although enzymatic hydrolysis offers the potential for higher yields, higher selectivity, lower energy costs, and milder operating conditions than chemical processes, the mechanism of enzymatic hydrolysis and the relationship between the substrate structure and function of various glycosyl hydrolase components are not well understood. Consequently, limited success has been realized in maximizing sugar yields at very low cost. This review highlights literature on the impact of key substrate and enzyme features that influence performance to better understand fundamental strategies to advance enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass for biological conversion to fuels and chemicals. Topics are summarized from a practical point of view including characteristics of cellulose (e.g., crystallinity, degree of polymerization, and accessible surface area) and soluble and insoluble biomass components (e.g., oligomeric xylan, lignin, etc.) released in pretreatment, and their effects on the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis. We further discuss the diversity, stability, and activity of individual enzymes and their synergistic effects in deconstructing complex lignocellulosic biomass. Advanced technologies to discover and characterize novel enzymes and to improve enzyme characteristics by mutagenesis, post-translational modification, and over-expression of selected enzymes and modifications in lignocellulosic biomass are also discussed.

  17. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  18. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  19. Alkaline Phosphatase-Mimicking Peptide Nanofibers for Osteogenic Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gulseren, Gulcihan; Yasa, I Ceren; Ustahuseyin, Oya; Tekin, E Deniz; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2015-07-13

    Recognition of molecules and regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis are some of the functions of enzymes in addition to their catalytic activity. While a diverse array of enzyme-like materials have been developed, these efforts have largely been confined to the imitation of the chemical structure and catalytic activity of the enzymes, and it is unclear whether enzyme-mimetic molecules can also be used to replicate the matrix-regulatory roles ordinarily performed by natural enzymes. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers can provide multifunctional enzyme-mimetic properties, as the active sequences of the target enzymes can be directly incorporated into the peptides. Here, we report enhanced bone regeneration efficiency through peptide nanofibers carrying both catalytic and matrix-regulatory functions of alkaline phosphatase, a versatile enzyme that plays a critical role in bone formation by regulating phosphate homeostasis and calcifiable bone matrix formation. Histidine presenting peptide nanostructures were developed to function as phosphatases. These molecules are able to catalyze phosphate hydrolysis and serve as bone-like nodule inducing scaffolds. Alkaline phosphatase-like peptide nanofibers enabled osteogenesis for both osteoblast-like and mesenchymal cell lines. PMID:26039144

  20. Properties of cellulose separators for alkaline secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Danko, T.

    1995-07-01

    This paper discusses some of the properties of cellulose which influence the performance of battery separators. A review of the viscose process used to manufacture cellulosic separators is given as well as a look at using the viscose process to produce separator composites. Regenerated cellulose has been used as a separator in batteries for many years. In Ag-Zn systems, for example, it has proven effective due to its resistance to silver migration and zinc dendrites. How cellulose works has been investigated by many individuals. In Ag-Zn systems, for example, it is believed regenerated cellulose chemically reacts with soluble silver (which destroys the cellulose) and that it also physically inhibits the zinc dendrite. The tendency for cellulose to degrade in alkaline solutions has been addressed by using multiple layers of the separator in the battery. One way to minimize cellulose degradation in alkaline solutions has been to keep the KOH concentration high (around 45%). The rate of degradation slows down due to the KOH typing up the water used in the hydrolysis reaction. The other important aspects of the regenerated cellulose are molecular weight (degree of polymerization, DP) and purity.

  1. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  2. The secondary alkaline zinc electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarnon, Frank R.; Cairns, Elton J.

    1991-02-01

    The worldwide studies conducted between 1975 and 1990 with the aim of improving cell lifetimes of secondary alkaline zinc electrodes are overviewed. Attention is given the design features and characteristics of various secondary alkaline zinc cells, including four types of zinc/nickel oxide cell designs (vented static-electrolyte, sealed static-electrolyte, vibrating-electrode, and flowing-electrolyte); two types of zinc/air cells (mechanically rechargeable consolidated-electrode and mechanically rechargeable particulate-electrode); zinc/silver oxide battery; zinc/manganese dioxide cell; and zinc/ferric cyanide battery. Particular consideration is given to recent research in the fields of cell thermodynamics, zinc electrodeposition, zinc electrodissolution, zinc corrosion, electrolyte properties, mathematical and phenomenological models, osmotic pumping, nonuniform current distribution, and cell cycle-life perforamnce.

  3. Alkaline solution water electrolysis - '81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. N.

    During the last two years several improvements in the alkaline solution electrolysis technology have been implemented in form of practical hardware. Attention is given to the catalyst system 'C-AN', alternative anode structures, a new proprietary anode electrocatalyst, alternates to the conventional chrysotile asbestos separator, the current status of hardware development, and the employment of simplistic and complex models for establishing the economics of hydrogen via water electrolysis.

  4. Glucans from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom, Pleurotus florida, cv Assam Florida: isolation, purification, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Arnab K; Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Islam, Syed S

    2010-10-13

    Three different glucans (PS-I, PS-II, and PS-III) were isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of an edible mushroom Pleurotus florida, cultivar Assam Florida. On the basis of total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and NMR experiments ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of these polysaccharides was established as follows: [Formula: see text]. PMID:20800223

  5. Towards zero discharge of chromium-containing leather waste through improved alkali hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mu, Changdao; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Mingrang; Zhu, Qingshi

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of chromium-containing leather waste (CCLW), the major solid waste generated at the post-tanning operations of leather processing, has the potential to generate value-added leather chemicals. Various alkali and enzymatic hydrolysis were compared, and calcium oxide was found to be important for effective (but still incomplete) hydrolysis. Three possible reasons are given for the incomplete hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Data for 19 amino acids are presented for four different treatment products. On the basis of the results, a novel three-step CCLW treatment process is proposed. The gelatin extracted in the first step is chemically modified to produce leather finishing agents. The collagen hydrolysates isolated in the second step are used as proteinic retanning agents by chemical modification. The remaining chrome cake is further hydrolyzed with acids in the third step, and the obtained chromium-containing protein hydrolysates could be used for the preparation of chromium-containing retanning agents for leather industry. The proposed three-step process provides a feasible zero discharge process for the treatment of CCLW. PMID:14583246

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis of spent coffee ground.

    PubMed

    Jooste, T; Garca-Aparicio, M P; Brienzo, M; van Zyl, W H; Grgens, J F

    2013-04-01

    Spent coffee ground (SCG) is the main residue generated during the production of instant coffee by thermal water extraction from roasted coffee beans. This waste is composed mainly of polysaccharides such as cellulose and galactomannans that are not solubilised during the extraction process, thus remaining as unextractable, insoluble solids. In this context, the application of an enzyme cocktail (mannanase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, xylanase and pectinase) with more than one component that acts synergistically with each other is regarded as a promising strategy to solubilise/hydrolyse remaining solids, either to increase the soluble solids yield of instant coffee or for use as raw material in the production of bioethanol and food additives (mannitol). Wild fungi were isolated from both SCG and coffee beans and screened for enzyme production. The enzymes produced from the selected wild fungi and recombinant fungi were then evaluated for enzymatic hydrolysis of SCG, in comparison to commercial enzyme preparations. Out of the enzymes evaluated on SCG, the application of mannanase enzymes gave better yields than when only cellulase or xylanase was utilised for hydrolysis. The recombinant mannanase (Man1) provided the highest increments in soluble solids yield (17 %), even when compared with commercial preparations at the same protein concentration (0.5 mg/g SCG). The combination of Man1 with other enzyme activities revealed an additive effect on the hydrolysis yield, but not synergistic interaction, suggesting that the highest soluble solid yields was mainly due to the hydrolysis action of mannanase. PMID:23436225

  7. Phosphatase Hydrolysis of Soil Organic Phosphorus Fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant available inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is usually limited in highly weathered Ultisols. The high Fe, Al, and Mn contents in these soils enhance Pi retention and fixation. The metals are also known to form complexes with organic phosphorus (Po) compounds. Hydrolysis of Po compounds is needed for P...

  8. COMPUTERIZED EXTRAPOLATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The program RATE was developed to aid in the extrapolation and interpretation of hydrolysis rate data to a format that is useful for environmental risk assessment. ydrolysis data typically are reported in the literature as pseudo-first-order rate constants at the temperature and ...

  9. Phosphatase hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphatases are diverse groups of enzymes that deserve special attention because of the significant roles they play in mineralizing organic phosphorus (P) into inorganic available form. For getting more insight on the enzymatically hydrolysis of organic P, in this work, we compared the catalytic pa...

  10. Optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of Enteromorpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dawei; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Qin, Song

    2011-11-01

    Acid hydrolysis is a simple and direct way to hydrolyze polysaccharides in biomass into fermentable sugars. To produce fermentable sugars effectively and economically for fuel ethanol, we have investigated the hydrolysis of Enteromorpha using acids that are typically used to hydrolyze biomass: H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and C4H4O4 (maleic acid). 5%(w/w) Enteromorpha biomass was treated for different times (30, 60, and 90 min) and with different acid concentrations (0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2%, w/w) at 121C. H2SO4 was the most effective acid in this experiment. We then analyzed the hydrolysis process in H2SO4 in detail using high performance liquid chromatography. At a sulfuric acid concentration of 1.8% and treatment time of 60 min, the yield of ethanol fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) was high, (230.5 mg/g dry biomass, comprising 175.2 mg/g glucose and 55.3 mg/g xylose), with 48.6% of total reducing sugars being ethanol fermentable. Therefore, Enteromorpha could be a good candidate for production of fuel ethanol. In future work, the effects of temperature and biomass concentration on hydrolysis, and also the fermentation of the hydrolysates to ethanol fuel should be focused on.

  11. Thioglycoside hydrolysis catalyzed by {beta}-glucosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Hong; Byers, Larry D.

    2007-10-26

    Sweet almond {beta}-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) has been shown to have significant thioglycohydrolase activity. While the K{sub m} values for the S- and O-glycosides are similar, the k{sub cat} values are about 1000-times lower for the S-glycosides. Remarkably, the pH-profile for k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl thioglucoside (pNPSG) shows the identical dependence on a deprotonated carboxylate (pK{sub a} 4.5) and a protonated group (pK{sub a} 6.7) as does the pH-profile for hydrolysis of the corresponding O-glycoside. Not surprisingly, in spite of the requirement for the presence of this protonated group in catalytically active {beta}-glucosidase, thioglucoside hydrolysis does not involve general acid catalysis. There is no solvent kinetic isotope effect on the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of pNPSG.

  12. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

  13. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10%, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07% was achieved when the solid loading was 2% with the cellulase dose of 24FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1g/L butanol and 11.2g/L ABE could be produced after 72h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6% solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112g/g raw corn stover. PMID:24114460

  14. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  15. A study of the sorption behavior of pillared layered materials using alkaline earth metals

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.M.; Wade, K.L.; Odom, M.A.; White, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    Certain Pillared Layered Materials (PLMs) have shown very high affinities (K{sub d}s) for strontium in highly alkaline nuclear waste simulant solutions. The factors contributing to this affinity, however, are not well understood. By studying the distribution coefficients for calcium, strontium and barium onto a variety of PLMs over a range of pH values, this research assesses the effects of cation size, charge to size ratio, and extent of cation hydrolysis on the sorption of these species onto PLMs.

  16. New insights on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride from 11B NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Guella, G; Zanchetta, C; Patton, B; Miotello, A

    2006-08-31

    To gain insight on the mechanistic aspects of the palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH(4) in alkaline media, the kinetics of the reaction has been investigated by (11)B NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurements taken at different times during the reaction course. Working with BH(4)(-) concentration in the range 0.05-0.1 M and with a [substrate]/[catalyst] molar ratio of 0.03-0.11, hydrolysis has been found to follow a first-order kinetic dependence from concentration of both the substrate and the catalyst (Pd/C 10 wt %). We followed the reaction of NaBH(4) and its perdeuterated analogue NaBD(4) in H(2)O, in D(2)O and H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures. When the process was carried out in D(2)O, deuterium incorporation in BH(4)(-) afforded BH(4)(-)(n)D(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) species, and a competition between hydrolysis and hydrogen/deuterium exchange processes was observed. By fitting the kinetics NMR data by nonlinear least-squares regression techniques, the rate constants of the elementary steps involved in the palladium-catalyzed borohydride hydrolysis have been evaluated. Such a regression analysis was performed on a reaction scheme wherein the starting reactant BH(4)(-) is allowed both to reversibly exchange hydrogen with deuterium atoms of D(2)O and to irreversibly hydrolyze into borohydroxy species B(OD)(4)(-). In contrast to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, our results indicate that in the palladium-catalyzed process the rate constants of the exchange processes are higher than those of the corresponding hydrolysis reactions. PMID:16927996

  17. Reduction of chromium(VI) to chromium(III) with sodium borohydride in an alkaline medium

    SciTech Connect

    Khain, V.S.; Martynova, V.F.; Volkov, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    In many cases it is necessary to extract chromium from spent industrial solutions. The method in use is based on the reduction of the chromate to chromium(III) with metallic aluminum in a strongly alkaline medium. It was demonstrated earlier that in solutions with pH = 8-10 chromium(VI) is slowly reduced by sodium borohydride to chromium(III) hydroxide. Responsible for the reaction are not the BH/sub 4/ ions, but its hydrolysis products: mono-, di-, and trihydroxyborohydrides. With the aim of understanding more accurately the mechanism of the process and of finding the optimum conditions for the separation of chromium from the solutions, we studied the quantitative rules governing the reduction of the chromate ion in weakly alkaline solutions of NaBH/sub 4/.

  18. Scale formation during Alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Krumrine, P.H.; Craton, G.M.

    1985-08-01

    Alkaline chemicals in enhanced recovery operations are used as preflush agents, with polymers and surfactants, and as a principal recovery agent. In these chemical flooding techniques, the precipitation reactions of multivalent hardness ions with alkalis are of particular concern. These reactions may be prevented at the injection wells through adequate preflushing and/or the use of good-quality softened water; filtration can remove any precipitates that form at the surface. In the formation, many reactions occur that alter the injected slug significantly. These include dissolution, mixing, neutralization, and ion exchange. Such reactions may lead to beneficial fluid diversion as precipitates form and block high-flow channels. At the producing wells, however, precipitation and deposition phenomena are undesirable because scales may form that restrict production and foul well equipment. With the current higher concentrations of alkali being used in the field, the development of well scaling has become noticeable and difficult to control by previously accepted practices. This paper describes the progress and experience gained at the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington, CA, alkaline pilot dealing with scales formed in producing wells. These scales have been made up variously of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate, and amorphous silica. In particular, the reservoir characteristics and chemical conditions leading to the scale formation are discussed in detail, showing what, how, and why the scale forms.

  19. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  20. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  1. Pretreatment of sallow prior to enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Galbe, M.; Zacchi, G.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Pretreatment of fast-growing sallow by steam explosion prior to enzymic hydrolysis was investigated to find optimum conditions regarding pretreatment temperature and time. Some preliminary experiments with impregnation of the material with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ were performed to reduce the byproduct formation and to increase the xylose yield. A temperature of 220 degrees for 15 minutes gave the highest yield, approximately 80% of the glucose available based on raw material. The xylose recovered was equal to or less than 20% when no chemicals were added. Impregnation with Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/ gave an improvement compared with the unimpregnated material. About 30% of the xylose content could thus be recovered after the enzymic hydrolysis. The results are promising. (Refs. 5).

  2. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  3. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of palm pressed fiber based on the three main components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Jiang, Wenju; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanzong; Deng, Shihuan; Li, Zhuang

    2014-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of the native and the pretreated palm pressed fiber (PPF) was deeply investigated by using the enzyme cocktail ACCELLERASE 1500. Together with the spent PPF from the first hydrolysis and the further doubly-treated PPF, the proportions of three main components were determined and analyzed based on a triangle figure. The proportion (cellulose/hemicelluloses/lignin) in the spent PPF was equal to 44:23:33 and the surface morphology of the spent PPF looks very similar to the native PPF surface showing poor hydrolysis efficiency. After further double treatment, the proportion was changed evidently from the original 44:23:33 to 54:21:25 and the surface structure was significantly disrupted showing a potential to be hydrolyzed completely. Additionally, all samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffractogram through considerations of alkaline solution treatment, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components. PMID:24652599

  4. ?-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E.; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /?-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 ?g/ml to 513.5 ?g/ml at 60C and 28 times from 7.78 ?g/ml to 221.46 ?g/ml at 50C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without ?-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34%) and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%), which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates). Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein. PMID:24143039

  5. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  6. Alkaline Phosphatase and Other Hydrolyases Produced by Cenococcum graniforme, an Ectomycorrhizal Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kwang-Sung; Barton, Larry L.

    1989-01-01

    Cell extracts of Cenococcum graniforme have been found to contain the following hydrolytic enzymes: protease, esterase, ?-d-galactopyranosidase, ?-d-galactopyranosidase, ?-d-mannopyranosidase, ?-d-xylopyranosidase, ?-d-glucopyranosidase, ?-d-glucopyranosidase, and alkaline phosphatase. Sulfatase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, and ?-d-mannopyranosidase were not detected in the extracts. ?-d-Xylopyranosidase and ?-d-mannopyranosidase were most active in the neutral pH range, protease and phosphatase were most active in the alkaline pH range, and other enzymes were most active in the acidic pH range. These enzymes showed a high association with cell wall material, and the release of enzymes from the cells into the culture fluid appeared to occur only when the cells were undergoing autolysis. Alkaline phosphatase in C. graniforme is a constitutive enzyme, and examination of the alkaline phosphatase following a purification of 265-fold produced the following characteristics: pH optimum of 9.5, Mr of 60,000, Km of 2.1 10-4 M for p-nitrophenylphosphate, and activation energy for hydrolysis of the substrate at 9.9 kcal (1 cal = 4.184 J)/mol. PMID:16348028

  7. Xylan hydrolysis in zinc chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, N.J.; Xu, Q.; Chen, L.F

    1995-12-31

    Xylan is the major component of hemicellulose, which consists of up to one-third of the lignocellulosic biomass. When the zinc chloride solution was used as a pretreatment agent to facilitate cellulose hydrolysis, hemicellulose was hydrolyzed during the pretreatment stage. In this study, xylan was used as a model to study the hydrolysis of hemicellulose in zinc chloride solution. The degradation of xylose that is released from xylan was reduced by the formation of zinc-xylose complex. The xylose yield was > 90% (w/w) at 70{degrees}C. The yield and rate of hydrolysis were a function of temperature and the concentration of zinc chloride. The ratio of zinc chloride can be decreased from 9 to 1.3 (w/w). At this ratio, 76% of xylose yield was obtained. When wheat straw was pretreated with a concentrated zinc chloride solution, the hemicellulose hydrolysate contained only xylose and trace amounts of arabinose and oligosaccharides. With this approach, the hemicellulose hydrolysate can be separated from cellulose residue, which would be hydrolyzed subsequently to glucose by acid or enzymes to produce glucose. This production scheme provided a method to produce glucose and xylose in different streams, which can be fermented in separated fermenters.

  8. Mechanistic insights for ?-cyclodextrin catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Mahboobeh; Yeole, Sachin D; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2014-04-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bond in different substrates containing alkyl or aryl substituents, in the presence of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a catalyst, has been investigated employing the density functional theory. It has been shown that the mechanism of ?-CD catalyzed phosphodiester hydrolysis in modeled substrates viz. [p-nitrophenyl][(2,2) methylpropan] phosphodiester (G1); [p-nitrophenyl] [(2,2)methyl butan] phosphodiester (G2); (p-nitrophenyl) (2-methyl pentan) phosphodiester (G3); (p-nitrophenyl) (phenyl) phosphodiester (G4); (p-nitrophenyl) (m-tert-butyl phenyl) phosphodiester (G5) and (p-nitrophenyl) (p-nitrophenyl) phosphodiester (G6) involves net phosphoryl transfer from p-nitrophenyl to the catalyst. The hydrolysis occurs in a single-step D(N)A(N) mechanism wherein the ?-CD acts as a competitive general base. The nucleophile addition is facilitated via face-to-face hydrogen-bonded interactions from the secondary hydroxyl groups attached to the top rim of ?-CD. The insights for cleavage of phosphodiester along the dissociative pathway have been derived using the molecular electrostatic potential studies as a tool. The activation barrier of substrates containing alkyl group (G2 and G3) are found to be lower than those containing aryl groups (G4, G5 and G6). PMID:24652502

  9. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant ?- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good ?-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production. PMID:23851270

  10. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  11. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  12. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and ?-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%. PMID:25773993

  13. Kinetic isotope effects for alkaline phosphatase reactions: implications for the role of active-site metal ions in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zalatan, Jesse G; Catrina, Irina; Mitchell, Rebecca; Grzyska, Piotr K; O'brien, Patrick J; Herschlag, Daniel; Hengge, Alvan C

    2007-08-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions have frequently been suggested to proceed through transition states that are altered from their solution counterparts, with the alterations presumably arising from interactions with active-site functional groups. In particular, the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been the subject of intensive scrutiny. Recent linear free energy relationship (LFER) studies suggest that AP catalyzes phosphate monoester hydrolysis through a loose transition state, similar to that in solution. To gain further insight into the nature of the transition state and active-site interactions, we have determined kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for AP-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions with several phosphate monoester substrates. The LFER and KIE data together provide a consistent picture for the nature of the transition state for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis and support previous models suggesting that the enzymatic transition state is similar to that in solution. Moreover, the KIE data provides unique information regarding specific interactions between the transition state and the active-site Zn2+ ions. These results provide strong support for a model in which electrostatic interactions between the bimetallo Zn2+ site and a nonbridging phosphate ester oxygen atom make a significant contribution to the large rate enhancement observed for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis. PMID:17630738

  14. Kinetic Isotope Effects for Alkaline Phosphatase Reactions: Implications for the Role of Active Site Metal Ions in Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Zalatan, Jesse G.; Catrina, Irina; Mitchell, Rebecca; Grzyska, Piotr K.; OBrien, Patrick J.; Herschlag, Daniel; Hengge, Alvan C.

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions have frequently been suggested to proceed through transition states that are altered from their solution counterparts, with the alterations presumably arising from interactions with active site functional groups. In particular, the phosphate monoester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been the subject of intensive scrutiny. Recent linear free energy relationship (LFER) studies suggest that AP catalyzes phosphate monoester hydrolysis through a loose transition state, similar to that in solution. To gain further insight into the nature of the transition state and active site interactions, we have determined kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) for AP-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions with several phosphate monoester substrates. The LFER and KIE data together provide a consistent picture for the nature of the transition state for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis and support previous models suggesting that the enzymatic transition state is similar to that in solution. Moreover, the KIE data provides unique information regarding specific interactions between the transition state and the active site Zn2+ ions. These results provide strong support for a model in which electrostatic interactions between the bimetallo Zn2+ site and a nonbridging phosphate ester oxygen atom make a significant contribution to the large rate enhancement observed for AP-catalyzed phosphate monoester hydrolysis. PMID:17630738

  15. Effect of four pretreatments on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of wheat straw. Influence of inhibitors and washing.

    PubMed

    Toquero, Cristina; Bolado, Silvia

    2014-04-01

    Pretreatment is essential in the production of alcohol from lignocellulosic material. In order to increase enzymatic sugar release and bioethanol production, thermal, dilute acid, dilute basic and alkaline peroxide pretreatments were applied to wheat straw. Compositional changes in pretreated solid fractions and sugars and possible inhibitory compounds released in liquid fractions were analysed. SEM analysis showed structural changes after pretreatments. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Pichia stipitis of unwashed and washed samples from each pretreatment were performed so as to compare sugar and ethanol yields. The effect of the main inhibitors found in hydrolysates (formic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was first studied through ethanol fermentations of model media and then compared to real hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of washed alkaline peroxide pretreated biomass provided the highest sugar concentrations, 31.82g/L glucose, and 13.75g/L xylose, their fermentation yielding promising results, with ethanol concentrations reaching 17.37g/L. PMID:24531149

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of rice dreg protein: effects of enzyme type on the functional properties and antioxidant activities of recovered proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Xiong, Hua; Selomulya, Cordelia; Chen, Xiao Dong; Zhong, Honglan; Wang, Shenqi; Sun, Wenjing; Zhou, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The effects of various proteases on the formation and characteristics of rice dreg protein hydrolysates (RDPHs) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis of often under-utilised rice dreg protein (RDP) with different enzymes studied here was found to significantly improve protein content and solubility. RDPHs prepared by alkaline protease showed better protein recovery, producing higher protein content with much smaller peptides, while hydrolysates generated by Protamex showed the highest antioxidant activities with more than 80% solubility over a wide pH range. The results indicated that the type of protease greatly influenced the molecular weight and amino acid residue composition of RDPH. The enzyme type also determined the functional properties and antioxidant activity of the recovered proteins. It was found that an optimum allocation of alkaline protease in addition to the Neutrase enzyme could be an appropriate strategy to produce RDPH with desirable functionalities, antioxidant properties, and low salt content. PMID:25005954

  17. Scale formation during alkaline flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Krumrine, P.H.; Brock, G.F.; Mayer, E.M.

    1984-04-01

    Alkaline chemicals in enhanced recovery operations have been and are being used: 1) as preflush agents, 2) with polymers and surfactants, and 3) as a principal recovery agent. In these chemical flooding techniques the reactions of multivalent hardness ions with alkalis to form precipitates are of particular concern. These reactions can be prevented at the injection wells through adequate preflushing and/or the use of good quality softened water; filtration can be used to remove any precipitates. These practices minimize the precipitation and subsequent damage to the well equipment and to the formation around the injectors, and reduce the chance for injectivity impairment. In the formation a host of reactions which significantly alter the injected slug occur including: dissolution, mixing, neutralization, and ion exchange. These may lead to fluid diversion as precipitates form to block high flow channels.

  18. The Alkaline Denaturation of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ageno, M.; Dore, E.; Frontali, C.

    1969-01-01

    A kinetic study of the alkaline transition of DNA, in clearly defined physico-chemical conditions, is presented, which allows us to identify, within the alkaline transition region, different pH ranges, corresponding to different ratelimiting factors. This analysis brings into consideration three distinct intervals of time which characterize the whole process, namely the time necessary for full hyperchromicity to be reached, the time required for strand separation in the case of a single DNA molecule, and the time for complete denaturation to be reached in the case of a DNA solution. The results obtained from ultracentrifugal, and spectrophotometric measurements, involving rapid mixing experiments, seem to indicate the following conclusions: whereas, in the lower pH ranges considered within the transition region, the denaturation process is limited by the first time constant, this same constant becomes extremely short at higher pH. On the other hand the fact that, in the higher pH range, the second and third time constants do not coincide (the time to unwind a single T2 DNA molecule being at least one order of magnitude shorter than the time required for bulk denaturation to be reached) suggests that in this pH range the overall denaturation rate is limited by a statistical process governing the initiation of unwinding. These observations are discussed in terms of a model in which the unwinding energy is given by the electrostatic repulsions which originate in the deprotonated DNA molecule. The model itself suggests some experiment which seem to confirm it. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:4982056

  19. Effect of hydrolysis time on the physicochemical and functional properties of corn glutelin by Protamex hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xi-qun; Wang, Jun-tong; Liu, Xiao-lan; Sun, Ying; Zheng, Yong-jie; Wang, Xiao-jie; Liu, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The physicochemical and functional properties, such as surface hydrophobicity, disulphide bond content, thermal properties, molecular weight distribution, antioxidant properties, of corn glutelin hydrolysates catalysed by Protamex at different hydrolysis times were evaluated. The hydrolysis influenced the properties of corn glutelin significantly, and not only decreased its molecular weight and disulphide bond content, but also eventually transformed its insoluble native aggregates to soluble aggregates during the hydrolysis process. Corn glutelin hydrolysates were found to have a higher solubility, which was associated with their relatively higher foaming and emulsifying properties compared to the original glutelin. Corn glutelin and its hydrolysates maintained a high thermal stability. In addition, the hydrolysates exhibited excellent antioxidant properties measured through in vitro assays, namely DPPH and OH radical scavenging activity, Fe(2+)-chelating capacity and reducing power; the values were 58.86%, 82.64%, 29.92% and 0.236% at 2.0mg/mL, respectively. PMID:25442571

  20. Improved volatile fatty acids anaerobic production from waste activated sludge by pH regulation: Alkaline or neutral pH?

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijun; Chen, Xingchun; Liu, He; Liu, Hongbo; Fu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the anaerobic fermentation was carried out for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production at different pH (between 7.0 and 10.0) conditions with untreated sludge and heat-alkaline pretreated waste activated sludge. In the fermentation with untreated sludge, the extent of hydrolysis of organic matters and extent of acidification at alkaline pH are 54.37% and 30.37%, respectively, resulting in the highest VFAs yield at 235.46mg COD/gVS of three pH conditions. In the fermentation with heat-alkaline pretreated sludge, the acidification rate and VFAs yield at neutral pH are 30.98% and 240.14mg COD/gVS, respectively, which are higher than that at other pH conditions. With the glucose or bovine serum albumin as substrate for VFAs production, the neutral pH showed a higher VFAs concentration than the alkaline pH condition. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated that the alkaline pH caused low microbial richness. Based on the results in this study, we demonstrated that the alkaline pH is favor of hydrolysis of organic matter in sludge while neutral pH improved the acidogenesis for the VFAs production from sludge. Our finding is obvious different to the previous research and helpful for the understanding of how heat-alkaline pretreatment and alkaline fermentation influence the VFAs production, and beneficial to the development of VFAs production process. PMID:26652215

  1. Study on the hydrolysis/precipitation behavior of Keggin Al13 and Al30 polymers in polyaluminum solutions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaoyang; Luan, Zhaokun; Jia, Zhiping; Li, Xiaosen

    2009-06-01

    The hydrolysis/precipitation behaviors of Al(3+), Al(13) and Al(30) under conditions typical for flocculation in water treatment were investigated by studying the particulates' size development, charge characteristics, chemical species and speciation transformation of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates. The optimal pH conditions for hydrolysis precipitates formation for AlCl(3), PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were 6.5-7.5, 8.5-9.5, and 7.5-9.5, respectively. The precipitates' formation rate increased with the increase in dosage, and the relative rates were AlCl(3)>PAC(Al30)>PAC(Al13). The precipitates' size increased when the dosage increased from 50 microM to 200 microM, but it decreased when the dosage increased to 800 microM. The Zeta potential of coagulant hydrolysis precipitates decreased with the increase in pH for the three coagulants. The iso-electric points of the freshly formed precipitates for AlCl(3), PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were 7.3, 9.6 and 9.2, respectively. The Zeta potentials of AlCl(3) hydrolysis precipitates were lower than those of PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) when pH>5.0. The Zeta potential of PAC(Al30) hydrolysis precipitates was higher than that of PAC(Al13) at the acidic side, but lower at the alkaline side. The dosage had no obvious effect on the Zeta potential of hydrolysis precipitates under fixed pH conditions. The increase in Zeta potential with the increase in dosage under uncontrolled pH conditions was due to the pH depression caused by coagulant addition. Al-Ferron research indicated that the hydrolysis precipitates of AlCl(3) were composed of amorphous Al(OH)(3) precipitates, but those of PAC(Al13) and PAC(Al30) were composed of aggregates of Al(13) and Al(30), respectively. Al(3+) was the most un-stable species in coagulants, and its hydrolysis was remarkably influenced by solution pH. Al(13) and Al(30) species were very stable, and solution pH and aging had little effect on the chemical species of their hydrolysis products. The research method involving coagulant hydrolysis precipitates based on Al-Ferron reaction kinetics was studied in detail. The Al species classification based on complex reaction kinetic of hydrolysis precipitates and Ferron reagent was different from that measured in a conventional coagulant assay using the Al-Ferron method. The chemical composition of Al(a), Al(b) and Al(c) depended on coagulant and solution pH. The Al(b) measured in the current case was different from Keggin Al(13), and the high Al(b) content in the AlCl(3) hydrolysis precipitates could not used as testimony that most of the Al(3+) was converted to highly charged Al(13) species during AlCl(3) coagulation. PMID:19409689

  2. Zinc-air alkaline batteries - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakkaravarthy, C.; Waheed, A. K. A.; Udupa, H. V. K.

    1981-07-01

    The basic principles involved in the operation of an alkaline zinc-air system are considered. Fully developed primary and mechanically rechargeable cells and their applications are reviewed. Various obstacles pertaining to the development of an electrically rechargeable zinc-air alkaline battery and possible means of overcoming them to some degree are summarized.

  3. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  4. Sensitive Fluorogenic Substrate for Alkaline Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michael N.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase serves as both a model enzyme for studies on the mechanism and kinetics of phosphomonoesterases and as a reporter in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and other biochemical methods. The tight binding of the enzyme to its inorganic phosphate product leads to strong inhibition of catalysis and confounds measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity. We have developed an alkaline phosphatase substrate in which the fluorescence of rhodamine is triggered upon PO bond cleavage in a process mediated by a trimethyl lock. Although this substrate requires a second, non-enzymatic step to manifest fluorescence, we demonstrated that the first, enzymatic step limits the rate of fluorogenesis. The substrate enables the catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatase to be measured with high sensitivity and accuracy. Its attributes are ideal for enzymatic assays of alkaline phosphatase for both basic research and biotechnological applications. PMID:21827735

  5. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  6. Synergy between cellulases and pectinases in the hydrolysis of hemp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junhua; Pakarinen, Annukka; Viikari, Liisa

    2013-02-01

    The impact of pectinases in the hydrolysis of fresh, steam-exploded and ensiled hemp was investigated and the synergy between cellulases, pectinases and xylanase in the hydrolysis was evaluated. About half; 59.3% and 46.1% of pectin in the steam-exploded and ensiled hemp, respectively, could be removed by a low dosage of pectinases used. Pectinases were more efficient than xylanase in the hydrolysis of fresh and ensiled hemp whereas xylanase showed higher hydrolytic efficiency than the pectinase preparation used in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Clear synergistic action between cellulases and xylanase could be observed in the hydrolysis of steam-exploded hemp. Supplementation of pectinase resulted in clear synergism with cellulases in the hydrolysis of all hemp substrates. Highest hydrolysis yield of steam-exploded hemp was obtained in the hydrolysis with cellulases and xylanase. In the hydrolysis of ensiled hemp, the synergistic action between cellulases and pectinases was more obvious for efficient hydrolysis. PMID:23262004

  7. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  8. Hydrogen generation from borohydride hydrolysis on surface-alloyed Ni foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. P.; Ma, S. L.; Li, G. R.; Liu, B. H.

    2013-11-01

    This work explores the use of falling film technology to generate hydrogen from BH hydrolysis reaction. A technique to create catalytic sites on Ni foam struts by surface alloying is also developed. Mg-Ni and Al-Ni intermetallic compounds (catalyst precursor) are formed when Ni foams loaded with Mg and Al powders are heated to 600 C under N2 atmosphere, respectively. The catalytic sites of Mg2Ni and Raney Ni are formed on Ni foam struts after treating surface-alloyed Ni foams with an alkaline BH solution. Raney Ni on Ni foam struts (Raney Ni foam) has higher catalytic activity than Mg2Ni on Ni foam struts. The Raney Ni foam reaction plate in falling film reactor demonstrates high catalytic activity and quick response to fuel feed in H2 generation.

  9. Thermo-chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for enhancing saccharification of catalpa sawdust.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Li, Fan; Fan, Shiyang; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    To improve the reducing sugar production from catalpa sawdust, thermo-chemical pretreatments were examined and the chemicals used including NaOH, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, and HCl. The hemicellulose solubilization and cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) were significantly increased after thermo-alkaline pretreatments, and the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment showed the best improvement for reducing sugar production comparing to other three pretreatments. The conditions of thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were systematically optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the reducing sugar yield increased by 1185.7% comparing to the control. This study indicates that the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment is ideal for the saccharification of catalpa sawdust and that catalpa sawdust is a promising raw material for biofuel. PMID:26802185

  10. Developmental Transition from Enzymatic to Acid Hydrolysis of Sucrose in Acid Limes (Citrus aurantifolia).

    PubMed

    Echeverria, E

    1990-01-01

    The sucrose breakdown mechanisms in juice sacs of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia [Christm.] Swing.) were investigated throughout fruit development. All three enzymes of sucrose catabolism (sucrose synthase, acid, and alkaline invertase) are present during the initial stages. The activities of these enzymes declined rapidly and disappeared by stage 5 (80% development) but not before vacuolar pH had decreased to approximately 2.5. At this stage, sucrose breakdown occurs by acid hydrolysis. By attaining a vacuolar pH of 2.5 prior to enzyme disappearance, the cell maintains a continuous ability to break down sucrose throughout ontogeny. Thus, acid limes possess a unique and coordinated system for sucrose breakdown that involves both enzymatic and nonenzymatic pathways. PMID:16667241

  11. A mechanistic study of thioester hydrolysis with heavy atom kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Marlier, John F; Fogle, Emily J; Redman, Richard L; Stillman, Anthony D; Denison, Matthew A; Robins, Lori I

    2015-02-01

    The carbonyl-C, carbonyl-O, and leaving-S kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were determined for the hydrolysis of formylthiocholine. Under acidic conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.0312, (18)k(obs) = 0.997, and (34)k(obs) = 0.995; for neutral conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.022, (18)k(obs) = 1.010, and (34)k(obs) = 0.996; and for alkaline conditions, (13)k(obs) = 1.0263, (18)k(obs) = 0.992, and (34)k(obs) = 1.000. The observed KIEs provided helpful insights into a qualitative description of the bond orders in the transition state structure. PMID:25545007

  12. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  13. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Deisy Y.

    The performance of soybean hulls and forage sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production was studied. The main goal of this research was to increase fermentable sugars' yield through high-efficiency pretreatment technology. Soybean hulls are a potential feedstock for production of bio-ethanol due to their high carbohydrate content (≈50%) of nearly 37% cellulose. Soybean hulls could be the ideal feedstock for fuel ethanol production, because they are abundant and require no special harvesting and additional transportation costs as they are already in the plant. Dilute acid and modified steam-explosion were used as pretreatment technologies to increase fermentable sugars yields. Effects of reaction time, temperature, acid concentration and type of acid on hydrolysis of hemicellulose in soybean hulls and total sugar yields were studied. Optimum pretreatment parameters and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for converting soybean hulls into fermentable sugars were identified. The combination of acid (H2SO4, 2% w/v) and steam (140°C, 30 min) efficiently solubilized the hemicellulose, giving a pentose yield of 96%. Sorghum is a tropical grass grown primarily in semiarid and dry parts of the world, especially in areas too dry for corn. The production of sorghum results in about 30 million tons of byproducts mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Forage sorghum such as brown midrib (BMR) sorghum for ethanol production has generated much interest since this trait is characterized genetically by lower lignin concentrations in the plant compared with conventional types. Three varieties of forage sorghum and one variety of regular sorghum were characterized and evaluated as feedstock for fermentable sugar production. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction were used to determine changes in structure and chemical composition of forage sorghum before and after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis process. Up to 72% of hexose yield and 94% of pentose yield were obtained using "modified" steam explosion with 2% sulfuric acid at 140°C for 30 min and enzymatic hydrolysis with cellulase (15 FPU/g cellulose) and beta-glucosidase (50 CBU/g cellulose).

  14. Cytoskeleton Dynamics: A Continuum Cooperative Hydrolysis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Wei; Cheng, Bo; Feng, Yu-Yu; Wang, Zi-Qing; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Cytoskeleton is a network of filamentous proteins, such as actin filaments and microtubules. We propose a continuum cooperative hydrolysis model which possesses exactly analytical solution to describe the dynamics of filament. The results show that the cooperativity leads to non negative-exponential distribution of T (ATP or GTP) subunits. As an application, we investigate the treadmilling phenomenon using our model. It is shown that the cooperativity remarkably affects the length of filament. Supported by Chinese Universities Scientific Fund under Grant No. 2014YB029 and National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205123

  15. Improved method for detection of starch hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohawale, M.R.; Wilson, J.J.; Khachatourians, G.G.; Ingledew, W.M.

    1982-09-01

    A new starch hydrolysis detection method which does not rely on iodine staining or the use of color-complexed starch is described. A linear relationship was obtained with agar-starch plates when net clearing zones around colonies of yeasts were plotted against enzyme levels (semilogarithm scale) produced by the same yeast strains in liquid medium. A similar relationship between starch clearing zones and alpha-amylase levels from three different sources was observed. These observations suggest that the method is useful in mutant isolations, strain improvement programs, and the prediction of alpha-amylase activities in culture filtrates or column effluents. (Refs. 18).

  16. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  17. Simulation of continuous and batch hydrolysis of willow

    SciTech Connect

    Zacchi, G.; Dahlbom, J.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of product and enzyme concentrations on the kinetics of the enzymic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated willow is studied. The hydrolysis was performed in a UF-membrane reactor in which the product concentration was kept constant. An empirical 4-parameter rate equation that gives a good correlation to both continuous and batch hydrolysis data is presented. The model comprises the effects of enzyme concentration and product inhibition. (Refs. 11).

  18. Hydrolysis of lignocelluloses by penicillium funiculosum cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.; Rao, M.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Deshpande, V.

    1984-04-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is a promising method for the conversion of waste cellulose to glucose. During the past few years, the development of this technology has proceeded rapidly, with significant advances made in enzyme production, pretreatment, and hydrolysis. A variety of fungi are reported to produce cellulases but among these Trichoderma reesei and its mutants are powerful producers of cellulases. However, the search for new and possibly better sources of cellulase is continued due to the low levels of beta-glucosidase of T. reesei. Penicillium funiculosum produces a complete cellulase having endo-beta-1,4-glucanase (15-20 U/mL), exo-beta-1,4-glucanase (1.5-2.0 U/mL), and high beta-glucosidase (8-10 U/mL). The saccharification of alkali-treated cotton and bagasse by P. funiculosum enzyme was 70 and 63%, respectively. It was possible to obtain glucose concentration as high as 30% using 50% bagasse. It is of interest that the percent saccharification of cellulosic substrates with the Penicillium enzyme is comparable to that of T. reesei cellulase when the same amount of filter paper activity is used, although the endo-glucanase activity of the latter is two to three times higher. This communication reports the studies on saccharification of lignocelluloses by P. funiculosum cellulase and certain studies on the kinetic aspects. (Refs. 15).

  19. Interactions of caged-ATP and photoreleased ATP with alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Buchet, Rene; Azzar, Gerard

    2005-03-11

    Photolytic release of ATP from inactive P(3)-[1-(2-nitrophenyl)]ethyl ester of ATP (NPE-caged ATP) provides a means to reveal molecular interactions between nucleotide and enzyme by using infrared spectroscopy. Reaction-induced infrared difference spectra of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (BIAP) and of NPE-caged ATP revealed small structural alterations on the peptide backbone affecting one or two amino-acid residues. After photorelease of ATP, the substrate could be hydrolyzed sequentially by the enzyme producing three Pi, adenosine, and the photoproduct nitrosoacetophenone. It was concluded that NPE-caged ATP could bind to BIAP prior to the photolytic cleavage of ATP and that Pi could interact with BIAP after photolysis of NPE-caged ATP and hydrolysis, yielding infrared spectra with distinct structure changes of BIAP. This suggests that the molecular mechanism of ATP hydrolysis by BIAP involved small structural adjustments of the peptide backbone in the vicinity of the active site during ATP hydrolysis which continued during Pi binding. PMID:15694389

  20. Alkaline ring complexes in Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, J. R.

    An anorogenic petrographic province containing nearly 100 alkaline ring complexes extends across Sudan. These anorogenic complexes are distinct from late-orogenic granite-gabbro, calcalkaline plutonic centres particularly in the eastern part of Sudan, many of which also take the form of ring complexes. The biggest, most closely spaces, and most numerous ring complexes occur in a discontinuous belt of alkali granites and syenites, rarer foid syenites, and associated extrusive trachytes, rhyolites and ignimbrites exposed intermittently across 100 km from the Bayuda Desert and Nile River Valley near Khartoum to northern Kordofan Province and the Nuba Mountains region of central Sudan. These complexes range in age from Ordovician to Jurassic, but show no progressive change in age or distribution pattern other than a tendency to align locally in NW-trending bands, which might reflect zones of weakness in the underlying basement rocks. Mesozoic syenites and alkali granites forming plugs and ring complexes lie in a belt parallel to the coast in the Red Sea Hills of eastern Sudan. In the north-west of the country, alkali granites and foid syenites of Tertiary age crop out in the basement inlier of J. Uweinat, and Mesozoic granites, syenites and foid syenites form igneous plutons in Equatoria Province in the extreme south.

  1. Muscarinic receptor activation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis. Relationship to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and diacylglycerol metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Martinson, E.A.; Goldstein, D.; Brown, J.H. )

    1989-09-05

    We examined the relationship between phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and diacylglycerol (DAG) formation in response to muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) stimulation in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells. Carbachol increases the release of (3H)choline and (3H)phosphorylcholine ((3H)Pchol) from cells containing (3H)choline-labeled PC. The production of Pchol is rapid and transient, while choline production continues for at least 30 min. mAChR-stimulated release of Pchol is reduced in cells that have been depleted of intracellular Ca2+ stores by ionomycin pretreatment, whereas choline release is unaffected by this pretreatment. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) increases the release of choline, but not Pchol, from 1321N1 cells, and down-regulation of protein kinase C blocks the ability of carbachol to stimulate choline production. Taken together, these results suggest that Ca2+ mobilization is involved in mAChR-mediated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase C, whereas protein kinase C activation is required for mAChR-stimulated hydrolysis of PC by a phospholipase D. Both carbachol and PMA rapidly increase the formation of (3H)phosphatidic acid ((3H)PA) in cells containing (3H)myristate-labeled PC. (3H)Diacylglycerol ((3H)DAG) levels increase more slowly, suggesting that the predominant pathway for PC hydrolysis is via phospholipase D. When cells are labeled with (3H)myristate and (14C)arachidonate such that there is a much greater 3H/14C ratio in PC compared with the phosphoinositides, the 3H/14C ratio in DAG and PA increases with PMA treatment but decreases in response to carbachol.

  2. A process for reduction in viscosity of coffee extract by enzymatic hydrolysis of mannan.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Prakram Singh; Sharma, Prince; Puri, Neena; Gupta, Naveen

    2014-07-01

    Mannan is the main polysaccharide component of coffee extract and is responsible for its high viscosity, which in turn negatively affects the technological processing involved in making instant coffee. In our study, we isolated mannan from coffee beans and extract of commercial coffee and it was enzymatically hydrolyzed using alkali-thermostable mannanase obtained from Bacillus nealsonii PN-11. As mannan is found to be more soluble under alkaline conditions, an alkali-thermostable mannanase is well suited for its hydrolysis. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis was optimized by response surface methodology. Under the following optimized conditions viz enzyme dose of 11.50 U mannanase g(-1) coffee extract, temperature of 44.50 C and time of 35.80 min, significant twofold decrease in viscosity (50 mPas to 26.00 1.56 mPas) was achieved. The application of this process in large-scale industrial production of coffee will help in reduction of energy consumption used during freeze-drying. It will also make technological processing involved in making coffee more economical. PMID:24390577

  3. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products. PMID:25446957

  4. Benorylate hydrolysis by human plasma and human liver.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, F M; Moore, U; Seymour, R A; Mutch, E M; Nicholson, E; Wright, P; Wynne, H; Blain, P G; Rawlins, M D

    1989-01-01

    1. Benorylate (4-acetamido phenyl-O-acetylsalicylate) hydrolysis in vitro by human plasma and by human liver microsomes and cytosol has been investigated. 2. Benorylate was hydrolysed by a route involving initial hydrolysis of the acetyl group to yield phenetsal followed by hydrolysis to paracetamol and salicylate. Hydrolysis via acetylsalicylate was minor. 3. Benorylate was more actively hydrolysed by liver cytosol than microsomes and about 10 times faster than plasma. 4. Following a single oral dose benorylate (4 g) to volunteers only salicylate and paracetamol were detected in the plasma. 5. The therapeutic effects of benorylate appear to be mediated by salicylate and paracetamol. PMID:2575401

  5. Benorylate hydrolysis by human plasma and human liver.

    PubMed

    Williams, F M; Moore, U; Seymour, R A; Mutch, E M; Nicholson, E; Wright, P; Wynne, H; Blain, P G; Rawlins, M D

    1989-12-01

    1. Benorylate (4-acetamido phenyl-O-acetylsalicylate) hydrolysis in vitro by human plasma and by human liver microsomes and cytosol has been investigated. 2. Benorylate was hydrolysed by a route involving initial hydrolysis of the acetyl group to yield phenetsal followed by hydrolysis to paracetamol and salicylate. Hydrolysis via acetylsalicylate was minor. 3. Benorylate was more actively hydrolysed by liver cytosol than microsomes and about 10 times faster than plasma. 4. Following a single oral dose benorylate (4 g) to volunteers only salicylate and paracetamol were detected in the plasma. 5. The therapeutic effects of benorylate appear to be mediated by salicylate and paracetamol. PMID:2575401

  6. Reduced inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated softwood.

    PubMed

    Tengborg, C; Galbe, M; Zacchi, G

    2001-06-01

    Softwood constitutes the main source of lignocellulosic material in Sweden which can be used for ethanol production from renewable resources. To make the biomass-to-ethanol process more economically feasible, it is preferable to include the sugar-rich prehydrolysate, i.e. the liquid obtained after the pretreatment step, in the enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction. This study shows that the prehydrolysate inhibits cellulose conversion in the enzymatic hydrolysis step. When the prehydrolysate was included in the enzymatic hydrolysis, the cellulose conversion was reduced by up to 36%. However, this inhibition can be overcome by fermentation of the prehydrolysate prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:11397466

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  9. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  10. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  11. High-throughput microplate technique for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Chundawat, Shishir P S; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-04-15

    Several factors will influence the viability of a biochemical platform for manufacturing lignocellulosic based fuels and chemicals, for example, genetically engineering energy crops, reducing pre-treatment severity, and minimizing enzyme loading. Past research on biomass conversion has focused largely on acid based pre-treatment technologies that fractionate lignin and hemicellulose from cellulose. However, for alkaline based (e.g., AFEX) and other lower severity pre-treatments it becomes critical to co-hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose using an optimized enzyme cocktail. Lignocellulosics are appropriate substrates to assess hydrolytic activity of enzyme mixtures compared to conventional unrealistic substrates (e.g., filter paper, chromogenic, and fluorigenic compounds) for studying synergistic hydrolysis. However, there are few, if any, high-throughput lignocellulosic digestibility analytical platforms for optimizing biomass conversion. The 96-well Biomass Conversion Research Lab (BCRL) microplate method is a high-throughput assay to study digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass as a function of biomass composition, pre-treatment severity, and enzyme composition. The most suitable method for delivering milled biomass to the microplate was through multi-pipetting slurry suspensions. A rapid bio-enzymatic, spectrophotometric assay was used to determine fermentable sugars. The entire procedure was automated using a robotic pipetting workstation. Several parameters that affect hydrolysis in the microplate were studied and optimized (i.e., particle size reduction, slurry solids concentration, glucan loading, mass transfer issues, and time period for hydrolysis). The microplate method was optimized for crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) pre-treated corn stover. PMID:18306256

  12. Assessment of the hydrolysis process for the determination of okadaic acid-group toxin ester: presence of okadaic acid 7-O-acyl-ester derivates in Spanish shellfish.

    PubMed

    Villar-Gonzlez, A; Rodrguez-Velasco, M L; Ben-Gigirey, B; Yasumoto, T; Botana, L M

    2008-04-01

    The contamination of different types of shellfish by okadaic acid (OA)-group toxin esters is an important problem that presents serious risk for human health. During previous investigations carried out in our laboratory by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), the occurrence of a high percentage of esters in relation to the total OA equivalents has been observed in several shellfish species. The determination of these kinds of toxins using LC/MS or other chemical methods requires a hydrolysis step in order to convert the sterified compounds into the parent toxins, OA, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxins-2 (DTX-2). Most of the hydrolysis procedures are based on an alkaline hydrolysis reaction. However, despite hydrolysis being a critical step within the analysis, it has not been studied in depth up to now. The present paper reports the results obtained after evaluating the hydrolysis process of an esterified form of OA by using a standard of 7-O-acyl ester with palmitoyl as the fatty acid (palOA). Investigations were focused on checking the effectiveness of the hydrolysis for palOA using methanol as solvent standard and matrices matched standards. From the results obtained, no matrix influence on the hydrolysis process was observed and the quantity of palOA converted into OA was always above 80%. The analyses of different Spanish shellfish samples showed percentages of palOA in relation to the total OA esters ranging from 27% to 90%, depending on the shellfish specie. PMID:18243269

  13. Immobilization of Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase on Macroporous Resin Using Different Methods: Characterization of the Biocatalysts in Hydrolysis Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingjing; Chen, Yiling; Sheng, Jun; Sun, Mi

    2015-01-01

    To improve the reusability and organic solvent tolerance of microbial lipase and expand the application of lipase (hydrolysis, esterification, and transesterification), we immobilized marine microbial lipase using different methods and determined the properties of immobilized lipases. Considering the activity and cost of immobilized lipase, the concentration of lipase was fixed at 2?mg/mL. The optimal temperature of immobilized lipases was 40C and 5C higher than free lipase. The activities of immobilized lipases were much higher than free lipase at alkaline pH (more than 50% at pH 12). The free lipase lost most activity (35.3%) and immobilized lipases retained more than 46.4% of their initial activity after 3?h heat treatment at 70C. At alkaline pH, immobilized lipases were more stable than free lipase (more than 60% residue activity at pH 11 for 3?h). Immobilized lipases retained 80% of their activity after 5 cycles and increased enzyme activity (more than 108.7%) after 3?h treatment in tert-butanol. Immobilization of lipase which improved reusability of lipase and provided a chance to expand the application of marine microbial lipase in organic system expanded the application range of lipase to catalyze hydrolysis and esterification in harsh condition. PMID:26240816

  14. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated almond-tree prunings for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Manuel; Garca, Juan Francisco; Snchez, Sebastin

    2014-01-01

    Almond-tree prunings (ATP), an agricultural residue largely available in Mediterranean countries, were pretreated with either hot water or dilute sulphuric acid at 180-230 C. Solids derived from hot water pretreatments were further submitted to alkaline peroxide delignification. In addition, all solids obtained from the three mentioned processes were hydrolysed by cellulases and ?-glucosidases to investigate their enzymatic digestibilities. Hot water pretreatment led to high oligosaccharide yields (18.2 g/100 g ATP at 190 C) while dilute acid pretreatment provided the highest monosaccharide yields (24.0 g/100 g ATP at 190 C) along with low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were strongly affected by both pretreatment type and pretreatment temperature. The highest temperature assayed for both hydrothermal and dilute sulphuric acid pretreatment maximized the glucose recovery (49.2% and 72.8%, respectively) while solids derived from alkaline peroxide treatment achieved maximal glucose concentrations (41.9 g/L, 58.4% of potential yield). PMID:24274571

  15. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Ju-Fang; Huang, Ping-Ying; Dong, Xu-Yan; Guo, Lu-Lu; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-07-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.632.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  16. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  17. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

  18. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  19. Investigation of gelling behavior of thiolated chitosan in alkaline condition and its application in stent coating.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Kong, Ming; Feng, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojie; Liu, Ya; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-01-20

    The gelling behaviors of thiolated chitosan (TCS) in alkaline condition were investigated. Thioglycolic acid was conjugated onto chitosan backbone through amide bond formation. The variations of thiol group content were monitored in presence of H2O2 or different pH values (pH 7.0, 8.0, 9.0) in dialysis mode. Different from the decreasing thiol group content upon time in acidic condition, increasing amount of thiol groups was detected in alkaline pH during 120min dialysis attributed to alkaline hydrolysis of intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The extent of which was larger at higher pH values. Higher degree of thiolation, thiomer concentration or pH values promoted gelation of TCS. Entanglement and coagulation of chitosan molecule chains and re-arrangement of disulfide bonds acted closely and dynamically in the gelation process. Disulfide bonds, especially inter-molecular type, are formed by synergetic effects of thiol/disulfide interchange and thiol/thiol oxidation reactions. TCS coated vascular stent displayed wave-like microstructure of parallel ridges and grooves, which favored HUVECs adhesion and proliferation. The biocompatibility, peculiar morphology and thiol moieties of TCS as stent coating material appear application potential for vascular stent. PMID:26572360

  20. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  1. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  2. Kinetics of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, S.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for sugar production offers advantages of higher conversion, minimal by-product formation, low energy requirements, and mild operating conditions over other chemical conversions. The development of a kinetic model, based on observable, macroscopic properties of the overall system, is helpful in design and economic evaluation of processes for sugar conversion and ethanol production. A kinetic model is presented, incorporating enzyme adsorption, product inhibition, and considers a multiple enzyme and substrate system. This model was capable of simulating saccharification of a lignocellulosic material, rice straw, at high substrate (up to 333 g/L) and enzyme concentrations (up to 9.2 FPU/mL) that are common to proposed process designs. (Refs. 37).

  3. ?3-Oxo stabilized by three metal cations is a sufficient nucleophile for enzymatic hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian-Nan; Chen, Shi-Lu

    2016-02-14

    Diverse species have previously been proposed to be effective nucleophiles in the enzymatic hydrolysis of phosphate esters. A novel penta-metal cluster (two Fe(3+) and three Ca(2+)) was recently discovered in the active site of PhoX alkaline phosphatase, with the revelation of the architecture of ?3-oxo bridging one Ca(2+) and two antiferromagnetically coupled Fe(3+). In this work, using density functional theory calculations, the ?3-oxo stabilized by three cations has been demonstrated to be a new type of effective nucleophile. The calculations give strong support to the "ping-pong" mechanism involving the nucleophilic attack of the ?3-oxo on the substrate phosphor and the subsequent hydrolysis of the covalent phospho-enzyme intermediate. A base mechanism with the ?3-oxo acting as a general base to activate an additional water molecule has further been demonstrated to be inaccessible. The results advance the understanding of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phosphate esters and may give important inspiration for the exploration of multinuclear biomimetic catalysts. PMID:26699843

  4. pH-stat vs. free-fall pH techniques in the enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ayoa; Kelly, Phil

    2016-05-15

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) using either trypsin or Protamex® was compared using controlled (pH-stat) and uncontrolled (free-fall) pH conditions. pH-stat control at the enzyme's optimum value led to a more rapid rate of WPI hydrolysis by trypsin, while the opposite was the case when Protamex® was used. Furthermore, the choice of alkaline solution used to maintain constant pH during pH-stat experiments appeared to affect the reaction rate, being higher when KOH is added to the reaction mixture instead of NaOH. It would appear that potassium may play a role as co-factor or activator for the activity of this particular protease preparation. Although pH-stat techniques are usually considered to yield better hydrolysis kinetics, these findings suggest that the response of proteolytic enzyme preparations to static or free-fall pH control should be checked in advance, particularly when undertaking large scale production of WPI hydrolysates. PMID:26775989

  5. Class Projects in Physical Organic Chemistry: The Hydrolysis of Aspirin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    An exercise that provides a hands-on demonstration of the hydrolysis of aspirin is presented. The key to understanding the hydrolysis is recognizing that all six process may occur simultaneously and that the observed rate constant is the sum of the rate constants that one rate constant dominates the overall process.

  6. Continuous acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Rugg, B.; Brenner, W.

    1980-01-01

    The continuous dilute acid hydrolysis of waste cellulose materials (paper pulp and wood sawdust at 10 and 95% solids, respectively) to glucose in a twin screw reactor gave high conversion yields and good energy efficiencies. A scheme for a scaled-up acid hydrolysis-fermentation distillation facility based on a waste cellulose feedstock to produce fuel-grade ethanol is proposed.

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides are phytosterol conjugates found characteristically in cereals. Their properties in enzymatic hydrolysis are, however, not yet well known. Steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides were extracted and purified from rye and wheat bran. Their rates of hydrolysis with...

  8. The hydrolysis of phosphate diesters in cyclohexane and acetone

    PubMed Central

    Stockbridge, Randy B.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrolysis of phosphate diesters is one of the most difficult reactions known. Here we show that in acetone or cyclohexane, at 25 C, phosphodiesters undergo hydrolysis 5 105 and 2 109-fold more rapidly than in water, respectively, and that this rate enhancement is achieved by lowering the enthalpy of activation. PMID:20448876

  9. Ultrasound Enhancement of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose Plant Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The work reported here is based on acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass substrate by introduction of low intensity, uniform ultrasound field into a reaction chamber (bio-reactor). This method may serve as improvement of rates in the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials to sugars, whi...

  10. Simultaneous determination of hydrolysis and mutarotation rates during the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Daniel M; Teruel, Michael A; Reyes-de-Corcuera, Jos I; Young, Owen

    2008-09-24

    An experiment is described in which a custom-made glucose electrode is used to directly monitor the enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose to glucose. The transient profile of beta- d-glucose can be used to simultaneously determine the rate constants for mutarotation and for enzymatic hydrolysis by applying a dynamic nonlinear regression routine. Due to differences in the mutarotation rate constants between lactose and glucose, the beta- d-glucose concentration "overshoots" equilibrium under certain conditions, which can be modeled mathematically. This overshoot can be observed reliably and used to quantify the differences in mutarotational equilibria between glucose and lactose. These observations may be important for the analysis of dairy products and commercial lactase preparations and illustrate an unusual kinetic phenomenon caused by intramolecular forces. This approach may also be important for the accurate determination of a variety of oligosaccharides such as glycogen, which tend to be composed primarily of one stereoisomer. PMID:18712880

  11. Analysis of by-product formation and sugar monomerization in sugarcane bagasse pretreated at pilot plant scale: differences between autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Edwin; Bakker, Rob; van Zeeland, Alniek; Sanchez Garcia, David; Punt, Arjen; Eggink, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is an interesting feedstock for the biobased economy since a large fraction is polymerized sugars. Autohydrolysis, alkaline and acid pretreatment conditions combined with enzyme hydrolysis were used on lignocellulose rich bagasse to acquire monomeric. By-products found after pretreatment included acetic, glycolic and coumaric acid in concentrations up to 40, 21 and 2.5 g/kg dry weight bagasse respectively. Alkaline pretreated material contained up to 45 g/kg bagasse DW of sodium. Acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment results in a furan formation of 14 g/kg and 25 g/kg DW bagasse respectively. Enzyme monomerization efficiencies of pretreated solid material after 72 h were 81% for acid pretreatment, 77% for autohydrolysis and 57% for alkaline pretreatment. Solid material was washed with superheated water to decrease the amount of by-products. Washing decreased organic acid, phenol and furan concentrations in solid material by at least 60%, without a major sugar loss. PMID:25643957

  12. Viscosity of Molten Alkaline-Earth Fluorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Osamu; Hoshino, Yosuke; Anbo, Yusuke; Yanagase, Kei-ichi; Aono, Masahiro; Sato, Yuzuru

    2015-04-01

    The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were measured using the oscillating crucible method, which is especially suitable for measuring molten salts with low viscosity. The results showed a good Arrhenius linearity over a wide temperature range. The measured viscosities and activation energies increased in the following order: . Judging by the charge density, the viscosity of alkaline-earth fluorides should increase from molten to . However, the results indicate a different tendency, which may be explained by a Coulomb force that is very strong. The low viscosity of can be attributed to a decreased cohesive force, due to a partial loss of the Coulomb force caused by a higher charge density of the material. The viscosities were also compared to those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosities of molten alkaline-earth fluorides were higher than those of molten alkali fluorides and alkaline-earth chlorides. The viscosity determined in this study was compared to literature values and showed a reasonable value in the relatively low-viscosity region.

  13. Combined pretreatment using alkaline hydrothermal and ball milling to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-10-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber was conducted in tube reactor at treatment severity ranges of log Ro = 3.66-4.83 and partial removal of hemicellulose with migration of lignin was obtained. Concerning maximal recovery of glucose and xylose, 1.5% NaOH was impregnated in the system and subsequent ball milling treatment was employed to improve the conversion yield. The effects of combined hydrothermal and ball milling pretreatments were evaluated by chemical composition changes by using FT-IR, WAXD and morphological alterations by SEM. The successful of pretreatments were assessed by the degree of enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. The highest xylose and glucose yields obtained were 63.2% and 97.3% respectively at cellulase loadings of 10 FPU/g-substrate which is the highest conversion from OPMF ever reported. PMID:25058299

  14. Ultrafast hydrolysis of a Lewis photoacid.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph D; Suchyta, Scott; Kohler, Bern

    2015-02-12

    This study explores the concept that electronic excitation can dramatically enhance Lewis acidity. Specifically, it is shown that photoexcitation transforms an electron-deficient organic compound of negligible Lewis acidity in its electronic ground state into a potent excited-state Lewis acid that releases a proton from a nearby water molecule in 3.1 ps. It was shown previously (Peon et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 5768) that the excited state of methyl viologen (MV(2+)) is quenched rapidly in aqueous solution with the formation of an unidentified photoproduct. In this study, the quenching mechanism and the identity of the photoproduct were investigated by the femtosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion techniques. Transient absorption signals at UV probe wavelengths reveal a long-lived species with a pH-dependent lifetime due to reaction with hydronium ions at a bimolecular rate of 3.1 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). This species is revealed to be a charge-transfer complex consisting of a ground-state MV(2+) ion and a hydroxide ion formed when a water molecule transfers a proton to the bulk solvent. Formation of a contact ion pair between MV(2+) and hydroxide shifts the absorption spectrum of the former ion by a few nm to longer wavelengths, yielding a transient absorption spectrum with a distinctive triangle wave appearance. The slight shift of this spectrum, which is in excellent agreement with steady-state difference spectra recorded for MV(2+) at high pH, is consistent with an ion pair but not with a covalent adduct (pseudobase). The long lifetime of the ion pair at neutral pH indicates that dissociation occurs many orders of magnitude more slowly than predicted by the Smoluchowski-Debye equation. Remarkably, there is no evidence of geminate recombination, suggesting that the proton that is transferred to the solvent is conducted at least several water shells away. Although the hydrolysis mechanism has yet to be fully established, evidence suggests that the strongly oxidizing excited state of MV(2+) triggers the proton-coupled oxidation of a water molecule. The observed kinetic isotope effect of 1.7 seen in D2O vs H2O is of the magnitude expected for an ultrafast concerted proton-electron transfer reaction. The ultrafast hydrolysis seen here may be a general excited-state quenching mechanism for electronically excited Lewis acids and other powerful photooxidants in aqueous solution. PMID:25510461

  15. Effects of acid/alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation on extracellular polymeric substances from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuibo; Wu, Yuqi; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Jingsong; Luo, Zhiping; Li, Shiyou

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) influencing sludge characteristics, variations of extractable EPS from municipal sewage sludge by acid/alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation were studied. The changes in constituents of EPS were analyzed by UV-vis spectra and SEM images. The effects of alkaline pretreatment and gamma-ray irradiation on the functional groups in EPS were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Results showed that the extractable EPS increased clearly with increasing irradiation dose from 0 to 15 kGy. UV-vis spectra indicated that a new absorption band from 240 nm to 300 nm existed in all irradiated samples, apart from acid condition. The results of FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that, irradiation influenced major functional groups in EPS, such as protein and polysaccharide, and these effects were clearer under alkaline condition. SEM images provided that after alkaline hydrolysis, gamma-ray irradiation was more effective in resulting in the sludge flocs and cells broken, compared with acid pretreatment (pH 2.50).

  16. Gelatin hydrolysates from farmed Giant catfish skin using alkaline proteases and its antioxidative function of simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, Sunantha; Martnez-Alvarez, Oscar; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2016-02-01

    This work aims to evaluate the ability of different alkaline proteases to prepare active gelatin hydrolysates. Fish skin gelatin was hydrolysed by visceral alkaline-proteases from Giant catfish, commercial trypsin, and Izyme AL. All antioxidant activity indices of the hydrolysates increased with increasing degree of hydrolysis (P<0.05). The hydrolysates obtained with Izyme AL and visceral alkaline-proteases showed the highest and lowest radical scavenging capacity, while prepared with commercial trypsin was the most effective in reducing ferric ions and showed the best metal chelating properties. The hydrolysate obtained with Izyme AL showed the lowest iron reducing ability, but provided the highest average molecular weight (? 7 kDa), followed by commercial trypsin (2.2 kDa) and visceral alkaline-proteases (1.75 kDa). After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the hydrolysates showed significant higher radical scavenging, reducing ferric ions and chelating activities. Gelatin hydrolysates, from fish skin, could serve as a potential source of functional food ingredients for health promotion. PMID:26304317

  17. General lysosomal hydrolysis can process prorenin accurately.

    PubMed

    Xa, Lucie K; Lacombe, Marie-Jose; Mercure, Chantal; Lazure, Claude; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2014-09-01

    Renin, an aspartyl protease that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin system, is first synthesized as an inactive precursor, prorenin. Prorenin is activated by the proteolytic removal of an amino terminal prosegment in the dense granules of the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney by one or more proteases whose identity is uncertain but commonly referred to as the prorenin-processing enzyme (PPE). Because several extrarenal tissues secrete only prorenin, we tested the hypothesis that the unique ability of JG cells to produce active renin might be explained by the existence of a PPE whose expression is restricted to JG cells. We found that inducing renin production by the mouse kidney by up to 20-fold was not associated with the concomitant induction of candidate PPEs. Because the renin-containing granules of JG cells also contain several lysosomal hydrolases, we engineered mouse Ren1 prorenin to be targeted to the classical vesicular lysosomes of cultured HEK-293 cells, where it was accurately processed and stored. Furthermore, we found that HEK cell lysosomes hydrolyzed any artificial extensions placed on the protein and that active renin was extraordinarily resistant to proteolytic degradation. Altogether, our results demonstrate that accurate processing of prorenin is not restricted to JG cells but can occur in classical vesicular lysosomes of heterologous cells. The implication is that renin production may not require a specific PPE but rather can be achieved by general hydrolysis in the lysosome-like granules of JG cells. PMID:24965790

  18. Synthesis, hydrolysis and stability of psilocin glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Lehr, Matthias; Köhler, Helga

    2014-04-01

    A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-α-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for β-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements. PCG showed a greater long-term stability after six months in deep frozen serum and urine samples than psilocin. The short-term stability of PCG for one week in whole blood at room temperature and in deep frozen samples was also better than that of psilocin. Therefore, PCG can be considered to be more stable than the labile psilocin and should always be included if psilocin is analyzed in samples. PMID:24513688

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from wood.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Consolación; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel; Díez, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Current research and development in cellulosic ethanol production has been focused mainly on agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops such as corn stover and switchgrass; however, woody biomass remains a very important feedstock for ethanol production. The precise composition of hemicellulose in the wood is strongly dependent on the plant species, therefore different types of enzymes are needed based on hemicellulose complexity and type of pretreatment. In general, hardwood species have much lower recalcitrance to enzymes than softwood. For hardwood, xylanases, beta-xylosidases and xyloglucanases are the main hemicellulases involved in degradation of the hemicellulose backbone, while for softwood the effect of mannanases and beta-mannosidases is more relevant. Furthermore, there are different key accessory enzymes involved in removing the hemicellulosic fraction and increasing accessibility of cellulases to the cellulose fibres improving the hydrolysis process. A diversity of enzymatic cocktails has been tested using from low to high densities of biomass (2-20% total solids) and a broad range of results has been obtained. The performance of recently developed commercial cocktails on hardwoods and softwoods will enable a further step for the commercialization of fuel ethanol from wood. PMID:26833542

  20. Hydrolysis and Partial Recycling of a Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ming-Hong; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolysis of the ionic liquid Et3NHCl-2AlCl3 and a process for recycling the triethylamine were studied. When the hydrolysis was carried out at a relatively high temperature, the released HCl could be absorbed more easily. With addition of sodium hydroxide to the aqueous hydrolysis solution, a feasible process for recycling triethylamine was developed, involving first distillation of triethylamine, followed by filtration of the aluminium hydroxide. The yield of recovered triethylamine was about 95%. The triethylhydrogenammonium chloride prepared from the recycled triethylamine was of good purity and could be reused to synthesize new chloroaluminate ionic liquids.

  1. Formation of artifactual metabolites of doxylamine following acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Holder, C L; Korfmacher, W A; Rushing, L G; Thompson, H C; Slikker, W; Gosnell, A B

    1987-08-01

    This study describes the use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric, high-performance liquid chromatographic and capillary column gas chromatographic separation techniques in demonstrating the production of several artifactual compounds reported in the literature as metabolites of doxylamine. Rhesus monkey urinary extracts which contained doxylamine and doxylamine metabolites were examined with and without acid hydrolysis. The production of 1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethanol and 1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethylene under acid hydrolysis conditions was demonstrated. These artifactual products were shown to originate from the acid hydrolysis of 2-[1-phenyl-1-(2-pyridinyl)ethoxy] acetic acid and not from doxylamine. PMID:3667771

  2. [Postoperative alkaline reflux gastritis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rothmund, M; Neher, M

    1977-02-25

    Postoperative alkaline reflux gastritis is a distinct clinical entity occuring after operations enlarging, bypassing or resecting the pylorus. Reflux of alkaline duodenal content into the stomach is the causative factor. Primarily bile acids have an aggressive effect and lead to a destruction of the gastric mucosal barrier. Epigastric pain, fullness after meals and bile vomiting are the main symptoms. Gastroscopy with biopsy reveals a severe chronic atrophic gastritis and bile reflux. In most cases an achlorhydria that can be histamin-resistant is present. For adequate treatment surgical procedures diverting the bile flow from the stomach should be performed. PMID:836529

  3. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  4. Experimental survey of rechargeable alkaline zinc electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, L.; Odar, W.

    1984-09-01

    Rechargeable alkaline zinc-air cells and zinc-manganese dioxide cells need zinc electrodes working for at least 100 cycles under anode limiting conditions. The discharge of the manganese dioxide cathode especially must be limited to a definite fraction (1/3) of its available capacity to obtain a good cycle life. This study proposes a new test cell for investigations on pasted alkaline zinc powder electrodes. When, following experimentation, the value of the construction was established, a series of different electrode mixtures was cycled. It was found that 100 full discharges could be obtained with a zinc utilization of about 30 percent in the final cycles.

  5. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  6. Separation of pig bone alkaline phosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Leunis, J C; Vancraeynest, T; Brauman, J

    1977-01-01

    A simple method for the separation of alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities of pig bone ribs is described. Using anionic exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and affinity chromatography on Concanavalin A sepharose (Con A) eluted by a step pH gradient and Na4P2O7, several activities were obtained. A pyrophosphatase containing very little alkaline phosphatase activity was isolated from Con A sepharose by elution with pyrophosphatase. Our data are consistent, with the hypothesis that cortical alcaline phosphatase and pyrophosphatase activities are not due to a single enzyme protein. The method was used on whole bone, on bone marrow and on cortical bone. PMID:921014

  7. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqu, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 ?Ahcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  8. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis. [quantitative structure-activity relationship, complete neglect of differential overlap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of cationic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR-primeP(O)X, where R and R-prime are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constant.

  9. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Polizelli, Patrícia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40°C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  10. Stability of a Lipase Extracted from Seeds of Pachira aquatica in Commercial Detergents and Application Tests in Poultry Wastewater Pretreatment and Fat Particle Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Polizelli, Patrcia Peres; Facchini, Fernanda Dell Antonio; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo Orlando

    2013-01-01

    A protein extract containing a plant lipase from oleaginous seeds of Pachira aquatica was tested using soybean oil, wastewater from a poultry processing plant, and beef fat particles as substrate. The hydrolysis experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40C, an incubation time of 90 minutes, and pH 8.0-9.0. The enzyme had the best stability at pH 9.0 and showed good stability in the alkaline range. It was found that P. aquatica lipase was stable in the presence of some commercial laundry detergent formulations, and it retained full activity up to 0.35% in hydrogen peroxide, despite losing activity at higher concentrations. Concerning wastewater, the lipase increased free fatty acids release by 7.4 times and promoted the hydrolysis of approximately 10% of the fats, suggesting that it could be included in a pretreatment stage, especially for vegetable oil degradation. PMID:24455209

  11. Effects of Alkaline Phosphatase Activity on Nucleotide Measurements in Aquatic Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Karl, D. M.; Craven, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (APase) activity was detected in aquatic microbial assemblages from the subtropics to Antarctica. The occurrence of APase in environmental nucleotide extracts was shown to significantly affect the measured concentrations of cellular nucleotides (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, guanosine triphosphate, uridine triphosphate, and cytidine triphosphate), adenylate energy charge, and guanosine triphosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratios, when conventional methods of nucleotide extraction were employed. Under the reaction conditions specified in this report, the initial rate of hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate was directly proportional to the activity of APase in the sample extracts and consequently can be used as a sensitive measure of APase activity. A method was devised for obtaining reliable nucleotide measurements in naturally occurring microbial populations containing elevated levels of APase activity. The metabolic significance of APase activity in microbial cells is discussed, and it is concluded that the occurrence and regulation of APase in nature is dependent upon microscale inorganic phosphate limitation of the autochthonous microbial communities. PMID:16345634

  12. Efficient proteolysis and application of an alkaline protease from halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajeshwari; Srivastava, A K; Khare, S K

    2014-10-01

    A salt-stable alkaline protease from moderately halophilic Bacillus sp. EMB9, isolated from the western coast of India, is described. This protease was capable of efficiently removing silver from used/waste X-Ray films, as well as hydrolyzing defatted soy flour with 31% degree of hydrolysis (DH). Production of the protease was optimized by using response surface methodology. Ca(2+) and NaCl were the most critical factors in enhancing the yield. Under optimized culture conditions, a maximum of 369 U protease/mL was obtained, which is quite comparable to the yields of commercial proteases. The elevated production level coupled with ability to efficiently hydrolyze protein-laden soy flour and complete recovery of silver from used X-Ray films makes it a prospective industrial enzyme. PMID:24905047

  13. A General Approach for Teaching Hydrolysis of Salts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre-Ode, Fernando

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a general approach and equation for teaching the hydrolysis of salts. This general equation covers many more sets of conditions than those currently in textbooks. The simplifying assumptions leading to the known limiting equations are straightforward. (RH)

  14. Kinetics of the hydrolysis of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1986-01-01

    The hydrolysis kinetics of guanosine 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) in aqueous buffered solutions of various pH's was studied at 75 and 37 C, using spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques. The hydrolysis was found to be very slow even at low pH. At 75 C and pH at or below l.0, two kinetic processes were observed: the more rapid one was attributed to the hydrolysis of the phosphoimidazolide P-N bond; the second, much slower one, was attributed to the cleavage of the glycosidic bond. It is noted that the P-N hydrolysis in phosphoimidazolides is very slow compared to other phosphoramidates, and that this might be one of the reasons why the phosphoimidazolides showed an extraordinary ability to form long oligomers under template-directed conditions.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Nyström, Laura

    2014-11-15

    Steryl glycosides (SG) contribute significantly to the total intake of phytosterols. The standard analytical procedure involving acid hydrolysis fails to reflect the correct sterol profile of SG due to isomerization of some of the labile sterols. Therefore, various glycosylases were evaluated for their ability to hydrolyse SG under milder conditions. Using a pure SG mixture in aqueous solution, the highest glycolytic activity, as demonstrated by the decrease in SG and increase in free sterols was achieved using inulinase preparations (decrease of >95%). High glycolytic activity was also demonstrated using hemicellulase (63%). The applicability of enzymatic hydrolysis using inulinase preparations was further verified on SG extracted from foods. For example in potato peel Δ(5)-avenasteryl glucoside, a labile SG, was well preserved and contributed 26.9% of the total SG. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is suitable for replacing acid hydrolysis of SG in food lipid extracts to accurately determine the sterol profile of SG. PMID:24912717

  16. Hydrolysis of fMet-tRNA by Peptidyl Transferase

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, C. T.; Beaudet, A. L.; Scolnick, E. M.; Rosman, M.

    1971-01-01

    Escherichia coli and rabbit reticulocyte (f[3H]Met-tRNAAUGribosome) intermediates undergo hydrolysis, with release of f[3H]methionine, upon addition of tRNA or CpCpA in the presence of acetone. This ribosomal catalyzed reaction has similar requirements, pH optimum, and antibiotic sensitivity to those of peptidyl transferase. Two antibiotics, lincomycin with E. coli ribosomes and anisomycin with reticulocyte ribosomes, inhibit peptide-bond formation and transesterification activities of peptidyl transferase, but stimulate hydrolysis of f[3H]Met-tRNA. Earlier studies have suggested peptidyl transferase activity is essential for R factor-dependent hydrolysis of f(3H)Met-tRNA. These studies indicate that peptidyl transferase has the capacity for f(3H)Met-tRNA hydrolysis and, therefore, may be responsible for peptidyl-tRNA cleavage during peptide chain termination. PMID:4943558

  17. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  18. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Collares, Renata M.; Miklasevicius, Luiza V. S.; Bassaco, Mariana M.; Salau, Nina P. G.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Bisognin, Dilson A.; Terra, Lisiane M.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase, ?-amylase, and amyloglucosidase. A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase, pectinase, reaction time, and solid to liquid ratio. All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L. Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained, resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L. It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction. A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava. Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process: after its addition to the reaction media, a 30%50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed. At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(Lh). PMID:22761249

  19. Energetic approach of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Danilo A; Vaquerizo, Luis; Mato, Fidel; Bermejo, M Dolores; Cocero, M José

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis can be performed in supercritical water with a high selectivity of soluble sugars. The process produces high-pressure steam that can be integrated, from an energy point of view, with the whole biomass treating process. This work investigates the integration of biomass hydrolysis reactors with commercial combined heat and power (CHP) schemes, with special attention to reactor outlet streams. The innovation developed in this work allows adequate energy integration possibilities for heating and compression by using high temperature of the flue gases and direct shaft work from the turbine. The integration of biomass hydrolysis with a CHP process allows the selective conversion of biomass into sugars with low heat requirements. Integrating these two processes, the CHP scheme yield is enhanced around 10% by injecting water in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the hydrolysis reactor can be held at 400°C and 23 MPa using only the gas turbine outlet streams. PMID:25536511

  20. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle (Talence Cedex, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR); Villenave, Jean-Jacques (Talence Cedex, FR)

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  1. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  2. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  3. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  4. Hydrolysis of ammonia borane and metal amidoboranes: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Banu, Tahamida; Debnath, Tanay; Ash, Tamalika; Das, Abhijit K

    2015-11-21

    A gas phase mechanistic investigation has been carried out theoretically to explore the hydrolysis pathway of ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and metal amidoboranes (MNH2BH3, M = Li,Na). The Solvation Model based on Density (SMD) has been employed to show the effect of bulk water on the reaction mechanism. Gibbs free energy of solvation has also been computed to evaluate the stabilization of the participating systems in water medium which directly affects the barrier heights in the potential energy surface of hydrolysis reaction. To validate the experimentally observed kinetics studies, we have carried out transition state theory calculations on these hydrolysis reactions. Our result shows that the hydrolysis of both the metal amidoboranes exhibits greatly improved kinetics over the neat NH3BH3 hydrolysis which corroborates well with the experimental observation. Between the two amidoboranes, hydrolysis of LiNH2BH3 is found to be kinetically favored over that of NaNH2BH3, making it a better candidate for releasing molecular hydrogen. PMID:26590535

  5. Hydrolysis of ammonia borane and metal amidoboranes: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banu, Tahamida; Debnath, Tanay; Ash, Tamalika; Das, Abhijit K.

    2015-11-01

    A gas phase mechanistic investigation has been carried out theoretically to explore the hydrolysis pathway of ammonia borane (NH3BH3) and metal amidoboranes (MNH2BH3, M = Li,Na). The Solvation Model based on Density (SMD) has been employed to show the effect of bulk water on the reaction mechanism. Gibbs free energy of solvation has also been computed to evaluate the stabilization of the participating systems in water medium which directly affects the barrier heights in the potential energy surface of hydrolysis reaction. To validate the experimentally observed kinetics studies, we have carried out transition state theory calculations on these hydrolysis reactions. Our result shows that the hydrolysis of both the metal amidoboranes exhibits greatly improved kinetics over the neat NH3BH3 hydrolysis which corroborates well with the experimental observation. Between the two amidoboranes, hydrolysis of LiNH2BH3 is found to be kinetically favored over that of NaNH2BH3, making it a better candidate for releasing molecular hydrogen.

  6. Development of complete hydrolysis of pectins from apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Wikiera, Agnieszka; Mika, Magdalena; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatically extracted pectins have a more complex structure than those obtained by conventional methods. As a result, they are less susceptible to hydrolysis, which makes the precise determination of their composition difficult. The aim of the study was to develop a method of complete hydrolysis of enzymatically extracted apple pectins. Substrates were pectins isolated from apple pomace by the use of xylanase and multicatalytic preparation Celluclast and apple pomace. Hydrolysis was performed by a chemical method with 2M TFA at 100 °C and 120 °C and a combined acidic/enzymatic method. After hydrolysis, the contents of galacturonic acid and neutral sugars were measured by HPLC. Complete hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid occurred after 2.5h incubation with 2M TFA at 120 °C. The efficient hydrolysis of neutral sugars in pectins was performed with 2M TFA at 100 °C for 2.5h. Monomers most susceptible to concentrated acid were rhamnose, mannose and arabinose. PMID:25442606

  7. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K; Dean, Dennis R; Hoffman, Brian M; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C

    2013-10-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s(-1), 25 C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s(-1), 25 C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s(-1), 25 C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s(-1), 25 C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein-protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Fe(ox)(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  8. Study of microwave effects on the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Reddy, P Muralidhar; Devi, C Shobha; Chang, Po-Chi; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating on lipase-catalyzed reaction remains controversial. It is not clear whether the reaction rate enhancements are purely due to thermal/heating effects or to non-thermal effects. Therefore, quantitative mass spectrometry was used to conduct accurate kinetic analysis of lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of triolein by microwave and conventional heating. Commercial lipases from Candida rugosa (CRL), Porcine Pancreas (PPL), and Burkholderia cepacia (BCL) were used. Hydrolysis reactions were performed at various temperatures and pH levels, along with various amounts of buffer and enzymes. Hydrolysis product yields at each time point using an internal-standard method showed no significant difference between microwave and conventional heating conditions when the reaction was carried out at the same temperature. CRL showed optimum catalytic activity at 37C, while PPL and BCL had better activities at 50C. The phosphate buffer was found to give a better hydrolysis yield than the Tris-HCl buffer. Overall results prove that a non-thermal effect does not exist in microwave-assisted lipase hydrolysis of triolein. Therefore, conventional heating at high temperatures (e.g., 50C) can be also used to accelerate hydrolysis reactions. PMID:26672464

  9. Evaluation of abalone ?-glucuronidase substitution in current urine hydrolysis procedures.

    PubMed

    Malik-Wolf, Brittany; Vorce, Shawn; Holler, Justin; Bosy, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the potential of abalone ?-glucuronidase as a viable and cost effective alternative to current hydrolysis procedures using acid, Helix pomatia ?-glucuronidase and Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase. Abalone ?-glucuronidase successfully hydrolyzed oxazepam-glucuronide and lorazepam-glucuronide within 5% of the spiked control concentration. Benzodiazepines present in authentic urine specimens were within 20% of the concentrations obtained with the current hydrolysis procedure using H. pomatia ?-glucuronidase. JWH 018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) ?-d-glucuronide was hydrolyzed within 10% of the control concentration. Authentic urine specimens showed improved glucuronide cleavage using abalone ?-glucuronidase with up to an 85% increase of drug concentration, compared with the results obtained using E. coli ?-glucuronidase. The JWH 018 and JWH 073 carboxylic acid metabolites also showed increased drug concentrations of up to 24%. Abalone ?-glucuronidase was able to completely hydrolyze a morphine-3-glucuronide control, but only 82% of total morphine was hydrolyzed in authentic urine specimens compared with acid hydrolysis results. Hydrolysis of codeine and hydromorphone varied between specimens, suggesting that abalone ?-glucuronidase may not be as efficient in hydrolyzing the glucuronide linkages in opioid compounds compared with acid hydrolysis. Abalone ?-glucuronidase demonstrates effectiveness as a low cost option for enzyme hydrolysis of benzodiazepines and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:24488113

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of brewers' spent grain proteins and technofunctional properties of the resulting hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Celus, Inge; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2007-10-17

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG) is the insoluble residue of barley malt resulting from the manufacture of wort. Although it is the main byproduct of the brewing industry, it has received little attention as a marketable commodity and is mainly used as animal feed. Our work focuses on one of the main constituents of BSG, i.e., the proteins. The lack of solubility of BSG proteins is one of the limitations for their more extensive use in food processing. We therefore aimed to generate BSG protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties. BSG protein concentrate (BPC) was prepared by alkaline extraction of BSG and subsequent acid precipitation. BPC was enzymatically hydrolyzed in a pH-stat setup by several commercially available proteases (Alcalase, Flavourzyme, and Pepsin) for different times and/or with different enzyme concentrations in order to obtain hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH). Physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (MW) distribution and hydrophobicity, as well as technofunctional properties, such as solubility, color, and emulsifying and foaming properties, were determined. Enzymatic hydrolysis of BPC improved emulsion and/or foam-forming properties. However, for the hydrolysates prepared with Alcalase and Pepsin, an increasing DH generally decreased emulsifying and foam-forming capacities. Moreover, the type of enzyme impacted the resulting technofunctional properties. Hydrolysates prepared with Flavourzyme showed good technofunctional properties, independent of the DH. Physicochemical characterization of the hydrolysates indicated the importance of protein fragments with relatively high MW (exceeding 14.5 k) and high surface hydrophobicity for favorable technofunctional properties. PMID:17896813

  11. Investigating the Properties and Hydrolysis Ability of Poly-Lactic Acid/Chitosan Nanocomposites Using Polycaprolactone.

    PubMed

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thu; Chinhl, Nguyen Thuy; Thanh, Dinh Thi Mai; Hang, To Thi Xuan; Giang, Nguyen Vu; Hoang, Thai; Quan, Pham Minh; Giang, Le Duc; Thai, Nguyen Viet; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Poly-lactic acid (PLA) has been widely applied in the medical field (in biomedicines such as medical capsules, surgical sutures and suture wounds) owing to its high biodegradability, good biocompatibility and ability to be dissolved in common solvents. Chitosan (CS) is an abundant polysaccharide and a cationic polyelectrolyte present in nature. In this study, the combination of PLA and CS has been used to form PLA/CS nanocomposites having the advantages of both the original components. To enhance the dispersibility and compatibility between PLA and CS in the PLA/CS nanocomposites, polycaprolactone (PCL) is added as a compatibilizer. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies prove the existence of the interactions of PCL with PLA and CS. A more regular dispersion of CS of 200-400 nm particle size, is observed in the PLA matrix of the PLA/CS nanocomposites containing PCL, through the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy images. The appearance of one glass transition temperature (T(g)) value of PLA/CS/PCL nanocomposites occuring between the T(g) values of PLA and CS in DSC diagrams confirms the improvement in the compatibility between PLA and CS, due to the presence of PCL. The TGA result shows that PCL plays an important role in enhancing the thermal stability of PLA/CS/PCL nanocomposites. The hydrolysis of PLA/CS/PCL nanocomposites in alkaline and phosphate buffer solutions was investigated. The obtained results show that the PLA/CS/PCL nanocomposites have slower hydrolysis ability than the PLA/CS composites. PMID:26682382

  12. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small, the plane close to a prismatic plane orientation appeared to be the most corrosion resistant plane. The plane close to a basal plane orientation suffered from extensive pitting and roughening of the surface.

  13. Crystal structure of alkaline cellulase K: insight into the alkaline adaptation of an industrial enzyme.

    PubMed

    Shirai, T; Ishida, H; Noda, J; Yamane, T; Ozaki, K; Hakamada, Y; Ito, S

    2001-07-27

    The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of alkaline cellulase K was determined at 1.9 A resolution. Because of the most alkaliphilic nature and it's highest activity at pH 9.5, it is used commercially in laundry detergents. An analysis of the structural bases of the alkaliphilic character of the enzyme suggested a mechanism similar to that previously proposed for alkaline proteases, that is, an increase in the number of Arg, His, and Gln residues, and a decrease in Asp and Lys residues. Some ion pairs were formed by the gained Arg residues, which is similar to what has been found in the alkaline proteases. Lys-Asp ion pairs are disfavored and partly replaced with Arg-Asp ion pairs. The alkaline adaptation appeared to be a remodeling of ion pairs so that the charge balance is kept in the high pH range. PMID:11501997

  14. Cell membrane enzymes. II. Alkaline phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I in normal and leukaemic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kramers, M T; Catovsky, D; Foa, R

    1978-09-01

    The distribution of two cell membrane enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and alkaline phosphodiesterase I has been studied in normal and leukaemic lymphocytes. No reduction in the level of activity of either enzyme was found in the chronic or acute B- and T-cell leukaemias. Alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated in the lymphocytes from T-CLL, cord blood and tonsils and the blast cells from Null-ALL. Alkaline phosphodiesterase was elevated in lymphocytes from cord blood and tonsils and the blast cells from Null-ALL. As findings in Null-ALL were based on only two cases, they need confirmation in a larger series. The significance of these results is discussed in relation to current theories of maturation and differentiation in the lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:213096

  15. Pyrosequencing reveals the key microorganisms involved in sludge alkaline fermentation for efficient short-chain fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Li, Xiang; Xiao, Naidong; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang

    2013-05-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been regarded as the excellent carbon source of wastewater biological nutrient removal, and sludge alkaline (pH 10) fermentation has been reported to achieve highly efficient SCFAs production. In this study, the underlying mechanisms for the improved SCFAs production at pH 10 were investigated by using 454 pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyze the microbial community structures in sludge fermentation reactors. It was found that sludge fermentation at pH 10 increased the abundances of Pseudomonas sp. and Alcaligenes sp., which were able to excrete extracellular proteases and depolymerases, and thus enhanced the hydrolysis of insoluble sludge protein and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Meanwhile, the abundance of acid-producing bacteria (such as Clostridium sp.) in the reactor of pH 10 was also higher than that of uncontrolled pH, which benefited the acidification of soluble organic substrates. Further study indicated that sludge fermentation at pH 10 significantly decreased the number of methanogenic archaea, resulting in lower SCFAs consumption and lower methane production. Therefore, anaerobic sludge fermentation under alkaline conditions increased the abundances of bacteria involved in sludge hydrolysis and acidification, and decreased the abundance of methanogenic archaea, which favored the competition of bacteria over methanogens and resulted in the efficient production of SCFAs. PMID:23544425

  16. Solvation and glass transition in supercooled organic solutions of alkaline perchlorate and alkaline tetrafluoroborate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, K.; Kubochi, I.; Fukunaka, Y.; Kinoshita, N.; Terashima, Y.; Honda, M.

    2013-02-01

    Raman and DSC measurements for binary solutions of polyhydric alcohols and polyamines mixed with alkaline perchlorates and alkaline tetrafluoroborates are presented as a function of temperature and salt concentration. In these systems, the glass transition temperature increases with salt concentration, whereas highly concentrated systems showed an inflection anomaly. This glass transition anomaly is discussed in relation to the solvation of ions surrounded by organic solvents. The solvation structure is interpreted on the basis of the thermal excitation of the hydroxyl and amino groups.

  17. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  18. Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Peni?ka, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-11-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). PMID:25150520

  19. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOEpatents

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  20. High volume hydrogen production from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride using a cobalt catalyst supported on a honeycomb matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchionni, Andrea; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Folliero, Maria G.; Innocenti, Massimo; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Miller, Hamish A.; Pagliaro, Maria V.; Vizza, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen storage and distribution will be two very important aspects of any renewable energy infrastructure that uses hydrogen as energy vector. The chemical storage of hydrogen in compounds like sodium borohydride (NaBH4) could play an important role in overcoming current difficulties associated with these aspects. Sodium borohydride is a very attractive material due to its high hydrogen content. In this paper, we describe a reactor where a stable cobalt based catalyst supported on a commercial Cordierite Honeycomb Monolith (CHM) is employed for the hydrolysis of alkaline stabilized NaBH4 (SBH) aqueous solutions. The apparatus is able to operate at up to 5 bar and 130 °C, providing a hydrogen generation rate of up to 32 L min-1.

  1. FINAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing Al(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (III-VII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation (pH 10-14) of actinides in presence of Al(III) formation of alumi...

  2. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S.; Ahmed, El-Sadat I.; Gaber, M.; Hussein, Mohamed M.; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M.

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process.

  3. Kinetics of catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent.

    PubMed

    Al-Kady, Ahmed S; Ahmed, El-Sadat I; Gaber, M; Hussein, Mohamed M; Ebeid, El-Zeiny M

    2011-09-01

    The kinetics of chemical hydrolysis including neutral, acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl caprylate (MUCAP) salmonella reagent were studied at different temperatures. The rate constants and activation parameters were determined by following the build-up of fluorescence peak of the hydrolysis product 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU). The time scale of esterase enzyme hydrolysis caused by salmonella was compared with chemical hydrolysis as a background process. PMID:21715222

  4. Purification and characterisation of alkaline cellulase produced by a novel isolate, Bacillus sphaericus JS1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagtar; Batra, Navneet; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2004-02-01

    A novel strain of Bacillus sphaericus JS1 producing thermostable alkaline carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase; endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, E.C. 3.2.1.4) was isolated from soil using Horikoshi medium at pH 9.5. CMCase was purified 192-fold by (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, with an overall recovery of 23%. The CMCase is a multimeric protein with a molecular weight estimated by native-PAGE of 183 kDa. Using SDS-PAGE a single band is found at 42 kDa. This suggests presence of four homogeneous polypeptides, which would differentiate this enzyme from other known alkaline cellulases. The activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by bivalent cations (Fe(3+) and Hg(2+), 1.0 mM each) and activated by Co(2+), K(+) and Na(+). The purified enzyme revealed the products of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrolysis to be CM glucose, cellobiose and cellotriose. Thermostability, pH stability, good hydrolytic capability, and stability in the presence of detergents, surfactants, chelators and commercial proteases make this enzyme potentially useful in laundry detergents. PMID:14758556

  5. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 2 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  6. Cloned Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease (aprA) gene showing high level of keratinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, T I

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis alkaline protease(aprA) gene was previously cloned on a pUBHO-derivative plasmid. High levels of expression and gene stability were demonstrated when B. subtilis cells were grown on the laboratory medium 2XSG. B. subtilis cells harboring the multicopy aprA gene were grown on basal medium, supplemented with 1 % chicken feather as a source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen. Proteolytic and keratinolytic activities were monitored throughout the cultivation time. A high level of keratinolytic activity was obtained, and this indicates that alkaline protease is acting as a keratinase. Furthermore, considerable amounts of soluble proteins and free amino acids were obtained as a result of the enzymatic hydrolysis of feather. Biodegradation of feather waste using these cells represents an alternative way to improve the nutritional value of feather, since feather waste is currently utilized on a limited basis as a dietary protein supplement for animal feedstuffs. Moreover, the release of free amino acids from feather and the secreted keratinase enzyme would promote industries based on feather waste. PMID:18575989

  7. Matrix diffusion of some alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in granitic rock

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, H.; Byegaard, J.; Skarnemark, G.; Skaalberg, M.

    1997-12-31

    Static through-diffusion experiments were performed to study the diffusion of alkali- and alkaline earth-metals in fine-grained granite and medium-grained Aespoe-diorite. Tritiated water was used as an inert reference tracer. Radionuclides of the alkali- and alkaline earth-metals (mono- and divalent elements which are not influenced by hydrolysis in the pH-range studied) were used as tracers, i.e., {sup 22}Na{sup +}, {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} and {sup 85}Sr{sup 2+}. The effective diffusivity and the rock capacity factor were calculated by fitting the breakthrough curve to the one-dimensional solution of the diffusion equation. Sorption coefficients, K{sub d}, that were derived from the rock capacity factor (diffusion experiments) were compared with K{sub d} determined in batch experiments using crushed material of different size fractions. The results show that the tracers were retarded in the same order as was expected from the measured batch K{sub d}. Furthermore, the largest size fraction was the most representative when comparing batch K{sub d} with K{sub d} evaluated from the diffusion experiments. The observed effective diffusivities tended to decrease with increasing cell lengths, indicating that the transport porosity decreases with increasing sample lengths used in the diffusion experiments.

  8. Alkaline peroxide delignification of agricultural residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification. [Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately one-half of the lignin and most of the hemicellulose present in agricultural residues such as wheat straw and corn stover are solubilized when the residue is treated at 25/sup 0/C in an alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide. The delignification reaction is most efficient when the ratio of hydrogen peroxide to substrate is at least 0.25 (w/w) and the pH is 11.5. The supernatant fraction from a given pretreatment, after addition of makeup peroxide and readjustment of the pH, can be recycled to treat at least six additional batches of substrate, resulting in a substantial concentration of hemicellulose and soluble lignin degradation products. Hydrolysis of the insoluble fraction with Trichoderma reesei cellulase after alkline peroxide treatment yields glucose with almost 100% efficiency, based upon the cellulose content of the residue before treatment. These data indicate that alkaline peroxide pretreatment is a simple and efficient method for enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic crop residues to levels approaching the theoretical maximum.

  9. A conceptual model of mildly alkaline water discharging from the Zlatibor ultramafic massif, western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niki?, Zoran; Sre?kovi?-Bato?anin, Danica; Burazer, Milenko; Risti?, Ratko; Papi?, Petar; Nikoli?, Vesna

    2013-08-01

    Ultramafic rocks are generally taken to be `waterless' or bearing little water. The mountain Zlatibor, western Serbia, largely built of Upper Jurassic ultramafics, is without perennial springs. However, in Gruda, an area on the NE side of Zlatibor, there are two perennial ascending springs with uniform discharge: Bijela ?esma and Hajdu?ko Vrelo. The water from both springs is naturally mildly alkaline (pH 8.4), of Mg-HCO3 type, and temperature 11 C. The springs have been investigated with respect to derivation, dynamics and chemistry with a view to commercial use of the water. The results indicate zones of rocks fractured during tectonic events and/or under lithostatic pressure. Deep ultramafic rocks, equivalent to abyssal peridotites (the least depleted rocks of the upper mantle, rich in magnesium), include fractured aquifers characterized by heterogeneity and anisotropy. Groundwater arriving at the land surface derives from atmospheric precipitation, and its quality is converted through the process of serpentine acid hydrolysis into mildly alkaline Mg-HCO3 water. Both quantity and quality of water from these springs are stable and are unaffected by atmospheric precipitation or other external influences. A conceptual model of the structure, hydrogeological character of the aquifer, and the mechanism of groundwater derivation is developed for both springs.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of the microalga Spirulina at extreme alkaline conditions: biogas production, metagenome, and metatranscriptome

    PubMed Central

    Nolla-Ardèvol, Vímac; Strous, Marc; Tegetmeyer, Halina E.

    2015-01-01

    A haloalkaline anaerobic microbial community obtained from soda lake sediments was used to inoculate anaerobic reactors for the production of methane rich biogas. The microalga Spirulina was successfully digested by the haloalkaline microbial consortium at alkaline conditions (pH 10, 2.0 M Na+). Continuous biogas production was observed and the obtained biogas was rich in methane, up to 96%. Alkaline medium acted as a CO2 scrubber which resulted in low amounts of CO2 and no traces of H2S in the produced biogas. A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days and 0.25 g Spirulina L−1 day−1 organic loading rate (OLR) were identified as the optimal operational parameters. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the hydrolysis of the supplied substrate was mainly carried out by Bacteroidetes of the “ML635J-40 aquatic group” while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main producer of methane in a methanogenic community dominated by Methanocalculus. PMID:26157422

  11. Arginine coordination in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer: evaluation of the effect of Arg166 mutations in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Patrick J; Lassila, Jonathan Kyle; Fenn, Timothy D; Zalatan, Jesse G; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-07-22

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by approximately 3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 A X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state. PMID:18627128

  12. Structural and functional comparisons of nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and alkaline phosphatase: implications for mechanism and evolution.

    PubMed

    Zalatan, Jesse G; Fenn, Timothy D; Brunger, Axel T; Herschlag, Daniel

    2006-08-15

    The rapid expansion of the amount of genomic and structural data has provided many examples of enzymes with evolutionarily related active sites that catalyze different reactions. Functional comparisons of these active sites can provide insight into the origins of the enormous catalytic proficiency of enzymes and the evolutionary changes that can lead to different enzyme activities. The alkaline phosphatase (AP) superfamily is an ideal system to use in making such comparisons given the extensive data available on both nonenzymatic and enzymatic phosphoryl transfer reactions. Some superfamily members, such as AP itself, preferentially hydrolyze phosphate monoesters, whereas others, such as nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP), preferentially hydrolyze phosphate diesters. We have measured rate constants for NPP-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphate diesters and monoesters. NPP preferentially catalyzes diester hydrolysis by factors of 10(2)-10(6), depending on the identity of the diester substrate. To identify features of the NPP active site that could lead to preferential phosphate diester hydrolysis, we have determined the structure of NPP in the absence of ligands and in complexes with vanadate and AMP. Comparisons to existing structures of AP reveal bimetallo cores that are structurally indistinguishable, but there are several distinct structural features outside of the conserved bimetallo site. The structural and functional data together suggest that some of these distinct functional groups provide specific substrate binding interactions, whereas others tune the properties of the bimetallo active site itself to discriminate between phosphate diester and monoester substrates. PMID:16893180

  13. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia coli Alkaline Phosphatase,

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Patrick J.; Lassila, Jonathan Kyle; Fenn, Timothy D.; Zalatan, Jesse G.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio-substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free-energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by ?3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 x-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme, but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state. PMID:18627128

  14. Arginine Coordination in Enzymatic Phosphoryl Transfer: Evaluation of the Effect of Arg166 Mutations in Escherichia Coli Alkaline Phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, P.J.; Lassila, J.K.; Fenn, T.D.; Zalatan, J.G.; Herschlag, D.

    2009-05-22

    Arginine residues are commonly found in the active sites of enzymes catalyzing phosphoryl transfer reactions. Numerous site-directed mutagenesis experiments establish the importance of these residues for efficient catalysis, but their role in catalysis is not clear. To examine the role of arginine residues in the phosphoryl transfer reaction, we have measured the consequences of mutations to arginine 166 in Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase on hydrolysis of ethyl phosphate, on individual reaction steps in the hydrolysis of the covalent enzyme-phosphoryl intermediate, and on thio substitution effects. The results show that the role of the arginine side chain extends beyond its positive charge, as the Arg166Lys mutant is as compromised in activity as Arg166Ser. Through measurement of individual reaction steps, we construct a free energy profile for the hydrolysis of the enzyme-phosphate intermediate. This analysis indicates that the arginine side chain strengthens binding by {approx}3 kcal/mol and provides an additional 1-2 kcal/mol stabilization of the chemical transition state. A 2.1 {angstrom} X-ray diffraction structure of Arg166Ser AP is presented, which shows little difference in enzyme structure compared to the wild-type enzyme but shows a significant reorientation of the bound phosphate. Altogether, these results support a model in which the arginine contributes to catalysis through binding interactions and through additional transition state stabilization that may arise from complementarity of the guanidinum group to the geometry of the trigonal bipyramidal transition state.

  15. Enhanced recovery of alkaline protease from fish viscera by phase partitioning and its application

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Too many different protein and enzyme purification techniques have been reported, especially, chromatographic techniques. Apart from low recovery, these multi-step methods are complicated, time consuming, high operating cost. So, alternative beneficially methods are still required. Since, the outstanding advantages of aqueous two phase system (ATPS) such as simple, low cost, high recovery and scalable, ATPS have been used to purify various enzymes. To improve purification efficiency, parameters affected to enzyme recovery or purity was investigated. The objectives of the present study were to optimize of alkaline protease recovery from giant catfish fish viscera by using ATPS and to study of hydrolytic patterns against gelatin. Results Using 70% (w/w) crude enzyme extract (CE) in system (15% PEG2000-15% sodium citrate) provided the highest recovery, PF and KE. At unmodified pH (8.5) gave the best recovery and PF with compare to other pHs of the system. The addition of 1% (w/w) NaCl showed the recovery (64.18%), 3.33-fold and 15.09 of KE compared to the system without NaCl. After addition of 10% (w/w) sodium citrate in the second ATPS cycle, the highest protease recovery (365.53%) and PF (11.60-fold) were obtained. Thus, the top phase from the system was subjected to further studied. The protein bands with molecular weights (MWs) of 20, 24, 27, 36, 94 and 130 kDa appeared on the protein stained gel and also exhibited clear zone on casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The β, α1, α2 of skin gelatin extensively degraded into small molecules when treated with 10 units of the extracted alkaline protease compared to those of the level of 0.21 units of Flavourzyme. Conclusions Repetitive ATPS is the alternative strategy to increase both recovery and purity of the alkaline protease from farmed giant catfish viscera. Extracted alkaline protease exposed very high effectiveness in gelatin hydrolysis. It is suggested that the alkaline protease from this fish viscera can further be used in protein hydrolysate production. PMID:23631530

  16. Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.

    2013-02-01

    Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 6H2O, respectively.

  17. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  18. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Fluoride incorporation into apatite crystals delays amelogenin hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Zhu, Li; Li, Wu; Tanimoto, Kotaro; Liu, Haichuan; Witkowska, Halina Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis has been related to an increase in the amount of amelogenin in fluorosed enamel as compared to normal enamel in the maturation stage. In this study we tested the hypothesis that fluoride incorporated into carbonated apatite alters amelogenin hydrolysis. Recombinant human amelogenin (rh174) was allowed to bind to 0.15 mg of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) or fluoride-containing carbonated hydroxyapatite (F-CAP) synthesized to contain 100, 1000 or 4000 ppm F-. After 3 h digestion with recombinant human MMP20 or KLK4, bound protein was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC. Proteolytic fragments formed after 24 h digestion of amelogenin, were identified by LC tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). The hydrolysis of amelogenin bound to F100-CAP by both MMP20 and KLK4 was significantly reduced in a dose dependent manner as compared to CAP. After 24 h hydrolysis, the number of cleavage sites in bound amelogenin by MMP20 were similar in CAP and F100-CAP, whereas there were 24 fewer cleavage sites identified for the KLK4 hydrolysis on F100-CAP as compared to CAP. These results suggest that the reduced hydrolysis of amelogenins in fluorosed enamel may be partially due to the increased fluoride content in fluoride containing apatite, contributing to the hypomineralized enamel matrix phenotype observed in fluorosed enamel. PMID:22243219

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of fractionated products from oil thermally oxidated

    SciTech Connect

    Yashida, H.; Alexander, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of the acylglycerol products obtained from thermally oxidized vegetable oils was studied. Corn, sunflower and soybean oils were heated in the laboratory at 180/sup 0/C for 50, 70 and 100 hr with aeration and directly fractionated by silicic acid column chromatography. By successive elution with 20%, then 60% isopropyl ether in n-hexane, and diethyl ether, the thermally oxidized oils were separated into three fractions: the nonpolar fraction (monomeric compounds), slightly polar fraction (dimeric compounds), and polar fraction comprising oligomeric compounds. Enzymatic hydrolysis with pancreatic lipase showed that the monomers were hydrolyzed as rapidly as the corresponding unheated oils, the dimers much more slowly, and the oligomeric compounds barely at all. Overall, the hydrolysis of the dimers was less than 23% of that for the monomers, with small differences among the oils. Longer heating periods resulted in greater reductions in hydrolysis of the dimeric compounds. These results suggest that the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis of the fractionated acylglycerol compounds is related to differences in the thermal oxidative deterioration, and amounts of polar compounds in the products. (33 Refs.)

  2. Acid hydrolysis of corn stover in a concentrated slurry system

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this research was to characterize the hydrolysis kinetics of corn stover using sulfuric acid as the catalyst in a concentrated slurry. The kinetic data were obtained in a specially constructed continuous flow reactor with an in-line sampling system. The scope and range of experimental variables included temperature, acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio and reaction time. It is found that glucan hydrolysis follows a zero order kinetic in the range of experimental variables investigated. Both acid concentration and temperature increase the rate of glucan hydrolysis. A rate expression for glucan hydrolysis is developed both on the basis of adsorbed acid and bulk acid concentration. A kinetic model is proposed for the reaction. An integral approach is used to determine the parameters in the kinetic model and their numerical values are found to be comparable to those reported in the literature. It is found that at a given temperature, acid concentration and glucan conversion, there is an optimum liquid-to-solid ratio which maximizes glucose concentration. It is shown experimentally that glucan hydrolysis is not mass transfer limited at as low a liquid-to-solid ratio as 2:5:1.

  3. Starch hydrolysis modeling: application to fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2011-09-01

    Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was modeled using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The model included the effects of process variables such as temperature, pH, enzyme activity and enzyme dose. Pure starches from wet milled waxy and high-amylose corn hybrids and ground yellow dent corn were hydrolyzed to validate the model. Standard deviations in the model predictions for glucose concentration and DE values after saccharification were less than 0.15% (w/v) and 0.35%, respectively. Correlation coefficients for model predictions and experimental values were 0.60 and 0.91 for liquefaction and 0.84 and 0.71 for saccharification of amylose and amylopectin, respectively. Model predictions for glucose (R2 = 0.69-0.79) and DP4+ (R2 = 0.8-0.68) were more accurate than the maltotriose and maltose for hydrolysis of high-amylose and waxy corn starch. For yellow dent corn, simulation predictions for glucose were accurate (R2 > 0.73) indicating that the model can be used to predict the glucose concentrations during starch hydrolysis. PMID:21487699

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of organophosphate insecticides, a possible pesticide disposal method.

    PubMed Central

    Munnecke, D M

    1976-01-01

    A crude cell extract from a mixed bacterial culture growing on parathion, an organophosphate insecticide, hydrolyzed parathion (21 C) at a rate of 416 nmol/min per mg of protein. This rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, when compared with chemical hydrolysis by 0.1 N sodium hydroxide at 40 C, was 2, 450 times faster. Eight of 12 commonly used organophosphate insecticides were enzymatically hydrolyzed with this enzyme preparation at rates ranging from 12 to 1,360 nmol/min per mg of protein. Seven pesticides were hydrolyzed at rates significantly higher (40 to 1,005 times faster) than chemical hydrolysis. The pH optimum for enzymatic hydrolysis of the eight pesticides ranged from 8.5 to 9.5, with less than 50% of maximal activity expressed at pH 7.0. Maximal enzyme activity occurred at 35 C. The crude extract lost its activity at the rate of only 0.75%/day when stored at 6 C. Eight organic solvents, ranging from methanol to hexane, at low concentrations stimulated enzymatic hydrolysis by 3 to 20%, whereas at higher concentrations (1,000 mg/liter) they inhibited the reaction (9 to 50%). Parathion metabolites p-nitrophenol, hydroquinone, and diethylthiophosphoric acid, at up to 100-mg/liter concentrations, did not significantly influence enzyme activity. PMID:9901

  5. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food.

    PubMed

    Snow, P; O'Dea, K

    1981-12-01

    After accurate determination of the content of available carbohydrate in a wide variety of cereals, as in vitro method was used to study factors that influence hydrolysis rates of starch in foods. Fiber, physical form, cooking, and the possible presence of a natural amylase inhibitor were all shown to affect hydrolysis rates of starch. Fiber only exerted an inhibiting effect on the rate of hydrolysis when it formed a physical barrier to limit access of the hydrolytic enzymes to the starch (as in whole brown rice, for example). Particle size played an important role in determining the rate of hydrolysis. Cooking made the starch much more readily available for enzymic hydrolysis presumably by gelatinizing it. Stoneground wholemeal flour was hydrolyzed more slowly than white flour. This is consistent with the presence of a natural amylase inhibitor that has been isolated from wheat germ in the whole grain. Our results suggest that such amylase inhibitor activity is destroyed by passage through the roller mill, since the starch in wheat germ and standard wholemeal flour (i.e., not stoneground but reconstituted after passage through the roller mill) was hydrolyzed at a rate identical to white flour. PMID:6172034

  6. QM/MM investigation of ATP hydrolysis in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Huang, Wenting; Liao, Jie-Lou

    2015-03-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis represents a most important reaction in biology. Despite extensive research efforts, the mechanism for ATP hydrolysis in aqueous solution still remains under debate. Previous theoretical studies often predefined reaction coordinates to characterize the mechanism for ATP hydrolysis in water with Mg(2+) by evaluating free energy profiles through these preassumed reaction paths. In the present work, a nudged elastic band method is applied to identify the minimum energy path calculated with a hybrid quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics approach. Along the reaction path, the free energy profile was obtained to have a single transition state and the activation energy of 32.5 kcal/mol. This transition state bears a four-centered structure that describes a concerted nature of the reaction. In the More-O'Ferrall-Jencks diagram, the results show that the reaction proceeds through a concerted path before the system reaches the transition state and along an associative path after the transition state. In addition, the calculated reaction free energy is -7.0 kcal/mol, in good agreement with experiment, capturing the exothermic feature of MgATP(2-) hydrolysis in aqueous solution, whereas the reaction was often shown to be endothermic in the previous theoretical studies. As Mg(2+) is required for ATP hydrolysis in cells, its role in the reaction is also elucidated. PMID:25658024

  7. Lactose Hydrolysis in Milk and Dairy Whey Using Microbial ?-Galactosidases.

    PubMed

    Dutra Rosolen, Michele; Gennari, Adriano; Volpato, Giandra; Volken de Souza, Claucia Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the influence of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction time in the lactose hydrolysis process in milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate, using two commercial ?-galactosidases of microbial origins. We used Aspergillus oryzae (at temperatures of 10 and 55C) and Kluyveromyces lactis (at temperatures of 10 and 37C) ?-galactosidases, both in 3, 6, and 9?U/mL concentrations. In the temperature of 10C, the K. lactis ?-galactosidase enzyme is more efficient in the milk, cheese whey, and whey permeate lactose hydrolysis when compared to A. oryzae. However, in the enzyme reaction time and concentration conditions evaluated, 100% lactose hydrolysis was not reached using the K. lactis ?-galactosidase. The total lactose hydrolysis in whey and permeate was obtained with the A. oryzae enzyme, when using its optimum temperature (55C), at the end of a 12?h reaction, regardless of the enzyme concentration used. For the lactose present in milk, this result occurred in the concentrations of 6 and 9?U/mL, with the same time and temperature conditions. The studied parameters in the lactose enzymatic hydrolysis are critical for enabling the application of ?-galactosidases in the food industry. PMID:26587283

  8. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea addition were evaluated in the dry grind process using GSHE (GSH process). Addition of proteases resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (15.2 to 18.0% v/v) and lower (DDGS) yields (32.9 to 45.8% db) compared to the control (no protease addition). As level of proteases and GSHE increased, ethanol concentrations increased and DDGS yields decreased. Proteases addition reduced required GSHE dose. Ethanol concentrations with protease addition alone were higher than with urea or with addition of both protease and urea. Corn endosperm consists of soft and hard endosperm. More exposed starch granules and rough surfaces produced from soft endosperm compared to hard endosperm will create more surface area which will benefit the solid phase hydrolysis as used in GSH process. In this study, the effects of protease, urea, endosperm hardness and GSHE levels on the GSH process were evaluated. Soft and hard endosperm materials were obtained by grinding and sifting flaking grits from dry milling pilot plant. Soft endosperm resulted in higher ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) compared to ground corn or hard endosperm. Addition of urea increased ethanol concentrations (at 72 hr) for soft and hard endosperm. The effect of protease addition on increasing ethanol concentrations and fermentation rates was more predominant for soft endosperm, less for hard endosperm and least for ground corn. The GSH process with protease resulted in higher ethanol concentration than that with urea. For fermentation of soft endosperm, GSHE dose can be reduced. Ground corn fermented faster at the beginning than hard and soft endosperm due to the presence of inherent nutrients which enhanced yeast growth.

  9. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase regulates protective surface microclimate pH in rat duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Mizumori, Misa; Ham, Maggie; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of localized extracellular pH (pHo) maintains normal organ function. An alkaline microclimate overlying the duodenal enterocyte brush border protects the mucosa from luminal acid. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) regulates pHo due to pH-sensitive ATP hydrolysis as part of an ecto-purinergic pH regulatory system, comprised of cell-surface P2Y receptors and ATP-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS). To test this hypothesis, we measured DBS in a perfused rat duodenal loop, examining the effect of the competitive alkaline phosphatase inhibitor glycerol phosphate (GP), the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase inhibitor ARL67156, and exogenous nucleotides or P2 receptor agonists on DBS. Furthermore, we measured perfusate ATP concentration with a luciferinluciferase bioassay. IAP inhibition increased DBS and luminal ATP output. Increased luminal ATP output was partially CFTR dependent, but was not due to cellular injury. Immunofluorescence localized the P2Y1 receptor to the brush border membrane of duodenal villi. The P2Y1 agonist 2-methylthio-ADP increased DBS, whereas the P2Y1 antagonist MRS2179 reduced ATP- or GP-induced DBS. Acid perfusion augmented DBS and ATP release, further enhanced by the IAP inhibitor l-cysteine, and reduced by the exogenous ATPase apyrase. Furthermore, MRS2179 or the highly selective P2Y1 antagonist MRS2500 co-perfused with acid induced epithelial injury, suggesting that IAP/ATP/P2Y signalling protects the mucosa from acid injury. Increased DBS augments IAP activity presumably by raising pHo, increasing the rate of ATP degradation, decreasing ATP-mediated DBS, forming a negative feedback loop. The duodenal epithelial brush border IAPP2YHCO3? surface microclimate pH regulatory system effectively protects the mucosa from acid injury. PMID:19451200

  10. Electrospinning of an Alkaline Polymer Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roddecha, Supacharee; Dong, Zexuan; Wu, Yiquan; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2010-03-01

    The polymer electrolyte membrane is a key component of the low temperature fuel cell to block fuel and electron crossover, while enabling ions to pass and complete the half-cell reactions. Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) are anion-containing polymers, such as Nafion, which offer proton conduction pathways. Alkaline polymer electrolytes utilize hydroxyl anions as charge carriers and are currently being researched as an alternative to PEMs because they may offer the use of inexpensive metal catalysts. However, hydroxyl anion in an alkaline electrolyte has relatively low mobility compared to that of protons in an acid electrolyte; hence a high concentration of OH^- is required to obtain high ionic conductivity. Here, we report the use of an electrospinning process to prepare nonwoven membranes. Polysulfones are first functionalized with varied ionic content of quaternary ammonium functional groups and then are electrospun to get alkaline electrolyte mat. The morphology at various ionic content, mechanical property, and in-plane conductivity of resulting films will be discussed and compared to solvent-cast films of the same material.

  11. Long-life alkaline primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruetschi, P.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to an alkaline primary battery of the type having a negative electrode containing cadmium of amalgamated zinc and a positive electrode containing monovalent silver oxide, mercuric oxide, or mixtures of these oxides with manganese dioxide, the positive electrode having an electrochemically active surface area facing the negative electrode. At positive electrodes, self-discharge can be caused by the solubility of the active material. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved alkaline primary battery designed to reduce this type of self-discharge, without impairing the internal resistance of the battery. To this end, in the alkaline primary battery the improvement comprises at least one electrically conductive, microporous, electrolyte-saturated, optically opaque filter-electrode which covers the entire active surface area of the positive electrode, contains either no monovalent silver oxide nor mercuric oxide or only a substantially smaller amount thereof per unit of volume than the positive electrode, contains electrically conductive material which is not corroded, oxidized, nor dissolved in alkali electrolytes at the given potential of the positive electrode, and is in electrical contact with the positive electrode.

  12. Enhanced cellulase hydrolysis of eucalyptus waste fibers from pulp mill by Tween80-assisted ferric chloride pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liheng; Fu, Shiyu

    2013-04-01

    Pretreatment combining FeCl3 and Tween80 was performed for cellulose-to-ethanol conversion of eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste fibers (EAWFs). The FeCl3 pretreatment alone showed a good effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of EAWFs, but inhibited enzyme activity to some extent. A surfactant, Tween80, added during FeCl3 pretreatment was shown to significantly enhance enzyme reaction by eluting enzymatic inhibitors such as iron(III) that are present at the surface of the pretreated biomass. Treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, treatment time, FeCl3 concentration, and Tween80 dosage for pretreatment were optimized as follows: 180 C, 8:1, 30 min, 0.15 mol/L, and 1% (w/v). Pretreated EAWFs under such optimal conditions provided enzymatic glucose (based on 100 g of oven-dried feedstock) and substrate enzymatic digestibility of EAWFs of 34.8 g and 91.3% after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, with an initial cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. PMID:23480567

  13. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer Gonzlez, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and climate will be also discussed.

  14. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of buckwheat protein on antigenicity and allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jeongok; Han, Youngshin; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Ahn, Kangmo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Due to its beneficial health effects, use of buckwheat has shown a continuous increase, and concerns regarding the allergic property of buckwheat have also increased. This study was conducted for evaluation of the hydrolytic effects of seven commercial proteases on buckwheat allergens and its allergenicity. MATERIALS/METHODS Extracted buckwheat protein was hydrolyzed by seven proteolytic enzymes at individual optimum temperature and pH for four hours. Analysis was then performed using SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, and competitive inhibition ELISA (ciELISA) with rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein, and direct ELISA with pooled serum of 21 buckwheat-sensitive patients. RESULTS Alkaline protease, classified as serine peptidase, was most effective in reducing allergenicity of buckwheat protein. It caused decomposition of the whole buckwheat protein, as shown on SDS-PAGE, and results of immunoblotting showed that the rabbit antiserum to buckwheat protein no longer recognized it as an antigen. Allergenicity showed a decrease of more than 50% when pooled serum of patients was used in ELISA. Two proteolytic enzymes from Aspergillus sp. could not hydrolyze buckwheat allergens effectively, and the allergenicity even appeared to increase. CONCLUSIONS Serine-type peptidases appeared to show a relatively effective reduction of buckwheat allergenicity. However, the antigenicity measured using rabbit antiserum did not correspond to the allergenicity measured using sera from human patients. Production of less allergenic buckwheat protein may be possible using enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:24944772

  15. STIMULATION OF MICROBIAL UREA HYDROLYSIS IN GROUNDWATER TO ENHANCE CALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshiko Fujita; Joanna L. Taylor; Tina L. Gresham; Mark E. Delwiche; Frederick S. Colwell; Travis McLing; Lynn Petzke; Robert W. Smith

    2008-04-01

    Sequential addition of molasses and urea was tested as a means of stimulating microbial urea hydrolysis in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in Idaho. Ureolysis is an integral component of a novel remediation approach for divalent trace metal and radionuclide contaminants in groundwater and associated geomedia, where the contaminants are immobilized by coprecipitation in calcite. The generation of carbonate alkalinity from ureolysis promotes calcite precipitation. In calcite-saturated aquifers, this represents a potential long-term contaminant sequestration mechanism. In a single well experiment, dilute molasses was injected three times over two weeks to promote overall microbial growth, followed by one urea injection. With molasses addition, total cell numbers in the groundwater increased one to two orders of magnitude. Estimated ureolysis rates in recovered groundwater samples increased from <0.1 nmol L-1 hr-1 to >25 nmol L-1 hr-1. A quantitative PCR assay for the bacterial ureC gene indicated that urease gene numbers increased up to 170 times above pre-injection levels. Following urea injection, calcite precipitates were recovered. Estimated values for an in situ first order ureolysis rate constant ranged from 0.016 to 0.057 day-1. The results are promising with respect to the potential to manipulate in situ biogeochemical processes to promote contaminant sequestration.

  16. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  17. Monoolein production by triglycerides hydrolysis using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Nesrine; Abidi, Ferid; Galai, Said; Marzouki, M Nejib; Salah, Abderraouf Ben

    2014-07-01

    Lipase extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was immobilized in alginate gel beads. The effects of the immobilization conditions, such as, alginate concentration, CaCl2 concentration and amount of initial enzyme on retained activity (specific activity ratio of entrapped active lipase to free lipase) were investigated. The optimal conditions for lipase entrapment were determined: 2% (w/v) alginate concentration, 100mM CaCl2 and enzyme ratio of 2000IU/mL.In such conditions, immobilized lipase by inclusion in alginate showed a highest stability and activity, on olive oil hydrolysis reaction where it could be reused for 10 cycles. After 15min of hydrolysis reaction, the mass composition of monoolein, diolein and triolein were about 78%, 10% and 12%. Hydrolysis' products purification by column chromatography lead to a successful separation of reaction compounds and provide a pure fraction of monoolein which is considered as the widest used emulsifier in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24755261

  18. Designer xylanosomes: protein nanostructures for enhanced xylan hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    McClendon, Shara D; Mao, Zichao; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wagschal, Kurt; Chen, Rachel R

    2012-06-01

    This work reports the successful design, construction, and application of multi-functional, self-assembling protein complex, termed xylanosomes. Using the architecture of cellulosomes as template, these structures were designed specifically for hemicellulose hydrolysis. Four different xylanosomes were developed, with up to three different hemicellulase activities combined into a single structure. Each xylanosome was composed of two native or chimeric hemicellulases and tested on wheat arabinoxylan or destarched corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. After 24-h incubation, soluble sugars released from arabinoxylan increased up to 30 % with xylanosomes containing a xylanase and bi-functional arabinofuranosidase/xylosidase over the corresponding free, unstructured enzymes. Additionally, xylanosomes with a xylanase and a ferulic acid esterase removed between 15 and 20 % more ferulic acid from wheat arabinoxylan than free enzymes. Furthermore, xylanosomes exhibited synergy with cellulases on destarched corn bran, suggesting a possible use of these nanostructures in cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:22555497

  19. In vitro hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate by dental plaque microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L R

    1982-07-01

    Enzymic hydrolysis of sodium monofluorophosphate by suspensions of dental microorganisms has been demonstrated at pH 5.1, pH 7.0, and pH 8.4, using a fluoride-selective electrode. The extracellular medium from viable Streptococcus mutans K1R cells contained low MFPase and paranitrophenyl phosphatase activity. It is hypothesized that the enzymes responsible for MFP hydrolysis by S. mutans K1R are intracellular, and that cell disruption is necessary for hydrolysis to be manifested; this question requires further study. In vitro MFPase activity was of a magnitude consistent with the hypothesis that it may significantly raise the fluoride ion concentration of plaque within the several minutes MFP would be in the mouth during toothbrushing. PMID:6282948

  20. Base hydrolysis and supercritical water oxidation of PBX-9404

    SciTech Connect

    Flesner, R.L.; Spontarelli, T.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Kramer, J.F.; Sanchez, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    Base hydrolysis in combination with hydrothermal processing has been proposed as an environmentally acceptable alternative to open burning/open detonation for degradation and destruction of high explosives. In this report, the authors examine gaseous and aqueous products of base hydrolysis of the HMX-based plastic bonded explosive, PBX-9404. The authors also examine products from the subsequent hydrothermal treatment of the base hydrolysate. The gases produced from hydrolysis of PBX-9404 are ammonia, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen. Major aqueous products are sodium formate, acetate, nitrate, and nitrite, but not all carbon products have been identified. Hydrothermal processing of base hydrolysate destroyed up to 98% of the organic carbon in solution, and higher destruction efficiencies are possible. Major gas products detected from hydrothermal processing were nitrogen and nitrous oxide.

  1. Effect of ketogenic diet on nucleotide hydrolysis and hepatic enzymes in blood serum of rats in a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Vanessa Gass; de Paula Cognato, Giana; Mller, Alexandre Pastoris; Figueir, Fabrcio; Bonan, Carla Denise; Perry, Marcos L Santos; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet, used for treating refractory epilepsy in children. We have previously shown alterations in nucleotidase activities from the central nervous system and blood serum of rats submitted to different models of epilepsy. In this study we investigated the effect of KD on nucleotidase activities in the blood serum, as well if KD has any influence in the activity of liver enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in Wistar rats submitted to the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. At 21 days of age, rats received an injection of lithium chloride and, 18-19 h later, they received an injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride for status epilepticus induction. The results reported herein show that seizures induced by lithium-pilocarpine elicit a significant increase in ATP hydrolysis and alkaline phosphatase activity, as well as a decrease in ADP hydrolysis and aspartate aminotransferase activity. The KD is a rigorous regimen that can be associated with hepatic damage, as shown herein by the elevated activities of liver enzymes and 5'-nucleotidase in blood serum. Further studies are necessary to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of lithium on nucleotidases in blood serum. PMID:20443057

  2. Impact of ?-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of ?-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that ?-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (?H) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that ?-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch. PMID:23357798

  3. The Mechanisms of Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction during Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Thygesen, Lisbeth G.; Thybring, Emil E.; Johansen, Katja S.; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical agitation during enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble plant biomass at high dry matter contents is indispensable for the initial liquefaction step in biorefining. It is known that particle size reduction is an important part of liquefaction, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here we put forward a simple model based on mechanical principles capable of capturing the result of the interaction between mechanical forces and cell wall weakening via hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds. This study illustrates that basic material science insights are relevant also within biochemistry, particularly when it comes to up-scaling of processes based on insoluble feed stocks. PMID:25232741

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Dale, B E; Doran-Peterson, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct generated by the table sugar industry. Beet pulp has shown promise as a feedstock for ethanol production using enzymes to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates and engineered bacteria to ferment sugars to ethanol. In this study, sugar beet pulp underwent an ammonia pressurization depressurization (APD) pretreatment in which the pulp was exploded by the sudden evaporation of ammonia in a reactor vessel. APD was found to substantially increase hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose component, but when hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes were added, treated pulp hydrolysis was no better than the untreated control. PMID:11963856

  5. Benzene/nitrous oxide flammability in the precipitate hydrolysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, R A

    1989-09-18

    The HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process for destruction of nitrite in precipitate hydrolysis produces nitrous oxide (N2O) gas as one of the products. N2O can form flammable mixtures with benzene which is also present due to radiolysis and hydrolysis of tetraphenylborate. Extensive flame modeling and explosion testing was undertaken to define the minimum oxidant for combustion of N2O/benzene using both nitrogen and carbon dioxide as diluents. The attached memorandum interprets and documents the results of the studies.

  6. Microwave-assisted hydrolysis of polysaccharides over polyoxometalate clusters.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Ueda, Tadaharu; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Mitani, Tomohiko; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-01

    Polyoxometalate (POM) clusters were utilized as recyclable acid catalysts and microwave-absorbing agents for the microwave-assisted hydrolysis of corn starch and crystalline cellulose. Phosphotungstic (PW) and silicotungstic (SiW) acids showed high hydrolyzing activity, while phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) showed lower glucose stability. The PW catalyst could be recycled by ether extraction at least 4 times without changing its catalytic activity. The addition of PW could reduce the energy demand required for running the hydrolysis by 17-23%. The dielectric property of the aqueous PW solution was important for increasing the microwave-absorption capability of the reaction system and reducing the energy consumption. PMID:23859983

  7. Hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by mycelial biomass of Penicillium funiculosum

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.; Deshpande, V.; Seeta, R.; Srinivasan, M.C.; Mishra, C.

    1985-07-01

    Cellulose bioconversion has great promise for producing unlimited quantities of fermentable feedstocks and liquid fuels. Extensive studies on the production of extracellular cellulase and on the saccharification of various cellulosic substrates using cellulases have been reported. Use of mycelial biomass having cell bound cellulase for saccharification of cellulose was studied in Aspergillus terreus by Miller and Srinivasan. Extracellular cellulase production by P. funiculosum and its application for cellulose hydrolysis have been reported earlier by the authors. The present communication reports the hydrolysis of lignocellulose using mycelial biomass of P. funiculosum cultivated on cellulose and its reuse potential. 10 references.

  8. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding: Buffering at intermediate alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, J.; Wasan, D.T. )

    1993-11-01

    The alkaline flooding process involves injecting alkaline agents into the reservoir to produce more oil than is produced through conventional waterflooding. The interaction of the alkali in the flood water with the naturally occurring acids in the reservoir oil results in in-situ formation of soaps, which are partially responsible for lowering IFT and improving oil recovery. The extent to which IFT is lowered depends on the specific oil and injection water properties. Numerous investigators have attempted to clarify the relationship between system chemical composition and IFT. An experimental investigation of buffered alkaline flooding system chemistry was undertaken to determine the influence of various species present on interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of pH and ionic strength. IFT was found to go through an ultralow minimum in certain pH ranges. This synergism results from simultaneous adsorption of un-ionized and ionized acid species on the interface.

  9. Probing the origin of the compromised catalysis of E. coli alkaline phosphatase in its promiscuous sulfatase reaction.

    PubMed

    Catrina, Irina; O'Brien, Patrick J; Purcell, Jamie; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Zalatan, Jesse G; Hengge, Alvan C; Herschlag, Daniel

    2007-05-01

    The catalytic promiscuity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) and many other enzymes provides a unique opportunity to dissect the origin of enzymatic rate enhancements via a comparative approach. Here, we use kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) to explore the origin of the 109-fold greater catalytic proficiency by AP for phosphate monoester hydrolysis relative to sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The primary 18O KIEs for the leaving group oxygen atoms in the AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and p-nitrophenylsulfate (pNPS) decrease relative to the values observed for nonenzymatic hydrolysis reactions. Prior linear free energy relationship results suggest that the transition states for AP-catalyzed reactions of phosphate and sulfate esters are "loose" and indistinguishable from that in solution, suggesting that the decreased primary KIEs do not reflect a change in the nature of the transition state but rather a strong interaction of the leaving group oxygen atom with an active site Zn2+ ion. Furthermore, the primary KIEs for the two reactions are identical within error, suggesting that the differential catalysis of these reactions cannot be attributed to differential stabilization of the leaving group. In contrast, AP perturbs the KIE for the nonbridging oxygen atoms in the reaction of pNPP but not pNPS, suggesting a differential interaction with the transferred group in the transition state. These and prior results are consistent with a strong electrostatic interaction between the active site bimetallo Zn2+ cluster and one of the nonbridging oxygen atoms on the transferred group. We suggest that the lower charge density of this oxygen atom on a transferred sulfuryl group accounts for a large fraction of the decreased stabilization of the transition state for its reaction relative to phosphoryl transfer. PMID:17411045

  10. Probing the Origin of the Compromised Catalysis of E. coli Alkaline Phosphatase in its Promiscuous Sulfatase Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Catrina, Irina; O'Brien, Patrick J.; Purcell, Jamie; Nikolic-Hughes, Ivana; Zalatan, Jesse G.; Hengge, Alvan C.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic promiscuity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase (AP) and many other enzymes provides a unique opportunity to dissect the origin of enzymatic rate enhancements via a comparative approach. Here we use kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) to explore the origin of the 109-fold greater catalytic proficiency by AP for phosphate monoester hydrolysis relative to sulfate monoester hydrolysis. The primary 18O KIEs for the leaving group oxygen atoms in the AP-catalyzed hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) and p-nitrophenylsulfate (pNPS) decrease relative to the values observed for nonenzymatic hydrolysis reactions. Prior linear free energy relationship results suggest that the transition states for AP-catalyzed reactions of phosphate and sulfate esters are loose and indistinguishable from that in solution, suggesting that the decreased primary KIEs do not reflect a change in the nature of the transition state but rather a strong interaction of the leaving group oxygen atom with an active site Zn2+ ion. Furthermore, the KIEs for the two reactions are identical within error, suggesting that the differential catalysis of these reactions cannot be attributed to differential stabilization of the leaving group. In contrast, AP perturbs the KIE for the nonbridging oxygen atoms in the reaction of pNPP but not pNPS, suggesting a differential interaction with the transferred group in the transition state. These and prior results are consistent with a strong electrostatic interaction between the active site bimetallo Zn2+ cluster and one of the nonbridging oxygen atoms on the transferred group. We suggest that the lower charge density of this oxygen atom on a transferred sulfuryl group accounts for a large fraction of the decreased stabilization of the transition state for its reaction relative to phosphoryl transfer. PMID:17411045

  11. How to use... alkaline phosphatase in neonatology.

    PubMed

    Tinnion, Robert J; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2012-08-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is regularly measured in clinical practice. Changes in serum levels are observed in a number of clinical conditions. In neonatology, it has been proposed as a useful marker for both a diagnosis and an indication of the severity of metabolic bone disease (MBD) in infants born preterm. Nutritional practices, aimed at reducing the occurrence or severity of MBD, have led to ALP being proposed as a stand-alone means of monitoring treatment. The current evidence does not support this use: ALP only achieves usefulness in a diagnostic and monitoring capacity when combined with other serum and imaging techniques. PMID:22761487

  12. Designer xylanosomes: protein nanostructures for enhanced xylan hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work is the first report of the successful design, construction, and application of multi-functional, self-assembling biocatalysts for targeted xylan hydrolysis, termed xylanosomes. Using the architecture of cellulosomes found in some anaerobic cellulolytic microbes, four different xylanosomes...

  13. Vicinal ?,?-functionalizations of amines: cyclization versus dehydrogenative hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Achard, Mathieu; Bruneau, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Direct vicinal ?,?-difunctionalization of tertiary cyclic amines is achieved in the presence of ruthenium or iridium transition-metal complexes featuring phosphine-sulfonate chelates. By varying the reaction conditions, ?-alkylated lactams were obtained by a formal dehydrogenative hydrolysis in which one molecule of hydrogen is generated from water. PMID:26385286

  14. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A semimechanistic multi-reaction kinetic model was developed to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, creeping wild ryegrass (CWR; Leymus triticoides). This model incorporated one homogeneous reaction of cellobiose-to-glucose and two heterogeneous reactions of cellulose-to...

  16. Acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were conducted to establish optimal conditions for the acid hydrolysis of sweet potato for maximal ethanol yield. The starch contents of two sweet potato cultivars (Georgia Red and TG-4), based on fresh weight, were 21.1 +/- 0.6% and 27.5 +/- 1.6%, respectively. The results of acid hydrolysis experiments showed the following: (1) both hydrolysis rate and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) concentration were a function of HCL concentration, temperature, and time; (2) the reducing sugars were rapidly formed with elevated concentrations of HCl and temperature, but also destroyed quickly; and (3) HMF concentration increased significantly with the concentration of HCl, temperature, and hydrolysis time. Maximum reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% HMF (based on wet weight) was achieved after heating 8% SPS for 15 min in 1N HCl at 110/sup 0/C. Degraded 8% SPS (1N HCl, 97/sup 0/C for 20 min or 110/sup 0/C for 10 min) was utilized as substrate for ethanol fermentation and 3.8% ethanol (v/v) was produced from 1400 mL fermented wort. This is equal to 41.6 g ethanol (200 proof) from 400 g of fresh sweet potato tuber (Georgia Red) or an ethanol yield potential of 431 gal of 200-proof ethanol/acre (from 500 bushel tubers/acre).

  17. Bioabatement with xylanase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioabatement, using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 can effectively eliminate enzyme inhibitors from pretreated biomass hydrolysis. However, our recent research suggested that bioabatement had no beneficial effect on removing xylo-oligomers which were identified as strong inhibitors to ce...

  18. Evaluation of Cation Hydrolysis Schemes with a Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clare, Brian W.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the use of two models of pocket calculators. The Hewlett-Packard HP67 and the Texas Instruments TI59, to solve problems arising in connection with ionic equilibria in solution. A three-parameter regression program is described and listed as a specific example, the hydrolysis of hexavalent uranium, is provided. (BT)

  19. HYDROLYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS IN AQUEOUS AND COLLOIDAL SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos [o,o-diethyl o-(3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate] to TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) is an important degradation process influencing the fate of chlorpyrifos in aquatic environments. The effects of water chemistry and suspended colloids (smectites, humic ac...

  20. Acid hydrolysis of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    An excellent substrate for ethanol production is the Jerusalem artichoke (JA) tuber (Helianthus tuberosus). This crop contains a high level of inulin that can be hydrolyzed mainly to D-fructose and has several distinct advantages as an energy source compared to others. The potential ethanol yield of ca. 4678 L/ha on good agricultural land is equivalent to that obtained from sugar beets and twice that of corn. When JA is to be used for ethanol fermentation by conventional yeast, it is first converted to fermentable sugars by enzymes or acids although various strains of yeast were used for the direct fermentation of JA extracts. Fleming and GrootWassink compared various acids (hydrochloric, sulfuric, citric, and phosphoric) and strong cation exchange resin for their effectiveness on inulin hydrolysis and reported that no differences were noted among the acids or resin in their influence on inulin hydrolysis. Undesirable side reactions were noted during acid hydrolysis leading to the formation of HMF and 2-(2-hydroxy acetyl) furan. The HMF at a level of 0.1% is known to inhibit growth and ethanol fermentation by yeast. In this study the authors established optimal conditions for complete acid-hydrolysis of JA with minimum side reactions and maximum sugar-ethanol production. A material balance for the ethanol production was also determined.

  1. Acid hydrolysis experimental facility results with corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Barrier, J.W.; Broder, J.D.; Lambert, R.O.; Farina, G.E.; Lightsey, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    TVA has constructed an experimental facility to convert corn stover to ethanol (37.85 1/hr) using a concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis process followed by fermentation and distillation. Conversion efficiencies for hemicellulose and cellulose to xylose and glucose have been above 90% in consecutive plant runs. Results from plant runs are presented. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size reduction is a crucial factor in transportation logistics as well as cellulosic conversion. The effect of particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Miscanthus x giganteus was determined. Miscanthus was ground using a hammer mill equipped with screens having 0.08, 2.0 or 6.0...

  3. The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L.

    2008-01-01

    An investigative case study involving the preparation of a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver esterase and orange peel esterase is described. Students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize the library of esters and complete and evaluate…

  4. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meats.

    PubMed

    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepcin; Toldr, Fidel

    2015-11-01

    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides with different sequences and lengths, some of them with interesting sequences for bioactivity. This manuscript is presenting the proteomic identification of small peptides resulting from the hydrolysis of four target proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-enolase, myozenin-1 and troponin T) and discusses the enzymatic routes for their generation during the dry-curing process. The results indicate that the hydrolysis of peptides follows similar exo-peptidase mechanisms. In the case of dry-fermented sausages, most of the observed hydrolysis is the result of the combined action of muscle and microbial exo-peptidases except for the hydrolysis of di- and tri-peptides, mostly due to microbial di- and tri-peptidases, and the release of amino acids at the C-terminal that appears to be mostly due to muscle carboxypeptidases. PMID:25944374

  5. Radiolysis and Hydrolysis of TRUEX-NPH solvent.

    SciTech Connect

    Simonzadeh, N.; Crabtree, A. M.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    1992-07-01

    The TRUEX solvent extraction process separates transuranic (TRU) elements from aqueous nitrate and chloride solutions. During contact with high-level wastes, which may be highly radioactive and highly acidic, the radiolysis and hydrolysis ofTRUEX-NPH solvent can affect the process not only by destroying the extractant CMPO in the solvent, but also by generating products of CMPO destruction, some of which are powerful extractants at low acidities and can prevent the stripping of Am and Pu from solvent that is to be recycled. To provide an experimental basis from which mathematical expressions of these effects could be derived, samples of solvent were degraded by radiolysis and hydrolysis while in contact with acidic aqueous solutions. Following this treatment, the distribution of americium between degraded solvent and aqueous HNO3 was used as a measure of the extent of degradation. Mathematical expressions were derived to represent the distribution coefficient, DAm, as a function of hydrolysis time and/or radiation dose. Assumptions about the dependence of DAm on CMPO concentration were used to derive expressions for the hydrolysis rate for CMPO and also to calculate values of radiation chemical yield for CMPO radiolysis. Also experimentally investigated were changes in acidity of both the aqueous and organic phases as functions of contact time, the effects of a carbonate wash in removing acidic degradation products that function as extractants at low acidities, and changes in compositions of some of the aqueous and organic phases during contact.

  6. DFT STUDY OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF SOME S-TRIAZINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine and related 2-chloro-s-triazines to the corresponding 2-hydroxy-s-triazines was investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Gas-phase calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of ...

  7. Structural modifications of lignocellulosics by pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpuray, M.M.; Lee, Y.F.; Fan, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand the mechanism of the enhancement in the hyrolysis rate upon pretreatment. It has been found that, in general, multiple pretreatments were not promising, since the hydrolysis rates rarely exceeded those achieved by single pretreatments. Ball-milling pretreatment was found to be effective in increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the crystallinity index. Treatment with ethylene glycol was highly effective in increasing the specific surface area, in addition to a high degree of delignification. Peracetic acid pretreatment was highly effective in delignifying substrate. Among multiple pretreatments, those involving peracetic acid treatment generally had lower crystallinity indices and lignin content values. The relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the set of structural features indicated that an increase in surface area and a decrease in the crystallinity and lignin content enhance the hydrolysis; the specific surface area is the most influential of the structural features, followed by the lignin content. (Refs. 23).

  8. The Preparation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of a Library of Esters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Elizabeth M.; Smith, Traci L.

    2008-01-01

    An investigative case study involving the preparation of a library of esters using Fischer esterification and alcoholysis of acid chlorides and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis by pig liver esterase and orange peel esterase is described. Students work collaboratively to prepare and characterize the library of esters and complete and evaluate

  9. ACID AND ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF SALINE BIOMASS FOR SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saline crops were evaluated for their potential to be used as feedstock for fermentable sugar production via dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The saline crops included two woods, Athel (Tamarix aphylla L) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), and two grasses, Jose Tall Wheatgr...

  10. Penicillin Hydrolysis: A Kinetic Study of a Multistep, Multiproduct Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Thomas A.; McLafferty, Fred W.

    1984-01-01

    Background, procedures used, and typical results are provided for an experiment in which students carry out the necessary measurements on the acid-catalysis of penicillin in two hours. By applying kinetic theory to the data obtained, the reaction pathways for the hydrolysis of potassium benzyl penicillin are elucidated. (JN)

  11. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  12. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  13. Single Molecule Study of Cellulase Hydrolysis of Crystalline Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.-S.; Luo, Y.; Baker, J. O.; Zeng, Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Smith, S.; Ding, S.-Y.

    2009-12-01

    This report seeks to elucidate the role of cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I) in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. A single-molecule approach uses various imaging techniques to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBH I.

  14. Atmospheric Plasma-Enhanced Soft Hydrolysis of Southern Pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fermentable sugars from southern pine using atmospheric plasma (AP) was studied. AP processing in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration was coupled with acid hydrolysis in an effort to determine how AP can impact a standard conversion technique. The effects of plas...

  15. REVISED TREATMENT OF N2 O5 HYDROLYSIS IN CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation, revised treatment of homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide in the Community Multiscale Air Quality model version 4.6 are described. A series of model sensitivity tests are conducted and compared with observations of total atmosphe...

  16. Hydrolysis of hemicellulose to produce fermentable monosaccharides by plasma acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yuan, Bo; Ji, Yingchao; Li, Hong

    2013-09-12

    In this paper, plasma acid was obtained by treating distilled water with dielectric barrier discharge to hydrolyze hemicellulose. The orthogonal experiment L??(5(6)) was used to optimize such hydrolysis conditions. The total reducing sugar (TRS) was measured by the DNS method. To determine whether the oligosaccharide existed in the hydrolysis products, it was hydrolyzed by sulfuric acid for a second time following the same procedure as reported earlier. The monosaccharide compositions of the hydrolyzed sample were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that pH 2.81 of plasma acid, 100 C and 50 min were assigned as an optimal hydrolysis condition by plasma acid. Under this condition, the hemicellulose was hydrolyzed completely to produce monosaccharides including xylose, glucose, and galactose with the mole ratio being 17:3:1. The yields of xylose, glucose, and galactose were 38.67%, 9.28% and 3.09%, respectively. Compared with the hemicellulose hydrolysis results by sulfuric acid, it is concluded that plasma acid is an environmental-friendly and efficient method to explore and hydrolyze the hemicellulose existed in biomass. PMID:23911479

  17. Effects of hydrolysis and carbonization reactions on hydrochar production.

    PubMed

    Fakkaew, K; Koottatep, T; Polprasert, C

    2015-09-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion process which converts wet biomass into hydrochar. In this study, a low-energy HTC process named "Two-stage HTC" comprising of hydrolysis and carbonization stages using faecal sludge as feedstock was developed and optimized. The experimental results indicated the optimum conditions of the two-stage HTC to be; hydrolysis temperature of 170 C, hydrolysis reaction time of 155 min, carbonization temperature of 215 C, and carbonization reaction time of 100 min. The hydrolysis reaction time and carbonization temperature had a statistically significant effect on energy content of the produced hydrochar. Energy input of the two-stage HTC was about 25% less than conventional HTC. Energy efficiency of the two-stage HTC for treating faecal sludge was higher than that of conventional HTC and other thermal conversion processes such as pyrolysis and gasification. The two-stage HTC could be considered as a potential technology for treating FS and producing hydrochar. PMID:26051497

  18. A ?-glucan from the alkaline extract of a somatic hybrid (PfloVv5FB) of Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea: structural characterization and study of immunoactivation.

    PubMed

    Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Dey, Biswajit; Bhunia, Sanjoy K; Mandal, Soumitra; Bahera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2013-04-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the alkaline extract of the somatic hybrid mushroom (PfloVv5FB), obtained through protoplast fusion between Pleurotus florida and Volvariella volvacea strains was found to contain d-glucose only. Structural investigation was carried out using acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC). On the basis of the above mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: This polysaccharide exhibited strong immunoactivation of macrophages, splenocytes as well as thymocytes. PMID:23419942

  19. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  20. The Chemistry of Paper Preservation: Part 4. Alkaline Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Henry A.

    1997-05-01

    The inherent instability of old papers is largely due to the presence of acids which catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. The use of alkaline paper can minimize the problem of acidity for new papers. This study focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. The waterproofing agent that is used in acid paper is alum-precipitated rosin size, which tends to spread and create a hydrophobic surfaces over the cellulose fibers. Alkaline paper uses the synthetic sizing agents, alkyl ketene dimers(AKD) and alkyl succinic anhydrides (ASA). These alkaline sizing agents become chemically bound to the cellulose fibers with hydrophobic chains pointing outward, producing a water repellent surface. The sizing reactions take place in a neutral-to-alkaline medium. Calcium carbonate can then be used as a filler to replace expensive titanium dioxide. Finally, the advantages and potential problems in alkaline paper making are discussed.

  1. Co-hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for microbial lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhenhua; Zanotti, Michael; Zhong, Yuan; Liao, Wei; Ducey, Chad; Liu, Yan

    2013-04-01

    The herbaceous perennial energy crops miscanthus, giant reed, and switchgrass, along with the annual crop residue corn stover, were evaluated for their bioconversion potential. A co-hydrolysis process, which applied dilute acid pretreatment, directly followed by enzymatic saccharification without detoxification and liquid-solid separation between these two steps was implemented to convert lignocellulose into monomeric sugars (glucose and xylose). A factorial experiment in a randomized block design was employed to optimize the co-hydrolysis process. Under the optimal reaction conditions, corn stover exhibited the greatest total sugar yield (glucose + xylose) at 0.545 g g(-1) dry biomass at 83.3% of the theoretical yield, followed by switch grass (0.44 g g(-1) dry biomass, 65.8% of theoretical yield), giant reed (0.355 g g(-1) dry biomass, 64.7% of theoretical yield), and miscanthus (0.349 g g(-1) dry biomass, 58.1% of theoretical yield). The influence of combined severity factor on the susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic hydrolysis was clearly discernible, showing that co-hydrolysis is a technically feasible approach to release sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. The oleaginous fungus Mortierella isabellina was selected and applied to the co-hydrolysate mediums to accumulate fungal lipids due to its capability of utilizing both C5 and C6 sugars. Fungal cultivations grown on the co-hydrolysates exhibited comparable cell mass and lipid production to the synthetic medium with pure glucose and xylose. These results elucidated that combining fungal fermentation and co-hydrolysis to accumulate lipids could have the potential to enhance the utilization efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass for advanced biofuels production. PMID:23124976

  2. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steam mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.

  3. Solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1994-03-29

    The solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the major salt components and temperature. The components included in the study were the sodium salts of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, and carbonate. General findings from the study included: (1) uranium solubilities are very low (1-20 mg/L) for all solution compositions at hydroxide concentrations from 0.1 to 17 molar (2) carbonate, sulfate, and aluminate are not effective complexants for uranium at high hydroxide concentration, (3) uranium solubility decreases with increasing temperature for most alkaline salt solutions, and (4) uranium solubility increases with changes in solution chemistry that reflect aging of high level waste (increase in nitrite and carbonate concentrations, decrease in nitrate and hydroxide concentrations). A predictive model for the concentration of uranium as a function of component concentrations and temperature was fitted to the data. All of the solution components and temperature were found to be significant. There is a significant lack of fit for the model, which suggests that the dependence on the uranium solubility over the wide range of solution compositions is non-linear and/or that there are other uncontrolled parameters which are important to the uranium solubility.

  4. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  5. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  6. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  7. The effect of alkaline agents on retention of EOR chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, P.B.

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes a literature survey on how alkaline agents reduce losses of surfactants and polymers in oil recovery by chemical injection. Data are reviewed for crude sulfonates, clean anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and anionic and nonionic polymers. The role of mineral chemistry is briefly described. Specific effects of various alkaline anions are discussed. Investigations needed to improve the design of alkaline-surfactant-polymer floods are suggested. 62 refs., 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. A kinetic study of hydrolysis of polyester elastomer in magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Watanabe, H.

    1994-01-01

    A useful method for kinetic study of the hydrolysis of polyester elastomer is established which uses the number-average molecular weight. The reasonableness of this method is confirmed and the effect of magnetic particles on hydrolysis is considered.

  9. Accelerated hydrolysis of substituted cellulose for potential biofuel production: kinetic study and modeling.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bingnan; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this work, kinetics of substitution accelerated cellulose hydrolysis with multiple reaction stages was investigated to lay foundation for mechanism study and molecular design of substituting compounds. High-efficiency hydrolysis of cellulose is critical for cellulose-based bioethanol production. It is known that, substitution could substantially decrease activation energy and increase reaction rate of acidic hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose. However, reaction kinetics and mechanism of the accelerated hydrolysis were not fully revealed. In this research, it was proved that substitution therefore accelerated hydrolysis only occurred in amorphous regions of cellulose fibers, and was a process with multiple reaction stages. With molar ratio of substitution less than 1%, the overall hydrolysis rate could be increased for around 10 times. We also quantified the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of individual reaction stage and its major influences, including molar ratio of substitution, activation energy of acidic hydrolysis, pH and temperature. PMID:26253917

  10. The effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengdong; Wu, Yuanxin; Yu, Ziniu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Hui; Gao, Ming

    2006-10-01

    A series of experiments involving microwave irradiation were carried out to evaluate the effect of microwave irradiation on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw. Compared with microwave irradiation free hydrolysis, rice straw pretreated by combining microwave irradiation with alkali could increase the initial hydrolysis rate but the hydrolysis yield remained unchanged. When the enzyme solution was treated by microwave irradiation, the initial hydrolysis rate increased slightly, but the yield was decreased remarkably. Its optimal hydrolysis conditions were temperature (45 degrees C), pH (4.8) and enzyme loading (20 mg g(-1) substrate), which was determined by an orthogonal experiment. When intermittent microwave irradiation was used, initial hydrolysis rate was greatly accelerated but the yield was decreased slightly. Its optimal hydrolysis conditions were temperature (50 degrees C), pH (4.8) and enzyme loading (20 mg g(-1) substrate), which was determined by another orthogonal experiment. PMID:16216494

  11. Digestive Alkaline Proteases from Zosterisessor ophiocephalus, Raja clavata, and Scorpaena scrofa: Characteristics and Application in Chitin Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Rim; Younes, Islem; Lassoued, Imen; Ghorbel, Sofiane; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Nasri, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study some biochemical characteristics of crude alkaline protease extracts from the viscera of goby (Zosterisessor ophiocephalus), thornback ray (Raja clavata), and scorpionfish (Scorpaena scrofa), and to investigate their applications in the deproteinization of shrimp wastes. At least four caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in zymogram of each enzyme preparation. The optimum pH for enzymatic extracts activities of Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa were 8.0-9.0, 8.0, and 10.0, respectively. Interestingly, all the enzyme preparations were highly stable over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity were 50C for Z. ophiocephalus and R. clavata and 55C for S. scrofa crude alkaline proteases. Proteolytic enzymes showed high stability towards non-ionic surfactants (5% Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100). In addition, crude proteases of S. scrofa, R. clavata, and Z. ophiocephalus were found to be highly stable towards oxidizing agents, retaining 100%, 70%, and 66%, respectively, of their initial activity after incubation for 1?h in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. They were, however, highly affected by the anionic surfactant SDS. The crude alkaline proteases were tested for the deproteinization of shrimp waste in the preparation of chitin. All proteases were found to be effective in the deproteinization of shrimp waste. The protein removals after 3?h of hydrolysis at 45C with an enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) of 10 were about 76%, 76%, and 80%, for Z. ophiocephalus, R. clavata, and S. scrofa crude proteases, respectively. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process. PMID:22312476

  12. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... substance identified generically as oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... substance identified generically as oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... substance identified generically as oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... substance identified generically as oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10152 - Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica, acetates (generic). 721.10152 Section 721... Oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with alkanol zirconium(4+) salt and silica... substance identified generically as oxirane, substituted silylmethyl-, hydrolysis products with...

  17. Alkaline battery with reducing agents in the electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Magahed, E.

    1983-08-09

    An alkaline cell is disclosed, containing an effective amount of an electrolyte soluble reducing agent of alkali metal borohydrides, quaternary ammonium borohydrides, complex aluminum hydrides or hydrazine.

  18. The corrosion resistance of thermoset composites in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Thompson, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion engineers need guidelines for selecting thermoset resins for aggressive applications such as hot alkali and alkaline peroxide. The suitability of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) for alkaline service depends on factors such as the ester content of the resin, the unsaturated monomer composition, and the cure system. The purpose of the present paper is to show the effect of these factors on the alkaline corrosion resistance of FRP and provide corrosion engineers with the guidance needed for selecting the best epoxy vinyl ester resins for alkaline environments.

  19. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. PMID:24703958

  20. Comparison of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Acid Hydrolysis of Sterol Glycosides from Foods Rich in Δ(7)-Sterols.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Jutzi, Sabrina; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Nyström, Laura

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present the difference in sterol composition of extracted steryl glycosides (SG) hydrolyzed by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. SG were analyzed from foods belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae (melon and pumpkin seeds) and Amaranthaceae (amaranth and beetroot), both of which are dominated by Δ(7)-sterols. Released sterols were quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All Δ(7)-sterols identified (Δ(7)-stigmastenyl, spinasteryl, Δ(7)-campesteryl, Δ(7)-avenasteryl, poriferasta-7,25-dienyl and poriferasta-7,22,25-trienyl glucoside) underwent isomerization under acidic conditions and high temperature. Sterols with an ethylidene or methylidene side chain were found to form multiple artifacts. The artifact sterols coeluted with residues of incompletely isomerized Δ(7)-sterols, or Δ(5)-sterols if present, and could be identified as Δ(8(14))-sterols on the basis of relative retention time, and their MS spectra as trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetate derivatives. For instance, SG from melon were composed of 66% Δ(7)-stigmastenol when enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, whereas with acid hydrolysis only 8% of Δ(7)-stigmastenol was determined. The artifact of Δ(7)-stigmastenol coeluted with residual non-isomerized spinasterol, demonstrating the high risk of misinterpretation of compositional data obtained after acid hydrolysis. Therefore, the accurate composition of SG from foods containing sterols with a double bond at C-7 can only be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis or by direct analysis of the intact SG. PMID:25757602

  1. 40 CFR 721.10499 - Substituted silane, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted silane, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10499 Substituted silane, hydrolysis products with... substances identified generically as substituted silane, hydrolysis products with silica (PMNs P-06-278 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10498 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10498 Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products... chemical substances identified generically as substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10499 - Substituted silane, hydrolysis products with silica (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted silane, hydrolysis... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10499 Substituted silane, hydrolysis products with... substances identified generically as substituted silane, hydrolysis products with silica (PMNs P-06-278 and...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10497 - Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted alkyl ester, hydrolysis... ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... alkyl ester, hydrolysis products with silica and substituted silane (PMNs P-06-276 and P-06-279)...

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH: APPLICATION TO FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in corn is an important step that determines fermentation efficiency. Corn genetics, post harvest handling and process conditions are factors that affect starch hydrolysis. There is a lack of mathematical models for starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process tha...

  8. Determination of acetylsalicylic acid by FIA-potentiometric system in drugs after on-line hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kubota, L T; Fernandes, J C; Rover, L; Neto, G de O

    1999-10-01

    A potentiometric flow injection (FI) system was developed for the acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) determination in drugs, without previous treatment. The tubular potentiometric electrode for salicylate (SA) was based on tricaprylyl-trimethyl-ammonium-salicylate (aliquat-salicylate) as the ion-exchanger, supported on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl-acetate) (EVA) matrix and applied directly onto a conducting support. The standards and samples were freshly prepared in ethanol solution (0.10 mol l(-1) Tris-SO(4) buffer, pH 8.0, containing 0.25 mol l(-1) Na(2)SO(4) and 8.0% v/v ethanol) to facilitate the dissolution of ASA and were injected directly into the system. The SA formed due to the on-line alkaline hydrolysis of alcoholic ASA solution, with 0.50 mol l(-1) NaOH (coil, 50 cm length), was monitored by the tubular electrode after neutralization with 0.25 mol l(-1) H(2)SO(4). A solution of 0.10 mol l(-1) Tris-SO(4) buffer (pH 8.0), containing 0.25 mol l(-1) Na(2)SO(4) was employed as carrier. In optimized conditions (flow rate of 2.1 ml min(-1) and volume of injection of 150 mul), the tubular electrode showed a linear response to ASA in the concentration range between 4.0x10(-3) and 4.0x10(-2) mol l(-1). A conversion factor of ASA to SA of 85% occurs in these conditions with an increase of about 130% in the signal to the system with on-line hydrolysis (three-channel) in comparison to the system without (one-channel). The response time of the electrode was about 5 s with an analytical frequency of 28 samples per h and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 2.1% for 30 successive injections. Determinations of ASA in tablet samples by the proposed method exhibited relative differences of 1.0-3.5%, compared to the official method of the British Pharmacopoeia. The useful lifetime of the sensor was greater than 1 month, in continuous use. PMID:18967757

  9. Switching Catalysis from Hydrolysis to Perhydrolysis in Pseudomonas fluorescens Esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, D.; Bernhardt, P; Morley, K; Jiang, Y; Cheeseman, J; Purpero, V; Schrag, J; Kazlauskas, R

    2010-01-01

    Many serine hydrolases catalyze perhydrolysis, the reversible formation of peracids from carboxylic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we showed that a single amino acid substitution in the alcohol binding pocket, L29P, in Pseudomonas fluorescens (SIK WI) aryl esterase (PFE) increased the specificity constant of PFE for peracetic acid formation >100-fold [Bernhardt et al. (2005) Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 44, 2742]. In this paper, we extend this work to address the three following questions. First, what is the molecular basis of the increase in perhydrolysis activity? We previously proposed that the L29P substitution creates a hydrogen bond between the enzyme and hydrogen peroxide in the transition state. Here we report two X-ray structures of L29P PFE that support this proposal. Both structures show a main chain carbonyl oxygen closer to the active site serine as expected. One structure further shows acetate in the active site in an orientation consistent with reaction by an acyl-enzyme mechanism. We also detected an acyl-enzyme intermediate in the hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone by mass spectrometry. Second, can we further increase perhydrolysis activity? We discovered that the reverse reaction, hydrolysis of peracetic acid to acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide, occurs at nearly the diffusion limited rate. Since the reverse reaction cannot increase further, neither can the forward reaction. Consistent with this prediction, two variants with additional amino acid substitutions showed 2-fold higher k{sub cat}, but K{sub m} also increased so the specificity constant, k{sub cat}/K{sub m}, remained similar. Third, how does the L29P substitution change the esterase activity? Ester hydrolysis decreased for most esters (75-fold for ethyl acetate) but not for methyl esters. In contrast, L29P PFE catalyzed hydrolysis of {var_epsilon}-caprolactone five times more efficiently than wild-type PFE. Molecular modeling suggests that moving the carbonyl group closer to the active site blocks access for larger alcohol moieties but binds {var_epsilon}-caprolactone more tightly. These results are consistent with the natural function of perhydrolases being either hydrolysis of peroxycarboxylic acids or hydrolysis of lactones.

  10. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal of Mg2+ as brucite (Mg(OH)2) precipitates. Brucite and calcite were detected insitu by Raman spectroscopy surrounding partially dissolved dolomite grains. Dolomite dissolution under alkaline condition is a dynamic process of dissolution and precipitation stimulated by high Ca2+ content, high ionic strength, low temperature and high pH with the consequence of low Mg2+ concentration. References: Katayama, T., 2004. How to identify carbonate rock reactions in concrete. Materials Characterization 53, 85-104. Parkhurst, D. L., Appelo, C. A. J. 1999. User's guide to PHREEQC. U.S. Geol. Sur.: 312. Schmidt, T., Lothenbach, B., Romer, M., Neuenschwander, J., Scrivener K., 2009. Physical and microstructural aspects of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone blended Portland cements. Cement and Concrete Research 39, 1111-1121.

  11. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    vila-Lara, Abimael I; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N; Mendoza-Prez, Jorge A; Messina-Fernndez, Sarah R; Saldaa-Duran, Claudia E; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I; Snchez-Herrera, Leticia M; Prez-Pimienta, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (?15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3?min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8?min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  12. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  13. Alkaline dechlorination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The vast majority of contaminated sites in the United States and abroad are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA), and chloroform. These VOCs are mobile and persistent in the subsurface and present serious health risks at trace concentrations. The goal of this project was to develop a new chemical treatment system that can rapidly and effectively degrade chlorinated VOCs. The system is based on our preliminary findings that strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can absorb and degrade TCE. The main objectives of this study were to determine the reaction rates between chlorinated VOCs, particularly TCE, and strong alkalis, to elucidate the reaction mechanisms and by-products, to optimize the chemical reactions under various experimental conditions, and to develop a laboratory bench- scale alkaline destruction column that can be used to destroy vapor- phase TCE.

  14. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheibley, D.W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  15. Hydrologic analyses of acidic and alkaline lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.; Gherini, S.A.; Peters, N.E.; Murdoch, P.S.; Newton, R.M.; Goldstein, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Woods and Panther lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York respond differently to the same acidic deposition. A mathematical model study has shown that lake water becomes acidic when hydrologic conditions force precipitation to flow to the lakes as surface flow or as lateral flow through the shallow organic soil horizon. Hydrographic data, capacity of flow through inorganic soil horizons, runoff recession curves, and groundwater level fluctuations of Woods and Panther lake basins provide independent evidence to support the thesis that the acidic state of a lake depends on the paths the tributary water takes as it passes through the terrestrial system. It is concluded that Panther Lake is more alkaline than Woods Lake, because a larger proportion of the precipitation falling on the basin passes through deeper mineral soil horizons.

  16. Hydrologic Analyses of Acidic and Alkaline Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. W.; Gherini, S. A.; Peters, N. E.; Murdoch, P. S.; Newton, R. M.; Goldstein, R. A.

    1984-12-01

    Woods and Panther lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York respond differently to the same acidic deposition. A mathematical model study has shown that lake water becomes acidic when hydrologic conditions force precipitation to flow to the lakes as surface flow or as lateral flow through the shallow organic soil horizon. Hydrographic data, capacity of flow through inorganic soil horizons, runoff recession curves, and groundwater level fluctuations of Woods and Panther lake basins provide independent evidence to support the thesis that the acidic state of a lake depends on the paths the tributary water takes as it passes thorough the terrestrial system. It is concluded thot Panther Lake is more alkaline than Woods Lake, because a larger proportion of the precipitation falling on the basin passes through deeper mineral soil horizons.

  17. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  18. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  19. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  20. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  1. Structural characterization of alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated grasses exhibiting diverse lignin phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For cellulosic biofuels processes, suitable characterization of the lignin remaining within the cell wall and correlation of quantified properties of lignin to cell wall polysaccharide enzymatic deconstruction is underrepresented in the literature. This is particularly true for grasses which represent a number of promising bioenergy feedstocks where quantification of grass lignins is particularly problematic due to the high fraction of p-hydroxycinnamates. The main focus of this work is to use grasses with a diverse range of lignin properties, and applying multiple lignin characterization platforms, attempt to correlate the differences in these lignin properties to the susceptibility to alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic deconstruction. Results We were able to determine that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to to glucose (i.e. digestibility) of four grasses with relatively diverse lignin phenotypes could be correlated to total lignin content and the content of p-hydroxycinnamates, while S/G ratios did not appear to contribute to the enzymatic digestibility or delignification. The lignins of the brown midrib corn stovers tested were significantly more condensed than a typical commercial corn stover and a significant finding was that pretreatment with alkaline hydrogen peroxide increases the fraction of lignins involved in condensed linkages from 88–95% to ~99% for all the corn stovers tested, which is much more than has been reported in the literature for other pretreatments. This indicates significant scission of β-O-4 bonds by pretreatment and/or induction of lignin condensation reactions. The S/G ratios in grasses determined by analytical pyrolysis are significantly lower than values obtained using either thioacidolysis or 2DHSQC NMR due to presumed interference by ferulates. Conclusions It was found that grass cell wall polysaccharide hydrolysis by cellulolytic enzymes for grasses exhibiting a diversity of lignin structures and compositions could be linked to quantifiable changes in the composition of the cell wall and properties of the lignin including apparent content of the p-hydroxycinnamates while the limitations of S/G estimation in grasses is highlighted. PMID:22672858

  2. The Nickel(111)/Alkaline Electrolyte Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuilong; Chottiner, G. S.; Scherson, D. A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of Ni (111) prepared and characterized in ultra high vacuum, UHV, by surface analytical techniques have been examined in alkaline media by cyclic voltammetry using an UHV-electrochemical cell transfer system designed and built in this laboratory. Prior to the transfer, the Ni(111) surfaces were exposed to saturation coverages of CO in UHV in an attempt to protect the surface from possible contamination with other gases during the transfer. Temperature Programmed Desorption, TPD, of CO-dosed Ni (111) surfaces displaying sharp c(4x2), LEED patterns, subsequently exposed to water-saturated Ar at atmospheric pressure in an auxiliary UHV compatible chamber and finally transferred back to the main UHV chamber, yielded CO2 and water as the only detectable products. This indicates that the CO-dosed surfaces react with water and/or bicarbonate and hydroxide as the most likely products. Based on the integration of the TPD peaks, the combined amounts of H2O and CO2 were found to be on the order of a single monolayer. The reacted c(4x2)CO/Ni(111) layer seems to protect the surface from undergoing spontaneous oxidation in strongly alkaline solutions. This was evidenced by the fact that the open circuit potential observed immediately after contact with deaerated 0.1 M KOH was about 0.38 V vs. DHE, drifting slightly towards more negative values prior to initiating the voltametric scans. The average ratio of the integrated charge obtained in the first positive linear scan in the range of 0.35 to 1.5 V vs. DHE (initiated at the open circuit potential) and the first (and subsequent) linear negative scans in the same solution yielded for various independent runs a value of 3.5 +/- 0.3. Coulometric analysis of the cyclic voltammetry curves indicate that the electrochemically formed oxyhydroxide layer involves a charge equivalent to 3.2 +/- 0.4 layers of Ni metal.

  3. Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution. PMID:20596466

  4. Snapshots of the maltose transporter during ATP hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Oldham, Michael L.; Chen, Jue

    2011-12-05

    ATP-binding cassette transporters are powered by ATP, but the mechanism by which these transporters hydrolyze ATP is unclear. In this study, four crystal structures of the full-length wild-type maltose transporter, stabilized by adenosine 5{prime}-({beta},{gamma}-imido)triphosphate or ADP in conjunction with phosphate analogs BeF{sub 3}{sup -}, VO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, or AlF{sub 4}{sup -}, were determined to 2.2- to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. These structures led to the assignment of two enzymatic states during ATP hydrolysis and demonstrate specific functional roles of highly conserved residues in the nucleotide-binding domain, suggesting that ATP-binding cassette transporters catalyze ATP hydrolysis via a general base mechanism.

  5. Investigation of the Polymorphs and Hydrolysis of Uranium Trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Lucas E.; Blake, Thomas A.; Henager, Charles H.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Meier, David E.; Peper, Shane M.; Schwantes, Jon M.

    2013-04-01

    This work focuses on progress in gaining a better understanding of the polymorphic nature of the UO3-water system, one of several important materials associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. The UO3-water system is complex and has not been fully characterized, even though these species are common throughout the fuel cycle. Powder x-ray diffraction, Raman and fluorescence characterization was performed on polymorphic forms of UO3 and UO3 hydrolysis products for the purpose of developing some predictive capability of estimating process history and utility, e.g. for polymorphic phases of unknown origin. Specifically, we have investigated three industrially relevant production pathways of UO3 and discovered a previously unknown low temperature route to β-UO3. Pure phases of UO3, hydrolysis products and starting materials were used to establish optical spectroscopic signatures for these compounds.

  6. Catalysis of a Flavoenzyme-Mediated Amide Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, Tathagata; Zhang, Yang; Abdelwahed, Sameh; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2010-09-13

    A new pyrimidine catabolic pathway (the Rut pathway) was recently discovered in Escherichia coli K12. In this pathway, uracil is converted to 3-hydroxypropionate, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. The seven-gene Rut operon is required for this conversion. Here we demonstrate that the flavoenzyme RutA catalyzes the initial uracil ring-opening reaction to give 3-ureidoacrylate. This reaction, while formally a hydrolysis reaction, proceeds by an oxidative mechanism initiated by the addition of a flavin hydroperoxide to the C4 carbonyl. While peroxide-catalyzed amide hydrolysis has chemical precedent, we are not aware of a prior example of analogous chemistry catalyzed by flavin hydroperoxides. This study further illustrates the extraordinary catalytic versatility of the flavin cofactor.

  7. Accelerated Hydrolysis of Aspirin Using Alternating Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinscheid, Uwe M.

    2009-08-01

    The major problem of current drug-based therapy is selectivity. As in other areas of science, a combined approach might improve the situation decisively. The idea is to use the pro-drug principle together with an alternating magnetic field as physical stimulus, which can be applied in a spatially and temporarily controlled manner. As a proof of principle, the neutral hydrolysis of aspirin in physiological phosphate buffer of pH 7.5 at 40 C was chosen. The sensor and actuator system is a commercially available gold nanoparticle (NP) suspension which is approved for animal usage, stable in high concentrations and reproducibly available. Applying the alternating magnetic field of a conventional NMR magnet system accelerated the hydrolysis of aspirin in solution.

  8. Role of bifidobacteria in the hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Raimondi, Stefano; Anighoro, Andrew; Quartieri, Andrea; Amaretti, Alberto; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Rastelli, Giulio; Rossi, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the capability of potentially probiotic bifidobacteria to hydrolyze chlorogenic acid into caffeic acid (CA), and to recognize the enzymes involved in this reaction. Bifidobacterium strains belonging to eight species occurring in the human gut were screened. The hydrolysis seemed peculiar of Bifidobacterium animalis, whereas the other species failed to release CA. Intracellular feruloyl esterase activity capable of hydrolyzing chlorogenic acid was detected only in B. animalis. In silico research among bifidobacteria esterases identified Balat_0669 as the cytosolic enzyme likely responsible of CA release in B. animalis. Comparative modeling of Balat_0669 and molecular docking studies support its role in chlorogenic acid hydrolysis. Expression, purification, and functional characterization of Balat_0669 in Escherichia coli were obtained as further validation. A possible role of B. animalis in the activation of hydroxycinnamic acids was demonstrated and new perspectives were opened in the development of new probiotics, specifically selected for the enhanced bioconversion of phytochemicals into bioactive compounds. PMID:25515139

  9. Novel agents for enzymatic and fungal hydrolysis of stevioside

    PubMed Central

    Milagre, H.M.S.; Martins, L.R.; Takahashi, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study on the potential of some biological agents to perform the hydrolysis of stevioside was carried out, aiming at establishing an alternative methodology to achieve the aglycon steviol or its rearranged derivative isosteviol, in high yields to be used in the preparation of novel bioactive compounds. Hydrolysis reactions were performed by using filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer and Rhizopus arrhizus), a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and enzymes (pancreatin and lipases PL250 and VFL 8000). Pancreatin showed the best hydrolytic activity, furnishing isosteviol at 93.9% of yield, at pH 4.0, using toluene as a co-solvent. Steviol was produced using both pancreatin at pH 7.0 (20.2% yield) and A. niger at pH 7 (20.8% yield). PMID:24031374

  10. Simultaneous pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of forage biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.; Linden, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Sweet sorghum is an attractive fermentation feedstock because as much as 40% of the dry weight consists of readily femented sugars such as sucrose, glucose and frutose. Cellulose and hemicellulose comprise another 50%. However, if this material is to be used a year-round feedstock for ethanol production, a stable method of storage must be developed to maintain the sugar content. A modified version of the traditional ensiling process is made effective by the addition of cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria to freshly chopped sweet sorghum prior to the production of silage. In situ hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose occurs concurrently with the acidic ensiling fementation. By hydolyzing the acetyl groups using acetyl xylan esterase and 3-0-methyl glucuronyl side chains using pectinase from hemicellulose, cellulose becomes accessible to hydrolysis by cellulase, both during in situ ensiling with enzymes and in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to ethanol.

  11. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-06-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline /beta/-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymatic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. THe immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato /beta/-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcoholic fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%. 17 refs.

  12. Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. Membrane reactor in enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

    1981-01-01

    Use of ultrafiltration membrane systems in stirred cell and in thin-channel systems for immobilizing enzyme (sweet potato intrinsic and crystalline beta-amylase) in hydrolysis of sweet potato through a continuous operation mode were studied. Both the filtration rate and reducing sugars, produced as the result of enzymic hydrolysis, decreased with the filtration time. The immobilized enzymes in the thin-channel system showed a much better performance compared to that in the stirred cell system. Addition of crystalline sweet potato beta-amylase to the sweet potato increased both the filtration rate and reducing-sugars content. Alcohol fermentation of the filtrate resulted in an alcohol content of 4.2%. This represented fermentation of 95% of the sugars with an efficiency of 88%.

  13. Bioabatement with hemicellulase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guangli; Ximenes, Eduardo; Nichols, Nancy N; Frazer, Sarah E; Kim, Daehwan; Cotta, Michael A; Ladisch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    A stepwise removal of inhibitory compounds by bioabatement combined with hemicellulase supplementation was conducted to enhance cellulose hydrolysis of liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover. Results showed that the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 eliminated most of the enzyme and fermentation inhibitors from liquid hot water-pretreated corn stover hydrolysates. Moreover, addition of hemicellulases after bioabatement and before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose achieved 20% higher glucose yields compared to non-treated samples. This work presents the mechanisms by which supplementation of the fungus with hemicellulase enzymes enables maximal conversion, and confirms the inhibitory effect of xylo-oligosaccharides in corn stover hydrolysates once the dominant inhibitory effect of phenolic compounds is removed. PMID:25958134

  14. Enzyme–microbe synergy during cellulose hydrolysis by Clostridium thermocellum

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yanpin; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival; Lynd, Lee R.

    2006-01-01

    Specific cellulose hydrolysis rates (g of cellulose/g of cellulase per h) were shown to be substantially higher (2.7- to 4.7-fold) for growing cultures of Clostridium thermocellum as compared with purified cellulase preparations from this organism in controlled experiments involving both batch and continuous cultures. This “enzyme–microbe synergy” requires the presence of metabolically active cellulolytic microbes, is not explained by removal of hydrolysis products from the bulk fermentation broth, and appears due to surface phenomena involving adherent cellulolytic microorganisms. Results support the desirability of biotechnological processes featuring microbial conversion of cellulosic biomass to ethanol (or other products) in the absence of added saccharolytic enzymes. PMID:17060624

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic materials: a kinetic study

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Sarto, V.

    1984-01-01

    A kinetic study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of two celluloses with different structural features was performed at various temperatures (26-50/sup 0/C). The enzymatic system consisted of three types of enzymes: E/sub 1/-..beta..-1,4-glucan glucanohydrolase; E/sub 2/-..beta..-1,4-glucan cellobiohydrolase; and E/sub 3/-..beta..-glucosidase. A mathematical model for the mechanism of the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials catalyzed by a multienzymatic system was checked and a good rationalization of the experimental results was achieved. Uncompetitive and competitive glucose inhibition on E/sub 1/ and E/sub 2/, respectively, appeared to occur for both substrates. Inhibition by cellobiose was checked at 34/sup 0/C on one substrate. The V/sub max/, K/sub m/, and glucose inhibition constants were optimized and their dependence on temperature determined.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of agricultural residues to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Hogan, C.M.; Saddler, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process was used to convert steam-treated wheat and barley straw to ethanol. Maximum conversion efficiencies were obtained when the substrates were steamed for 90 s. These substrates could yield over 0.4 g ethanol/g cellulose following a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process procedure using culture filtrates derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58. When culture filtrates from Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. reesei QM9414 were used, the ethanol yields obtained were 0.32 and 0.12 g ethanol/g cellulose utilized, respectively. The lower ethanol yields obtained with these strains were attributed to the lower amounts of ..beta..-glucosidase detected in the T. reesei culture filtrates.

  17. Hydrolysis rates of pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from Senecio jacobaea.

    PubMed

    Dueker, S R; Lam, M W; Segall, H J

    1995-01-01

    Many of the commonly studied pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are built upon the subgroup retronecine (RET), which is released from the parent molecule by either base catalyzed or enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester linkages. The rate of appearance of RET in a hydrolytic study would thus reflect the rate of hydrolysis for the PA being tested. We have developed a gas chromatographic (GC) method to measure the release of RET from incubations of PAs with the guinea pig carboxylesterase, GPH1. The PAs tested were the following: jacobine (JAB), jacozine (JAZ), retrorsine (RES), and seneciphylline (SNP). The KmS for SNP and JAZ were determined to be 64.9 and 349.2 microM, respectively. In addition, a qualitative assessment of hydrolytic activity toward a radiolabelled mixture of retrorsine/riddelliine (RES/RIL) was performed with HPLC and radiometric detection. PMID:8572933

  18. Evaluation of disk method for hippurate hydrolysis by Campylobacter species.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, M A; Patton, C M

    1995-01-01

    A disk method for hippurate hydrolysis was compared with the ninhydrin tube method by using 140 genetically confirmed Campylobacter strains. Results were similar for 129 (92%) strains when the inoculum size for the disk method was standardized. Six strains (4.2%) showed variable results by each method. Our results conflict with those obtained in studies by others, who found the two methods to be dissimilar. PMID:7615752

  19. Novel Penicillium cellulases for total hydrolysis of lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Marjamaa, Kaisa; Toth, Karolina; Bromann, Paul Andrew; Szakacs, George; Kruus, Kristiina

    2013-05-10

    The (hemi)cellulolytic systems of two novel lignocellulolytic Penicillium strains (Penicillium pulvillorum TUB F-2220 and P. cf. simplicissimum TUB F-2378) have been studied. The cultures of the Penicillium strains were characterized by high cellulase and ?-glucosidase as well moderate xylanase activities compared to the Trichoderma reesei reference strains QM 6a and RUTC30 (volumetric or per secreted protein, respectively). Comparison of the novel Penicillium and T. reesei secreted enzyme mixtures in the hydrolysis of (ligno)cellulose substrates showed that the F-2220 enzyme mixture gave higher yields in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and similar yields in hydrolysis of pre-treated spruce and wheat straw than enzyme mixture secreted by the T. reesei reference strain. The sensitivity of the Penicillium cellulase complexes to softwood (spruce) and grass (wheat straw) lignins was lignin and temperature dependent: inhibition of cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of wheat straw lignin was minor at 35C while at 45C by spruce lignin a clear inhibition was observed. The two main proteins in the F-2220 (hemi)cellulase complex were partially purified and identified by peptide sequence similarity as glycosyl hydrolases (cellobiohydrolases) of families 7 and 6. Adsorption of the GH7 enzyme PpCBH1 on cellulose and lignins was studied showing that the lignin adsorption of the enzyme is temperature and pH dependent. The ppcbh1 coding sequence was obtained using PCR cloning and the translated amino acid sequence of PpCBH1 showed up to 82% amino acid sequence identity to known Penicillium cellobiohydrolases. PMID:23608505

  20. Allergenicity of Peanut Proteins is Retained Following Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rationale: Hydrolysis of peanut proteins by food-grade enzymes may reduce allergenicity and could lead to safer forms of immunotherapy. Methods: Light roasted peanut flour extracts were digested with pepsin (37°C, pH 2), Alcalase (60°C pH 8), or Flavourzyme (50°C, pH 7) up to 1 hr, or sequentially w...

  1. Alkaline cleaner replacement for printed wiring board fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    A replacement alkaline cleaning chemistry was qualified for the copper cleaning process used to support printed wiring board fabrication. The copper cleaning process was used to prepare copper surfaces for enhancing the adhesion of dry film photopolymers (photoresists and solder masks) and acrylic adhesives. The alkaline chemistry was used to remove organic contaminates such as fingerprints.

  2. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Utz, Ryan M; Pace, Michael L; Grese, Melissa; Yepsen, Metthea

    2013-09-17

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km(2). We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These three variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production. PMID:23883395

  3. TOTAL ALKALINITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map provides a synoptic illustration of the national patterns of surface water alkalinity in the conterminous United States. Alkalinity is the most readily available measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of surface waters and provides a reasonable estimate o...

  4. The Chemistry of Paper Preservation Part 4. Alkaline Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem of the inherent instability of paper due to the presence of acids that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. Focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. Discusses advantages and problems of alkaline papermaking. Contains 48 references. (JRH)

  5. ANNUAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am-the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting the...

  6. Space-time variability of alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossarini, G.; Lazzari, P.; Solidoro, C.

    2014-09-01

    The paper provides a basin assessment of the spatial distribution of ocean alkalinity in the Mediterranean Sea. The assessment is made using a 3-D transport-biogeochemical-carbonate model to integrate the available experimental findings, which also constrains model output. The results indicate that the Mediterranean Sea shows alkalinity values that are much higher than those observed in the Atlantic Ocean on a basin-wide scale. A marked west-to-east surface gradient of alkalinity is reproduced as a response to the terrestrial discharges, the mixing effect with the Atlantic water entering from the Gibraltar Strait and the Black Sea water from Dardanelles, and the surface flux of evaporation minus precipitation. Dense water production in marginal seas (Adriatic and Aegean Seas), where alkaline inputs are relevant, and the Mediterranean thermohaline circulation sustains the west-to-east gradient along the entire water column. In the surface layers, alkalinity has a relevant seasonal cycle (up to 40 ?mol kg-1) that is driven both by physical and biological processes. A comparison of alkalinity vs. salinity indicates that different regions present different relationships. In regions of freshwater influence, the two measures are negatively correlated due to riverine alkalinity input, whereas they are positively correlated in open seas. Alkalinity always is much higher than in the Atlantic waters, which might indicate a higher than usual buffering capacity towards ocean acidification, even at high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon.

  7. Increased river alkalinization in the Eastern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Likens, G. E.; Utz, R.; Pace, M.; Grese, M.; Yepsen, M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction between human activities and watershed geology is accelerating long-term changes in the carbon cycle of rivers. We evaluated changes in bicarbonate alkalinity, a product of chemical weathering, and tested for long-term trends at 97 sites in the eastern United States draining over 260,000 km2. We observed statistically significant increasing trends in alkalinity at 62 of the 97 sites, while remaining sites exhibited no significant decreasing trends. Over 50% of study sites also had statistically significant increasing trends in concentrations of calcium (another product of chemical weathering) where data were available. River alkalinization rates were significantly related to watershed carbonate lithology, acid deposition, and topography. These 3 variables explained ~40% of variation in river alkalinization rates. The strongest predictor of river alkalinization rates was carbonate lithology. The most rapid rates of river alkalinization occurred at sites with highest inputs of acid deposition and highest elevation. The rise of alkalinity in many rivers throughout the eastern U.S. suggests human-accelerated chemical weathering, in addition to previously documented impacts of mining and land use. Increased river alkalinization has major environmental implications including impacts on water hardness and salinization of drinking water, alterations of air-water exchange of CO2, coastal ocean acidification, and the influence of bicarbonate availability on primary production.

  8. Alkalinity regulation in soft-water Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Pollman, C.D.; Eilers, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Major ion chemistry data collected as part of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Eastern Lake Survey was examined to evaluate the mechanisms and extent of alkalinity regulation in 37 undisturbed, soft-water lakes in Florida. Comparison of major ion-Cl ratios in atmospheric deposition and in lake water shows the reactions resulting in retention of sulfate and nitrate are the dominant sources of alkalinity; production of organic acids and ammonium retention are the major alkalinity-consuming processes. Based on average reactions, enrichment of major cations accounted for only 12% of net alkalinity generation in the study lakes. In general, calcium and potassium were depleted in low-ANC lakes, presumably by in-lake sinks, and were enriched in most higher ANC lakes by ground water inputs. Differences in alkalinity among these lakes reflect hydrologic factors and the proximity of clay and carbonate deposits to the lake bed. Overall, net-alkalinity generation nearly balanced H+ predicted from evaporative concentration of atmospheric acid inputs; the close balance suggests that the alkalinity status of these lakes is very sensitive to changes in atmospheric loadings and groundwater alkalinity inputs.

  9. A mechanism of catalyzed GTP hydrolysis by Ras protein through magnesium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiang; Nassar, Nicolas; Wang, Jin

    2011-11-01

    The hydrolysis by Ras plays pivotal roles in the activation of signaling pathways that lead to cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Despite their significant role in human cancer, the hydrolysis mechanism remains unclear. In the present Letter, we propose a GTP hydrolysis mechanism in which the ? phosphate is cut off primarily by magnesium ion. We studied both normal and mutated Ras and the cause of the malfunction of these mutants, compared the effect of Mg2+ and Mn2+. The simulation results are consistent with the experiments and support the new hydrolysis mechanism. This work will benefit both GTPases and ATPases hydrolysis studies.

  10. Complex cooperativity of ATP hydrolysis in the F(1)-ATPase molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming S; Todd, B D; Sadus, Richard J

    2004-05-01

    F(1)-ATPase catalyses ATP hydrolysis and converts the cellular chemical energy into mechanical rotation. The hydrolysis reaction in F(1)-ATPase does not follow the widely believed Michaelis-Menten mechanism. Instead, the hydrolysis mechanism behaves in an ATP-dependent manner. We develop a model for enzyme kinetics and hydrolysis cooperativity of F(1)-ATPase which involves the binding-state changes to the coupling catalytic reactions. The quantitative analysis and modeling suggest the existence of complex cooperative hydrolysis between three different catalysis sites of F(1)-ATPase. This complexity may be taken into account to resolve the arguments on the binding change mechanism in F(1)-ATPase. PMID:15134652

  11. Variability of alkalinity and the alkalinity-salinity relationship in the tropical and subtropical surface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zong-Pei; Tyrrell, Toby; Hydes, David J.; Dai, Minhan; Hartman, Susan E.

    2014-07-01

    The variability of total alkalinity (TA) and its relationship with salinity in the tropical and subtropical surface ocean were examined using data collected in various marine environments from a ship of opportunity. In the open ocean regions of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, sea surface TA variability was observed to be mainly controlled by the simple dilution or concentration (SDC) effect of precipitation and evaporation, and the measured concentrations of TA agreed well with those predicted from salinity and temperature. Non-SDC changes in alkalinity in ocean margins and inland seas were examined by comparing the salinity-normalized alkalinity with that of the open ocean end-member. Non-SDC alkalinity additions to the western North Atlantic margin, eastern North Pacific margin, and Mediterranean Sea were identified, which mainly resulted from river inputs and shelf currents. In contrast, removal of TA through formation and sedimentation of calcium carbonate was observed to be an important control in the Red Sea. The concentration of the river end-member can only be reliably derived from the y intercept of TA-S regression (TAS0) in river-dominated systems such as estuaries and river plumes. In coastal regions where other processes (evaporation, shelf currents, upwelling, calcification, etc.) are more influential, TAS0 can significantly deviate from the river water concentration and hence be an unreliable indicator of it. Negative values of TAS0 can result from non-SDC TA removal at the low salinity end (relative to the salinity of the oceanic end-member) and/or non-SDC TA addition at high salinities (as occurs in the Mediterranean Sea).

  12. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  13. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis of defatted mackerel protein with low bitter taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction was confirmed as a novel, effective method for separating lipid from mackerel protein, resulting in a degreasing rate (DR) of 95% and a nitrogen recovery (NR) of 88.6%. To obtain protein hydrolysates with high nitrogen recovery and low bitter taste, enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using eight commercially available proteases. It turned out that the optimum enzyme was the `Mixed enzymes for animal proteolysis'. An enzyme dosage of 4%, a temperature of 50, and a hydrolysis time of 300 min were found to be the optimum conditions to obtain high NR (84.28%) and degree of hydrolysis (DH, 16.18%) by orthogonal experiments. Glutamic acid was the most abundant amino acid of MDP (defatted mackerel protein) and MDPH (defatted mackerel protein hydrolysates). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein, the essential amino acid chemical scores (CS) were greater than 1.0 (1.0-1.7) in MDPH, which is reflective of high nutritional value. This, coupled with the light color and slight fishy odor, indicates that MDPH would potentially have a wide range of applications such as nutritional additives, functional ingredients, and so on.

  15. Lactose hydrolysis by ?-galactosidase enzyme: optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Das, Bipasha; Roy, Ananda Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, it was aimed to optimize the process of lactose hydrolysis using free and immobilized ?-galactosidase to produce glucose and galactose. Response surface methodology (RSM) by central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the degree of hydrolysis by varying three parameters, temperature (15-45C), solution pH (5-9) and ?-galactosidase enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for free mode of analysis and sodium alginate concentration (2-4%), calcium chloride concentration (3-6%) and enzyme concentration (2-8mg/mL) for immobilized process. Based on plots and variance analysis, the optimum operational conditions for maximizing lactose hydrolysis were found to be temperature (35.5C), pH (6.7) and enzyme concentration (6.7mg/mL) in free mode and sodium alginate concentration (3%), calcium chloride concentration (5.9%) and enzyme concentration (5.2mg/mL) in immobilized mode. PMID:25842188

  16. Characterization of ester hydrolysis in terms of microscopic rate constants.

    PubMed

    Noszl, Bla; Visky, Dra; Kraszni, Mrta

    2006-07-27

    Hydroxide-catalyzed ester hydrolysis for molecules of coexisting species is quantitated in terms of microscopic rate constants, a new, species-specific physicochemical parameter. Relationships between the overall and component reactions, as well as the macroscopic and microscopic rate constants are deduced. Experimental techniques, evaluation methods, and feasibility are discussed. Species-specific, pH-independent rate constants of four coexisting, differently hydrolyzing microspecies are determined for the first time. Protonation of an alpha-amino and beta-imidazolyl site in amino acid esters has been found to accelerate the hydroxide-catalyzed hydrolysis by factors of 120 and 7.5, respectively, whereas they jointly exert a nearly 3000-fold acceleration. A total of 20 microscopic protonation equilibrium constants, as component parameters in the rate equations, have also been determined. The species-specific rate constants have been found to correlate with the site- and species-specific basicity of the leaving group and the NMR chemical shift of an adjacent proton. Individual contributions of the various microforms to the overall hydrolysis rate are depicted in microscopic reaction fraction diagrams. PMID:16854163

  17. Enzymatic catalyzed palm oil hydrolysis under ultrasound irradiation: diacylglycerol synthesis.

    PubMed

    Awadallak, Jamal A; Voll, Fernando; Ribas, Marielen C; da Silva, Camila; Filho, Lucio Cardozo; da Silva, Edson A

    2013-07-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) rich oils have an organoleptic property like that of regular edible oils, but these oils do not tend to be accumulated as fat. Palm oil ranks first in the world in terms of edible oil production owing to its low cost. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology to produce diacylglycerol by hydrolysis of palm oil using Lipozyme RM IM commercial lipase as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The reactions were carried out at 55 °C with two different methods. First, the reaction system was exposed to ultrasonic waves for the whole reaction time, which led to enzymatic inactivation and water evaporation. Ultrasound was then used to promote emulsification of the water/oil system before the hydrolysis reaction, avoiding contact between the probe and the enzymes. An experimental design was used to optimize the ultrasound-related parameters and maximize the hydrolysis rate, and in these conditions, with a change in equilibrium, DAG production was evaluated. Better reaction conditions were achieved for the second method: 11.20 wt.% (water+oil mass) water content, 1.36 wt.% (water+oil mass) enzyme load, 12 h of reaction time, 1.2 min and 200 W of exposure to ultrasound. In these conditions diacylglycerol yield was 34.17 wt.%. PMID:23402907

  18. Acetic acid oxidation and hydrolysis in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.C.; Marrone, P.A.; Tester, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) hydrolysis and oxidation in supercritical water were examined from 425--600 C and 246 bar at reactor residence times of 4.4 to 9.8 s. Over the range of conditions studied, acetic acid oxidation was globally 0.72 {+-} 0.15 order in acetic acid and 0.27 {+-} 0.15 order in oxygen to a 95% confidence level, with an activation energy of 168 {+-} 21 kJ/mol, a preexponential factor of 10{sup 9.9{+-}1.7}, and an induction time of about 1.5 s at 525 C. Isothermal kinetic measurements at 550 C over the range 160 to 263 bar indicated that pressure or density did not affect the rate of acetic acid oxidation as much as was previously observed in the oxidation of hydrogen or carbon monoxide in supercritical water. Major products of acetic acid oxidation in supercritical water are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen. Trace amounts of propenoic acid were occasionally detected. Hydrolysis or hydrothermolysis in the absence of oxygen resulted in approximately 35% conversion of acetic acid at 600 C, 246 bar, and 8-s reactor residence time. Regression of the limited hydrolysis runs assuming a reaction rate first-order in organic gave a global rate expression with a preexponential factor of 10{sup 4.4{+-}1.1} and an activation energy of 94 {+-} 17 kJ/mol.

  19. Hydrolysis of iron and chromium fluorides: mechanism and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Glvez, Jos L; Dufour, Javier; Negro, Carlos; Lpez-Mateos, Federico

    2008-06-15

    Fluoride complexes of metallic ions are one of the main problems when processing industrial effluents with high content of fluoride anion. The most important case is derived from pickling treatment of stainless steel, which is performed with HNO3/HF mixtures to remove oxides scale formed over the metal surface. Waste from this process, spent pickling liquor, must be treated for recovering metallic and acid content. Conventional treatments produce a final effluent with high quantity of fluoride complexes of iron and chromium. This work proposes a hydrolysis treatment of these solid metal fluorides by reacting them with a basic agent. Metal oxides are obtained, while fluoride is released to solution as a solved salt, which can be easily recovered as hydrofluoric acid. Solid iron and chromium fluorides, mainly K2FeF5(s) and CrF3(s), obtained in the UCM treatment process, were employed in this work. Optimal hydrolysis operating conditions were obtained by means of a factorial design: media must be basic but pH cannot be higher than 9.5, temperature from 40 to 70 degrees C and alkali concentration (potassium hydroxide) below 1.1 mol L(-1). Secondary reactions have been detected, which are probably due to fluoride adsorption onto obtained oxides surface. Mechanism of reaction consists of several stages, involving solid fluoride dissolution and complexes decomposition. Hydrolysis kinetics has been modeled with classical crystal dissolution kinetics, based on mass transfer phenomena. PMID:17988794

  20. Programmed Hydrolysis in Designing Paclitaxel Prodrug for Nanocarrier Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Zhang, D.; Fallon, J. K.; Yang, X.; Liu, D.; He, Z.; Liu, F.

    2015-01-01

    Nanocarriers delivering prodrugs are a way of improving in vivo effectiveness and efficiency. For therapeutic efficacy, the prodrug must hydrolyze to its parent drug after administration. Based on the fact that the hydrolysis is impeded by steric hindrance and improved by sufficient polarity, in this study, we proposed the PTX-S-S-VE, the conjugation of paclitaxel (PTX) to vitamin E (VE) through a disulfide bridge. This conjugate possessed the following advantages: first, it can be encapsulated in the VE/VE2-PEG2000/water nanoemulsions because of favorable hydrophobic interactions; second, the nanoemulsions had a long blood circulation time; finally, the concentrated glutathione in the tumor microenvironment could cleave the disulfide bond to weaken the steric hindrance and increase the polarity, promoting the hydrolysis to PTX and increasing the anticancer activity. It was demonstrated in vitro that the hydrolysis of PTX-S-S-VE was enhanced and the cytotoxicity was increased. In addition, PTX-S-S-VE had greater anticancer activity against the KB-3-1 cell line tumor xenograft and the tumor size was smaller after the 4th injection. The present result suggests a new way, use of reduction, to improve the in vivo anticancer activity of a prodrug for nanocarrier delivery by unshielding the ester bond and taking off the steric block. PMID:26166066

  1. Whey protein isolate polydispersity affects enzymatic hydrolysis outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, I B; Murray, B A; Brodkorb, A; FitzGerald, R J; Robinson, A A; Holton, T A; Kelly, P M

    2013-12-01

    The effects of heat-induced denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) on the enzymatic breakdown of α-La, caseinomacropeptide (CMP), β-Lg A and β-Lg B were observed as hydrolysis proceeded to a 5% degree of hydrolysis (DH) in both unheated and heat-treated (80 °C, 10 min) WPI dispersions (100 g L(-1)). Hydrolysis of denatured WPI favoured the generation of higher levels of free essential amino acids; lysine, phenylalanine and arginine compared to the unheated substrate. LC-MS/MS identified 23 distinct peptides which were identified in the denatured WPI hydrolysate - the majority of which were derived from β-Lg. The mapping of the detected regions in α-La, β-Lg, and CMP enabled specific cleavage points to be associated with certain serine endo-protease activities. The outcomes of the study emphasise how a combined approach of substrate heat pre-treatment and enzymology may be used to influence proteolysis with attendant opportunities for targeting unique peptide production and amino acid release. PMID:23870966

  2. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Traianedes, K; O'Dea, K

    1985-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanism for the extremely slow rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrate from legumes, we have examined a number of factors which could potentially affect the process in vitro. The rate of hydrolysis of legume starch in vitro was not affected by the presence of fat (as either butter or an emulsion). However, it was significantly increased in commercially available canned bean preparations, suggesting that the high temperatures used in the canning process may alter the availability of starch in legumes. In vitro starch hydrolysis rate was also significantly increased by grinding legumes finely prior to cooking. Finally, the slow rate of digestion and absorption of legume carbohydrate does not appear to be due to viscosity since a) increasing the shaking rate of viscous mixture of either red kidney beans or lentils from 0 to 120 oscillations per minute did not affect the hydrolysis rate, and b) a thick viscous mixture of either of these legumes did not retard the diffusion of free glucose from a dialysis sac into the dialysate. PMID:4014066

  3. A single molecule study of cellulase hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-San; Luo, Yonghua; Baker, John O.; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E.; Smith, Steve; Ding, Shi-You

    2010-02-01

    Cellobiohydrolase-I (CBH I), a processive exoglucanase secreted by Trichoderma reesei, is one of the key enzyme components in a commercial cellulase mixture currently used for processing biomass to biofuels. CBH I contains a family 7 glycoside hydrolase catalytic module, a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM), and a highlyglycosylated linker peptide. It has been proposed that the CBH I cellulase initiates the hydrolysis from the reducing end of one cellulose chain and successively cleaves alternate β-1,4-glycosidic bonds to release cellobiose as its principal end product. The role each module of CBH I plays in the processive hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose has yet to be convincingly elucidated. In this report, we use a single-molecule approach that combines optical (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence microscopy, or TIRF-M) and non-optical (Atomic Force Microscopy, or AFM) imaging techniques to analyze the molecular motion of CBM tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP), and to investigate the surface structure of crystalline cellulose and changes made in the structure by CBM and CBH I. The preliminary results have revealed a confined nanometer-scale movement of the TrCBM1-GFP bound to cellulose, and decreases in cellulose crystal size as well as increases in surface roughness during CBH I hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  4. Treatment of heterotopic ossification through remote ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jonathan R.; De La Rosa, Sara; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E.; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R.; Cederna, Paul S.; Xi, Chuanwu; Morris, Michael D.; Herndon, David N.; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic development of ectopic bone in soft tissues because of a local or systemic inflammatory insult, such as burn injury or trauma. In HO, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are inappropriately activated to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Through the correlation of in vitro assays and in vivo studies (dorsal scald burn with Achilles tenotomy), we have shown that burn injury enhances the osteogenic potential of MSCs and causes ectopic endochondral heterotopic bone formation and functional contractures through bone morphogenetic protein–mediated canonical SMAD signaling. We further demonstrated a prevention strategy for HO through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis at the burn site using apyrase. Burn site apyrase treatment decreased ATP, increased adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, and decreased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in MSCs in vitro. This ATP hydrolysis also decreased HO formation and mitigated functional impairment in vivo. Similarly, selective inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with LDN-193189 decreased HO formation and increased range of motion at the injury site in our burn model in vivo. Our results suggest that burn injury–exacerbated HO formation can be treated through therapeutics that target burn site ATP hydrolysis and modulation of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. PMID:25253675

  5. A new route to improved glucose yields in cellulose hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, John E.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhang, Z. Conrad

    2007-08-01

    An unusual inverse temperature-dependent pathway was discovered for cellulose decrystallization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). Cellulose was completely decrystallized by TFA at 0 °C in less than 2 hours, a result not achieved in 48 hours at 25°C in the same medium. The majority of TFA used in cellulose decrystallization was recycled via a vacuum process. The small remaining amount of TFA was diluted with water to make a 0.5% TFA solution and used as a catalyst in dilute acid hydrolysis. After one minute, under batch conditions at 185 °C, the glucose yield reached 63.5% without production of levulinic acid. In comparison, only 15.0% glucose yield was achieved in the hydrolysis of untreated cellulose by 0.5% H2SO4 under the same condition. Further improvement of glucose yield is possible by optimizing reaction conditions. Alternatively, the remaining TFA can be completely removed by water while keeping the regenerated cellulose in a highly amorphous state. This regenerated cellulose is much more reactive than untreated cellulose in hydrolysis reactions, but still less reactive than corn starch. The lower temperatures and shorter reaction times with this activated cellulose makes it possible to reduce operating costs and decrease byproduct yields such as HMF and levulinic acid.

  6. Heterologous expression and functional characterization of a plant alkaline phytase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven C; Yang, Mimi; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

    2010-12-01

    Phytases catalyze the sequential hydrolysis of phytic acid (myo-insositol hexakisphosphate), the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells. Phytic acid constitutes 3-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes such as corn and soybean. The high concentration of phytates in animal feed and the inability of non-ruminant animals such as swine and poultry to digest phytates leads to phosphate contamination of soil and water bodies. The supplementation of animal feed with phytases results in increased bioavailability to animals and decreased environmental contamination. Therefore, phytases are of great commercial importance. Phytases with a range of properties are needed to address the specific digestive needs of different animals. Alkaline phytase (LlALP1 and LlALP2) which possess unique catalytic properties that have the potential to be useful as feed and food supplement has been identified in lily pollen. Substantial quantities of alkaline phytase are needed for animal feed studies. In this paper, we report the heterologous expression of LlALP2 from lily pollen in Pichia pastoris. The expression of recombinant LlALP2 (rLlALP2) was optimized by varying the cDNA coding for LlALP2, host strain and growth conditions. The catalytic properties of recombinant LlALP2 were investigated extensively (substrate specificity, pH- and temperature dependence, and the effect of Ca(2+), EDTA and inhibitors) and found to be very similar to that of the native LlALP2 indicating that rLlALP2 from P. pastoris can serve as a potential source for structural and animal feed studies. PMID:20655385

  7. Combination of alkaline and microwave pretreatment for disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Erden, G

    2013-01-01

    Meat processing wastewater sludge has high organic content but it is very slow to degrade in biological processes. Anaerobic digestion may be a good alternative for this type of sludge when the hydrolysis, known to be the rate-limiting step of biological sludge anaerobic degradation, could be eliminated by disintegration. This investigation deals with disintegration of meat processing wastewater sludge. Microwave (MW) irradiation and combined alkaline pretreatment and MW irradiation were applied to sludge for disintegration purposes. Disintegration performance of the methods was evaluated with disintegration degree based on total and dissolved organic carbon calculations (DD(TOC)), and the solubilization of volatile solids (S(VS)) in the pretreated sludge. Optimum conditions were found to be 140 degrees C and 30 min for MW irradiation using response surface methodology (RSM) and pH = 13 for combined pretreatment. While DD(TOC) was observed as 24.6% and 54.9, S(VS) was determined as 8.54% and 42.5% for MW pretreated and combined pretreated sludge, respectively. The results clearly show that pre-conditioning of sludge with alkaline pretreatment played an important role in enhancing the disintegration efficiency of subsequent MW irradiation. Disintegration methods also affected the anaerobic biodegradability and dewaterability of sludge. An increase of 23.6% in biogas production in MW irradiated sludge was obtained, comparing to the raw sludge at the end of the 35 days of incubation. This increase was observed as 44.5% combined pretreatment application. While MW pretreatment led to a little improvement of the dewatering performance of sludge, in combined pretreatment NaOH deteriorates the sludge dewaterability. PMID:23837322

  8. Alkaline stability of quaternary ammonium cations for alkaline fuel cell membranes and ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Marino, M G; Kreuer, K D

    2015-02-01

    The alkaline stability of 26 different quaternary ammonium groups (QA) is investigated for temperatures up to 160 °C and NaOH concentrations up to 10 mol L(-1) with the aim to provide a basis for the selection of functional groups for hydroxide exchange membranes in alkaline fuel cells and of ionic-liquid cations stable in basic conditions. Most QAs exhibit unexpectedly high alkaline stability with the exception of aromatic cations. β-Protons are found to be far less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than previously suggested, whereas the presence of benzyl groups, nearby hetero-atoms, or other electron-withdrawing species promote degradation reactions significantly. Cyclic QAs proved to be exceptionally stable, with the piperidine-based 6-azonia-spiro[5.5]undecane featuring the highest half-life at the chosen conditions. Absolute and relative stabilities presented herein stand in contrast to literature data, the differences being ascribed to solvent effects on degradation. PMID:25431246

  9. Salt- and alkaline-tolerance are linked in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Elisabeth N; Thornhill, Andrew; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-01

    Saline or alkaline soils present a strong stress on plants that together may be even more deleterious than alone. Australia's soils are old and contain large, sometimes overlapping, areas of high salt and alkalinity. Acacia and other Australian plant lineages have evolved in this stressful soil environment and present an opportunity to understand the evolution of salt and alkalinity tolerance. We investigate this evolution by predicting the average soil salinity and pH for 503 Acacia species and mapping the response onto a maximum-likelihood phylogeny. We find that salinity and alkalinity tolerance have evolved repeatedly and often together over 25 Ma of the Acacia radiation in Australia. Geographically restricted species are often tolerant of extreme conditions. Distantly related species are sympatric in the most extreme soil environments, suggesting lack of niche saturation. There is strong evidence that many Acacia have distributions affected by salinity and alkalinity and that preference is lineage specific. PMID:25079493

  10. Catalytic hydrolysis of kalium borohydride using CoTiO 3/cordierite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guojun; Wang, Guixiang; Han, Huanbo; Ru, Xiuling

    2007-07-01

    CoTiO 3/cordierite catalyzer was synthesized with high specific surface area cordierite of clear and near as carrier, coating with TiO II and loading cobalt chloride by hydrothermal synthesis, then baking at 500°C and soaking in kalium borohydride (KBH 4) solution. The catalyzer was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Test results above show that the active component of catalyzer is CoTiO 3 produced by the reaction of TiO II with Co 3O 4. The performance of hydrogen evolution of catalyzer after soaking in KBH 4 solution has improved because of the reductive of KBH 4. The Co 3O 4 unreacted with TiO II cumber the catalyzer performance of hydrogen evolution, but the KBH 4 can deoxidize the Co 3O 4 as Co and the Co can fall off from the surface of the catalyzer. SEM shows that on the surface of the catalyzer there is sheet CoTiO 3, the thickness of which are many decades nanometers. Experiment research shows that it has superior performance of hydrogen evolution after soaking in KBH 4 solution, and its performance of catalytic hydrolysis in alkaline KBH 4 solution is better than that in the solution without alkali. The maximum hydrogen generation rate as a function of 0.34g catalyzer in 10% KBH 4 solution with approximate 18% NaOH is 160 mLÂ.min -1 at room temperature.

  11. Improving the efficiency of enzyme utilization for sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Zhang, Ruihong; Jenkins, Bryan M; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2012-11-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is a carbohydrate-rich residue of table sugar processing. It shows promise as a feedstock for fermentable sugar and biofuel production via enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial fermentation. This research focused on the enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP and examined the effects of solid loading (2-10 %, dry basis), enzyme preparation, and enzyme recycle on the production of fermentable sugars. The enzyme partitioning to the solid and liquid phases during SBP enzymatic hydrolysis and loss during recycling were investigated using SDS-PAGE and Zymogram analysis. Without considering product inhibition, the cellulase added initially to the SBP hydrolysis lost only 6 % filter paper activity and negligible carboxymethyl cellulose activity upon multiple cycles of SBP hydrolysis. It was found that enzyme dosage can be reduced by 50 % while maintaining similar, and in some cases higher fermentable sugar yield. The removal of hydrolysis products will further improve enzymatic hydrolysis of SBP for biofuel production. PMID:22580744

  12. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua; Jones, Cecil L; Baker, Gary A; Xia, Shuqian; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Person, Vernecia

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

  13. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Jones, Cecil L; Baker, Gary A; Xia, Shuqian; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Person, Vernecia N

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs) were found capable of dissolving more than 10wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904-910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432-2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137-140, 407-421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and non-volatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. approximately 70 degrees C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58-75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel((R)) cellulose, filter paper and cotton were hydrolyzed 2-10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel((R)) cellulose could be achieved in 6h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 degrees C. In addition, we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 degrees C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed. PMID:18822323

  14. A dynamic model for cellulosic biomass hydrolysis: a comprehensive analysis and validation of hydrolysis and product inhibition mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Tai; Morales-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Sin, Gürkan; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a comprehensive enzyme kinetics analysis in view of validating and consolidating a semimechanistic kinetic model consisting of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass proposed by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Kadam et al., Biotechnol Prog 20(3):698-705, 2004) and its variations proposed in this work. A number of dedicated experiments were carried out under a range of initial conditions (Avicel® versus pretreated barley straw as substrate, different enzyme loadings and different product inhibitors such as glucose, cellobiose and xylose) to test the hydrolysis and product inhibition mechanisms of the model. A nonlinear least squares method was used to identify the model and estimate kinetic parameters based on the experimental data. The suitable mathematical model for industrial application was selected among the proposed models based on statistical information (weighted sum of square errors). The analysis showed that transglycosylation plays a key role at high glucose levels. It also showed that the values of parameters depend on the selected experimental data used for parameter estimation. Therefore, the parameter values are not universal and should be used with caution. The model proposed by Kadam et al. (Biotechnol Prog 20(3):698-705, 2004) failed to predict the hydrolysis phenomena at high glucose levels, but when combined with transglycosylation reaction(s), the prediction of cellulose hydrolysis behaviour over a broad range of substrate concentrations (50-150 g/L) and enzyme loadings (15.8-31.6 and 1-5.9 mg protein/g cellulose for Celluclast and Novozyme 188, respectively) was possible. This is the first study introducing transglycosylation into the semimechanistic model. As long as these type of models are used within the boundary of their validity (substrate type, enzyme source and substrate concentration), they can support process design and technology improvement efforts at pilot and full-scale studies. PMID:24446172

  15. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the hydrolysis and degree of synergism among enzymes. Conclusions The model was effective in capturing the dynamic behavior of cellulose hydrolysis during action of individual as well as multiple cellulases. Simulations were in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data. Several experimentally observed phenomena were simulated without the need for any additional assumptions or parameter changes and confirmed the validity of using the stochastic molecular modeling approach to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:23638989

  16. Enhancement of waste activated sludge anaerobic digestion by a novel chemical free acid/alkaline pretreatment using electrolysis.

    PubMed

    Charles, W; Ng, B; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Cheng, L; Ho, G; Kayaalp, A

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is relatively poor due to hydrolysis limitations. Acid and alkaline pretreatments are effective in enhancing hydrolysis leading to higher methane yields. However, chemical costs often prohibit full-scale application. In this study, 12 V two-chamber electrolysis using an anion exchange membrane alters sludge pH without chemical dosing. pH dropped from 6.9 to 2.5 in the anode chamber and increased to 10.1 in the cathode chamber within 15 h. The volatile suspended solids solubilisation of WAS was 31.1% in the anode chamber and 34.0% in the cathode chamber. As a result, dissolved chemical oxygen demand increased from 164 to 1,787 mg/L and 1,256 mg/L in the anode and cathode chambers, respectively. Remixing of sludge from the two chambers brought the pH back to 6.5, hence no chemical neutralisation was required prior to anaerobic digestion. Methane yield during anaerobic digestion at 20 d retention time was 31% higher than that of untreated sludge. An energy balance assessment indicated that the non-optimised process could approximately recover the energy (electricity) expended in the electrolysis process. With suitable optimisation of treatment time and voltages, significant energy savings would be expected in addition to the benefit of decreased sludge volume. PMID:23787324

  17. Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Martz, Todd R; Dickson, Andrew G; DeGrandpre, Michael D

    2006-03-15

    We introduce a new titration methodology, tracer monitored titration (TMT), in which analyses are free of volumetric and gravimetric measurements and insensitive to pump precision and reproducibility. Spectrophotometric monitoring of titrant dilution, rather than volume increment, lays the burden of analytical performance solely on the spectrophotometer. In the method described here, the titrant is a standardized mixture of acid-base indicator and strong acid. Dilution of a pulse of titrant in a titration vessel is tracked using the total indicator concentration measured spectrophotometrically. The concentrations of reacted and unreacted indicator species, derived from Beer's law, are used to calculate the relative proportions of titrant and sample in addition to the equilibrium position (pH) of the titration mixture. Because the method does not require volumetric or gravimetric additions of titrant, simple low-precision pumps can be used. Here, we demonstrate application of TMT for analysis of total alkalinity (A(T)). High-precision, high-accuracy seawater A(T) measurements are crucial for understanding, for example, the marine CaCO3 budget and saturation state, anthropogenic CO2 penetration into the oceans, calcareous phytoplankton blooms, and coral reef dynamics. We present data from 286 titrations on three types of total alkalinity standards: Na2CO3 in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, NaOH in 0.7 mol kg x soln(-1) NaCl, and a seawater Certified Reference Material (CRM). Based on Na2CO3 standards, the accuracy and precision are +/-0.2 and +/-0.1% (4 and 2 micromol kg x soln(-1) for A(T) approximately 2100-2500 micromol kg x soln(-1), n = 242), using low-precision solenoid pumps to introduce sample and titrant. Similar accuracy and precision were found for analyses run 42 days after the initial experiments. Excellent performance is achieved by optimizing the spectrophotometric detection system and relying upon basic chemical thermodynamics for calculating the equivalence point. Although applied to acid-base titrations in this paper, the approach should be generally applicable to other types of titrations. PMID:16536416

  18. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A., III

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the initial alkalinity. Acidity calculated from the pH and dissolved metals concentrations, assuming equivalents of 2 per mole of Fe and Mn and 3 per mole of Al, was equivalent to that calculated based on complete aqueous speciation of FeII/FeIII. Despite changes in the pH, alkalinity, and metals concentrations, the Hot Acidities were comparable for fresh and most aged samples. A meaningful "net" acidity can be determined from a measured Hot Acidity or by calculation from the pH, alkalinity, and dissolved metals concentrations. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Hot Aciditymeasured) to design mine drainage treatment can lead to systems with insufficient Alkalinity to neutralize metal and H+ acidity and is not recommended. The use of net alkalinity = -Hot Acidity titration is recommended for the planning of mine drainage treatment. The use of net alkalinity = (Alkalinitymeasured - Aciditycalculated) is recommended with some cautions. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alkaline phosphatase activity in whitefly salivary glands and saliva.

    PubMed

    Funk, C J

    2001-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was histochemically localized in adult whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci B biotype, syn. B. argentifolii) with a chromogenic substrate (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate) and a fluorogenic substrate (ELF-97). The greatest amount of staining was in the basal regions of adult salivary glands with additional activity traced into the connecting salivary ducts. Other tissues that had alkaline phosphatase activity were the accessory salivary glands, the midgut, the portion of the ovariole surrounding the terminal oocyte, and the colleterial gland. Whitefly nymphs had activity in salivary ducts, whereas activity was not detected in two aphid species (Rhodobium porosum and Aphis gossypii). Whitefly diet (15% sucrose) was collected from whitefly feeding chambers and found to have alkaline phosphatase activity, indicating the enzyme was secreted in saliva. Further studies with salivary alkaline phosphatase collected from diet indicated that the enzyme had a pH optimum of 10.4 and was inhibited by 1 mM cysteine and to a lesser extent 1 mM histidine. Dithiothreitol, inorganic phosphate, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) also inhibited activity, whereas levamisole only partially inhibited salivary alkaline phosphatase. The enzyme was heat tolerant and retained approximately 50% activity after a 1-h treatment at 65 degrees C. The amount of alkaline phosphatase activity secreted by whiteflies increased under conditions that stimulate increased feeding. These observations indicate alkaline phosphatase may play a role during whitefly feeding. PMID:11304750

  20. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications.

  1. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26113394

  2. Alkaline decomposition of synthetic jarosite with arsenic

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of jarosite-type compounds to eliminate impurities in the hydrometallurgical industry is due to their capability to incorporate several elements into their structures. Some of these elements are of environmental importance (Pb2+, Cr6+, As5+, Cd2+, Hg2+). For the present paper, AsO43- was incorporated into the lattice of synthetic jarosite in order to carry out a reactivity study. Alkaline decomposition is characterized by removal of sulfate and potassium ions from the lattice and formation of a gel consisting of iron hydroxides with absorbed arsenate. Decomposition curves show an induction period followed by a conversion period. The induction period is independent of particle size and exponentially decreases with temperature. The conversion period is characterized by formation of a hydroxide halo that surrounds an unreacted jarosite core. During the conversion period in NaOH media for [OH-]?>?8??10-3molL-1, the process showed a reaction order of 1.86, and an apparent activation energy of 60.3kJmol-1 was obtained. On the other hand, during the conversion period in Ca(OH)2 media for [OH-]?>?1.90??10-2molL-1, the reaction order was 1.15, and an apparent activation energy of 74.4kJmol-1 was obtained. The results are consistent with the spherical particle model with decreasing core and chemical control. PMID:23566061

  3. Alkaline decomposition of synthetic jarosite with arsenic.

    PubMed

    Patio, Francisco; Flores, Mizraim U; Reyes, Ivn A; Reyes, Martn; Hernndez, Juan; Rivera, Isauro; Jurez, Julio C

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of jarosite-type compounds to eliminate impurities in the hydrometallurgical industry is due to their capability to incorporate several elements into their structures. Some of these elements are of environmental importance (Pb(2+), Cr(6+), As(5+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+)). For the present paper, AsO4 (3-) was incorporated into the lattice of synthetic jarosite in order to carry out a reactivity study. Alkaline decomposition is characterized by removal of sulfate and potassium ions from the lattice and formation of a gel consisting of iron hydroxides with absorbed arsenate. Decomposition curves show an induction period followed by a conversion period. The induction period is independent of particle size and exponentially decreases with temperature. The conversion period is characterized by formation of a hydroxide halo that surrounds an unreacted jarosite core. During the conversion period in NaOH media for [OH(-)]?>?8??10(-3)molL(-1), the process showed a reaction order of 1.86, and an apparent activation energy of 60.3kJmol(-1) was obtained. On the other hand, during the conversion period in Ca(OH)2 media for [OH(-)]?>?1.90??10(-2)molL(-1), the reaction order was 1.15, and an apparent activation energy of 74.4kJmol(-1) was obtained. The results are consistent with the spherical particle model with decreasing core and chemical control. PMID:23566061

  4. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W. (Augusta, GA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  5. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  6. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  7. Solubility of pllutonium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1993-02-26

    Plutonium solubility data from several studies have been evaluated. For each data set, a predictive model has been developed where appropriate. In addition, a statistical model and corresponding prediction intervals for plutonium solubility as a quadratic function of the hydroxide concentration have been developed. Because of the wide range of solution compositions, the solubility of plutonium can vary by as much as three orders of magnitude for any given hydroxide concentration and still remain within the prediction interval. Any nuclear safety assessments that depend on the maximum amount of plutonium dissolved in alkaline salt solutions should use concentrations at least as great as the upper prediction limits developed in this study. To increase the confidence in the prediction model, it is recommended that additional solubility tests be conducted at low hydroxide concentrations and with all of the other solution components involved. To validate the model for application to actual waste solutions, it is recommended that the plutonium solubilities in actual waste solutions be determined and compared to the values predicted by the quadratic model.

  8. Production of alkaline protease from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans

    PubMed Central

    Ferracini-Santos, Luciana; Sato, Hélia H

    2009-01-01

    Cellulosimicrobium cellulans is one of the microorganisms that produces a wide variety of yeast cell wall-degrading enzymes, β-1,3-glucanase, protease and chitinase. Dried cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as carbon and nitrogen source for cell growth and protease production. The medium components KH2PO4, KOH and dried yeast cells showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on the factorial fractional design. A second design was prepared using two factors: pH and percentage of dried yeast cells. The results showed that the culture medium for the maximum production of protease was 0.2 g/l of MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g/l of (NH4)2SO4 and 8% of dried yeast cells in 0.15M phosphate buffer at pH 8.0. The maximum alkaline protease production was 7.0 ± 0.27 U/ml over the center point. Crude protease showed best activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, and was stable at 50ºC. PMID:24031317

  9. Low pH alkaline chemical formulations

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Peru, D.A.; Thornton, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of a surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding system that is applicable to specific reservoir conditions in Wilmington (California) field. The cost of the chemicals for an ASP (alkali/surfactant/polymer) flood is calculated to be $3.90/bbl of oil produced, with 78% of that cost attributable to polymer. This research included phase behavior tests, oil displacement tests, mineral dissolution tests, and adsorption measurements. It was discovered that consumption of low pH alkalis is low enough in the Wilmington field to be acceptable. In addition, alkali dramatically reduced surfactant adsorption and precipitation. A mixture of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 was recommended for use as a preflush and in the ASP formulation. Research was also conducted on the synergistic effect that occurs when a mixture of alkali and synthetic surfactant contacts crude oil. It appears that very low IFT is predominantly a result of the activation of the natural surfactants present in the Wilmington oil, and the sustained low IFT is primarily the result of the synthetic surfactant. It also appears that removal of acids from the crude oil by the alkali renders the oil more interfacially reactive to synthetic surfactant. These phenomena help to explain the synergism that results from combining alkali and synthetic surfactant into a single oil recovery formulation. 19 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris to Alkaline Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.

    2007-11-30

    The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).

  11. Thermostable alkaline halophilic-protease production by Natronolimnobius innermongolicus WN18.

    PubMed

    Selim, Samy; Hagagy, Nashwa; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed; El-Meleigy, El Syaed; Pessione, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the production and biochemical characterisation of a thermostable alkaline halophilic protease from Natronolimnobius innermongolicus WN18 (HQ658997), isolated from soda Lake of Wadi An-Natrun, Egypt. The enzyme was concentrated by spinning through a centriplus, centrifugal ultrafiltration Millipore membrane with a total yield of 25%. The relative molecular mass of this protease determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ranged from 67 to 43 kDa. The extracellular protease of N. innermongolicus WN18 was dependent on high salt concentrations for activity and stability, and it had an optimum temperature of 60C in the presence of 2.5 M NaCl. This enzyme was stable in a broad pH range (6-12) with an optimum pH of 9-10 for azocasein hydrolysis. This extracellular protease, therefore, could be defined as thermostable and haloalkaliphilic with distinct properties that make the enzyme applicable for different industrial purposes. PMID:24716669

  12. Development and operation of a hybrid acid-alkaline advanced water electrolysis cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teschke, O.; Zwanziger, M.

    A hybrid acid-alkaline water electrolysis cell has been developed for hydrogen production. The cell is based on the use of an acidic solution at the cathode and a basic solution at the anode to reduce the minimum theoretical voltage for water decomposition from the thermoneutral potential of 1.47 V to close to 1.4 V at 25 C and 1 atm. The pH differential is maintained by the removal of OH ions from the cathode section and water removal from the anode section, which can be driven by heat energy. A practical cell has been built using a solid polymer electrolyte in which, however, the cathodic compartment is not acidic but neutral. Tests with a platinum black cathode catalyst and a platinum-iridium anode catalyst have resulted in steady-state water hydrolysis at an applied voltage of 0.9 V, and a V-I diagram with a considerably lower slope than that of a conventional cell has been obtained at 90 C.

  13. Biodegradation of the Alkaline Cellulose Degradation Products Generated during Radioactive Waste Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Simon P.; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P.; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J.; Humphreys, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including α and β forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in α and β ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7×10−2 hr−1 (SE±2.9×10−3). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  14. Biodegradation of the alkaline cellulose degradation products generated during radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Rout, Simon P; Radford, Jessica; Laws, Andrew P; Sweeney, Francis; Elmekawy, Ahmed; Gillie, Lisa J; Humphreys, Paul N

    2014-01-01

    The anoxic, alkaline hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a range of cellulose degradation products (CDP) including ? and ? forms of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) and is expected to occur in radioactive waste disposal sites receiving intermediate level radioactive wastes. The generation of ISA's is of particular relevance to the disposal of these wastes since they are able to form complexes with radioelements such as Pu enhancing their migration. This study demonstrates that microbial communities present in near-surface anoxic sediments are able to degrade CDP including both forms of ISA via iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis, without any prior exposure to these substrates. No significant difference (n = 6, p = 0.118) in ? and ? ISA degradation rates were seen under either iron reducing, sulphate reducing or methanogenic conditions, giving an overall mean degradation rate of 4.7 10(-2) hr(-1) (SE 2.9 10(-3)). These results suggest that a radioactive waste disposal site is likely to be colonised by organisms able to degrade CDP and associated ISA's during the construction and operational phase of the facility. PMID:25268118

  15. Production of volatile fatty acids from sewage organic matter by combined bioflocculation and alkaline fermentation.

    PubMed

    Khiewwijit, Rungnapha; Temmink, Hardy; Labanda, Alvaro; Rijnaarts, Huub; Keesman, Karel J

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the potential of volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from sewage by a combined high-loaded membrane bioreactor and sequencing batch fermenter. VFA production was optimized with respect to SRT and alkaline pH (pH 8-10). Application of pH shock to a value of 9 at the start of a sequencing batch cycle, followed by a pH uncontrolled phase for 7days, gave the highest VFA yield of 440mgVFA-COD/g VSS. This yield was much higher than at fermentation without pH control or at a constant pH between 8 and 10. The high yield in the pH 9 shocked system could be explained by (1) a reduction of methanogenic activity, or (2) a high degree of solids degradation or (3) an enhanced protein hydrolysis and fermentation. VFA production can be further optimized by fine-tuning pH level and longer operation, possibly allowing enrichment of alkalophilic and alkali-tolerant fermenting microorganisms. PMID:26342342

  16. Digestive alkaline proteases from thornback ray (Raja clavata): Characteristics and applications.

    PubMed

    Lassoued, Imen; Hajji, Sawssen; Mhamdi, Samiha; Jridi, Mourad; Bayoudh, Ahmed; Barkia, Ahmed; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the characterization of a crude protease extract from thornback ray (Raja clavata) and its evaluation in liquid detergent and in deproteinizattion of shrimp waste. At least five clear caseinolytic proteases bands were observed in a zymogram. The crude protease showed optimum activity at pH 8.0 and 50 °C, and it was highly stable over pH range from 8.0 to 11.0. Proteolytic enzymes were very stable in non-ionic surfactants and in the presence of oxidizing agents, maintaining 70% of their activity after incubation for 1 h at 30 °C in the presence of 1% sodium perborate. In addition, they showed high stability and compatibility with various liquid laundry-detergents available in the Tunisian market. The crude extract retained 100% of its activity after preincubation for 60 min at 30 °C in the presence of Nadhif Perfect, Textil and Carrefour laundry detergents. Further, proteases from R. clavata viscera were used for shrimp waste deproteinization in the process of chitin preparation. The percent of protein removal after 3 h hydrolysis at 45 °C with an enzyme/substrate ratio of 30 U/mg of proteins was 74%. These results suggest that enzymatic deproteinization of shrimp wastes by fish endogenous alkaline proteases could be applicable to the chitin production process. PMID:26208858

  17. Substrate specificity and thermostability of the dehairing alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Min-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Feng, Hong

    2009-11-01

    An alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus has shown great potential in hide dehairing. To get better insights on its catalytic properties for application, the substrate specificity and thermostability were investigated using five natural proteins and nine synthetic peptides. The results showed that DHAP could hydrolyze five proteins tested here in different specificity. Collagen, a component of animal skin, was more resistant to hydrolysis than casein, fibrin, and gelatin. Among the synthetic peptides, the enzyme showed activity mainly with tetrapeptide substrates with the catalytic efficiency in order of Phe>Leu>Ala at P1 site, although k(m) value for AAVA-pN is much lower than that for AAPL-pN and AAPF-pN. With tripeptide substrates, smaller side-chain group (Gly) at P1 site was not hydrolyzed by DHAP. The enzyme showed good thermostability below 60 degrees C, and lost activity so quickly above 70 degrees C. The thermostability was largely dependent on metal ion, especially Ca(2+), although other ions, like Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Co(2+), could sustain stability at certain extent within limited time. Cu(2+), Fe(2+), as well as Al(3+), did not support the enzyme to retain activity at 60 degrees C even in 5 min. In addition, the selected metal ions could coordinate calcium in improvement or destruction of thermostability for DHAP. PMID:19132554

  18. Kinetic and process studies on free and solid acid catalyzed hydrolysis of biomass substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Abasaeed, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was tested as a catalyst for cellulose hydrolysis. Eighty percent conversion of cellulose into glucose was obtained with concentrated TFA. The kinetics of TFA catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The reaction was found to follow first order kinetics for both hydrolysis and decomposition. The kinetic parameters were determined from experimental data covering conditions of 160-180 C, 10-30% acid, and 1:2 solid to liquid ratio. The hydrolysis reaction was found to be more sensitive to temperature than the decomposition reaction. Use of TFA was further investigated as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. A two-fold increase in sugar yields was obtained for TFA pretreated samples in comparison to untreated ones. The kinetics of hydrolysis of prehydrolyzed wood by sulfuric acid was investigated. The substrate was first treated with 0.75% acid at 184 C for 4 minutes to remove hemicellulose. The kinetic parameters were determined in the range of 198-215 C and 1-3% acid. A heterogeneous kinetic model was developed to study the effect of particle size on acid hydrolysis of cellulose. It was found that as the chip size increases, maximum glucose yield decreases and reaction time at which maximum yield occurs increases. Acidic zeolites (LZ-M-8) were investigated as catalysts for hydrolysis reaction of inulin into fructose. The hydrolysis reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Products containing 96 and 75% fructose were obtained upon hydrolysis respectively from inulin and extract.

  19. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  20. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.