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Sample records for alkaline thermal spring

  1. Biofilm exopolymers control microbialite formation at thermal springs discharging into the alkaline Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Gernot; Thiel, Volker; Reimer, Andreas; Michaelis, Walter; Reitner, Joachim

    1999-07-01

    Calcium carbonate precipitation and microbialite formation at highly supersaturated mixing zones of thermal spring waters and alkaline lake water have been investigated at Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Without precipitation, pure mixing should lead to a nearly 100-fold supersaturation at 40°C. Physicochemical precipitation is modified or even inhibited by the properties of biofilms, dependent on the extent of biofilm development and the current precipitation rate. Mucus substances (extracellular polymeric substances, EPS, e.g., of cyanobacteria) serve as effective Ca 2+-buffers, thus preventing seed crystal nucleation even in a highly supersaturated macroenvironment. Carbonate is then preferentially precipitated in mucus-free areas such as empty diatom tests or voids. After the buffer capacity of the EPS is surpassed, precipitation is observed at the margins of mucus areas. Hydrocarbon biomarkers extracted from (1) a calcifying Phormidium-biofilm, (2) the stromatolitic carbonate below, and (3) a fossil `tufa' of the Pleistocene pinnacles, indicate that the cyanobacterial primary producers have been subject to significant temporal changes in their species distribution. Accordingly, the species composition of cyanobacterial biofilms does not appear to be relevant for the formation of microbial carbonates in Pyramid Lake. The results demonstrate the crucial influence of mucus substances on carbonate precipitation in highly supersaturated natural environments.

  2. Formation of multilayered photosynthetic biofilms in an alkaline thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Boomer, Sarah M; Noll, Katherine L; Geesey, Gill G; Dutton, Bryan E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70 degrees C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats. PMID:19218404

  3. Formation of Multilayered Photosynthetic Biofilms in an Alkaline Thermal Spring in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming▿

    PubMed Central

    Boomer, Sarah M.; Noll, Katherine L.; Geesey, Gill G.; Dutton, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, glass rods suspended at the air-water interface in the runoff channel of Fairy Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, WY, were used as a substratum to promote the development of biofilms that resembled multilayered mat communities in the splash zone at the geyser's source. This approach enabled the establishment of the temporal relationship between the appearance of Cyanobacteria, which ultimately formed the outer green layer, and the development of a red underlayer containing Roseiflexus-like Chloroflexi. This is the first study to define time-dependent successional events involved in the development of differently colored layers within microbial mats associated with many thermal features in Yellowstone National Park. Initial (1-month) biofilms were localized below the air-water interface (60 to 70°C), and the majority of retrieved bacterial sequence types were similar to Synechococcus and Thermus isolates. Biofilms then shifted, becoming established at and above the air-water interface after 3 months. During winter sampling (6 to 8 months), distinct reddish orange microcolonies were observed, consistent with the appearance of Roseiflexus-like sequences and bacteriochlorophyll a pigment signatures. Additionally, populations of Cyanobacteria diversified to include both unicellular and filamentous cell and sequence types. Distinct green and red layers were observed at 13 months. Planctomycetes-like sequences were also retrieved in high abundance from final biofilm layers and winter samples. Finally, biomass associated with geyser vent water contained Roseiflexus-like sequence types, in addition to other high-abundance sequence types retrieved from biofilm samples, supporting the idea that geothermal water serves as an inoculum for these habitats. PMID:19218404

  4. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  5. Thermal springs in Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Shanks, W.C. III; Callender, E. )

    1992-06-01

    Pore waters extracted from sediment cores were analyzed for their oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions and major ion chemistry to determine the source of water from a vent area for diffuse lake-bottom thermal springs or seeps in Frolikha Bay, northeastern Lake Baikal. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of pore waters range from {minus}15.2{per thousand} to {minus}16.7{per thousand}, and {delta}D values range from {minus}119{per thousand} to {minus}126{per thousand} (both isotopes determined relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW)). Bottom water in Lake Baikal has a {delta}{sup 18}O value of {minus}5.6{per thousand} and a {delta}D values of {minus}120{per thousand}. Pore waters in the vent area are significantly enriched in Mg, K, Ca, and especially Na and have the lowest {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values; these pore waters are isotopically and chemically distinct from pore waters in other, more typical parts of the lake. The pore-water isotopic data fall on a local meteoric water line, and covariations in water isotopes and chemistry are not consistent with evaporation or hydrothermal water-rock interaction. The thermal springs represent discharging meteoric waters that have been gently heated during subsurface circulation and are largely unaltered isotopically. Chemical variations are most likely due to dissolution of subsurface evaporites.

  6. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J. M.; White, L. D.

    2003-02-01

    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210°C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10°C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters.

  8. Thermal springs in the Salmon River basin, central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, H.W.; Lewis, R.E.

    1982-02-01

    The Salmon River basin within the study area occupies an area of approximately 13,000 square miles in central Idaho. Geologic units in the basin are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks; however, granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith are predominant. Water from thermal springs ranges in temperature from 20.5/sup 0/ to 94.0/sup 0/ Celsius. The waters are slightly alkaline and are generally a sodium carbonate or bicarbonate type. Dissolved-solids concentrations are variable and range from 103 to 839 milligrams per liter. Estimated reservoir temperatures determined from the silicic acid-corrected silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 30/sup 0/ to 184/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium concentrations in sampled thermal waters are near zero and indicate the waters are at least 100 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely that a single hot-water reservoir supplies hot springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged at least 15,800 acre-feet of water in 1980. Associated convective heat flux is 2.7 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  9. Noble gas geochemistry in thermal springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.M.; Reynolds, J.H. ); Smith, S.P. )

    1988-07-01

    The composition of noble gases in both gas and water samples collected from Horseshoe Spring, Yellowstone National Park, was found to be depth dependent. The deeper the sample collection within the spring, the greater the enrichment in Kr, Xe, radiogenic {sup 4}He, and {sup 40}Ar and the greater the depletion in Ne relative to {sup 36}Ar. The compositional variations are consistent with multi-component mixing. The dominant component consists of dissolved atmospheric gases acquired by the pool at the surface in contact with air. This component is mixed in varying degree with two other components, one each for gas and water entering the bottom of the pool. The two bottom components are not in equilibrium. In Horseshoe Spring, the bubbles entering at the bottom strip the atmospheric-derived pool gases from the surrounding water while en route to the surface. If the original bottom bubbles are noble gas, as in the case of Horseshoe, the acquired pool gases can then quickly obliterate the original bubble composition. These results are used to demonstrate that Yellowstone spring surface gas samples, and perhaps similarity sampled thermal springs from other hydrothermal systems, have gas abundances that depend more on spring morphology than processes occurring deeper in the hydrothermal system.

  10. The Characteristic and Classification of Thermal Spring in Ramsar area, North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedsoltan, Farnaz; Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Gafari, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm. There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area. The study makes use of the Department Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University and GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information. The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC - 65oC and SiO2 geothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 86 o C - 96 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur. In addition, there are 30 Thermal springs located in Ramsar area and that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg. There

  11. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring's outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59-0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring's pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  12. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-04-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs.

  13. Microbial communities and arsenic biogeochemistry at the outflow of an alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Yanhong; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Jiang, Dawei; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs provide a unique environment for microbial community and arsenic (As) biogeochemistry. In this study, a representative alkaline sulfide-rich hot spring, Zimeiquan in the Tengchong geothermal area, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.26 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 5-paired parallel water and sediment samples along the hot spring’s outflow channel. High ratios of As(V)/AsSum (total combined arsenate and arsenite concentrations) (0.59–0.78), coupled with high sulfide (up to 5.87 mg/L), were present in the hot spring’s pools, which suggested As(III) oxidation occurred. Along the outflow channel, AsSum increased from 5.45 to 13.86 μmol/L, and the combined sulfide and sulfate concentrations increased from 292.02 to 364.28 μmol/L. These increases were primarily attributed to thioarsenic transformation. Temperature, sulfide, As and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial communities between not only the pools and downstream samples, but also water and sediment samples. Results implied that the upstream Thermocrinis was responsible for the transformation of thioarsenic to As(III) and the downstream Thermus contributed to derived As(III) oxidation. This study improves our understanding of microbially-mediated As transformation in alkaline sulfide-rich hot springs. PMID:27126380

  14. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  15. Submarine thermal springs on the Galapagos Rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corliss, J.B.; Dymond, J.; Gordon, L.I.; Edmond, J.M.; Von Herzen, R. P.; Ballard, Richard D.; Green, K.; Williams, D.; Bainbridge, A.; Crane, K.; Van Andel, T. H.

    1979-01-01

    The submarine hydrothermal activity on and near the Galápagos Rift has been explored with the aid of the deep submersible Alvin. Analyses of water samples from hydrothermal vents reveal that hydrothermal activity provides significant or dominant sources and sinks for several components of seawater; studies of conductive and convective heat transfer suggest that two-thirds of the heat lost from new oceanic lithosphere at the Galápagos Rift in the first million years may be vented from thermal springs, predominantly along the axial ridge within the rift valley. The vent areas are populated by animal communities. They appear to utilize chemosynthesis by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to derive their entire energy supply from reactions between the seawater and the rocks at high temperatures, rather than photosynthesis

  16. Microbial Biosignatures in High Iron Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parenteau, M. N.; Embaye, T.; Jahnke, L. L.; Cady, S. L.

    2003-12-01

    The emerging anoxic source waters at Chocolate Pots hot springs in Yellowstone National Park contain 2.6 to 11.2 mg/L Fe(II) and are 51-54° C and pH 5.5-6.0. These waters flow down the accumulating iron deposits and over three major phototrophic mat communities: Synechococcus/Chloroflexus at 51-54° C, Pseudanabaena at 51-54° C, and a narrow Oscillatoria at 36-45° C. We are assessing the contribution of the phototrophs to biosignature formation in this high iron system. These biosignatures can be used to assess the biological contribution to ancient iron deposits on Earth (e.g. Precambrian Banded Iron Formations) and, potentially, to those found on Mars. Most studies to date have focused on chemotrophic iron-oxidizing communities; however, recent research has demonstrated that phototrophs have a significant physiological impact on these iron thermal springs (Pierson et al. 1999, Pierson and Parenteau 2000, and Trouwborst et al., 2003). We completed a survey of the microfossils, biominerals, biofabrics, and lipid biomarkers in the phototrophic mats and stromatolitic iron deposits using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat was heavily encrusted with iron silicates while the narrow Oscillatoria mat was encrusted primarily with iron oxides. Encrustation of the cells increased with depth in the mats. Amorphous 2-line ferrihydrite is the primary precipitate in the spring and the only iron oxide mineral associated with the mats. Goethite, hematite, and siderite were detected in dry sediment samples on the face of the main iron deposit. Analysis of polar lipid fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) generated a suite of lipid biomarkers. The Synechococcus/Chloroflexus mat contained two mono-unsaturated isomers of n-C18:1 with smaller amounts of polyunsaturated n-C18:2, characteristic of cyanobacteria

  17. An alkaline spring system within the Del Puerto ophiolite (California USA): A Mars analog site

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, J.G.; Green, S.; Blake, D.; Valley, J.; Kita, N.; Treiman, A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2008-10-01

    Mars appears to have experienced little compositional differentiation of primitive lithosphere, and thus much of the surface of Mars is covered by mafic lavas. On Earth, mafic and ultramafic rocks present in ophiolites, oceanic crust and upper mantle that have been obducted onto land, are therefore good analogs for Mars. The characteristic mineralogy, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities of cold-water alkaline springs associated with these mafic and ultramafic rocks represent a particularly compelling analog for potential life-bearing systems. Serpentinization, the reaction of water with mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene, yields fluids with unusual chemistry (Mg-OH and Ca-OH waters with pH values up to {approx}12), as well as heat and hydrogen gas that can sustain subsurface, chemosynthetic ecosystems. The recent observation of seeps from pole-facing crater and canyon walls in the higher Martian latitudes supports the hypothesis that even present conditions might allow for a rockhosted chemosynthetic biosphere in near-surface regions of the Martian crust. The generation of methane within a zone of active serpentinization, through either abiogenic or biogenic processes, could account for the presence of methane detected in the Martian atmosphere. For all of these reasons, studies of terrestrial alkaline springs associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks are particularly timely. This study focuses on the alkaline Adobe Springs, emanating from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the California Coast Range, where a community of novel bacteria is associated with the precipitation of Mg-Ca carbonate cements. The carbonates may serve as a biosignature that could be used in the search for evidence of life on Mars.

  18. Thermal springs of Malaysia and their potentialdevelopment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahim Samsudin, Abdul; Hamzah, Umar; Rahman, Rakmi Ab.; Siwar, Chamhuri; Fauzi Mohd. Jani, Mohd; Othman, Redzuan

    The study on the potential development of hot springs for the tourism industry in Malaysiawas conducted. Out of the 40 hot springs covered, the study identified 9 hot springs having a high potential for development, 14 having medium potential and the remaining 17 having low or least potential for development. This conclusion was arrived at after considering the technical and economic feasibility of the various hot springs. Technical feasibility criteria includes geological factors, water quality, temperature and flow rate. The economic feasibility criteria considers measures such as accessibility, current and market potentials in terms of visitors, surrounding attractions and existing inventory and facilities available. A geological input indicates that high potential hot springs are located close to or within the granite body and associated with major permeable fault zones. They normally occur at low elevation adjacent to topographic highs. High potential hot springs are also characterised by high water temperature, substantial flowrate and very good water quality which is important for water-body contact activities such as soaking. Economic criteria for high potential hot springs are associated with good accessibility, good market, good surrounding attractions like rural and village setting and well developed facilities and infrastructures.

  19. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E.; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R.; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L.; Summons, Roger E.

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75–88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and “Bison Pool,” using various 13C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest 13C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. 13C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10–30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. 13C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at “Bison Pool” and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of 13C-formate occurred only at very low rates at “Bison Pool” and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. 13C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with 13C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained

  20. Stable isotope labeling confirms mixotrophic nature of streamer biofilm communities at alkaline hot springs.

    PubMed

    Schubotz, Florence; Hays, Lindsay E; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Gillespie, Aimee; Shock, Everett L; Summons, Roger E

    2015-01-01

    Streamer biofilm communities (SBC) are often observed within chemosynthetic zones of Yellowstone hot spring outflow channels, where temperatures exceed those conducive to photosynthesis. Nearest the hydrothermal source (75-88°C) SBC comprise thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria, often mixed communities including Desulfurococcales and uncultured Crenarchaeota, as well as Aquificae and Thermus, each carrying diagnostic membrane lipid biomarkers. We tested the hypothesis that SBC can alternate their metabolism between autotrophy and heterotrophy depending on substrate availability. Feeding experiments were performed at two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park: Octopus Spring and "Bison Pool," using various (13)C-labeled substrates (bicarbonate, formate, acetate, and glucose) to determine the relative uptake of these different carbon sources. Highest (13)C uptake, at both sites, was from acetate into almost all bacterial fatty acids, particularly into methyl-branched C15, C17 and C19 fatty acids that are diagnostic for Thermus/Meiothermus, and some Firmicutes as well as into universally common C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. (13)C-glucose showed a similar, but a 10-30 times lower uptake across most fatty acids. (13)C-bicarbonate uptake, signifying the presence of autotrophic communities was only significant at "Bison Pool" and was observed predominantly in non-specific saturated C16, C18, C20, and C22 fatty acids. Incorporation of (13)C-formate occurred only at very low rates at "Bison Pool" and was almost undetectable at Octopus Spring, suggesting that formate is not an important carbon source for SBC. (13)C-uptake into archaeal lipids occurred predominantly with (13)C-acetate, suggesting also that archaeal communities at both springs have primarily heterotrophic carbon assimilation pathways. We hypothesize that these communities are energy-limited and predominantly nurtured by input of exogenous organic material, with only a small fraction being sustained by

  1. Cantilever springs maintain tension in thermally expanded wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terselic, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    Two deflected cantilever springs strung with wire provide force displacement compensation to maintain tension in the wires as they undergo thermal expansion. This method of maintaining tension in thermally expanded wires is used in electric space heaters and residential heat exchangers.

  2. [DNA degradation during standard alkaline of thermal denaturation].

    PubMed

    Drozhdeniuk, A P; Sulimova, G E; Vaniushin, B F

    1976-01-01

    Essential degradation 8 DNA (up to 10 per cent) with liberation of acid-soluble fragments takes place on the standard alkaline (0,01 M sodium phosphate, pH 12, 60 degrees, 15 min) or thermal (0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8, 102 degrees C, 15 min) denaturation. This degradation is more or less selective: fraction of low molecular weight fragments, isolated by hydroxyapatite cromatography and eluted by 0.06 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8 is rich in adenine and thymine and contains about 2 times less 5-methylcytosine than the total wheat germ DNA. The degree of degradation of DNA on thermal denaturation is higher than on alkaline degradation. Therefore while studying reassociation of various DNA, one and the same standard method of DNA denaturation should be used. Besides, both the level of DNA degradation and the nature of the resulting products (fragments) should be taken into account. PMID:999984

  3. Thioarsenate transformation by filamentous microbial mats thriving in an alkaline, sulfidic hot spring.

    PubMed

    Härtig, Cornelia; Cornelia, Härtig; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Britta, Planer-Friedrich

    2012-04-17

    Thioarsenates dominate arsenic speciation in sulfidic geothermal waters, yet little is known about their fate in the environment. At Conch Spring, an alkaline hot spring in Yellowstone National Park, trithioarsenate transforms to arsenate under increasingly oxidizing conditions along the drainage channel, accompanied by an initial increase, then decrease of monothioarsenate and arsenite. On-site incubation tests were conducted using sterile-filtered water with and without addition of filamentous microbial mats from the drainage channel to distinguish the role of abiotic and biotic processes for arsenic species transformation. Abiotically, trithioarsenate was desulfidized to arsenate coupled to sulfide oxidation. Monothioarsenate, however, was inert. Biotic incubations proved that the intermediate accumulation of arsenite in the drainage channel is microbially catalyzed. In the presence of sulfide, microbially enhanced sulfide oxidation coupled to reduction of arsenate to arsenite could simply enhance abiotic desulfidation of trithioarsenate and potentially also monothioarsenate. However, we were also able to show, in sulfide-free medium, direct microbial transformation of monothioarsenate to arsenate. Some arsenite formed intermediately, which was subsequently also microbially oxidized to arsenate. This study is the first evidence for microbially mediated thioarsenate species transformation by (hyper)thermophilic prokaryotes. PMID:22380721

  4. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal springs and mineral springs of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Water from thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute NaHC03, to moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl waters. St. Martin 's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline NaCl water, is the notable exception. Mineral springs generally discharge a moderately saline C02-charged NaHC03-Cl water. The dilute Na-HC03 waters are generally associated with granite. The warm to hot waters charged with C02 issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes and many of the mineral springs also occur near the large volcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen isotopic compositions which indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The C02-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. Carbon-13 in the C02-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 permil) than in the cold C02-charged soda springs (-2 to -8 permil) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold C02-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaC03, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaC03. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur , and Ohanapecosh seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100C. (USGS)

  5. Thermal springs in the Payette River basin, west-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-10-01

    The Payette River basin, characterized by steep, rugged mountains and narrow river valleys, occupies an area of about 3300 square miles in west-central Idaho. Predominant rock types in the basin include granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith and basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Waters from thermal springs in the basin, temperatures of which range from 34/sup 0/ to 86/sup 0/ Celsius, are sodium bicarbonate type and are slightly alkaline. Dissolved-solids concentrations range from 173 to 470 milligrams per liter. Reservoir temperatures determined from the sodium-potassium-calcium, silicic acid-corrected silica, and sulfate-water isotope geothermometers range from 53/sup 0/ to 143/sup 0/ Celsius. Tritium, present in concentrations between 0 and 2 tritium units, indicate that sampled thermal waters are at least 100 years and possibly more than 1000 years old. Stable-isotope data indicate it is unlikely any of the nonthermal waters sampled are representative of precipitation that recharges the thermal springs in the basin. Thermal springs discharged about 5700 acre-feet of water in 1979. Associated convective heat flux is 1.1 x 10/sup 7/ calories per second.

  6. Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov., a novel alkaline-protease-producing bacterium isolated from a hot spring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tien-Lai; Chou, Yi-Ju; Chen, Wen-Ming; Arun, Bhagwath; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2006-02-01

    The bacterial strain designated I1-1(T) was isolated from a hot spring located in the Pingtung area, southern Taiwan. Cells of this organism were Gram reaction negative rods, motile by a single polar flagellum. Optimum conditions for growth were 55 degrees C and pH 7. Strain I1-1(T) grew well in lower nutrient media such as 5-10% Luria-Bertani broth, and its extracellular products expressed alkaline protease activity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicates that strain I1-1(T) is a member of beta-Proteobacteria. On the basis of a phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, DNA-DNA similarity data, whole-cell protein analysis, physiological and biochemical characteristics, as well as fatty acid compositions, the organism belonged to the genus Tepidimonas and represented a novel species within this genus. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain I1-1(T) were 16:0 (about 41%), 18:1 omega7c (about 13%), and summed feature 3 [16:1 omega7c or 15:0 iso 2OH or both (about 26%)]. Its DNA base ratio was 68.1 mol%. We propose to classify strain I1-1(T) (=BCRC 17406(T)=LMG 22826(T)) as Tepidimonas taiwanensis sp. nov. PMID:16215773

  7. Composition, structure and properties of sediment thermal springs of Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanina, Violetta; Smolyakov, Pavel; Parfenov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the physical and mechanical properties sediment thermal fields Mutnovsky, Lower Koshelevo and Bannyh (Kamchatka). This multi-component soils, mineral and chemical composition of which depends on the formation factors (pH, temperature, salinity of water, composition and structure of the host volcanic rocks). Samples Lower Koshelevo sediment thermal sources differ in the following composition: smectite, kaolinite, kaolinite-smectite mixed-mineral. Samples of sediment thermal springs Mutnovsky volcano in accordance with the X-ray analysis has the following composition: volcanic glass, crystalline sulfur, plagioclase, smectite, illite-smectite mixed, illite, chlorite, quartz, cristobalite, pyrite, melanterite, kaolinite. Natural moisture content samples of sediment thermal springs from 45 to 121%, hygroscopic moisture content of 1.3 to 3.7%. A large amount of native sulfur (up to 92%) and the presence of amorphous material gives low values of density of solid particles (up to 2.1 g/cm3) samples Mutnovskii thermal field. The values of the density of solids sediment Koshelevo and Bannyh hot springs close to those of the main components of mineral densities (up to 2.6-3.0 g/cm3). The results of the particle size distribution and microaggregate analysis of sediment thermal springs Lower Koshelevo field shows that the predominance observed of particles with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm, the coefficient of soil heterogeneity heterogeneous. In the bottom sediments of the thermal springs of the volcano Mutnovsky poorly traced predominance of one faction. Most prevalent fraction with particle size 0.01 - 0.05 mm. When analyzing the content in the soil microaggregates their content is shifted towards particles with a diameter of 0.25 mm. The contents of a large number of large (1-10 mm), porous rock fragments, due to the deposition of pyroclastic material from the eruptions of the last century. Present in large amounts rounded crystals of native sulfur

  8. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients.

    PubMed

    Cady, S L; Farmer, J D

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization. PMID:9243015

  9. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  10. Why and How Life is Driven into Being at Ancient Submarine Alkaline Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The disequilibria between volcanic CO2 plus NO dissolved in acidulous oceans, as against the H2 plus CH4 exhaling through hot alkaline springs on the ocean floors of young wet rocky worlds, cannot be relaxed, much less put to useful biological work, through mere geochemical reactions. Instead their dissipation must be coupled to the production of essential thermodynamically 'up-hill' products. A metabolic pathway, involving disequilibria converting nano-engines, is the only way to achieve such tasks as fixing the otherwise intractable CO2. Indeed, hydrogenating CO2 is life's contribution to entropy generation in the Universe. Long-lived alkaline springs could have supplied the low entropy nourishment in the form of H2 as electrons and CH4 as a carbon source, while the CO2, nitrate, photolytic Fe3+ and Mn4+ in the earliest ocean could have accepted the waste electrons, i.e., the 'breathing' [1]. But what of life's first boundaries? These could be generated spontaneously at the vent, where natural precipitates of iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides would have acted as precipitate membranes, separating the reduced alkaline hydrothermal fluid from the acidulous carbonic ocean, thus imposing steep redox and protonic (ambient pmf) gradients with the potential to drive otherwise endergonic reactions such as the reduction of CO2 to formate or CO, and the oxidation of CH4 to methyl and formyl entities. In turn, the CO and the methyl group reacted to form acetate. Acetate was then hydrogenated and carbonated to pyruvate. However, these endergonic reactions could not progress by catalysis or mass action chemistry as often assumed. They would have required natural processors acting as nanoengines to couple the endergonic driven processes to appropriate exergonic driving reactions. This is what the nano-engines do in life. These mechanochemical 'engines' are protein complexes that are each precisely tuned to the specific driving and driven disequilibria pairs being converted. They

  11. Why and How Life is Driven into Being at Ancient Submarine Alkaline Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The disequilibria between volcanic CO2 plus NO dissolved in acidulous oceans, as against the H2 plus CH4 exhaling through hot alkaline springs on the ocean floors of young wet rocky worlds, cannot be relaxed, much less put to useful biological work, through mere geochemical reactions. Instead their dissipation must be coupled to the production of essential thermodynamically 'up-hill' products. A metabolic pathway, involving disequilibria converting nano-engines, is the only way to achieve such tasks as fixing the otherwise intractable CO2. Indeed, hydrogenating CO2 is life's contribution to entropy generation in the Universe. Long-lived alkaline springs could have supplied the low entropy nourishment in the form of H2 as electrons and CH4 as a carbon source, while the CO2, nitrate, photolytic Fe3+ and Mn4+ in the earliest ocean could have accepted the waste electrons, i.e., the 'breathing' [1]. But what of life's first boundaries? These could be generated spontaneously at the vent, where natural precipitates of iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides would have acted as precipitate membranes, separating the reduced alkaline hydrothermal fluid from the acidulous carbonic ocean, thus imposing steep redox and protonic (ambient pmf) gradients with the potential to drive otherwise endergonic reactions such as the reduction of CO2 to formate or CO, and the oxidation of CH4 to methyl and formyl entities. In turn, the CO and the methyl group reacted to form acetate. Acetate was then hydrogenated and carbonated to pyruvate. However, these endergonic reactions could not progress by catalysis or mass action chemistry as often assumed. They would have required natural processors acting as nanoengines to couple the endergonic driven processes to appropriate exergonic driving reactions. This is what the nano-engines do in life. These mechanochemical 'engines' are protein complexes that are each precisely tuned to the specific driving and driven disequilibria pairs being converted. They

  12. Classification of Thermal Patterns at Karst Springs and Cave Streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luhmann, A.J.; Covington, M.D.; Peters, Albert J.; Alexander, S.C.; Anger, C.T.; Green, J.A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Alexander, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal patterns of karst springs and cave streams provide potentially useful information concerning aquifer geometry and recharge. Temperature monitoring at 25 springs and cave streams in southeastern Minnesota has shown four distinct thermal patterns. These patterns can be divided into two types: those produced by flow paths with ineffective heat exchange, such as conduits, and those produced by flow paths with effective heat exchange, such as small fractures and pore space. Thermally ineffective patterns result when water flows through the aquifer before it can equilibrate to the rock temperature. Thermally ineffective patterns can be either event-scale, as produced by rainfall or snowmelt events, or seasonal scale, as produced by input from a perennial surface stream. Thermally effective patterns result when water equilibrates to rock temperature, and the patterns displayed depend on whether the aquifer temperature is changing over time. Shallow aquifers with seasonally varying temperatures display a phase-shifted seasonal signal, whereas deeper aquifers with constant temperatures display a stable temperature pattern. An individual aquifer may display more than one of these patterns. Since karst aquifers typically contain both thermally effective and ineffective routes, we argue that the thermal response is strongly influenced by recharge mode. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Biomarkers in Carbonate Thermal Springs: Implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Kivett, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Evidence of possible relict biogenic activity has been reported in carbonate inclusions within martian meteorite ALH 84001. The initial evidence included ovoid and elongated forms 50 - 500 nanometers in length, morphologically similar to but significantly smaller than many terrestrial microbes. More recently, thin structures resembling the remains of organic biofilms have been reported in the same meteorite. Carbonates have also been discussed in the context of Mars sample return missions. Thermal spring deposits have often been cited as prime locations for exobiological exploration. By analogy to Earth, specialized microbes may have existed in the heated, mineralized waters, and precipitates of carbonate and/or silica from these waters may have trapped and preserved evidence of life. Since the geological interactions that produce thermal springs can be recognized in orbital imagery, directed searches for microfossils in such deposits are deemed possible. We are engaged in a study of the signatures produced by contemporary biogenic activity (biomarkers) in carbonate thermal springs. We are examining the microbes that live in such environments and the preservation of microbial forms, biofilms, and petrographic fabrics indicative of life in thermal spring mineral deposits. This work is part of a much more extensive study to refine the appropriate tools, techniques, and approaches to seek evidence of life in a range of planetary samples. A deeper understanding of biological signatures will prepare us for the detailed search for life on Mars and eventually on other planets. Overall. the study of biomarkers in rocks and soils will provide insight into the evolution of life because such signatures are a record of how life interacts with its environment, how it adapts to changing conditions, and how life can influence geology and climate.

  14. [Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria from microbial communities of Goryachinsk Thermal Spring (Baikal Area, Russia)].

    PubMed

    Kalashnikov, A M; Gaĭsin, V A; Sukhacheva, M V; Namsaraeva, B B; Panteleeva, A N; Nuianzina-Boldareva, E N; Kuznetsov, B B; Gorlenko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Species composition of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats of the Goryachinsk thermal spring was investigated along the temperature gradient. The spring belonging to nitrogenous alkaline hydrotherms is located at the shore of Lake Baikal 188 km north-east from Ulan-Ude. The water is of the sulfate-sodium type, contains trace amounts of sulfide, salinity does not exceed 0.64 g/L, pH 9.5. The temperature at the outlet of the spring may reach 54 degrees C. The cultures of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, nonsulfur and sulfur purple bacteria, and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria were identified using the pufLM molecular marker. The fmoA marker was used for identification of green sulfur bacteria. Filamentous cyanobacteria predominated in the mats, with anoxygenic phototrophs comprising a minor component of the phototrophic communities. Thermophilic bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus were detected irn the samples from both the thermophilic and mesophilic mats. Cultures ofnonsulfur purple bacteria similar to Blastochloris sulfoviridis and Rhodomicrobium vannielii were isolatd from the mats developing at high (50.6-49.4 degrees C) and low temperatures (45-20 degrees C). Purple sulfur bacteria Allochromatium sp. and Thiocapsa sp., as well as green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium sp., were revealedin low-temperature mats. Truly thermophilic purple and gree sulfur bacteria were not found in the spring. Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria found in the spring were typical of the sulfuret communities, for which the sulfur cycle is mandatory. The presence of aerobic bacteriochlorophylla-containing bacteria identified as Agrobacterium (Rhizobium) tumifaciens in the mesophilic (20 degrees C) mat is of interest. PMID:25844460

  15. Thermal waters as cosmeceuticals: La Roche-Posay thermal spring water example

    PubMed Central

    Seite, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The curative use of thermal spring water is well known, but further investigation of its biological properties and therapeutic benefits is necessary. This present article reports all available scientific data concerning La Roche-Posay Thermal Spring Water and provides a better understanding of the biological mechanism of action of this water in regard to its composition and physicochemical properties and its clinical benefits for patients. These data justify the use of this selenium-rich water as an active or “cosmeceutical” ingredient in topical formulations to increase quality of life and compliance in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23345985

  16. Evidence for high-temperature in situ nifH transcription in an alkaline hot spring of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Loiacono, Sara T; Meyer-Dombard, D'Arcy R; Havig, Jeff R; Poret-Peterson, Amisha T; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Shock, Everett L

    2012-05-01

    Genes encoding nitrogenase (nifH) were amplified from sediment and photosynthetic mat samples collected in the outflow channel of Mound Spring, an alkaline thermal feature in Yellowstone National Park. Results indicate the genetic capacity for nitrogen fixation over the entire range of temperatures sampled (57.2°C to 80.2°C). Amplification of environmental nifH transcripts revealed in situ expression of nifH genes at temperatures up to 72.7°C. However, we were unable to amplify transcripts of nifH at the higher-temperature locations (> 72.7°C). These results indicate that microbes at the highest temperature sites contain the genetic capacity to fix nitrogen, yet either do not express nifH or do so only transiently. Field measurements of nitrate and ammonium show fixed nitrogen limitation as temperature decreases along the outflow channel, suggesting nifH expression in response to the downstream decrease in bioavailable nitrogen. Nitrogen stable isotope values of Mound Spring sediment communities further support geochemical and genetic data. DNA and cDNA nifH amplicons form several unique phylogenetic clades, some of which appear to represent novel nifH sequences in both photosynthetic and chemosynthetic microbial communities. This is the first report of in situ nifH expression in strictly chemosynthetic zones of terrestrial (non-marine) hydrothermal systems, and sets a new upper temperature limit (72.7°C) for nitrogen fixation in alkaline, terrestrial hydrothermal environments. PMID:22404902

  17. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  18. Archaeal and bacterial communities in three alkaline hot springs in Heart Lake Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Bowen De León, Kara; Gerlach, Robin; Peyton, Brent M; Fields, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    The Heart Lake Geyser Basin (HLGB) is remotely located at the base of Mount Sheridan in southern Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA and is situated along Witch Creek and the northwestern shore of Heart Lake. Likely because of its location, little is known about the microbial community structure of springs in the HLGB. Bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored via small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene pyrosequencing over 3 years in 3 alkaline (pH 8.5) hot springs with varying temperatures (44°C, 63°C, 75°C). The bacterial populations were generally stable over time, but varied by temperature. The dominant bacterial community changed from moderately thermophilic and photosynthetic members (Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi) at 44°C to a mixed photosynthetic and thermophilic community (Deinococcus-Thermus) at 63°C and a non-photosynthetic thermophilic community at 75°C. The archaeal community was more variable across time and was predominantly a methanogenic community in the 44 and 63°C springs and a thermophilic community in the 75°C spring. The 75°C spring demonstrated large shifts in the archaeal populations and was predominantly Candidatus Nitrosocaldus, an ammonia-oxidizing crenarchaeote, in the 2007 sample, and almost exclusively Thermofilum or Candidatus Caldiarchaeum in the 2009 sample, depending on SSU rRNA gene region examined. The majority of sequences were dissimilar (≥10% different) to any known organisms suggesting that HLGB possesses numerous new phylogenetic groups that warrant cultivation efforts. PMID:24282404

  19. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  20. Measurement of thermal contact conductance of SPring-8 beamline components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Tetsuro; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Sano, Mutsumi; Takahashi, Sunao; Goto, Shunji

    2007-09-01

    Direct cooling is adopted for most high heat load components in SPring-8 beamlines. On the other hand, contact cooling is employed for some components such as a graphite filter, aluminum filter, mirror, and cryogenic monochromator silicon crystal. For the thermal design of the contact cooling components, it is important to obtain reliable thermal contact conductance value. The conductance depends on many parameters such as the surface materials, surface roughness, flatness of the surface, interstitial materials, temperature of the contact surface, and contact pressure. An experimental setup is fablicated to measure the conductance at liquid nitrogen temperature and room temperature. The thermal contact conductance of a Si-Cu interface and that of a Si-In-Cu interface are measured at cryogenic temperature at contact pressures ranging from 0.1-1.1 MPa. The conductance of an Al-Cu interface and that of a graphite-Cu interface are measured using gold and silver foils as interstitial materials. The measurements are performed at room temperature and at pressures ranging from 0.5-4 MPa. The experimental setup and the results obtained are presented.

  1. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  2. Chemical and isotopic data for water from thermal springs and wells of Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Swanson, J.R.; Orris, G.J.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal springs of Oregon range in composition from dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged NaCl-NaHCO/sub 3/ waters. Most of the thermal springs are located in southeastern or southcentral Oregon, with a few in northeastern Oregon and near the contact of the Western Cascades with the High Cascades. Thermal springs in the central and northern parts of the Cascades generally issue moderately saline NaCl waters. Farther south in the Cascades, the thermal waters are high in CO/sub 2/ as well as chloride. Most thermal springs in northeastern Oregon issue dilute NaHCO/sub 3/ waters of high pH (>8.5). These waters are similar to the thermal waters which issue from the Idaho batholith, farther east. Most of the remaining thermal waters are Na mixed-anion waters. Based on the chemical geothermometers, Mickey Srpings, Hot Borax Lake, Alvord Hot Springs, Neal Hot Springs, Vale Hot Springs, Crump Well, Hunters (Lakeview) Hot Springs, and perhaps some of the springs in the Cascades are associated with the highest temperature systems (>150/sup 0/C).

  3. Geologic framework of thermal springs, Black Canyon, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L. Sue; Anderson, Zachary W.; Felger, Tracey J.; Seixas, Gustav B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal springs in Black Canyon of the Colorado River, downstream of Hoover Dam, are important recreational, ecological, and scenic features of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. This report presents the results from a U.S. Geological Survey study of the geologic framework of the springs. The study was conducted in cooperation with the National Park Service and funded by both the National Park Service and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The report has two parts: A, a 1:48,000-scale geologic map created from existing geologic maps and augmented by new geologic mapping and geochronology; and B, an interpretive report that presents results based on a collection of fault kinematic data near springs within Black Canyon and construction of 1:100,000-scale geologic cross sections that extend across the western Lake Mead region. Exposures in Black Canyon are mostly of Miocene volcanic rocks, underlain by crystalline basement composed of Miocene plutonic rocks or Proterozoic metamorphic rocks. The rocks are variably tilted and highly faulted. Faults strike northwest to northeast and include normal and strike-slip faults. Spring discharge occurs along faults intruded by dacite dikes and plugs; weeping walls and seeps extend away from the faults in highly fractured rock or relatively porous volcanic breccias, or both. Results of kinematic analysis of fault data collected along tributaries to the Colorado River indicate two episodes of deformation, consistent with earlier studies. The earlier episode formed during east-northeast-directed extension, and the later during east-southeast-directed extension. At the northern end of the study area, pre-existing fault blocks that formed during the first episode were rotated counterclockwise along the left-lateral Lake Mead Fault System. The resulting fault pattern forms a complex arrangement that provides both barriers and pathways for groundwater movement within and around Black

  4. Magnetotelluric models of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.; Ward, S.H.; Hohmann, G.W.; Sill, W.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs (RHS) thermal area, which includes a hotwater-dominated fracture zone prospect, near the eastern margin of the Basin-Range tectonic province, conceivably possesses a whole family of resistivity structures that includes the following: deep hot brine reservoirs, deep-seated partially molten heat sources in the crust or upper mantle that drive the convective system, near-surface hydrothermal alteration zones, wet sedimentary fill in valleys, and a regional, apparently one-dimensional resistivity profile of the crust and upper mantle. This complex resistivity makeup, particular to RHS but probably similar to that at other geothermal areas in the Great Basin, must be treated as being fully three-dimensional (3-D). In an attempt to understand these structures, broadband (10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -2/ Hz) tensor magnetotelluric (MT) data were obtained including apparent resistivities (rho/sub a/), impedance phases (phi) and vertical magnetic field transfer functions for 93 sites in the vicinity of this resource area.

  5. Bar-coded pyrosequencing reveals shared bacterial community properties along the temperature gradients of two alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott R; Strong, Aaron L; Jones, Kenneth L; Ungerer, Mark C

    2009-07-01

    An understanding of how communities are organized is a fundamental goal of ecology but one which has historically been elusive for microbial systems. We used a bar-coded pyrosequencing approach targeting the V3 region of the bacterial small-subunit rRNA gene to address the factors that structure communities along the thermal gradients of two alkaline hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park. The filtered data set included a total of nearly 34,000 sequences from 39 environmental samples. Each was assigned to one of 391 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified by their unique V3 sequence signatures. Although the two hot springs differed in their OTU compositions, community resemblance and diversity changed with strikingly similar dynamics along the two outflow channels. Two lines of evidence suggest that these community properties are controlled primarily by environmental temperature. First, community resemblance decayed exponentially with increasing differences in temperature between samples but was only weakly correlated with physical distance. Second, diversity decreased with increasing temperature at the same rate along both gradients but was uncorrelated with other measured environmental variables. This study also provides novel insights into the nature of the ecological interactions among important taxa in these communities. A strong negative association was observed between cyanobacteria and the Chloroflexi, which together accounted for approximately 70% of the sequences sampled. This pattern contradicts the longstanding hypothesis that coadapted lineages of these bacteria maintain tightly cooccurring distributions along these gradients as a result of a producer-consumer relationship. We propose that they instead compete for some limiting resource(s). PMID:19429553

  6. Chemistry of thermal and nonthermal springs in the vicinity of Lassen Volcanic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Meaningful applications of water geothermometry to thermal springs in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP) are limited to Growler Hot Spring and Morgan Hot Springs. Most hot springs located within LVNP are low-chloride, acid-sulfate waters associated with nearby steam vents. This type of hot-spring activity is characteristically found above vapor-dominated hydrothermal systems. These acid-sulfate waters are not generally useful for liquid chemical geothermometry, however, because their chemical compositions result from water-rock interaction at relatively shallow depths. Thermal waters at Drakesbad and in Little Hot Springs Valley have neutral-pH, low-Cl concentrations and have estimated Na-K-Ca and Na-Li geothermometer temperatures close to measured spring temperatures of 65 to 95??C. Hot-spring waters located south of LVNP at Growler Hot Spring, Morgan Hot Springs, and in the south-central part of LVNP in the Walker "O" No. 1 well at Terminal Geyser are rich in chloride and yield calculated geothermometer temperatures between 220 and 230??C. These thermal waters probably originate within a zone of upflow of high-enthalpy fluid inside LVNP and cool conductively during lateral flow to the south and southeast. ?? 1985.

  7. Effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the biochemical methane potential and kinetics of the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia; Toquero, Cristina; Martín-Juárez, Judit; Travaini, Rodolfo; García-Encina, Pedro Antonio

    2016-02-01

    The effect of thermal, acid, alkaline and alkaline-peroxide pretreatments on the methane produced by the anaerobic digestion of wheat straw (WS) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied, using whole slurry and solid fraction. All the pretreatments released formic and acetic acids and phenolic compounds, while 5-hydroxymetilfurfural (HMF) and furfural were generated only by acid pretreatment. A remarkable inhibition was found in most of the whole slurry experiments, except in thermal pretreatment which improved methane production compared to the raw materials (29% for WS and 11% for SCB). The alkaline pretreatment increased biodegradability (around 30%) and methane production rate of the solid fraction of both pretreated substrates. Methane production results were fitted using first order or modified Gompertz equations, or a novel model combining both equations. The model parameters provided information about substrate availability, controlling step and inhibitory effect of compounds generated by each pretreatment. PMID:26642223

  8. Treatment of kidney diseases in the thermal springs of Pithecusa during the XVIII Century.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Elisabetta; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Ricciardi, Biagio

    2016-02-01

    The island of Pithecusa (Ischia) is a volcanic island in the Tyrrhenian Sea in the north end of the Gulf of Naples at about 30 kilometers from the same city. Pithecusa is very popular for its hot springs which even the ancients used. This report aims to analyze the renal therapeutic benefits of the Pithacusa thermal mineral spring through a review of two different manuscripts: i) "Di Napoli il seno cratero"(The gulf of Naples) of Domenico Antonio Parrino (1642-1708) and ii) "De' rimedi naturali che sono nell'isola di Pithecusa oggi detta Ischia"(On the natural cures of the island of Pithecusa known today as Ischia)of Giulio Iasolino (1583-1622). These two manuscripts published during the 18th century and both manuscripts highlight the thermal virtues of the thermal springs of Pithecusa. In the past natural remedies were important in the treatment of different diseases including that of thermal springs dating back to ancient Rome. Thermal springs were used to treat spasms, skin diseases, hair loss and various renal ailments. Both manuscripts describe the thermal springs in Ischia and their therapeutic benefits in medical diseases. PMID:26913894

  9. Helium and Carbon isotopes of thermal springs hosted by deep faults in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, X.; Wang, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Helium and carbon isotopes were important indicators to identify the origin of volatile dissolved in groundwater. Four thermal springs were sampled and discussed by helium and carbon isotopes for they were hosted by local deep faults and had significant connection to deep geothermal activity in Guangdong, China. 4He content of four thermal springs varied greatly from 3.72×10-8 to 199.54×10-8 cm3STP/mL, and 20Ne content varied greatly from 0.21×10-8 to 2.96×10-8 cm3STP/mL. While 3He/4He varied slightly from 0.36 to 0.57Ra (atmosphere 3He/4He ratio Ra=1.4×10-6). It indicated that the mixing of a lot of noble gases from other sources besides atmosphere not only changed the content of noble gases in groundwater, but also changed the isotopic compositions of noble gases, during the runoff process of groundwater. Because 22Ne was almost derived from atmosphere, an improved method of 4He/22Ne - 3He/4He was used to identify the origin of helium. 4% to 6% mantle He in thermal springs revealed that significant mantle He migrating in deep faults can bring a certain amount of energy along with thermal volatile and contribute to thermal spring formation. The δ13C value of four thermal springs was -3.79‰ to -2.17‰. Then dissolved inorganic carbon in thermal springs was speculated from rock metamorphism, it indicated geothermal activity. The four thermal springs were illustrated in the zone of crustal CO2 of rock inorganic chemistry, near to that of crust-mantle mixing CO2. It seemed that negligible or a small amount of volcanic mantle CO2 mixed with crustal CO2, and dissolved in thermal groundwater. So, δ13C revealed that dissolved inorganic carbon in thermal springs was from rock metamorphism occurred in certain deep crust as geothermal activity, which maybe the main energy source of thermal springs. Fig. 1. AIR (ASW)-MORB-CRUST mixing model of He and Ne isotopes. Fig. 2. CO2 origin identified by the relationship of δ13C and 3He/ 4He.

  10. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from thermal and mineral springs of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1982-02-01

    Waters from the thermal springs of Washington range in chemical composition from dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ to moderately saline CO/sub 2/-charged Na-HCO/sub 3/-Cl type waters. St. Martin's Hot Spring which discharges a slightly saline Na-Cl water, is the notable exception. The dilute Na-HCO/sub 3/ waters are generally associated with granitic intrusions; the warm to hot CO/sub 2/-charged waters issue on or near the large stratovolcanoes. The dilute waters have oxygen-isotopic compositions that indicate relatively little water-rock exchange. The CO/sub 2/-charged waters are usually more enriched in oxygen-18 due to more extensive water-rock reaction. The carbon-13 in the CO/sub 2/-charged thermal waters is more depleted (-10 to -12 %) than in the cold CO/sub 2/-charged soda springs (-2 to -8%) which are also scattered throughout the Cascades. The hot and cold CO/sub 2/-charged waters are supersaturated with respect to CaCO/sub 3/, but only the hot springs are actively depositing CaCO/sub 3/. Baker, Gamma, Sulphur, and Ohanapecosh hot springs seem to be associated with thermal aquifers of more than 100/sup 0/C. As these springs occur as individual springs or in small clusters, the respective aquifers are probably of restricted size.

  11. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  12. Fossilization of Coniform (Phormidium) Stromatolites In Siliceous Thermal Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack; Bebout, Brad; Jahnke, Linda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We have studied fossilization processes in well-developed cyanobacterial mats present in mid-terrace ponds of silica-precipitating thermal springs of Yellowstone National Park. These mats occur over temperatures of approx.35-60 C and are dominated by species of Phormidium. Within Bonded systems two end member environments have been distinguished based temperature, depth, and the stability of spring inflows, each differing substantially in the style of stromatolite morphogenesis and fossilization. Type 1 systems include shallow, ephemeral ponds where water flow and temperature fluctuates widely on a seasonal basis; mats typically secrete rapidly up to the air-water interface, forming exposed islands. Silicification occurs primarily by the wicking of water onto the surface of exposed mats, leading to the evaporative concentration of silica near the surface. pH microelectronic measurements in partially-exposed columns show strong gradients in pH with values exceeding 10.5 in the upper am of silicifying mats, decreasing to <9.0 a few mm below the surface. High oxygen concentrations lead to the rapid oxidation of most organic materials. In Type I systems, the tops of coniform and columnar stromatolites become silicified first, followed by the bases. This typically leads to extensive fragmentation during the initial stages of burial. Case 2 systems include deeper ponds where the water flow, temperature and depth are seasonally more stable, and where mats develop larger-scale tufts and columns. Alkalinity in permanently submerged mats increases into tuft interiors from approx.9.0 near the surface to >10.0 at depth. Moderate silicification is apparent throughout mat frameworks, although there is frequently a densely silicified core near the base. In Type 2 systems, preservation of the coniform and columnar architecture of stromatoilites is much more robust. Sub-fossil examples suggest minimal fragmentation prior to burial. Comparative rapid analysis of the phone zones of

  13. Validating carbonation parameters of alkaline solid wastes via integrated thermal analyses: Principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chang, E-E; Kim, Hyunook; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2016-04-15

    Accelerated carbonation of alkaline solid wastes is an attractive method for CO2 capture and utilization. However, the evaluation criteria of CaCO3 content in solid wastes and the way to interpret thermal analysis profiles were found to be quite different among the literature. In this investigation, an integrated thermal analyses for determining carbonation parameters in basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS) were proposed based on thermogravimetric (TG), derivative thermogravimetric (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. A modified method of TG-DTG interpretation was proposed by considering the consecutive weight loss of sample with 200-900°C because the decomposition of various hydrated compounds caused variances in estimates by using conventional methods of TG interpretation. Different quantities of reference CaCO3 standards, carbonated BOFS samples and synthetic CaCO3/BOFS mixtures were prepared for evaluating the data quality of the modified TG-DTG interpretation, in terms of precision and accuracy. The quantitative results of the modified TG-DTG method were also validated by DSC analysis. In addition, to confirm the TG-DTG results, the evolved gas analysis was performed by mass spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for detection of the gaseous compounds released during heating. Furthermore, the decomposition kinetics and thermodynamics of CaCO3 in BOFS was evaluated using Arrhenius equation and Kissinger equation. The proposed integrated thermal analyses for determining CaCO3 content in alkaline wastes was precise and accurate, thereby enabling to effectively assess the CO2 capture capacity of alkaline wastes for mineral carbonation. PMID:26785217

  14. Microbial quality and physical-chemical characteristics of thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Sadeghi, Hadi; Bagheri, Pari; Poureshg, Yusef; Rostami, Roohollah

    2016-04-01

    Microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of recreational spas were surveyed to investigate the health aspect of the spas' water. A total of 195 samples were collected from pools and springs of the spas in five sites from Ardebil Province of Iran. The effects of an independent factor defined as 'condition' and its component sub-factors (i.e., sampling point, location, and sampling date) on microbial quality and physical-chemical properties of the spas were studied by applying path analysis. The influence of physical-chemical properties on microbial quality was also considered. The percentage of samples exceeding the ISIRI (Swimming pool water microbiological specifications (vol 9412), Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, Tehran, 2007) limits for Staphylococcus (spp.) was up to 55.8 in the springs and 87.8 in the pools, 58.1 and 99.2 for HPC, 90.7 and 97.8 for total coliform and fecal coliform, and 9.3 and 34.4 for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. There were significant differences between the pools and springs for both physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. From the path analysis, sampling point was the most effective sub-factor of 'condition' on both the physical-chemical properties and microbial quality. Among the physical-chemical properties, water color had the most enhancing or additive influence on microbial pollution, while EC indicated a reducing or subtractive effect. PMID:26072426

  15. Biogeographic patterns of desert springs in the Great Basin with an emphasis on regional aquifer thermal springs as refugia for vulnerable crenobiotic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Sada, D. W.; Norris, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The desert springs of the Great Basin Region in western North America provide ideal systems to study biogeographic and evolutionary patterns. In arid regions, springs are biodiversity hotspots because they often provide the sole source of water for the biota within and around them. In the Great Basin, springs provide critical habitat for diverse and extensive crenobiotic flora and fauna comprising over 125 endemic species. These aquatic environments represent island ecosystems surrounded by seas of desert, and researchers have compiled large databases of their biota and chemistry. Consequently, desert springs are excellent systems for biogeographic studies and multivariate statistical analyses of relationships between the chemical and physical characteristics of the springs and the biological communities that they support. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the relationships between the physicochemical characteristics of springs and their biota using multivariate statistical analyses to characterize 1325 springs, including regional aquifer springs, local aquifer cold springs and geothermal springs. The analyses reveal that regional aquifer thermal springs harbor disproportionate numbers of crenobiotic species including endemic gastropods, fishes, and aquatic insects. However, these regional aquifer springs also contain significantly more introduced species than cold and geothermal local aquifer springs. Springs are threatened by anthropogenic impacts including groundwater depletion and pollution, alteration of flow regimes, and the introduction of exotic species. In this study, one of the major factors that distinguished regional aquifer thermal springs from cold and geothermal local aquifer springs was the higher number of introduced species found in regional aquifer springs. This may be due to the influences of the same physicochemical characteristics that allow regional aquifer springs to serve as refugia for endemic species--species that are able to gain

  16. Terrestrial smokers: Thermal springs due to hydrothermal convection of groundwater connected to surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayani Cardenas, M.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.; Andrews, Benjamin J.; Rodolfo, Raymond S.; Cabria, Hillel B.; Zamora, Peter B.; Lapus, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal springs are ubiquitous features whose underground kinematic structure is mostly unknown but are typically thought to originate from deep sources. We documented a type of thermal springs at the banks of a volcanic lake that are discharge zones of hydrothermal convection cells circulating groundwater within the near shore environment. The convection captures lake water through the lakebed, mixes it with deeper groundwater at velocities of 100s of m d-1, then returns the water to the lake via the spring. The convection cell is flushed in a few hours and turns over the lake's volume in a few days. Most volcanic lakes and other relatively cool surface water bodies in areas of elevated geothermal heat fluxes meet the conditions for the occurrence of local hydrothermal circulation of groundwater. The type of spring we studied, the terrestrial version of black smokers, is likely present but perhaps unrecognized at many areas.

  17. Boiling Water at Hot Creek - The Dangerous and Dynamic Thermal Springs in California's Long Valley Caldera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Evans, William C.; Venezky, Dina Y.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Oliver, Lynn K.

    2007-01-01

    The beautiful blue pools and impressive boiling fountains along Hot Creek in east-central California have provided enjoyment to generations of visitors, but they have also been the cause of injury or death to some who disregarded warnings and fences. The springs and geysers in the stream bed and along its banks change location, temperature, and flow rates frequently and unpredictably. The hot springs and geysers of Hot Creek are visible signs of dynamic geologic processes in this volcanic region, where underground heat drives thermal spring activity.

  18. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring. PMID:27290724

  19. Hydrogeochemistry and Geothermometry of Ramsar Thermal and Mineral springs, North of Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Abedsotan, Farnaz; Vosoghi Abedini, Mansour; Khosro Thehrani, Khosro

    2010-05-01

    The Ramsar thermal springs are situated in northen mountainous of Alborze structural zone, this area have NW-SE trend and created by density of folding and faulting systems. The climate in this area is wet and hot in summer, and cold in winter. The annual precipitations are more than 976mm, mainly of precipitation in winter are snowy and cause established natural and permanent glacial at highlands. Several thermal and mineral springs are situated in the south and southeastern flank, Electrical Conductivity and PH of these springs range from 1050 to 21600 and from more than 5.5 to 6, respectively. The temperature of these springs has range from about 20 to 650c. Most of the thermal springs are of sodium -chloride type (piper diagram), Besides, they are mature and full equilibrium according to Gigeenbach triangular diagram (Na/1000-K/100-√Mg), The only exception is sample H5 (Safaroud spa) that is close to immaturity field, maturity of thermal springs water and low pressure of Co2 supported deep circulation for these water and because of long contact time equilibrium between crustal rocks and thermal waters. Positive correlation between Cl and Mg shows that mixing of surface water in the thermal system is insignificant. The So4-Cl-HCo3 triangular diagram confirms mature and deep origin. Thermal water of Ramsar in study area is supersaturated in respect to Quartz, Clay minerals, Barite, Alunite and Aragonite and under saturated in respect to chalcedony, carbonate, SiO2 (a) and gypsum phase. Saturation index is calculated using PHEERQCI software. XRD analyses reveal the Montmorilonite, illite, Alunite and quartz in Ramsar Spring sinters. The geothermometric studies results are reliable because some of the water samples are mature water and depended full equilibrium water- rock interaction zone. The reservoir temperatures of Ramsar Springs evaluated with equal Na-K and Na-K-Ca geothrmometer and have range between 90 to 280°c, and comparison with argillic alteration

  20. Gas composition and hydrochemistry of non-volcanic thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuh Terng, Lim; Tsanyao F, Yang; Hsuan-Wen, Chen; Yusoff, Ismail Bin

    2015-04-01

    Peninsular Malaysia is located on Sunda Plate which situated between two major boundaries of tectonic plates, Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate. Over sixty thermal springs have been reported in Peninsular Malaysia, a non-volcanic country, but their water and gas geochemistry characteristic have not been reported yet. The aim of this study is to identify the geochemical characteristics of water and gas samples from selected sixteen thermal springs. This is the first time to study the thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia in terms of dissolved gas. Due to the chemical inertness, the concentration and isotopic composition of dissolved gas can always become a good indicators of mantle degassing, geothermal circulation and the condition of water-rock interaction. Other parameters such as pH, temperature, electric conductivity, and water radon values will be also recorded. The surface temperature of studied thermal springs range from 40.1° C to 88.7° C, the pH values range from 6.6 to 9.1, and the conductivity varies between 200 μs/cm and 3700 μs/cm. Meanwhile, the water radon analysis which been carried out in the field by using RAD7 Radon Detector. The water radon values of selected thermal springs in Peninsular Malaysia vary from 111,866 Bq/cm3 to 200 Bq/cm3, indicating various radon sources which mainly controlled by the permeability and lithology of host rocks in studied areas. Analysed results show that the constituent of dissolved gas in thermal springs is major in nitrogen and minor in other compositions such as argon, carbon dioxides and oxygen. Isotopic composition of hydrogen (D/H) and oxygen (18O/16O) mostly fall along the MWL, indicating the meteoric water is the major fluid source for those hot springs. However, the helium isotopic ratios of most samples show consistently low value, less than 0.1 Ra (Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of the air). It implies that crust component is the major helium gas source for those hot springs.

  1. Alkaline thermal pretreatment at mild temperatures for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of antibiotic mycelial residue.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxing; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Zhikai; Ma, Dachao; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims at lowering the temperature for thermal pretreatment (TPT) of antibiotic mycelial residue (AMR) by alkali addition but without significantly worsening subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD) for biogas. Batch TPT and AD experiments were conducted in a bench-scale autoclave and several bench-scale anaerobic digesters, respectively. The results showed that the methane yield (<200 ml·(g VS)(-1)) was visibly lower with lowering pretreatment temperature, compared to that (290 ml·(g VS)(-1)) for TPT at the optimal temperature of 120°C, while it rebounded to 231 ml·(g VS)(-1) when proper amounts of alkali were employed (to adjust the pH of the AMR to 12) for TPT at 80°C. Further analysis indicated that low-temperature alkaline TPT was significantly less energy-consumption compared to only TPT, at cost of small amounts of alkali. It was more convenient and economical to implement AD of AMR in combination with alkaline TPT at mild temperatures for biogas. PMID:26921869

  2. CAES 2014 Chemical Analyses of Thermal Wells and Springs in Southeastern Idaho

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baum, Jeffrey

    2014-03-10

    This dataset contains chemical analyses for thermal wells and springs in Southeastern Idaho. Data includes all major cations, major anions, pH, collection temperature, and some trace metals, These samples were collected in 2014 by the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), and are part of a continuous effort to analyze the geothermal potential of Southeastern Idaho.

  3. Thermal stability in exchange-spring chains of spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicelli, Raffaele; Solzi, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    Thermal stability and switching behaviour have been compared in pure-hard and soft-hard Heisenberg linear spin chains of the same total length and equal magnetic parameters (except for magnetic anisotropy) with the anisotropy axis and external magnetic field parallel to the chain direction. The zero-temperature energy barriers and finite-temperature transition rates between remanent equilibrium states have been calculated by utilizing the string method and the forward flux sampling (FFS) method, respectively. Depending on the assumed interfaces, the FFS method could in fact fail to correctly sample the characteristic transition paths at interfaces at which these paths have probabilities much lower than those associated with other non-characteristic transition paths. This can especially occur in the case of the asymmetric energy landscapes and multiple asymmetric minimum energy paths (MEPs) of soft-hard systems. Therefore, a proper interface definition is needed in order to deduce the correct transition rates. In particular, we show that the thermal switching of soft-hard chains starting in the soft or in the hard part turns out to occur with an equal rate provided that the interfaces of the FFS method are defined on the basis of the corresponding zero-temperature MEPs. The thermal stability of a soft-hard chain in the remanent equilibrium state could be to some extent lower with respect to that of a pure-hard chain, due to the shorter hard-part length crossed by the domain wall formed in the chain and also to the related slightly smaller energy barrier. However, its switching field at zero temperature is verified to be widely lower than that of the pure-hard chain. Analytical expressions of switching fields and energy barriers have been deduced in various cases.

  4. Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits - Developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Paleobiological experience on earth is used here to develop a search strategy for fossil life on Mars. In particular, the exploration of thermal spring deposits is proposed as a way to maximize the chance of finding fossil life on Mars. As a basis for this suggestion, the characteristics of thermal springs are discussed in some detail.

  5. Geochemical signature of permanent and ephemeral thermal springs in Val di Cornia, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierotti, Lisa; Pennisi, Maddalena; Muti, Antonio; Gherardi, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    In the Val di Cornia area, several permanent thermal springs outflow. They belong to the hydrothermal system of Campiglia Marittima and have been exploited since longtime for the therapeutic properties of the discharged waters. With an average outflow of 250 L/sec, Calidario (36.3±0.2° C) is the most important permanent spring of the area. Periodically, i.e. about every 10 years, a number of ephemeral thermo-mineral springs in Bagnarello (46±0.2° C) and Monte Peloso (42.2±0.3° C) area, spontaneously reactivate over short time periods (several weeks to few months), with a maximum discharge of 150±20 L/sec. This phenomenon is generally induced by intensive rainfall events. In this contribution, we present new geochemical analyses of waters discharged from Calidario and the ephemeral springs reactivated at the beginning of 2001 and at the end of 2010. These new data are then compared to previous analyses to investigate geochemical variations over a 30-years period. Both ephemeral and permanent thermal springs have Ca-SO4 geochemical signature, typical of groundwaters circulating through the carbonate-evaporitic complexes of the Tuscan Nappe (Mesozoic age). Clear salinity trends are identified, with TDS increasing from Calidario to Monte Peloso and Bagnarello springs, up to a maximum of about 3000 ppm. Chemical speciation indicates that most of the thermal waters are close to saturation with respect to fluorite and gypsum/anhydrite, with solute geothermometers indicating possible equilibrium temperature of 50-55° C for Monte Peloso and Bagnarello waters, respectively. Higher temperatures, up to 75° C, were inferred by assuming equilibrium at depth with the aluminosilicates of the regional Basement (phyllitic formations of Paleozoic age), below the evaporites of the Tuscan Nappe (Triassic age). With δ18O and δ2H values of -6.4 (±0.2)o and -38.9 (±2.9)o respectively, the ephemeral springs have a steady stable isotope composition, comparable to permanent

  6. Thermal poling of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glasses with intrinsically high dielectric breakdown strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nicholas J.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2012-04-01

    Per the rectification model of thermal poling, it has been proposed that intrinsic breakdown strength plays a strong limiting role in the internal DC fields supported by the glass from the poling process. One might therefore hypothesize proportionately larger second-order nonlinearity (SON) in glasses with intrinsically high dielectric breakdown strength. We test these ideas by thermal poling of two different commercial alkali-free alkaline-earth boroaluminosilicate display glasses—one with barium only (AF45 from Schott), and the other with a mixture of alkaline-earth ions (OA-10 G from NEG). Not only are such compositions relevant from a commercial standpoint, they are also interesting in that they have been recently shown to exhibit remarkably high intrinsic dielectric breakdown strengths of 11-14 MV/cm. Quantitative Maker fringe and stack Maker-fringe measurements provide an accurate evaluation of the poling-induced SON susceptibilities, and indicate maximum χ(2) values of 0.44 and 0.26 pm/V in these glasses. These values are comparable to those reported for silica and other multicomponent glasses. Thus, the hypothesis that higher χ(2) would be observed in high intrinsic breakdown strength glasses was not validated. Based on our application of the rectification model, internal fields of the order 2-4 MV/cm were calculated, which are well below the measured intrinsic breakdown strengths at room temperature. The most plausible explanation for these observations is nonlinear electronic conduction effects taking place within the depletion region at the poling temperature, limiting internal fields to a fraction of the breakdown field.

  7. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, William C.; Pringle, M.K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 L s−1. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 Ls−1, which corresponds to about 8.2×104 kJ s−1 of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and technically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m. y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral waters. Only three chloride anomalies not associated with known thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  8. Thermal-contact-conductance measurement for high-heat-load optics components at SPring-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Senba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.

    2011-09-01

    Thermal contact in water-cooling or cryogenic cooling-cooling condition is used for forming a high-heat-load component at the synchrotron radiation beamline. In SPring-8, for example, cryogenic cooling is used for silicon monochromator crystal with an indium insertion metal at the interface between a copper block and a silicon crystal. To reduce the strain on the silicon crystal with a low contact pressure and a high thermal conductivity, we require a silicon-indium-copper system and an alternative insertion material such as a graphite foil. To measure the thermal contact conductance in a quick measurement cycle under various thermal-contact conditions, we improve the thermal-contact-conductance measurement system in terms of the setup facilitation, precise temperature measurement, and thermal insulation around a sample.

  9. Discharge rates of fluid and heat by thermal springs of the Cascade Range, Washington, Oregon, and northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.; Pringle, M.K.W. )

    1990-11-10

    Fluid and heat discharge rates of thermal springs of the Cascade Range have been determined using the chloride inventory method. Discharge rates of thermal spring groups range from 1 to 120 l/s. Most of the fluid (50%) and heat (61%) are discharged from two hot spring groups in northern Oregon. Total discharge from thermal springs in the Cascade Range of California, Oregon, and Washington is about 340 l/s, which corresponds to about 8.2 {times} 10{sup 4} kJ/s of heat. This does not include hot springs developed on the flanks of Mount St. Helens after the 1980 eruption. The Cascade Range consists of geologically and tectonically distinct segments; rates of convective heat discharge by the thermal springs in these segments correlate with volcanic rock extrusion rates for the last 2 m.y. In Oregon and Washington, many streams without known thermal or mineral springs in their drainage basins also were sampled for chloride and sodium to detect chemical anomalies that might be associated with previously unknown thermal or mineral springs were identified in the streams of the Cascade Range.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, YuLong; Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF2 and BaF2. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 {per_thousand}nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF2, BaF2, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs+ relative to Na+, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of electron thermalization in alkali iodide and alkaline-earth fluoride scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhiguo; Gao Fei; Kerisit, Sebastien; Xie Yulong; Campbell, Luke W.

    2012-07-01

    A Monte Carlo model of electron thermalization in inorganic scintillators, which was developed and applied to CsI in a previous publication [Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 064903 (2011)], is extended to another material of the alkali halide class, NaI, and to two materials from the alkaline-earth halide class, CaF{sub 2} and BaF{sub 2}. This model includes electron scattering with both longitudinal optical (LO) and acoustic phonons as well as the effects of internal electric fields. For the four pure materials, a significant fraction of the electrons recombine with self-trapped holes and the thermalization distance distributions of the electrons that do not recombine peak between approximately 25 and 50 nm and extend up to a few hundreds of nanometers. The thermalization time distributions of CaF{sub 2}, BaF{sub 2}, NaI, and CsI extend to approximately 0.5, 1, 2, and 7 ps, respectively. The simulations show that the LO phonon energy is a key factor that affects the electron thermalization process. Indeed, the higher the LO phonon energy is, the shorter the thermalization time and distance are. The thermalization time and distance distributions show no dependence on the incident {gamma}-ray energy. The four materials also show different extents of electron-hole pair recombination due mostly to differences in their electron mean free paths (MFPs), LO phonon energies, initial densities of electron-hole pairs, and static dielectric constants. The effect of thallium doping is also investigated for CsI and NaI as these materials are often doped with activators. Comparison between CsI and NaI shows that both the larger size of Cs{sup +} relative to Na{sup +}, i.e., the greater atomic density of NaI, and the longer electron mean free path in NaI compared to CsI contribute to an increased probability for electron trapping at Tl sites in NaI versus CsI.

  12. Light stable isotope study of the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Southwestern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrs D.T.; Bowman, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The isotopic composition of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon has been determined for regional cold springs, thermal fluids, and rocks and minerals from the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area. The geothermal system has developed within plutonic granitic rocks and amphibolite facies gneiss, relying upon fracture-controlled permeability for the migration of the thermal fluids. Probably originating as meteoric waters in the upper elevations of the Mineral Mountains, the thermal waters sampled in the production wells display an oxygen isotopic shift of at least +1.2. Depletions of delta /sup 18/O in wole rock, K-feldspar, and biotite have a positive correlation with alteration intensity. W/R mass ratios, calculated from the isotopic shifts of rock and water, range up to 3.0 in a producing horizon of one well, although the K-feldspar has experienced only 30% exchange with the thermal waters. While veinlet quartz has equilibrated with the thermal waters, the /sup 18/O values of K-mica clay, an alteration product of plagioclase, mimic the isotopic composition of K-feldspar and whole rock. This suggests that locally small W/R ratios enable plagioclase to influence its alteration products by isotopic exchange.

  13. Effects of abiotic factors on the phylogenetic diversity of bacterial communities in acidic thermal springs.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jayanti; Bizzoco, Richard W; Ellis, Dean G; Lipson, David A; Poole, Alexander W; Levine, Richard; Kelley, Scott T

    2007-04-01

    Acidic thermal springs offer ideal environments for studying processes underlying extremophile microbial diversity. We used a carefully designed comparative analysis of acidic thermal springs in Yellowstone National Park to determine how abiotic factors (chemistry and temperature) shape acidophile microbial communities. Small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were PCR amplified, cloned, and sequenced, by using evolutionarily conserved bacterium-specific primers, directly from environmental DNA extracted from Amphitheater Springs and Roaring Mountain sediment samples. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and colorimetric assays were used to analyze sediment chemistry, while an optical emission spectrometer was used to evaluate water chemistry and electronic probes were used to measure the pH, temperature, and E(h) of the spring waters. Phylogenetic-statistical analyses found exceptionally strong correlations between bacterial community composition and sediment mineral chemistry, followed by weaker but significant correlations with temperature gradients. For example, sulfur-rich sediment samples contained a high diversity of uncultured organisms related to Hydrogenobaculum spp., while iron-rich sediments were dominated by uncultured organisms related to a diverse array of gram-positive iron oxidizers. A detailed analysis of redox chemistry indicated that the available energy sources and electron acceptors were sufficient to support the metabolic potential of Hydrogenobaculum spp. and iron oxidizers, respectively. Principal-component analysis found that two factors explained 95% of the genetic diversity, with most of the variance attributable to mineral chemistry and a smaller fraction attributable to temperature. PMID:17220248

  14. Molecular analysis of the benthos microbial community in Zavarzin thermal spring (Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Geothermal areas are of great interest for the study of microbial communities. The results of such investigations can be used in a variety of fields (ecology, microbiology, medicine) to answer fundamental questions, as well as those with practical benefits. Uzon caldera is located in the Uzon-Geyser depression that is situated in the centre of the Karym-Semyachin region of the East Kamchatka graben-synclinorium. The microbial communities of Zavarzin spring are well studied; however, its benthic microbial mat has not been previously described. Results Pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to study the benthic microbial community of the Zavarzin thermal spring (Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka). The community is dominated by bacteria (>95% of all sequences), including thermophilic, chemoorganotrophic Caldiserica (33.0%) and Dictyoglomi (24.8%). The benthic community and the previously examined planktonic community of Zavarzin spring have qualitatively similar, but quantitatively different, compositions. Conclusions In this study, we performed a metagenomic analysis of the benthic microbial mat of Zavarzin spring. We compared this benthic community to microbial communities found in the water and of an integral probe consisting of water and bottom sediments. Various phylogenetic groups of microorganisms, including potentially new ones, represent the full-fledged trophic system of Zavarzin. A thorough geochemical study of the spring was performed. PMID:25563397

  15. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Steele, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples.

  16. Microbial community composition and endolith colonization at an Arctic thermal spring are driven by calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Starke, Verena; Kirshtein, Julie; Fogel, Marilyn L; Steele, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Environmental conditions shape community composition. Arctic thermal springs provide an opportunity to study how environmental gradients can impose strong selective pressures on microbial communities and provide a continuum of niche opportunities. We use microscopic and molecular methods to conduct a survey of microbial community composition at Troll Springs on Svalbard, Norway, in the high Arctic. Microorganisms there exist under a wide range of environmental conditions: in warm water as periphyton, in moist granular materials, and in cold, dry rock as endoliths. Troll Springs has two distinct ecosystems, aquatic and terrestrial, together in close proximity, with different underlying environmental factors shaping each microbial community. Periphyton are entrapped during precipitation of calcium carbonate from the spring's waters, providing microbial populations that serve as precursors for the development of endolithic communities. This process differs from most endolith colonization, in which the rock predates the communities that colonize it. Community composition is modulated as environmental conditions change within the springs. At Troll, the aquatic environments show a small number of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that are specific to each sample. The terrestrial environments show a more even distribution of OTUs common to multiple samples. PMID:24115614

  17. Microbial Diversity and Biochemical Potential Encoded by Thermal Spring Metagenomes Derived from the Kamchatka Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wemheuer, Bernd; Taube, Robert; Akyol, Pinar; Wemheuer, Franziska; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Volcanic regions contain a variety of environments suitable for extremophiles. This study was focused on assessing and exploiting the prokaryotic diversity of two microbial communities derived from different Kamchatkian thermal springs by metagenomic approaches. Samples were taken from a thermoacidophilic spring near the Mutnovsky Volcano and from a thermophilic spring in the Uzon Caldera. Environmental DNA for metagenomic analysis was isolated from collected sediment samples by direct cell lysis. The prokaryotic community composition was examined by analysis of archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. A total number of 1235 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained and used for taxonomic classification. Most abundant in the samples were members of Thaumarchaeota, Thermotogae, and Proteobacteria. The Mutnovsky hot spring was dominated by the Terrestrial Hot Spring Group, Kosmotoga, and Acidithiobacillus. The Uzon Caldera was dominated by uncultured members of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group and Enterobacteriaceae. The remaining 16S rRNA gene sequences belonged to the Aquificae, Dictyoglomi, Euryarchaeota, Korarchaeota, Thermodesulfobacteria, Firmicutes, and some potential new phyla. In addition, the recovered DNA was used for generation of metagenomic libraries, which were subsequently mined for genes encoding lipolytic and proteolytic enzymes. Three novel genes conferring lipolytic and one gene conferring proteolytic activity were identified. PMID:23533327

  18. Chlorine isotopes of thermal springs in arc volcanoes for tracing shallow magmatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Bonifacie, Magali; Aubaud, Cyril; Crispi, Olivier; Dessert, Céline; Agrinier, Pierre

    2015-03-01

    The evaluation of the status of shallow magma body (i.e., from the final intrusion stage, to quiescence, and back to activity), one of the key parameters that trigger and sustain volcanic eruptions, has been challenging in modern volcanology. Among volatile tracers, chlorine (Cl) uniquely exsolves at shallow depths and is highly hydrophilic. Consequently, Cl enrichment in volcanic gases and thermal springs has been proposed as a sign for shallow magmatic activities. However, such enrichment could also result from numerous other processes (e.g., water evaporation, dissolution of old chloride mineral deposits, seawater contamination) that are unrelated to magmatic activity. Here, based on stable isotope compositions of chloride and dissolved inorganic carbon, as well as previous published 3He/4He data obtained in thermal springs from two recently erupted volcanoes (La Soufrière in Guadeloupe and Montagne Pelée in Martinique) in the Lesser Antilles Arc, we show that the magmatic Cl efficiently trapped in thermal springs displays negative δ37Cl values (≤ - 0.65 ‰), consistent with a slab-derived origin but distinct from the isotope compositions of chloride in surface reservoirs (e.g. seawater, local meteoric waters, rivers and cold springs) displaying common δ37Cl values of around 0‰. Using this δ37Cl difference as an index of magmatic Cl, we further examined thermal spring samples including a 30-year archive from two thermal springs in Guadeloupe covering samples from its last eruption in 1976-1977 to 2008 and an island-wide sampling event in Martinique in 2008 to trace the evolution of magmatic Cl in the volcanic hydrothermal systems over time. The results show that magmatic Cl can be rapidly flushed out of the hydrothermal systems within <30 to 80 years after the eruption, much quicker than other volatile tracers such as CO2 and noble gases, which can exsolve at greater depths and constantly migrate to the surface. Because arc volcanoes often have well

  19. Alaska Open-File Report 127 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites in Southern Southeastern Alaska - Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, Roman J.; Moorman, Mary A.; Reeder, John W.

    1980-06-01

    Information has been gathered on 13 reported thermal-spring sites, 12 in southern Southeastern Alaska and one in western British Columbia. Five of the reported sites could not be substantiated by DGGS. The eight known thermal spring sites are associated with grainitic terrain and, except for Baker Island Hot Springs, occur within or near intensively fractured Cretaceous-age pluons of the Coast Range Batholith. Thermal-spring surface temperatures range from 21 C (Twin Lakes) to 91.5 C (Bailey Bay). The greatest discharge occurs at Chief Shakes hot springs (450 1pm). Bell Island Hot Springs, which has about a 100-1 pm discharge and a 70 C temperature, has had the most development. Two previously unreported thermal-spring sites, Barnes Lake warm springs and Bradfield hot springs, have a low rate of discharge and respective surface temperatures of about 25 and 54 C. The known thermal springs probably originate from circulation of meteoric waters through deep-seated fracture and fault systems. The chemical constituents of the alkali-sulfate to alkali-chloride thermal waters are probably derived from interaction of the deeply circulating meteoric waters with the granitic wall rocks. Chemical geothermometry suggests subsurface temperatures of 55 to 151 C. If waters are being heated solely by conduction from wall rocks, circulation depths must be about 1.5 to 5 km, assuming geothermal gradients of 30 to 50 C/km. Variations in temperature, discharge, and chemistry were noted at several thermal springs for which previous records are available. A major decrease in silica and potassium concentrations at Chief Shakes hot springs is suggested by comparing recent analyses of water chemistry to Waring's (1917) original analysis. The rate of discharge at Bell Island Hot Springs may have increased by a factor of two since Waring's visit to the springs. Subsurface reservoirs associated with thermal springs in southern Southeastern Alaska are of low temperature and are probably

  20. Complex Morphological Variability in Complex Evaporitic Systems: Thermal Spring Snails from the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Carol M.; Roopnarine, Peter D.

    2003-11-01

    Thermal springs in evaporitic environments provide a unique biological laboratory in which to study natural selection and evolutionary diversification. These isolated systems may be an analogue for conditions in early Earth or Mars history. One modern example of such a system can be found in the Chihuahuan Desert of north-central Mexico. The Cuatro Cienegas basin hosts a series of thermal springs that form a complex of aquatic ecosystems under a range of environmental conditions. Using landmark-based morphometric techniques, we have quantified an unusually high level of morphological variability in the endemic gastropod Mexipyrgus from Cuatro Cienegas. The differentiation is seen both within and between hydrological systems. Our results suggest that this type of environmental system is capable of producing and maintaining a high level of morphological diversity on small spatial scales, and thus should be a target for future astrobiological research.

  1. Complex morphological variability in complex evaporitic systems: thermal spring snails from the Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tang, Carol M; Roopnarine, Peter D

    2003-01-01

    Thermal springs in evaporitic environments provide a unique biological laboratory in which to study natural selection and evolutionary diversification. These isolated systems may be an analogue for conditions in early Earth or Mars history. One modern example of such a system can be found in the Chihuahuan Desert of north-central Mexico. The Cuatro Cienegas basin hosts a series of thermal springs that form a complex of aquatic ecosystems under a range of environmental conditions. Using landmark-based morphometric techniques, we have quantified an unusually high level of morphological variability in the endemic gastropod Mexipyrgus from Cuatro Cienegas. The differentiation is seen both within and between hydrological systems. Our results suggest that this type of environmental system is capable of producing and maintaining a high level of morphological diversity on small spatial scales, and thus should be a target for future astrobiological research. PMID:14678668

  2. Aquatic insects in Montezuma Well, Arizona, USA: A travertine spring mound with high alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Blinn, D.W.; Sanderson, M.W. )

    1989-01-31

    An annotated list of aquatic insects from the high carbonate system of Montezuma Well, Arizona, USA, is presented for collections taken during 1976-1986. Fifty-seven taxa in 16 families are reported, including new distribution records for Arizona (Anacaena signaticollis, Laccobius ellipticus, and Crenitulus sp. (nr. debilis)) and the USA (Enochrus sharpi). Larval stages for Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Chironomidae, and Anisoptera were absent even though the habitat lacks fish, and water temperature, dissolved oxygen, available food, and substrata appear adequate in Montezuma Well. The potential importance of alkalinity in restricting these insect groups is discussed.

  3. Novel, Deep-Branching Heterotrophic Bacterial Populations Recovered from Thermal Spring Metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Jay, Zackary J; Inskeep, William P; Jennings, Ryan deM; Maas, Kendra R; Rusch, Douglas B; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2016-01-01

    Thermal spring ecosystems are a valuable resource for the discovery of novel hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea, and harbor deeply-branching lineages that provide insight regarding the nature of early microbial life. We characterized bacterial populations in two circumneutral (pH ~8) Yellowstone National Park thermal (T ~80°C) spring filamentous "streamer" communities using random metagenomic DNA sequence to investigate the metabolic potential of these novel populations. Four de novo assemblies representing three abundant, deeply-branching bacterial phylotypes were recovered. Analysis of conserved phylogenetic marker genes indicated that two of the phylotypes represent separate groups of an uncharacterized phylum (for which we propose the candidate phylum name "Pyropristinus"). The third new phylotype falls within the proposed Calescamantes phylum. Metabolic reconstructions of the "Pyropristinus" and Calescamantes populations showed that these organisms appear to be chemoorganoheterotrophs and have the genomic potential for aerobic respiration and oxidative phosphorylation via archaeal-like V-type, and bacterial F-type ATPases, respectively. A survey of similar phylotypes (>97% nt identity) within 16S rRNA gene datasets suggest that the newly described organisms are restricted to terrestrial thermal springs ranging from 70 to 90°C and pH values of ~7-9. The characterization of these lineages is important for understanding the diversity of deeply-branching bacterial phyla, and their functional role in high-temperature circumneutral "streamer" communities. PMID:27014227

  4. Novel, Deep-Branching Heterotrophic Bacterial Populations Recovered from Thermal Spring Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Daniel R.; Jay, Zackary J.; Inskeep, William P.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Maas, Kendra R.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal spring ecosystems are a valuable resource for the discovery of novel hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea, and harbor deeply-branching lineages that provide insight regarding the nature of early microbial life. We characterized bacterial populations in two circumneutral (pH ~8) Yellowstone National Park thermal (T ~80°C) spring filamentous “streamer” communities using random metagenomic DNA sequence to investigate the metabolic potential of these novel populations. Four de novo assemblies representing three abundant, deeply-branching bacterial phylotypes were recovered. Analysis of conserved phylogenetic marker genes indicated that two of the phylotypes represent separate groups of an uncharacterized phylum (for which we propose the candidate phylum name “Pyropristinus”). The third new phylotype falls within the proposed Calescamantes phylum. Metabolic reconstructions of the “Pyropristinus” and Calescamantes populations showed that these organisms appear to be chemoorganoheterotrophs and have the genomic potential for aerobic respiration and oxidative phosphorylation via archaeal-like V-type, and bacterial F-type ATPases, respectively. A survey of similar phylotypes (>97% nt identity) within 16S rRNA gene datasets suggest that the newly described organisms are restricted to terrestrial thermal springs ranging from 70 to 90°C and pH values of ~7–9. The characterization of these lineages is important for understanding the diversity of deeply-branching bacterial phyla, and their functional role in high-temperature circumneutral “streamer” communities. PMID:27014227

  5. Relationships of anion-exchange sorption of boron from natural thermal-spring water

    SciTech Connect

    Meichik, N.R.; Leikin, Yu.A.; Antipov, M.A.; Goryacheva, N.V.; Klimenko, I.S.; Medvedev, S.A.; Galitskaya, N.B.

    1988-02-20

    Boric acid is one of the characteristic components of Kamchatka waters. Extraction of boron from thermal waters for production of potable water is closely linked with current problems of multiproduct utilization of resources and protection of the environment. The authors have investigated the possibilities of using ion exchange for extraction of boron from natural waters, and studied the sorption relationships by a dynamic method. They synthesized a macroporous anion-exchanger based on a copolymer of styrene with divinylbenzene, containing N-methylglucamine groups (ANB-11 resin). ANB-11 resin had high sorption capacity for boron anions during sorption from thermal-spring water. The experimental data were described by Elkins equation.

  6. Numerical modeling of the spring thermal bar and pollutant transport in a large lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.; Kay, Anthony; Starchenko, Alexander V.

    2016-08-01

    The spring riverine thermal bar phenomenon is investigated numerically on an example of Lake Baikal, and the spread of pollutants coming from the Selenga River is forecast using the 2.5 D non-hydrostatic model in the Boussinesq approximation. This hydrodynamic model takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes on the lake surface and the effects of wind and the Earth's rotation. The results of numerical modeling show that the variability of the total heat flux over 24 h plays a significant role in the variation of the thermal bar movement rate that contributes to the rapid mixing of impurities entering with river water.

  7. Biochemical comparison between radon effects and thermal effects on humans in radon hot spring therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Mitsunobu, Fumihiro; Hanamoto, Katsumi; Shibuya, Koichi; Mori, Shuji; Tanizaki, Yoshiro; Sugita, Katsuhiko

    2004-03-01

    The radioactive and thermal effects of radon hot spring were biochemically compared under a sauna room or hot spring conditions with a similar chemical component, using the parameters that are closely involved in the clinic for radon therapy. The results showed that the radon and thermal therapy enhanced the antioxidation functions, such as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which inhibit lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol produced in the body. Moreover the therapy enhanced concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mitogen response and increased the percentage of CD4 positive cells, which is the marker of helper T cells, and decreased the percentage of CD8 positive cells, which is the common marker of killer T cells and suppressor T cells, in the white blood cell differentiation antigen (CD8/CD4) assay. Furthermore, the therapy increased the levels of alpha atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha ANP), beta endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), insulin and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), and it decreased the vasopression level. The results were on the whole larger in the radon group than in the thermal group. The findings suggest that radon therapy contributes more to the prevention of life-style-related diseases related to peroxidation reactions and immune suppression than to thermal therapy. Moreover, these indicate what may be a part of the mechanism for the alleviation of hypertension, osteoarthritis (pain), and diabetes mellitus brought about more by radon therapy than by thermal therapy. PMID:15133294

  8. Geology and Thermal History of Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, Keith E.

    1978-01-01

    Mammoth Hot Springs, located about 8 km inside the north entrance to Yellowstone National Park, consists of nearly 100 hot springs scattered over a score of steplike travertine terraces. The travertine deposits range in age from late Pleistocene to the present. Sporadic records of hot-spring activity suggest that most of the current major springs have been intermittently active since at least 1871. Water moving along the Norris-Mammoth fault zone is heated by partly molten magma and enriched in calcium and bicarbonate. Upon reaching Mammoth this thermal water (temperature about 73?C) moves up through the old terrace deposits along preexisting vertical linear planes of weakness. As the water reaches the surface, pressure is released, carbon dioxide escapes as a gas, and bicarbonate in the water is partitioned into more carbon dioxide and carbonate; the carbonate then combines with calcium to precipitate calcium carbonate, forming travertine. The travertine usually precipitates rapidly from solution and is lightweight and porous; however, dense travertine, such as is found in core from the 113-m research drill hole Y-10 located on one of the upper terraces, forms beneath the surface by deposition in the pore spaces of older deposits. The terraces abound with unusual hot-spring deposits such as terracettes, cones, and fissure ridges. Semicircular ledges (ranging in width from about 0.3 m to as much as 2.5 m), called terracettes, formed by deposition of travertine around slowly rising pools. Complex steplike arrangements of terracettes have developed along runoff channels of some hot springs. A few hot springs have deposited cone-shaped mounds, most of which reach heights of 1-2 m before becoming dormant. However, one long-inactive cone named Liberty Cap attained a height of about 14 m. Fissure ridges are linear mounds of travertine deposited from numerous hot-spring vents along a medial fracture zone. The ridges range in height from about 1 to 6 m and in length from a

  9. Subsurface temperature trend in response to exploitation of thermal water in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenfu; Chiang, Hsiehtang

    2015-04-01

    Temperature monitoring provides important information for sustainable management of a geothermal field. Previous studies show that decline of aquifer pressure is an obviously indicator of overexploitation for a thermal aquifer. However, many thermal water producing aquifers don't show pressure declining but with subtle temperature change. How to detect the temperature trend is an important topic for sustainable management of a geothermal field. In this study, we use borehole temperatures measured over a half year interval from 2011 to 2014 and Mann-Kendall method to determine the trends of subsurface temperature in Jiashi Hot Spring, northeastern Taiwan. Our results show that trends of subsurface temperature are related to the hydrogeology and flow field of groundwater. Flow directions of groundwater/thermal water are impacted by exploitation of thermal water of production wells, according to the depths and distribution. Repeatedly measured borehole temperature profiles provide important information to depict the trends of subsurface temperature change.

  10. Improved lysis of single bacterial cells by a modified alkaline-thermal shock procedure.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Du, Shiyu; Tan, Xiaohua; Arefin, Ayesha; Han, Cliff S

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell genomics (SCG) is a recently developed tool to study the genomes of unculturable bacterial species. SCG relies on multiple-strand displacement amplification (MDA), PCR, and next-generation sequencing (NGS); however, obtaining sufficient amounts of high-quality DNA from samples is a major challenge when performing this technique. Here we present an improved bacterial cell lysing procedure that combines incubation in an alkaline buffer with a thermal shock (freezing/heating) treatment to yield highly intact genomic DNA with high efficiency. This procedure is more efficient in lysing Bacillus subtilis and Synechocystis cells compared with two other frequently used lysis methods. Furthermore, 16S ribosomal RNA gene and overall genome recovery were found to be improved by this method using single cells from a Utah desert soil community or Escherichia coli single cells, respectively. The efficiency of genome recovery for E. coli single cells using our procedure is comparable with that of the REPLI-g Single Cell (sc) Kit, but our method is much more economical. By providing high-quality genome templates suitable for downstream applications, our procedure will be a promising improvement for SCG research. PMID:26956090

  11. Sphingobium Chlorophenolicum Dichlorohydroquinone Dioxygenase (PcpA) Is Alkaline Resistant and Thermally Stable

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wanpeng; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Chen, Lifeng; Maley, Jason; Schatte, Gabriele; Zhou, Yijiang; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Dichlorohydroquinone dioxygenase (PcpA) is the ring-cleavage enzyme in the PCP biodegradation pathway in Sphingobium chlorophenolicum strain ATCC 39723. PcpA dehalogenates and oxidizes 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone to form 2-chloromaleylacetate, which is subsequently converted to succinyl coenzyme A and acetyl coenzyme A via 3-oxoadipate. Previous studies have shown that PcpA is highly substrate-specific and only uses 2,6-dichlorohydroquinone as its substrate. In the current study, we overexpressed and purified recombinant PcpA and showed that PcpA was highly alkaline resistant and thermally stable. PcpA exhibited two activity peaks at pH 7.0 and 10.0, respectively. The apparent kcat and Km were measured as 0.19 ± 0.01 s-1 and 0.24 ± 0.08 mM, respectively at pH 7.0, and 0.17 ± 0.01 s-1 and 0.77 ± 0.29 mM, respectively at pH 10.0. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed rapid oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) in PcpA and the formation of a stable radical intermediate during the enzyme catalysis. The stable radical was predicted to be an epoxide type dichloro radical with the unpaired electron density localized on C3. PMID:22043174

  12. Rotation measurements of a thermally driven rotary nanomotor with a spring wing.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kun; Yu, Jingzhou; Liu, Lingnan; Shi, Jiao; Qin, Qing H

    2016-08-10

    Due to the extremely small dimensions and super high frequency of the rotor in a thermally driven rotary nanomotor made from carbon nanostructures, measuring the rotational frequency of the nanomotor is still an open issue. To this end, a measuring system is constructed in which a spring wing is connected with the rotor to provide collisions with a probe tip whose deflection reflects the rotational frequency of the rotor. The spring wing is formed by connecting an end-tube from a carbon nanotube and a graphene with differently hydrogenated surfaces. Due to the alternative hydrogenation of the two surfaces, the graphene shrinks like a spring. When the rotational frequency increases, the centrifugal force applied on the wing increases and then the spring is stretched (becoming longer). As the end-tube rotates with the rotor and reaches the probe tip, a collision occurs between the end-tube and the probe tip. After collision, the probe tip undergoes a variation of vertical deflection that can be measured through atomic force microscopy. The relation between the maximal deflection of the probe tip and the rotational frequency of the rotor is determined via numerical experiments. The effects of the configuration (namely hydrogenation and length) of graphene on the rotation of the rotor are investigated. The results provide some insight into the fabrication of nanomachines. PMID:27464677

  13. The plumbing system of the Pagosa thermal Springs, Colorado: Application of geologically constrained geophysical inversion and data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Cuttler, S.; Karaoulis, M.; Zhou, J.; Raynolds, B.; Batzle, M.

    2015-06-01

    Fault and fracture networks usually provide the plumbing for movement of hydrothermal fluids in geothermal fields. The Big Springs of Pagosa Springs in Colorado is known as the deepest geothermal hot springs in the world. However, little is known about the plumbing system of this hot spring, especially regarding the position of the reservoir (if any) or the position of the major tectonic faults controlling the flow of the thermal water in this area. The Mancos shale, a Cretaceous shale, dominates many of the surface expressions around the springs and impede an easy recognition of the fault network. We use three geophysical methods (DC resistivity, self-potential, and seismic) to image the faults in this area, most of which are not recognized in the geologic fault map of the region. Results from these surveys indicate that the hot Springs (the Big Spring and a warm spring located 1.8 km further south) are located at the intersection of the Victoire Fault, a major normal crustal fault, and two north-northeast trending faults (Fault A and B). Self-potential and DC resistivity tomographies can be combined and a set of joint attributes defined to determine the localization of the flow of hot water associated with the Eight Miles Mesa Fault, a second major tectonic feature responsible for the occurrence of warm springs further West and South from the Big Springs of Pagosa Springs.

  14. Chemical and hydrologic data for selected thermal-water wells and nonthermal springs in the Boise Area, southwesten Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Parliman, D.J.; Mariner, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected during January to July 1988 from 37 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs in the Boise area, southwestern Idaho. Included are well and spring locations; well-construction, water-level, and water-use information; hydrographs of water levels in 3 wells; chemical and isotopic analyses of water from 18 thermal-water wells and 3 nonthermal springs; and drillers ' logs from 23 wells. The purpose of the report is to make these data conveniently available to the public. (USGS)

  15. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genetic implications of Edipsos thermal springs, north Euboea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelepertsis, Akindynos; Tziritis, Evangelos; Kelepertzis, Eustratios; Leontakianakos, Giorgos; Pallas, Kostas

    2009-09-01

    Edipsos area, situated in northern Euboea, has been well known since ancient times for the existence of thermal springs. In order to assess the hydrogeochemical conditions, thermal and cold water samples were collected and analyzed by ICP method for major and trace elements. The results revealed the direct impact of seawater, a process which is strongly related to the major tectonic structures of the area. Seawater impact was confirmed by the Cl/Br and Na/Cl ionic ratios, as well as from statistical processing and graphical interpretation of the analytical results, which classified the sampled waters into three groups (two for cold waters and one for the thermal ones). Trace element ranges for thermal waters are: As (44-84 ppb), Pb (23-154 ppb), Ag (1-2 ppb), Mn (31-680 ppb), Cu (61-97 ppb), Cs (66-244 ppb), Se (0-76 ppb), Li (732-3269 ppb), Fe (0-1126 ppb), Sr (14000-34100 ppb), B (4300-9600 ppb). Compared with the chemical composition of other thermal springs from the Hellenic Volcanic Arc, Edipsos thermal waters are enriched in Ca2+, Na+, Cl-, SO4 2-, Li, B and K+, reflecting the influence from seawater. Cold waters are free of heavy metals compared with other natural waters and are characterized by good quality based on the major element chemistry. Finally, several geothermometers were applied in order to assess the reservoir temperatures, but none of them appear to be applicable, mainly due to the impact of seawater on the initial hydrogeochemistry of the geothermal fluids.

  16. Metagenomics of an Alkaline Hot Spring in Galicia (Spain): Microbial Diversity Analysis and Screening for Novel Lipolytic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Knapik, Kamila; Cerdán, Maria-Esperanza; González-Siso, María-Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A fosmid library was constructed with the metagenomic DNA from the water of the Lobios hot spring (76°C, pH = 8.2) located in Ourense (Spain). Metagenomic sequencing of the fosmid library allowed the assembly of 9722 contigs ranging in size from 500 to 56,677 bp and spanning ~18 Mbp. 23,207 ORFs (Open Reading Frames) were predicted from the assembly. Biodiversity was explored by taxonomic classification and it revealed that bacteria were predominant, while the archaea were less abundant. The six most abundant bacterial phyla were Deinococcus-Thermus, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Aquificae, and Chloroflexi. Within the archaeal superkingdom, the phylum Thaumarchaeota was predominant with the dominant species “Candidatus Caldiarchaeum subterraneum.” Functional classification revealed the genes associated to one-carbon metabolism as the most abundant. Both taxonomic and functional classifications showed a mixture of different microbial metabolic patterns: aerobic and anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic, autotrophic and heterotrophic. Remarkably, the presence of genes encoding enzymes with potential biotechnological interest, such as xylanases, galactosidases, proteases, and lipases, was also revealed in the metagenomic library. Functional screening of this library was subsequently done looking for genes encoding lipolytic enzymes. Six genes conferring lipolytic activity were identified and one was cloned and characterized. This gene was named LOB4Est and it was expressed in a yeast mesophilic host. LOB4Est codes for a novel esterase of family VIII, with sequence similarity to β-lactamases, but with unusual wide substrate specificity. When the enzyme was purified from the mesophilic host it showed half-life of 1 h and 43 min at 50°C, and maximal activity at 40°C and pH 7.5 with p-nitrophenyl-laurate as substrate. Interestingly, the enzyme retained more than 80% of maximal activity in a broad range of pH from 6.5 to 8. PMID:26635759

  17. A spring-driven press device for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2010-08-01

    A novel spring-driven press device was designed and manufactured for hot embossing and thermal bonding of PMMA microfluidic chips in this work. This simple device consisted of two semi-cylinder silicone rubber press heads, three steel clamping plates, and three compression springs that were assembled together using two screw bolts and two butterfly nuts. The three springs were clamped between the upper and the middle clamping plates, whereas the two press heads were assembled between the middle and the lower clamping plates. After an epoxy template covered by a PMMA plate or a PMMA channel plate together with a cover were sandwiched between two microscopic glass slides for embossing or bonding, respectively, they were clamped between the two elastic press heads of the press device by fastening the screw nuts on the upper clamping plate. Because the convex press heads applied pressure along the middle line of the glass slides, they would deform resulting in a negative pressure gradient from the middle to the sides so that air bubbles between the sandwiched parts could be squeezed out during embossing and bonding processes. High-quality PMMA microfluidic chips were prepared by using this unique device and were successfully applied in the electrophoretic separation of several cations. PMID:20665912

  18. a Thermal Conduction Switch Based on Low Hysteresis Nitife Shape Memory Alloy Helical Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, V. B.; Bewerse, C.; Notardonato, W. U.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2008-03-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators possess an inherent property of sensing a change in temperature and delivering significant force against external loads through a shape change resulting from a temperature-induced phase transformation. The utilization of a reversible trigonal (R-phase) to cubic phase transformation in NiTiFe SMAs allows for this strain recovery to occur with reduced hysteresis between the forward and reverse transformations. However, the magnitude of the strain recovery associated with the R-phase transformation is lower than that of the monoclinic to cubic phase transformation. The use of helical springs can compensate for this design constraint as they produce significant stroke when compared to straight elements such as thin strips and wires. This work reports on the development and implementation of NiTiFe helical springs in a low-hysteresis thermal conduction switch for advanced spaceport applications associated with NASA's requirements for future lunar and Mars missions. Such a low-hysteresis thermal conduction switch can provide on-demand heat transfer between two reservoirs at different temperatures.

  19. Zn isotope compositions of the thermal spring waters of La Soufrière volcano, Guadeloupe Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiu-Bin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Dessert, Céline; Villemant, Benoit; Louvat, Pascale; Crispi, Olivier; Birck, Jean-Louis; Wang, Yi-Na

    2014-02-01

    To trace the sources and pathways of Zn in hydrothermal systems, the Zn isotope compositions of seventeen water samples from eight thermal springs and six gas samples from two fumaroles from La Soufrière, an active volcano on Guadeloupe Island (French West Indies, FWI), were analyzed using a method adapted for purifying Zn from Fe- and SO4-enriched thermal solutions. The fumaroles are enriched in Zn 100 to 8000 times compared to the local bedrock and have isotopic compositions (δ66Zn values from +0.21‰ to +0.35‰) similar to or slightly higher than fresh andesite (+0.21‰). The enrichment of Zn in the thermal springs compared with the surface waters shows that Zn behaves as a soluble element during hydrothermal alteration but is significantly less mobile than Na. The δ66Zn values of most of the spring waters are relatively constant (approximately 0.70‰), indicating that the thermal springs from La Soufrière are enriched in heavy isotopes (i.e., 66Zn) compared to the host rocks (from -0.14‰ to +0.42‰). Only three thermal springs have lower δ66Zn values (as low as -0.43%). While the Zn in the fumaroles is essentially derived from magma degassing, which is consistent with a previous study on Merapi volcano (Toutain et al., 2008), we show that the Zn in the thermal springs is mainly derived from water-rock interactions. The 66Zn-enriched isotopic signature in most of the spring waters can be explained qualitatively by the precipitation at depth of sulfide minerals that preferentially incorporate the light isotopes. This agrees with the isotopic fractionation that was recently calculated for aqueous complexes of Zn. The few thermal springs with lower δ66Zn values also have low Zn concentrations, indicating the preferential scavenging of heavy Zn isotopes in the hydrothermal conduits. This study shows that unlike chemical weathering under surface conditions, hydrothermal alteration at high temperatures significantly fractionates Zn isotopes and enriches

  20. By-products of the serpentinization process on the Oman ophiolite : chemical and isotopic composition of carbonate deposits in alkaline springs, and associated secondary phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissmann, O.; Martinez, I.; Deville, E.; Beaumont, V.; Pillot, D.; Prinzhofer, A.; Vacquand, C.; Chaduteau, C.; Agrinier, P.; Guyot, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic compositions (d13C, d18O) of natural carbonates produced by the alteration of basic and ultrabasic rocks on the Oman ophiolite have been measured in order to better understand their formation mechanisms. Fossil carbonates developed on altered peridotitic samples, mostly found in fractures, and contemporary carbonates were studied. The samples bear a large range of d13C. Those collected in veins are magnesian (magnesite, dolomite) and have a carbon signature reflecting mixing of processes and important fractionation (-11‰ to 8‰). Their association with talc and lizardite suggests they are by-products of a serpentinization process, that must have occurred as a carbon-rich fluid was circulating at depth. On the other hand, the carbonates are mostly calcic when formed in alkaline springs, most of which are located in the vicinity of lithological discontinuities such as the peridotite-gabbro contact (Moho). Aragonite forms a few meters below the surface of the ponds in Mg-poor water, and is systematically associated with brucite (Mg(OH)2). This suggests most of the Mg dissolved at depth has reprecipitated during the fluid's ascension through fractures or faults as carbonates and serpentine. Further up, on the surface waters of the ponds (depleted in Mg and D.I.C.), thin calcite films precipitate and reach extremely negative d13C values (-28‰), which could reflect either a biological carbon source, or kinetic fractionation from pumping atmospheric CO2. Their formation represent an efficient and natural process for carbon dioxide mineral sequestration. The d18O signature from all samples confirm the minerals crystallized from a low-temperature fluid. The hyperalkaline conditions (pH between 11 and 12) allowing for these fast precipitation kinetics are generated by the serpentinization process occurring at depth, as indicated by the measured associated H2-rich gas flows (over 50%) seeping out to the surface.

  1. Screening and characterization of the alkaline protease isolated from PLI-1, a strain of Brevibacillus sp. collected from Indonesia's hot springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuai; Lin, Xuezheng; Huang, Xiaohang; Zheng, Li; Zilda, Dewi Seswita

    2012-06-01

    A total of 69 strains of thermophilic bacteria were isolated from water, soil and sediment samples from three Indonesia's hot spring areas (Pantai cermin, Kalianda and Banyu wedang) by using Minimal Synthetic Medium (MSM). The extreme thermophile Brevibacillus sp. PLI-1 was found to produce extracellular thermophilic alkaline protease with optimal activity at 70° and pH 8.0-9.0. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated to be around 56 kD by SDS-PAGE. The maximum activity of the protease was 26.54 U mL-1. The protease activity did not decrease after 30 min and still retained more than 70% of relative activity after 60 min at 70°C and pH 8.0. The ion Mg2+ was found to promote protease activity at both low and high concentrations, whereas Cu2+ and Zn2+ could almost completely inhibit the activity. Divalent cation chelator EDTA inhibited the enzyme activity by 55.06% ± 0.27%, while the inhibition caused by PMSF, Leupeptin, Pepstain A and Benzamidine were 66.78% ± 3.25%, 52.37% ± 0.25%, 62.47% ± 2.96% and 50.99% ± 0.24%, respectively. Based on these observations, the enzyme activity was conspicuously sensitive to the serine and cysteine protease inhibitors. All these results indicated that the protease isolated from the strain PLI-1 was a thermophilic protease and had a high-temperature stability and a pH stability.

  2. Bipole-dipole survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Thermal Area, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Frangos, W.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-09-01

    A bipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Beaver County, Utah was undertaken to evaluate the technique in a well-studied Basin and Range geothermal prospect. The major electrical characteristics of the area are clearly revealed but are not particularly descriptive of the geothermal system. More subtle variations of electrical resistivity accompanying the geothermal activity are detectable, although the influence of near-surface lateral resistivity variations imposes upon the survey design the necessity of a high station density. A useful practical step is to conduct a survey using transmitter locations and orientations which minimize the response of known features such as the resistivity boundary due to a range front fault. Survey results illustrate the effects of transmitter orientation and placement, and of subtle lateral resistivity variations. A known near-surface conductive zone is detected while no evidence is found for a deep conductive region.

  3. Investigation of a putative nitrogen cycle in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbl, Friedrich; Breitfuss, Angelika; Weidler, Gerhard; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    Background: Previous studies on the microbial diversity [1] of the slightly radioactive thermal springs near Bad Gastein, Salzburg, Austria, suggested the occurrence of a nitrogen cycle in this subterranean environment. Microcosm experiments were performed to prove if nitrogen compounds may be used as energy sources for certain members of the microbial community of this spring Methods: 2 x 25 l of thermal mineral water were sampled and filtered through a 0.22 µm Stericup (Millipore). Filters were excised and used as inocula for one microcosm. Stable isotope probing (SIP), was performed by using labeled nitrogen compounds to identify microorganisms, which were able to use nitrogen as the only energy source. 2 x 35 ml of natural grown biofilm were collected and used also as inocula for microcosms. Incubation was carried out as batch cultures in the dark at 30 °C or 40 °C, respectively. Two different types of media were used for incubation. Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were measured 3-4 times a week. PH-value was also measured and adjusted to ca. 7.5 - 7.7 if necessary. DNA extraction was performed after 3 and 8 weeks of incubation, followed by an isopycnic centrifugation step. Clone libraries were performed only from microcosms incubated at 40 °C. To compare putative differences between the microbial communities at 30 °C with those at 40 °C, as well as the two different media, DGGE analyses were carried out. Results: A continuous decrease of the initial amount of ammonium was detected while the amounts of nitrite and nitrate increased simultaneously. No alterations of the initial amount of ammonium and nitrite or nitrate, could be detected with negative controls. Mass spectrometric measurements demonstrated that the extracted DNA was highly labeled. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA bands obtained from CsCl gradients led to differences in archaeal and bacterial communities of microcosms, which may reflect the different composition of media. Two of the archaeal

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Geobacillus sp. Isolate T6, a Thermophilic Bacterium Collected from a Thermal Spring in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Elio M.; Berretta, Marcelo F.; Benintende, Graciela B.; Amadio, Ariel F.; Zandomeni, Rubén O.

    2015-01-01

    Geobacillus sp. isolate T6 was collected from a thermal spring in Salta, Argentina. The draft genome sequence (3,767,773 bp) of this isolate is represented by one major scaffold of 3,46 Mbp, a second one of 207 kbp, and 20 scaffolds of <13 kbp. The assembled sequences revealed 3,919 protein-coding genes. PMID:26184933

  5. The impact of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Shoji, J.; Mishima, T.; Honda, H.; Fujii, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Beppu is a region with many hot springs in Japan. Some of environmental studies of the rivers in this region (e.g. Kawano et al., 1998, Ohsawa et al., 2008) show that hot spring drainage flows into a river and then flow into the coastal are, and it strongly affects the river water quality. On the other hands, several kinds of tropical fish lives in those rivers (Hiramatu et al., 1995). We can easily have watched those fish there. Although the relationship between hot spring drainage and the fish community had not been investigated in the past in this area, it is easily assumed that thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage strongly affect the ecosystem. However, the impact of the hot spring drainage on the ecosystem in river and coastal area is not clear. We investigated the river water quality and physical property of six rivers in this region. Additionally, we investigated the fish community near the estuary at two rivers which are strongly affected by the hot spring drainage and not the influence of the hot spring at all. We tried an evaluation about the influence of thermal energy and materials derived from the hot spring drainage on the fish community near the estuary.The results of chemical and physical data in these rivers are as follows. The size of influence of hot spring drainage on river is different every river. In this region, Hirata River is most strongly affected by the hot spring drainage. The water temperature of Hirata River maintains 25 degrees Celsius or more through the year and the concentrations of dissolved component is very high. On the other hand, the water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved component of Hiya Rive is low. These data are similar to data of the upper side of Hirata River. The results of investigating the fish community indicate that Oreochromis niloticus and Rhinogobius giurinus is the dominant species at Hirata River and Hiya River respectively. In addition, there is more the number of

  6. Arsenic and other trace elements in thermal springs and in cold waters from drinking water wells on the Bolivian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormachea Muñoz, Mauricio; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo; Quintanilla Aguirre, Jorge; Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-07-01

    Numerous hot springs and fumaroles occur along the Andes Mountains, in the Bolivian Altiplano, where people use thermal springs for recreational purposes as pools, baths and also for consumption as drinking water and irrigation once it is mixed with natural surface waters; most of these thermal springs emerge from earth surface and flow naturally into the rivers streams which drain further into the Poopó Lake. Physicochemical characteristics of the thermal water samples showed pH from 6.3 to 8.3 with an average of 7.0, redox potential from +106 to +204 mV with an average of +172 mV, temperatures from 40 to 75 °C with an average of 56 °C and high electrical conductivity ranging from 1.8 to 75 mS/cm and averaged 13 mS/cm. Predominant major ions are Na+ and Cl- and the principal water types are 37.5% Na-Cl type and 37.5% Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 7.8 to 65.3 μg/L and arsenic speciation indicate the predominance of As(III) species. Sediments collected from the outlets of thermal waters show high iron content, and ferric oxides and hydroxides are assumed to be principal mineral phases for arsenic attenuation by adsorption/co-precipitation processes. Arsenic concentrations in cold water samples from shallow aquifers are higher than those in thermal springs (range < 5.6-233.2 μg/L), it is likely that thermal water discharge is not the main source of high arsenic content in the shallow aquifer as they are very immature and may only have a small component corresponding to the deep geothermal reservoir. As people use both thermal waters and cold waters for consumption, there is a high risk for arsenic exposure in the area.

  7. Detection and analysis of elusive members of a novel and diverse archaeal community within a thermal spring streamer consortium.

    PubMed

    Colman, Daniel R; Thomas, Raquela; Maas, Kendra R; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2015-03-01

    Recent metagenomic analyses of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal spring communities suggested the presence of minor archaeal populations that simultaneous PCR-based assays using traditional 'universal' 16S rRNA gene primers failed to detect. Here we use metagenomics to identify PCR primers effective at detecting elusive members of the Archaea, assess their efficacy, and describe the diverse and novel archaeal community from a circum-neutral thermal spring from the Bechler region of YNP. We determined that a less commonly used PCR primer, Arch349F, captured more diversity in this spring than the widely used A21F primer. A search of the PCR primers against the RDP 16S rRNA gene database indicated that Arch349F also captured the largest percentage of Archaea, including 41 % more than A21F. Pyrosequencing using the Arch349F primer recovered all of the phylotypes present in the clone-based portion of the study and the metagenome of this spring in addition to several other populations of Archaea, some of which are phylogenetically novel. In contrast to the lack of amplification with traditional 16S rRNA gene primers, our comprehensive analyses suggested a diverse archaeal community in the Bechler spring, with implications for recently discovered groups such as the Geoarchaeota and other undescribed archaeal groups. PMID:25477209

  8. Impacts of Discharge Reductions on Physical and Thermal Habitat Characteristics in a Desert Spring, Death Valley National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. R.; Stone, M. C.; Sada, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Desert springs are biodiversity hotspots that are sensitive to anthropogenic activities. Despite their importance, the effects of human disturbance on desert springs are not well known, and scarce information exists describing the biotic or environmental effects of incrementally increasing disturbance. The objective of this research was to quantify the influence of incremental reductions in discharge on the physical and thermal characteristics of a desert springbrook. This objective was accomplished through a combination of field experiments at Travertine Spring in Death Valley National Park, USA, and hydraulic/temperature modeling in order to: (1) quantify changes in physical characteristics of the springbrook channel and aquatic environment; (2) investigate the effects of reduced spring discharge on seasonal spatial temperature patterns; (3) delineate tipping points that exhibit a non-linear response to decreased flow. The study results supported our predictions that decreased discharge would modify physical habitat characteristics of the springbrook, reduce aquatic habitat volume, increase variability in water temperatures along the springbrook, and reduce springbrook suitability for invertebrates that require stable environments. Field observations revealed a significant relationship between water depth and flow velocity with reduced spring discharge. The rate of change of mean water depths, velocities, and habitat volumes were greatest with only a 10% reduction in spring flow. In addition, a non-linear temperature response to flow reductions was present under all modeled conditions. Generally, water temperature gradients increased as flows were decreased, and the sensitivity of reduced discharge increased with distance from the spring source. The degree of sensitivity was a function of season, which reflects the influence of ambient air temperature and wind in the cooling of the springbrook. These results suggest that habitat for species using stable thermal

  9. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  10. Consideration of Thermoelectric Power Generation by Using Hot Spring Thermal Energy or Industrial Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Keiichi; Horikawa, Daisuke; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Today, we face some significant environmental and energy problems such as global warming, urban heat island, and the precarious balance of world oil supply and demand. However, we have not yet found a satisfactory solution to these problems. Waste heat recovery is considered to be one of the best solutions because it can improve energy efficiency by converting heat exhausted from plants and machinery to electric power. This technology would also prevent atmospheric temperature increases caused by waste heat, and decrease fossil fuel consumption by recovering heat energy, thus also reducing CO2 emissions. The system proposed in this research generates electric power by providing waste heat or unharnessed thermal energy to built-in thermoelectric modules that can convert heat into electric power. Waste heat can be recovered from many places, including machinery in industrial plants, piping in electric power plants, waste incineration plants, and so on. Some natural heat sources such as hot springs and solar heat can also be used for this thermoelectric generation system. The generated power is expected to be supplied to auxiliary machinery around the heat source, stored as an emergency power supply, and so on. The attributes of this system are (1) direct power generation using hot springs or waste heat; (2) 24-h stable power generation; (3) stand-alone power system with no noise and no vibration; and (4) easy maintenance attributed to its simple structure with no moving parts. In order to maximize energy use efficiency, the temperature difference between both sides of the thermoelectric (TE) modules built into the system need to be kept as large as possible. This means it is important to reduce thermal resistance between TE modules and heat source. Moreover, the system's efficiency greatly depends on the base temperature of the heat sources and the material of the system's TE modules. Therefore, in order to make this system practical and efficient, it is necessary to

  11. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries. PMID:26582065

  12. Investigation on the near-infrared-emitting thermal stability of Bi activated alkaline-earth aluminoborosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Ronghua; Song, Zhiguo; Li, Yongjin; Zhou, Yuting; Liu, Qun; Qiu, Jianbei; Yang, Zhengwen; Yin, Zhaoyi

    2015-02-01

    Stability of near-infrared (NIR) emission form Bi doped 42.5SiO2-12.5B2O3-25Al2O3-20RO (SBAR, R = Ca, Sr, Ba) glasses under treatment between annealing and softening temperature were studied. Results show that the thermal stability of Bi-NIR-emitting centers in SBAR glasses generally decreases with the increase of the radius of modifier cations but is greatly higher that in similar alkali glasses. Comparative experiments indicate these phenomena can be understood by the tendency that the smaller and higher charged alkaline earth ions as higher field strength modifier cations will increase the concentration of negative charge on non-bridging oxygens and also help to stabilize the non-bridging oxygens, which can restrain the thermally activated diffusion and valence change of Bi-activated centers, respectively. The results can provide an improved understanding for the NIR-emitting thermal stability of Bi doped glasses and a scientific reference for composition design of Bi-doped optical fiber.

  13. "Cold" and "hot" thermal anomalies/events during spring and autumn in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata; Choryński, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Regular air temperatures' changes, as an effect of succession of the seasons, are a part of people's everyday life. When winters and summers are not characterised by extreme thermal conditions, people are well prepared and there are no losses for agriculture and economy or human health consequences observed. A similar situation takes place in case of typical springs and autumns, where normally no too low or too high air temperatures occur. The situation becomes totally different when the air temperature significantly exceeds frames of typical temperature for particular months or seasons. Appearance of winter conditions during months in which they are not expected may lead to losses in different branches of the economy e.g. transport or agriculture. Heat in non-summer months potentially brings less damages for the economy, but it might be a great threat for human health, especially for those with cardiological diseases, and it may result in thermal discomfort. If these conditions last for sufficient period of time, they may cause disorders in plant vegetation cycles. One element of the discussion held on the global warming which has been observed since the half of the twentieth century, is the question of how this effects the occurrence of climatic anomalies. Does it result in an decrease of "cold" thermal anomalies and in an increase of frequency of "hot" anomalies? Or does it increase the occurrence of both types of these events? In this research there will be performed an analysis of the occurrence of conditions typical for winter months, outside the climatic winter (December, January, February) at ten locations in the area of Poland. During the months directly close to this period (November and March) the threshold for winter conditions will be maximum temperature below 0 oC which means occurrence of frost all day long. For other non-summer months the threshold will be mean daily temperature below 0 oC meaning low temperatures during the day, not only morning

  14. Population bottleneck triggering millennial-scale morphospace shifts in endemic thermal-spring melanopsids

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Wrozyna, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    For more than hundred years the thermal spring-fed Lake Pețea near Oradea, Romania, was studied for its highly endemic subfossil and recent fauna and flora. One point of focus was the species lineage of the melanopsid gastropod Microcolpia parreyssii, which exhibited a tremendous diversity of shapes during the earlier Holocene. As a consequence many new species, subspecies, and variety-names have been introduced over time, trying to categorize this overwhelming variability. In contrast to the varied subfossil assemblage, only a single phenotype is present today. We critically review the apparent “speciation event” implied by the taxonomy, based on the presently available information and new data from morphometric analyses of shell outlines and oxygen and carbon isotope data. This synthesis shows that one turning point in morphological evolution coincides with high accumulation of peaty deposits during a short time interval of maximally a few thousand years. The formation of a small, highly eutrophic swamp with increased input of organic matter marginalized the melanopsids and reduced population size. The presented data make natural selection as the dominating force unlikely but rather indicates genetic drift following a bottleneck effect induced by the environmental changes. This claim contrasts the “obvious trend” and shows that great morphological variability has to be carefully and objectively evaluated in order to allow sound interpretations of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26089574

  15. Temperatures of Thermal and Slightly Thermal Springs on Mount Hood, Oregon, Apparently Unperturbed by the Magnitude-4.5 Earthquake on June 29, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathenson, M.; Mariner, R. H.

    2002-12-01

    On the basis of water chemistry, three distinct hydrothermal systems have been identified on Mount Hood. Swim Warm Springs has a series of vents with temperatures ranging from 9° to 25°C with temperatures determined by mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hottest feature was 25.6° to 26.2°C in 1976-78, 25°C in 1997, and 24.7°C in 2001. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 187°C, re-equilibrated at 96°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in various springs. The Meadows Spring is a slightly thermal spring with measured temperatures of 4.8°, 6.1°, 6.6°C in 1997, 1999, and 2001 related to mixing of thermal and nonthermal water. The hot-water component is interpreted to have a source water that boiled from 223°C, re-equilibrated at 94°C, and then mixed with nonthermal water to produce the range of compositions found in the spring over several years. Both systems contain water from precipitation at high elevation. The summit fumaroles have gas-geothermometer temperatures generally over 300°C, indicating that they are not the steam discharge from the Swim and Meadows hydrothermal systems. Field measurements in July-August, 2002, after the magnitude-4.5 earthquake of June 29, 2002, showed that the highest-temperature vent at Swim Warm Springs was 25.7°C, similar to values found in other years. Measurements on a hot afternoon and a cool morning yielded temperatures of 25.7° and 25.2°C, indicating that this low-flow feature is subject to some solar heating. The Meadows Spring was 6.3°C, consistent with its previous behavior of mixing. The lower temperature indicates that there is a variability associated with unknown hydrologic factors rather than confirming an apparent trend of continuously increasing temperatures for the 1997-2001 period. The Crater Rock fumarole was 89°C, similar to previous measurements. Post-earthquake measurements of spring temperatures

  16. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Belardi, G.; Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F.; Piga, L.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at

  17. Excess nitrogen in selected thermal and mineral springs of the Cascade Range in northern California, Oregon, and Washington: sedimentary or volcanic in origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariner, R. H.; Evans, W. C.; Presser, T. S.; White, L. D.

    2003-02-01

    Anomalous N 2/Ar values occur in many thermal springs and mineral springs, some volcanic fumaroles, and at least one acid-sulfate spring of the Cascade Range. Our data show that N 2/Ar values are as high as 300 in gas from some of the hot springs, as high as 1650 in gas from some of the mineral springs, and as high as 2400 in gas from the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. In contrast, gas discharging from hot springs that contain nitrogen and argon solely of atmospheric origin typically exhibits N 2/Ar values of 40-80, depending on the spring temperature. If the excess nitrogen in the thermal and mineral springs is of sedimentary origin then the geothermal potential of the area must be small, but if the nitrogen is of volcanic origin then the geothermal potential must be very large. End-member excess nitrogen (δ 15N) is +5.3‰ for the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades but is only about +1‰ for fumaroles on Mt. Hood and the acid-sulfate spring on Mt. Shasta. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations are highest for thermal springs associated with aquifers between 120 and 140°C. Chloride is the major anion in most of the nitrogen-rich springs of the Cascade Range, and N 2/Ar values generally increase as chloride concentrations increase. Chloride and excess nitrogen in the thermal waters of the Oregon Cascades probably originate in an early Tertiary marine formation that has been buried by the late Tertiary and Quaternary lava flows of the High Cascades. The widespread distribution of excess nitrogen that has been generated in low to moderate-temperature sedimentary environments is further proof of the restricted geothermal potential of the Cascade Range.

  18. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process. PMID:22677015

  19. Oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linqiang; Gao, Bingying; Deng, Ning; Liu, Lu; Cui, Hao

    2016-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of Cr(III) during the thermal treatment of chromium hydroxide in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2) was investigated. The amounts of Cr(III) oxidized at various temperatures and heating times were determined, and the Cr-containing species in the residues were characterized. During the transformation of chromium hydroxide to Cr2O3 at 300 °C approximately 5% of the Cr(III) was oxidized to form intermediate compounds containing Cr(VI) (i.e., CrO3), but these intermediates were reduced to Cr2O3 when the temperature was above 400 °C. Alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly promoted the oxidation of Cr(III) during the thermal drying process. Two pathways were involved in the influences the alkali and alkaline earth metals had on the formation of Cr(VI). In pathway I, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to act as electron transfer agents and to interfere with the dehydration process, causing more intermediate Cr(VI)-containing compounds (which were identified as being CrO3 and Cr5O12) to be formed. The reduction of intermediate compounds to Cr2O3 was also found to be hindered in pathway I. In pathway II, the alkali and alkaline earth metals were found to contribute to the oxidation of Cr(III) to form chromates. The results showed that the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals significantly increases the degree to which Cr(III) is oxidized during the thermal drying of chromium-containing sludge. PMID:26650573

  20. Low-temperature geothermal water in Utah: A compilation of data for thermal wells and springs through 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Blackett, R.E.

    1994-07-01

    The Geothermal Division of DOE initiated the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program, following a special appropriation by Congress in 1991, to encourage wider use of lower-temperature geothermal resources through direct-use, geothermal heat-pump, and binary-cycle power conversion technologies. The Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT), the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI), and the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute organized the federally-funded program and enlisted the help of ten western states to carry out phase one. This first phase involves updating the inventory of thermal wells and springs with the help of the participating state agencies. The state resource teams inventory thermal wells and springs, and compile relevant information on each sources. OIT and UURI cooperatively administer the program. OIT provides overall contract management while UURI provides technical direction to the state teams. Phase one of the program focuses on replacing part of GEOTHERM by building a new database of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal systems for use on personal computers. For Utah, this involved (1) identifying sources of geothermal date, (2) designing a database structure, (3) entering the new date; (4) checking for errors, inconsistencies, and duplicate records; (5) organizing the data into reporting formats; and (6) generating a map (1:750,000 scale) of Utah showing the locations and record identification numbers of thermal wells and springs.

  1. Bulk, thermal, and mechanical properties of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nimick, F.B.; Schwartz, B.M.

    1987-09-01

    Experimental data on matrix porosity, grain density, thermal expansion, compressive strength, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and axial strain at failure for samples from the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff are compiled. Heat capacity and emissivity also are discussed. Data have been analyzed for spatial variability; slight variability is observed for matrix porosity, grain density, and thermal expansion coefficient. Estimates of in situ values for some properties, such as bulk density and heat capacity, are presented. Vertical in situ stress as a function of horizontal and vertical location has been calculated. 96 refs., 37 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water.

    PubMed

    Magnabosco, Cara; Tekere, Memory; Lau, Maggie C Y; Linage, Borja; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Erasmus, Mariana; Cason, Errol; van Heerden, Esta; Borgonie, Gaetan; Kieft, Thomas L; Olivier, Jana; Onstott, Tullis C

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40-70°C) and pH (8-9) of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance. PMID:25566203

  3. Comparisons of the composition and biogeographic distribution of the bacterial communities occupying South African thermal springs with those inhabiting deep subsurface fracture water

    PubMed Central

    Magnabosco, Cara; Tekere, Memory; Lau, Maggie C. Y.; Linage, Borja; Kuloyo, Olukayode; Erasmus, Mariana; Cason, Errol; van Heerden, Esta; Borgonie, Gaetan; Kieft, Thomas L.; Olivier, Jana; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has numerous thermal springs that represent topographically driven meteoric water migrating along major fracture zones. The temperature (40–70°C) and pH (8–9) of the thermal springs in the Limpopo Province are very similar to those of the low salinity fracture water encountered in the South African mines at depths ranging from 1.0 to 3.1 km. The major cation and anion composition of these thermal springs are very similar to that of the deep fracture water with the exception of the dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved O2, both of which are typically higher in the springs than in the deep fracture water. The in situ biological relatedness of such thermal springs and the subsurface fracture fluids that feed them has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we evaluated the microbial diversity of six thermal spring and six subsurface sites in South Africa using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions. Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phylum within both subsurface and thermal spring environments, but only one genera, Rheinheimera, was identified among all samples. Using Morisita similarity indices as a metric for pairwise comparisons between sites, we found that the communities of thermal springs are highly distinct from subsurface datasets. Although the Limpopo thermal springs do not appear to provide a new window for viewing subsurface bacterial communities, we report that the taxonomic compositions of the subsurface sites studied are more similar than previous results would indicate and provide evidence that the microbial communities sampled at depth are more correlated to subsurface conditions than geographical distance. PMID:25566203

  4. Hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs in saline salar-like environments in the High Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos Durán, L. V.; Reich, M.; Achurra, L.; Morata, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evaporitic deposits and precipitates represent significant sinks of mobile cations (Li, As, B) and halides (Cl, I) in salar-like basin environments along the Andean volcanic belt in northern Chile. Li and B are particularly interesting because of their high concentrations in evaporitic minerals and geothermal waters in the region. Although these compositional features have been previously recognized in high-altitude salt lakes in northern Chile, the nature and extent of mixing processes between true evaporitic and geothermal endmembers in such environments is poorly understood. In a context where geothermal targeting methods need to be increasingly precise, a clearer understanding of what controls the localization of concealed geothermal resources is a prerequisite for more efficient exploration. Therefore, it is necessary to constrain surface saline inputs that can mask the deep imprints of the geothermal reservoir. On this basis, northern Chile offers a unique opportunity to test these features due to the large number of evaporitic closed basins containing thermal springs. To date, only a very limited number of studies have reported trace element concentrations and B, Li and Sr isotopes in salar-like waters aimed at differentiating the relative contributions of both members. In this study, we sampled water from high-altitude lakes with and without surficial thermal activity. This was complemented with geothermal water analyses from northern Chile and previously published data. In addition, we report preliminary dissolution experiments of evaporite minerals (e.g. ulexite, halite, gypsum, aragonite) to pure distilled water. These minerals were taken from two selected hydrological domains, located in the southern and northern part of the Chilean Central Volcanic Zone. Geochemical analyses of water run products from the aforementioned experiments at different temperatures (25 and 87°C, 500 hours of interaction each), confirmed that selected common elements (Cl, Li

  5. Thermal fluids for CSP systems: Alkaline nitrates/nitrites thermodynamics modelling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzoni, A. C.; Sau, S.; Corsaro, N.; Giaconia, A.; D'Ottavi, C.; Licoccia, S.

    2016-05-01

    Molten salt (MS) mixtures are used for the transport (HTF-heat transfer fluid) and storage of heat (HSM-heat storage material) in Concentration Solar Plants (CSP). In general, alkaline and earth-alkaline nitrate/nitrite mixtures are employed. Along with its upper stability temperature, the melting point (liquidus point) of a MS mixture is one of the main parameters which defines its usefulness as a HTF and HSM medium. As a result, we would like to develop a predictive model which will allow us to forecast freezing points for different MS mixture compositions; thus circumventing the need to determine experimentally the phase diagram for each MS mixture. To model ternary/quaternary phase diagram, parameters for the binary subsystems are to be determined, which is the purpose of the concerned work. In a binary system with components A and B, in phase equilibrium conditions (e.g. liquid and solid) the chemical potentials (partial molar Gibbs energy) for each component in each phase are equal. For an ideal solution it is possible to calculate the mixing (A+B) Gibbs energy:ΔG = ΔH - TΔS = RT(xAlnxA + xBlnxB) In case of non-ideal solid/liquid mixtures, such as the nitrates/nitrites compositions investigated in this work, the actual value will differ from the ideal one by an amount defined as the "mixing" (mix) Gibbs free energy. If the resulting mixtures is assumed, as indicated in the previous literature, to follow a "regular solution" model, where all the non-ideality is considered included in the enthalpy of mixing value and considering, for instance, the A component:Δ G ≡0 =(Δ HA-T Δ SA)+(ΔH¯ m i x AL-T ΔS¯ m i x AL)-(ΔH¯ m i x AS-T ΔS¯ m i x AS)where the molar partial amounts can be calculated from the total value by the Gibbs Duhem equation: (ΔH¯m i x AL=ΔHm i x-XB Ld/Δ Hm i x d XB L ) L;(ΔH¯m i x AS=ΔHm i x-XB Sd/Δ Hm i x d XB S ) S and, in general, it is possible to express the mixing enthalpy for solids and liquids as a function of the mol

  6. Radiation heat transfer in multitube, alkaline-metal thermal-to-electric converter

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, J.M.P.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1999-02-01

    Vapor anode, multitube Alkali-Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converters (AMTECs) are being considered for a number of space missions, such as the NASA Pluto/Express (PX) and Europa missions, scheduled for the years 2004 and 2005, respectively. These static converters can achieve a high fraction of Carnot efficiency at relatively low operating temperatures. An optimized cell can potentially provide a conversion efficiency between 20 and 30 percent, when operated at a hot-side temperature of 1000--1200 K and a cold-side temperature of 550--650 K. A comprehensive modeling and testing program of vapor anode, multitube AMTEC cells has been underway for more than three years at the Air Force Research Laboratory`s Power and Thermal Group (AFRL/VSDVP), jointly with the University of New Mexico`s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the readiness of AMTECs for flight on future US Air Force space missions. A fast, integrated AMTEC Performance and Evaluation Analysis Model (APEAM) has been developed to support ongoing vacuum tests at AFRL and perform analyses and investigate potential design changes to improve the PX-cell performance. This model consists of three major components (Tournier and El-Genk 1998a, b): (a) a sodium vapor pressure loss model, which describes continuum, transition and free-molecule flow regimes in the low-pressure cavity of the cell; (b) an electrochemical and electrical circuit model; and (c) a radiation/conduction heat transfer model, for calculating parasitic heat losses. This Technical Note describes the methodology used to calculate the radiation view factors within the enclosure of the PX-cells, and the numerical procedure developed in this work to determine the radiation heat transport and temperatures within the cell cavity.

  7. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

  8. [Thermal springs of Kavassila/N. Ioannina/, Greece--research study].

    PubMed

    Karagunis, M N

    1983-01-01

    The thermometallic springs of Kavassila, district Ioannina, are situated at a height of 410 m in a mild intermediate microclimate. They spring forth in two groups of springs near Sarantaporos river into which they pour without proper exploitation. Examinations of the water of the springs such as microbiological, microfloric blue algae and physico-chemicals have produced mainly: supply 400 m3/h, temperature 32 degrees C, electrical conductivity 1850 mS, colourless, taste of drinkable water, no emulsion, pH 7,60-8,20, sulfuric content 175,7 mg/l, strong odour of hydrogen sulphide, radon content 13-14 MACHE. Based on the above, the springs are to be characterised as hypothermic, hydrogen suplphide and sodium chloride containing mineral water, which is very suitable for drinking and bath therapy according to the principles of hydrotherapeutics: Water bath therapy and mud bath for the following diseases: skin diseases, rheumatoarthritic, chronic gynaecological, as well as vascular diseases. Inhalation therapy for troubles such as chronic troubles of the respiratory diseases, asthma, emphysema and laryngo-faryngeal pathological condition in both smokers and non-smokers. Drinking therapy for problems arising from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, bile ducts and kidneys. Similar springs in Greece, compared and mentioned are: Thermopylae, Kaiafa, Kyllini and abroad: Apenta-Springs Hungary and Piatigorsk Russia. For the correct exploitation of the thermomineral waters in Kavassila, the build-up of a modern curative hydrotherapeutic centre is proposed, due to the quality of the springs, as well as it's good and healthpromoting climate. PMID:6642199

  9. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  10. Environmental and developmental controls of morphological diversity in a thermal spring gastropod from Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Tang, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    Isolated thermal springs and associated aquatic environments near Cuatro Ciénegas, in north-central Mexico provide an opportunity to study patterns of evolutionary diversification under extreme conditions. Significant differences in temperature, seasonality, pH, and salinities among other variables may allow for high levels of differentiation and endemism. Biological studies of the unique faunas in this type of environment may serve as analogues for extreme and/or evaporitic environments as targeted by astrobiological research. The endemic hydrobiid gastropod \\textit{Mexipyrgus} is widely distributed in a variety of aquatic environments within the Cuatro Cienégas basin. Original description of this genus by Taylor listed six distinct species reflecting shell and anatomical features. Later revision by Hershler suggests that this diversity be reduced to one single, highly-variable species, based mainly on the morphology of reproductive structures. The systematic conflict emphasizes the need to understand the bases of morphological variation at small scales and in environmentally unusual settings. Shells of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} were collected from six localities and the following species were identified based on Taylor's classification: \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. escobedae}, \\textit{M. multilineatus}, and specimens intermediate in character between \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. lugoi} and \\textit{M. mojarralis}. All specimens consisted of 4-6 whorls. Shell shape was archived by the digitization of geometrically homologous landmarks on the spire (apex, whorl sutures in apertural view) and aperture. Shell size was calculated as Centroid Size. Data were analyzed using uniform and principal warp analysis of raw landmark coordinates, followed by relative warp analysis of uniform and partial warp scores. Three separate analyses were performed for 4, 5 and 6 whorled specimens. Results indicate two different levels of variation based on individual age

  11. Microbial structures in an Alpine Thermal Spring - Microscopic techniques for the examination of Biofilms in a Subsurface Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornmayr-Pfaffenhuemer, Marion; Pierson, Elisabeth; Janssen, Geert-Jan; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2010-05-01

    The research into extreme environments hast important implications for biology and other sciences. Many of the organisms found there provide insights into the history of Earth. Life exists in all niches where water is present in liquid form. Isolated environments such as caves and other subsurface locations are of interest for geomicrobiological studies. And because of their "extra-terrestrial" conditions such as darkness and mostly extreme physicochemical state they are also of astrobiological interest. The slightly radioactive thermal spring at Bad Gastein (Austria) was therefore examined for the occurrence of subsurface microbial communities. The surfaces of the submerged rocks in this warm spring were overgrown by microbial mats. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) performed by the late Dr. Wolfgang Heinen revealed an interesting morphological diversity in biofilms found in this environment (1, 2). Molecular analysis of the community structure of the radioactive subsurface thermal spring was performed by Weidler et al. (3). The growth of these mats was simulated using sterile glass slides which were exposed to the water stream of the spring. Those mats were analysed microscopically. Staining, using fluorescent dyes such as 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindol (DAPI), gave an overview of the microbial diversity of these biofilms. Additional SEM samples were prepared using different fixation protocols. Scanning confocal laser microscopy (SCLM) allowed a three dimensional view of the analysed biofilms. This work presents some electron micrographs of Dr. Heinen and additionally new microscopic studies of the biofilms formed on the glass slides. The appearances of the new SEM micrographs were compared to those of Dr. Heinen that were done several years ago. The morphology and small-scale distribution in the microbial mat was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. The examination of natural biomats and biofilms grown on glass slides using several microscopical techniques

  12. [Removal of NO and Hg0 in flue gas using alkaline absorption enhanced by non-thermal plasma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Le; Wang, Mei-Yan

    2010-06-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) induced by positive corona discharge was utilized to oxidize NO and Hg0 to more water-soluble NO2 and Hg2+ under the conditions of simulated flue gas. The effects of discharge voltage and inlet SO2 and NO concentrations on NO and Hg0 oxidation and their removals by alkaline absorption were investigated. The results show that the oxidation and removal of NO and Hg0 are enhanced with the increase of discharge voltage. The concentrations of NO and NO2 at the outlet of absorption tower are 0 and 69 mg/m3 with an inlet NO concentration of 134 mg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 12. 8 kV while the outlet concentrations of Hg0 and Hg2+ are 22 microg/m3 and 11 microg/m3 with an inlet Hg0 concentration of 110 microg/m3 and a discharge voltage of 13.1 kV. The presence of SO2 slightly improves the oxidation and removal of Hg0 while it has almost no effect on NO oxidation and its removal. The oxidation and removal of Hg0 are significantly inhibited with the increase of inlet NO concentration. In the coexistence of 800 mg/m3 SO2, 134 mg/m3 NO and 110 microg/m3 Hg0, the removal efficiencies are 57% for NO and 31% for Hg0 with an energy input of 77 J/L. PMID:20698290

  13. Inventory of thermal springs and wells within a one-mile radius of Yucca Lodge, Truth or Consequences, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, G.E.

    1982-02-01

    Equity Management Corporation proposes (1) to build about 30 condominiums at the present site of the Yucca Lodge, Truth or Consequences, New Mexico and (2) to heat the condominiums with the natural thermal waters that discharge from the property. To do so the corporation must satisfy the rules and regulations of four state and federal agencies. To satisfy some of the data requirements of these agencies and to provide basic data on the geohydrology of the area this report provides the results of a field inventory of the springs and wells within one mile of the lodge. Table 1 summarizes the data for eight springs and three sites where springs once issued. Table 2 summarizes the data on forty-four operable wells and thirty wells that are unusable in their present condition. Appendices list (1) wells presumed to be in the area but not located during field inspection and (2) wells that could be in the area, but were found to be beyond the one-mile radius. Temperature and specific conductance of the water show only minor variation within the recognized hot-water.

  14. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen and chlorine isotope compositions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and View the MathML source values range from +0.2‰ to +1.9‰ (average=+1.0±0.4‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004 and Leeman et al., 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. View the MathML source values of the lavas range from −0.1 to +0.8‰ (average = +0.4±0.3‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive View the MathML source values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with View the MathML source values >+1.0‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor–liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid–rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through

  15. Quantitative estimation of thermal contact conductance of a real front-end component at SPring-8 front-ends.

    PubMed

    Sano, Mutsumi; Takahashi, Sunao; Mochizuki, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Atsuo; Oura, Masaki; Kitamura, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    The thermal contact conductance (TCC) of a real front-end component at SPring-8 has been quantitatively estimated by comparing the results of experiments with those of finite-element analyses. In this paper one of the methods of predicting the TCC of a real instrument is presented. A metal filter assembly, which is an indirect-cooling instrument, was selected for the estimation of the TCC. The temperature of the metal filter assembly for the maximum heat load of synchrotron radiation was calculated from the TCC that is expected under normal conditions. This study contributes towards the ongoing research program being conducted to investigate the real thermal limitation of all front-end high-heat-load components. PMID:18097071

  16. Thermal stability of ledge-type L10-FePt/Fe exchange-spring nanocomposites for ultrahigh recording densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goll, D.; Macke, S.

    2008-10-01

    Long-term thermal stability is crucial for magnetic nanoparticles in ultrahigh density magnetic recording. For ledge-type exchange-spring nanocomposites consisting of a hard magnetic L10-FePt part and a soft magnetic Fe part of more extended horizontal size, the minimum energy barriers for thermal reversal between equilibrium states of the hysteresis loops are determined using a nudged-elastic-band path approach. The field dependence of the energy barrier can be described approximately by power laws. It turns out that nanopatterns of isolated ledge-type L10-FePt/Fe composite elements or isolated L10-FePt nanodots covered by a thin Fe film are well-suited in realizing ultrahigh recording densities.

  17. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-Paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, M. R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J. D.; Hinman, N. W.

    1996-01-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits.

  18. Microbial Composition of Near-Boiling Silica-Depositing Thermal Springs throughout Yellowstone National Park

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Carrine E.; Cady, Sherry L.; Pace, Norman R.

    2002-01-01

    The extent of hyperthermophilic microbial diversity associated with siliceous sinter (geyserite) was characterized in seven near-boiling silica-depositing springs throughout Yellowstone National Park using environmental PCR amplification of small-subunit rRNA genes (SSU rDNA), large-subunit rDNA, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). We found that Thermocrinis ruber, a member of the order Aquificales, is ubiquitous, an indication that primary production in these springs is driven by hydrogen oxidation. Several other lineages with no known close relatives were identified that branch among the hyperthermophilic bacteria. Although they all branch deep in the bacterial tree, the precise phylogenetic placement of many of these lineages is unresolved at this time. While some springs contained a fair amount of phylogenetic diversity, others did not. Within the same spring, communities in the subaqueous environment were not appreciably different than those in the splash zone at the edge of the pool, although a greater number of phylotypes was found along the pool's edge. Also, microbial community composition appeared to have little correlation with the type of sinter morphology. The number of cell morphotypes identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and scanning electron microscopy was greater than the number of phylotypes in SSU clone libraries. Despite little variation in Thermocrinis ruber SSU sequences, abundant variation was found in the hypervariable ITS region. The distribution of ITS sequence types appeared to be correlated with distinct morphotypes of Thermocrinis ruber in different pools. Therefore, species- or subspecies-level divergences are present but not detectable in highly conserved SSU sequences. PMID:12324363

  19. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1991-10-01

    The extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, consists of 45 high-quality soundings acquired in continuous-profiling mode and has been funded in support of CSDP drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter bipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 KW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. These current bipoles gave source fields over the receiver sites which were substantially independent in polarization and provided well-resolved tensor elements. The surroundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. At each receiver, two orthogonal electric and three orthogonal magnetic field components were acquired in accordance with tensor principles. Derivation of model resistivity cross sections from our data and their correlation with structure and geochemistry are principal components of the OBES award. However, Sulphur Springs also can serve as a natural testbed of traditional assumptions and methods of CSAMT with quantification through rigorous model analysis. Issues here include stability and accuracy of scalar versus tensor estimates, theoretical versus observed field patterns over the survey area, and controls on near-field effects using CSAMT and natural field data both inside and outside the caldera.

  20. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  1. Lithofacies and biofacies of mid-paleozoic thermal spring deposits in the Drummond Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.R.; Desmarais, D.; Farmer, J.C.; Hinman, N.W.

    1996-12-01

    The Devonian to Carboniferous sinters of the Drummond Basin, Australia, are among the oldest well established examples of fossil subaerial hot springs. Numerous subaerial and subaqueous spring deposits are known from the geological record as a result of the occurrence of economic mineral deposits in many of them. Some are reported to contain fossils, but very few have been studied by paleobiologists; they represent an untapped source of paleobiological information on the history of hydrothermal ecosystems. Such systems are of special interest, given the molecular biological evidence that thermophilic bacteria lie near the root of the tree of extant life. The Drummond Basin sinters are very closely comparable with modern examples in Yellowstone National Park and elsewhere. Thirteen microfacies are recognisable in the field, ranging from high temperature apparently abiotic geyserite through various forms of stromatolitic sinter probably of cyanobacterial origin to ambient temperature marsh deposits. Microfossils in the stromatolites are interpreted as cyanobacterial sheaths. Herbaceous lycopsids occur in the lower temperature deposits. 56 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Thaumarchaeal ammonium oxidation and evidence for a nitrogen cycle in a subsurface radioactive thermal spring in the Austrian Central Alps

    PubMed Central

    Gerbl, Friedrich W.; Weidler, Gerhard W.; Wanek, Wolfgang; Erhardt, Angelika; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies had suggested the presence of ammonium oxidizing Thaumarchaeota as well as nitrite oxidizing Bacteria in the subsurface spring called Franz Josef Quelle (FJQ), a slightly radioactive thermal mineral spring with a temperature of 43.6–47°C near the alpine village of Bad Gastein, Austria. The microbiological consortium of the FJQ was investigated for its utilization of nitrogen compounds and the putative presence of a subsurface nitrogen cycle. Microcosm experiments made with samples from the spring water, containing planktonic microorganisms, or from biofilms, were used in this study. Three slightly different media, enriched with vitamins and trace elements, and two incubation temperatures (30 and 40°C, respectively) were employed. Under aerobic conditions, high rates of conversion of ammonium to nitrite, as well as nitrite to nitrate were measured. Under oxygen-limited conditions nitrate was converted to gaseous compounds. Stable isotope probing with 15NH4Cl or (15NH4)2SO4as sole energy sources revealed incorporation of 15N into community DNA. Genomic DNA as well as RNA were extracted from all microcosms. The following genes or fragments of genes were successfully amplified, cloned and sequenced by standard PCR from DNA extracts: Ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA), nitrite oxidoreductase subunits A and B (nxrA and nxrB), nitrate reductase (narG), nitrite reductase (nirS), nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB), nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ). Reverse transcription of extracted total RNA and real-time PCR suggested the expression of each of those genes. Nitrogen fixation (as probed with nifH and nifD) was not detected. However, a geological origin of NH+4 in the water of the FJQ cannot be excluded, considering the silicate, granite and gneiss containing environment. The data suggested the operation of a nitrogen cycle in the subsurface environment of the FJQ. PMID:24904540

  3. Removal of toxic and alkali/alkaline earth metals during co-thermal treatment of two types of MSWI fly ashes in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yu; Jin, Limei; Ma, Chuan; Paterson, Nigel; Sun, Lushi

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to vaporize heavy metals and alkali/alkaline earth metals from two different types of fly ashes by thermal treatment method. Fly ash from a fluidized bed incinerator (HK fly ash) was mixed with one from a grate incinerator (HS fly ash) in various proportions and thermally treated under different temperatures. The melting of HS fly ash was avoided when treated with HK fly ash. Alkali/alkaline earth metals in HS fly ash served as Cl-donors to promote the vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment. With temperature increasing from 800 to 900°C, significant amounts of Cl, Na and K were vaporized. Up to 1000°C in air, less than 3% of Cl and Na and less than 5% of K were retained in ash. Under all conditions, Cd can be vaporized effectively. The vaporization of Pb was mildly improved when treated with HS fly ash, while the effect became less pronounced above 900°C. Alkali/alkaline earth metals can promote Cu vaporization by forming copper chlorides. Comparatively, Zn vaporization was low and only slightly improved by HS fly ash. The low vaporization of Zn could be caused by the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4. Under all conditions, less than 20% of Cr was vaporized. In a reductive atmosphere, the vaporization of Cd and Pb were as high as that in oxidative atmosphere. However, the vaporization of Zn was accelerated and that of Cu was hindered because the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4 and copper chloride was depressed in reductive atmosphere. PMID:26303652

  4. Pre-eruptive conditions in the Wah Wah Springs Tuff: No Evidence of Thermal Rejuvenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, K. S.; Christiansen, E. H.; Best, M. G.; Dorais, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Wah Wah Springs Tuff (29.5 Ma) is one of four super volcanic eruptions (>1000 km3 of magma) of dacite that occurred near the peak of the ignimbrite flare-up in the Great Basin of western North America. It erupted from the Indian Peak caldera complex that straddles the border of Utah and Nevada and can be characterized as a "monotonous intermediate" ignimbrite because of its intermediate concentrations of silica (63 to 70 wt%), apparent uniform chemical and mineralogical characteristics, and crystal-rich nature (32 ± 10 percent phenocrysts). The major phase assemblage found throughout the deposit is similar to other monotonous intermediates (pl>hnbl>bio>qtz>cpx>opx>mt>ilm; sanidine is absent). Based on experiments on the monotonous intermediate Fish Canyon Tuff, the Wah Wah Springs magma equilibrated between 775°C and 800°C at water-undersaturated conditions and a pressure near 2 kb. The Holland and Blundy hornblende-plagioclase thermometer (with or without quartz) and the QUILF Fe-Ti oxide thermometer most consistently yield temperatures within this range and the oxides give an fO2 of 2 to 3 log units above the QFM oxygen buffer. Two-pyroxene thermometry gives temperatures that average 860°C, and we conclude the pyroxenes are relicts of a higher temperature phase of crystallization. The Johnson and Rutherford Al-in-hornblende geobarometer indicates pressures between 2.0 and 2.5 kb. Thus, the Wah Wah Springs Tuff is similar to the Fish Canyon Tuff but erupted at a temperature about 15° to 40°C higher. On the other hand important differences between these two super eruptions are revealed by detailed compositional profiles across hornblende and plagioclase grains that constrain how intensive parameters changed during the evolution of the Wah Wah magma shortly before eruption. Plagioclase in the Wah Wah Springs displays oscillatory zonation with overall normal zonation (An70 cores to An40 rims). Hornblende is also zoned normally especially in Al2O3 and TiO2

  5. Geochemistry, Comparative Analysis, and Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Thermal Waters East of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2006-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department to characterize the source and hydrogeologic conditions responsible for thermal water in a domestic well 5.5 miles east of Hot Springs National Park, Hot Springs, Arkansas, and to determine the degree of hydraulic connectivity between the thermal water in the well and the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park. The water temperature in the well, which was completed in the Stanley Shale, measured 33.9 degrees Celsius, March 1, 2006, and dropped to 21.7 degrees Celsius after 2 hours of pumping - still more than 4 degrees above typical local groundwater temperature. A second domestic well located 3 miles from the hot springs in Hot Springs National Park was discovered to have a thermal water component during a reconnaissance of the area. This second well was completed in the Bigfork Chert and field measurement of well water revealed a maximum temperature of 26.6 degrees Celsius. Mean temperature for shallow groundwater in the area is approximately 17 degrees Celsius. The occurrence of thermal water in these wells raised questions and concerns with regard to the timing for the appearance of the thermal water, which appeared to coincide with construction (including blasting activities) of the Highway 270 bypass-Highway 70 interchange. These concerns were heightened by the planned extension of the Highway 270 bypass to the north - a corridor that takes the highway across a section of the eroded anticlinal complex responsible for recharge to the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park. Concerns regarding the possible effects of blasting associated with highway construction near the first thermal well necessitated a technical review on the effects of blasting on shallow groundwater systems. Results from available studies suggested that propagation of new fractures near blasting sites is of limited extent. Vibrations from blasting can result in

  6. A novel thermophilic methane-oxidizing bacteria from thermal springs of Uzon volcano caldera, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorianchikova, E.; Kizilova, A.; Kravchenko, I.; Galchenko, V.

    2012-04-01

    Methane is a radiatively active trace gas, contributing significantly to the greenhouse effect. It is 26 times more efficient in absorbing and re-emitting infrared radiation than carbon dioxide. Methanotrophs play an essential role in the global carbon cycle by oxidizing 50-75% of the biologically produced methane in situ, before it reaches the atmosphere. Methane-oxidizing bacteria are isolated from the various ecosystems and described at present. Their biology, processes of methane oxidation in fresh-water, marsh, soil and marine habitats are investigated quite well. Processes of methane oxidation in places with extreme physical and chemical conditions (high or low , salinity and temperature values) are studied in much smaller degree. Such ecosystems occupy a considerable part of the Earth's surface. The existence of aerobic methanotrophs inhabiting extreme environments has been verified so far by cultivation experiments and direct detection of methane monooxygenase genes specific to almost all aerobic methanotrophs. Thermophilic and thermotolerant methanotrophs have been isolated from such extreme environments and consist of the gammaproteobacterial (type I) genera Methylothermus, Methylocaldum, Methylococcus and the verrucomicrobial genus Methylacidiphilum. Uzon volcano caldera is a unique area, where volcanic processes still happen today. Hydrothermal springs of the area are extreme ecosystems which microbial communities represent considerable scientific interest of fundamental and applied character. A thermophilic aerobic methane-oxidising bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample from a hot spring (56.1; 5.3) of Uzon caldera. Strain S21 was isolated using mineral low salt medium. The headspace gas was composed of CH4, Ar, CO2, and O2 (40:40:15:5). The temperature of cultivation was 50, pH 5.5. Cells of strain S21 in exponential and early-stationary phase were coccoid bacilli, about 1 μm in diameter, and motile with a single polar flagellum. PCR and

  7. Montana: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 225 records for Montana. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Montana. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  8. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 314 records for Arizona. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Arizona. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  9. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 356 records for Wyoming. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Wyoming. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  10. Washington state basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    This report on Washington is one of a series intended to preserve the data collected for GEOTHERM and make the data available to the public. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Washington. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both in decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C).

  11. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 251 records for New Mexico. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for New Mexico. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  12. Colorado: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 225 records for Colorado. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Colorado. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  13. Variation in thermal tolerance and routine metabolism among spring- and stream-dwelling freshwater sculpins (Teleostei: Cottidae) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, S.J.; Haney, D.C.; Timmerman, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that some aquatic organisms may adapt by directional selection to limiting physical environmental conditions, yet empirical data are conflicting. We sought to test the assumption that sculpins (family Cottidae) inhabiting thermally stable springs of the southeastern United States differ in temperature tolerance and metabolism from populations inhabiting more thermally labile stream habitats. Spring populations of pygmy sculpins (Coitus pygmaeus) and Ozark sculpins (C. hypselurus) differed interspecifically in thermal tolerance from populations of stream-dwelling mottled (C. bairdi) and Tallapoosa sculpins (C. tallapoosae), and both stream and spring populations of banded sculpins (C. carolinae). No intra- or interspecific differences in thermal tolerance were found among populations of C. bairdi, C. tallapoosae, or C. carolinae. Coitus pygmaeus acclimated to 15??C differed intraspecifically in routine metabolism from fish acclimated to 20?? and 25??C. Cottus pygmaeus and stream-dwelling C. bairdi and C. carolinae acclimated to temperatures of 20?? and 25??C showed no interspecific differences in routine metabolism. Our results suggest that some spring-adapted populations or species may be more stenothermal than stream-dwelling congeners, but a greater understanding of the interactions of other physical and biological factors is required to better explain micro- and macrohabitat distributions of eastern North American sculpins.

  14. Geology and hydrogeochemistry of the Jungapeo CO 2-rich thermal springs, State of Michoacán, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebe, Claus; Goff, Fraser; Armienta, María Aurora; Counce, Dale; Poreda, Robert; Chipera, Steve

    2007-06-01

    We present the first geothermal assessment of the Jungapeo CO 2-rich mineral springs, which are located in the eastern part of Michoacán State (central Mexico) at the southern limit of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. All but one of the > 10 springs occur at the lower contact of the distal olivine-bearing basaltic andesite lavas of the Tuxpan shield, a 0.49- to 0.60-Ma-old cluster of monogenetic scoria cones and lava flows. The Tuxpan shield has a maximum radius of 6 km and was constructed on top of a folded and faulted Cretaceous basement consisting largely of marine limestones, marls, and shales. The mineral waters are characterized by moderate temperatures (28 to 32 °C), mild acidity (pH from 5.5 to 6.5), relatively high discharge rates, effervescence of CO 2 gas, clarity at emergence and abundant subsequent precipitation of hydrous iron, silica oxides, and carbonates around pool margins and issuing streamlets. Chemical and isotopic (deuterium, oxygen, and tritium) analyses of water and gas samples obtained during the period 1991-1997 indicate that the springs are largely composed of meteoric water from a local source with relatively short residence times (water ages of 7 to 25 years). Spring waters are chemically characterized by moderate SiO 2, Ca + Mg nearly equal to Na + K, high HCO 3, moderate to low Cl, low F and SO 4, high B, moderate Li, while Br and As are low. In contrast, Fe + Mn is exceptionally high. Thus, the Jungapeo waters cannot be regarded as high-temperature geothermal fluids. Instead, they resemble soda spring waters similar to other low-to-medium temperature soda waters in the world. Gas samples are extremely rich in CO 2 with no detectable geothermal H 2S or H 2 and very low contents of CH 4 and NH 3, indicating the gases are not derived from a high-temperature resource. Carbon-13 analyses of CO 2 show a narrow range (- 6.7‰ and - 7.2‰) that falls within the range for MORB CO 2. Thus, most CO 2 seems to originate from the mantle but

  15. Single domain antibody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins for antigen detection--analysis of affinity and thermal stability of single domain antibody.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinny L; Zabetakis, Dan; Lee, Audrey Brozozog; Goldman, Ellen R; Anderson, George P

    2013-07-31

    Single domain antibody (sdAb)-alkaline phosphatase (AP) fusion proteins have been demonstrated to be useful immunodiagnostic reagents for bio-threat agent detection. The bivalent nature of sdAb-AP fusion proteins significantly increases effective affinity and thus the sensitivity of detection, but the thermal stability of the fusion protein had not been explored. This property is critical for the development of immunoassays for use in austere environments. In this study four sdAbs with specificity for MS2 phage coat protein (CP) were expressed as fusions with AP in order to evaluate the thermal stability and affinity of the resulting constructs. The melting temperature (Tm) of the sdAb and sdAb-AP fusion proteins was measured by a combination of Circular Dichroism (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fluorescence-based Thermal Shift assay. Binding kinetics were assessed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Our results indicated that the AP fusion protein did not increase the Tm or enhance thermal stability of the sdAb, but did provide the expected increase in binding affinity as compared to the original sdAb. PMID:23570946

  16. Ferruginous thermal spring complexes, northwest Tasmania: evidence that far-field stresses acting on a fracture mesh can open and maintain vertical flow in carbonate terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Garry J.; Bavea, Michael; Harris, Kathryn

    2011-11-01

    Far-field stress changes in the southern Australian plate since 5 Ma have produced significant areas of uplift and seismicity. In northwest Tasmania, there is evidence that this stress reorientation to maximum horizontal NW-SE stress has influenced meteoric-derived thermal (15-20°C) discharge patterns of confined karstic aquifers, by placing pre-existing NW-trending faults/fractures into a dilated state or a critically stressed state. Previous studies have shown that spring discharge has operated continuously for at least 65,000 years, and has transported large volumes of solutes to the surface to be deposited as mounds of calcite-goethite-silica up to 7 m high. The thermal spring chemistry at one site, Mella, is consistent with descent to at least 1.2-1.5 km, although the hinterland within 50 km is less than 500 m elevation. Thermal spring chemistry is consistent with most of the deep water-rock interaction occurring in low-strontium Smithton Dolomite. While some of this water is discharged at springs, some instead intersects shallow zones of NE-fracture-controlled rock (2 × 4 km in area) with karstic permeability where, although confined and subject to a NE-directed hydraulic gradient, it circulates and cools to ambient temperature, with only minor mixing with other groundwaters.

  17. Three interesting coordination compounds based on metalloligand and alkaline-earth ions: Syntheses, structures, thermal behaviors and magnetic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiang; Qian, Jun; Zhang, Chi

    2016-09-01

    Based on metalloligand LCu ([Cu(2,4-pydca)2]2-, 2,4-pydca2- = pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate) and alkaline-earth ions (Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+), three interesting coordination compounds, [Ca(H2O)7][LCu·H2O]·H2O (1), {Sr[LCu·H2O]·4H2O}n (2), and {Ba[LCu·H2O]·8H2O}n (3), have been synthesized and well-characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that 1 features a discrete 0D coordination compound, while 2 and 3 exhibit the 2D network and 1D chain structures, respectively. Compound 2 is constructed from {LCu}2 dimers connected with {Sr2} units, which is fabricated by two Sr2+ ions bridged via two μ2-O bridges, while compound 3 is formed by 1D {Ba}n chain linked with metalloligands LCu and exhibits an interesting sandwich like chain structure. It is noted that the coordination numbers of alkaline-earth ions are in positive correlation with their radiuses. Moreover, the magnetic property of compound 2 has been studied.

  18. Hopanoid Biomarker Preservation In Coniform (Phormidium) Stromatolites in Siliceous Thermal Springs, Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Summons, Roger E.; Farmer, Jack D.; Klein, Harold P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The microbial communities that characterize modem hydrothermal ecosystems serve as modern analogs to those thought to have dominated early environments on Earth and possibly Mars. The importance of such hydrothermal systems as targets in exploring for an early biosphere on Mars is well established. Such work provides an important basis for the analysis of Martian samples associated with such environments. The surviving molecular structure and isotopic signature of diagnostic lipid biomarkers found as chemical fossils can provide a link between modern bacterially dominated ecosystems and their ancient counterparts. We are interested in the processes involved in the deposition and/or degradation of organic material in moderately thermal, silicifying microbial mats, particularly as this relates to the potential for preservation of some biomarker components known to be more highly resistant to microbial degradation. Several excellent biomarker molecules are associated with the cyanobacteria that dominate these mats, particularly the 2-methylbacteriohopanepolyols (2-MeBHP). These compounds are ubiquitous on Earth and are not easily degraded in nature, a fact documented by their detection in ancient Earth rocks dating back as far as 2,700 Ma.

  19. Characterising the hydrothermal circulation patterns beneath thermal springs in the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin, Ireland: a geophysical and geochemical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozár, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-04-01

    A hydrogeological conceptual model of the sources, circulation pathways and temporal variations of two low-enthalpy thermal springs is derived from a multi-disciplinary approach. The springs are situated in the Carboniferous limestones of the Dublin Basin, in east-central Ireland. Kilbrook spring (Co. Kildare) has the highest recorded temperatures for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25.0 °C), and St. Gorman's Well (Co. Meath) has a complex and variable temperature profile (maximum of 21.8 °C). These temperatures are elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5 - 10.5 °C), and represent a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys, time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, and hydrochemical analysis, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The hydrochemical analysis indicates that the thermal waters flow within the limestones of the Dublin Basin, and there is evidence that Kilbrook spring receives a contribution from deep-basinal fluids. The time-lapse temperature, electrical conductivity and water level records for St. Gorman's Well indicate a strongly non-linear response to recharge inputs to the system, suggestive of fluid flow in karst conduits. The 3-D electrical resistivity models of the subsurface revealed two types of geological structure beneath the springs; (1) Carboniferous normal faults, and (2) Cenozoic strike-slip faults. These structures are dissolutionally enhanced, particularly where they intersect. The karstification of these structures, which extend to depths of at least 500 m, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 240 and 1,000 m) within the Dublin

  20. Understanding hydrothermal circulation patterns at a low-enthalpy thermal spring using audio-magnetotelluric data: A case study from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Sarah; Henry, Tiernan; Muller, Mark R.; Jones, Alan G.; Moore, John Paul; Murray, John; Campanyà, Joan; Vozar, Jan; Walsh, John; Rath, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Kilbrook spring is a thermal spring in east-central Ireland. The temperatures in the spring are the highest recorded for any thermal spring in Ireland (maximum of 25 °C). The temperature is elevated with respect to average Irish groundwater temperatures (9.5-10.5 °C), and represents a geothermal energy potential, which is currently under evaluation. A multi-disciplinary investigation based upon an audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) survey, and hydrochemical analysis including time-lapse temperature and chemistry measurements, has been undertaken with the aims of investigating the provenance of the thermal groundwater and characterising the geological structures facilitating groundwater circulation in the bedrock. The three-dimensional (3-D) electrical resistivity model of the subsurface at Kilbrook spring was obtained by the inversion of AMT impedances and vertical magnetic transfer functions. The model is interpreted alongside high resolution temperature and electrical conductivity measurements, and a previous hydrochemical analysis. The hydrochemical analysis and time-lapse measurements suggest that the thermal waters have a relatively stable temperature and major ion hydrochemistry, and flow within the limestones of the Carboniferous Dublin Basin at all times. The 3-D resistivity model of the subsurface reveals a prominent NNW aligned structure within a highly resistive limestone lithology that is interpreted as a dissolutionally enhanced strike-slip fault, of Cenozoic age. The karstification of this structure, which extends to depths of at least 500 m directly beneath the spring, has provided conduits that facilitate the operation of a relatively deep hydrothermal circulation pattern (likely estimated depths between 560 and 1000 m) within the limestone succession of the Dublin Basin. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the winter thermal maximum and simultaneous increased discharge at Kilbrook spring is the result of rapid infiltration, heating and

  1. Geochemical Patterns of Geothermal Elements in Southern Italian Fumaroles and Thermal Springs in Relation with Mantle Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.; Minissale, A.; Donato, A.; Procesi, M.; Pizzino, L.; Giammanco, S.

    2015-12-01

    The review of published data together with some new data specifically made to fill gaps, to make a database of chemical and isotopic data for thermal emergences (springs, fumaroles and gas vents) in southern Italy, to be used for the publication of a Geothermal Atlas, has hallowed the re-interpretation of all the geochemical data gathered. The main conclusions are as follows. All active volcanic areas (Solfatara, Vesuvius, Ischia Isle, Mt Etna, Aeolian Islands and Pantelleria Isle) have i) high 3He/4He rations coupled with ii) high CO2 emissions and iii) geo-thermometric (isotopic) signatures that suggest the presence of active geothermal systems in all places at shallow depth. In spite of this, no one of these areas, is exploited for geothermal power generation. There are three further Quaternary volcanic areas at: Iblei Mts in Sicily, Vulture volcano in Basilicata region and Logudoro area in Sardinia Island that also have CO2-rich gas emissions, high in 3He/4He ratio, but they are not associated to any relevant thermal emission nearby. In terms of regional patterns, apart from the Calabria subduction arc area (Calabria region), the stable flat cratonic areas of Apulia in SE Italy, the Iblean Platform in SE Sicily, and most of Sardinia, the latter not involved in the Apennine Orogeny, the remaining southern Italy along the Tyrrhenian sector has huge emission of hydrothermally generated CO2 crossed, in counterflow, by descending topographically driven N2 solubilized in recharge meteoric water from the main Apennine belt. Iso-distribution maps of several of the parameters investigated even more clearly show the sectors of southern Italy affected by the intrusion of mantle magma and therefore the areas where the geothermal heat-flow is maximized by active tectonics.

  2. Crenarchaeota and Their Role in the Nitrogen Cycle in a Subsurface Radioactive Thermal Spring in the Austrian Central Alps▿

    PubMed Central

    Weidler, Gerhard W.; Gerbl, Friedrich W.; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    2008-01-01

    Previous results from a 16S rRNA gene library analysis showed high diversity within the prokaryotic community of a subterranean radioactive thermal spring, the “Franz-Josef-Quelle” (FJQ) in Bad Gastein, Austria, as well as evidence for ammonia oxidation by crenarchaeota. This study reports further characterization of the community by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and semiquantitative nitrification measurements. DGGE bands from three types of samples (filtered water, biofilms on glass slides, and naturally grown biofilms), including samples collected at two distinct times (January 2005 and July 2006), were analyzed. The archaeal community consisted mainly of Crenarchaeota of the soil-subsurface-freshwater group (group 1.1b) and showed a higher diversity than in the previous 16S rRNA gene library analysis, as was also found for crenarchaeal amoA genes. No bacterial amoA genes were detected. FISH analysis of biofilms indicated the presence of archaeal cells with an abundance of 5.3% (±4.5%) in the total 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained community. Microcosm experiments of several weeks in duration showed a decline of ammonium that correlated with an increase of nitrite, the presence of crenarchaeal amoA genes, and the absence of bacterial amoA genes. The data suggested that only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) perform the first step of nitrification in this 45°C environment. The crenarchaeal amoA gene sequences grouped within a novel cluster of amoA sequences from the database, originating from geothermally influenced environments, for which we propose the designation “thermal spring” cluster and which may be older than most AOA from soils on earth. PMID:18723663

  3. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  4. Utilization of automotive shredder residues in a thermal process for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, N M; Belardi, G; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is the recovery by thermal treatment of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, on the basis of the different phase change temperatures of the two metal-bearing phases. ASR (Automotive Shredder Residue), containing 68% of carbon, was added to the mixture to act as a reductant to metallic Zn of the zinc-bearing phases. The mixture was subsequently heated in different atmospheres (air, CO2 and N2) and at different temperatures (900°C, 1000°C and 1200°C) and stoichiometric excess of ASR (300%, 600% and 900%). Characterization of the mixture and of the residues of thermal treatment was carried out by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA, SEM and XRD. The results show that recovery of 99% of zinc (grade 97%) is achieved at 1000°C in N2 with a stoichiometric excess of car-fluff of 900%. This product could be suitable for production of new batteries after refining by hydrometallurgical way. Recovery of Mn around 98% in the residue of the treatment is achieved at any temperature and atmosphere tested with a grade of 57% at 900% excess of car-fluff. This residue is enriched in manganese oxide and could be used in the production of iron-manganese alloys. PMID:26777778

  5. Single-Crystal Springs For Accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal noise reduced, enabling use of smaller proof masses. Spring-and-mass accelerometers in which springs made of single-crystal material being developed. In spring-and-mass accelerometer, proof mass attached to one end of spring, and acceleration of object at other end of spring measured in terms of deflection of spring, provided frequency spectrum of acceleration lies well below resonant frequency of spring-and-proof-mass system. Use of single-crystal spring materials instead of such polycrystalline spring materials as ordinary metals makes possible to construct highly sensitive accelerometers (including seismometers) with small proof masses.

  6. Nitrospira-dominated biofilm within a thermal artesian spring: a case for nitrification-driven primary production in a geothermal setting.

    PubMed

    Marks, C R; Stevenson, B S; Rudd, S; Lawson, P A

    2012-09-01

    Water chemistry, energetic modeling, and molecular analyses were combined to investigate the microbial ecology of a biofilm growing in a thermal artesian spring within Hot Springs National Park, AR. This unique fresh water spring has a low dissolved chemical load and is isolated from both light and direct terrestrial carbon input - resulting in an oligotrophic ecosystem limited for fixed carbon and electron donors. Evaluation of energy yields of lithotrophic reactions putatively linked to autotrophy identified the aerobic oxidation of methane, hydrogen, sulfide, ammonia, and nitrite as the most exergonic. Small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene libraries from biofilm revealed a low-diversity microbial assemblage populated by bacteria and archaea at a gene copy ratio of 45:1. Members of the bacterial family 'Nitrospiraceae', known for their autotrophic nitrite oxidation, dominated the bacterial SSU rRNA gene library (approximately 45%). Members of the Thaumarchaeota ThAOA/HWCGIII (>96%) and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1b (2.5%), which both contain confirmed autotrophic ammonia oxidizers, dominated the archaeal SSU rRNA library. Archaea appear to dominate among the ammonia oxidizers, as only ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes belonging to members of the Thaumarchaeota were detected. The geochemical, phylogenetic, and genetic data support a model that describes a novel thermophilic biofilm built largely by an autotrophic nitrifying microbial assemblage. This is also the first observation of 'Nitrospiraceae' as the dominant organisms within a geothermal environment. PMID:22726612

  7. Molecular diversity and high virulence of Legionella pneumophila strains isolated from biofilms developed within a warm spring of a thermal spa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several cases of legionellosis have been diagnosed in the same French thermal spa in 1986, 1994 and 1997. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) strains have been isolated from several patients, but the source of contamination was not identified despite the presence of different Lp1 in water samples of the three natural springs feeding the spa at this period. Results Our strategy was to investigate L. pneumophila (Lp) strains from natural biofilms developed in a sulphur-rich warm spring of this contaminated site. Biofilm analysis revealed the presence of three Lp serogroups (Lp1, Lp10 and Lp12). Surprisingly, Lp10 and Lp12 were not reported in the previous described studies from water samples. Besides, the new seven Lp1 we isolated exhibit a high molecular diversity and have been differentiated in five classes according to their DNA genome patterns obtained by PFGE and mip sequences. It must be noted that these DNA patterns are original and unknown in databases. Interestingly, the 27 Lp environmental strains we isolated display a higher cytotoxicity and virulence towards the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii than those of known Lp1 epidemic strains. Conclusion The characteristics of Legionella pneumophila Lp1 strains isolated from the warm spring are in agreement with their presence in biofilms and their probable long-term persistence in this ecosystem. PMID:23350929

  8. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen concentrations and chlorine isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and δ37Cl values range from + 0.2 ‰ to + 1.9 ‰ (average = + 1.0 ± 0.4 ‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004, 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. δ37Cl values of the lavas range from -0.1 to + 0.8 ‰ (average = + 0.4 ± 0.3 ‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive δ37Cl values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with δ37Cl values > + 1.0 ‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor-liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid-rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through subduction zones.

  9. [New Strains of an Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacterium Porphyrobacter donghaensis Isolated from a Siberian Thermal Spring and a Low-Mineralization Lake].

    PubMed

    Nuyanzina-Boldareva, E N; Akimova, V N; Takaiche, S; Gorlenko, V M

    2016-01-01

    A strain of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAPB) isolated from the surface of a cyano- bacterial mat of an Eastern Siberian thermal spring (40 C) and designated Se 4 was identified as Porphyro- bacter donghaensis according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence. A DNA-DNA hybridization level of 95% was determined between strain Se-4 and the type strain of this species; SW-132@T. The isolate was an obligate aerobe,. forming orange round colonies on solid media, which turn red in the course of growth. The cells were motile rods capable of branching. The cells divided by uniform fission by constriction. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.5 and NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1 g/L. The pigments present were carotenoids and bacteriochlorophyll a. Another Porphyrobacter donghaensis strain, Noj- 1, isolated from a purple mat developing on the surface of a coastal set-up in a steppe low-mineralization (1.5 g/L) soda lake Nozhii (Eastern Siberia) possessed similar characteristics. Thus, the AAPB species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was shown to-occur, apart from its known habitat, marine environments, in low-mineralization soda lakes and freshwater thermal springs. Description of the species Porphyrobacter donghaensis was amended. PMID:27301129

  10. Evaluation of R. Paul Smith Steam Electric Station thermal discharge effects on benthic communities; Spring 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A study of thermal effluent effects on benthic invertebrates was conducted near the R.P. Smith Steam Electric Station. Samples were collected during May 1980 with a dome suction sampler and an aquatic drift net. Samples were collected on upstream and downstream control transects and on transects in the thermally influenced area. The objective of this survey was to assess effects of thermal discharge on the abundance and biomass macroinvertebrates in the Potomac River.

  11. Vapor Discharges On Nevado Del Ruiz During The Recent Activity: Clues On The Composition Of The Deep Hydrothermal System And Its Effects On Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, S.; Federico, C.; Chacon, Z.; Londono, J. M.; Alzate, D. M.; Gil, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Nevado del ruiz volcano (NdR, 5321m asl), one of the most active in Colombia, threatens about 600,000 people. The existence of an ice cap and several streams channeling in some main rivers increase the risk of lahars and mudflows in case of unrest, as occurred during the November 1985 eruption, which caused 20,000 casualties. The involvement of the local hydrothermal system has also produced in the past phreatic and phreatomagmatic activity, as in 1985 and 1989. After more than 7 years of relative stability, since 2010, the still ongoing phase of unrest has produced two small eruption in 2012, and still maintains in high levels of seismicity and SO2 degassing. In October 2013, a sampling campaign has been performed on thermal springs and streamwater, located at 2600-5000 m asl, analyzed for water chemistry and stable isotopes. By applying a model of steam-heating, based on mass and enthalpy balances, we have estimated the mass rate of steam discharging in the different steam-heated springs. The composition of the hottest thermal spring (Botero Londoño) is probably representative of a marginal part of the hydrothermal system, having a temperature of 250°C and low salinity (Cl ~1500 mg/l), which suggest a chiefly meteoric origin, as also confirmed by the isotope composition retrieved for the hydrothermal water. The vapour discharged at the steam vent "Nereidas" (3600 m asl) is hypothesised to be separated from a high-temperature hyrothermal system. Based on its composition and on literature data on fluid inclusions, we have retrieved the P-T-X conditions of the deep hydrothermal system, as well as its pH and fO2. The vapour feeding Nereidas would separate from a byphasic hydrothermal system characterised by the follow parameters: t= 315°C, P=19 MPa, NaCl= 15 %, CO2 = 9%, and similar proportion between liquid and vapour. Considering also the equilibria involving S-bearing gases and HCl, we obtain pH=2, fO2 fixed by FeO-Fe2O3 buffer, and [Cl]=12000 mg/l. Changes

  12. Molecular Characterization of the Diversity and Distribution of a Thermal Spring Microbial Community by Using rRNA and Metabolic Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Justine R.; Mitchell, Kendra R.; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Kooser, Ara S.; Cron, Brandi R.; Crossey, Laura J.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2008-01-01

    The diversity and distribution of a bacterial community from Coffee Pots Hot Spring, a thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park with a temperature range of 39.3 to 74.1°C and pH range of 5.75 to 6.91, were investigated by sequencing cloned PCR products and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA and metabolic genes. The spring was inhabited by three Aquificae genera—Thermocrinis, Hydrogenobaculum, and Sulfurihydrogenibium—and members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and candidate division OP5. The in situ chemical affinities were calculated for 41 potential metabolic reactions using measured environmental parameters and a range of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations. Reactions that use oxygen, ferric iron, sulfur, and nitrate as electron acceptors were predicted to be the most energetically favorable, while reactions using sulfate were expected to be less favorable. Samples were screened for genes used in ammonia oxidation (amoA, bacterial gene only), the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (aclB), the Calvin cycle (cbbM), sulfate reduction (dsrAB), nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrite reduction (nirK), and sulfide oxidation (soxEF1) by PCR. Genes for carbon fixation by the rTCA cycle and nitrogen fixation were detected. All aclB sequences were phylogenetically related and spatially correlated to Sulfurihydrogenibium 16S rRNA gene sequences using qPCR (R2 = 0.99). This result supports the recent finding of citrate cleavage by enzymes other than ATP citrate lyase in the rTCA cycle of the Aquificaceae family. We briefly consider potential biochemical mechanisms that may allow Sulfurihydrogenibium and Thermocrinis to codominate some hydrothermal environments. PMID:18539788

  13. Molecular characterization of the diversity and distribution of a thermal spring microbial community by using rRNA and metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Hall, Justine R; Mitchell, Kendra R; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Kooser, Ara S; Cron, Brandi R; Crossey, Laura J; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2008-08-01

    The diversity and distribution of a bacterial community from Coffee Pots Hot Spring, a thermal spring in Yellowstone National Park with a temperature range of 39.3 to 74.1 degrees C and pH range of 5.75 to 6.91, were investigated by sequencing cloned PCR products and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA and metabolic genes. The spring was inhabited by three Aquificae genera--Thermocrinis, Hydrogenobaculum, and Sulfurihydrogenibium--and members of the Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and candidate division OP5. The in situ chemical affinities were calculated for 41 potential metabolic reactions using measured environmental parameters and a range of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations. Reactions that use oxygen, ferric iron, sulfur, and nitrate as electron acceptors were predicted to be the most energetically favorable, while reactions using sulfate were expected to be less favorable. Samples were screened for genes used in ammonia oxidation (amoA, bacterial gene only), the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycle (aclB), the Calvin cycle (cbbM), sulfate reduction (dsrAB), nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrite reduction (nirK), and sulfide oxidation (soxEF1) by PCR. Genes for carbon fixation by the rTCA cycle and nitrogen fixation were detected. All aclB sequences were phylogenetically related and spatially correlated to Sulfurihydrogenibium 16S rRNA gene sequences using qPCR (R(2) = 0.99). This result supports the recent finding of citrate cleavage by enzymes other than ATP citrate lyase in the rTCA cycle of the Aquificaceae family. We briefly consider potential biochemical mechanisms that may allow Sulfurihydrogenibium and Thermocrinis to codominate some hydrothermal environments. PMID:18539788

  14. Were fossil spring-associated carbonates near Zaca Lake, Santa Barbara, California deposited under an ambient or thermal regime?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Yadira; Corsetti, Frank A.; Cheetham, Michael I.; Feakins, Sarah J.

    2014-03-01

    A previously undescribed succession of currently-inactive spring-associated carbonates located near Zaca Lake, Southern California, was investigated in order to determine the nature of deposition (ambient temperature or hydrothermal water, as both are found within the region). The carbonate deposits are up to ~ 1 m thick and formed discontinuously for over 200 m in a narrow valley between two ridges that drain Miocene Monterey Formation bedrock. Depositional facies along the presently dry fluvial path include barrage deposits, narrow fluvial channels, and cascade deposits. The carbonates are mesoscopically banded and contain ubiquitous micro- to macrophyte calcite encrusted fabrics. All of the depositional facies contain alternating bands (~ .05 mm to 5 mm thick) of dark brown and light brown isopachous calcite; the dark brown bands are composed of dense isopachous bladed calcite, whereas the light brown bands are composed of bundles of calcite tubules interpreted as the biosignature of the desmid microalgae Oocardium stratum. Oxygen isotope thermometry utilizing modern water δ18O values from the piped spring reveal depositional water temperature estimates that collectively range from ~ 11 to 16 °C. Stable isotope carbon values exhibit a mean δ13C value of - 9.01 ± 0.62‰ (1σ, n = 27). Our petrographic and geochemical data demonstrate that (1) inactive carbonates were likely sourced from ambient temperature water with a strong soil-zone δ13C signal, (2) the Oocardium calcite biosignature can be used to infer depositional temperature and flow conditions, and (3) the occurrence of extensive carbonates (especially the presence of a perched cascade deposit) indicate the carbonates formed when conditions were much wetter.

  15. Spring Tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  16. Chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs, fumaroles and bubbling gases at Tacaná Volcano (Mexico-Guatemala): implications for volcanic surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, Dmitri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Taran, Yuri; Varley, Nicholas; Santiago S., José A.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents baseline data for future geochemical monitoring of the active Tacaná volcano-hydrothermal system (Mexico-Guatemala). Seven groups of thermal springs, related to a NW/SE-oriented fault scarp cutting the summit area (4,100m a.s.l.), discharge at the northwest foot of the volcano (1,500-2,000m a.s.l.); another one on the southern ends of Tacaná (La Calera). The near-neutral (pH from 5.8 to 6.9) thermal ( T from 25.7°C to 63.0°C) HCO3-SO4 waters are thought to have formed by the absorption of a H2S/SO2-CO2-enriched steam into a Cl-rich geothermal aquifer, afterwards mixed by Na/HCO3-enriched meteoric waters originating from the higher elevations of the volcano as stated by the isotopic composition (δD and δ18O) of meteoric and spring waters. Boiling temperature fumaroles (89°C at ~3,600m a.s.l. NW of the summit), formed after the May 1986 phreatic explosion, emit isotopically light vapour (δD and δ18O as low as -128 and -19.9‰, respectively) resulting from steam separation from the summit aquifer. Fumarolic as well as bubbling gases at five springs are CO2-dominated. The δ13CCO2 for all gases show typical magmatic values of -3.6 ± 1.3‰ vs V-PDB. The large range in 3He/4He ratios for bubbling, dissolved and fumarolic gases [from 1.3 to 6.9 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)] is ascribed to a different degree of near-surface boiling processes inside a heterogeneous aquifer at the contact between the volcanic edifice and the crystalline basement (4He source). Tacaná volcano offers a unique opportunity to give insight into shallow hydrothermal and deep magmatic processes affecting the CO2/3He ratio of gases: bubbling springs with lower gas/water ratios show higher 3He/4He ratios and consequently lower CO2/3He ratios (e.g. Zarco spring). Typical Central American CO2/3He and 3He/4He ratios are found for the fumarolic Agua Caliente and Zarco gases (3.1 ± 1.6 × 1010 and 6.0 ± 0.9 R A, respectively). The L/ S (5.9 ± 0.5) and ( L + S)/ M

  17. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs, Krşehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünsal, N.; Afşin, M.

    1999-12-01

    The present study identifies the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs in Krşehir province, a geothermal field in central Anatolia, Turkey. Based on these properties, a hydrogeological regime is proposed in order to explain the Mahmutlu-Bağdatoğlu geothermal system. The relation between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water is similar to the relationship in global meteoric water, indicating that the water is of meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these two thermal springs belong to the same hydrogeological system. The hydrogeological system comprises a fractured limestone member of the Çevirme Formation and the Kervansaray Formation as reservoir rocks, and the Delicermak Formation as an overlying aquitard. The waters of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu springs are mainly of the Na-Cl-SO4 type that originate from the Pohrenk evaporite. The thermal waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, halite, and gypsum. The δ18O and δ2H contents indicate a δ18O shift in the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu waters. The temperature range of the two reservoirs is estimated to be 98-158 °C, on the basis of Na+K+Ca and SiO2 geothermometers. RésuméCette étude présente les caractéristiques chimiques et isotopiques des sources thermales minéralisées de Mahmutlu et de Bağdatoğlu, dans la province de Krşehir, un champ géothermal d'Anatolie centrale (Turquie). Un fonctionnement hydrogéologique est proposéà partir de ces caractéristiques, permettant d'expliquer le système géothermal de Mahmatlu-Bağdatoğlu. La relation entre les teneurs en deutérium et celles en oxygène-18 des eaux est semblable à celle des eaux météoriques mondiales, ce qui indique que l'eau est d'origine météorique. Les caractéristiques géochimiques des eaux de ces deux sources montrent qu'elles appartiennent au

  18. Upwelling of deep water during thermal stratification onset—A major mechanism of vertical transport in small temperate lakes in spring?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöschke, Franziska; Lewandowski, Jörg; Engelhardt, Christof; Preuß, Konrad; Oczipka, Martin; Ruhtz, Thomas; Kirillin, Georgiy

    2015-12-01

    Using airborne thermal infrared imaging and horizontally resolved in situ temperature monitoring at the lake surface, we estimated strength and duration of regular wind-driven upwelling of dense deep water to the lake surface in two small (in terms of Rossby radius) temperate lakes during the initial phase of summer thermal stratification. The onset and duration of the upwelling events correlated well with the balance between stratification (in terms of Schmidt stability) and wind forcing, as expressed by Lake and Wedderburn numbers. The period of regular upwelling appearances lasted 7-15 days, identified by Schmidt stabilities around 30 J m-2 and Lake numbers between 0 and 1, and resulted in persistent temperature gradients of up to 2°C across the lake surface. Our results suggest that spring upwelling should inevitably take place in all freshwater temperate lakes with mean temperatures crossing the maximum density value of freshwater on annual cycle, whereas duration and intensity of the upwelling would vary depending on lake morphometry and weather conditions. Our results suggest major contribution of upwelling in nutrient supply to the upper waters, oxygenation of the deep water column, and air-lake gas exchange, in particular, the release of the sediment-produced methane into the atmosphere.

  19. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  20. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Christopher R.; Grigorieva, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  1. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Christopher R; Grigorieva, Elena A

    2015-12-01

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  2. Changes in the discharge characteristics of thermal springs and fumaroles in the Long Valley Caldera, California, resulting from earthquakes on May 25-27, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Clark, Mark D.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in flow rate and turbidity have been observed and measured in hot springs in the Long Valley caldera, California, following earthquakes with magnitudes up to 6.3 in May 1980. Increases in flow rate of some hot springs occurred within minutes of the earthquakes, followed by more gradual decreases in flow rate to pre-earthquake levels. Spring temperatures and chemistries also show no long-term variations following earthquakes. Transient changes in discharge characteristics of the hot springs appear to result from increases in the permeability of fault conduits transmitting the hot water to the surface. (USGS)

  3. Method for thermal cracking of hydrocarbons in an apparatus of an alloy having alkali or alkaline earth metals in the alloy to minimize coke deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Morimura, T.; Toyoda, Y.

    1984-06-12

    In the thermal cracking of or heating of hydrocarbons, for example naphtha, a carbonization reaction incidentally takes place due to the fact that Ni, Fe and Co contained in, for example, the conduits of the thermal cracking apparatus have a catalytically carbonizing action. The aim of the present invention is to effectively suppress carbon deposition promoted by these elements, to provide for the incorporation of an inhibitor element, e.g. Li, Na, Ba, Be, Ca, Mg or their oxides, into the heat-resistant alloy, and to form on the surface of this alloy a carbon deposition suppressing layer which comprises an inhibitor element.

  4. Alkaline "Permanent" Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacey, Antony

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of paper manufacturing processes and their effects on library materials focuses on the promotion of alkaline "permanent" paper, with less acid, by Canadian library preservation specialists. Standards for paper acidity are explained; advantages of alkaline paper are described, including decreased manufacturing costs; and recyclability is…

  5. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  6. Synthesis of silver/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide through a one-step thermal solid-state reaction for oxygen reduction in an alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-08-01

    One of the obstacles to the commercialisation of fuel cells is the high cost of noble metals, such as platinum, that are used as electrocatalysts. Silver-incorporated nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag/N-rGO) has been synthesised through the simple annealing of metal salts with graphene oxide and melamine. The presence of silver and nitrogen atoms in Ag/N-rGO was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Both the XPS and EDS results showed a higher Ag loading on the N-rGO surface compared with the rGO surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed a wide size distribution of Ag particles loaded on the N-rGO surface. Electrochemical results indicate that N-rGO is a better support for Ag than rGO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) results indicate that Ag/N-rGO is a potential ORR catalyst candidate in alkaline as it exhibited an onset potential of -0.15 V vs. Ag/AgCl and a limiting diffusion current density of -4.38 mA cm-2 with four electron pathways. In addition, Ag/N-rGO also showed better methanol tolerance than Pt/C.

  7. Alkaline igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitton, J.G.; Upton, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this volume, an international team of scientists provides an up-to-date overview of the nature, origin, and evolution of alkaline magmas. Particular attention is paid to carbonatites, lamprophyres, and lamproites which are rock suites of current interest not recently reviewed elsewhere. Recent work on the classical alkaline provinces of East Africa, South Greenland, and the Kola Peninsula is included together with reviews of other areas of alkaline magmatism in North and South America, East Greenland, Europe, West Africa, and the ocean basins. Other papers discuss the impact of experimental isotopic and geochemical studies of the petrogenesis of alkaline rocks. This book will be of interest to petrologists and geochemists studying alkaline igneous rocks, and to other earth scientists as a reference on the rapidly expanding field of igneous petrology.

  8. Environmental conditions of boreal springs explained by capture zone characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Pekka M.; Marttila, Hannu; Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Ala-aho, Pertti; Isokangas, Elina; Muotka, Timo; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-12-01

    Springs are unique ecosystems, but in many cases they are severely threatened and there is an urgent need for better spring management and conservation. To this end, we studied water quality and quantity in springs in Oulanka National Park, north-east Finland. Multivariate statistical methods were employed to relate spring water quality and quantity to hydrogeology and land use of the spring capture zone. This revealed that most springs studied were affected by locally atypical dolostone-limestone bedrock, resulting in high calcium, pH, and alkalinity values. Using Ward's hierarchical clustering, the springs were grouped into four clusters based on their water chemistry. One cluster consisted of springs affected by past small-scale agriculture, whereas other clusters were affected by the variable bedrock, e.g., springs only 1 km from the dolostone-limestone bedrock area were beyond its calcium-rich impact zone. According to a random forest model, the best predictors of spring water chemistry were spring altitude and the stable hydrogen isotope ratio of the water (δ2H). Thus stable water isotopes could be widely applicable for boreal spring management. They may also provide a rough estimate of groundwater flow route (i.e., whether it is mainly local or regional), which largely determines the chemical characteristics of spring water. Our approach could be applied in other boreal regions and at larger spatial scales for improved classification of springs and for better targeted spring management.

  9. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Olalla; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats. PMID:25369743

  10. Novel alkaline earth silicate sealing glass for SOFC, Part I: the effect of nickel oxide on the thermal and mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Gow, Robert N.

    2007-06-01

    This is a two-part study of a novel Sr-Ca-Ni-Y-B silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In this paper (Part I), the effect of NiO on glass forming, thermal, and mechanical properties was studied with two different approaches: glass making and composite glass. In the following paper (Part II), sealing and interfacial microstructure of candidate composite glass with 10v percent NiO will be addressed. In Part I, higher NiO content in the glass resulted in precipitation during the glass making process, and the sintered powder compacts of these glasses showed extensive macro- and micro-cracks. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) showed large decrease for glass with higher NiO contents. On the other hand, glass-based composites showed no fracture even with NiO content as high as 15 percent. The CTE of the composite glass, which increased with increasing NiO content (consistent with the rule of mixtures prediction), could be adjusted to match the CTE of SOFC components. Phase characterization by XRD identified phases of YBO3 and NiO in the glass, which were likely responsible for the poor mechanical and thermal properties for the glass making approach.

  11. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    DOEpatents

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  12. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, Harold William

    1982-01-01

    Thermal water 30.0 degrees to 72.0 degrees Celsius is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for residence heating, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.1 x 107 calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect reservoir response to development of the resource. The thermal waters sampled are sodium carbonate or bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local cooler ground water can be shown from various relations among stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of tritium, the age of most of the water sampled is at least 100 years and perhaps more than 1,000 years. Some water (33 degrees Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, the best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal water is between 70 degrees and 100 degrees Celsius.

  13. Geothermal resources in the Banbury Hot Springs area, Twin Falls County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, R.E.; Young, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal water (30.0 to 72.0 degrees Celsius) is produced from 26 wells and 2 springs in the vicinity of Banbury Hot Springs near Buhl, Idaho. Thermal water is used for space heating of private residences, catfish and tropical fish production, greenhouse operation, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths. In 1979, 10 ,300 acre-feet of thermal water was utilized; heat discharged convectively from the geothermal system was about 1.09 x 10 to the 7th power calories per second. Decline in artesian head and discharge apparent in recorder charts from two wells may represent seasonal fluctuations or may reflect aquifer response to development of the resource. Thermal waters sampled are sodium bicarbonate in character and slightly alkaline. Mixing of a hot (72 degrees Celsius) water with local, cooler ground water can be shown from various relations between stable isotopes, chloride, and enthalpy. On the basis of concentration of trituim , age of the waters sampled is at least 100 years an perhaps more than 1,000 years. One water (33 degress Celsius) may be as young as 29 years. On the basis of silica, sodium-potassium-calcium, and sulfate-water geothermometers, best estimate of the maximum reservoir temperature for the thermal waters is between about 70 and 100 degrees Celsius. (USGS)

  14. THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. DETAIL OF THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  18. Geologic map of the Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera Geothermal System, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Gardner, J.N.

    1980-12-01

    The geologic and tectonic setting and geology of Sulphur Springs Area are described. Geologic faults, sheared or brecciated rock, volcanic vents, geothermal wells, hydrothermal alteration, springs, thermal springs, fumaroles, and geologic deposits are indicated on the map. (MHR)

  19. Spring Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    22 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dunes in the north polar region of Mars. In this scene, the dunes, and the plain on which the dunes reside, are at least in part covered by a bright carbon dioxide frost. Dark spots indicate areas where the frost has begun to change, either by subliming away to expose dark sand, changing to a coarser particle size, or both. The winds responsible for the formation of these dunes blew from the lower left (southwest) toward the upper right (northeast).

    Location near: 76.3oN, 261.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  20. Electron thermalization and trapping rates in pure and doped alkali and alkaline-earth iodide crystals studied by picosecond optical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucer, K. B.; Bizarri, G.; Burger, A.; Gektin, A.; Trefilova, L.; Williams, R. T.

    2014-04-01

    Although light continues to be emitted from insulating crystals used as scintillators over a period of nanoseconds to microseconds after stopping of an energetic particle, much of what determines the nonlinearity of response goes on in the first picoseconds. On this time scale, free carriers and excitons are at high density near the track core and thus are subject to nonlinear quenching. The hot (free) electrons eventually cool to low enough energy that trapping on holes, dopants, or defects can commence. In the track environment, spatial distributions of trapped carriers determined on the picosecond time scale can influence the proportionality between light yield and the initial particle energy throughout the whole light pulse. Picosecond spectroscopy of optical absorption induced by a short pulse of above-gap excitation provides a useful window on what occurs during the crucial early evolution of excited populations. The laser excitation can be tuned to excite carriers that are initially very hot (˜3 eV) relative to the band edges, or that are almost thermalized (˜0.1 eV excess energy) at the outset. Undoped and doped samples of NaI:Tl(0%, 0.1%), CsI:Tl(0%, 0.01%, 0.04%, 0.3%), and SrI2:Eu(0%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 3%) are studied in this work.

  1. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  2. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  3. Chemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas compositions of the hot springs of the Owyhee Uplands, Malheur County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Young, H.W.; Evans, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Hot springs along the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon between Three Forks and Lake Owyhee could be part of a north flowing regional system or a series of small separate geothermal systems Heat for the waters could be from a very young (Holocene) volcanic activity (basalt flows) of the Owyhee Uplands or the regional heat flow. The springs discharge warm to hot, dilute, slightly alkaline, sodium bicarbonate water. Chemically they are similar to the dilute thermal water at Bruneau Grand View and Twin Falls, Idaho. Maximum aquifer temperatures in the Owyhee Uplands, estimated from chemical geothermometry, are about 100°C. Dissolved helium concentrations, carbon 14 activity, and chemical and isotope data are examined fro systematic trends which would indicate a geothermal system of regional extent.

  4. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    PubMed

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  5. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  6. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Martin, Peter, (Edited By); Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of fluid and temperature flow were developed for the Agua Caliente Spring to (1) test the validity of the conceptual model that the Agua Caliente Spring enters the valley-fill deposits from fractures in the underlying basement complex and rises through more than 800 feet of valley-fill deposits by way of a washed-sand conduit and surrounding low-permeability deposits (spring chimney) of its own making, (2) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of discharging water, and (3) determine the source of thermal water in the perched aquifer. A radial-flow model was used to test the conceptual model and the effect of water-level declines. The observed spring discharge and temperature could be simulated if the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the spring orifice was about 200 feet per day and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the orifice (spring chimney) was about 0.00002 feet per day. The simulated vertical hydraulic conductivity is within the range of values reported for sand; however, the low value simulated for the horizontal hydraulic conductivity suggests that the spring chimney is cemented with increasing depth. Chemical data collected for this study indicate that the water at Agua Caliente Spring is at saturation with respect to both calcite and chalcedony, which provides a possible mechanism for cementation of the spring chimney. A simulated decline of about 100 feet in the regional aquifer had no effect on the simulated discharge of Agua Caliente Spring and resulted in a slight increase in the temperature of the spring discharge. Results from the radial-flow- and three-dimensional models of the Agua Caliente Spring area demonstrate that the distribution and temperature of thermal water in the perched water table can be explained by flow from a secondary shallow-subsurface spring orifice of the Agua Caliente Spring not contained by the steel collector tank, not by leakage from the

  7. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, Thomas E.; Guarnieri, Joseph J.

    1985-01-01

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  8. Spring loaded thermocouple module

    DOEpatents

    McKelvey, T.E.; Guarnieri, J.J.

    1984-03-13

    A thermocouple arrangement is provided for mounting in a blind hole of a specimen. The thermocouple arrangement includes a cup-like holder member, which receives an elongated thermal insulator, one end of which is seated at an end wall of the holder. A pair of thermocouple wires, threaded through passageways in the insulator, extend beyond the insulator member, terminating in free ends which are joined together in a spherical weld bead. A spring, held captive within the holder, applies a bias force to the weld bead, through the insulator member. The outside surface of the holder is threaded for engagement with the blind hole of the specimen. When the thermocouple is installed in the specimen, the spherical contact surface of the weld bead is held in contact with the end wall of the blind hole, with a predetermined bias force.

  9. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. PMID:26404834

  10. Microbial Paleontology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Modern and Ancient Thermal Spring Deposits and Their Recognition on the Early Earth and Mars"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    The vision of this project was to improve our understanding of the processes by which microbiological information is captured and preserved in rapidly mineralizing sedimentary environments. Specifically, the research focused on the ways in which microbial mats and biofilms influence the sedimentology, geochemistry and paleontology of modem hydrothermal spring deposits in Yellowstone national Park and their ancient analogs. Toward that goal, we sought to understand how the preservation of fossil biosignatures is affected by 1) taphonomy- the natural degradation processes that affect an organism from the time of its death, until its discovery as a fossil and 2) diagenesis- longer-term, post-depositional processes, including cementation and matrix recrystallization, which collectively affect the mineral matrix that contains fossil biosignature information. Early objectives of this project included the development of observational frameworks (facies models) and methods (highly-integrated, interdisciplinary approaches) that could be used to explore for hydrothermal deposits in ancient terranes on Earth, and eventually on Mars.

  11. Tensor CSAMT survey over the Sulphur Springs thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A. Part 1: Implications for structure of the western caldera

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1997-03-01

    An extensive tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric (CSAMT) survey has been carried out over the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Forty-five sites were acquired using two crossed transmitter bipoles placed approximately 13 km south of the center of the survey. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. CSAMT and magnetotelluric (MT) data taken outside Valles Caldera were constrained by drill logs and imply resistive Bandelier Tuff, underlain by conductive Paleozoic sediments, and further underlain by resistive, primarily Precambrian crystalline rocks. Model cross-sections within the caldera were derived using 2-D parameterized inversion constrained by drilling, with layered-earth inversion for starting models. Southeast of the Sulphur Creek fault, the upper 200 m of the section are of relatively low resistivity and correspond to unconsolidated land-slide and debris flows. The Bandelier Tuff below exhibits higher but variable resistivities because of alteration controlled by local faulting. Beneath the Bandelier Tuff, the Paleozoic sedimentary layer is only moderately less resistive than it is outside the caldera, with the lowest values occurring northwest of Sulphur Creek. Its low resistivity per se does not necessarily represent a hydrothermal aquifer. The Sulphur Creek fault appears to be a locus of substantial change in structural relief; upthrow of stratigraphy and basement to its west appears to be about 400--500 m. A major normal fault down to the southeast is located under the topographic expression of Freelove Canyon, which is up to 1 km farther southeast than suggested by previous geologic sections. High resistivities possibly corresponding to a vapor zone in the upper 500 m near VC-2B and VC-2A are not consistent with the CSAMT data.

  12. Solar ponds in alkaline lake and oil well regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M.A.K.

    1996-05-01

    Solar ponds are probably the simplest technology available for useful conversion of solar energy. The basic technology is proven. Solar ponds have been shown to be technically feasible and economically viable for many applications particularly for thermal use. The electrical conversion and use of solar energy via solar ponds is still questionable in general for economic viability. By putting the untapped sources together in the South Plains region it looks promising economically both for thermal and electrical conversions and applications. There are a number of alkaline lake basins randomly scattered in the South Plains region of the USA. In that area there are thousands of crude oil producing wells which produce brine in abundance. Selection of suitable alkaline lake basins as a solar pond site and as depository sites of brine from oil wells and using of this brine and salty water from alkaline lakes makes the solar pond economically viable for both thermal and electrical demands in the area.

  13. Bacterial community analysis of Indonesian hot springs.

    PubMed

    Baker, G C; Gaffar, S; Cowan, D A; Suharto, A R

    2001-06-12

    We report the first attempts to describe thermophilic bacterial communities in Indonesia's thermal springs using molecular phylogenetic analyses. 16S rRNA genes from laboratory cultures and DNA directly amplified from three hot springs in West Java were sequenced. The 22 sequences obtained were assignable to the taxa Proteobacteria, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, including a number of clades not normally associated with thermophily. PMID:11410357

  14. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  15. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  16. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  18. 1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING IODINE SPRING (FOREGROUND), SALT SULPHUR SPRING (LEFT BACKGROUND), AND TWIN COTTAGES (UPPER RIGHT) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  19. Geothermal resource assessment of Idaho Springs, Colorado. Resource series 16

    SciTech Connect

    Repplier, F.N.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Located in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains approximately 30 miles west of Denver, in the community of Idaho Springs, are a series of thermal springs and wells. The temperature of these waters ranges from a low of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C) to a high of 127/sup 0/F (53/sup 0/C). To define the hydrothermal conditions of the Idaho Springs region in 1980, an investigation consisting of electrical geophysical surveys, soil mercury geochemical surveys, and reconnaissance geological and hydrogeological investigations was made. Due to topographic and cultural restrictions, the investigation was limited to the immediate area surrounding the thermal springs at the Indian Springs Resort. The bedrock of the region is faulted and fractured metamorphosed Precambrian gneisses and schists, locally intruded by Tertiary age plutons and dikes. The investigation showed that the thermal waters most likely are fault controlled and the thermal area does not have a large areal extent.

  20. Springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenau, Jack C.; Faulkner, Glen L.; Hendry, Charles W., Jr.; Hull, Robert W.

    1977-01-01

    The first comprehensive report of Florida's springs, which contains both a story of the springs and a collection of facts about them, was published thirty years ago (Ferguson and others, 1947). Since then, much additional data on springs have been gathered and the current report, Springs of Florida, makes a wealth of information on springs available to the public. Springs of Florida, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Geology, Florida Department of Natural Resources, publishers, and the Bureau of Water Resources Management, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, is intended to provide sufficient background information for a lucid understanding of the nature and occurrence of the springs in the State.

  1. Silica in alkaline brines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Rettig, S.L.; Eugster, H.P.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate brines from closed basins in volcanic terranes of Oregon and Kenya reveals silica contents of up to 2700 parts per million at pH's higher than 10. These high concentrations of SiO 2 can be attributed to reaction of waters with silicates, and subsequent evaporative concentration accompanied by a rise in pH. Supersaturation with respect to amorphous silica may occur and persist for brines that are out of contact with silicate muds and undersaturated with respect to trona; correlation of SiO2 with concentration of Na and total CO2 support this interpretation. Addition of moredilute waters to alkaline brines may lower the pH and cause inorganic precipitation of substantial amounts of silica.

  2. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  3. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  4. Mantle to Surface Fluid Transfer Above a Flat Slab Subduction Zone: Isotopic Evidence from Hot Springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, D. L.; Jessup, M. J.; Hilton, D. R.; Shaw, C. A.; Hughes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal springs in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide geochemical evidence for deeply circulated hydrothermal fluids that carry significant mantle-derived helium. The Cordillera Blanca is a ~200 km-long NNW-SSE trending mountain range in the Peruvian Andes located above an amagmatic flat-slab subduction segment. The west side of the range is bounded by the Cordillera Blanca detachment that preserves a progression of top to the west ductile shear to brittle normal faulting since ~5 Ma. We report aqueous and stable isotope geochemical results from fluid and gas samples collected in 2013 and 2015 from 13 hot springs emanating from the Cordillera Blanca detachment and associated hanging wall faults. Most springs are vigorously bubbling (degassing), and range in temperature, pH, and conductivity from 17-89 °C, 5.95-8.87, and 0.17-21.5 mS, respectively. The hottest springs issue directly from the northern segment of the detachment. Geochemically, springs are CO2-rich, alkaline-chloride to alkaline-carbonate waters, with elevated trace metal contents including Fe, Cu, As, Zn, Sb, and Tl. Notably, As contents are ≤11 ppm, indicating that thermal waters may be adversely impacting local water quality. Water δ18O and δD, trends in elemental chemistry, and cation geothermometry collectively demonstrate mixing of hot (200-260 °C) saline fluid with cold meteoric recharge along the fault. Helium isotope ratios (3He/4He) for dissolved gases in the hot springs range from 0.62 to 1.98 RC/RA, indicating the presence of ~25% mantle-derived helium, assuming mixing of an asthenospheric end-member with the crustal helium reservoir. CO2/3He and carbon stable isotope ratios indicate a carbon source derived from mixing of crustal sources with minor mantle carbon. Overall, the volatile signature overlaps with orogen-wide datasets where crustal overprinting has modified mantle contributions at active arc volcanoes. Given the long duration since active magmatism in the Cordillera

  5. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  6. Coil spring venting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-10-21

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed.

  7. Spring and valve skirt

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.

    1986-07-29

    This patent describes an engine having a valve guide operatively mounting a valve stem and its associated valve spring and spring retainer for actuation of the valve stem by a valve actuator. An improvement is described comprising: a hollow, generally cylindrical shaped skirt means having a side portion forming an interior with one open end and having at its other end an end portion extending inwardly and formed with an axial opening therein communicating to the interior. The skirt means is mounted on and about the valve stem and spring retainer and about its spring so as to move with the valve stem and to cover the spring retainer and most of the portion of the valve spring and the valve stem extending outwardly from the valve guide except for an outermost end of the stem which extends through the opening in the end portion for actuation by the actuator , such that the inwardly extending end portion lies between the outermost end of the stem and an outermost end of the spring retainer to allow for retrofitting insertion of the skirt means over existing valve stems without removal of the spring and spring retainer. Excessive oil is presented from seeping between and valve guide and the valve stem thus preventing excessive carbon build-up in the combustion area, sticking valves, fouled plugs and high exhaust emissions.

  8. Alkaline battery, separator therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An improved battery separator for alkaline battery cells has low resistance to electrolyte ion transfer and high resistance to electrode ion transfer. The separator is formed by applying an improved coating to an electrolyte absorber. The absorber, preferably, is a flexible, fibrous, and porous substrate that is resistant to strong alkali and oxidation. The coating composition includes an admixture of a polymeric binder, a hydrolyzable polymeric ester and inert fillers. The coating composition is substantially free of reactive fillers and plasticizers commonly employed as porosity promoting agents in separator coatings. When the separator is immersed in electrolyte, the polymeric ester of the film coating reacts with the electrolyte forming a salt and an alcohol. The alcohol goes into solution with the electrolyte while the salt imbibes electrolyte into the coating composition. When the salt is formed, it expands the polymeric chains of the binder to provide a film coating substantially permeable to electrolyte ion transfer but relatively impermeable to electrode ion transfer during use.

  9. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  10. CO(2) uptake and fixation by a thermoacidophilic microbial community attached to precipitated sulfur in a geothermal spring.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Eric S; Leavitt, William D; Geesey, Gill G

    2009-07-01

    Carbon fixation at temperatures above 73 degrees C, the upper limit for photosynthesis, is carried out by chemosynthetic thermophiles. Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming possesses many thermal features that, while too hot for photosynthesis, presumably support chemosynthetic-based carbon fixation. To our knowledge, in situ rates of chemosynthetic reactions at these high temperatures in YNP or other high-temperature terrestrial geothermal springs have not yet been reported. A microbial community attached to precipitated elemental sulfur (S(o) floc) at the source of Dragon Spring (73 degrees C, pH 3.1) in Norris Geyser Basin, YNP, exhibited a maximum rate of CO(2) uptake of 21.3 +/- 11.9 microg of C 10(7) cells(-1) h(-1). When extrapolated over the estimated total quantity of S(o) floc at the spring's source, the S(o) floc-associated microbial community accounted for the uptake of 121 mg of C h(-1) at this site. On a per-cell basis, the rate was higher than that calculated for a photosynthetic mat microbial community dominated by Synechococcus spp. in alkaline springs at comparable temperatures. A portion of the carbon taken up as CO(2) by the S(o) floc-associated biomass was recovered in the cellular nucleic acid pool, demonstrating that uptake was coupled to fixation. The most abundant sequences in a 16S rRNA clone library of the S(o) floc-associated community were related to chemolithoautotrophic Hydrogenobaculum strains previously isolated from springs in the Norris Geyser Basin. These microorganisms likely contributed to the uptake and fixation of CO(2) in this geothermal habitat. PMID:19429558

  11. Temperature Adaptations in the Terminal Processes of Anaerobic Decomposition of Yellowstone National Park and Icelandic Hot Spring Microbial Mats

    PubMed Central

    Sandbeck, Kenneth A.; Ward, David M.

    1982-01-01

    The optimum temperatures for methanogenesis in microbial mats of four neutral to alkaline, low-sulfate hot springs in Yellowstone National Park were between 50 and 60°C, which was 13 to 23°C lower than the upper temperature for mat development. Significant methanogenesis at 65°C was only observed in one of the springs. Methane production in samples collected at a 51 or 62°C site in Octopus Spring was increased by incubation at higher temperatures and was maximal at 70°C. Strains of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum were isolated from 50, 55, 60, and 65°C sites in Octopus Spring at the temperatures of the collection sites. The optimum temperature for growth and methanogenesis of each isolate was 65°C. Similar results were found for the potential rate of sulfate reduction in an Icelandic hot spring microbial mat in which sulfate reduction dominated methane production as a terminal process in anaerobic decomposition. The potential rate of sulfate reduction along the thermal gradient of the mat was greatest at 50°C, but incubation at 60°C of the samples obtained at 50°C increased the rate. Adaptation to different mat temperatures, common among various microorganisms and processes in the mats, did not appear to occur in the processes and microorganisms which terminate the anaerobic food chain. Other factors must explain why the maximal rates of these processes are restricted to moderate temperatures of the mat ecosystem. PMID:16346109

  12. A Magnet Spring Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.; Mead, L.

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses an elementary spring model representing the motion of a magnet suspended from the ceiling at one end of a vertical spring which is held directly above a second magnet fixed on the floor. There are two cases depending upon the north-south pole orientation of the two magnets. The attraction or repelling force induced by the…

  13. Valve-spring Surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, Willy

    1937-01-01

    Test equipment is described that includes a system of three quartz indicators whereby three different pressures could be synchronized and simultaneously recorded on a single oscillogram. This equipment was used to test the reliction of waves at ends of valve spring, the dynamical stress of the valve spring for a single lift of the valve, and measurement of the curve of the cam tested. Other tests included simultaneous recording of the stress at both ends of the spring, spring oscillation during a single lift as a function of speed, computation of amplitude of oscillation for a single lift by harmonic analysis, effect of cam profile, the setting up of resonance, and forced spring oscillation with damping.

  14. Rotary spring energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.

    1981-07-01

    The goal was to design a lightweight system, for bicycles, that can level the input energy requirement (human exertion) in accordance with variations in road load (friction, wind, and grade) and/or to provide a system for regenerative braking, that is, to store energy normally lost in brake pad friction for brief periods until it required for re-acceleration or hill-climbing. The rotary spring, also called the coil, motor, spiral, or power spring is governed by the equations reviewed. Materials used in spring manufacture are briefly discussed, and justification for steel as the design choice of material is given. Torque and power requirements for a bicycle and rider are provided as well as estimated human power output levels. These criteria are examined to define spring size and possible orientations on a bicycle. Patents and designs for coupling the spring to the drive train are discussed.

  15. Peatland Structural Controls on Spring Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, D. K.; Boutt, D. F.; Hackman, A. M.; Davenport, G.

    2013-12-01

    The species richness of wetland ecosystems' are sustained by the presence of discrete groundwater discharge, or springs. Springs provide thermal refugia and a source of fresh water inflow crucial for survival of many wetland species. The subsurface drivers that control the spatial distribution of surficial springs throughout peatland complexes are poorly understood due to the many challenges peatlands pose for hydrologic characterization, such as the internal heterogeneities, soft, dynamic substrate, and low gradient of peat drainage. This has previously made it difficult to collect spatial data required for restoration projects that seek to support spring obligate and thermally stressed species such as trout. Tidmarsh Farms is a 577-acre site in Southeastern Massachusetts where 100+ years of cranberry farming has significantly altered the original peatland hydrodynamics and ecology. Farming practices such as the regular application of sand, straightening of the main channel, and addition of drainage ditches has strongly degraded this peatland ecosystem. Our research has overlain non-invasive geophysical, thermal, and water isotopic data from the Tidmarsh Farms peatland to provide a detailed visualization of how subsurface peat structure and spring patterns correlate. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has proven particularly useful in characterizing internal peat structure and the mineral soil interface beneath peatlands, we interpolate the peatland basin at a large scale (1 km2) and compare this 3-D surface to the locations of springs on the peat platform. Springs, expressed as cold anomalies in summer and warm anomalies in winter, were specifically located by combining fiber-optic and infrared thermal surveys, utilizing the numerous relic agricultural drainage ditches as a sampling advantage. Isotopic signatures of the spring locations are used to distinguish local and regional discharge, differences that can be explained in part by the peat basin structure

  16. Hydrological and geochemical study of Yuseong hot spring in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Park, C.; Cho, Y.; LEE, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Yuseong hot spring is the first modernized hot spring in 1920's that has drawn the most tourists until 2000 before decline of tourists due to the aging of facility. It is located in the mid-west of South Korea. Geologically, it is in Precambrian metamorphic complex intruded by Mesozoic granite and porphyry. Fault zones exist in the E-W and NNW-SSE directions around Yuseong hot spring. Wells lie in the E-W direction indicating the correlation between the fault zones and the hot spring distribution. Water production rate has decreased gradually from 5,200 m3/d in 1993 to 2,500 m3/d in 2011. Water depth varies from 22 m - 57 m depending on pumping. Although enforced pumping has enacted last 50 years, water depth is observed to be stable. Water temperature is measured from the highest 51.8 degree Celsius to the lowest 25 degree Celsius. Yuseong hot spring is primarily the type of Na(Ca)-HCO3 whose pH ranges from low alkaline to alkaline with sufficient silica(≥40 mg/L).

  17. The alkaline and alkaline-carbonatite magmatism from Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.

    2015-12-01

    Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline

  18. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  19. Temperature dependence of the absorbance of alkaline solutions of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate--a potential source of error in the measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Burtis, C A; Seibert, L E; Baird, M A; Sampson, E J

    1977-09-01

    The absorbance of an alkaline solution of 4-nitrophenyl phosphate is a function of temperature. Quantitative evaluation of this phenomenon indicates that it (a) depends on the concentration of the compound and is independent of source, buffer concentration, and pH above 9.0; (b) is reversible; (c) is not a result of alkaline hydrolysis or 4-nitrophenol contamination; and (d) correlates with a temperature-induced shift of its absorbance spectrum. The phenomenon may represent a potential analytical problem in methods for alkaline phosphatase in which this compound is the substrate. If thermal equilibrium is not reached and maintained during an alkaline phosphatase assay, the thermochromic response will be included in the measured rate. The magnitude of this error depends on the thermal response and control characteristics of each particular instrument and the reaction conditions under which such an analysis is performed. PMID:19164

  20. SPRING_TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This point coverage shows springs and water tanks on Salt River Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  1. Harbingers of Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  2. Geothermal resource assessment of Idaho Springs, Colorado. Resource series 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repplier, F. N.; Zacharakis, T. G.; Ringrose, C. D.

    Geothermal springs and wells were assessed for hydrothermal conditions. The temperature of these waters ranges from a low of 680 F to a high of 1270 F. The hydrothermal conditions of the Idaho Springs region in 1980 were defined by electrical geophysical, soil mercury geochemical, and reconnaissance geological and hydrogeological surveys. The investigation was limited to the immediate area surrounding the thermal springs at the Indian Springs Resort. It is found that bedrock of the region is faulted and fractured metamorphosed Precambrian gneisses and schists, locally intruded by Tertiary age plutons and dikes. It is shown that the thermal waters most likely are fault controlled and the thermal area does not have a large areal extent.

  3. The alkaline solution to the emergence of life: energy, entropy and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The Earth agglomerates and heats. Convection cells within the planetary interior expedite the cooling process. Volcanoes evolve steam, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and pyrophosphate. An acidulous Hadean ocean condenses from the carbon dioxide atmosphere. Dusts and stratospheric sulfurous smogs absorb a proportion of the Sun's rays. The cooled ocean leaks into the stressed crust and also convects. High temperature acid springs, coupled to magmatic plumes and spreading centers, emit iron, manganese, zinc, cobalt and nickel ions to the ocean. Away from the spreading centers cooler alkaline spring waters emanate from the ocean floor. These bear hydrogen, formate, ammonia, hydrosulfide and minor methane thiol. The thermal potential begins to be dissipated but the chemical potential is dammed. The exhaling alkaline solutions are frustrated in their further attempt to mix thoroughly with their oceanic source by the spontaneous precipitation of biomorphic barriers of colloidal iron compounds and other minerals. It is here we surmise that organic molecules are synthesized, filtered, concentrated and adsorbed, while acetate and methane--separate products of the precursor to the reductive acetyl-coenzyme-A pathway-are exhaled as waste. Reactions in mineral compartments produce acetate, amino acids, and the components of nucleosides. Short peptides, condensed from the simple amino acids, sequester 'ready-made' iron sulfide clusters to form protoferredoxins, and also bind phosphates. Nucleotides are assembled from amino acids, simple phosphates carbon dioxide and ribose phosphate upon nanocrystalline mineral surfaces. The side chains of particular amino acids register to fitting nucleotide triplet clefts. Keyed in, the amino acids are polymerized, through acid-base catalysis, to alpha chains. Peptides, the tenuous outer-most filaments of the nanocrysts, continually peel away from bound RNA. The polymers are concentrated at cooler regions of the mineral compartments through

  4. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A spring (10) includes a tube (12) having an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension (22) extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension (24) extending vertically. A plurality of cuts (20) in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube (12) extend perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis (16) extending along the tube (12). An uncut portion (26) of the tube wall extends along the tube (12) for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom (28) of a seat cushion (30).

  5. Segmented tubular cushion springs and spring assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, L. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A spring which includes a tube with an elliptical cross section, with the greater axial dimension extending laterally and the lesser axial dimension extending vertically is disclosed. A plurality of cuts in the form of slots passing through most of a wall of the tube extend perpendiculary to a longitudinal axis extending along the tube. An uncut portion of the tube wall extends along the tube for bonding or fastening the tube to a suitable base, such as a bottom of a seat cushion.

  6. Alkylation of imidazole under ultrasound irradiation over alkaline carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costarrosa, L.; Calvino-Casilda, V.; Ferrera-Escudero, S.; Durán-Valle, C. J.; Martín-Aranda, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    N-Alkyl-imidazole has been synthesized by sonochemical irradiation of imidazole and 1-bromobutane using alkaline-promoted carbons (exchanged with the binary combinations of Na, K and Cs). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal analysis and N 2 adsorption isotherms. Under the experimental conditions, N-alkyl-imidazoles can be prepared with a high activity and selectivity. It is observed that imidazole conversion increases in parallel with increasing the basicity of the catalyst. The influence of the alkaline promoter, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst on the catalytic activity has been studied. For comparison, the alkylation of imidazole has also been performed in a batch reactor system under thermal activation.

  7. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  8. Walking with springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  9. Alkaline Anion-Exchange Membranes Containing Mobile Ion Shuttles.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaolin; He, Yubin; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Ran, Jin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-05-01

    A new class of alkaline anion-exchange membranes containing mobile ion shuttles is developed. It is achieved by threading ionic linear guests into poly(crown ether) hosts via host-guest molecular interaction. The thermal- and pH-triggered shuttling of ionic linear guests remarkably increases the solvation-shell fluctuations in inactive hydrated hydroxide ion complexes (OH(-) (H2 O)4 ) and accelerates the OH(-) transport. PMID:26972938

  10. Spring polar ozone behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding of the springtime behavior of polar stratospheric ozone as of mid 1990 is summarized. Heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds as hypothesis for ozone loss are considered and a simplified description of the behavior of Antarctic ozone in winter and spring is given. Evidence that the situation is more complicated than described by the theory is produced. Many unresolved scientific issues remain and some of the most important problems are identified. Ozone changes each spring since 1979 have clearly established for the first time that man made chlorine compounds influence stratospheric ozone. Long before important advances in satellite and in situ investigations, it was Dobson's decision to place a total ozone measuring spectrometer at Halley Bay in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year and subsequent continuous monitoring which led to the discovery that ozone was being destroyed each spring by chlorine processed by polar stratospheric clouds.

  11. Isolation of alkaline mutagens from complex mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.H.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.; Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    A method for the preparative-scale enrichment of alkaline mutagens from complex natural and anthropogenic mixtures is described. Mutagenic alkaline fractions were isolated from cigarette smoke, crude petroleum, and petroleum substitutes derived from coal and shale.

  12. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  13. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  14. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  15. Editors' Spring Picks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  16. Spring black stem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring black stem is the most destructive alfalfa diseases in temperate regions of the U.S., Canada, Australia, and countries of Europe, Asia, and South America. The disease causes serious yield losses by reducing canopy dry matter and also decreases seed weight and crown and root mass. Forage qua...

  17. The News. Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Ray, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This Spring issue of the quarterly newsletter of the Community College League of California contains the following articles: (1) Enrollment Drops; Fees to Blame?; (2) Senate's Grad Proposal Triggers Debate on Mission, Access; (3) Compton Decision has Affected Perceptions of Commission (discussion with Barbara Beno); (4) Dynamic New Architectural…

  18. Atascocita Springs Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigaglioni, Irene; Yocham, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    With the significant amount of time invested in researching the best techniques for delivering instruction to their students, Humble ISD is always on the forefront of education. Taking the recommendations of their active and vocal community groups, the district embarked in the design of the 26th elementary school, Atascocita Springs Elementary…

  19. Planar torsion spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  20. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  1. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  2. Echoes of Spring Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, J. Clarine J.

    Designed to preserve the rich heritage of the rural school system which passed from the education scene in the 1930's and 1940's, this narrative, part history and part nostalgia, describes the author's own elementary education and the secure community life centered in the one room Spring Valley School in Hamilton County, Iowa, in the early decades…

  3. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  4. 9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CONTEXTUAL VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST TOWARDS SPRING SITE. SPRING LEFT CORNER. - Juniata Mill Complex, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  5. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  6. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter’s Hot Springs, Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Castenholz, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Although alkaline Hunter’s Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73–74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68–70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54–55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47–48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47–48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments. PMID:25633225

  7. Nonmarine Crenarchaeol in Nevada Hot Springs

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A.; Huang, Z.; Ingalls, A. E.; Romanek, C. S.; Wiegel, J.; Freeman, K. H.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Zhang, C. L.

    2004-01-01

    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are core membrane lipids of the Crenarchaeota. The structurally unusual GDGT crenarchaeol has been proposed as a taxonomically specific biomarker for the marine planktonic group I archaea. It is found ubiquitously in the marine water column and in sediments. In this work, samples of microbial community biomass were obtained from several alkaline and neutral-pH hot springs in Nevada, United States. Lipid extracts of these samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Each sample contained GDGTs, and among these compounds was crenarchaeol. The distribution of archaeal lipids in Nevada hot springs did not appear to correlate with temperature, as has been observed in the marine environment. Instead, a significant correlation with the concentration of bicarbonate was observed. Archaeal DNA was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All samples contained 16S rRNA gene sequences which were more strongly related to thermophilic crenarchaeota than to Cenarchaeum symbiosum, a marine nonthermophilic crenarchaeon. The occurrence of crenarchaeol in environments containing sequences affiliated with thermophilic crenarchaeota suggests a wide phenotypic distribution of this compound. The results also indicate that crenarchaeol can no longer be considered an exclusive biomarker for marine species. PMID:15345404

  8. The joys of spring.

    PubMed

    Riby, Leigh M

    2013-01-01

    This study used Vivaldi's Four Seasons, an extraordinary example of program music, to explore the consequence of music exposure on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen participants performed a three-stimulus visual odd-ball task while ERPs were recorded. Participants were required to differentiate between a rare target stimulus (to elicit a memory updating component; P3b), a rare novel stimulus (to elicit a novelty attention component; P3a), and a frequent nontarget stimulus. During task performance participants listened to the four concertos: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter in comparison to a silent control condition. Additionally, the three movements of each concerto have a fast, slow, fast structure that enabled examination of the impact of tempo. The data revealed that "Spring," particularly the well-recognized, vibrant, emotive, and uplifting first movement, had the ability to enhance mental alertness and brain measures of attention and memory. PMID:22851380

  9. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-15

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this 'thermal noise method' is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities.

  10. Atomic force microscopy spring constant determination in viscous liquids.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, Tobias; Hugel, Thorsten

    2009-03-01

    The spring constant of cantilever in atomic force microscopy (AFM) is often calibrated from thermal noise spectra. Essential for accurate implementation of this "thermal noise method" is an appropriate fitting function and procedure. Here, we survey the commonly used fitting functions and examine their applicability in a range of environments. We find that viscous liquid environments are extremely problematic due to the frequency dependent nature of the damping coefficient. The deviations from the true spring constant were sometimes more than 100% when utilizing the fit routines built into the three investigated commercial AFM instruments; similar problems can arise with homebuilt AFMs. We discuss the reasons for this problem, especially the limits of the fitting process. Finally, we present a thermal noise based procedure and an improved fit function to determine the spring constant with AFMs in fluids of various viscosities. PMID:19334955

  11. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  12. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

  13. Spring magnet films.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  14. Phototrophy in Mildly Acidic Hot Spring Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecteau, K.; Boyd, E. S.; Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial light-driven reduction of carbon in continental hydrothermal ecosystems is restricted to environments at temperatures less than 73 °C. In circumneutral and alkaline systems bacterial phototrophs (cyanobacteria and anoxygenic phototrophs) are suggested to be principally responsible for this activity whereas algal (i.e., eukaryotic) phototrophs are thought to be responsible for this activity in acidic systems. In Yellowstone National Park numerous examples of phototrophic microbial communities exist at high and low pH, while hot springs with intermediate pH (values 3-5) are rare and commonly dilute. It is thought that the transition from algal photosynthesis to bacterial photosynthesis occurs within this pH range. To test this hypothesis, we sequenced bacterial and eukaryal small subunit ribosomal RNA genes, analyzed pigments, and performed comprehensive geochemical measurements from 12 hot springs within this pH realm. At all sites, the largest phototrophic population was either comprised of Cyanobacteria or affiliated with the algal order Cyanidiales, which are ubiquitous in acidic springs, yet abundant sequences of both lineages were present in 8 of the 12 sites. Nevertheless, some of these samples exceeded the known temperature limit of the algae (56 °C), suggesting that these populations are dead or inactive. Indeed, one site yielded evidence for a large Cyanidiales population as the only phototrophs present, yet an experiment at the time of sampling failed to demonstrate light-driven carbon fixation, and analysis of extracted pigments showed a large amount of the chlorophyll degradation product pheophorbide a and very little intact chlorophyll, indicating photosynthesis occurred at this site when conditions were different. Our observations illustrate the dynamic nature of these systems that may be transiently conducive to photosynthesis, which may open niches for phototrophs of both domains and likely played a role in the evolution of photosynthesis.

  15. Anode conductor for alkaline cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schrenk, D.J.; Murphy, P.E.

    1988-12-13

    This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprised of an anode comprised of zinc; a cathode; and alkaline electrolyte; and a current collector comprised of a silicon bronze alloy that is comprised of 85-98% by weight copper and 1-5% by weight silicon with the remainder being comprised of at least one of manganese, iron, zinc, aluminum, tin, lead, or mixtures thereof; and a strip of metal tab stock welded to the current collector, the tab stock being a metal other than silicon bronze alloy.

  16. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more than two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  17. Alkaline fuel cell performance investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Manzo, M. A.

    1988-01-01

    An exploratory experimental fuel cell test program was conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of alkaline laboratory research electrodes. The objective of this work was to establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance and evaluate candidate cathode configurations having the potential for improved performance. The performance characterization tests provided data to empirically establish the effect of temperature, pressure, and concentration upon performance for cell temperatures up to 300 F and reactant pressures up to 200 psia. Evaluation of five gold alloy cathode catalysts revealed that three doped gold alloys had more that two times the surface areas of reference cathodes and therefore offered the best potential for improved performance.

  18. Tensor controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey over the Sulphur Springs Thermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.; Implication for structure of the western Caldera and for CSAMT methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wannamaker, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have carried Out an extensive tensor CSAMT survey of the Sulphur Springs geothermal area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. This survey, consisting of 45 high-quality sites, has been acquired by in support of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) drillholes VC-2A and VC-2B. Two independent transmitter dipoles were energized for tensor measurements using a 30 kW generator placed approximately 13 km south of the VC-2B wellhead. The soundings in the Sulphur Springs area were arranged in four profiles to cross major structural features. The electric bipoles parallel to each profile were deployed contiguously to ensure against spatial aliasing of the impedance response corresponding to current flow across structural trends. The frequency range of acquisition was 4096 Hz down to 1 Hz for the central line, but only down to 4 Hz for most sites of the other lines. Data quality is high overall and is established by repeatability of measurements. Agreement between the CSAMT and available natural field MT data is very good over almost all the period range of overlap indicating that we are free of calibration problems and that far-field results are generally being obtained. Non plane-wave effects in the CSAMT around Sulphur Springs are apparent at 1 to 2 Hz, and perhaps slightly even at 4 Hz, however, which is near the bottom of our frequency range. CSAMT and MT data taken outside the Valles Caldera to the west were modeled in an attempt to compare resistivity structure exterior to the caldera to that within. With the availability of tensor CSAMT and MT data both inside and outside Valles Caldera, assumptions and methods of CSAMT are tested. In the Sulphur Springs area, near-coincident CSAMT and MT data near well VC -2B indicate that non-lane-wave effects in the apparent resistivity and impedance phase occure at a frequency near to that predicted from the resistivity structure local to the wester caldera.

  19. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park, for purposes other than those authorized by the Superintendent, is... Springs National Park is prohibited. (c) The introduction of any substance, chemical, or other material...

  20. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park, for purposes other than those authorized by the Superintendent, is... Springs National Park is prohibited. (c) The introduction of any substance, chemical, or other material...

  1. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park, for purposes other than those authorized by the Superintendent, is... Springs National Park is prohibited. (c) The introduction of any substance, chemical, or other material...

  2. Alkaline detergent recycling via ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffani, C.; Meltzer, M.

    1995-06-01

    The metal finishing industry uses alkaline cleaners and detergents to remove oils and dirt from manufactured parts, often before they are painted or plated. The use of these cleaners has grown because environmental regulations are phasing out ozone depleting substances and placing restrictions on the use and disposal of many hazardous solvents. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is examining ultrafiltration as a cleaning approach that reclaims the cleaning solutions and minimizes wastes. The ultrafiltration membrane is made from sheets of polymerized organic film. The sheets are rolled onto a supporting frame and installed in a tube. Spent cleaning solution is pumped into a filter chamber and filtered through the membrane that captures oils and dirt and allows water and detergent to pass. The membrane is monitored and when pressure builds from oil and dirt, an automatic system cleans the surface to maintain solution flow and filtration quality. The results show that the ultrafiltration does not disturb the detergent concentration or alkalinity but removed almost all the oils and dirt leaving the solution in condition to be reused.

  3. Grace DAKASEP alkaline battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovannoni, R. T.; Lundquist, J. T.; Choi, W. M.

    1987-01-01

    The Grace DAKASEP separator was originally developed as a wicking layer for nickel-zinc alkaline batteries. The DAKASEP is a filled non-woven separator which is flexible and heat sealable. Through modification of formulation and processing variables, products with a variety of properties can be produced. Variations of DAKASEP were tested in Ni-H2, Ni-Zn, Ni-Cd, and primary alkaline batteries with good results. The properties of DAKASEP which are optimized for Hg-Zn primary batteries are shown in tabular form. This separator has high tensile strength, 12 micron average pore size, relatively low porosity at 46-48 percent, and consequently moderately high resistivity. Versions were produced with greater than 70 percent porosity and resistivities in 33 wt percent KOH as low as 3 ohm cm. Performance data for Hg-Zn E-1 size cells containing DAKASEP with the properties shown in tabular form, are more reproducible than data obtained with a competitive polypropylene non-woven separator. In addition, utilization of active material is in general considerably improved.

  4. Microbial Ecology at an Arctic Geothermal Spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, V.; Fogel, M. L.; Steele, A.; Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (Amase)

    2011-12-01

    A critical question in microbial ecology concerns how variations in environmental conditions affect microbial community makeup. Arctic thermal springs provide an exceptional opportunity to study this question because they have very steep gradients in temperature, moisture, and mobility that place strong selective pressures on microorganisms. Troll Springs, located near 79°23'N, 13°26E in the Svalbard archipelago north of Norway, is one of the northernmost documented thermal springs on land. Precipitation of travertine (calcium carbonate) from Troll's carbonate-rich waters has built a complex terrace structure. Biological materials are present at all levels of the spring structure. To investigate this microbial community in detail, we analyzed DNA extracted from wet biofilms, granular samples and endoliths with 454 parallel-tagged pyrosequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of how the community at Troll Springs changes over the gradients in environmental conditions present. The 454 and ARISA data were analyzed using multivariate methods, including non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS). Results show a gradual transition in the makeup of the microbial community as the environment changes from aquatic to lithologic. These observations suggest a mechanism by which the rocks are colonized by microorganisms: biofilm becomes entrapped during carbonate precipitation. Use of a range of parameters and techniques in the data processing and multidimensional scaling provides additional insight into how community makeup varies across the environments present at the spring. Some more adaptable species are found across most environments, but change markedly in abundance as the conditions change. Other less adaptable species are found in fewer environments, being wholly absent in most. Continued analysis will help reveal which species are the most adaptable, and how their adaptive capabilities

  5. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  6. Lomonosov In Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    26 September 2004 This blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the frost-covered rims of Lomonosov Crater in late martian spring. At the north (top) end of the image, low, ground-hugging fog can be seen in association with the retreating seasonal polar cap. Lomonosov Crater is about 150 km (93 mi) in diameter and located at 65oN, 9oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Fun with Automobile Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Klaus

    2006-10-01

    Simple measurements on car suspension systems and their analysis can raise student interest in the elementary discussion of the behavior of springs in oscillating systems. To understand these complicated oscillating systems and to interpret measurements properly, models may be used. Students find out how to make approximations and extract useful information from marginal data using common sense, basic physics, and simple software tools. Basic experiments on a physical model of a car suspension and on a passenger car, as well as the analysis of the data, will be presented. In particular, a value of the bounce mode frequency of a car was obtained using several approaches.

  8. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  9. The question of recharge to the deep thermal reservoir underlying the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park: Chapter H in Integrated geoscience studies in Integrated geoscience studies in the Greater Yellowstone Area—Volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes in the Yellowstone geoecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Truesdell, Alfred Hemingway

    2007-01-01

    The extraordinary number, size, and unspoiled beauty of the geysers and hot springs of Yellowstone National Park (the Park) make them a national treasure. The hydrology of these special features and their relation to cold waters of the Yellowstone area are poorly known. In the absence of deep drill holes, such information is available only indirectly from isotope studies. The δD-δ18O values of precipitation and cold surface-water and ground-water samples are close to the global meteoric water line (Craig, 1961). δD values of monthly samples of rain and snow collected from 1978 to 1981 at two stations in the Park show strong seasonal variations, with average values for winter months close to those for cold waters near the collection sites. δD values of more than 300 samples from cold springs, cold streams, and rivers collected during the fall from 1967 to 1992 show consistent north-south and east-west patterns throughout and outside of the Park, although values at a given site vary by as much as 8 ‰ from year to year. These data, along with hot-spring data (Truesdell and others, 1977; Pearson and Truesdell, 1978), show that ascending Yellowstone thermal waters are modified isotopically and chemically by a variety of boiling and mixing processes in shallow reservoirs. Near geyser basins, shallow recharge waters from nearby rhyolite plateaus dilute the ascending deep thermal waters, particularly at basin margins, and mix and boil in reservoirs that commonly are interconnected. Deep recharge appears to derive from a major deep thermal-reservoir fluid that supplies steam and hot water to all geyser basins on the west side of the Park and perhaps in the entire Yellowstone caldera. This water (T ≥350°C; δD = –149±1 ‰) is isotopically lighter than all but the farthest north, highest altitude cold springs and streams and a sinter-producing warm spring (δD = –153 ‰) north of the Park. Derivation of this deep fluid solely from present-day recharge is

  10. Spring-Tab Lock Washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Jeff; Rogers, Dylan; Rodriguez, Pete

    1993-01-01

    Improved spring-tab lock washer offers alternative to such positive-locking devices as cotter pins and lock wires and to conventional split-ring lock washers. Does not dig into fastened parts with sharp edges; less likely to inflict scratches causing cracks. Contains three winglike spring tabs and three alignment pips, pressed into mating dimples in surface of part to be fastened. Spring tabs on lock washer allow only clockwise rotation (tightening) of bolt or nut.

  11. Alkaline static feed electrolyzer based oxygen generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, L. D.; Kovach, A. J.; Fortunato, F. A.; Schubert, F. H.; Grigger, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    In preparation for the future deployment of the Space Station, an R and D program was established to demonstrate integrated operation of an alkaline Water Electrolysis System and a fuel cell as an energy storage device. The program's scope was revised when the Space Station Control Board changed the energy storage baseline for the Space Station. The new scope was aimed at the development of an alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer for use in an Environmental Control/Life Support System as an oxygen generation system. As a result, the program was divided into two phases. The phase 1 effort was directed at the development of the Static Feed Electrolyzer for application in a Regenerative Fuel Cell System. During this phase, the program emphasized incorporation of the Regenerative Fuel Cell System design requirements into the Static Feed Electrolyzer electrochemical module design and the mechanical components design. The mechanical components included a Pressure Control Assembly, a Water Supply Assembly and a Thermal Control Assembly. These designs were completed through manufacturing drawing during Phase 1. The Phase 2 effort was directed at advancing the Alkaline Static Feed Electrolyzer database for an oxygen generation system. This development was aimed at extending the Static Feed Electrolyzer database in areas which may be encountered from initial fabrication through transportation, storage, launch and eventual Space Station startup. During this Phase, the Program emphasized three major areas: materials evaluation, electrochemical module scaling and performance repeatability and Static Feed Electrolyzer operational definition and characterization.

  12. Remote Sensing of Spring Streams on Alaska's North Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balser, A. W.; Huryn, A. D.

    2004-12-01

    Spring-fed headwater streams are thought to dramatically affect local aquatic food-web dynamics by providing continual ice-free refugia for species unable to tolerate freezing. Accurate locations of these streams on Alaska's North Slope are needed to investigate associated hypotheses. Thermal springs on Alaska's North Slope are spread over vast, roadless areas and are difficult to identify in summer by aerial survey. Pre-existing data on spring locations are incomplete, largely anecdotal and of insufficient accuracy for use in field sampling. Satellite remote sensing provides capabilities for measuring, monitoring and querying large tracts of remote landscape in an efficient, synoptic manner. Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper(ETM) imagery was used to reconnoiter a region of the North Slope using winter scenes, when the contrast between ambient conditions and the springs' thermal signal is easiest to detect. Scenes from February 9, 2002 were selected from the available archive based on cloud cover (<10%), and the lowest ambient temperature for dates with adequate archived imagery. Analytical methods were two tiered. A manual examination and interpretation of the imagery detected obvious linear features of relatively high temperature in logical locations for springs. A second examination, using masking and ratio techniques with tabular query, suppressed confounding factors and identified a second set of likely thermal spring locations. A subset coordinate list of candidate sites was developed from these findings, and drove sampling/ground truthing activity in the summer of 2004. All sites visited were confirmed springs and are part of ongoing aquatic food-web research based at Toolik Field Station.

  13. Cantilever spring constant calibration using laser Doppler vibrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ohler, Benjamin

    2007-06-15

    Uncertainty in cantilever spring constants is a critical issue in atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. Though numerous methods exist for calibrating cantilever spring constants, the accuracy of these methods can be limited by both the physical models themselves as well as uncertainties in their experimental implementation. Here we report the results from two of the most common calibration methods, the thermal tune method and the Sader method. These were implemented on a standard AFM system as well as using laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Using LDV eliminates some uncertainties associated with optical lever detection on an AFM. It also offers considerably higher signal to noise deflection measurements. We find that AFM and LDV result in similar uncertainty in the calibrated spring constants, about 5%, using either the thermal tune or Sader methods provided that certain limitations of the methods and instrumentation are observed.

  14. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    This invention relates generally to a process for extracting technetium from nuclear wastes and more particularly to a process for extracting technetium from alkaline waste solutions containing technetium and high concentrations of alkali metal nitrates. A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate comprises the steps of: contacting the aqueous alkaline solution with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent, the diluent being a water-immiscible organic liquid in which the crown ether is soluble, for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution into the solvent; separating the solvent containing the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution; and stripping the technetium values from the solvent by contacting the solvent with water.

  15. Springing into Spring: Reading Games for the Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    As spring arrives, more time is spent outdoors. Unfortunately, as spring fever hits, books and learning often take a backseat. The goal is for educators to find a way to re-engage learners. In this article, the author presents a seasonal story and game that can help catch students' attention by making learning both informative and entertaining.…

  16. Alkaline-resistance model of subtilisin ALP I, a novel alkaline subtilisin.

    PubMed

    Maeda, H; Mizutani, O; Yamagata, Y; Ichishima, E; Nakajima, T

    2001-05-01

    The alkaline-resistance mechanism of the alkaline-stable enzymes is not yet known. To clarify the mechanism of alkaline-resistance of alkaline subtilisin, structural changes of two typical subtilisins, subtilisin ALP I (ALP I) and subtilisin Sendai (Sendai), were studied by means of physicochemical methods. Subtilisin NAT (NAT), which exhibits no alkaline resistance, was examined as a control. ALP I gradually lost its activity, accompanied by protein degradation, but, on the contrary, Sendai was stable under alkaline conditions. CD spectral measurements at neutral and alkaline pH indicated no apparent differences between ALP I and Sendai. A significant difference was observed on measurement of fluorescence emission spectra of the tryptophan residues of ALP I that were exposed on the enzyme surface. The fluorescence intensity of ALP I was greatly reduced under alkaline conditions; moreover, the reduction was reversed when alkaline-treated ALP I was neutralized. The fluorescence spectrum of Sendai remained unchanged. The enzymatic and optical activities of NAT were lost at high pH, indicating a lack of functional and structural stability in an alkaline environment. Judging from these results, the alkaline resistance is closely related to the surface structure of the enzyme molecule. PMID:11328588

  17. BLACKJACK SPRINGS WILDERNESS, WISCONSIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral-resource potential of the Blackjack Springs Wilderness in northern Wisconsin was evaluated. The lack of bedrock exposures in or near the wilderness and the thick mantle of glacial sediments precludes a detailed assessment of the mineral potential of the wilderness. However, based on presently available data, the area is concluded to offer little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. If mineral deposits exist in the area, they would be under thick glacial cover and probably be of the massive sulfide type in association with metavolcanic rocks or be magmatic copper-nickel in association with metamorphosed mafic intrusive rocks. Sand and gravel resources occur in the wilderness, but they are abundant regionally, outside the wilderness. No other metallic or energy resources were identified in this study.

  18. Distribution of ether lipids and composition of the archaeal community in terrestrial geothermal springs: impact of environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Zhang, Chuanlun L; Wang, Jinxiang; Chen, Yufei; Zhu, Yuanqing; de la Torre, José R; Dong, Hailiang; Hartnett, Hilairy E; Hedlund, Brian P; Klotz, Martin G

    2015-05-01

    Archaea can respond to changes in the environment by altering the composition of their membrane lipids, for example, by modification of the abundance and composition of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). Here, we investigated the abundance and proportions of polar GDGTs (P-GDGTs) and core GDGTs (C-GDGTs) sampled in different seasons from Tengchong hot springs (Yunnan, China), which encompassed a pH range of 2.5-10.1 and a temperature range of 43.7-93.6°C. The phylogenetic composition of the archaeal community (reanalysed from published work) divided the Archaea in spring sediment samples into three major groups that corresponded with spring pH: acidic, circumneutral and alkaline. Cluster analysis showed correlation between spring pH and the composition of P- and C-GDGTs and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, indicating an intimate link between resident Archaea and the distribution of P- and C-GDGTs in Tengchong hot springs. The distribution of GDGTs in Tengchong springs was also significantly affected by temperature; however, the relationship was weaker than with pH. Analysis of published datasets including samples from Tibet, Yellowstone and the US Great Basin hot springs revealed a similar relationship between pH and GDGT content. Specifically, low pH springs had higher concentrations of GDGTs with high numbers of cyclopentyl rings than neutral and alkaline springs, which is consistent with the predominance of high cyclopentyl ring-characterized Sulfolobales and Thermoplasmatales present in some of the low pH springs. Our study suggests that the resident Archaea in these hot springs are acclimated if not adapted to low pH by their genetic capacity to effect the packing density of their membranes by increasing cyclopentyl rings in GDGTs at the rank of community. PMID:25142282

  19. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  20. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  1. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  2. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  3. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  4. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  5. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  6. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring...

  7. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  8. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  9. Effect of alkaline treatment on the characterization of zalacca midrib wastes fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raharjo, Wahyu Purwo; Soenoko, Rudy; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Choiron, Mochammad Agus; Triyono

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the need for new materials is urgent due to the scarcity of conventional materials and energy resources. The environmental issue requires materials which are biodegradable. There are many composites, arranged from synthetic fibers and matrix, which cannot be recyclable after their lifetime. In this research, the utilization potency of zalacca midrib wastes for their fibers as composite reinforcement were investigated, especially after the alkaline treatment to improve their characteristics. The influence of alkaline treatment on the density, functional groups of the fiber surface, thermal stability and crystallinity were measured and/or analyzed by linear-density-and-diameter-calculation, FTIR, TGA-DTA and XRD, respectively. The result showed that the zalacca midrib fibers had lower density than synthetic fibers and several natural fibers. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that the alkaline treatment of NaOH slightly raised their density because it removed several functional groups which attributed to the hemicellulose and lignin. TGA-DTA analysis indicated that zalacca fibers had good thermal stability until temperature of 220°C and it was improved by alkaline treatment. XRD analysis showed that the crystallinity of zalacca fibers was higher than several natural fibers like rice straw, sorghum stem and wheat straw fibers. Their crystallinity index was higher than wheat straw fiber. The alkaline treatment increases the crystallinity and crystallinity index rather than untreated fibers.

  10. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Inorganic-organic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible separator is reported for use between the electrodes of Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries using alkaline electrolytes. The separator was made by coating a porous substrate with a battery separator composition. The coating material included a rubber-based resin copolymer, a plasticizer and inorganic and organic fillers which comprised 55% by volume or less of the coating as finally dried. One or more of the filler materials, whether organic or inorganic, is preferably active with the alkaline electrolyte to produce pores in the separator coating. The plasticizer was an organic material which is hydrolyzed by the alkaline electrolyte to improve conductivity of the separator coating.

  13. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  14. Mineralogy and origin of rhizoliths on the margins of saline, alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Richard Alastair; Owen, Richard Bernhart; Renaut, Robin W.; Scott, Jennifer J.; Jones, Brian; Ashley, Gail M.

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of rhizoliths occurs around the margins of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. These include root casts, moulds, tubules, rhizocretions, and permineralised root systems. These rhizoliths are variably composed of opaline silica, calcite, zeolites (mainly analcime), fluorite, and possibly fluorapatite, either alone or in combinations. Some rhizoliths are infilled moulds with detrital silicate grains. Most rhizoliths are in situ, showing both vertical and horizontal orientations. Reworked rhizoliths have been concentrated locally to form dense rhizolites. Hot-spring fluids, concentrated by evapotranspiration and capillary evaporation, have provided most of the silica for the permineralisation of the plant tissues. Precipitation involved the growth of silica nanospheres and microspheres that coalesced into homogeneous masses. Calcite rhizoliths formed following evaporative concentration, evapotranspiration, and (or) CO 2 degassing of Ca-bearing runoff water that infiltrated the sediment, or by mixing of runoff with saline, alkaline groundwater. Fluorite precipitated in areas where mixing of hot-spring and meteoric waters occurred, or possibly where hot-spring fluids came into contact with pre-existing calcite. Zeolitic rhizoliths formed during a prolonged period of aridity, when capillary rise and evaporative pumping brought saline, alkaline waters into contact with detrital silicate minerals around roots.

  15. Piston and spring powered engine

    SciTech Connect

    Samodovitz, A. J.

    1985-12-10

    The invention is an improved piston engine, either two stroke or four stroke. In one, two stroke, one cylinder embodiment, the improvement comprises two springs connecting between the piston and the base of the piston. These springs are relatively relaxed when the crank is at top dead center. Then during the power/intake stroke, some of the fuel's energy is delivered to the crankshaft and some is used to compress the springs. The stored energy in the springs is delivered to the crankshaft during the exhaust/compression stroke while the springs return to their relatively relaxed condition. As a result, energy is delivered to the crankshaft during both strokes of the cycle, and the engine runs smooth. In one, four stroke, two cylinder embodiment, each cylinder has springs as described above, the cranks of each cylinder are aligned, and the cam sets one cylinder in the power stroke while the other is in the intake stroke. As a result, the engine runs smooth because energy is delivered to the crankshaft during all four strokes of the cycle, during two of the strokes by the burning fuel and during the other two by the release of energy in the springs. In both embodiments, a heavy crankshaft is not needed because of the more uniform power delivery.

  16. Composite seal reduces alkaline battery leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Plitt, K. F.

    1965-01-01

    Composite seal consisting of rubber or plastic washers and a metal washer reduces alkaline battery leakage. Adhesive is applied to each washer interface, and the washers are held together mechanically.

  17. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

  18. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  19. Technetium recovery from high alkaline solution

    DOEpatents

    Nash, Charles A.

    2016-07-12

    Disclosed are methods for recovering technetium from a highly alkaline solution. The highly alkaline solution can be a liquid waste solution from a nuclear waste processing system. Methods can include combining the solution with a reductant capable of reducing technetium at the high pH of the solution and adding to or forming in the solution an adsorbent capable of adsorbing the precipitated technetium at the high pH of the solution.

  20. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOEpatents

    Decker, Stephen R.; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  1. Evaluation of the alkaline electrolysis of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Meisenhelder, J.H.; Brown, A.P.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-05-01

    The alkaline leach and electrolysis process for zinc production is compared to the conventional acid-sulfate process in terms of both energy saving and technical merit. In addition, the potential for industrial application of the alkaline process is discussed on the basis of present market conditions, possible future zinc market scenarios, and the probability of increased secondary zinc recovery. In primary zinc production, the energy-saving potential for the alkaline process was estimated to be greater than 10%, even when significantly larger electrolysis current densities than those required for the sulfate process are used. The principal technical advantages of the alkaline process are that it can handle low-grade, high-iron-content or oxidized ores (like most of those found in the US) in a more cost- and energy-efficient manner than can the sulfate process. Additionally, in the electrowinning operation, the alkaline process should be technically superior because a dendritic or sponge deposit is formed that is amenable to automated collection without interruption of the electrolysis. Also, use of the higher current densities would result in significant capital cost reductions. Alkaline-based electrolytic recovery processes were considered for the recycling of zinc from smelter baghouse dusts and from the potential source of nickel/zinc electric-vehicle batteries. In all comparisons, an alkaline process was shown to be technically superior and, particularly for the baghouse dusts, energetically and economically superior to alternatively proposed recovery methods based on sulfate electrolysis. It is concluded that the alkaline zinc method is an important alternative technology to the conventional acid zinc process. (WHK)

  2. Dairy products and the French paradox: Could alkaline phosphatases play a role?

    PubMed

    Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2016-07-01

    The French paradox - high saturated fat consumption but low incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality - is still unresolved and continues to be a matter of debate and controversy. Recently, it was hypothesised that the high consumption of dairy products, and especially cheese by the French population might contribute to the explanation of the French paradox, in addition to the "(red) wine" hypothesis. Most notably this would involve milk bioactive peptides and biomolecules from cheese moulds. Here, we support the "dairy products" hypothesis further by proposing the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis. First, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), a potent endogenous anti-inflammatory enzyme, is directly stimulated by various components of milk (e.g. casein, calcium, lactose and even fat). This enzyme dephosphorylates and thus detoxifies pro-inflammatory microbial components like lipopolysaccharide, making them unable to trigger inflammatory responses and generate chronic low-grade inflammation leading to insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity, known risk factors for CVD. Various vitamins present in high amounts in dairy products (e.g. vitamins A and D; methyl-donors: folate and vitamin B12), and also fermentation products such as butyrate and propionate found e.g. in cheese, all stimulate intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Second, moulded cheeses like Roquefort contain fungi producing an alkaline phosphatase. Third, milk itself contains a tissue nonspecific isoform of alkaline phosphatase that may function as IAP. Milk alkaline phosphatase is present in raw milk and dairy products increasingly consumed in France. It is deactivated by pasteurization but it can partially reactivate after thermal treatment. Experimental consolidation of the "alkaline phosphatase" hypothesis will require further work including: systematic alkaline phosphatase activity measurements in dairy products, live dairy ferments and

  3. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study Appendices, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    This document consists of the appendices for annual report DOE/BP/39461--9 which is summarized as follows. The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system.

  4. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  5. Discrimination of alkalinity in granitoid Rocks: A potential TIMS application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Steven W.

    1995-01-01

    In mineral exploration, the ability to distinguish and map petrochemical variations of magmatic rocks can be a useful reconnaissance tool. Alkalinity is one such petrochemical parameter and is used in the characterization of granitoid rocks. In quartz normative plutonic rocks, alkalinity is related to the composition and abundance of feldspars. Together with quartz abundance, knowledge of feldspar modes allows the classification of these igneous rocks according to the Streckeisen diagram. Alternative classification schemes rely on whole rock geochemistry instead of mineral identifications. The relative ease of obtaining whole rock analyses means that geochemical classifications tend to be favored in exploration geology. But the technique of thermal infrared spectroscopy of rocks yields information on mineralogy and is one that can be applied remotely. The goal of the current work then is to establish whether data from TIMS can be used to distinguish the mineralogical variations that relate to alkalinity. An ideal opportunity to test this thesis arises from the work presented in a paper by Dewitt (1989). This paper contains the results of mapping and analysis of Proterozoic plutonic rocks in north-central Arizona. The map resulting from this work delineates plutons according to alkalinity in an effort to establish a trend or polarity in the regional magmatism. Also contained within this paper are brief descriptions of the mineralogy of half of the region's plutons. This combination of mineralogical and geochemical information was the rationale behind choosing this area as a site for TIMS over flights. A portion of the region centered on the northern Bradshaw Mountains was selected because it contains plutons of all three alkalinity classifications (alkali-calcic, calc-alkalic, and calic) present on DeWitt's map within a relatively small area. The site was flown in August of 1994 and the data received a few days before the writing of this manuscript. Most of this

  6. Poly(imide)/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite as a Potential Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Battirola, Liliane C.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the potentiality of a poly(imide) (PI)/organically-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposite membrane for the use in alkaline fuel cells. Both X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed a good dispersion of O-MMT into the PI matrix and preservation of the O-MMT layered structure. When compared to the pure PI, the addition of O-MMT improved thermal stability and markedly increased the capability of absorbing electrolyte and ionic conductivity of the composite. The results show that the PI/O-MMT nanocomposite is a promising candidate for alkaline fuel cell applications. PMID:24958290

  7. Hydrogeology of the mineral springs at Manitou Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Maslyn, R.M.; Blomquist, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Manitou Springs, a small resort community located at the base of 14,110 foot Pikes Peak, is situated at the south end of the southward plunging Williams Canyon Anticline. This is truncated south of town by the Ute Pass Reverse Fault, with over 30,000 feet of displacement. Paleozoic limestones are exposed north of Manitou Springs in north-south trending Williams Canyon. The Mississippian age Leadville Limestone and underlying Ordovician age Manitou Limestone contain over 40 caves, including the 8500-foot long Cave of the Winds system. These limestones continue under Manitou Springs, where cave forming processes have resulted in water-filled caverns. The 28 natural springs and flowing wells in Manitou Springs source in the limestone caverns. This carbonate aquifer is bounded by the Ute Pass Fault on the west and southwest, the Rampart Range Fault to the east, and open to recharge from exposed limestone to the north. Areal extent of the aquifer is approximately 3.5 spare miles, containing an estimated 10 billion gallons. In the past 100 years, spring development has lowered the potentiometric surface 50 feet. Contemporary and historical chemical analyses of the mineral water show high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and carbon dioxide gas. This suggests prolonged exposure of the water to limestone, as confirmed by Carbon 14 age-dating values of up to 30,000 years.

  8. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study

    PubMed Central

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of “deceleration aging factor” as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models. PMID:27340414

  9. Performed surfactant-optimized aqueous alkaline flood

    SciTech Connect

    Thigpen, D.R.; Lawson, J.B.; Nelson, R.C.

    1991-11-26

    This paper describes improvement in a process for recovering oil from an acidic oil reservoir by injecting an aqueous alkaline solution comprising water, sodium chloride, and alkaline material for reacting with the reservoir oil forming a petroleum acid soap to form an in-situ surfactant system. The improvement comprises: selecting a preformed cosurfactant which is soluble in both the aqueous solution and the reservoir oil and has a solubility ratio which is grater than the solubility ratio of the petroleum acid soap where the solubility ratio is the ratio of solubility in the aqueous alkaline solution to the solubility in the reservoir oil; combining with the alkaline solution an amount of the preformed cosurfactant which will result in the in-situ surfacant system having a salinity about equal to a salinity which results in minimal interfacial tension between the oil in the reservoir and the in-situ surfactant system at reservoir temperature, wherein the amount of the preformed cosurfactant is about 0.3 percent by weight in the aqueous alkaline solution; and injecting the cosurfactant-aqueous alkaline solution mixture into the reservoir to displace oil toward a fluid production location.

  10. Biomass and production of amphipods in low alkalinity lakes affected by acid precipitation.

    PubMed

    France, R L

    1996-01-01

    Population biomass and production of the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Saussure) were found to be related to alkalinity (ranging from 0.2 to 58.1 mg liter(-1)) in 10 Canadian Shield lakes in south-central Ontario. Biomass and production of amphipods in the two lakes characterized by spring depressions of pH below 5.0 were found to be lower than those for populations inhabiting lakes that did not experience such acid pulses. The proportional biomass of amphipods in relation to the total littoral zoobenthos community was lower in lakes of low alkalinity than in circumneutral or hardwater lakes. Because production in these amphipod populations is known to depend closely on population abundance, the labour-intensive derivation of production rates yields relatively little information for biomonitoring that cannot be obtained from abundance data alone. PMID:15093505

  11. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff-Roberts, A. L.; Kuenen, J. G.; Ward, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments.

  12. Distribution of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria in hot spring microbial mats.

    PubMed Central

    Ruff-Roberts, A L; Kuenen, J G; Ward, D M

    1994-01-01

    Oligodeoxynucleotide hybridization probes were developed to complement specific regions of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of cultivated and uncultivated cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus-like bacteria, which inhabit hot spring microbial mats. The probes were used to investigate the natural distribution of SSU rRNAs from these species in mats of Yellowstone hot springs of different temperatures and pHs as well as changes in SSU rRNA distribution resulting from 1-week in situ shifts in temperature, pH, and light intensity. Synechococcus lividus Y-7c-s SSU rRNA was detected only in the mat of a slightly acid spring, from which it may have been initially isolated, or when samples from a more alkaline spring were incubated in the more acid spring. Chloroflexus aurantiacus Y-400-fl SSU rRNA was detected only in a high-temperature mat sample from the alkaline Octopus Spring or when lower-temperature samples from this mat were incubated at the high-temperature site. SSU rRNAs of uncultivated species were more widely distributed. Temperature distributions and responses to in situ temperature shifts suggested that some of the uncultivated cyanobacteria might be adapted to high-, moderate-, and low-temperature ranges whereas an uncultivated Chloroflexus-like bacterium appears to have broad temperature tolerance. SSU rRNAs of all uncultivated species inhabiting a 48 to 51 degrees C Octopus Spring mat site were most abundant in the upper 1 mm and were not detected below a 2.5-to 3.5-mm depth, a finding consistent with their possible phototrophic nature. However, the effects of light intensity reduction on these SSU rRNAs were variable, indicating the difficulty of demonstrating a phototrophic phenotype in light reduction experiments. Images PMID:11536630

  13. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  15. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to ~ 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH ~ 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  16. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  17. Geothermal systems within the Mammoth Corridor in Yellowstone National Park and the adjacent Corwin Springs KGRA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, Michael; Colvard, Elizabeth; Sturchio, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    A study of potential impacts of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA north of Yellowstone Park on thermal springs within the Park is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Thermal waters in the KGRA and at Mammoth Hot Springs, located 13 km inside the Park boundary, are high in bicarbonate and sulfate and are actively depositing travertine. These similarities and the existence of numerous regional-scale structural and stratigraphic features that could provide conduits for fluid flow at depth indicate a possible cause for concern. The objectives of this study include delineations of any hydrologic connections between these thermal waters, the level of impact of geothermal development in the event of such connections, and mitigation measures to minimize or eliminate adverse impacts. The study involves a number of geochemical, geophysical, geologic, and hydrologic techniques, but does not include any test drilling. Preliminary results suggest that thermal waters at Bear Creek Springs may contain a component of water derived from Mammoth but that thermal waters at La Duke Hot Spring do not. The total rate of thermal water that discharges in the area proposed for geothermal development (near La Duke) has been determined; restricting the net production of thermal water to rates less than this total could provide a satisfactory margin of safety for development.

  18. Analysis of potential geothermal resources and their use: Lebanon Springs area, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    The feasibility of using thermal waters at Lebanon Springs or elsewhere in the Capital District of New York as an energy source was studied. To evaluate the area, geologic mapping of the Lebanon Springs, New York, to Williamstown, Massachusetts, area was conducted, and efforts made to locate additional thermal waters besides those already known. In addition to mapping, thermal gradients where measured in twenty-five abandoned water wells, and the silica contents and water temperatures of seventy-eight active domestic water wells were determined. Based on the results of that work, Lebanon Springs appears to be the first choice for a demonstration project, but further exploration may confirm that other areas with good potential exist. A preliminary economic analysis of possible uses in the Town of Lebanon Springs was made, and it was determined that a system combining groundwater heat pumps and a microhydroelectric plant could be applied to heating the town hall, town garage, and high school with significant savings.

  19. Improvement of thermoelectric properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Masatoshi . E-mail: takeda@mech.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Terui, Manabu; Takahashi, Norihito; Ueda, Noriyoshi

    2006-09-15

    Thermoelectric (TE) and transport properties of alkaline-earth hexaborides were examined to investigate the possibility of improvement in their TE performance. As carrier concentration increased, electrical conductivity increased and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient decreased monotonically, while carrier mobility was almost unchanged. These results suggest that the electrical properties of the hexaboride depend largely on carrier concentration. Thermal conductivity of the hexaboride was higher than 10 W/m K even at 1073 K, which is relatively high among TE materials. Alloys of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} were prepared in order to reduce lattice thermal conductivity. Whereas the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the alloys were intermediate between those of CaB{sub 6} and SrB{sub 6} single phases, the thermal conductivities of the alloys were lower than those of both single phases. The highest TE performance was obtained in the vicinity of Ca{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}B{sub 6}, indicating that alloying is effective in improving the performance. - Graphical abstract: Thermoelectric figure-of-merit, ZT, for (Ca,Sr)B{sub 6} alloys. The highest ZT value of 0.35 at 1073 K was obtained due to effective reduction of thermal conductivity by alloying.

  20. Structural controls of hot-spring systems on southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, Robert A.; Leonard, Robert Benjamin

    1979-01-01

    Thermal waters that issue as hot (more than 38C) springs in southwestern Montana appear to circulate to depth along Cenozoic block faults, deep fractures penetrating the dominantly crystalline rock crust, or major structural lineaments. At individual hot springs, rising thermal waters are transmitted along conduits formed by the intersection of a major fault with other faults, fracture zones, anticlinal axes (which may be faulted or fractures), or sedimentary aquifers. Step faults and other intra-valley faults may influence circulation at some springs. At others, fracture zones alone may provide the necessary vertical permeability. Normal regional heat apparently is sufficient to maintain the hydrothermal systems without enhancement from cooling igneous bodies. The thermal gradient normally is higher in low thermal conductivity sediments of the block-fault valleys than the 30C per kilometer average for crystalline rock. To attain reservoir temperatures of 60 to 120C indicated by chemical geothermometers, waters would have to circulate to depths of about 2 to 4 kilometers in crystalline rock and about 1 to 2 kilometers in valley sediments. (Kosco-USGS)

  1. Southern Spring in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the

  2. Water-Chemistry Data for Selected Springs, Geysers, and Streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2003-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.

    2008-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 157 samples collected from numerous hot springs, their overflow drainages, and Lemonade Creek in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2003-2005. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from ten areas of YNP including Terrace and Beryl Springs in the Gibbon Canyon area, Norris Geyser Basin, the West Nymph Creek thermal area, the area near Nymph Lake, Hazle Lake, and Frying Pan Spring, Lower Geyser Basin, Washburn Hot Springs, Mammoth Hot Springs, Potts Hot Spring Basin, the Sulphur Caldron area, and Lemonade Creek near the Solfatara Trail. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, and sulfur redox distribution in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved onsite. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh (redox potential relative to the Standard Hydrogen Electrode), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured onsite at the time of sampling. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally minutes to hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved-iron and ferrous-iron concentrations often were measured onsite in the mobile laboratory vehicle. Concentrations of dissolved

  3. Simplified seawater alkalinity analysis: Use of linear array spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wensheng; Byrne, Robert H.

    1998-08-01

    Modified spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of seawater total alkalinity using rapid scan linear array spectrometers. Continuous monitoring of solution pH allows titrations to be terminated at relatively high pH, whereby excess acid terms are very small. Excess acid concentrations are quantified using the sulfonephthalein indicators, bromocresol green and bromocresol purple. The outlined spectrophotometric procedures require no thermal equilibration of samples. Using bromocresol green, solution pH T ([H +] T in moles per kg of solution) is given as: pHT=4.2699+0.002578(35- S)+ log((R(25)-0.00131)/(2.3148-0.1299 R(25))) - log(1-0.001005S) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.00909(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t) is the absorbance ratio ( A616/ A444) at temperature t and salinity S. Using bromocresol purple, the solution pH T is given as pH T=5.8182+0.00129(35- S)+log(( R(25)-0.00381)/(2.8729-0.05104 R(25))) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.01869(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t)= A589/ A432. Alkalinity measurements using bromocresol purple had a precision on the order of 0.3 μmol kg -1 and were within 0.3-0.9 μmol kg -1 of the alkalinities of certified seawater reference materials.

  4. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  5. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  6. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  7. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., except when that spring is part of a nest of three or more springs and none of the other springs in the nest has its top leaf or any other three leaves broken. An outer coil spring or saddle may not...

  8. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  9. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  10. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  11. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  12. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  13. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  14. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  16. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to...

  17. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  18. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression....

  19. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must be established by tests simulating service conditions unless failure of the spring will not cause flutter...

  20. Boundary Creek thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park: II, thermal water analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.M.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Water samples from 28 thermal springs, 2 non-thermal springs, and 2 creeks from the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas (BCTA) in the southwestern corner of Yellowstone National Park were analyzed to help establish a chemical water-quality base line prior to possible geothermal exploitation of the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA). The springs, situated at the southwestern end of the Madison Plateau, are the Yellowstone Park thermal waters nearest to the IPGA and might respond to geothermal exploitation in the IPGA. Water temperatures ranging from 50/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/C and low Cl concentrations (< 110 mgL/sup -1/) characterize spring waters in the BCTA. They are chemically distinct from the major geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park. The Na-K-Ca and silica geothermometers are in general agreement, usually within 10/sup 0/C, and indicate reservoir temperatures of 150 to 170/sup 0/C.

  1. Geothermal heat pump system assisted by geothermal hot spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Koizumi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The authors propose a hybrid geothermal heat pump system that could cool buildings in summer and melt snow on the pedestrian sidewalks in winter, utilizing cold mine water and hot spring water. In the proposed system, mine water would be used as cold thermal energy storage, and the heat from the hot spring after its commercial use would be used to melt snow for a certain section of sidewalks. Neither of these sources is viable for direct use application of geothermal resources, however, they become contributing energy factors without producing any greenhouse gases. To assess the feasibility of the proposed system, a series of temperature measurements in the Edgar Mine (Colorado School of Mines' experimental mine) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, were first conducted, and heat/mass transfer analyses of geothermal hot spring water was carried out. The result of the temperature measurements proved that the temperature of Edgar Mine would be low enough to store cold groundwater for use in summer. The heat loss of the hot spring water during its transportation was also calculated, and the heat requirement for snow melt was compared with the heat available from the hot spring water. It was concluded that the heat supply in the proposed usage of hot spring water was insufficient to melt the snow for the entire area that was initially proposed. This feasibility study should serve as an example of "local consumption of locally available energy". If communities start harnessing economically viable local energy in a responsible manner, there will be a foundation upon which to build a sustainable community.

  2. Cold Springs in Permafrost on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, D. T.; Pollard, W. H.; McKay, C. P.; Heldmann, J. L.; Toon, O. B.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2000-12-01

    Perennial springs located on west central Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic occur in a region with a mean annual air temperature of -17 degrees C and flow through continuous permafrost over 600 meters thick. The spring water is a low temperature (up to 6 degrees C) brine flow that maintains constant discharge temperatures and flow rate throughout the year. Here we report on observations of the thermal regime associated with these springs and develop a combined flow and thermal model of the subsurface flow using the measured geothermal gradient. We also consider the implications these springs have for the search for similar environments, past or present, on Mars. This work was supported by grants from NASA's Exobiology program, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Northern Scientific Training Program, NASA's Astrobiology Integration Office, and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado. Logistical support was provided by the Canadian Polar Continental Shelf Project and McGill University's High Arctic Research Station.

  3. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Intermediate range order in alkaline borate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crupi, C.; Carini, G.; Ruello, G.; D'Angelo, G.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the neutron diffraction patterns of a series of alkaline borate glasses at different metal oxide content. Strong differences are observed in the intermediate range order as a function of the specific alkaline ion and of its concentration. On these results, we propose that the first sharp diffraction peak arises from correlations of atoms of voids and show that the compositional variation of this peak intensity in alkaline borate glasses is due to changes in the distribution of void sizes within the three-dimensional network. We argue that our interpretation in terms of interstitial (empty and/or filled) voids, having different sizes, provides a general explanation for all anomalous behaviours revealed for the first sharp diffraction peak.

  5. The Dependence of the Spring Constant in the Linear Range on Spring Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Viridi, Sparisoma; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    In basic physics laboratories, springs are normally used to determine both spring constants and the Earth's gravitational acceleration. Students generally do not notice that the spring constant is not a universal constant, but depends on the spring parameters. This paper shows and verifies that the spring constant in the linear range is inversely…

  6. Alkaline Band Formation in Chara corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, William J.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the transport system responsible for the establishment of alkaline bands on cells of Chara corallina was investigated. The transport process was found to be insensitive to external pH, provided the value was above a certain threshold. At this threshold (pH 5.1 to 4.8) the transport process was inactivated. Transport function could be recovered by raising the pH value of the external solution. The fastest rate of recovery was always obtained in the presence of exogenous HCO3−. Experiments in which plasmalemma integrity was modified using 10 millimolar K+ treatment were also performed. Alkaline band transport was significantly reduced in the presence of 10 millimolar K+, but the system did not recover, following return to 0.2 millimolar K+ solutions, until the transport site was reexposed to exogenous HCO3−. The influence of presence and absence of various cations on both alkaline band transport and total H14CO3− assimilation was examined. No specific cation requirement (mono- or divalent) was found for either process, except the previously established role of Ca2+ at the HCO3− transport site. The alkaline band transport process exhibited a general requirement for cations. This transport system could be partially or completely stalled in low cation solutions, or glass-distilled water, respectively. The results indicate that no cationic flux occurs across the plasmalemma in direct association with either the alkaline band or HCO3− transport systems. It is felt that the present results offer support for the hypothesis that an OH− efflux transport system (rather than a H+ influx system) is responsible for alkaline band development in C. corallina. The results support the hypothesis that OH− efflux is an electrogenic process. This OH− transport system also appears to contain two allosteric effector sites, involving an acidic group and a HCO3− ion. PMID:16660706

  7. Hydrogeochemical overview and natural arsenic occurrence in groundwater from alpine springs (upper Valtellina, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Reyes, Fredy Alexander; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano; Della Pergola, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations (up to 230 μg/L) have been historically observed (since 1999) in the upper Valtellina valley groundwater (UVV, central Italian Alps), and measured in samples collected during four campaigns of one full hydrological year (summer 2012-summer 2013). During these campaigns, water has been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by Ca-Mg and SO4-HCO3 main ions, with seasonal variations for the second end members; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) dominant oxidizing conditions have been observed for most of the cold and for the thermal springs; (5) anthropogenic contamination is absent, while natural contamination of arsenic affects most of the springs, with a natural background level for the entire UVV of 33 μg/L; (6) both As (V) and As (III) are present in all the springs analyzed, with a marked prevalence of As (V) among the cold ones. These conditions suggest that the latter belong to recent hydrochemical immature aquifers, where the presence of arsenic is mostly related to alkali desorption and sulfide oxidation, while the thermal springs derive from the rapid uprising of deep-circulation water, with a high concentration of geothermal arsenic.

  8. Degradation of halogenated carbons in alkaline alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Seiko; Shimokawa, Toshinari

    2002-02-01

    1,1,2-Trichloro-trifluoroethane, 1,2-dibromo-tetrafluoroethane, 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole were dissolved in alkaline isopropyl alcohol and irradiated with 60Co gamma rays after purged with pure nitrogen gas. The concentration of the hydroxide ions and the parent molecules decreased with the dose, while that of the halide ions and the organic products, with less halogen atoms than the parent, increased. Chain degradation will occur in alkaline isopropyl alcohol.

  9. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  10. Laser direct write of planar alkaline microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, C. B.; Kim, H.; Piqué, A.

    We are developing a laser engineering approach to fabricate and optimize alkaline microbatteries in planar geometries. The laser direct-write technique enables multicapability for adding, removing and processing material and provides the ability to pattern complicated structures needed for fabricating complete microbattery assemblies. In this paper, we demonstrate the production of planar zinc-silver oxide alkaline cells under ambient conditions. The microbattery cells exhibit 1.55-V open-circuit potentials, as expected for the battery chemistry, and show a flat discharge behavior under constant-current loads. High capacities of over 450 μAhcm-2 are obtained for 5-mm2 microbatteries.

  11. Alkaline Capacitors Based on Nitride Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldissi, Matt

    2003-01-01

    High-energy-density alkaline electrochemical capacitors based on electrodes made of transition-metal nitride nanoparticles are undergoing development. Transition- metal nitrides (in particular, Fe3N and TiN) offer a desirable combination of high electrical conductivity and electrochemical stability in aqueous alkaline electrolytes like KOH. The high energy densities of these capacitors are attributable mainly to their high capacitance densities, which, in turn, are attributable mainly to the large specific surface areas of the electrode nanoparticles. Capacitors of this type could be useful as energy-storage components in such diverse equipment as digital communication systems, implanted medical devices, computers, portable consumer electronic devices, and electric vehicles.

  12. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  13. Intramolecular dynamics of structure of alkaline phosphatase from Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhul, Vladimir M.; Mjakinnik, Igor V.; Volkova, Alena N.

    1995-01-01

    The luminescent analysis with nano- and millisecond time resolution of intramolecular dynamics of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase was carried out. The effect of pH within the range 7.2 - 9.0, thermal inactivation, limited proteolysis by trypsin, binding of pyrophosphate, interconversion of enzyme and apoenzyme, the replacement of Zn2+ and Mg2+ in the active site by Cd2+ and Ni2+ on the spectral and kinetic parameters of luminescence was investigated. The essential changes of the level of nano- and millisecond dynamics of protein structure were found to correlate with the shift of enzymatic activity. The importance of small- and large-scale flexibility of protein structure for the act of enzymatic catalysis realization was shown.

  14. Modeling hot spring chemistries with applications to martian silica formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, G.M.; Catling, D.C.; Crowley, J.K.; Kargel, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Many recent studies have implicated hydrothermal systems as the origin of martian minerals across a wide range of martian sites. Particular support for hydrothermal systems include silica (SiO2) deposits, in some cases >90% silica, in the Gusev Crater region, especially in the Columbia Hills and at Home Plate. We have developed a model called CHEMCHAU that can be used up to 100??C to simulate hot springs associated with hydrothermal systems. The model was partially derived from FREZCHEM, which is a colder temperature model parameterized for broad ranges of temperature (<-70 to 25??C), pressure (1-1000 bars), and chemical composition. We demonstrate the validity of Pitzer parameters, volumetric parameters, and equilibrium constants in the CHEMCHAU model for the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-ClO4-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-O2-CH4-Si-H2O system up to 100??C and apply the model to hot springs and silica deposits.A theoretical simulation of silica and calcite equilibrium shows how calcite is least soluble with high pH and high temperatures, while silica behaves oppositely. Such influences imply that differences in temperature and pH on Mars could lead to very distinct mineral assemblages. Using measured solution chemistries of Yellowstone hot springs and Icelandic hot springs, we simulate salts formed during the evaporation of two low pH cases (high and low temperatures) and a high temperature, alkaline (high pH) sodic water. Simulation of an acid-sulfate case leads to precipitation of Fe and Al minerals along with silica. Consistency with martian mineral assemblages suggests that hot, acidic sulfate solutions are plausibility progenitors of minerals in the past on Mars. In the alkaline pH (8.45) simulation, formation of silica at high temperatures (355K) led to precipitation of anhydrous minerals (CaSO4, Na2SO4) that was also the case for the high temperature (353K) low pH case where anhydrous minerals (NaCl, CaSO4) also precipitated. Thus we predict that secondary minerals associated with

  15. Geothermal resource assessment of Hot Sulphur Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 10 springs whose waters are used for recreation, steam baths and laundry purposes are located at Hot Sulphur Springs. Estimated heat-flow at Hot Sulphur Springs is approximately 100 mW/m2, which is about normal for western Colorado. Recent work tends to show that surface and reduced heat flow in the mountains of northern Colorado could be high. The thermal waters have an estimated discharge of 50 gpm, a temperature that ranges from 104/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) to a high of 111/sup 0/F (44/sup 0/C), and a total dissolved solid content of 1200 mg/l. The waters are a sodium bicarbonate type with a large concentration of sulphate. It is estimated that the most likely reservoir temperature of this system ranges from 167/sup 0/F (75/sup 0/F) to 302/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/C) and that the areal extent of the system could encompass 1.35 sq mi (3.50 sq km) and could contain 0.698 Q's (1015 B.T.U.'s) of heat energy. Soil mercury and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted. The geophysical survey delineated several areas of low resistivity associated with the north trending fault that passes just to the west of the spring area. It appears that this fault is saturated with thermal waters and may be the conduit along which the thermal waters are moving up from depth. The appendices to this report include tables showing water temperatures required for various industrial processes, as well as dissolved minerals, trace elements and radioactivity levels found in the thermal waters. Also presented are a complete description of the factors affecting the electrical resistivity measurements, a description of the electrical resistivity equipment used, and the resistivity field procedures. Electrical resistivity calculations are also included in the appendices.

  16. Spring-Blade Impact Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Alan M.; Champagne, James W.

    1989-01-01

    Record of energy relationships retrieved from compact, portable tester. Spring-blade impact tester developed to support evaluation of tolerance to damage of struts under consideration for use in Space Station. Approach offers potential for determining damage as function of change in relationship between applied and absorbed energies as applied energy successively increased with each impact. Impactor strikes specimen at moment of maximum kinetic energy after spring blades released from cocked position. Concept also provides potential for measuring behavior during impact, and energy relationships retrievable from oscilloscope traces of impact.

  17. Evidence for alkaline igneous activity and associated metasomatism in the Reelfoot rift, south-central Midcontinent, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Diehl, S.F.; Sutley, S.J. ); Flohr, M.J.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Alkaline igneous magmatism is commonly associated with intracontinental rifts such as the Reelfoot rift (RR). Direct evidence for alkaline magmatism in the area of the RR occurs as lamprophyre and syenite encountered in deep wells. The authors' new studies of lamprophyres and sedimentary rocks from wells in the region provide additional examples of alkaline magmatism and emphasize the effects of related metasomatism. Sedimentary rocks in the Dow Chemical No. 1 Garrigan well, which is not known to contain lamprophyre dikes, probably also were metasomatically altered, as they contain authigenic fluorapatite, Ce-phosphates, and other REE-rich minerals. Enrichments of incompatible and large ion lithophile elements commonly associated with alkaline magmatism occur in the New Madrid test well, near the crest of the Pascola Arch. The carbonate-free fraction of Paleozoic rocks in this well is highly enriched in Nb (500 ppm), Ba (> 5,000 ppm), La (500 ppm), Th (1,000 ppm), and F (2,400 ppm). Abundant inclusion-rich potassium-feldspar cement in a nearby well may also be the result of alkaline metasomatism. Fluorite and elevated F concentrations are found in several wells in the RR, and contrast with stratigraphically correlative platform carbonates of the Ozark uplift, which lack F enrichment. Well and spring water samples above the RR are enriched in fluorine (as much as 5,000 ppb) compared to samples away from the rift which typically have concentrations two orders of magnitude smaller. The data and observations are consistent with relatively widespread alkaline metasomatism, which was associated with the intrusion of alkaline magmas in the RR.

  18. The Alkaline Diet: Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry K.

    2012-01-01

    This review looks at the role of an alkaline diet in health. Pubmed was searched looking for articles on pH, potential renal acid loads, bone health, muscle, growth hormone, back pain, vitamin D and chemotherapy. Many books written in the lay literature on the alkaline diet were also reviewed and evaluated in light of the published medical literature. There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. PMID:22013455

  19. Microcoil Spring Interconnects for Ceramic Grid Array Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, S. M.; Hester, J. D.; Gowan, A. K.; Montgomery, R. K.; Geist, D. L.; Blanche, J. F.; McGuire, G. D.; Nash, T. S.

    2011-01-01

    As integrated circuit miniaturization trends continue, they drive the need for smaller higher input/output (I/O) packages. Hermetically sealed ceramic area array parts are the package of choice by the space community for high reliability space flight electronic hardware. Unfortunately, the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the ceramic area array package and the epoxy glass printed wiring board limits the life of the interconnecting solder joint. This work presents the results of an investigation by Marshall Space Flight Center into a method to increase the life of this second level interconnection by the use of compliant microcoil springs. The design of the spring and its attachment process are presented along with thermal cycling results of microcoil springs (MCS) compared with state-of-the-art ball and column interconnections. Vibration testing has been conducted on MCS and high lead column parts. Radio frequency simulation and measurements have been made and the MCS has been modeled and a stress analysis performed. Thermal cycling and vibration testing have shown MCS interconnects to be significantly more reliable than solder columns. Also, MCS interconnects are less prone to handling damage than solder columns. Future work that includes shock testing, incorporation into a digital signal processor board, and process evaluation of expansion from a 400 I/O device to a device with over 1,100 I/O is identified.

  20. Effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Jiang, Long; Wang, Yi; Su, Sheng; Sun, Lushi; Xu, Boyang; He, Limo; Xiang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate effects of inherent alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) on biomass pyrolysis at different temperatures. The yield of CO, H2 and C2H4 was increased and that of CO2 was suppressed with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature could also promote depolymerization and aromatization reactions of active tars, forming heavier polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, leading to decrease of tar yields and species diversity. Diverse performance of inherent AAEMs at different temperatures significantly affected the distribution of pyrolysis products. The presence of inherent AAEMs promoted water-gas shift reaction, and enhanced the yield of H2 and CO2. Additionally, inherent AAEMs not only promoted breakage and decarboxylation/decarbonylation reaction of thermally labile hetero atoms of the tar but also enhanced thermal decomposing of heavier aromatics. Inherent AAEMs could also significantly enhance the decomposition of levoglucosan, and alkaline earth metals showed greater effect than alkali metals. PMID:26005925

  1. MERCURIC CHLORIDE CAPTURE BY ALKALINE SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of bench-scale mechanistic studies of mercury/sorbent reactions that showed that mercuric chloride (HgC12) is readily adsorbed by alkaline sorbents, which may offers a less expensive alternative to the use of activated carbons. A laboratory-scale, fixed-b...

  2. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOEpatents

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  3. Kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose.

    PubMed

    Christodoulatos, C; Su, T L; Koutsospyros, A

    2001-01-01

    Cellulose nitrate (nitrocellulose) is an explosive solid substance used in large quantities in various formulations of rocket and gun propellants. Safe destruction of nitrocellulose can be achieved by alkaline hydrolysis, which converts it to biodegradable products that can then be treated by conventional biological processes. The kinetics of the alkaline hydrolysis of munitions-grade nitrocellulose in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated in completely mixed batch reactors. Experiments were conducted using solutions of alkaline strength ranging from 0.1 to 15% by mass and temperatures in the range of 30 to 90 degrees C. Regression analysis of the kinetic data revealed that alkaline hydrolysis of nitrocellulose is of the order 1.0 and 1.5 with respect to nitrocellulose and hydroxide concentration, respectively. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction was found to be 100.9 kJ/mol with a preexponential Arrhenius constant of 4.73 x 10(13). Nitrite and nitrate, in a 3:1 ratio, were the primary nitrogen species present in the posthydrolysis solution. The kinetic information is pertinent to the development and optimization of nitrocellulose chemical-biological treatment systems. PMID:11563378

  4. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  5. ISSUES WITH ALKALINE TREATMENT OF SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA arrive at i...

  6. Alkaline electrochemical cells and method of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    Equilibrated cellulose ether membranes of increased electrolytic conductivity for use as separators in concentrated alkaline electrochemical cells are investigated. The method of making such membranes by equilibration to the degree desired in an aqueous alkali solution mantained at a temperature below about 10 C is described.

  7. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2006-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, James W.; McMleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    Water analyses are reported for 104 samples collected from numerous thermal and non-thermal features in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 2006-2008. Water samples were collected and analyzed for major and trace constituents from 10 areas of YNP including Apollinaris Spring and Nymphy Creek along the Norris-Mammoth corridor, Beryl Spring in Gibbon Canyon, Norris Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin, Crater Hills, the Geyser Springs Group, Nez Perce Creek, Rabbit Creek, the Mud Volcano area, and Washburn Hot Springs. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on arsenic, antimony, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur redox species in hot springs and overflow drainages, and the occurrence and distribution of dissolved mercury. Most samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, trace metals, redox species of antimony, arsenic, iron, nitrogen, and sulfur, and isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Analyses were performed at the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle, or later in a U.S. Geological Survey laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether it could be preserved effectively. Water samples were filtered and preserved on-site. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, emf (electromotive force or electrical potential), and dissolved hydrogen sulfide were measured on-site at the time of sampling. Dissolved hydrogen sulfide was measured a few to several hours after sample collection by ion-specific electrode on samples preserved on-site. Acidity was determined by titration, usually within a few days of sample collection. Alkalinity was determined by titration within 1 to 2 weeks of sample collection. Concentrations of thiosulfate and polythionate were determined as soon as possible (generally a few to several hours after sample collection) by ion chromatography in an on-site mobile laboratory vehicle. Total dissolved iron and ferrous iron concentrations often were measured on-site in the

  8. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of Lost Empires". It provides activity set-ups related to…

  9. Registration of 'Rollag' spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) is a disease that annually threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the northern plains of the United States. Resistance to this disease is a high priority trait in the University of Minnesota’s spring wheat breedi...

  10. TEACH Evaluation, Spring 2002. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meuschke, Daylene M; Dixon, P. Scott; Gribbons, Barry C.

    TEACH is a partnership program involving California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), College of the Canyons (COC) and the Newhall and Hart School Districts to provide students with supervised fieldwork and specialized support services while pursuing a California teaching credential. This Spring 2002 TEACH evaluation reports on surveys of COC…

  11. The Forced Hard Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, various examples of the Duffing type forced spring equation with epsilon positive, are studied. Since [epsilon] is positive, all solutions to the associated homogeneous equation are periodic and the same is true with the forcing applied. The damped equation exhibits steady state trajectories with the interesting…

  12. The Forced Soft Spring Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, T. H.

    2006-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, this paper studies examples of the forced Duffing type spring equation with [epsilon] negative. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, the existence is demonstrated of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions. Subharmonic boundaries are…

  13. Spring for It: First Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  14. Finding Spring on Planet X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  15. A Breath of Spring Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2009-01-01

    The most promising sights of spring in Nebraska this year were two conferences for women. One event, sponsored by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, was a Women's History Month Tea. A second conference was the meeting of the Nebraska Women in Higher Education. These two events suggest that there is a continuing interest in women's leadership…

  16. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  17. NOVA Spring 1999 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo, Luann; Ransick, Kristina; Recio, Belinda

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 1999. Programs include: (1) "Surviving AIDS"; (2) "Secrets of Making Money"; (3) "Escape!: Fire"; (4) "Escape!: Car Crash"; (5) "Volcanoes of the Deep"; and (6) "Odyssey of Life: Part 1. The Ultimate Journey". It provides activity…

  18. To Colorado Springs and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    Developments that highlight the importance of state oversight and authorization of higher education institutions and the objectives of the current Colorado Springs seminar on this topic are considered. In addition to the basic fact that states are the origin of chartering, licensing, and authorization of educational institutions, states have…

  19. Carnivorous arthropods after spring flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spring flooding is a common practice in Wisconsin cranberries, but flooding as insect control produces variable results among marshes. This project is aimed at figuring out why it works, and why it sometimes doesn’t. We have focused on tracking arthropod populations to explain the observed patterns ...

  20. Titanium corrosion in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Been, Jantje

    1998-12-01

    The corrosion of Grade 2 titanium in alkaline hydrogen peroxide environments has been studied by weight loss corrosion tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and potentiodynamic polarography. Calcium ions and wood pulp were investigated as corrosion inhibitors. In alkaline peroxide, the titanium corrosion rate increased with increasing pH, temperature, and hydrogen peroxide concentration. The corrosion controlling mechanism is thought to be the reaction of the oxide with the perhydroxyl ion. No evidence of thermodynamically stable calcium titanate was found in the surface film of test coupons exposed to calcium-inhibited alkaline peroxide solutions. Calcium inhibition is probably the result of low local alkali and peroxide concentrations at the metal surface produced by reaction of adsorbed calcium with hydrogen peroxide. It has been shown that the inhibiting effect of calcium is temporary, possibly through an effect of calcium on the chemical and/or physical stability of the surface oxide. Pulp is an effective and stable corrosion inhibitor. Raising the pulp concentration decreased the corrosion rate. The inhibiting effect of pulp may be related to the adsorption and interaction of the pulp fibers with H 2O2, thereby decreasing the peroxide concentration and rendering the solution less corrosive. The presence of both pulp and calcium led to higher corrosion rates than obtained by either one inhibitor alone. Replacement of hydrofluoric acid with alkaline peroxide for pickling of titanium was investigated. Titanium corrosion rates in alkaline peroxide exceeded those obtained in the conventional hydrofluoric acid bath. General corrosion was observed with extensive roughening of the surface giving a dull gray appearance. Preferred dissolution of certain crystallographic planes was investigated through the corrosion of a titanium single crystal. Whereas the overall effect on the corrosion rate was small

  1. A dimethacrylate cross-linker cleavable under thermolysis or alkaline hydrolysis conditions: synthesis, polymerization, and degradation.

    PubMed

    Elladiou, Marios; Patrickios, Costas S

    2016-02-11

    We develop a new platform based on 2,6-pyridinediethanol diesters for introducing polymer degradability under thermolysis or alkaline hydrolysis conditions, with the latter being rare in polymers. Such labile diesters can be cross-linkers, bifunctional initiators and inimers. We demonstrate the power of this platform through the synthesis of the 2,6-pyridinediethanol dimethacrylate cross-linker, its controlled (co)polymerization, and the thermal and hydrolytic cleavage of its (co)polymers. PMID:26803938

  2. Observation of photothermal feedback in a stable dual-carrier optical spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David; Lough, James; Mangaña-Sandoval, Fabian; Perreca, Antonio; Ballmer, Stefan W.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the observation of photothermal feedback in a stable dual-carrier optical spring. The optical spring is realized in a 7 cm Fabry-Perot cavity comprised of a suspended 0.4 g small end mirror and a heavy input coupler, illuminated by two optical fields. The frequency, damping, and stability of the optical spring resonance can be tuned by adjusting the power and detuning of the two optical fields, allowing for a precise measurement of the absorption-induced photothermal feedback. The magnitude and frequency dependence of the observed photothermal effect are consistent with predicted corrections due to transverse thermal diffusion and coating structure. While the observed photothermal feedback tends to destabilize the optical spring, we also propose a small coating modification that would change the sign of the effect, making a single-carrier stable optical spring possible.

  3. Spring and aufeis (icing) hydrology in Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Hinzman, Larry D.; Kane, Douglas L.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing studies and field hydrometeorological and geophysical investigations were employed to characterize several aufeis fields in the Brooks Range, Alaska. Geochemical studies were undertaken together with field hydrological measurements to better understand the chemical and thermal properties of stream base flow (groundwater spring) that contributes to winter aufeis development. The spring water temperature was measured at several major aufeis fields using data loggers throughout the year. Aufeis is an important water storage component in the Arctic and influences local ecology and geomorphology. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a useful and sensitive sensor for aufeis detection and for estimating the total volume of storage as well as freeze/thaw conditions. The SAR analysis indicated that the volume of aufeis formed in winter is 27-30% of the annual groundwater discharge in the Kuparuk River. Visible and near-IR satellite imagery indicated many of the high-discharge springs (more than 10-1000 1/s) and aufeis fields are centered around an elevation of 600 m a.s.l. in limestone areas with glacial morphology. Geomorphological investigations indicate that many of springs have continually existed from at least the last glaciation. Microwave data (SAR), thermal infrared, short wave infrared, and visible and near-IR bands were all used to observe the growth, decay, and distribution of aufeis deposits. The remotely sensed data indicate that the distribution of the aufeis deposits today is nearly the same as it was in past colder periods; this was mainly determined by mapping the distributed carbonate precipitates. Also, spring water temperatures and discharge volumes are predictable from the aufeis field size using remotely sensed techniques.

  4. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly alkaline radioactive waste tanks contain a number of transuranic species, in particular U, Np, Pu, and Am - the exact forms of which are currently unknown. Knowledge of actinide speciation under highly alkaline conditions is essential towards understanding and predicting ...

  5. A method for making an alkaline battery electrode plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chida, K.; Ezaki, T.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for making an alkaline battery electrode plate where the desired active substances are filled into a nickel foam substrate. In this substrate an electrolytic oxidation reduction occurs in an alkaline solution containing lithium hydroxide.

  6. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide as a novel oxygen storage material

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Qiang; Yin, Shu; Yoshida, Mizuki; Wu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Bin; Miura, Akira; Takei, Takahiro; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Sato, Tsugio

    2015-09-15

    Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) hollow nanospheres with a diameter of 50 nm have been synthesized successfully via a facial solvothermal route in a very simple system composed of only ethanol, acetic acid, SnCl{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O and A(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·xH{sub 2}O (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). The synthesized undoped SnO{sub 2} and A-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres were characterized by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and the Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) technique. The OSC values of all samples were measured using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. The incorporation of alkaline earth metal ion into tin oxide greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. Especially, Ba-doped SnO{sub 2} hollow nanospheres calcined at 1000 °C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 61 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} exhibited the considerably high OSC of 457 μmol-O g{sup −1} and good thermal stability. Alkaline earth metal doped tin oxide has the potential to be a novel oxygen storage material.

  7. Analysis of potential geothermal resources and their use: Lebanon Springs, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Cutcliffe, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    This project involved the effort to determine the feasibility of using previously identified warm waters at Lebanon Springs, New York, or elsewhere in the Capital District, as an energy source. In addition to geologic mapping of the Lebanon Springs area and Williamstown, Massachusetts area, thermal gradients were measured in 25 abandoned water wells in the area and the silica content and water temperatures of 78 active domestic water wells were determined.

  8. FINAL REPORT. ACTINIDE-ALUMINATE SPECIATION IN ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing Al(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (III-VII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation (pH 10-14) of actinides in presence of Al(III) formation of alumi...

  9. Folding Elastic Thermal Surface - FETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquiza, Eugenio; Zhang, Burt X.; Thelen, Michael P.; Rodriquez, Jose I.; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The FETS is a light and compact thermal surface (sun shade, IR thermal shield, cover, and/or deployable radiator) that is mounted on a set of offset tape-spring hinges. The thermal surface is constrained during launch and activated in space by a thermomechanical latch such as a wax actuator. An application-specific embodiment of this technology developed for the MATMOS (Mars Atmospheric Trace Molecule Occultation Spectrometer) project serves as a deployable cover and thermal shield for its passive cooler. The FETS fits compactly against the instrument within the constrained launch envelope, and then unfolds into a larger area once in space. In this application, the FETS protects the passive cooler from thermal damage and contamination during ground operations, launch, and during orbit insertion. Once unfolded or deployed, the FETS serves as a heat shield, intercepting parasitic heat loads by blocking the passive cooler s view of the warm spacecraft. The technology significantly enhances the capabilities of instruments requiring either active or passive cooling of optical detectors. This can be particularly important for instruments where performance is limited by the available radiator area. Examples would be IR optical instruments on CubeSATs or those launched as hosted payloads because radiator area is limited and views are often undesirable. As a deployable radiator, the panels making up the FETS are linked thermally by thermal straps and heat pipes; the structural support and deployment energy is provided using tape-spring hinges. The FETS is a novel combination of existing technologies. Prior art for deployable heat shields uses rotating hinges that typically must be lubricated to avoid cold welding or static friction. By using tape-spring hinges, the FETS avoids the need for lubricants by avoiding friction altogether. This also eliminates the potential for contamination of nearby cooled optics by outgassing lubricants. Furthermore, the tape-spring design of

  10. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  11. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  12. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would...

  13. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  14. Effective Mass of an Oscillating Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eduardo E.; Gesnouin, Gabriel A.

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental method to obtain the effective mass of an unloaded oscillating spring. We measure the period "T"("n") of the partial springs that result when hanging "n" of the total "N" coils of a given spring. Data are correlated with the expectation of a simple model for "T"("n") that takes into account the effective mass of the…

  15. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  16. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  17. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  18. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  19. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  20. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  1. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  2. Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Geothermal Geodatabase for Routt Hot Springs, Routt County, Colorado By Richard “Rick” Zehner Geothermal Development Associates Reno Nevada USA 775.737.7806 rzehner@gdareno.com For Flint Geothermal LLC, Denver Colorado Part of DOE Grant EE0002828 2013 This is an ESRI geodatabase version 10, together with an ESRI MXD file version 10.2 Data is in UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection North boundary: approximately 4,500,000 South boundary: approximately 4,480,000 West boundary: approximately 330,000 East boundary: approximately 358,000 This geodatabase was built to cover several geothermal targets developed by Flint Geothermal in 2012 during a search for high-temperature systems that could be exploited for electric power development. Several of the thermal springs and wells in the Routt Hot Spring and Steamboat Springs areahave geochemistry and geothermometry values indicative of high-temperature systems. The datasets in the geodatabase are a mixture of public domain data as well as data collected by Flint Geothermal, now being made public. It is assumed that the user has internet access, for the mxd file accesses ESRI’s GIS servers. Datasets include: 1. Results of reconnaissance shallow (2 meter) temperature surveys 2. Air photo lineaments 3. Groundwater geochemistry 5. Georeferenced geologic map of Routt County 6. Various 1:24,000 scale topographic maps

  3. FOSSIL SPRINGS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, L.S.; Ellis, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Based on field studies, the Fossil Springs Roadless Area in central Arizona is concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Rocks in the Supai Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) near the central part of the roadless area contain widespread but spotty copper mineralization and trace amounts of uranium. Analyses obtained during the study define geochemical anomalies in two portions of the area that remain unexplained. The suites of anomalous metals suggest the possibility of hydrothermal veins and the presence of ultramafic rocks; neither were found in the field. Although there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources in the Fossil Springs Roadless Area, studies to identify the source of the geochemical anomalies could have valuable implications for regional studies and mineral exploration in the surrounding area.

  4. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  5. Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.

    2013-02-01

    Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O, respectively.

  6. Carbonate Ion-Enriched Hot Spring Water Promotes Skin Wound Healing in Nude Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  7. Carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water promotes skin wound healing in nude rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingyan; Kang, Dedong; Wang, Yingge; Yu, Ying; Fan, Jianglin; Takashi, En

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring or hot spa bathing (Onsen) is a traditional therapy for the treatment of certain ailments. There is a common belief that hot spring bathing has therapeutic effects for wound healing, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of Nagano hot spring water (rich in carbonate ion, 42°C) on the healing process of the skin using a nude rat skin wound model. We found that hot spring bathing led to an enhanced healing speed compared to both the unbathed and hot-water (42°C) control groups. Histologically, the hot spring water group showed increased vessel density and reduced inflammatory cells in the granulation tissue of the wound area. Real-time RT-PCR analysis along with zymography revealed that the wound area of the hot spring water group exhibited a higher expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 compared to the two other control groups. Furthermore, we found that the enhanced wound healing process induced by the carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water was mediated by thermal insulation and moisture maintenance. Our results provide the evidence that carbonate ion-enriched hot spring water is beneficial for the treatment of skin wounds. PMID:25671581

  8. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  9. The alkaline earth intercalates of molybdenum disulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, R. B.; Hadek, V.; Rembaum, A.; Samson, S.; Woollam, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Molybdenum disulfide has been intercalated with calcium and strontium by means of the liquid ammonia technique. Chemical, X-ray, and superconductivity data are presented. The X-ray data reveal a lowering of crystal symmetry and increase of complexity of the structure upon intercalation with the alkaline earth metals. The Ca and Sr intercalates start to superconduct at 4 and 5.6 K, respectively, and show considerable anisotropy regarding the critical magnetic field.

  10. Surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding field project

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    The Tucker sand of Helper (KS) field is a candidate for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The geology of the Helper site is typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. The Tucker sand of Helper field was deposited in a fluvial dominated deltaic environment. Helper oil can be mobilized with either chemical system 2 or chemical system 3, as described in this report. Oil fields in the Gulf Coast region are also good candidates for surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding. The results from laboratory tests conducted in Berea sandstone cores with oil brine from Helper (KS) field are encouraging. The crude oil is viscous and non-acidic and, yet, was mobilized by the chemical formulations described in this report. Significant amounts of the oil were mobilized under simulated reservoir conditions. The results in Berea sandstone cores were encouraging and should be verified by tests with field core. Consumption of alkali, measured with field core, was very low. Surfactant loss appeared to be acceptable. Despite the good potential for mobilization of Helper oil, certain reservoir characteristics such as low permeability, compartmentalization, and shallow depth place constraints on applications of any chemical system in the Tucker sand. These constraints are typical of many DOE Class I reservoirs. Although Hepler field is not a perfect reservoir in which to apply surfactant- enhanced alkaline flooding, Hepler oil is particularly amenable to mobilization by surfactant-enhanced alkaline systems. A field test is recommended, dependent upon final evaluation of well logs and cores from the proposed pilot area. 14 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Force of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jennifer; Mahadevan, L.; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosomal process of the horseshoe crab sperm is a novel mechanochemical molecular spring that converts its elastic stain energy to mechanical work upon the chemical activation by Ca2+. Twisted and bent, the initial state of the acrosomal bundle features a high degree of complexity in its structure and the energy is believed to be stored in the highly strained actin filaments as an elastic potential energy. When activated, the bundle relaxes from the coil of the highly twisted and bent filaments to its straight conformation at a mean velocity of 15um/s. The mean extension velocity increases dramatically from 3um/s to 27um/s when temperature of the medium is changed from 9.6C to 32C (respective viscosities of 1.25-0.75cp), yet it exhibits a very weak dependence on changes in the medium viscosity (1cp-33cp). These experiments suggest that the uncoiling of the actin spring should be limited not by the viscosity of the medium but by the unlatching events of involved proteins at a molecular level. Unlike the viscosity-limited processes, where force is directly related to the rate of the reaction, a direct measurement is required to obtain the spring force of the acrosomal process. The extending acrosomal bundle is forced to push against a barrier and its elastic buckling response is analyzed to measure the force generated during the uncoiling.

  12. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    temperature rise in early spring immediately after dormancy release, likely brought forward the flowering date of cherry blossom. We derived a thermal time-based flowering model from this analysis and used it to predict the flowering dates of forsythia and cherry blossom in 2014. The root mean square error for the prediction was within 2 days from the observed flowering dates in both species, showing a feasibility of prediction under the changing climate.

  13. Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

  14. Alkaline flooding for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Gittler, W.E.

    1983-09-01

    There are over 12 active projects of varying size using one of 3 major types of alkaline agents. These include sodium silicate, caustic soda, and soda ash. Among the largest pilots currently is the THUMS project in the Wilmington field, California. Plans called for the injection of a 4% weight concentration of sodium orthosilicate over a 60% PV. Through the first 3 yr, over 27 million bbl of chemicals have been injected. Gulf Oil is operating several alkaline floods, one of which is located off shore in the Quarantine Bay field, Louisiana. In this pilot, sodium hydroxide in a weight concentration of 5 to 12% is being injected. Belco Petroleum Corp. has reported that their pilot operating in the Isenhour Unit in Wyoming is using a .5% weight concentration of soda ash in conjunction with a polymer. Other uses for alkaline agents in chemical flooding include the use of silicate as a preflush or sacrificial agent in micellar/polymer and surfactant recovery systems. In addition, caustic has been tested in the surface-mixed caustic emulsion process while orthosilicate has been tested in a recovery method known as mobility-controlled caustic floods.

  15. Cold-active alkaline phosphatase is irreversibly transformed into an inactive dimer by low urea concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hjörleifsson, Jens Guðmundur; Ásgeirsson, Bjarni

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is a homodimeric metallo-hydrolase where both Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) are important for catalysis and stability. Cold-adapted alkaline phosphatase variants have high activity at low temperatures and lower thermal stability compared with variants from mesophilic hosts. The instability, and thus inactivation, could be due to loose association of the dimers and/or loosely bound Mg(2)(+) in the active site, but this has not been studied in detail for the cold-adapted variants. Here, we focus on using the intrinsic fluorescence of Trp in alkaline phosphatase from the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus (VAP) to probe for dimerization. Trp→Phe substitutions showed that two out of the five native Trp residues contributed mostly to the fluorescence emission. One residue, 15Å away from the active site (W460) and highly solvent excluded, was phosphorescent and had a distant role in substrate binding. An additional Trp residue was introduced to the dimer interface to act as a possible probe for dimerization. Urea denaturation curves indicated that an inactive dimer intermediate, structurally equivalent to the native state, was formed before dimer dissociation took place. This is the first example of the transition of a native dimer to an inactive dimer intermediate for alkaline phosphatase without using mutagenesis, ligands, or competitive inhibition. PMID:27043172

  16. Sources of alkalinity and acidity along an acid mine drainage remediated stream in SE Ohio: Hewett Fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleich, K. L.; Lopez, D. A.; Bowman, J. R.; Kruse, N. A.; Mackey, A. L.; VanDervort, D.; Korenowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the remediation of acid mine drainage impacted streams, it is important to locate and quantify the sources of acidity and alkalinity inputs. These parameters affect the long-term recovery of the stream habitat. Previous studies have focused on treating the remediation of AMD as point source pollution, targeting the main acid seep for remediation. However, in the interest of biological and chemical recovery, it is important to understand how sources of alkalinity and acidity, throughout the stream, affect water and sediment quality. The Hewett Fork watershed in Southeastern Ohio is impacted by AMD from the AS-14 mine complex in Carbondale, Ohio. In attempts to remediate the stream, the water is being treated with a continuous alkaline input from a calcium oxide doser. While the section of watershed furthest downstream from the doser is showing signs of recovery, the water chemistry and aquatic life near the doser are still impacted. The objective of this study is to examine and model the chemistry of the tributaries of Hewett Fork to see how they contribute to the alkalinity and acidity budgets of the main stem of the stream. By examining the inputs of tributaries into the main stem, this project aims to understand processes occurring during remediation throughout the entire stream. Discharge was measured during a dry period in October, 2012 and at a high flow in May, 2013. Field parameters such as pH, TDS, DO, alkalinity and acidity were also determined. Low flow data collected during fall sampling shows variable flow along the stream path, the stream gains water from ground water at some points while it loses water at others, potentially due to variable elevation of the water table. Flow data collected during spring sampling shows that Hewett Fork is a gaining stream during that period with inputs from groundwater contributing to increasing flow downstream. When using this data to calculate the net alkalinity load along the stream, there are areas with alkaline

  17. The fate of added alkalinity in model scenarios of ocean alkalinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer González, Miriam; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    The deliberate large-scale manipulation of the Earth's climate (geo-engineering) has been proposed to mitigate climate change and ocean acidification. Whilst the mitigation potential of these technologies could sound promising, they may also pose many environmental risks. Our research aims at exploring the ocean-based carbon dioxide removal method of alkalinity enhancement. Its mitigation potential to reduce atmospheric CO2 and counteract the consequences of ocean acidification, risks and unintended consequences are studied. In order to tackle these questions, different scenarios are implemented in the state-of-the-art Earth system model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology. The model configuration is based on the 5th phase of the coupled model intercomparison project following a high CO2 future climate change scenario RCP8.5 (in which radiative forcing rises to 8.5 W/m² in 2100). Two different scenarios are performed where the alkalinity is artificially added globally uniformly in the upper ocean. In the first scenario, alkalinity is increased as a pulse by doubling natural values of the first 12 meters. In the second scenario we add alkalinity into the same ocean layer such that the atmospheric CO2 concentration is reduced from RCP8.5 to RCP4.5 levels (with the radiative forcing of 4.5 W/m² in 2100). We investigate the fate of the added alkalinity in these two scenarios and compare the differences in alkalinity budgets. In order to increase oceanic CO2 uptake from the atmosphere, enhanced alkalinity has to stay in the upper ocean. Once the alkalinity is added, it will become part of the biogeochemical cycles and it will be distributed with the ocean currents. Therefore, we are particularly interested in the residence time of the added alkalinity at the surface. Variations in CO2 partial pressure, seawater pH and saturation state of carbonate minerals produced in the implemented scenarios will be presented. Collateral changes in ocean biogeochemistry and

  18. Corrosion resistant thermal barrier coating

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, S.R.; Miller, R.A.; Hodge, P.E.

    1981-03-01

    A thermal barrier coating system for protecting metal surfaces at high temperature in normally corrosive environments is described. The thermal barrier coating system includes a metal alloy bond coating, the alloy containing nickel, cobalt, iron, or a combination of these metals. The system further includes a corrosion resistant thermal barrier oxide coating containing at least one alkaline earth silicate. The preferred oxides are calcium silicate, barium silicate, magnesium silicate, or combinations of these silicates. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  19. Evidence supporting biologically mediated sulfide oxidation in hot spring ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, A. D.; Shock, E.

    2011-12-01

    the evidence is not as strong at the alkaline spring. Likewise, direct observations of aqueous sulfide concentrations in acidic hot spring outflow channels decrease dramatically when channels are populated with filamentous microbial communities.

  20. 1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST FRONT, SOUTHWEST SIDE (SPRING HOUSE IN FOREGROUND; BATH HOUSE AT REAR) (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulphur Springs, Spring House, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  1. All-Optical Optomechanics: An Optical Spring Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Phelps, Gregory; Goldbaum, Dan; Wright, Ewan; Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The dominant hurdle to the operation of optomechanical systems in the quantum regime is the coupling of the vibrating element to a thermal reservoir via mechanical supports. Here we propose a scheme that uses an optical spring to replace the mechanical support. We show that the resolved-sideband regime of cooling can be reached in a configuration using a high-reflectivity disk mirror held by an optical tweezer as one of the end mirrors of a Fabry-Perot cavity. We find a final phonon occupation number of the trapped mirror n = 0.56 for reasonable parameters, the limit being set by our approximations, and not any fundamental physics. This demonstrates the promise of dielectric disks attached to optical springs for the observation of quantum effects in macroscopic objects. This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research, the US National Science Foundation, the US Army Research Office and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  2. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoen, R.; White, D.E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can he traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite. Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water. In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath. ?? 1974.

  3. Thermal, chemical, and optical properties of Crater Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, G.L.; Hoffman, R.L.; McIntire, D.C.; Buktenica, M.W.; Girdner, S.F.

    2007-01-01

    Crater Lake covers the floor of the Mount Mazama caldera that formed 7700 years ago. The lake has a surface area of 53 km2 and a maximum depth of 594 m. There is no outlet stream and surface inflow is limited to small streams and springs. Owing to its great volume and heat, the lake is not covered by snow and ice in winter unlike other lakes in the Cascade Range. The lake is isothermal in winter except for a slight increase in temperature in the deep lake from hyperadiabatic processes and inflow of hydrothermal fluids. During winter and spring the water column mixes to a depth of about 200-250 m from wind energy and convection. Circulation of the deep lake occurs periodically in winter and spring when cold, near-surface waters sink to the lake bottom; a process that results in the upwelling of nutrients, especially nitrate-N, into the upper strata of the lake. Thermal stratification occurs in late summer and fall. The maximum thickness of the epilimnion is about 20 m and the metalimnion extends to a depth of about 100 m. Thus, most of the lake volume is a cold hypolimnion. The year-round near-bottom temperature is about 3.5??C. Overall, hydrothermal fluids define and temporally maintain the basic water quality characteristics of the lake (e.g., pH, alkalinity and conductivity). Total phosphorus and orthophosphate-P concentrations are fairly uniform throughout the water column, where as total Kjeldahl-N and ammonia-N are highest in concentration in the upper lake. Concentrations of nitrate-N increase with depth below 200 m. No long-term changes in water quality have been detected. Secchi disk (20-cm) clarity varied seasonally and annually, but was typically highest in June and lowest in August. During the current study, August Secchi disk clarity readings averaged about 30 m. The maximum individual clarity reading was 41.5 m in June 1997. The lowest reading was 18.1 m in July 1995. From 1896 (white-dinner plate) to 2003, the average August Secchi disk reading was

  4. Audiomagnetotelluric data from Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, Darcy K.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Pellerin, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data along four profiles in Spring, Cave, and Coyote Spring Valleys are presented here. The AMT method is used to estimate the electrical resistivity of the earth over depth ranges of a few meters to greater than one kilometer. This method is a valuable tool for revealing subsurface structure and stratigraphy within the Basin and Range of eastern Nevada, therefore helping to define the geohydrologic framework in this region. We collected AMT data using the Geometrics StrataGem EH4 system, a four-channel, natural and controlled- source tensor system recording in the range of 10 to 92,000 Hz. To augment the low signal in the natural field, an unpolarized transmitter comprised of two horizontal-magnetic dipoles was used from 1,000 to 70,000 Hz. Profiles were 1.4 - 12.6 km in length with station spacing of 100-400 m. Data were recorded with the electrical (E) field parallel to and perpendicular to the regional geologic strike direction. Station locations and sounding curves, showing apparent resistivity, phase data, and coherency data, are presented here.

  5. Long-term landscape evolution of the southeast Brazilian highlands: comparison of two alkaline intrusions areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doranti Tiritan, Carolina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2016-04-01

    The southeast Brazilian highlands records a long history of tectonic and magmatic events that were consequence of the South Atlantic Ocean opening. After the rifting process has ceased, an epeirogenic uplift of the continental crust has started in response to the drifting of the South American Platform over a thermal anomaly that accompanied an intense alkaline and basaltic magmatism. Related Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions are distributed from the southeast Brazilian coast to the interior of the South American Platform. The landscape evolution is associated with several distinct exhumation events at the South American passive continental margin (Hackspacher 2004; Doranti et al, 2014). The present study intent providing insights on the behaviour of the coupled magmatic tectonic-erosional system, comparing thermochronological data from two alkaline intrusions, Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif (PCAM) and São Sebastião Island (SSI). The PCAM is the biggest alkaline structure located in the interior of the continent, 300km from the coastline (Rio de Janeiro). The structure is formed as a caldera, covering over 800km2, intruding Precambrian basement around 83Ma, nepheline syenites, phonolites and tinguaites intruded in a continuous and rapid sequence lasting between 1 to 2 Ma. Meanwhile, the SSI (236km²) is located at the coast, 200 km southeast of the city of São Paulo and is characterized by an intrusion in Precambrian granitic-gnaissic rocks affected by the Panafrican/Brazilian Orogen. This crystalline basement is intruded by Early Cretaceous subalkaline basic and acid dykes, as well as by Late Cretaceous alkaline stocks (syenites) and dykes (basanite to phonolite). The Apatite Fission-Track ages for PCAM range from 333.3±27.6 to 94.0±13.7 Ma at the surrounded metamorphic basement area, and 76.8±10.9 to 48.7±10.7 Ma in the alkaline Massif. The older ages, are concentrated on the lower topography region (700 until 1200m) in the north side alkaline massif

  6. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  7. Quantum model for entropic springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chiao-Hsuan; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by understanding the emergence of thermodynamic restoring forces and oscillations, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of a bath of spins coupled to the elasticity of a material. We show our model reproduces the behavior of a variety of entropic springs while enabling investigation of nonequilibrium resonator states in the quantum domain. We find our model emerges naturally in disordered elastic media, such as glasses, and is an additional expected effect in systems with anomalous specific heat and 1 /f noise at low temperatures due to two-level systems that fluctuate.

  8. Spring, 1980, DECUS symposium review

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.; Duffy, J.M.; McDonald, W.M.; Oppenheimer, J.L.; Brandt, J.J.; Grant, C.W.; O'Brien, D.W.; VanLehn, A.L.

    1980-10-24

    The Digital Equipment Computer Users Society (DECUS) holds biannual symposia where its membership and the host company can exchange ideas, problems, and solutions. This report by the newly formed DECUS Local User Group at LLL collects information gathered at the Spring '80 symposium in Chicago on April 22-25. Information is presented for the following special interest groups (SIGs): RSX/IAS SIG, VAX/VSM SIG, PASCAL (languages) SIG, networks SIG, TECO SIG, LSI-11 SIG, RT-11 SIG, site manager SIG, and database SIG. (RWR)

  9. HYDROGEOLOGY OF THE THERMAL LANDSLIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Vantine, J.

    1985-01-22

    The large Thermal Landslide overlies the initial area of geothermal development at The Geysers. The landslide is waterbearing while the underlying Franciscan formation bedrock units are essentially non-waterbearing except where affected by hydrothermal alteration. Perched ground water moving through the landslide is heated prior to discharge as spring flow.

  10. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  11. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  12. Estimation of deepwater temperature and hydrogeochemistry of springs in the Takab geothermal field, West Azerbaijan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Reza; Moore, Farid; Mohammadi, Zargham; Keshavarzi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water samples from 19 hot and cold springs are used to characterize Takab geothermal field, west of Iran. The springs are divided into two main groups based on temperature, host rock, total dissolved solids (TDS), and major and minor elements. TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), Cl(-), and SO4 (2-) concentrations of hot springs are all higher than in cold springs. Higher TDS in hot springs probably reflect longer circulation and residence time. The high Si, B, and Sr contents in thermal waters are probably the result of extended water-rock interaction and reflect flow paths and residence time. Binary, ternary, and Giggenbach diagrams were used to understand the deeper mixing conditions and locations of springs in the model system. It is believed that the springs are heated either by mixing of deep geothermal fluid with cold groundwater or low conductive heat flow. Mixing ratios are evaluated using Cl, Na, and B concentrations and a mass balance approach. Calculated quartz and chalcedony geothermometer give lower reservoir temperatures than cation geothermometers. The silica-enthalpy mixing model predicts a subsurface reservoir temperature between 62 and 90 °C. The δ(18)O and δD (δ(2)H) are used to trace and determine the origin and movement of water. Both hot and cold waters plot close to the local meteoric line, indicating local meteoric origin. PMID:26733417

  13. Bacterial composition of microbial mats in hot springs in Northern Patagonia: variations with seasons and temperature.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Roy; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Díez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in bacterial diversity of microbial mats were analyzed in three hot springs (39-68 °C) of Patagonia, using culture-independent methods. Three major bacterial groups were detected in all springs: Phyla Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and Order Thermales. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Green Non-Sulfur Bacteria were also detected in small amounts and only in some samples. Thermophilic filamentous heterocyst-containing Mastigocladus were dominant Cyanobacteria in Porcelana Hot Spring and Geyser, and Calothrix in Cahuelmó, followed by the filamentous non-heterocyst Leptolyngbya and Oscillatoria. Bacteroidetes were detected in a wide temperature range and their relative abundance increased with decreasing temperature in almost all samples. Two Meiothermus populations with different temperature optima were found. Overall, fingerprinting analysis with universal bacterial primers showed high similarities within each hot spring despite differences in temperature. On the other hand, Cahuelmó Hot Spring showed a lower resemblance among samples. Porcelana Hot Spring and Porcelana Geyser were rather similar to each other, possibly due to a common geological substrate given their geographic proximity. This was even more evident with specific cyanobacterial primers. The different geological substrate and the seawater influence in Cahuelmó might have caused the differences in the microbial community structure with the other two hot springs. PMID:23208511

  14. Spatial relationship between earthquakes, hot-springs and faults in Odisha, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jena, Ratiranjan

    2016-06-01

    Odisha is famous for Mineral rich Eastern-Ghat mobile belt, hot springs and cultural Heritage. The hot springs are known for centuries and are used by public as a place for worship. Odisha falls under the II and III seismic zones in India. Most of the seismicity in Odisha is due to motion along some active normal faults along the Mahanadi Graben. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the active faults and understand spatial distribution of seismic activity in Odisha. It is also important to understand the Earthquakes and their relation with the Geology of Odisha and understand the neo-tectonic activity. There are 7 major hot springs found along the North Odisha Boundary Fault and Mahanadi Shear Zone. The hot water percolates deep into the Earth through porous and permeable fractured rocks along the fault. Depth of source for most of the hot springs in Odisha must be some few feets to few meters; however most of these observations are not based on scientific geophysical data. Therefore, spatial relationship between thermal springs, earthquakes, and geology of Odisha may provide better understanding of the hot-spring setting. By using the earthquake and fault data, the sense of motion along faults can be easily interpreted. All these information can explain the spatial distribution and inter-relation between hot-springs, faults and earthquakes in Odisha.

  15. Mixing of hydrothermal water and groundwater near hot springs, Yellowstone National Park (USA): hydrology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Matthew L.; Hinman, Nancy W.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of hot springs have focused mainly on the properties of fluids and solids. Fewer studies focus on the relationship between the hot springs and groundwater/surface-water environments. The differences in temperature and dissolved solids between hot-spring water and typical surface water and groundwater allow interactions to be traced. Electromagnetic terrain (EMT) conductivity is a nonintrusive technique capable of mapping mixing zones between distinct subsurface waters. These interactions include zones of groundwater/surface-water exchange and groundwater mixing. Herein, hydrogeological techniques are compared with EMT conductivity to trace hot-spring discharge interactions with shallow groundwater and surface water. Potentiometric-surface and water-quality data determined the hydrogeochemistry of two thermally influenced areas in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). Data from the sites revealed EMT conductivity contrasts that reflected the infiltration of conductive hot-spring discharge to local groundwater systems. The anomalies reflect higher temperatures and conductivity for Na+-Cl--rich hydrothermal fluids compared to the receiving groundwater. EMT conductivity results suggested hot springs are fed by conduits largely isolated from shallow groundwater; mixing of waters occurs after hot-spring discharge infiltrates groundwater from the surface and, generally, not by leakage in the subsurface. A model was proposed to explain the growth of sinter mounds.

  16. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  17. Autonomous in situ measurements of seawater alkalinity.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Reggie S; DeGrandpre, Michael D; Beck, James C; Hart, Robert D; Peterson, Brittany; De Carlo, Eric H; Drupp, Patrick S; Hammar, Terry R

    2014-08-19

    Total alkalinity (AT) is an important parameter for describing the marine inorganic carbon system and understanding the effects of atmospheric CO2 on the oceans. Measurements of AT are limited, however, because of the laborious process of collecting and analyzing samples. In this work we evaluate the performance of an autonomous instrument for high temporal resolution measurements of seawater AT. The Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for alkalinity (SAMI-alk) uses a novel tracer monitored titration method where a colorimetric pH indicator quantifies both pH and relative volumes of sample and titrant, circumventing the need for gravimetric or volumetric measurements. The SAMI-alk performance was validated in the laboratory and in situ during two field studies. Overall in situ accuracy was -2.2 ± 13.1 μmol kg(-1) (n = 86), on the basis of comparison to discrete samples. Precision on duplicate analyses of a carbonate standard was ±4.7 μmol kg(-1) (n = 22). This prototype instrument can measure in situ AT hourly for one month, limited by consumption of reagent and standard solutions. PMID:25051401

  18. Solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Edwards, T.B.

    1994-03-29

    The solubility of uranium in alkaline salt solutions was investigated to screen for significant factors and interactions among the major salt components and temperature. The components included in the study were the sodium salts of hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, aluminate, sulfate, and carbonate. General findings from the study included: (1) uranium solubilities are very low (1-20 mg/L) for all solution compositions at hydroxide concentrations from 0.1 to 17 molar (2) carbonate, sulfate, and aluminate are not effective complexants for uranium at high hydroxide concentration, (3) uranium solubility decreases with increasing temperature for most alkaline salt solutions, and (4) uranium solubility increases with changes in solution chemistry that reflect aging of high level waste (increase in nitrite and carbonate concentrations, decrease in nitrate and hydroxide concentrations). A predictive model for the concentration of uranium as a function of component concentrations and temperature was fitted to the data. All of the solution components and temperature were found to be significant. There is a significant lack of fit for the model, which suggests that the dependence on the uranium solubility over the wide range of solution compositions is non-linear and/or that there are other uncontrolled parameters which are important to the uranium solubility.

  19. Molecular modeling of human alkaline sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Panneer Selvam; Olubiyi, Olujide; Thirunavukkarasu, Chinnasamy; Strodel, Birgit; Kumar, Muthuvel Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase, which is expressed in the human intestine and hydrolyses sphingomyelin, is a component of the plasma and the lysosomal membranes. Hydrolase of sphingomyelin generates ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate that have regulatory effects on vital cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The enzyme belongs to the Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase family and it differs in structural similarity with acidic and neutral sphingomyelinase. In the present study we modeled alkaline sphingomyelinase using homology modeling based on the structure of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase from Xanthomonas axonopodis with which it shares 34% identity. Homology modeling was performed using Modeller9v7. We found that Cys78 and Cys394 form a disulphide bond. Further analysis shows that Ser76 may be important for the function of this enzyme, which is supported by the findings of Wu et al. (2005), that S76F abolishes the activity completely. We found that the residues bound to Zn(2+) are conserved and geometrically similar with the template. Molecular Dynamics simulations were carried out for the modeled protein to observe the effect of Zinc metal ions. It was observed that the metal ion has little effect with regard to the stability but induces increased fluctuations in the protein. These analyses showed that Zinc ions play an important role in stabilizing the secondary structure and in maintaining the compactness of the active site. PMID:21544170

  20. Bone alkaline phosphatase in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Beyeler, C; Banks, R E; Thompson, D; Forbes, M A; Cooper, E H; Bird, H

    1995-07-01

    A double monoclonal immunoradiometric assay specific for bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was used to determine whether the raised total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) often found in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is derived from bone or liver. Fifty-eight patients with RA were compared to 14 with AS and 14 with non-inflammatory rheumatic diseases (NI). None had clinical liver disease and only one had a slightly elevated aspartate transaminase activity. Elevated BAP concentrations were found in seven patients (5 RA, 1 AS, 1 NI), only two of whom also had abnormal TAP. Abnormal TAP activities were found in only three patients (all RA). BAP did not correlate with disease activity in RA or AS. In contrast, TAP correlated with disease activity (assessed by plasma viscosity) in RA (P < 0.002) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) also correlated with plasma viscosity in RA (P < 0.01). Both TAP and BAP were significantly correlated with GGT in RA (P < 0.001 and P < 0.02, respectively). These findings are discussed, together with possible reasons for the conflicting nature of some of the observations. PMID:7486797

  1. Advanced inorganic separators for alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A flexible, porous battery separator comprising a coating applied to a porous, flexible substrate is described. The coating comprises: (1) a thermoplastic rubber-based resin which is insoluble and unreactive in the alkaline electrolyte; (2) a polar organic plasticizer which is reactive with the alkaline electrolyte to produce a reaction product which contains a hydroxyl group and/or a carboxylic acid group; and (3) a mixture of polar particulate filler materials which are unreactive with the electrolyte, the mixture comprising at least one first filler material having a surface area of greater than 25 meters sq/gram, at least one second filler material having a surface area of 10 to 25 sq meters/gram, wherein the volume of the mixture of filler materials is less than 45% of the total volume of the fillers and the binder, the filler surface area per gram of binder is about 20 to 60 sq meters/gram, and the amount of plasticizer is sufficient to coat each filler particle. A method of forming the battery separator is also described.

  2. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring

  3. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. The origin of thiosulfate in hot spring waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Y.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstrom, D.K.; Cunningham, K.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Thiosulfate (S2O2-3), polythionate (SxO2-6), dissolved sulfide (H2S), and sulfate (SO2-4) concentrations in thirty-nine alkaline and acidic springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were determined. The analyses were conducted on site, using ion chromatography for thiosulfate, polythionate, and sulfate, and using colorimetry for dissolved sulfide. Thiosulfate was detected at concentrations typically less than 2 ??mol/L in neutral and alkaline chloride springs with low sulfate concentrations (C1-/SO2-4 > 25). The thiosulfate concentration levels are about one to two orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of dissolved sulfide in these springs. In most acid sulfate and acid sulfate-chloride springs (Cl-/SO2-4 < 10), thiosulfate concentrations were also typically lower than 2 ??mol/L. However, in some chloride springs enriched with sulfate (Cl-/SO2-4 between 10 to 25), thiosulfate was found at concentrations ranging from 9 to 95 ??mol/L, higher than the concentrations of dissolved sulfide in these waters. Polythionate was detected only in Cinder Pool, Norris Geyser basin, at concentrations up to 8 ??mol/L, with an average S-chain-length from 4.1 to 4.9 sulfur atoms. The results indicate that no thiosulfate occurs in the deeper parts of the hydrothermal system. Thiosulfate may form, however, from (1) hydrolysis of native sulfur by hydrothermal solutions in the shallower parts (<50 m) of the system, (2) oxidation of dissolved sulfide upon mixing of a deep hydrothermal water with aerated shallow groundwater, and (3) the oxidation of dissolved sulfide by dissolved oxygen upon discharge of the hot spring. Upon discharge of a sulfide-containing hydrothermal water, oxidation proceeds rapidly as atmospheric oxygen enters the water. The transfer of oxygen is particularly effective if the hydrothermal discharge is turbulent and has a large surface area.

  4. The corrosion resistance of thermoset composites in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Thompson, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion engineers need guidelines for selecting thermoset resins for aggressive applications such as hot alkali and alkaline peroxide. The suitability of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) for alkaline service depends on factors such as the ester content of the resin, the unsaturated monomer composition, and the cure system. The purpose of the present paper is to show the effect of these factors on the alkaline corrosion resistance of FRP and provide corrosion engineers with the guidance needed for selecting the best epoxy vinyl ester resins for alkaline environments.

  5. Rechargeable Zn-MnO sub 2 alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wruck, W.J.; Reichman, B.; Bullock, K.R.; Kao, W.H. )

    1991-12-01

    In this paper progress in the development of rechargeable alkaline zinc-manganese dioxide cells is described. The advantages and limitations of the system are evaluated. Laboratory tests run on commercial primary alkaline cells as well as model simulations of a bipolar MnO{sub 2} electrode show that the rechargeable alkaline battery may be able to compete with lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and secondary lithium cells for low- to moderate-rate applications. However, because of this poor performance at high rates and low temperatures, the alkaline MnO{sub 2} battery is not suitable for present automotive starting applications.

  6. Accurate flexural spring constant calibration of colloid probe cantilevers using scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Richard S.; Osborn, William A.; Shaw, Gordon A.

    2015-06-01

    Calibration of the flexural spring constant for atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe cantilevers provides significant challenges. The presence of a large attached spherical added mass complicates many of the more common calibration techniques such as reference cantilever, Sader, and added mass. Even the most promising option, AFM thermal calibration, can encounter difficulties during the optical lever sensitivity measurement due to strong adhesion and friction between the sphere and a surface. This may cause buckling of the end of the cantilever and hysteresis in the approach-retract curves resulting in increased uncertainty in the calibration. Most recently, a laser Doppler vibrometry thermal method has been used to accurately calibrate the normal spring constant of a wide variety of tipped and tipless commercial cantilevers. This paper describes a variant of the technique, scanning laser Doppler vibrometry, optimized for colloid probe cantilevers and capable of spring constant calibration uncertainties near ±1%.

  7. Effect of alkaline addition on anaerobic sludge digestion with combined pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Jin, Shuguang; Li, Dongyi; Zhang, Meixia; Xu, Xiangzhe

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion efficiency, combination pretreatment of alkaline and high pressure homogenization was applied to pretreat sewage sludge. Effect of alkaline dosage on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated in detail. SCOD of sludge supernatant significantly increased with the alkaline dosage increase after the combined pretreatment because of sludge disintegration. Organics were significantly degraded after the anaerobic digestion, and the maximal SCOD, TCOD and VS removal was 73.5%, 61.3% and 43.5%, respectively. Cumulative biogas production, methane content in biogas and biogas production rate obviously increased with the alkaline dosage increase. Considering both the biogas production and alkaline dosage, the optimal alkaline dosage was selected as 0.04 mol/L. Relationships between biogas production and sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas was mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration. The methane yield linearly increased with the DDCOD increase as Methane yield (ml/gVS)=4.66 DDCOD-9.69. PMID:24703958

  8. Thermoelectric Properties of Barium Plumbate Doped by Alkaline Earth Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Andreza; Bhatta, Rudra; Pegg, Ian; Dutta, Biprodas

    Ceramic oxides are now being considered as a new class of thermoelectric materials because of their high stability at elevated temperatures. Such materials are especially suitable for use as prospective thermoelectric power generators because high temperatures are encountered in such operations. The present investigation uses barium plumbate (BaPbO3) as the starting material, the thermoelectric properties of which have been altered by judicious cation substitutions. BaPbO3 is known to exhibit metallic properties which may turn semiconducting as a result of compositional changes without precipitating a separate phase and/or altering the basic perovskite crystal structure. Perovskite structures are noted for their large interstitial spaces which can accommodate a large variety of ``impurity'' ions. As BaPbO3 has high electrical conductivity, σ = 2.43x105Ω-1 m-1 at room temperature, its thermopower, S, is relatively low, 23 μV/K, as expected. With a thermal conductivity, k, of 4.83Wm-1K-1, the figure of merit (ZT =S2 σ Tk-1) of BaPbO3 is only 0.01 at T = 300K. The objective of this investigation is to study the variation of thermoelectric properties of BaPbO3 as Ba and Pb ions are systematically substituted by alkaline earth ions.

  9. Dynamics of an actin spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Christophe; Mahadevan, L.; Shin, Jennifer; Matsudaira, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The acrosome of the sperm of the horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus) is an unusual actin based system that shows a spectacular dynamical transition in the presence of Ca++ that is present in abundance in the neighborhood of the egg. During this process, the bundle, which is initially bent and twisted uncoils and becomes straight in a matter of a few seconds. Based on microstructural data, we propose a model for the dynamics of uncoiling that is best represented by a triple-well potential corresponding to the different structural arrangements of the supertwisted filaments. Each of the false, true and coiled states corresponds to a local minimum of the energy, with the true state being the one with the lowest energy. Using an evolution equation derived by balancing torques, we investigate the nucleation and propagation of the phase transition and compare the results with those of experiments. Our model quantifies the hypothesis that the acrosomal bundle behaves like a mechano-chemical spring.

  10. The state of art model for thermal transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachhani, M. G.; Gajjar, P. N.

    2016-05-01

    A state of art model for thermal transistor is proposed using three FK 1D chains. In this paper we study how control over heat transfer in nanoscale materials be achieved using microscopic model of thermal transistor. We study the influence of spring constant of source segment on the switching efficiency, thermal amplification and working region of the thermal transistor. We found the increase in switching efficiency and thermal amplification where as decrease in working region with increase in spring constant of source segment.

  11. Characteristics and origins of hot springs in the Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Liu, C.; Tsao, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper systematically surveys the distributions, field occurrences of 14 hot springs and sampling for geochemical investigations in geothermal area of Tatun Volcano Group (TVG). Based on the Piper diagram, pH value, field occurrence and water-rock interaction, these hot springs are classified into three types: (1) Type I, the SO42--rich acidic water including the LFK, QG, SYK, TYK, SHP, and BY thermal springs which the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation; (2) Type II, the near neutral spring including the TBQ, HS, MT, and LSK thermal waters, which the reservoir is located in volcanic rock body (andesite); and (3) Type III, the Cl--rich acidic one consisting of the SPT, TP and JT thermal waters except CC hot spring, which is the Cl--rich near neutral solution, and the reservoir is located in the Wuchishan Formation. For the isotopic ratio, the δD and δ18O values are close to the right of meteoric water line of the Tatun areas with the values ranging from -26.2 ‰ to -3.5 ‰ and -3.2 ‰ to 1.6 ‰, respectively. However, the δD and δ18O values of hot springs for the samples away from the meteoric water line of Tatun area are -28.4 ‰ to -13.6 ‰ and -5.5 ‰ to -4.2 ‰, respectively. In addition, the δ34S value of thermal water can be distinguished into two groups: one ranges from 25‰ to 29‰ and the other from 1‰ to 8‰. Based on the field occurrences and geochemical characteristics, a model has been provided to illustrate the origin of those geothermal waters.

  12. Dolomite Dissolution in Alkaline Cementious Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Klammer, Dietmar; Köhler, Stephan; Dietzel, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Chemical alteration of concrete has gained much attention over the past years as many cases of deterioration due to sulphate attack, thaumasite formation (TSA) or alkali silica reactions (ASR) have been reported in various constructions (Schmidt et al, 2009). Much less is known about the so called alkali carbonate reaction (ACR). It is believed that dolomite aggregates can react with the alkalis from the cement, dissolve and form calcite and brucite (Katayama, 2004). Due to very low solubility of dolomite in alkaline solutions this reaction seems doubtful. In this study we are trying to gain new insides about the conditions that can lead to the dissolution of dolomite in concrete. Therefore we investigated concrete samples from Austrian tunnels that show partially dissolved dolomite aggregates. Petrological analysis such as microprobe, SEM and Raman spectroscopy as well as a hydrochemical analysis of interstitial solutions and ground water and modelling with PhreeqC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999) are carried out. In addition a series of batch experiments is set up. Modelling approaches by PhreeqC show a thermodynamically possibility in the alkaline range when additional Ca2+ in solution causes dolomite to become more and more undersaturated as calcite gets supersaturated. Interacting ground water is enriched in Ca2+and saturated with respect to gypsum as marine evaporites are found in situ rocks. Furthermore it is more likely that Portlandite (Ca(OH)2) plays a more important role than Na and K in the cement. Portlandite acts as an additional Ca2+ source and is much more abundant than the alkalies. Some interstitial solutions are dominated mainly by Na+ and SO42- and reach concentrations up to 30 g/l TDS. It is believed that solutions can even reach thenardite saturation as efflorescences are found on the tunnel walls. In consequence dolomite solubility increases with increasing ionic strength. pH > 11 further accelerate the process of dedolomitization by the removal

  13. Second memorandum on the flow of Aqua Caliente Spring after road construction at Palm Springs, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, J.F.; Dutcher, L.C.

    1953-01-01

    This memorandum was prepared at the request of Henry Harris, Acting Area Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Sacramento, Calif., to report on recent conditions at the Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, Calif., and to suggest further possibilities for restoring the spring discharge to its pre-road-construction condition.

  14. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper. PMID:15935655

  15. Alkaline oxide conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Buchheit, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    Three related conversion coating methods are described that are based on film formation which occurs when aluminum alloys are exposed to alkaline Li salt solutions. Representative examples of the processing methods, resulting coating structure, composition and morphology are presented. The corrosion resistance of these coatings to aerated 0.5 M NaCl solution has been evaluated as a function of total processing time using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). This evaluation shows that excellent corrosion resistance can be uniformly achieved using no more than 20 minutes of process time for 6061-T6. Using current methods a minimum of 80 minutes of process time is required to get marginally acceptable corrosion resistance for 2024-T3. Longer processing times are required to achieve uniformly good corrosion resistance.

  16. Alkaline dechlorination of chlorinated volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, B.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The vast majority of contaminated sites in the United States and abroad are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as trichloroethylene (TCE), trichloroethane (TCA), and chloroform. These VOCs are mobile and persistent in the subsurface and present serious health risks at trace concentrations. The goal of this project was to develop a new chemical treatment system that can rapidly and effectively degrade chlorinated VOCs. The system is based on our preliminary findings that strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) can absorb and degrade TCE. The main objectives of this study were to determine the reaction rates between chlorinated VOCs, particularly TCE, and strong alkalis, to elucidate the reaction mechanisms and by-products, to optimize the chemical reactions under various experimental conditions, and to develop a laboratory bench- scale alkaline destruction column that can be used to destroy vapor- phase TCE.

  17. The Alkaline Dissolution Rate of Calcite.

    PubMed

    Colombani, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Due to the widespread presence of calcium carbonate on Earth, several geochemical systems, among which is the global CO2 cycle, are controlled to a large extent by the dissolution and precipitation of this mineral. For this reason, the dissolution of calcite has been thoroughly investigated for decades. Despite this intense activity, a consensual value of the dissolution rate of calcite has not been found yet. We show here that the inconsistency between the reported values stems mainly from the variability of the chemical and hydrodynamic conditions of measurement. The spreading of the values, when compared in identical conditions, is much less than expected and is interpreted in terms of sample surface topography. This analysis leads us to propose benchmark values of the alkaline dissolution rate of calcite compatible with all the published values, and a method to use them in various chemical and hydrodynamic contexts. PMID:27282839

  18. Properties of cathode materials in alkaline cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkind, A. J.; McBreen, J.; Freeman, R.; Parkhurst, W. A.

    1984-04-01

    Conventional and new cathode materials in primary and secondary alkaline cells were investigated for stability, structure, electrochemical reversibility and efficiency. Included were various forms of AgO for reserve type silver zinc batteries, a new material - AgNiO2 and several nickel electrodes for nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen cells for aerospace applications. A comparative study was made of the stability of electroformed and chemically prepared AgO. Stability was correlated with impurities. After the first discharge AgNiO2 can be recharged to the monovalent level. The discharge product is predominantly silver. Plastic bonded nickel electrodes display a second plateau on discharge. Additions of Co(OH)2 largely eliminate this.

  19. Polyvinyl alcohol membranes as alkaline battery separators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.; Manzo, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    Polyvinly alcohol (PVA) cross-linked with aldehyde reagents yields membranes that demonstrate properties that make them suitable for use as alkaline battery separators. Film properties can be controlled by the choice of cross-linker, cross-link density and the method of cross-linking. Three methods of cross-linking and their effects on film properties are discussed. Film properties can also be modified by using a copolymer of vinyl alcohol and acrylic acid as the base for the separator and cross-linking it similarly to the PVA. Fillers can be incorporated into the films to further modify film properties. Results of separator screening tests and cell tests for several variations of PBA films are discussed.

  20. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  1. Development of an alkaline fuel cell subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A two task program was initiated to develop advanced fuel cell components which could be assembled into an alkaline power section for the Space Station Prototype (SSP) fuel cell subsystem. The first task was to establish a preliminary SSP power section design to be representative of the 200 cell Space Station power section. The second task was to conduct tooling and fabrication trials and fabrication of selected cell stack components. A lightweight, reliable cell stack design suitable for the SSP regenerative fuel cell power plant was completed. The design meets NASA's preliminary requirements for future multikilowatt Space Station missions. Cell stack component fabrication and tooling trials demonstrated cell components of the SSP stack design of the 1.0 sq ft area can be manufactured using techniques and methods previously evaluated and developed.

  2. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  3. Rooster Springs Elementary Teams Up for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For many schools, membership in PTA can become "expected," instead of being a positive, fun opportunity to involve parents and support students and teachers. With more than 800 students each year, Rooster Springs Elementary PTA (RSE PTA) in Dripping Springs, Texas, never worried about membership recruitment. The PTA often assumed that parents…

  4. Anomalously soft non-Euclidean spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Ido; Sharon, Eran

    In this work we study the mechanical properties of a frustrated elastic ribbon spring - the non-Euclidean minimal spring. This spring belongs to the family of non-Euclidean plates: it has no spontaneous curvature, but its lateral intrinsic geometry is described by a non-Euclidean reference metric. The reference metric of the minimal spring is hyperbolic, and can be embedded as a minimal surface. We argue that the existence of a continuous set of such isometric minimal surfaces with different extensions leads to a complete degeneracy of the bulk elastic energy of the minimal spring under elongation. This degeneracy is removed only by boundary layer effects. As a result, the mechanical properties of the minimal spring are unusual: the spring is ultra-soft with rigidity that depends on the thickness, t , as t raise 0 . 7 ex 7 7 2 lower 0 . 7 ex 2, and does not explicitly depend on the ribbon's width. These predictions are confirmed by a numerical study of a constrained spring. This work is the first to address the unusual mechanical properties of constrained non-Euclidean elastic objects. We also present a novel experimental system that is capable of constructing such objects, along with many other non-Euclidean plates.

  5. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  7. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

  8. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  9. Joystick With Cable Springs Offers Better Feel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; Ecklund, Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Improved joystick allows motion in 6 degrees of freedom, biased toward central position and orientation by 16 segments of cable serving as springs. Improvement in feel and control results from nonlinear compliance of cable-spring assembly. Nonlinear variations accommodate natural reactions of hand and brain. Operator functions as part of feedback control loop. More comfortable, increases ability to exert control and reduces fatigue.

  10. Spring Showers’ Japanese Snowbell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Japanese snowbell (Styrax japonicus) cultivar was released in 2011 by the U.S. National Arboretum. ‘Spring Showers’ was selected from a group of open-pollinated seedlings for its delayed bud break, which allows it to escape damage from late spring freezes. It has grown to 12 ft tall and 8 ft wid...

  11. Quantifying mixing, boiling, degassing, oxidation and reactivity of thermal waters at Vonarskard, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Keller, Nicole S.; Robin, Jóhann Gunnarsson; Kaasalainen, Hanna; Björnsdóttir, Snædís; Pétursdóttir, Sólveig; Jóhannesson, Haukur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur Óli

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of geothermal fluids may be altered upon ascent from the reservoir to surface by processes including boiling, degassing, mixing, oxidation and water-rock interaction. In an attempt to quantify these processes, a three step model was developed that includes: (1) defining the composition of the end-member fluid types present in the system, (2) quantifying mixing between the end-members using non-reactive elemental concentrations and enthalpy and (3) quantifying the changes of reactive elements including degassing, oxidation and water-rock interaction. The model was applied to geothermal water at Vonarskard, Iceland, for demonstration having temperatures of 3-98 °C, pH of 2.15-9.95 and TDS of 323-2250 ppm, and was thought to be produced from boiled reservoir water, condensed steam and non-thermal water. Most geothermal water represented mixture of non-thermal water and condensed steam whereas the boiled reservoir water was insignificantly mixed. CO2 and H2S degassing was found to be quantitative in steam-heated water, with oxidation of H2S to SO4 also occurred. In contrast, major rock forming elements are enriched in steam-heated water relative to their mixing ratios, suggesting water-rock interaction in the surface zone. Boiled reservoir water observed in alkaline hot springs have, however, undergone less geochemical changes upon ascent to surface and within the surface zone.

  12. The Nickel(111)/Alkaline Electrolyte Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuilong; Chottiner, G. S.; Scherson, D. A.; Reid, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of Ni (111) prepared and characterized in ultra high vacuum, UHV, by surface analytical techniques have been examined in alkaline media by cyclic voltammetry using an UHV-electrochemical cell transfer system designed and built in this laboratory. Prior to the transfer, the Ni(111) surfaces were exposed to saturation coverages of CO in UHV in an attempt to protect the surface from possible contamination with other gases during the transfer. Temperature Programmed Desorption, TPD, of CO-dosed Ni (111) surfaces displaying sharp c(4x2), LEED patterns, subsequently exposed to water-saturated Ar at atmospheric pressure in an auxiliary UHV compatible chamber and finally transferred back to the main UHV chamber, yielded CO2 and water as the only detectable products. This indicates that the CO-dosed surfaces react with water and/or bicarbonate and hydroxide as the most likely products. Based on the integration of the TPD peaks, the combined amounts of H2O and CO2 were found to be on the order of a single monolayer. The reacted c(4x2)CO/Ni(111) layer seems to protect the surface from undergoing spontaneous oxidation in strongly alkaline solutions. This was evidenced by the fact that the open circuit potential observed immediately after contact with deaerated 0.1 M KOH was about 0.38 V vs. DHE, drifting slightly towards more negative values prior to initiating the voltametric scans. The average ratio of the integrated charge obtained in the first positive linear scan in the range of 0.35 to 1.5 V vs. DHE (initiated at the open circuit potential) and the first (and subsequent) linear negative scans in the same solution yielded for various independent runs a value of 3.5 +/- 0.3. Coulometric analysis of the cyclic voltammetry curves indicate that the electrochemically formed oxyhydroxide layer involves a charge equivalent to 3.2 +/- 0.4 layers of Ni metal.

  13. Rocky Mountain Carbonate Spring Deposit development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainey, Dustin Kyle

    Relict Holocene carbonate spring deposits containing diverse biotic and abiotic depositional textures are present at Fall Creek cold sulphur springs, Alberta, Fairmont Hot Springs, British Columbia, and Hot Creek cold springs, British Columbia. The relict deposits are formed mainly of low-magnesium crystalline calcite contained in laterally continuous strata. Paleo-flow regimes were characterized by extensive sheet flow that increased the surface area of spring water exposed to the atmosphere. Calcite precipitated inorganically from spring water that attained CaCO3 supersaturation through agitation-induced CO2 degassing that was facilitated by elevated flow rates and a large surface area as spring water flowed down-slope. Thus, the deposits contain only minor amounts of detrital, mechanically deposited, and biogenic carbonate. Evaporation was only a minor contributor to CaCO3 supersaturation, mainly in quiescent environments. Photosynthetic CO2 removal did not measurably contribute to CaCO3 supersaturation. Calcite crystals precipitated in biotic facies formed from low to moderately supersaturated spring water, whereas abiotic dendrite crystals formed rapidly from highly supersaturated spring water. Calcite passively nucleated on cyanobacteria, bryophytes and macrophytes, and was probably facilitated by cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances. Cyanobacterial filaments and stromatolites are integral parts of all three deposits, whereas bryophytes were restricted to the Fall Creek and Hot Creek deposits. Diagenetic microbial degradation of crystalline calcite was common to all three deposits, but recrystallization was limited to the Fall Creek deposit. The amount and location of calcite precipitation relative to the vents was controlled by the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- in solution, and discharge volume fluctuations. Spring water with high [Ca2+] and [HCO 3-] precipitated large amounts of calcite proximal to the vents (e.g. Fairmont), whereas spring

  14. Juvenile Spring Eruption: A Variant of Perniosis?

    PubMed

    Nabatian, Adam S; Rosman, Ilana S; Sturza, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Juvenile spring eruption (JSE) is a unique condition that typically affects the helices of the ears of boys and young men. The classical clinical picture of JSE includes the abrupt onset of lesions after spending time outdoors in the early spring. Because of the papulovesicular nature of the rash and the history of sun exposure, JSE is considered a variant of polymorphous light eruption. In addition to the term "juvenile spring eruption," this entity has also been described under other less common terms such as "perniosis juvenilis vernalis aurium" or "spring perniosis," which emphasizes the onset in the spring and the possible pathogenic role of cold weather. We present a case of likely JSE with histopathologic features more consistent with perniosis than polymorphous light eruption and present a review the literature. PMID:26291421

  15. THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THE "MUD VOLCANO," A STINKY THERMAL FEATURE ON THE GRAND LOOP ROAD. ACIDIC HOT SPRINGS HAVE REDUCED THE UNDERLYING LAVA TO A FINE CLAY, PRODUCING AN AREA OF BOILING MUD. THE ODOR OF ROTTEN EGGS IS FROM HYDROGEN SULFIDE GAS. - Grand Loop Road, Forming circuit between Mammoth Hot Springs, Norris Junction, Madison Junction, Old Faithful, Mammoth, Park County, WY

  16. 1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of map (from The Virginia Springs, and the Springs of the South and West by Moorman) No date 'MAP OF ROUTES AND DISTANCES TO THE VIRGINIA SPRINGS' - White Sulphur Springs, U.S. Route 60, White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, WV

  17. Alkaline cleaner replacement for printed wiring board fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.E.; Pemberton, S.E.; Tucker, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    A replacement alkaline cleaning chemistry was qualified for the copper cleaning process used to support printed wiring board fabrication. The copper cleaning process was used to prepare copper surfaces for enhancing the adhesion of dry film photopolymers (photoresists and solder masks) and acrylic adhesives. The alkaline chemistry was used to remove organic contaminates such as fingerprints.

  18. TOTAL ALKALINITY OF SURFACE WATERS OF THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map provides a synoptic illustration of the national patterns of surface water alkalinity in the conterminous United States. Alkalinity is the most readily available measure of the acid-neutralizing capacity of surface waters and provides a reasonable estimate o...

  19. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  20. The Chemistry of Paper Preservation Part 4. Alkaline Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Henry A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem of the inherent instability of paper due to the presence of acids that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of cellulose. Focuses on the chemistry involved in the sizing of both acid and alkaline papers and the types of fillers used. Discusses advantages and problems of alkaline papermaking. Contains 48 references. (JRH)