All-optical dynamical Casimir effect in a three-dimensional terahertz photonic band gap
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagenmüller, David
2016-06-01
We identify an architecture for the observation of all-optical dynamical Casimir effect in realistic experimental conditions. We suggest that by integrating quantum wells in a three-dimensional (3D) photonic band-gap material made out of large-scale (˜200 -μ m ) germanium logs, it is possible to achieve ultrastrong light-matter coupling at terahertz frequencies for the cyclotron transition of a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with long-lived optical modes, in which vacuum Rabi splitting is comparable to the Landau level spacing. When a short, intense electromagnetic transient of duration ˜250 fs and carrying a peak magnetic field ˜5 T is applied to the structure, the cyclotron transition can be suddenly tuned on resonance with a desired photon mode, switching on the light-matter interaction and leading to a Casimir radiation emitted parallel to the quantum well plane. The radiation spectrum consists of sharp peaks with frequencies coinciding with engineered optical modes within the 3D photonic band gap, and its characteristics are extremely robust to the nonradiative damping which can be large in our system. Furthermore, the absence of continuum with associated low-energy excitations for both electromagnetic and electronic quantum states can prevent the rapid absorption of the photon flux which is likely to occur in other proposals for all-optical dynamical Casimir effect.
Compact integral three-dimensional imaging device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, J.; Yamashita, T.; Hiura, H.; Miura, M.; Funatsu, R.; Nakamura, T.; Nakasu, E.
2015-05-01
A compact integral three-dimensional (3D) imaging device for capturing high resolution 3D images has been developed that positions the lens array and image sensor close together. Unlike the conventional scheme, where a camera lens is used to project the elemental images generated by the lens array onto the image sensor, the developed device combines the lens array and image sensor into one unit and makes no use of a camera lens. In order to capture high resolution 3D images, a high resolution imaging sensor and a lens array composed of many elemental lenses are required, and in an experimental setup, a CMOS image sensor circuit patterned with multiple exposures and a multiple lens array were used. Two types of optics were implemented for controlling the depth of 3D images. The first type was a convex lens that is suitable for compressing a relatively large object space, and the second was an afocal lens array that is suitable for capturing a relatively small object space without depth distortion. The objects captured with the imaging device and depth control optics were reconstructed as 3D images by using display equipment consisting of a liquid crystal panel and a lens array. The reconstructed images were found to have appropriate motion parallax.
Integrated Aeromechanics with Three-Dimensional Solid-Multibody Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Datta, Anubhav; Johnson, Wayne
2014-01-01
A full three-dimensional finite element-multibody structural dynamic solver is coupled to a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver for the prediction of integrated aeromechanical stresses and strains on a rotor blade in forward flight. The objective is to lay the foundations of all major pieces of an integrated three-dimensional rotor dynamic analysis - from model construction to aeromechanical solution to stress/strain calculation. The primary focus is on the aeromechanical solution. Two types of three-dimensional CFD/CSD interfaces are constructed for this purpose with an emphasis on resolving errors from geometry mis-match so that initial-stage approximate structural geometries can also be effectively analyzed. A three-dimensional structural model is constructed as an approximation to a UH-60A-like fully articulated rotor. The aerodynamic model is identical to the UH-60A rotor. For preliminary validation measurements from a UH-60A high speed flight is used where CFD coupling is essential to capture the advancing side tip transonic effects. The key conclusion is that an integrated aeromechanical analysis is indeed possible with three-dimensional structural dynamics but requires a careful description of its geometry and discretization of its parts.
Photonic temporal integrator for all-optical computing.
Slavík, Radan; Park, Yongwoo; Ayotte, Nicolas; Doucet, Serge; Ahn, Tae-Jung; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José
2008-10-27
We report the first experimental realization of an all-optical temporal integrator. The integrator is implemented using an all-fiber active (gain-assisted) filter based on superimposed fiber Bragg gratings made in an Er-Yb co-doped optical fiber that behaves like an 'optical capacitor'. Functionality of this device was tested by integrating different optical pulses, with time duration down to 60 ps, and by integration of two consecutive pulses that had different relative phases, separated by up to 1 ns. The potential of the developed device for implementing all-optical computing systems for solving ordinary differential equations was also experimentally tested. PMID:18958098
Boundary Integral Solutions to Three-Dimensional Unconfined Darcy's Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lennon, Gerard P.; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Liggett, James A.
1980-08-01
The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used to solve three-dimensional potential flow problems in porous media. The problems considered here are time dependent and have a nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface. The entire boundary, including the moving free surface, discretized into linear finite elements for the purpose of evaluating the boundary integrals. The technique allows transient, three-dimensional problems to be solved with reasonable computational costs. Numerical examples include recharge through rectangular and circular areas and seepage flow from a surface pond. The examples are used to illustrate the method and show the nonlinear effects.
Human gesture recognition using three-dimensional integral imaging.
Javier Traver, V; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Salvador-Balaguer, Eva; Pla, Filiberto; Javidi, Bahram
2014-10-01
Three-dimensional (3D) integral imaging allows one to reconstruct a 3D scene, including range information, and provides sectional refocused imaging of 3D objects at different ranges. This paper explores the potential use of 3D passive sensing integral imaging for human gesture recognition tasks from sequences of reconstructed 3D video scenes. As a preliminary testbed, the 3D integral imaging sensing is implemented using an array of cameras with the appropriate algorithms for 3D scene reconstruction. Recognition experiments are performed by acquiring 3D video scenes of multiple hand gestures performed by ten people. We analyze the capability and performance of gesture recognition using 3D integral imaging representations at given distances and compare its performance with the use of standard two-dimensional (2D) single-camera videos. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using 3D integral imaging for human gesture recognition. PMID:25401260
Flat tori in three-dimensional space and convex integration
Borrelli, Vincent; Jabrane, Saïd; Lazarus, Francis; Thibert, Boris
2012-01-01
It is well-known that the curvature tensor is an isometric invariant of C2 Riemannian manifolds. This invariant is at the origin of the rigidity observed in Riemannian geometry. In the mid 1950s, Nash amazed the world mathematical community by showing that this rigidity breaks down in regularity C1. This unexpected flexibility has many paradoxical consequences, one of them is the existence of C1 isometric embeddings of flat tori into Euclidean three-dimensional space. In the 1970s and 1980s, M. Gromov, revisiting Nash’s results introduced convex integration theory offering a general framework to solve this type of geometric problems. In this research, we convert convex integration theory into an algorithm that produces isometric maps of flat tori. We provide an implementation of a convex integration process leading to images of an embedding of a flat torus. The resulting surface reveals a C1 fractal structure: Although the tangent plane is defined everywhere, the normal vector exhibits a fractal behavior. Isometric embeddings of flat tori may thus appear as a geometric occurrence of a structure that is simultaneously C1 and fractal. Beyond these results, our implementation demonstrates that convex integration, a theory still confined to specialists, can produce computationally tractable solutions of partial differential relations. PMID:22523238
Digital Three-dimensional Reconstruction Based On Integral Imaging
Li, Chao; Chen, Qian; Hua, Hong; Mao, Chen; Shao, Ajun
2015-01-01
This paper presents a digital three dimensional reconstruction method based on a set of small-baseline elemental images captured with a micro-lens array and a CCD sensor. In this paper, we adopt the ASIFT (Affine Scale-invariant feature transform) operator as the image registration method. Among the set of captured elemental images, the elemental image located in the middle of the overall image field is used as the reference and corresponding matching points in each elemental image around the reference elemental are calculated, which enables to accurately compute the depth value of object points relatively to the reference image frame. Using optimization algorithm with redundant matching points can achieve 3D reconstruction finally. Our experimental results are presented to demonstrate excellent performance in accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26236151
Compact, On-chip, Integrated three dimensional Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tengdin, Phoebe M.; Salim, Evan A.; Anderson, Dana Z.
2015-05-01
We present the design of a compact atom chip system that provides a three dimensional optical lattice combined with thru-chip imaging. Optical beams are launched from fibers mounted directly to the exterior of a high resolution (0.4NA) imaging objective. Miniature polarizers, wave plates, and mirrors located on the exterior of the objective control the polarization state and alignment of the lattice, while on-chip optics are used to provide retro-reflection. Three mutually orthogonal lattice beams traverse from the ambient side of the chip through a central window of a silicon and glass substrate, intersecting 300 microns below the vacuum side chip surface. The combined atom chip and optical system fills a volume of less than 36 cm3. Atoms may be cooled using standard techniques, and directly loaded into the optical lattice. This system is designed with the intention of reducing vibrational noise, providing high resolution in-lattice imaging, combining electric and magnetic fields to generate arbitrary potentials, and performing high repetition rate experiments. This work was supported by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
InP-based three-dimensional photonic integrated circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsou, Diana; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa
2001-10-01
Fast-growing internet traffic volumes require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances than short wavelength (850 nm) multi-mode fiber systems can provide. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 and 1550 nm wavelengths are required. The great success of GaAs 850 nm VCSELs for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with available intrinsic materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits, which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits (PICs) have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform for fabricating InP-based photonic integrated circuits compatible with surface-emitting laser technology. Employing InP transparency at 1310 and 1550 nm wavelengths, we have created 3-D photonic integrated circuits (PICs) by utilizing light beams in both surface normal and in-plane directions within the InP-based structure
Three-dimensional surface phase imaging based on integrated thermo-optic swept laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyo Jin; Cho, Jaedu; Noh, Young-Ouk; Oh, Min-Cheol; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok
2014-03-01
We developed an optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system based on an integrated thermo-optic swept laser to achieve three-dimensional surface imaging. The wavelength was swept by applying a heating signal to a thermo-optic polymeric waveguide. The sub-micrometer surface profile was converted from the three-dimensional phase information of the OFDI system on various samples used as resolution targets with a step height of 120 nm.
Integrated all-optical logic discriminators based on plasmonic bandgap engineering
Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2013-01-01
Optical computing uses photons as information carriers, opening up the possibility for ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic devices are indispensible core components of optical computing systems. However, up to now, little experimental progress has been made in nanoscale all-optical logic discriminators, which have the function of discriminating and encoding incident light signals according to wavelength. Here, we report a strategy to realize a nanoscale all-optical logic discriminator based on plasmonic bandgap engineering in a planar plasmonic microstructure. Light signals falling within different operating wavelength ranges are differentiated and endowed with different logic state encodings. Compared with values previously reported, the operating bandwidth is enlarged by one order of magnitude. Also the SPP light source is integrated with the logic device while retaining its ultracompact size. This opens up a way to construct on-chip all-optical information processors and artificial intelligence systems. PMID:24071647
An Exploration of Three-Dimensional Integrated Assessment for Computational Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhong, Baichang; Wang, Qiyun; Chen, Jie; Li, Yi
2016-01-01
Computational thinking (CT) is a fundamental skill for students, and assessment is a critical factor in education. However, there is a lack of effective approaches to CT assessment. Therefore, we designed the Three-Dimensional Integrated Assessment (TDIA) framework in this article. The TDIA has two aims: one was to integrate three dimensions…
The solutions of three dimensional Fredholm integral equations using Adomian decomposition method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almousa, Mohammad
2016-06-01
This paper presents the solutions of three dimensional Fredholm integral equations by using Adomian decomposition method (ADM). Some examples of these types of equations are tested to show the reliability of the technique. The solutions obtained by ADM give an excellent agreement with exact solution.
Analysis of all-optical temporal integrator employing phased-shifted DFB-SOA.
Jia, Xin-Hong; Ji, Xiao-Ling; Xu, Cong; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Wei-Li
2014-11-17
All-optical temporal integrator using phase-shifted distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) is investigated. The influences of system parameters on its energy transmittance and integration error are explored in detail. The numerical analysis shows that, enhanced energy transmittance and integration time window can be simultaneously achieved by increased injected current in the vicinity of lasing threshold. We find that the range of input pulse-width with lower integration error is highly sensitive to the injected optical power, due to gain saturation and induced detuning deviation mechanism. The initial frequency detuning should also be carefully chosen to suppress the integration deviation with ideal waveform output. PMID:25402095
Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.
2013-11-01
A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.
Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy
Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R.
2013-11-15
A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 μm along all the three axes.
Chip-integrated ultrawide-band all-optical logic comparator in plasmonic circuits
Lu, Cuicui; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2014-01-01
Optical computing opens up the possibility for the realization of ultrahigh-speed and ultrawide-band information processing. Integrated all-optical logic comparator is one of the indispensable core components of optical computing systems. Unfortunately, up to now, no any nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications has been realized experimentally. Here, we report a subtle and effective technical solution to circumvent the obstacles of inherent Ohmic losses of metal and limited propagation length of SPPs. A nanoscale all-optical logic comparator suitable for on-chip integration applications is realized in plasmonic circuits directly. The incident single-bit (or dual-bit) logic signals can be compared and the comparison results are endowed with different logic encodings. An ultrabroad operating wavelength range from 700 to 1000 nm, and an ultrahigh output logic-state contrast-ratio of more than 25 dB are realized experimentally. No high power requirement is needed. Though nanoscale SPP light source and the logic comparator device are integrated into the same plasmonic chip, an ultrasmall feature size is maintained. This work not only paves a way for the realization of complex logic device such as adders and multiplier, but also opens up the possibility for realizing quantum solid chips based on plasmonic circuits. PMID:24463956
A three dimensional integral equation approach for fluids under confinement: Argon in zeolites.
Lomba, Enrique; Bores, Cecilia; Sánchez-Gil, Vicente; Noya, Eva G
2015-10-28
In this work, we explore the ability of an inhomogeneous integral equation approach to provide a full three dimensional description of simple fluids under conditions of confinement in porous media. Explicitly, we will consider the case of argon adsorbed into silicalite-1, silicalite-2, and an all-silica analogue of faujasite, with a porous structure composed of linear (and zig-zag in the case of silicalite-1) channels of 5-8 Å diameter. The equation is based on the three dimensional Ornstein-Zernike approximation proposed by Beglov and Roux [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 360 (1995)] in combination with the use of an approximate fluid-fluid direct correlation function furnished by the replica Ornstein-Zernike equation with a hypernetted chain closure. Comparison with the results of grand canonical Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations evidences that the theory provides an accurate description for the three dimensional density distribution of the adsorbed fluid, both at the level of density profiles and bidimensional density maps across representative sections of the porous material. In the case of very tight confinement (silicalite-1 and silicalite-2), solutions at low temperatures could not be found due to convergence difficulties, but for faujasite, which presents substantially larger channels, temperatures as low as 77 K are accessible to the integral equation. The overall results indicate that the theoretical approximation can be an excellent tool to characterize the microscopic adsorption behavior of porous materials. PMID:26520539
A three dimensional integral equation approach for fluids under confinement: Argon in zeolites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomba, Enrique; Bores, Cecilia; Sánchez-Gil, Vicente; Noya, Eva G.
2015-10-01
In this work, we explore the ability of an inhomogeneous integral equation approach to provide a full three dimensional description of simple fluids under conditions of confinement in porous media. Explicitly, we will consider the case of argon adsorbed into silicalite-1, silicalite-2, and an all-silica analogue of faujasite, with a porous structure composed of linear (and zig-zag in the case of silicalite-1) channels of 5-8 Å diameter. The equation is based on the three dimensional Ornstein-Zernike approximation proposed by Beglov and Roux [J. Chem. Phys. 103, 360 (1995)] in combination with the use of an approximate fluid-fluid direct correlation function furnished by the replica Ornstein-Zernike equation with a hypernetted chain closure. Comparison with the results of grand canonical Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations evidences that the theory provides an accurate description for the three dimensional density distribution of the adsorbed fluid, both at the level of density profiles and bidimensional density maps across representative sections of the porous material. In the case of very tight confinement (silicalite-1 and silicalite-2), solutions at low temperatures could not be found due to convergence difficulties, but for faujasite, which presents substantially larger channels, temperatures as low as 77 K are accessible to the integral equation. The overall results indicate that the theoretical approximation can be an excellent tool to characterize the microscopic adsorption behavior of porous materials.
An integrable high resolution all-optical analog-to-digital conversion scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shile; Jian, Wu; Zhao, Lingjuan; Lu, Dan; Qiu, Jifang
2014-05-01
A novel 4 × 4 multimode interference couplers based phase-shifted photonic quantization scheme using multiwavelength mode locked pulse lasers as sampling source for all-optical analog-to-digital converter is proposed. Numerical analysis indicates that 8-bit quantization resolution operating at 40 GHz bandwidth could be achieved with an incident average optical power of 1.932 mW to each photodiode. The whole scheme can be integrated on a InP-based chip.
Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits
Keast, Craig
2007-02-28
Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.
Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method.
Arai, Jun; Kawakita, Masahiro; Yamashita, Takayuki; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Miura, Masato; Hiura, Hitoshi; Okui, Makoto; Okano, Fumio
2013-02-11
Integral three-dimensional (3D) television based on integral imaging requires huge amounts of information. Previously, we constructed an Integral 3D television using Super Hi-Vision (SHV) technology, with 7680 pixels horizontally and 4320 pixels vertically. We report on improved image quality through the development of video system with an equivalent of 8000 scan lines for use with Integral 3D television. We conducted experiments to evaluate the resolution of 3D images using an experimental setup and were able to show that by using the pixel-offset method we have eliminated aliasing produced by full-resolution SHV video equipment. We confirmed that the application of the pixel-offset method to integral 3D television is effective in increasing the resolution of reconstructed images. PMID:23481805
A Novel Integrated Multifunction Micro-Sensor for Three-Dimensional Micro-Force Measurements
Wang, Weizhong; Zhao, Yulong; Qin, Yafei
2012-01-01
An integrated multifunction micro-sensor for three-dimensional micro-force precision measurement under different pressure and temperature conditions is introduced in this paper. The integrated sensor consists of three kinds of sensors: a three-dimensional micro-force sensor, an absolute pressure sensor and a temperature sensor. The integrated multifunction micro-sensor is fabricated on silicon wafers by micromachining technology. Different doping doses of boron ion, placement and structure of resistors are tested for the force sensor, pressure sensor and temperature sensor to minimize the cross interference and optimize the properties. A glass optical fiber, with a ladder structure and sharp tip etched by buffer oxide etch solution, is glued on the micro-force sensor chip as the tactile probe. Experimental results show that the minimum force that can be detected by the force sensor is 300 nN; the lateral sensitivity of the force sensor is 0.4582 mV/μN; the probe length is linearly proportional to sensitivity of the micro-force sensor in lateral; the sensitivity of the pressure sensor is 0.11 mv/KPa; the sensitivity of the temperature sensor is 5.836 × 10−3 KΩ/°C. Thus it is a cost-effective method to fabricate integrated multifunction micro-sensors with different measurement ranges that could be used in many fields. PMID:22666017
Server-based Approach to Web Visualization of Integrated Three-dimensional Brain Imaging Data
Poliakov, Andrew V.; Albright, Evan; Hinshaw, Kevin P.; Corina, David P.; Ojemann, George; Martin, Richard F.; Brinkley, James F.
2005-01-01
The authors describe a client-server approach to three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of neuroimaging data, which enables researchers to visualize, manipulate, and analyze large brain imaging datasets over the Internet. All computationally intensive tasks are done by a graphics server that loads and processes image volumes and 3-D models, renders 3-D scenes, and sends the renderings back to the client. The authors discuss the system architecture and implementation and give several examples of client applications that allow visualization and analysis of integrated language map data from single and multiple patients. PMID:15561787
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dongsu; Son, Jung-Young; Kim, Shin-Hwan
2009-09-01
In this paper, we discuss computational reconstruction and statistical pattern classification using integral imaging. Three-dimensional object information is numerically reconstructed at arbitrary depth-levels by averaging the corresponding pixels. The longitudinal distance and object boundary are estimated where the standard deviation of the intensity is minimized. Fisher linear discriminant analysis combined with principal component analysis is adopted for the classification of out-of-plane rotated objects. The Fisher linear discriminant analysis maximizes the class-discrimination while the principal component analysis minimizes the error between the original and the restored images. The presented method provides promising results for the distortion-tolerant pattern classification.
Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.
1999-03-01
This paper presents a fast method for electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems pertinent to three-dimensional (3-D) buried objects. In this approach, a new symmetrical form of the Green`s function is derived, which can reduce the number of Sommerfeld integrals involved in the buried objects problem. The integration along steepest descent paths and leading-order approximations are introduced to evaluate these Sommerfeld integrals, which can greatly accelerate the computation. Based on the fast evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals, the radiation of an arbitrarily oriented electric dipole buried in a half space is first analyzed and computed. Then, the scattering by buried dielectric objects and conducting objects is considered using the method of moments (MOM). Numerical results show that the fast method can save tremendous CPU time in radiation and scattering problems involving buried objects.
Rosenauer, M; Vellekoop, M J
2010-01-01
Flow cytometry is a standard analytical method in cell biology and clinical diagnostics and is widely distributed for the experimental investigation of microparticle characteristics. In this work, the design, realization, and measurement results of a novel planar optofluidic flow cytometric device with an integrated three-dimensional (3D) adjustable optofluidic lens system for forward-scattering∕extinction-based biochemical analysis fabricated by silicon micromachining are presented. To our knowledge, this is the first planar cytometric system with the ability to focus light three-dimensionally on cells∕particles by the application of fluidic lenses. The single layer microfluidic platform enables versatile 3D hydrodynamic sample focusing to an arbitrary position in the channel and incorporates integrated fiber grooves for the insertion of glass fibers. To confirm the fluid dynamics and raytracing simulations and to characterize the sensor, different cell lines and sets of microparticles were investigated by detecting the extinction (axial light loss) signal, demonstrating the high sensitivity and sample discrimination capability of this analysis system. The unique features of this planar microdevice enable new biotechnological analysis techniques due to the highly increased sensitivity. PMID:21267437
Rosenauer, M.; Vellekoop, M. J.
2010-01-01
Flow cytometry is a standard analytical method in cell biology and clinical diagnostics and is widely distributed for the experimental investigation of microparticle characteristics. In this work, the design, realization, and measurement results of a novel planar optofluidic flow cytometric device with an integrated three-dimensional (3D) adjustable optofluidic lens system for forward-scattering∕extinction-based biochemical analysis fabricated by silicon micromachining are presented. To our knowledge, this is the first planar cytometric system with the ability to focus light three-dimensionally on cells∕particles by the application of fluidic lenses. The single layer microfluidic platform enables versatile 3D hydrodynamic sample focusing to an arbitrary position in the channel and incorporates integrated fiber grooves for the insertion of glass fibers. To confirm the fluid dynamics and raytracing simulations and to characterize the sensor, different cell lines and sets of microparticles were investigated by detecting the extinction (axial light loss) signal, demonstrating the high sensitivity and sample discrimination capability of this analysis system. The unique features of this planar microdevice enable new biotechnological analysis techniques due to the highly increased sensitivity. PMID:21267437
Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasavin, A. V.; Zayats, A. V.
2008-07-01
Using full three-dimensional numerical modeling, we demonstrate highly efficient passive and active photonic circuit elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides (DLSPPWs). Highly confined surface plasmon polariton (SPP) mode having subwavelength cross section allows high level of integration of DLSPPW circuitry. We demonstrate very efficient guiding and routing of SPP signals with the passive waveguide elements such as bends, splitters, and Bragg reflectors, having a functional size of just a few microns at telecommunication wavelengths. Introducing a gain in the dielectric, we have found the requirement for lossless waveguiding and estimated the performance of DLSPPW lossless and active elements. DLSPPW based components have prospective implementation in photonic integrated chips, hybrid optical-electronic circuits, and lab-on-a-chip applications.
An Integrated Three-Dimensional Solution for Wire-Sweep Analysis in Microchip Encapsulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Wen-Hsien; Hsu, David C.; Chang, Rong-Yeu
2004-06-01
This paper presents an integrated true three-dimensional simulation of resin flow and wire sweep in microchip encapsulation. A FVM-based decoupled solution algorithm with the hybrid elements capability is adopted to calculate the resin flow during mold filling. Furthermore, a highly flexible mesh generation technique especially tailored for the IC packages is also proposed to mesh the model with high quality element both in the flow and gapwize directions. Thanks to the efficiency of the proposed methodology in terms of CPU time and memory requirement, the industrial packages with complex geometry and high pin count can be analyzed with minimum model simplification. Finally, a user-friendly integrated environment is also developed to link the flow analysis with structure analysis to provide the total solution for wire sweep assessment.
Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system.
Arai, Jun; Okui, Makoto; Yamashita, Takayuki; Okano, Fumio
2006-03-10
We have developed an integral three-dimensional (3-D) television that uses a 2000-scanning-line video system that can shoot and display 3-D color moving images in real time. We had previously developed an integral 3-D television that used a high-definition television system. The new system uses -6 times as many elemental images [160 (horizontal) x 118 (vertical) elemental images] arranged at -1.5 times the density to improve further the picture quality of the reconstructed image. Through comparison an image near the lens array can be reconstructed at -1.9 times the spatial frequency, and the viewing angle is -1.5 times as wide. PMID:16572684
Projection-type dual-view three-dimensional display system based on integral imaging.
Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Chang-Kun; Hong, Keehoon; Yeom, Jiwoon; Lee, Byoungho
2014-09-20
A dual-view display system provides two different images in different directions. Most of them only present two-dimensional images for observers. In this paper, we propose a projection-type dual-view three-dimensional (3D) display system based on integral imaging. To assign directivities to the images, a projection-type display and dual-view screen with lenticular lenses are implemented. The lenticular lenses split the collimated image from the projection device into two different directions. The separated images are integrated by a single lens array in front of the screen, and full-parallax 3D images are observed in two different viewing regions. The visibility of the reconstructed 3D images can be improved by using high-density lenticular lenses and a high numerical aperture lens array. We explain the principle of the proposed method and verify the feasibility of the proposed system with simulations and experimental results. PMID:25322119
Ultrafast all-optical temporal differentiation in integrated phase-shifted Bragg gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutkowska, Katarzyna A.; Duchesne, David; Strain, Michael J.; Azana, José; Morandotti, Roberto; Sorel, Marc
2010-12-01
All-optical communications and data processing exemplifies an important alternative to overcome the speed and bandwidth limitations imposed by electronics. Specifically, practical implementation of analog operations, including optical temporal differentiation, is fundamental for future ultrafast signal processing and computing networks. In addition, the development of fully integrated systems that allow on-single-chip operations is of significant interest. In this work we report the design, fabrication tolerances and first experimental demonstration of an integrated, ultrafast differentiator based on π-phase-shifted Bragg gratings. By using deeply-sidewall-etched Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) ridged waveguides, first-order optical differentiation has been achieved on sub-millimeters length scales, reaching THz processing speeds. The proposed device has numerous potential applications, including all-optical, analog solving of differential equations (important for virtual modeling of scientific phenomena)1, data processing and analysis2, as well as for the generation of Hermite-Gaussian waveforms (used for arbitrary optical coding and decoding)3.
Element Library for Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis by the Integrated Force Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaljevic, Igor; Patnaik, Surya N.; Hopkins, Dale A.
1996-01-01
The Integrated Force Method, a recently developed method for analyzing structures, is extended in this paper to three-dimensional structural analysis. First, a general formulation is developed to generate the stress interpolation matrix in terms of complete polynomials of the required order. The formulation is based on definitions of the stress tensor components in term of stress functions. The stress functions are written as complete polynomials and substituted into expressions for stress components. Then elimination of the dependent coefficients leaves the stress components expressed as complete polynomials whose coefficients are defined as generalized independent forces. Such derived components of the stress tensor identically satisfy homogenous Navier equations of equilibrium. The resulting element matrices are invariant with respect to coordinate transformation and are free of spurious zero-energy modes. The formulation provides a rational way to calculate the exact number of independent forces necessary to arrive at an approximation of the required order for complete polynomials. The influence of reducing the number of independent forces on the accuracy of the response is also analyzed. The stress fields derived are used to develop a comprehensive finite element library for three-dimensional structural analysis by the Integrated Force Method. Both tetrahedral- and hexahedral-shaped elements capable of modeling arbitrary geometric configurations are developed. A number of examples with known analytical solutions are solved by using the developments presented herein. The results are in good agreement with the analytical solutions. The responses obtained with the Integrated Force Method are also compared with those generated by the standard displacement method. In most cases, the performance of the Integrated Force Method is better overall.
Large-scale photonic integration for advanced all-optical routing functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholes, Steven C.
Advanced InP-based photonic integrated circuits are a critical technology to manage the increasing bandwidth demands of next-generation all-optical networks. Integrating many of the discrete functions required in optical networks into a single device provides a reduction in system footprint and optical losses by eliminating the fiber coupling junctions between components. This translates directly into increased system reliability and cost savings. Although many key network components have been realized via InP-based monolithic integration over the years, truly large-scale photonic ICs have only recently emerged in the marketplace. This lag-time has been mostly due to historically low device yields. In all-optical routing applications, large-scale photonic ICs may be able to address two of the key roadblocks associated with scaling modern electronic routers to higher capacities---namely, power and size. If the functions of dynamic wavelength conversion and routing are moved to the optical layer, we can eliminate the need for power-hungry optical-to-electrical (O/E) and electrical-to-optical (E/O) data conversions at each router node. Additionally, large-scale photonic ICs could reduce the footprint of such a system by combining the similar functions of each port onto a single chip. However, robust design and manufacturing techniques that will enable high-yield production of these chips must be developed. In this work, we demonstrate a monolithic tunable optical router (MOTOR) chip consisting of an array of eight 40-Gbps wavelength converters and a passive arrayed-waveguide grating router that functions as the packet-forwarding switch fabric of an all-optical router. The device represents one of the most complex InP photonic ICs ever reported, with more than 200 integrated functional elements in a single chip. Single-channel 40 Gbps wavelength conversion and channel switching using 231-1 PRBS data showed a power penalty as low as 4.5 dB with less than 2 W drive power
Multiport InP monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength router.
Zheng, Xiu; Raz, Oded; Calabretta, Nicola; Zhao, Dan; Lu, Rongguo; Liu, Yong
2016-08-15
An indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated wavelength router is demonstrated in this Letter. The wavelength router has four input ports and four output ports, which integrate four wavelength converters and a 4×4 arrayed-waveguide grating router. Each wavelength converter is achieved based on cross-gain modulation and cross-phase modulation effects in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Error-free wavelength switching for a non-return-to-zero 2^{31}-1 ps eudorandom binary sequence at 40 Gb/s data rate is performed. Both 1×4 and 3×1 all-optical routing functions of this chip are demonstrated for the first time with power penalties as low as 3.2 dB. PMID:27519116
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Yeonkyung; Yoo, Hoon
2016-02-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional visualization method of 3D objects in a scattering medium. The proposed method employs integral imaging and spectral analysis to improve the visual quality of 3D images. The images observed from 3D objects in the scattering medium such as turbid water suffer from image degradation due to scattering. The main reason is that the observed image signal is very weak compared with the scattering signal. Common image enhancement techniques including histogram equalization and contrast enhancement works improperly to overcome the problem. Thus, integral imaging that enables to integrate the weak signals from multiple images was discussed to improve image quality. In this paper, we apply spectral analysis to an integral imaging system such as the computational integral imaging reconstruction. Also, we introduce a signal model with a visibility parameter to analyze the scattering signal. The proposed method based on spectral analysis efficiently estimates the original signal and it is applied to elemental images. The visibility-enhanced elemental images are then used to reconstruct 3D images using a computational integral imaging reconstruction algorithm. To evaluate the proposed method, we perform the optical experiments for 3D objects in turbid water. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods.
Advances in three-dimensional integration technologies in support of infrared focal plane arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Temple, D. S.; Vick, E. P.; Malta, D.; Lueck, M. R.; Skokan, M. R.; Masterjohn, C. M.; Muzilla, M. S.
2015-01-01
Staring infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) require pixel-level, three-dimensional (3D) integration with silicon readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that provide detector bias, integrate detector current, and may further process the signals. There is an increased interest in ROIC technology as a result of two trends in the evolution of infrared FPAs. The first trend involves decreasing the FPA pixel size, which leads to the increased information content within the same FPA die size. The second trend involves the desire to enhance signal processing capability at the FPA level, which opens the door to the detector behaving like a smart peripheral rather than a passive component—with complex signal processing functions being executed on, rather than off, the FPA chip. In this paper, we review recent advances in 3D integration process technologies that support these key trends in the development of infrared FPAs. Specifically, we discuss approaches in which the infrared sensor is integrated with 3D ROIC stacks composed of multiple layers of silicon circuitry interconnected using metal-filled through-silicon vias. We describe the continued development of the 3D integration technology and summarize key demonstrations that show its viability for pixels as small as 5 microns.
All optical controlled photonic integrated circuits using azo dye functionized sol-gel material
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Xianjun
The main focus of this dissertation is development and characterization of all-optical controllable azo dye functionized sol gel material, demonstrating a PIC fabrication technique on glass substrate using such material, and exploration and feasibility demonstration of three PIC functional devices namely optical variable attenuator, optical switches, and optical tunable filters using the material. The realization of all the devices in this dissertation are based on one material: dye functionalized sol-gel material. A photochromic sol-gel material functionalized with azo dye was synthesized and characterized. It possesses a photochromic characteristic under the control of green laser beam illumination. The material characteristics suggest the possibility of a new promising material platform candidate for the fabrication of alloptical controlled photonic integrated circuits. As the first potential application of the dye functionalized sol-gel material, an alloptical variable attenuator was designed and demonstrated. The optical variable attenuation is achieved in Mach-Zehnder interferometric configuration through all-optical modulation of sol-gel waveguide phase shifters. A 2 x 2 optical switch based on multimode interference (MMI) waveguide structure is proposed in the dissertation. The schematic configuration of the optical switch consists of a cascade of two identical MMIs with two all-optical controlled phase shifters realized by using the photochromic sol-gel material. The cross or bar switch state of the optical switch is determined by the phase difference between the two sol-gel waveguide phase shifters. An all-optical tunable filter is designed and its feasibility demonstrated by using the sol-gel photochromic material. Except for the phase change demonstrated on sol-gel waveguide phase shifters, dynamic gratings were observed on sol-gel film when exposed to two interference beams. This reveals the possibility of realizing Bragg grating-based tunable filters
Jang, Ju-Seog; Oh, Yong-Seok; Javidi, Bahram
2004-02-23
We present a projection method in integral imaging for large-scale high-resolution three-dimensional display. In the proposed method, the entire set of high resolution elemental images with a large number of pixels is spatially divided into smaller image subsets. Then they are projected separately onto the corresponding lenslet array positions either simultaneously or in a sequence faster than the flicker fusion frequency of human eyes or both (i.e., spatiotemporal multiplexing). Thus display panels that do not have enough pixel numbers can be used to display the entire elemental images with a large number of pixels. Preliminary experiments were performed using a galvanometer-based optical scanner. PMID:19474856
Flat-panel see-through three-dimensional display based on integral imaging.
Takaki, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Yuta
2015-04-15
This study proposes a technique to construct a flat-panel see-through three-dimensional (3D) display based on integral imaging. This display consists of multiple lens arrays, a transparent flat-panel display, and a light-blocking wall (LBW). Rays behind the display are reconstructed in front of it by combination of the lens arrays and the LBW to provide the see-through function. The combination of one of the lens arrays and the transparent flat-panel display produces full-parallax 3D images, which are superimposed on background images. The experimental system is constructed to verify the proposed technique. The see-through and superposition capabilities of the experimental system are demonstrated. PMID:25872096
Vertically integrated, three-dimensional nanowire complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits.
Nam, SungWoo; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Qihua; Ham, Donhee; Lieber, Charles M
2009-12-15
Three-dimensional (3D), multi-transistor-layer, integrated circuits represent an important technological pursuit promising advantages in integration density, operation speed, and power consumption compared with 2D circuits. We report fully functional, 3D integrated complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits based on separate interconnected layers of high-mobility n-type indium arsenide (n-InAs) and p-type germanium/silicon core/shell (p-Ge/Si) nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). The DC voltage output (V(out)) versus input (V(in)) response of vertically interconnected CMOS inverters showed sharp switching at close to the ideal value of one-half the supply voltage and, moreover, exhibited substantial DC gain of approximately 45. The gain and the rail-to-rail output switching are consistent with the large noise margin and minimal static power consumption of CMOS. Vertically interconnected, three-stage CMOS ring oscillators were also fabricated by using layer-1 InAs NW n-FETs and layer-2 Ge/Si NW p-FETs. Significantly, measurements of these circuits demonstrated stable, self-sustained oscillations with a maximum frequency of 108 MHz, which represents the highest-frequency integrated circuit based on chemically synthesized nanoscale materials. These results highlight the flexibility of bottom-up assembly of distinct nanoscale materials and suggest substantial promise for 3D integrated circuits. PMID:19940239
Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited].
Xiao, Xiao; Javidi, Bahram; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Stern, Adrian
2013-02-01
Three-dimensional (3D) sensing and imaging technologies have been extensively researched for many applications in the fields of entertainment, medicine, robotics, manufacturing, industrial inspection, security, surveillance, and defense due to their diverse and significant benefits. Integral imaging is a passive multiperspective imaging technique, which records multiple two-dimensional images of a scene from different perspectives. Unlike holography, it can capture a scene such as outdoor events with incoherent or ambient light. Integral imaging can display a true 3D color image with full parallax and continuous viewing angles by incoherent light; thus it does not suffer from speckle degradation. Because of its unique properties, integral imaging has been revived over the past decade or so as a promising approach for massive 3D commercialization. A series of key articles on this topic have appeared in the OSA journals, including Applied Optics. Thus, it is fitting that this Commemorative Review presents an overview of literature on physical principles and applications of integral imaging. Several data capture configurations, reconstruction, and display methods are overviewed. In addition, applications including 3D underwater imaging, 3D imaging in photon-starved environments, 3D tracking of occluded objects, 3D optical microscopy, and 3D polarimetric imaging are reviewed. PMID:23385893
Integrable Boundary for Quad-Graph Systems: Three-Dimensional Boundary Consistency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caudrelier, Vincent; Crampé, Nicolas; Zhang, Qi Cheng
2014-02-01
We propose the notion of integrable boundary in the context of discrete integrable systems on quad-graphs. The equation characterizing the boundary must satisfy a compatibility equation with the one characterizing the bulk that we called the three-dimensional (3D) boundary consistency. In comparison to the usual 3D consistency condition which is linked to a cube, our 3D boundary consistency condition lives on a half of a rhombic dodecahedron. The We provide a list of integrable boundaries associated to each quad-graph equation of the classification obtained by Adler, Bobenko and Suris. Then, the use of the term ''integrable boundary'' is justified by the facts that there are Bäcklund transformations and a zero curvature representation for systems with boundary satisfying our condition. We discuss the three-leg form of boundary equations, obtain associated discrete Toda-type models with boundary and recover previous results as particular cases. Finally, the connection between the 3D boundary consistency and the set-theoretical reflection equation is established.
Yu, Xin; Arbabi, Ehsan; Goddard, Lynford L.; Li, Xiuling; Chen, Xiaogang
2015-07-20
We demonstrate a self-rolled-up microtube-based vertical photonic coupler monolithically integrated on top of a ridge waveguide to achieve three-dimensional (3D) photonic integration. The fabrication process is fully compatible with standard planar silicon processing technology. Strong light coupling between the vertical coupler and the ridge waveguide was observed experimentally, which may provide an alternative route for 3D heterogeneous photonic integration. The highest extinction ratio observed in the transmission spectrum passing through the ridge waveguide was 23 dB.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong
2016-02-01
An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry.An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s-1 for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a
Guldner, Ian H; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V; Zellmer, Victoria R; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z; Zhang, Siyuan
2016-01-01
Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ. PMID:27068335
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan
2016-04-01
Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ.
Guldner, Ian H.; Yang, Lin; Cowdrick, Kyle R.; Wang, Qingfei; Alvarez Barrios, Wendy V.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Zhang, Yizhe; Host, Misha; Liu, Fang; Chen, Danny Z.; Zhang, Siyuan
2016-01-01
Metastatic microenvironments are spatially and compositionally heterogeneous. This seemingly stochastic heterogeneity provides researchers great challenges in elucidating factors that determine metastatic outgrowth. Herein, we develop and implement an integrative platform that will enable researchers to obtain novel insights from intricate metastatic landscapes. Our two-segment platform begins with whole tissue clearing, staining, and imaging to globally delineate metastatic landscape heterogeneity with spatial and molecular resolution. The second segment of our platform applies our custom-developed SMART 3D (Spatial filtering-based background removal and Multi-chAnnel forest classifiers-based 3D ReconsTruction), a multi-faceted image analysis pipeline, permitting quantitative interrogation of functional implications of heterogeneous metastatic landscape constituents, from subcellular features to multicellular structures, within our large three-dimensional (3D) image datasets. Coupling whole tissue imaging of brain metastasis animal models with SMART 3D, we demonstrate the capability of our integrative pipeline to reveal and quantify volumetric and spatial aspects of brain metastasis landscapes, including diverse tumor morphology, heterogeneous proliferative indices, metastasis-associated astrogliosis, and vasculature spatial distribution. Collectively, our study demonstrates the utility of our novel integrative platform to reveal and quantify the global spatial and volumetric characteristics of the 3D metastatic landscape with unparalleled accuracy, opening new opportunities for unbiased investigation of novel biological phenomena in situ. PMID:27068335
A facile method for integrating direct-write devices into three-dimensional printed parts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yung-Hang; Wang, Kan; Wu, Changsheng; Chen, Yiwen; Zhang, Chuck; Wang, Ben
2015-06-01
Integrating direct-write (DW) devices into three-dimensional (3D) printed parts is key to continuing innovation in engineering applications such as smart material systems and structural health monitoring. However, this integration is challenging because: (1) most 3D printing techniques leave rough or porous surfaces if they are untreated; (2) the thermal sintering process required for most conductive inks could degrade the polymeric materials of 3D printed parts; and (3) the extensive pause needed for the DW process during layer-by-layer fabrication may cause weaker interlayer bonding and create structural weak points. These challenges are rather common during the insertion of conductive patterns inside 3D printed structures. As an avoidance tactic, we developed a simple ‘print-stick-peel’ method to transfer the DW device from the polytetrafluoroethylene or perfluoroalkoxy alkanes film onto any layer of a 3D printed object. This transfer can be achieved using the self-adhesion of 3D printing materials or applying additional adhesive. We demonstrated this method by transferring Aerosol Jet® printed strain sensors into parts fabricated by PolyJet™ printing. This report provides an investigation and discussion on the sensitivity, reliability, and influence embedding the sensor has on mechanical properties.
Liu, Jinmei; Cui, Nuanyang; Gu, Long; Chen, Xiaobo; Bai, Suo; Zheng, Youbin; Hu, Caixia; Qin, Yong
2016-03-01
An integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (ITNG) with a three-dimensional structure benefiting sound propagation and adsorption is demonstrated to more effectively harvest sound energy with improved output performance. With different multifunctional integrated layers working harmonically, it could generate a short-circuit current up to 2.1 mA, an open-circuit voltage up to 232 V and the maximum charging rate can reach 453 μC s(-1) for a 1 mF capacitor, which are 4.6 times, 2.6 times and 7.4 times the highest reported values, respectively. Further study shows that the ITNG works well under sound in a wide range of sound intensity levels (SILs) and frequencies, and its output is sensitive to the SIL and frequency of the sound, which reveals that the ITNG can act as a self-powered active sensor for real-time noise surveillance and health care. Moreover, this generator can be used to directly power the Fe(OH)3 sol electrophoresis and shows great potential as a wireless power supply in the electrochemical industry. PMID:26883097
Suenaga, Hideyuki; Hoang Tran, Huy; Liao, Hongen; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi
2013-01-01
To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a three-dimensional augmented reality system incorporating integral videography for imaging oral and maxillofacial regions, based on preoperative computed tomography data. Three-dimensional surface models of the jawbones, based on the computed tomography data, were used to create the integral videography images of a subject's maxillofacial area. The three-dimensional augmented reality system (integral videography display, computed tomography, a position tracker and a computer) was used to generate a three-dimensional overlay that was projected on the surgical site via a half-silvered mirror. Thereafter, a feasibility study was performed on a volunteer. The accuracy of this system was verified on a solid model while simulating bone resection. Positional registration was attained by identifying and tracking the patient/surgical instrument's position. Thus, integral videography images of jawbones, teeth and the surgical tool were superimposed in the correct position. Stereoscopic images viewed from various angles were accurately displayed. Change in the viewing angle did not negatively affect the surgeon's ability to simultaneously observe the three-dimensional images and the patient, without special glasses. The difference in three-dimensional position of each measuring point on the solid model and augmented reality navigation was almost negligible (<1 mm); this indicates that the system was highly accurate. This augmented reality system was highly accurate and effective for surgical navigation and for overlaying a three-dimensional computed tomography image on a patient's surgical area, enabling the surgeon to understand the positional relationship between the preoperative image and the actual surgical site, with the naked eye. PMID:23703710
White, J.; Phillips, J.R.; Korsmeyer, T.
1994-12-31
Mixed first- and second-kind surface integral equations with (1/r) and {partial_derivative}/{partial_derivative} (1/r) kernels are generated by a variety of three-dimensional engineering problems. For such problems, Nystroem type algorithms can not be used directly, but an expansion for the unknown, rather than for the entire integrand, can be assumed and the product of the singular kernal and the unknown integrated analytically. Combining such an approach with a Galerkin or collocation scheme for computing the expansion coefficients is a general approach, but generates dense matrix problems. Recently developed fast algorithms for solving these dense matrix problems have been based on multipole-accelerated iterative methods, in which the fast multipole algorithm is used to rapidly compute the matrix-vector products in a Krylov-subspace based iterative method. Another approach to rapidly computing the dense matrix-vector products associated with discretized integral equations follows more along the lines of a multigrid algorithm, and involves projecting the surface unknowns onto a regular grid, then computing using the grid, and finally interpolating the results from the regular grid back to the surfaces. Here, the authors describe a precorrectted-FFT approach which can replace the fast multipole algorithm for accelerating the dense matrix-vector product associated with discretized potential integral equations. The precorrected-FFT method, described below, is an order n log(n) algorithm, and is asymptotically slower than the order n fast multipole algorithm. However, initial experimental results indicate the method may have a significant constant factor advantage for a variety of engineering problems.
Mechanisms of Methylene Blue Degradation in Three-dimensionally Integrated Micro-solution Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Ayano; Hayashi, Yui; Tanaka, Kenji; Shirafuji, Tatsuru; Goto, Motonobu
2015-09-01
Plasma in aqueous solution has attracted much attention because they are expected to have possibilities to solve water-related environmental issues. In such application-oriented researches, degradation of methylene blue (MB) or other organic dyes has been widely used for investigating the effects of the plasma treatment on the water with organic contaminants. However, there are few reports on the detailed analysis of the products after the plasma treatment of MB aqueous solution for understanding mechanisms of the degradation processes. We have hence analyzed our degradation products using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. We have performed the MB degradation in three-dimensionally integrated micro-solution plasma, which has shown 16-fold higher performance in MB degradation than conventional solution plasma. The results of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry have indicated the formation of sulfoxides in the first stage of the degradation. Then, the methyl groups on the sulfoxides are partially oxidized. The sulfoxides are separated to form two benzene derivatives after that. Finally, weak functional groups are removed from the benzene derivatives.
Formation of three-dimensionally integrated nanocrystalline silicon particles by dip-coating method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Shotaro; Nakamine, Yoshifumi; Zheng, Ran; Kouge, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Usami, Koichi; Kodera, Tetsuo; Kawano, Yukio; Oda, Shunri
2015-10-01
Printable technologies using silicon nanoink, in which nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) quantum dots are dispersed in solvents, are promising for novel electron and photonic device applications. The dip-coating method is applied for the first time to fabricate three-dimensionally integrated structures of nc-Si quantum dots with a uniform size of 10 nm prepared by the very high frequency plasma decomposition of silane gas. We have clarified the major problem of the dip-coating method, which is the formation of stripe structures. To circumvent this problem, we have proposed two methods: coating onto line-and-space-patterned substrates and utilization of electrophoresis force. We have successfully demonstrated the control of the position and number of layers of nc-Si by using a line-and-space-patterned substrate, however, with a limited shape. We have clarified the conditions of the formation of stripe-free regions by varying applied voltage and nc-Si concentration in the electrophoresis method.
Encrypting three-dimensional information system based on integral imaging and multiple chaotic maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Yan; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Xiong, Zhao-Long; Deng, Huan
2016-02-01
An encrypting three-dimensional (3-D) information system based on integral imaging (II) and multiple chaotic maps is proposed. In the encrypting process, the elemental image array (EIA) which represents spatial and angular information of the real 3-D scene is picked up by a microlens array. Subsequently, R, G, and B color components decomposed by the EIA are encrypted using multiple chaotic maps. Finally, these three encrypted components are interwoven to obtain the cipher information. The decryption process implements the reverse operation of the encryption process for retrieving the high-quality 3-D images. Since the encrypted EIA has the data redundancy property due to II, and all parameters of the pickup part are the secret keys of the encrypting system, the system sensitivity on the changes of the plaintext and secret keys can be significantly improved. Moreover, the algorithm based on multiple chaotic maps can effectively enhance the security. A preliminary experiment is carried out, and the experimental results verify the effectiveness, robustness, and security of the proposed system.
Calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotor blades using integral methods
Karimipanah, M.T.; Olsson, E. )
1993-04-01
The important effects of rotation and compressibility on rotor blade boundary layers are theoretically investigated. The calculations are based on the momentum integral method and results from calculations of a transonic compressor rotor are presented. Influence of rotation is shown by comparing the incompressible rotating flow with the stationary one. Influence of compressibility is shown by comparing the compressible rotating flow with the incompressible rotating one. Two computer codes for three-dimensional laminar and turbulent boundary layers, originally developed by SSPA Maritime Consulting AB, have been further developed by introducing rotation and compressibility terms into the boundary layer equations. The effect of rotation and compressibility on the transition have been studied. The Coriolis and centrifugal forces that contribute to the development of the boundary layers and influence its behavior generate crosswise flow inside the blade boundary layers, the magnitude of which depends upon the angular velocity of the rotor and the rotor geometry. The calculations show the influence of rotation and compressibility on the boundary layer parameters. Momentum thickness and shape factor increase with increasing rotation and decrease when compressible flow is taken into account. For skin friction such effects have inverse influences. The different boundary layer parameters behave similarly on the suction and pressure sides with the exception of the crossflow angle, the crosswise momentum thickness, and the skin friction factor. The codes use a nearly orthogonal streamline coordinate system, which is fixed to the blade surface and rotates with the blade.
Faghih Shojaei, M; Mohammadi, V; Rajabi, H; Darvizeh, A
2012-12-01
In this paper, a new numerical technique is presented to accurately model the geometrical and mechanical features of mollusk shells as a three dimensional (3D) integrated volume. For this purpose, the Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear equations of shell surfaces. The points of intersection on the shell surface are identified and the extra interior parts are removed. Meshing process is accomplished with respect to the coordinate of each point of intersection. The final 3D generated mesh models perfectly describe the spatial configuration of the mollusk shells. Moreover, the computational model perfectly matches with the actual interior geometry of the shells as well as their exterior architecture. The direct generation technique is employed to generate a 3D finite element (FE) model in ANSYS 11. X-ray images are taken to show the close similarity of the interior geometry of the models and the actual samples. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to provide information on the microstructure of the shells. In addition, a set of compression tests were performed on gastropod shell specimens to obtain their ultimate compressive strength. A close agreement between experimental data and the relevant numerical results is demonstrated. PMID:23137621
Gatimu, E. N.; King, T. L.; Sweedler, J. V.; Bohn, P. W.
2007-01-01
The extension of microfluidic devices to three dimensions requires innovative methods to interface fluidic layers. Externally controllable interconnects employing nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) have been exploited to produce hybrid three-dimensional fluidic architectures capable of performing linked sequential chemical manipulations of great power and utility. Because the solution Debye length, κ−1, is of the order of the channel diameter, a, in the nanopores, fluidic transfer is controlled through applied bias, polarity and density of the immobile nanopore surface charge, solution ionic strength and the impedance of the nanopore relative to the microfluidic channels. Analyte transport between vertically separated microchannels can be saturated at two stable transfer levels, corresponding to reverse and forward bias. These NCAM-mediated integrated microfluidic architectures have been used to achieve highly reproducible and tunable injections down to attoliter volumes, sample stacking for preconcentration, preparative analyte band collection from an electrophoretic separation, and an actively-tunable size-dependent transport in hybrid structures with grafted polymers displaying thermally-regulated swelling behavior. The synthetic elaboration of the nanopore interior has also been used to great effect to realize molecular separations of high efficiency. All of these manipulations depend critically on the transport properties of individual nanocapillaries, and the study of transport in single nanopores has recently attracted significant attention. Both computation and experimental studies have utilized single nanopores as test beds to understand the fundamental chemical and physical properties of chemistry and fluid flow at nanometer length scales. PMID:19693375
Analysis and optimization of TSV-TSV coupling in three-dimensional integrated circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yingbo, Zhao; Gang, Dong; Yintang, Yang
2015-04-01
Through silicon via (TSV)-TSV coupling is detrimental to the performance of three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs) with the major negative effect of introducing coupling noise. In order to obtain an accurate estimation of the coupling level from TSV-TSV in the early design stage, this paper first proposes an impedance-level model of the coupling channel between TSVs based on a two-port network, and then derives the formula of the coupling coefficient to describe the TSV-TSV coupling effect. The accuracy of the formula is validated by comparing the results with 3D full-wave simulations. Furthermore, a design technique for optimizing the coupling between adjacent coupled signal TSVs is proposed. Through SPICE simulations, the proposed technique shows its feasibility to reduce the coupling noise for both a simple TSV-TSV circuit and a complicated circuit with more TSVs, and demonstrates its potential for designers in achieving the goal of improving the electrical performance of 3D ICs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334003).
Laan, Hans Paul van der
2007-07-15
Purpose: To compare the target coverage and normal tissue dose with the simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) and the sequential boost technique in breast cancer, and to evaluate the incidence of acute skin toxicity in patients treated with the SIB technique. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with early-stage left-sided breast cancer underwent breast-conserving radiotherapy using the SIB technique. The breast and boost planning target volumes (PTVs) were treated simultaneously (i.e., for each fraction, the breast and boost PTVs received 1.81 Gy and 2.3 Gy, respectively). Three-dimensional conformal beams with wedges were shaped and weighted using forward planning. Dose-volume histograms of the PTVs and organs at risk with the SIB technique, 28 x (1.81 + 0.49 Gy), were compared with those for the sequential boost technique, 25 x 2 Gy + 8 x 2 Gy. Acute skin toxicity was evaluated for 90 patients treated with the SIB technique according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0. Results: PTV coverage was adequate with both techniques. With SIB, more efficiently shaped boost beams resulted in smaller irradiated volumes. The mean volume receiving {>=}107% of the breast dose was reduced by 20%, the mean volume outside the boost PTV receiving {>=}95% of the boost dose was reduced by 54%, and the mean heart and lung dose were reduced by 10%. Of the evaluated patients, 32.2% had Grade 2 or worse toxicity. Conclusion: The SIB technique is proposed for standard use in breast-conserving radiotherapy because of its dose-limiting capabilities, easy implementation, reduced number of treatment fractions, and relatively low incidence of acute skin toxicity.
Barry, R.E.; Gallman, P.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.
1999-04-25
The largest problem facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the cleanup of the Cold War legacy nuclear production plants that were built and operated from the mid-forties through the late eighties. EM is now responsible for the remediation of no less than 353 projects at 53 sites across the country at, an estimated cost of $147 billion over the next 72 years. One of the keys to accomplishing a thorough cleanup of any site is a rigorous but quick contaminant characterization capability. If the contaminants present in a facility can be mapped accurately, the cleanup can proceed with surgical precision, using appropriate techniques for each contaminant type and location. The three dimensional, integrated characterization and archival system (3D-ICAS) was developed for the purpose of rapid, field level identification, mapping, and archiving of contaminant data. The system consists of three subsystems, an integrated work and operating station, a 3-D coherent laser radar, and a contaminant analysis unit. Target contaminants that can be identified include chemical (currently organic only), radiological, and base materials (asbestos). In operation, two steps are required. First, the remotely operable 3-D laser radar maps an area of interest in the spatial domain. Second, the remotely operable contaminant analysis unit maps the area of interest in the chemical, radiological, and base material domains. The resultant information is formatted for display and archived using an integrated workstation. A 3-D model of the merged spatial and contaminant domains cart be displayed along with a color-coded contaminant tag at each analysis point. In addition, all of the supporting detailed data are archived for subsequent QC checks. The 3D-ICAS system is capable of performing all contaminant characterization in a dwell time of 6 seconds. The radiological and chemical sensors operate at US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory levels. Base
Conti, Alfredo; Pontoriero, Antonio; Farago, Giuseppe; Midili, Federica; Siragusa, Carmelo; Granata, Francesca; Pitrone, Antonio; De Renzis, Costantino; Longo, Marcello; Tomasello, Francesco
2011-11-01
Purpose: Accuracy in delineating the target volume is a major issue for successful stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. The aim of the present study was to describe a method to integrate three-dimensional (3D) rotational angiography ( (3DRA)) into CyberKnife treatment planning and to investigate its potential advantages compared with computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Methods and Materials: A total of 20 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformation were included in the present study. All patients underwent multislice computed tomography and 3D-volumetric CTA, (3DRA), and 3D magnetic resonance angiography. The contouring of the target and critical volumes was done separately using CTA and thereafter directly using (3DRA). The composite, conjoint, and disjoint volumes were measured. Results: The use of CTA or (3DRA) resulted in significant differences in the target and critical volumes. The target volume averaged 3.49 {+-} 3.01 mL measured using CTA and 3.26 {+-} 2.93 mL measured using (3DRA), for a difference of 8% (p < .05). The conjoint and disjoint volume analysis showed an 88% volume overlap. The qualitative evaluation showed that the excess volume obtained using CTA was mostly tissue surrounding the nidus and venous structures. The mean contoured venous volume was 0.67 mL measured using CTA and 0.88 mL (range, 0.1-2.7) measured using (3DRA) (p < .05). Conclusions: (3DRA) is a volumetric angiographic study that can be integrated into computer-based treatment planning. Although whether (3DRA) provides superior accuracy has not yet been proved, its high spatial resolution is attractive and offers a superior 3D view. This allows a better 3D understanding of the target volume and distribution of the radiation doses within the volume. Additional technical efforts to improve the temporal resolution and the development of software tools aimed at improving the performance of 3D contouring
Multigroup Three-Dimensional Direct Integration Method Radiation Transport Analysis Code System.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1987-09-18
Version 00 TRISTAN solves the three-dimensional, fixed-source, Boltzmann transport equation for neutrons or gamma rays in rectangular geometry. The code can solve an adjoint problem as well as a usual transport problem. TRISTAN is a suitable tool to analyze radiation shielding problems such as streaming and deep penetration problems.
THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)
George Jarvis
2001-06-18
The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two
Integration of photonic nanojets and semiconductor nanoparticles for enhanced all-optical switching
Born, Brandon; Krupa, Jeffrey D. A.; Geoffroy-Gagnon, Simon; Holzman, Jonathan F.
2015-01-01
All-optical switching is the foundation of emerging all-optical (terabit-per-second) networks and processors. All-optical switching has attracted considerable attention, but it must ultimately support operation with femtojoule switching energies and femtosecond switching times to be effective. Here we introduce an all-optical switch architecture in the form of a dielectric sphere that focuses a high-intensity photonic nanojet into a peripheral coating of semiconductor nanoparticles. Milli-scale spheres coated with Si and SiC nanoparticles yield switching energies of 200 and 100 fJ with switching times of 10 ps and 350 fs, respectively. Micro-scale spheres coated with Si and SiC nanoparticles yield switching energies of 1 pJ and 20 fJ with switching times of 2 ps and 270 fs, respectively. We show that femtojoule switching energies are enabled by localized photoinjection from the photonic nanojets and that femtosecond switching times are enabled by localized recombination within the semiconductor nanoparticles. PMID:26314911
Extreme ultraviolet lithography and three dimensional integrated circuit—A review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Banqiu; Kumar, Ajay
2014-03-01
Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) and three dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) were thoroughly reviewed. Since proposed in 1988, EUVL obtained intensive studies globally and, after 2000, became the most promising next generation lithography method even though challenges were present in almost all aspects of EUVL technology. Commercial step-and-scan tools for preproduction are installed now with full field capability; however, EUV source power at intermediate focus (IF) has not yet met volume manufacturing requirements. Compared with the target of 200 W in-band power at IF, current tools can supply only approximately 40-55 W. EUVL resist has improved significantly in the last few years, with 13 nm line/space half-pitch resolution being produced with approximately 3-4 nm line width roughness (LWR), but LWR needs 2× improvement. Creating a defect-free EUVL mask is currently an obstacle. Actual adoption of EUVL for 22 nm and beyond technology nodes will depend on the extension of current optical lithography (193 nm immersion lithography, combined with multiple patterning techniques), as well as other methods such as 3D IC. Lithography has been the enabler for IC performance improvement by increasing device density, clock rate, and transistor rate. However, after the turn of the century, IC scaling resulted in short-channel effect, which decreases power efficiency dramatically, so clock frequency almost stopped increasing. Although further IC scaling by lithography reduces gate delay, interconnect delay and memory wall are dominant in determining the IC performance. 3D IC technology is a critical technology today because it offers a reasonable route to further improve IC performance. It increases device density, reduces the interconnect delay, and breaks memory wall with the application of 3D stacking using through silicon via. 3D IC also makes one chip package have more functional diversification than those enhanced only by shrinking the size of the features
Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Shin-Tson; Zhao, Youyuan
2004-03-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigated the optical switching characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at lambda=633 nm using the pump-probe method. A diode-pumped second harmonic YAG laser (lambda=532 nm which is located around the maximum initial Br state absorption) was used as a pumping beam and a cw He-Ne laser (lambda=633 nm which is around the peaks of K and O states) was used as a probe. Due to the nonlinear intensity induced excited state absorption of the K, L, M, N, and O states in the bR photocycle, the switching characteristics are sensitive to the intensity of the probe and pump beams. Based on this property, we have demonstrated an all-optical device functioning as 11 kinds of variable binary all-optical logic gates. PMID:19474900
All-optical switching characteristics in bacteriorhodopsin and its applications in integrated optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yuhua; Wu, Shin-Tson; Zhao, Youyuan
2004-03-01
We experimentally and theoretically investigated the optical switching characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) at l=633 nm using the pump-probe method. A diode-pumped second harmonic YAG laser (l=532 nm which is located around the maximum initial Br state absorption) was used as a pumping beam and a cw He-Ne laser (l=633 nm which is around the peaks of K and O states) was used as a probe. Due to the nonlinear intensity induced excited state absorption of the K, L, M, N, and O states in the bR photocycle, the switching characteristics are sensitive to the intensity of the probe and pump beams. Based on this property, we have demonstrated an all-optical device functioning as 11 kinds of variable binary all-optical logic gates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jin, Jian-Ming; Volakis, John L.; Collins, Jeffery D.
1991-01-01
A review of a hybrid finite element-boundary integral formulation for scattering and radiation by two- and three-dimensional composite structures is presented. In contrast to other hybrid techniques involving the finite element method, the proposed one is in principle exact and can be implemented using a low O(N) storage. This is of particular importance for large scale applications and is a characteristic of the boundary chosen to terminate the finite element mesh, usually as close to the structure as possible. A certain class of these boundaries lead to convolutional boundary integrals which can be evaluated via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) without a need to generate a matrix; thus, retaining the O(N) storage requirement. The paper begins with a general description of the method. A number of two- and three-dimensional applications are then given, including numerical computations which demonstrate the method's accuracy, efficiency, and capability.
Real-time three-dimensional pickup and display system based on integral photography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okano, Fumio; Arai, Jun; Hoshino, Haruo; Yuyama, Ichiro
1998-12-01
A real-time three-dimensional (3-D) pickup and display setup called a Real-time IP system is proposed. In this system, erected real images of an object are formed by a GRIN lens array as element images, and are directly shot by a television camera. The video signal of a group of element images is transmitted to display device that combines a liquid crystal panel display and a convex micro-lens array, producing a color 3-D image in real-time. Full-color and autostereoscopic 3-D images with full-parallax can be observed. We confirmed the possibility of the 3-D television system.
Development Of A Three-Dimensional Circuit Integration Technology And Computer Architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Etchells, R. D.; Grinberg, J.; Nudd, G. R.
1981-12-01
This paper is the first of a series 1,2,3 describing a range of efforts at Hughes Research Laboratories, which are collectively referred to as "Three-Dimensional Microelectronics." The technology being developed is a combination of a unique circuit fabrication/packaging technology and a novel processing architecture. The packaging technology greatly reduces the parasitic impedances associated with signal-routing in complex VLSI structures, while simultaneously allowing circuit densities orders of magnitude higher than the current state-of-the-art. When combined with the 3-D processor architecture, the resulting machine exhibits a one- to two-order of magnitude simultaneous improvement over current state-of-the-art machines in the three areas of processing speed, power consumption, and physical volume. The 3-D architecture is essentially that commonly referred to as a "cellular array", with the ultimate implementation having as many as 512 x 512 processors working in parallel. The three-dimensional nature of the assembled machine arises from the fact that the chips containing the active circuitry of the processor are stacked on top of each other. In this structure, electrical signals are passed vertically through the chips via thermomigrated aluminum feedthroughs. Signals are passed between adjacent chips by micro-interconnects. This discussion presents a broad view of the total effort, as well as a more detailed treatment of the fabrication and packaging technologies themselves. The results of performance simulations of the completed 3-D processor executing a variety of algorithms are also presented. Of particular pertinence to the interests of the focal-plane array community is the simulation of the UNICORNS nonuniformity correction algorithms as executed by the 3-D architecture.
Yao, J; Obara, H; Sapkota, A; Takei, M
2016-03-01
An optical transparent 3-D Integrated Microchannel-Electrode System (3-DIMES) has been developed to understand the particles' movement with electrokinetics in the microchannel. In this system, 40 multilayered electrodes are embedded at the 2 opposite sides along the 5 square cross-sections of the microchannel by using Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems technology in order to achieve the optical transparency at the other 2 opposite sides. The concept of the 3-DIMES is that the particles are driven by electrokinetic forces which are dielectrophoretic force, thermal buoyancy, electrothermal force, and electroosmotic force in a three-dimensional scope by selecting the excitation multilayered electrodes. As a first step to understand the particles' movement driven by electrokinetic forces in high conductive fluid (phosphate buffer saline (PBS)) with the 3-DIMES, the velocities of particles' movement with one pair of the electrodes are measured three dimensionally by Particle Image Velocimetry technique in PBS; meanwhile, low conductive fluid (deionized water) is used as a reference. Then, the particles' movement driven by the electrokinetic forces is discussed theoretically to estimate dominant forces exerting on the particles. Finally, from the theoretical estimation, the particles' movement mainly results from the dominant forces which are thermal buoyancy and electrothermal force, while the velocity vortex formed at the 2 edges of the electrodes is because of the electroosmotic force. The conclusions suggest that the 3-DIMES with PBS as high conductive fluid helps to understand the three-dimensional advantageous flow structures for cell manipulation in biomedical applications. PMID:27042247
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yue; Leng, Lufeng; Su, Yikai
2008-11-01
All-optical virtual private network (VPN), which offers dedicated optical channels to connect users within a VPN group, is considered a promising approach to efficient internetworking with low latency and enhanced security implemented in the physical layer. On the other hand, time-division multiplexed (TDM) / wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) network architecture based on a feeder-ring with access-tree topology, is considered a pragmatic migration scenario from current TDM-PONs to future WDM-PONs and a potential convergence scheme for access and metropolitan networks, due to its efficiently shared hardware and bandwidth resources. All-optical VPN internetworking in such a metro-access integrated structure is expected to cover a wider service area and therefore is highly desirable. In this paper, we present a TDM/WDM metro-access integrated network supporting all-optical VPN internetworking among ONUs in different sub- PONs based on orthogonal differential-phase-shift keying (DPSK) / amplitude-shift keying (ASK) modulation format. In each ONU, no laser but a single Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) is needed for the upstream and VPN signal generation, which is cost-effective. Experiments and simulations are performed to verify its feasibility as a potential solution to the future access service.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-04-01
The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications.
Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-01-01
The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154
Wang, Feifan; Gong, Zibo; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang
2016-01-01
The nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checker is an essential core component for optical computing systems and ultrahigh-speed ultrawide-band information processing chips. Unfortunately, little experimental progress has been made in development of these devices to date because of material bottleneck limitations and a lack of effective realization mechanisms. Here, we report a simple and efficient strategy for direct realization of nanoscale chip-integrated all-optical logic parity checkers in integrated plasmonic circuits in the optical communication range. The proposed parity checker consists of two-level cascaded exclusive-OR (XOR) logic gates that are realized based on the linear interference of surface plasmon polaritons propagating in the plasmonic waveguides. The parity of the number of logic 1s in the incident four-bit logic signals is determined, and the output signal is given the logic state 0 for even parity (and 1 for odd parity). Compared with previous reports, the overall device feature size is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude, while ultralow energy consumption is maintained. This work raises the possibility of realization of large-scale integrated information processing chips based on integrated plasmonic circuits, and also provides a way to overcome the intrinsic limitations of serious surface plasmon polariton losses for on-chip integration applications. PMID:27073154
Wu Jianwei; Luo Fengguang; Yu Zhihua; Tao Qing
2009-03-31
An ultrafast all-optical switch based on the integrated Mach - Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with two arms consisting of identical silicon-on-insulator (SOI) optical waveguides is presented. The operability of the presented interferometer is simulated both for the continue wave (cw) and pulsed probe signals. It is shown that at the output port of the MZI, the switching window of the probe signal is strongly dependent on the energy and duration of the ultrafast control pulse and the SOI waveguide length. In addition, the initial delay time between both two optical waves will significantly affect the optical switching window when a pulsed probe signal wave is used. (integrated optics)
Three dimensional fabrication of optical waveguiding elements for on-chip integration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parsi Sreenivas, V. V.; Bülters, M.; Schröder, M.; Bergmann, R. B.
2014-05-01
We present micro polymer optical waveguide elements fabricated using femtosecond laser and two-photon absorption (TPA) process. The POWs are constructed by tightly focusing a laser beam in SU-8 based resists transparent to the laser wavelength for single-photon absorption. The TPA process enables the patterning of the resist in three dimensions at a resolution of 100-200 nm, which provides a high degree of freedom for POW designs. Using this technology, we provide a novel approach to fabricate Three dimensional Polymer Optical Waveguides (3D-POW) and coupling with single mode fibers in the visible wavelength regions. Our research is also focused on fabricating passive micro optical elements such as splitters, combiners and simple logical gates. For this reason we are aiming to achieve optimum coupling efficiency between the 3D-POW and fibers. The technology also facilitates 3D-POW fabrication independent of the substrate material. We present these fabrication techniques and designs, along with supporting numerical simulations and its transmission properties. With a length of 270 μm and polymer core diameter of 9 μm with air cladding, the waveguides possess a total loss of 12 dB. This value also includes the external in and out mode coupling and in continuously being improved upon by design optimization and simulations. We verify the overall feasibility of the design and coupling mechanisms that can be exploited to execute waveguide based optical functions such as filtering and logical operations.
Baker, Erin L; Lu, Jing; Yu, Dihua; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H
2010-10-01
While significant advances have been made toward revealing the molecular mechanisms that influence breast cancer progression, much less is known about the associated cellular mechanical properties. To this end, we use particle-tracking microrheology to investigate the interplay among intracellular mechanics, three-dimensional matrix stiffness, and transforming potential in a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) cancer progression series. We use a well-characterized model system where human-derived MCF10A MECs overexpress either ErbB2, 14-3-3ζ, or both ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ, with empty vector as a control. Our results show that MECs possessing ErbB2 transforming potential stiffen in response to elevated matrix stiffness, whereas non-transformed MECs or those overexpressing only 14-3-3ζ do no exhibit this response. We further observe that overexpression of ErbB2 alone is associated with the highest degree of intracellular sensitivity to matrix stiffness, and that the effect of transforming potential on intracellular stiffness is matrix-stiffness-dependent. Moreover, our intracellular stiffness measurements parallel cell migration behavior that has been previously reported for these MEC sublines. Given the current knowledge base of breast cancer mechanobiology, these findings suggest that there may be a positive relationship among intracellular stiffness sensitivity, cell motility, and perturbed mechanotransduction in breast cancer. PMID:20923638
In situ collagen assembly for integrating microfabricated three-dimensional cell-seeded matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillette, Brian M.; Jensen, Jacob A.; Tang, Beixian; Yang, Genevieve J.; Bazargan-Lari, Ardalan; Zhong, Ming; Sia, Samuel K.
2008-08-01
Microscale fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECMs) can be used to mimic the often inhomogeneous and anisotropic properties of native tissues and to construct in vitro cellular microenvironments. Cellular contraction of fibrous natural ECMs (such as fibrin and collagen I) can detach matrices from their surroundings and destroy intended geometry. Here, we demonstrate in situ collagen fibre assembly (the nucleation and growth of new collagen fibres from preformed collagen fibres at an interface) to anchor together multiple phases of cell-seeded 3D hydrogel-based matrices against cellular contractile forces. We apply this technique to stably interface multiple microfabricated 3D natural matrices (containing collagen I, Matrigel, fibrin or alginate); each phase can be seeded with cells and designed to permit cell spreading. With collagen-fibre-mediated interfacing, microfabricated 3D matrices maintain stable interfaces (the individual phases do not separate from each other) over long-term culture (at least 3weeks) and support spatially restricted development of multicellular structures within designed patterns. The technique enables construction of well-defined and stable patterns of a variety of 3D ECMs formed by diverse mechanisms (including temperature-, ion- and enzyme-mediated crosslinking), and presents a simple approach to interface multiple 3D matrices for biological studies and tissue engineering.
Efficient Integration of Synaptic Events by NMDA Receptors in Three-Dimensional Neuropil
Zheng, Kaiyu; Rusakov, Dmitri A.
2015-01-01
Sustained activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) plays an important role in controlling activity of neural circuits in the brain. However, whether this activation reflects the ambient level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in brain tissue or whether it depends mainly on local synaptic discharges remains poorly understood. To shed light on the underlying biophysics here we developed and explored a detailed Monte Carlo model of a realistic three-dimensional neuropil fragment containing 54 excitatory synapses. To trace individual molecules and their individual receptor interactions on this scale, we have designed and implemented a dedicated computer cluster and the appropriate software environment. Our simulations have suggested that sparse synaptic discharges are 20–30 times more efficient than nonsynaptic (stationary, leaky) supply of glutamate in controlling sustained NMDAR occupancy in the brain. This mechanism could explain how the brain circuits provide substantial background activation of NMDARs while maintaining a negligible ambient glutamate level in the extracellular space. Thus the background NMDAR occupancy, rather than the background glutamate level, is likely to reflect the ongoing activity in local excitatory networks. PMID:25992724
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Heejin; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Byoungho
2004-08-01
In spite of the many advantages of integral imaging, the depth of reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) image is limited to around the only one image plane. Here, we propose a novel method for increasing the depth of a reconstructed image using a stepped lens array (SLA) or a composite lens array (CLA). We confirm our idea by fabricating SLA and CLA with two image planes each. By using a SLA or a CLA, it is possible to form the 3D image around several image planes and to increase the depth of the reconstructed 3D image.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mager, Arthur
1952-01-01
The Navier-Stokes equations of motion and the equation of continuity are transformed so as to apply to an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system rotating with a uniform angular velocity about an arbitrary axis in space. A usual simplification of these equations as consistent with the accepted boundary-layer theory and an integration of these equations through the boundary layer result in boundary-layer momentum-integral equations for three-dimensional flows that are applicable to either rotating or nonrotating fluid boundaries. These equations are simplified and an approximate solution in closed integral form is obtained for a generalized boundary-layer momentum-loss thickness and flow deflection at the wall in the turbulent case. A numerical evaluation of this solution carried out for data obtained in a curving nonrotating duct shows a fair quantitative agreement with the measures values. The form in which the equations are presented is readily adaptable to cases of steady, three-dimensional, incompressible boundary-layer flow like that over curved ducts or yawed wings; and it also may be used to describe the boundary-layer flow over various rotating surfaces, thus applying to turbomachinery, propellers, and helicopter blades.
Integration of a three-dimensional process-based hydrological model into the Object Modeling System
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The integration of a spatial process model into an environmental modelling framework can enhance the model’s capabilities. We present the integration of the GEOtop model into the Object Modeling System (OMS) version 3.0 and illustrate its application in a small watershed. GEOtop is a physically base...
An equivalent domain integral method for three-dimensional mixed-mode fracture problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.
1992-01-01
A general formulation of the equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for mixed mode fracture problems in cracked solids is presented. The method is discussed in the context of a 3-D finite element analysis. The J integral consists of two parts: the volume integral of the crack front potential over a torus enclosing the crack front and the crack surface integral due to the crack front potential plus the crack face loading. In mixed mode crack problems the total J integral is split into J sub I, J sub II, and J sub III representing the severity of the crack front in three modes of deformations. The direct and decomposition methods are used to separate the modes. These two methods were applied to several mixed mode fracture problems, were analyzed, and results were found to agree well with those available in the literature. The method lends itself to be used as a post-processing subroutine in a general purpose finite element program.
An equivalent domain integral method for three-dimensional mixed-mode fracture problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.
1991-01-01
A general formulation of the equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for mixed mode fracture problems in cracked solids is presented. The method is discussed in the context of a 3-D finite element analysis. The J integral consists of two parts: the volume integral of the crack front potential over a torus enclosing the crack front and the crack surface integral due to the crack front potential plus the crack face loading. In mixed mode crack problems the total J integral is split into J sub I, J sub II, and J sub III representing the severity of the crack front in three modes of deformations. The direct and decomposition methods are used to separate the modes. These two methods were applied to several mixed mode fracture problems, were analyzed, and results were found to agree well with those available in the literature. The method lends itself to be used as a post-processing subroutine in a general purpose finite element program.
Egorov, Alexander A
2011-07-31
We consider theoretical, experimental and numerical methods which make it possible to analyse the key characteristics of laser radiation scattered in the integrated-optical waveguide with three-dimensional irregularities. The main aspects of the three-dimensional vector electrodynamic problem of waveguide scattering are studied. The waveguide light scattering method is presented and its main advantages over the methods of single scattering of laser radiation are discussed. The experimental setup and results of measurements are described. Theoretical and experimental results confirming the validity of the vector theory of three-dimensional waveguide scattering of laser radiation developed by the author are compared for the first time. (fiber and integrated optics)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Göppl, Martin; Kurpiers, Philipp; Wallraff, Andreas
We propose a novel way to realize three-dimensional circuit QED systems at chip level. System components such as qubits, transmission lines, capacitors, inductors or cross-overs can be implemented as suspended, electromagnetically shielded and optionally, as hermetically sealed structures. Compared to known state-of-the-art devices, volumes of dielectrics penetrated by electromagnetic fields can be drastically reduced. Our intention is to harness process technologies for very-large-scale-integration, reliably applied and improved over decades in micro-sensor- and semiconductor industry, for the realization of highly integrated circuit QED systems. Process capabilities are demonstrated by fabricating first exploratory devices using the back-end-of-line part of a commercial 180 nm CMOS foundry process in conjunction with HF vapor phase release etching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiao, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Zhou, Li-qiu; Zhao, Xing
2015-07-01
A new large-scale three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technology based on integral imaging with color-position characteristics is presented. The color of the object point is similar to those of corresponding points. The corresponding point coordinates form arithmetic progressions because integral imaging captures information with a senior array which has similar pitches on x and y directions. This regular relationship is used to determine the corresponding point parameters for reconstructing 3D information from divided elemental images separated by color, which contain several corresponding points. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated through an optical indoor experiment. A large-scale application of the proposed method is illustrated by the experiment with a corner of our school as its object.
Zhou, Minniu; Matoba, Osamu; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Takizawa, Yukako; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ueda, Hideaki; Mizuno, Akio; Kosaka, Nobuyuki
2010-07-01
We evaluate the imaging characteristics of an integrated optical imaging element that is used to obtain images from opposite directions in one imaging sensor for a three-dimensional eye-gaze detection system. The element consists of a transmission-type holographic imaging element, a reflection-type holographic imaging element, and a noise reduction filter. In the evaluation of the imaging characteristics, modulation transfer functions of both the reflection-type and the transmission-type holographic imaging elements are evaluated. Results indicate that both holographic imaging elements have enough resolution, even under white-light illumination conditions, for eye-gaze detection. We also demonstrate the simultaneous detection of images by an artificial eye and objects by using the integrated element under white light or sunlight. PMID:20648147
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jin, Jian-Ming; Volakis, John L.
1990-01-01
A numerical technique is proposed for the electromagnetic characterization of the scattering by a three-dimensional cavity-backed aperture in an infinite ground plane. The technique combines the finite element and boundary integral methods to formulate a system of equations for the solution of the aperture fields and those inside the cavity. Specifically, the finite element method is employed to formulate the fields in the cavity region and the boundary integral approach is used in conjunction with the equivalence principle to represent the fields above the ground plane. Unlike traditional approaches, the proposed technique does not require knowledge of the cavity's Green's function and is, therefore, applicable to arbitrary shape depressions and material fillings. Furthermore, the proposed formulation leads to a system having a partly full and partly sparse as well as symmetric and banded matrix which can be solved efficiently using special algorithms.
Three-dimensional analysis of chevron-notched specimens by boundary integral method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mendelson, A.; Ghosn, L.
1983-01-01
The chevron-notched short bar and short rod specimens was analyzed by the boundary integral equations method. This method makes use of boundary surface elements in obtaining the solution. The boundary integral models were composed of linear triangular and rectangular surface segments. Results were obtained for two specimens with width to thickness ratios of 1.45 and 2.00 and for different crack length to width ratios ranging from 0.4 to 0.7. Crack opening displacement and stress intensity factors determined from displacement calculations along the crack front and compliance calculations were compared with experimental values and with finite element analysis.
Three-dimensional planar-integrated optics: a comparative view with free-space optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, El-Hang; Song, Seok Ho
2000-04-01
This paper reports on the viability, effectiveness, versatility, and the utility of the concept of the planar integrated optical interconnection scheme with respect to the concept of the free-space interconnection scheme in realizing multiple integration of various micro/nano- photonic devices and components for applications in optical interconnection, optical circuits, optical switching, optical communication and information processing. Several planar optics schemes to detect parallel optical packet addresses in WDM switching networks, to perform a space- variant processing such as fractional correlation, and to construct multistage interconnection networks, have been successfully demonstrated in the 3D glass blocks. Using a gradient-index (GRIN) substrate as a signal propagation medium in the planar optics is a unique advantage, when compared to the free-space optics. We have demonstrated the GRIN-substrate concept by using six 1/4-pitch GRIN rod lenses and a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). The GRIN planar optics can be further extended to the use of 2D array of VCSEL microlasers and modulators in making massively parallel interconnects. A critical comparison between the planar integrated optics scheme and the free- space integrated scheme is given in terms of physics, engineering and technological concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, YuSheng; Xia, Jun; Yin, HanChun
2009-11-01
Integral imaging is a promising technique for both 3-D scene capturing and reconstruction. Recently, computational simulation has been used to generate the free view of reconstructed scenes without optical devices, which can easily overcome image quality degradation due to the physical limitations of optical devices. In the reconstruction process of integral imaging, current researches focus on the pinhole array model which regards lenslet array as pinhole array for simplicity. But in fact, the optical characteristics of the lenslet such as the focal length, the aperture size of the lenslet, and so on, have significant impact on the reconstructed 3-D scene. In this paper, we proposed a lenslet array model in computational integral imaging. The elemental images were picked up by using a well developed computer graphics programming library OpenGL. And then 3-D scene was reconstructed by an ideal diffraction-limited integral imaging model which taken into account of the effect of the focal length and the aperture size. We presented some simulations and evaluated the image quality by the peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Experimental results show that the proposed lenslet array model increase the depth of field.
Steady and unsteady three-dimensional transonic flow computations by integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Hong
1994-01-01
This is the final technical report of the research performed under the grant: NAG1-1170, from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The report consists of three parts. The first part presents the work on unsteady flows around a zero-thickness wing. The second part presents the work on steady flows around non-zero thickness wings. The third part presents the massively parallel processing implementation and performance analysis of integral equation computations. At the end of the report, publications resulting from this grant are listed and attached.
Electromagnetic modeling of three-dimensional bodies in layered earths using integral equations
Wannamaker, P.E.; Hohmann, G.W.
1982-01-01
An algorithm based on the method of integral equations has been developed to simulate the electromagnetic response of 3-D bodies in layered earths. The inhomogeneities are replaced mathematically by an equivalent current distribution which is approximated by pulse basis functions. A matrix equation is constructed using the electric dyadic Green's function appropriate to a layered earth and is solved for the vector current in each cell. Subsequently, scattered fields are found by integrating electric and magnetic dyadic Green's functions over the scattering currents. Efficient evaluation of the dyadic Green's functions is a major consideration in reducing computation time. It is found that tabulation/interpolation of the six electric and five magnetic Hankel transforms defining the secondary Green's functions is preferable to any direct Hankel transform calculation using linear filters. A comparison of responses over elongate 3-D bodies with responses over 2-D bodies of identical cross section using plane wave incident fields is the only check available on our solution. Agreement is excellent; however, the length that a 3-D body must have before departures between 2-D transverse electric and corresponding 3-D signatures are insignificant depends strongly on the layering. The 2-D transverse magnetic and corresponding 3-D calculations agree closely regardless of the layered host.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokubun, Yasuo
2003-04-01
We have proposed and demonstrated a vertically coupled microring resonator filter as an Add/Drop wavelength filter. The ultra-compact ring resonantor can be realized by the ultra-high index contrast waveguide (=34%) consisting of glass core (n=1.80) and air cladding and the vertically coupled configuration, where a microring resonator with a few tens micron radius is stacked on the crossing point of cross-grid bus waveguides. The cross-grid topology of busline waveguides and very small ring radius enables a dense integration of filter circuit. To achieve the 3D integration, we developed a novel fabrication process of flat-top waveguide using a so-called lift-off process and the SOG (Spin-On-Glass), and successfully obtained a very smooth and flat surface of lower waveguide with a step height less than 0.01μm. In addition, to manipulate the center wavelength after fabrication, we developed two trimming methods; one is the use of UV-sensitive polymer for the over-cladding, and the other is the direct UV irradiation to the ring ocre made of Ta2O5-SiO2 compound glass. Utilizing the former method, the channel spacing of filter array was precisely controlled within 0.5nm, which can not be achieved by the control of ring radius.
Three-dimensional integrated circuits for lab-on-chip dielectrophoresis of nanometer scale particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickerson, Samuel J.; Noyola, Arnaldo J.; Levitan, Steven P.; Chiarulli, Donald M.
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present a mixed-technology micro-system for electronically manipulating and optically detecting virusscale particles in fluids that is designed using 3D integrated circuit technology. During the 3D fabrication process, the top-most chip tier is assembled upside down and the substrate material is removed. This places the polysilicon layer, which is used to create geometries with the process' minimum feature size, in close proximity to a fluid channel etched into the top of the stack. By taking advantage of these processing features inherent to "3D chip-stacking" technology, we create electrode arrays that have a gap spacing of 270 nm. Using 3D CMOS technology also provides the ability to densely integrate analog and digital control circuitry for the electrodes by using the additional levels of the chip stack. We show simulations of the system with a physical model of a Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, which has a radius of approximately 125 nm, being dielectrophoretically arranged into striped patterns. We also discuss how these striped patterns of trapped nanometer scale particles create an effective diffraction grating which can then be sensed with macro-scale optical techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu
2015-06-01
In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter
2011-10-01
The present work deals with the development of an energy-momentum conserving method to unilateral contact constraints and is a direct continuation of a previous work (Hesch and Betsch in Comput Mech 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00466-011-0597-2) dealing with the NTS method. In this work, we introduce the mortar method and a newly developed segmentation process for the consistent integration of the contact interface. For the application of the energy-momentum approach to mortar constraints, we extend an approach based on a mixed formulation to the segment definition of the mortar constraints. The enhanced numerical stability of the newly proposed discretization method will be shown in several examples.
Three-Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS). Phase 1
1994-07-01
3D-ICAS is being developed to support Decontamination and Decommissioning operations for DOE addressing Research Area 6 (characterization) of the Program Research and Development Announcement. 3D-ICAS provides in-situ 3-dimensional characterization of contaminated DOE facilities. Its multisensor probe contains a GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using noncontact infrared heating) sensor for organics, a molecular vibrational sensor for base material identification, and a radionuclide sensor for radioactive contaminants. It will provide real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides on bare materials (concrete, asbestos, transite); it will provide 3-D display of the fusion of all measurements; and it will archive the measurements for regulatory documentation. It consists of two robotic mobile platforms that operate in hazardous environments linked to an integrated workstation in a safe environment.
Three-dimensional lossless digital signature embedding for the integrity of volumetric images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zheng; Huang, H. K.; Liu, B. J.
2006-03-01
Our previous study presented a lossless digital signature embedding (LDSE) method for assuring the integrity of 2D medical images in network transit or during archival. With the advent of multi-detector CT scanners and volume acquisition technologies, a PACS exam can now potentially generate hundreds, even thousands, of images. To perform the 2D LDSE method on each individual image in the volume would be extremely time consuming and inefficient. For this reason, a novel 3D LDSE method has been investigated for 3D image volumes. The method begins with generating a single digital signature (DS) of the entire volume. Embedding of the DS is performed by first identifying a bit stream from the image volume based on the correlation of 3D pixel values. The bit stream is compressed using lossless compression methods and the DS is concatenated with the compressed bit stream. This concatenated bit stream is then embedded within the original image volume. During the verification process, the embedded bit stream is extracted and utilized to recover the original bit stream and the original DS. The original bit stream can be used to restore the image volume which in turn can be used in the verification of the DS. In addition, to 3D LDSE embedding methodology for image volumes, a new procedure is developed to address clinical workflow for 3D image volumes. Experimental results demonstrated that the 3D LDSE method can assure the integrity of 3D image volume efficiently and effectively. In addition, a 3D clinical image workflow procedure was demonstrated.
Hellwig, Tim; Epping, Jörn P; Schnack, Martin; Boller, Klaus-J; Fallnich, Carsten
2015-07-27
We demonstrate the potential of birefringence-based, all-optical, ultrafast conversion between the transverse modes in integrated optical waveguides by modelling the conversion process by numerically solving the multi-mode coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The observed conversion is induced by a control beam and due to the Kerr effect, resulting in a transient index grating which coherently scatters probe light from one transverse waveguide mode into another. We introduce birefringent phase matching to enable efficient all-optically induced mode conversion at different wavelengths of the control and probe beam. It is shown that tailoring the waveguide geometry can be exploited to explicitly minimize intermodal group delay as well as to maximize the nonlinear coefficient, under the constraint of a phase matching condition. The waveguide geometries investigated here, allow for mode conversion with over two orders of magnitude reduced control pulse energy compared to previous schemes and thereby promise nonlinear mode switching exceeding efficiencies of 90% at switching energies below 1 nJ. PMID:26367581
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Logan, Terry G.
1994-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of the integral equation computations using numerical source field-panel method in a massively parallel processing (MPP) environment. A comparative study of computational performance of the MPP CM-5 computer and conventional Cray-YMP supercomputer for a three-dimensional flow problem is made. A serial FORTRAN code is converted into a parallel CM-FORTRAN code. Some performance results are obtained on CM-5 with 32, 62, 128 nodes along with those on Cray-YMP with a single processor. The comparison of the performance indicates that the parallel CM-FORTRAN code near or out-performs the equivalent serial FORTRAN code for some cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arai, Jun; Okano, Fumio; Hoshino, Haruo; Yuyama, Ichiro
1998-04-01
Because a three-dimensional (3-D) autostereoscopic image can be seen from a desired viewpoint without the aid of special viewing glasses, integral photography (IP) is an ideal way to create 3-D autostereoscopic images. We have already proposed a real-time IP method that offers 3-D autostereoscopic images of moving objects in real time by use of a microlens array and a high-definition television camera. But there are two problems yet to be resolved: One is pseudoscopic images that show a reversed depth representation. The other is interference between the element images that constitute a 3-D autostereoscopic image. We describe a new gradient-index lense-array method based on real-time IP to overcome these two problems. Experimental results indicating the advantages of this method are shown. These results suggest the possibility of using a gradient-index lens array for real-time IP.
Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li
2015-06-07
In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.
El-Kady, Maher F.; Ihns, Melanie; Li, Mengping; Hwang, Jee Youn; Mousavi, Mir F.; Chaney, Lindsay; Lech, Andrew T.; Kaner, Richard B.
2015-01-01
Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of carbon-based supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate 3D high-performance hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors based on graphene and MnO2 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure and combining active materials with electrolytes that operate at high voltages. This results in hybrid electrodes with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of over 1,100 F/cm3. This corresponds to a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 of 1,145 F/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 1,380 F/g. The energy density of the full device varies between 22 and 42 Wh/l depending on the device configuration, which is superior to those of commercially available double-layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors tested under the same conditions and is comparable to that of lead acid batteries. These hybrid supercapacitors use aqueous electrolytes and are assembled in air without the need for expensive “dry rooms” required for building today’s supercapacitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate a simple technique for the fabrication of supercapacitor arrays for high-voltage applications. These arrays can be integrated with solar cells for efficient energy harvesting and storage systems. PMID:25831542
El-Kady, Maher F; Ihns, Melanie; Li, Mengping; Hwang, Jee Youn; Mousavi, Mir F; Chaney, Lindsay; Lech, Andrew T; Kaner, Richard B
2015-04-01
Supercapacitors now play an important role in the progress of hybrid and electric vehicles, consumer electronics, and military and space applications. There is a growing demand in developing hybrid supercapacitor systems to overcome the energy density limitations of the current generation of carbon-based supercapacitors. Here, we demonstrate 3D high-performance hybrid supercapacitors and microsupercapacitors based on graphene and MnO2 by rationally designing the electrode microstructure and combining active materials with electrolytes that operate at high voltages. This results in hybrid electrodes with ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of over 1,100 F/cm(3). This corresponds to a specific capacitance of the constituent MnO2 of 1,145 F/g, which is close to the theoretical value of 1,380 F/g. The energy density of the full device varies between 22 and 42 Wh/l depending on the device configuration, which is superior to those of commercially available double-layer supercapacitors, pseudocapacitors, lithium-ion capacitors, and hybrid supercapacitors tested under the same conditions and is comparable to that of lead acid batteries. These hybrid supercapacitors use aqueous electrolytes and are assembled in air without the need for expensive "dry rooms" required for building today's supercapacitors. Furthermore, we demonstrate a simple technique for the fabrication of supercapacitor arrays for high-voltage applications. These arrays can be integrated with solar cells for efficient energy harvesting and storage systems. PMID:25831542
Three-dimensional display system for medical imaging with computer-generated integral photography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Susumu; Masamune, Ken; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi
2000-05-01
A 3D display system for medical image by computer-generated integral photography (IP) has been developed. A new, fast, 3D-rendering algorithm has been devised to overcome the difficulties that have prevented practical application of computer-generated IP, namely, the cost of computation, and the pseudoscopic image problem. The display system as developed requires on ly a personal computer, a liquid crystal display (LCD), and a fly's eye lens (FEL). Each point in 3D space is reconstructed by the convergence of rays from many pixels on the LCD through the FEL. As the number of such points is limited by the low resolution of the LCD, the algorithm computes a coordinate of the best point for each pixel of the LCD. This reduces computation, performs hidden surface removal and solves the pseudoscopic image problem. In tests of the system, the locations of images projected 10-40 mm distant from the display were found to be less than 2.5 mm in error. Both stationary and moving IP images of a colored skull, generated from 3D computerized tomography, were projected and could be observed with motion parallax within 10 degrees, both horizontally and vertically, from the front of the display. It can be concluded that the simplicity of design and the geometrical accuracy of projection give this system significant advantages over other 3D display methods.
Three-dimensional structures formed by a robotic and meltblowing integrated system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velu, Yogeshwar Karunakaran
Meltblown nonwovens have been produced as 2D web structures for a variety of end uses. Investigation into the development of 3D structures, has led to the integration of meltblown and robotic technology to form the Robotic Fiber Assembly and Control System. The effects of various process parameters including the fiber stream approach angle and the curvature of the collecting surface on the structural properties of the webs such as the diameter and orientation distribution of the fibers and the pore size distribution on the webs has been investigated. The interrelationships between these structural parameters have been explored and a statistical model developed. Orientation distribution, and the fiber diameter distribution of the webs were measured on image analysis software, while the pore size distribution was measured using equipment developed on the basis of capillary flow technique. SAS was used to develop the correlations between the structural parameters of the web. In general, all the webs show a larger percentage of fibers orienting in the machine direction (MD). The webs with finer fiber diameter produced webs with smaller pore diameter. The take-up speed of the collector had a significant influence on the orientation and diameters of the fibers in the web. Finer fibers were formed which are more oriented in the machine direction as the take-up speed of the collecting surface increased resulting in the formation of a web which has pores with finer diameter. A decrease in the polymer throughput demonstrated a decrease in the fiber diameter, the pore diameter and the basis weights of the webs. The resulting webs also produced pores that are of finer diameter. Lower attenuating air pressures produced larger diameter fibers. The average pore diameter of the analyzed meltblown fabrics decreased significantly when the attenuating air pressure was increased. Increasing the die to collector distance (DCD) shows a decrease in the percentage of fibers that are
Finn, John M.
2015-03-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.
Bruno, Oscar P. Lintner, Stéphane K.
2013-11-01
We present a novel methodology for the numerical solution of problems of diffraction by infinitely thin screens in three-dimensional space. Our approach relies on new integral formulations as well as associated high-order quadrature rules. The new integral formulations involve weighted versions of the classical integral operators related to the thin-screen Dirichlet and Neumann problems as well as a generalization to the open-surface problem of the classical Calderón formulae. The high-order quadrature rules we introduce for these operators, in turn, resolve the multiple Green function and edge singularities (which occur at arbitrarily close distances from each other, and which include weakly singular as well as hypersingular kernels) and thus give rise to super-algebraically fast convergence as the discretization sizes are increased. When used in conjunction with Krylov-subspace linear algebra solvers such as GMRES, the resulting solvers produce results of high accuracy in small numbers of iterations for low and high frequencies alike. We demonstrate our methodology with a variety of numerical results for screen and aperture problems at high frequencies—including simulation of classical experiments such as the diffraction by a circular disc (featuring in particular the famous Poisson spot), evaluation of interference fringes resulting from diffraction across two nearby circular apertures, as well as solution of problems of scattering by more complex geometries consisting of multiple scatterers and cavities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dan; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Zhang, Lei; Xi, Shuang; Li, Xiaoping; Lai, Wuxing
2011-11-01
We propose a novel technique of integrating silica nanowires to carbon microelectrode arrays on silicon substrates. The silica nanowires were grown on photoresist-derived three-dimensional carbon microelectrode arrays during carbonization of patterned photoresist in a tube furnace at 1000 °C under a gaseous environment of N2 and H2 in the presence of Cu catalyst, sputtered initially as a thin layer on the structure surface. Carbonization-assisted nucleation and growth are proposed to extend the Cu-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism for the nanowire integration behaviour. The growth of silica nanowires exploits Si from the etched silicon substrate under the Cu particles. It is found that the thickness of the initial Cu coating layer plays an important role as catalyst on the morphology and on the amount of grown silica nanowires. These nanowires have lengths of up to 100 µm and diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm, with 30 nm Cu film sputtered initially. The study also reveals that the nanowire-integrated microelectrodes significantly enhance the electrochemical performance compared to blank ones. A specific capacitance increase of over 13 times is demonstrated in the electrochemical experiment. The platform can be used to develop large-scale miniaturized devices and systems with increased efficiency for applications in electrochemical, biological and energy-related fields.
Del Mercato, Loretta L; Passione, Laura Gioia; Izzo, Daniela; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Sannino, Alessandro; Gervaso, Francesca
2016-09-01
Three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds based on collagen are promising candidates for soft tissue engineering applications. The addition of stimuli-responsive carriers (nano- and microparticles) in the current approaches to tissue reconstruction and repair brings about novel challenges in the design and conception of carrier-integrated polymer scaffolds. In this study, a facile method was developed to functionalize 3D collagen porous scaffolds with biodegradable multilayer microcapsules. The effects of the capsule charge as well as the influence of the functionalization methods on the binding efficiency to the scaffolds were studied. It was found that the binding of cationic microcapsules was higher than that of anionic ones, and application of vacuum during scaffolds functionalization significantly hindered the attachment of the microcapsules to the collagen matrix. The physical properties of microcapsules-integrated scaffolds were compared to pristine scaffolds. The modified scaffolds showed swelling ratios, weight losses and mechanical properties similar to those of unmodified scaffolds. Finally, in vitro diffusional tests proved that the collagen scaffolds could stably retain the microcapsules over long incubation time in Tris-HCl buffer at 37°C without undergoing morphological changes, thus confirming their suitability for tissue engineering applications. The obtained results indicate that by tuning the charge of the microcapsules and by varying the fabrication conditions, collagen scaffolds patterned with high or low number of microcapsules can be obtained, and that the microcapsules-integrated scaffolds fully retain their original physical properties. PMID:27219851
Nadeem, Danish; Smith, Carol-Anne; Dalby, Matthew J; Meek, R M Dominic; Lin, Sien; Li, Gang; Su, Bo
2015-01-01
Surface topography is known to influence stem cells and has been widely used as physical stimuli to modulate cellular behaviour including adhesion, proliferation and differentiation on 2D surfaces. Integration of well-defined surface topography into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for tissue engineering would be useful to direct the cell fate for intended applications. Technical challenges are remaining as how to fabricate such 3D scaffolds with controlled surface topography from a range of biodegradable and biocompatible materials. In this paper, a novel fabrication process using computer numerically controlled machining and lamination is reported to make 3D calcium phosphate/gelatin composite scaffolds with integrated surface micropatterns that are introduced by embossing prior to machining. Geometric analysis shows that this method is versatile and can be used to make a wide range of lattices with porosities that meet the basic requirements for bone tissue engineering. Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that micropatterned composite scaffolds with surfaces comprising 40 μm pits and 50 μm grooves were optimal for improved osteogenesis. The results have demonstrated the potential of a novel fabrication process for producing cell-instructive scaffolds with designed surface topographies to induce specific tissue regeneration. PMID:25562325
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath Roy, Jitendra; Gayen, Dilip Kumar
2007-08-01
Interferometric devices have drawn a great interest in all-optical signal processing for their high-speed photonic activity. The nonlinear optical loop mirror provides a major support to optical switching based all-optical logic and algebraic operations. The gate based on the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) has added new momentum in this field. Optical tree architecture (OTA) plays a significant role in the optical interconnecting network. We have tried to exploit the advantages of both OTA- and TOAD-based switches. We have proposed a TOAD-based tree architecture, a new and alternative scheme, for integrated all-optical logic and arithmetic operations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cwik, Tom; Zuffada, Cinzia; Jamnejad, Vahraz
1996-01-01
Finite element modeling has proven useful for accurtely simulating scattered or radiated fields from complex three-dimensional objects whose geometry varies on the scale of a fraction of a wavelength.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markman, A.; Javidi, B.
2016-06-01
Quick-response (QR) codes are barcodes that can store information such as numeric data and hyperlinks. The QR code can be scanned using a QR code reader, such as those built into smartphone devices, revealing the information stored in the code. Moreover, the QR code is robust to noise, rotation, and illumination when scanning due to error correction built in the QR code design. Integral imaging is an imaging technique used to generate a three-dimensional (3D) scene by combining the information from two-dimensional (2D) elemental images (EIs) each with a different perspective of a scene. Transferring these 2D images in a secure manner can be difficult. In this work, we overview two methods to store and encrypt EIs in multiple QR codes. The first method uses run-length encoding with Huffman coding and the double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) to compress and encrypt an EI. This information is then stored in a QR code. An alternative compression scheme is to perform photon-counting on the EI prior to compression. Photon-counting is a non-linear transformation of data that creates redundant information thus improving image compression. The compressed data is encrypted using the DRPE. Once information is stored in the QR codes, it is scanned using a smartphone device. The information scanned is decompressed and decrypted and an EI is recovered. Once all EIs have been recovered, a 3D optical reconstruction is generated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cong-yun; Lu, Ya; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing
2016-07-01
A novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate has been successfully developed, where Ag-dendrites are assembled on the surface and embedded in the channels of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, via electrodeposition in AgNO3/PVP aqueous system. Reaction conditions were systematically investigated to attain the best Raman enhancement. The growth mechanism of Ag dendritic nanostructures has been proposed. The Ag dendrite-integrated AAO membrane with unique hierarchical structures exhibits high SERS activity for detecting rhodamine 6G with a detection limit as low as 1 × 10-11 M. Furthermore, the three-dimensional (3D) substrates display a good reproducibility with the average intensity variations at the major Raman peak less than 12%. Most importantly, the 3D SERS substrates without any surface modification show an outstanding SERS response for the molecules with weak affinity for noble metal surfaces. The potential application for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was evaluated with fluoranthene as Raman target molecule and a sensitive SERS detection with a limit down to 10-8 M was reached. The 3D SERS-active substrate shows promising potential for rapid detection of trace organic pollutants even weak affinity molecules in the environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Ho-Hyun; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2010-03-01
An approach to highly enhance the compression efficiency of the integral images by applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) algorithm to the motion-compensated sub-images is proposed. The sub-images transformed from the elemental images picked-up from the three-dimensional (3D) object might represent the different perspectives of the object. Thus, the similarity among the sub-images gets better than that among the elemental images, so that an improvement of compression efficiency of the sub-images could be obtained. However, motion vectors occurred among the sub-images might result in an additional increase of image data to be compressed. Accordingly, in this paper, motion vectors have been estimated and compensated in all sub-image in advance. Then the KLT algorithm was applied to these motion-compensated sub-images for compression. It is shown from some experimental results that compression efficiency of the proposed method has been improved up to 24.44%, 40.62%, respectively, on the average compared to that of the conventional KLT compression method and that of the JPEG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
António, J.; Tadeu, A.; Castro, I.
2013-06-01
This paper simulates the propagation of sound generated by point pressure sources in the vicinity of double three-dimensional (3D) barriers, placed so as to create an indoor acoustic space. The barriers are assumed to be very thin rigid elements. The problem is solved by developing and implementing a 3D Boundary Element Method formulation using a normal derivative integral equation (TBEM), thereby allowing the definition of models in which only the discretization of the barriers as single open surfaces is required. The TBEM is formulated in the frequency domain and the resulting hypersingular terms are computed analytically. After the verification of the model against two-and-a-half-dimensional (2.5D) BEM solutions, several numerical applications are described to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the proposed approaches. Different barrier shape geometries and their relative position with respect to a lateral wall are analyzed to evaluate the performance of double 3D rigid barriers in the creation of an acoustic space.
Pang, Y; Horimoto, Y; Sutoko, S; Montagne, K; Shinohara, M; Mathiue, D; Komori, K; Anzai, M; Niino, T; Sakai, Yasuyuki
2016-01-01
A novel engineering methodology for organizing a large liver tissue equivalent was established by intergrating both 'top down' and 'bottom up' approaches. A three-dimensional (3D) scaffold was engineered comprising 43 culture chambers (volume: 11.63 cm(3)) assembled in a symmetrical pattern on 3 layers, a design which enables further scaling up of the device to a clinically significant size (volume: 500 cm(3)). In addition, an inter-connected flow channel network was designed and proved to homogenously deliver culture medium to each chamber with the same pressure drop. After fabrication using nylon-12 and a selective laser sintering process, co-cultured cellular aggregates of human hepatoma Hep G2 and TMNK-1 cells were loosely packed into the culture chambers with biodegradable poly-L-lactic acid fibre pieces for 9 days of perfusion culture. The device enabled increased hepatic function and well-maintained cell viability, demonstrating the importance of an independent medium flow supply for cell growth and function provided by the current 3D scaffold. This integrative methodology from the macro- to the micro-scale provides an efficient way of arranging engineered liver tissue with improved mass transfer, making it possible to further scale up to a construct with clinically relevant size while maintaining high per-volume-based physiological function in the near future. PMID:27579855
Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Yambe, Tomoyuki
2009-01-01
In ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flows, feedback signals proportional to the difference of velocity vector optimally estimated from Doppler velocities are applied in the feedback domain to reproduce the flow field. In this paper, we investigated the transient and steady characteristics of UMI simulation by numerical experiment. A steady standard numerical solution of a three-dimensional blood flow in an aneurysmal aorta was first defined with realistic boundary conditions. The UMI simulation was performed assuming that the realistic velocity profiles in the upstream and downstream boundaries were unknown but that the Doppler velocities of the standard solution were available in the aneurysmal domain or the feedback domain by virtual color Doppler imaging. The application of feedback in UMI simulation resulted in a computational result approach to the standard solution. As feedback gain increased, the error decreased faster and the steady error became smaller, implying the traceability to the standard solution improves. The positioning of ultrasound probes influenced the result. The height less than or equal to the aneurysm seemed better choice for UMI simulation using one probe. Increasing the velocity information by using multiple probes enhanced the UMI simulation by achieving ten times faster convergence and more reduction of error. PMID:19011966
Finn, John M.
2015-03-15
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
Finn, John M.
2015-03-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. Wemore » also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kashirin, A. A.; Smagin, S. I.; Taltykina, M. Yu.
2016-04-01
Interior and exterior three-dimensional Dirichlet problems for the Helmholtz equation are solved numerically. They are formulated as equivalent boundary Fredholm integral equations of the first kind and are approximated by systems of linear algebraic equations, which are then solved numerically by applying an iteration method. The mosaic-skeleton method is used to speed up the solution procedure.
Yao, Xin; Guo, Guilue; Ma, Xing; Zhao, Yang; Ang, Chung Yen; Luo, Zhong; Nguyen, Kim Truc; Li, Pei-Zhou; Yan, Qingyu; Zhao, Yanli
2015-12-01
Three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA) has emerged as an outstanding support for metal oxides to enhance the overall energy-storage performance of the resulting hybrid materials. In the current stage of the studies, metals/metal oxides inside GA are in uncrafted geometries. Introducing structure-controlled metal oxides into GA may further push electrochemical properties of metal oxide-GA hybrids. Using rutile SnO2 as an example, we demonstrated here a facile hydrothermal strategy combined with a preconditioning technique named vacuum-assisted impregnation for in situ construction of controlled anisotropic SnO2 heterostructures inside GA. The obtained hybrid material was fully characterized in detail, and its formation mechanism was investigated by monitoring the phase-transformation process. Rational integration of the two advanced structures, anisotropic SnO2 and 3D GA, synergistically led to enhanced lithium-storage properties (1176 mAh/g for the first cycle and 872 mAh/g for the 50th cycle at 100 mA/g) as compared with its two counterparts, namely, rough nanoparticles@3D GA and anisotropic SnO2@2D graphene sheets (618 and 751 mAh/g for the 50th cycle at 100 mA/g, respectively). It was also well-demonstrated that this hybrid material was capable of delivering high specific capacity at rapid charge/discharge cycles (1044 mAh/g at 100 mA/g, 847 mAh/g at 200 mA/g, 698 mAh/g at 500 mA/g, and 584 mAh/g at 1000 mA/g). The in situ integration strategy along with vacuum-assisted impregnation technique presented here shows great potential as a versatile tool for accessing a variety of sophisticated smart structures in the form of anisotropic metals/metal oxides within 3D GA toward useful applications. PMID:26554275
Three-dimensional marginal separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1988-01-01
The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao; Guo, Ying; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Shuhui; Yang, Hai-Peng; Lu, Daniel; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping
2015-07-01
Three dimensional interconnected hierarchical porous Ni films are easily fabricated as effective current collectors through hydrogen bubble template electrochemical deposition. The binder-free integrated electrodes of spinel NiCo2O4 nanosheets directly coated the three dimensional porous Ni films are facilely obtained through successively electrochemical co-deposition of Ni/Co alloy layer then followed by subsequent annealing at 350 °C in air. Compared with NiCo2O4 nanosheets on smooth Ni foil or porous NiO/Ni film electrodes, the porous NiCo2O4/Ni integrated film electrodes for supercapacitors demonstrate remarkably higher area specific capacitance. The porous NiCo2O4/Ni film electrodes also exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability. The super electrochemical capacitive performances are attributed to the unique integrated architecture of NiCo2O4 nanosheets in-situ grown on three dimensional continuous hierarchical porous Ni collector collectors, which could provide large electrode-electrolyte interface area, high active sites, low contact resistance between current collector and active materials, fast electron conduction and ion/electrolyte diffusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitris, St.; Vagionas, Ch.; Kanellos, G. T.; Kisacik, R.; Tekin, T.; Broeke, R.; Pleros, N.
2016-03-01
At the dawning of the exaflop era, High Performance Computers are foreseen to exploit integrated all-optical elements, to overcome the speed limitations imposed by electronic counterparts. Drawing from the well-known Memory Wall limitation, imposing a performance gap between processor and memory speeds, research has focused on developing ultra-fast latching devices and all-optical memory elements capable of delivering buffering and switching functionalities at unprecedented bit-rates. Following the master-slave configuration of electronic Flip-Flops, coupled SOA-MZI based switches have been theoretically investigated to exceed 40 Gb/s operation, provided a short coupling waveguide. However, this flip-flop architecture has been only hybridly integrated with silica-on-silicon integration technology exhibiting a total footprint of 45x12 mm2 and intra-Flip-Flop coupling waveguide of 2.5cm, limited at 5 Gb/s operation. Monolithic integration offers the possibility to fabricate multiple active and passive photonic components on a single chip at a close proximity towards, bearing promises for fast all-optical memories. Here, we present for the first time a monolithically integrated all-optical SR Flip-Flop with coupled master-slave SOA-MZI switches. The photonic chip is integrated on a 6x2 mm2 die as a part of a multi-project wafer run using library based components of a generic InP platform, fiber-pigtailed and fully packaged on a temperature controlled ceramic submount module with electrical contacts. The intra Flip-Flop coupling waveguide is 5 mm long, reducing the total footprint by two orders of magnitude. Successful flip flop functionality is evaluated at 10 Gb/s with clear open eye diagram, achieving error free operation with a power penalty of 4dB.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryabenkii, V. S.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Tsynkov, S. V.
1999-01-01
We propose a family of algorithms for solving numerically a Cauchy problem for the three-dimensional wave equation. The sources that drive the equation (i.e., the right-hand side) are compactly supported in space for any given time; they, however, may actually move in space with a subsonic speed. The solution is calculated inside a finite domain (e.g., sphere) that also moves with a subsonic speed and always contains the support of the right-hand side. The algorithms employ a standard consistent and stable explicit finite-difference scheme for the wave equation. They allow one to calculate tile solution for arbitrarily long time intervals without error accumulation and with the fixed non-growing amount of tile CPU time and memory required for advancing one time step. The algorithms are inherently three-dimensional; they rely on the presence of lacunae in the solutions of the wave equation in oddly dimensional spaces. The methodology presented in the paper is, in fact, a building block for constructing the nonlocal highly accurate unsteady artificial boundary conditions to be used for the numerical simulation of waves propagating with finite speed over unbounded domains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riza, Nabeel A.; Mughal, M. J.
2003-12-01
A new robust approach is presented for achieving very large fiber port count all-optical crossconnect switches. This three dimensional optics-based switch has built-in alignment capabilities with fault-tolerance, allowing graceful port count scaling.
Stamatiadis, C; Stampoulidis, L; Kalavrouziotis, D; Lazarou, I; Vyrsokinos, K; Zimmermann, L; Voigt, K; Preve, G B; Moerl, L; Kreissl, J; Avramopoulos, H
2012-02-13
We present a hybrid integrated photonic circuit on a silicon-on-insulator substrate that performs ultra high-speed all-optical wavelength conversion. The chip incorporates a 1.25 mm non-linear SOA mounted on the SOI board using gold-tin bumps as small as 14 μm. Τhe device performs chirp filtering and signal polarity inversion with two multi-mode interference (MMI) - based cascaded delay interferometers (DIs) monolithically integrated on the same SOI substrate. Full free spectral range (FSR) tuning of the DIs is accomplished by two independently tuneable on-chip thermal heaters. We demonstrate 160Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion with power penalties of less than 4.6dB. PMID:22418139
Yang, Yiqing; Liu, CuiCui; Lei, Xiaohua; Wang, Hongtao; Su, Pei; Ru, Yongxin; Ruan, Xinhua; Duan, Enkui; Feng, Sizhou; Han, Mingzhe; Xu, Yuanfu; Shi, Lihong; Jiang, Erlie; Zhou, Jiaxi
2016-02-01
Platelet transfusion has been widely used in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy; however, the shortage of the platelet supply limits the care of patients. Although derivation of clinical-scale platelets in vitro could provide a new source for transfusion, the devices and procedures for deriving scalable platelets for clinical applications have not been established. In the present study, we found that a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) can potentiate megakaryopoiesis and significantly improve the efficiency of platelet generation. When used with chemical compounds and growth factors identified via small-scale screening, the RCCS improved platelet generation efficiency by as much as ∼3.7-fold compared with static conditions. Shear force, simulated microgravity, and better diffusion of nutrients and oxygen from the RCCS, altogether, might account for the improved efficient platelet generation. The cost-effective and highly controllable strategy and methodology represent an important step toward large-scale platelet production for future biomedical and clinical applications. Significance: Platelet transfusion has been widely used in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy; however, the shortage of platelet supply limits the care of patients. Thus, derivation of clinical-scale platelets in vitro would provide a new source for transfusion. The present study evaluated a rotary suspension cell culture system that was able to potentiate megakaryopoiesis and significantly improved the efficiency of platelet generation. When used with chemical compounds and growth factors identified via small-scale screening, the three-dimensional system improved platelet generation efficiency compared with the static condition. The three-dimensional device and the strategy developed in the present study should markedly improve the generation of large-scale platelets for use in future biomedical and clinical settings. PMID:26702125
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Zupeng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shudao
2013-03-01
This paper presents an effective second-order three-dimensional unstructured multi-material arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (MMALE) method for compressible fluid dynamics. This is an integration work. The MMALE method utilizes Moment of Fluid (MOF) capability with interface reconstruction for multi-material modeling of immiscible fluids. It is of the explicit time-marching Lagrange plus remap type. In the Lagrangian phase, the staggered compatible discretization for Lagrangian gas dynamics is used also with Tipton's pressure relaxation model for the closure of mixed cells. For the remapping phase, an improved second-order cell-intersection-based method for three-dimensional unstructured mesh is presented. It is conservative for remapping cell-centered variables such as density and internal energy. It is suitable for remapping between two meshes with different topology. By using this remapping method, the new material centroid position in the rezoned cells can be geometrically computed. This enables it to be combined with the MOF algorithm for constructing a second-order MMALE method. The MMALE method can be implemented on three-dimensional unstructured hexahedral meshes. Numerical results have proved the accuracy and robustness of the MMALE method.
Fulton, D R; Marx, G R; Pandian, N G; Romero, B A; Mumm, B; Krauss, M; Wollschläger, H; Ludomirsky, A; Cao, Q L
1994-03-01
Three-dimensional cardiac reconstruction generated from transesophageal interrogation can be performed using an integrated unit that captures, processes, and postprocesses tomographic parallel slices of the heart. This probe was used for infants and young children in the transthoracic position to evaluate the feasibility of producing three-dimensional cardiac images with capability for real-time dynamic display. Twenty-two infants and children (range 1 day-3.5 years) underwent image acquisition using a 16 mm 5 MHz 64 element probe placed over the precordium. Two infants were also imaged from the subcostal position. Data was obtained and stored over a single cardiac cycle after acceptable cardiac and respiratory gating intervals were met. The transducer was advanced in 0.5-1 mm increments over the cardiac structures using identical acquisition criteria. The images were reconstructed from the stored digital cubic format and could be oriented in any desired plane. In 9 of the 22 infants the images obtained were of optimal quality. The images obtained displayed normal cardiac structures emphasizing depth relationships as well as visualization of planes not generally demonstrated by two-dimensional imaging. Several lesions were also depicted in a unique fashion using this technique. Though the method employed was limited by movement artifact and reconstruction time, the quality of the three-dimensional display was excellent and enhanced by real-time demonstration. The transthoracic approach was successful in capturing sufficient data to create three-dimensional images, which may have further application in more accurate diagnosis of complex cardiac abnormalities and generation of planes of view which could duplicate surgical visualization of a lesion. Further assessment of the technique in infants with congenital heart disease is warranted. PMID:10146717
Three-dimensional sonoembryology.
Benoit, Bernard; Hafner, Tomislav; Kurjak, Asim; Kupesić, Sanja; Bekavac, Ivanka; Bozek, Tomislav
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plays an important role in obstetrics, predominantly for assessing fetal anatomy. Presenting volume data in a standard anatomic orientation valuably assists both ultrasonographers and pregnant patients to recognize the anatomy more readily. Three-dimensional ultrasound is advantageous in studying normal embryonic and/or fetal development, as well as providing information for families at risk for specific congenital anomalies by confirming normality. This method offers advantages in assessing the embryo in the first trimester due to its ability to obtain multiplanar images through endovaginal volume acquisition. Rotation allows the systematic review of anatomic structures and early detection of fetal anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in vivo compliments pathologic and histologic evaluation of the developing embryo, giving rise to a new term: 3D sonoembryology. Rapid technological development will allow real-time 3D ultrasound to provide improved and expanded patient care on the one side, and increased knowledge of developmental anatomy on the other. PMID:11933658
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Bing; Du, Wen-Qiang; Li, Jia-Wen; Hu, Yan-Lei; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lao, Zhao-Xin; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong; Liu, Su-Ling; Sugioka, Koji
2016-01-01
High efficiency fabrication and integration of three-dimension (3D) functional devices in Lab-on-a-chip systems are crucial for microfluidic applications. Here, a spatial light modulator (SLM)-based multifoci parallel femtosecond laser scanning technology was proposed to integrate microstructures inside a given ‘Y’ shape microchannel. The key novelty of our approach lies on rapidly integrating 3D microdevices inside a microchip for the first time, which significantly reduces the fabrication time. The high quality integration of various 2D-3D microstructures was ensured by quantitatively optimizing the experimental conditions including prebaking time, laser power and developing time. To verify the designable and versatile capability of this method for integrating functional 3D microdevices in microchannel, a series of microfilters with adjustable pore sizes from 12.2 μm to 6.7 μm were fabricated to demonstrate selective filtering of the polystyrene (PS) particles and cancer cells with different sizes. The filter can be cleaned by reversing the flow and reused for many times. This technology will advance the fabrication technique of 3D integrated microfluidic and optofluidic chips.
Xu, Bing; Du, Wen-Qiang; Li, Jia-Wen; Hu, Yan-Lei; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lao, Zhao-Xin; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong; Liu, Su-Ling; Sugioka, Koji
2016-01-01
High efficiency fabrication and integration of three-dimension (3D) functional devices in Lab-on-a-chip systems are crucial for microfluidic applications. Here, a spatial light modulator (SLM)-based multifoci parallel femtosecond laser scanning technology was proposed to integrate microstructures inside a given 'Y' shape microchannel. The key novelty of our approach lies on rapidly integrating 3D microdevices inside a microchip for the first time, which significantly reduces the fabrication time. The high quality integration of various 2D-3D microstructures was ensured by quantitatively optimizing the experimental conditions including prebaking time, laser power and developing time. To verify the designable and versatile capability of this method for integrating functional 3D microdevices in microchannel, a series of microfilters with adjustable pore sizes from 12.2 μm to 6.7 μm were fabricated to demonstrate selective filtering of the polystyrene (PS) particles and cancer cells with different sizes. The filter can be cleaned by reversing the flow and reused for many times. This technology will advance the fabrication technique of 3D integrated microfluidic and optofluidic chips. PMID:26818119
Xu, Bing; Du, Wen-Qiang; Li, Jia-Wen; Hu, Yan-Lei; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Chen-Chu; Li, Guo-Qiang; Lao, Zhao-Xin; Ni, Jin-Cheng; Chu, Jia-Ru; Wu, Dong; Liu, Su-Ling; Sugioka, Koji
2016-01-01
High efficiency fabrication and integration of three-dimension (3D) functional devices in Lab-on-a-chip systems are crucial for microfluidic applications. Here, a spatial light modulator (SLM)-based multifoci parallel femtosecond laser scanning technology was proposed to integrate microstructures inside a given ‘Y’ shape microchannel. The key novelty of our approach lies on rapidly integrating 3D microdevices inside a microchip for the first time, which significantly reduces the fabrication time. The high quality integration of various 2D-3D microstructures was ensured by quantitatively optimizing the experimental conditions including prebaking time, laser power and developing time. To verify the designable and versatile capability of this method for integrating functional 3D microdevices in microchannel, a series of microfilters with adjustable pore sizes from 12.2 μm to 6.7 μm were fabricated to demonstrate selective filtering of the polystyrene (PS) particles and cancer cells with different sizes. The filter can be cleaned by reversing the flow and reused for many times. This technology will advance the fabrication technique of 3D integrated microfluidic and optofluidic chips. PMID:26818119
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ten Holter, Koen P. A.; Scholte, Krispijn A.; Willekes MacDonald, Björn C.; Bolderheij, Fok
2011-06-01
Electro-optical sensor systems are fairly commonplace on naval vessels. However, these sensor systems are usually implemented as stand-alone systems or are minimally integrated in shipboard combat management systems, and are mostly used as secondary sensors. Therefore, it is difficult to include these systems in generic command and control concepts; on board they remain an operator aid at best. To facilitate integration in the future, this paper proposes a model of a warship with only EO sensors as its primary sensor suite. The question of whether such a ship is sufficiently capable in a modern naval theater is addressed, as well as specific sensor design challenges and the command and control concepts needed in order to maximize the performance of the proposed vessel.
Three-dimensional coronary angiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John
2005-04-01
Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.
Wang, Jun; Zhong, Hai-xia; Wang, Zhong-li; Meng, Fan-lu; Zhang, Xin-bo
2016-02-23
The development of an efficient catalytic electrode toward both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significance for overall water splitting associated with the conversion and storage of clean and renewable energy. In this study, carbon paper/carbon tubes/cobalt-sulfide is introduced as an integrated three-dimensional (3D) array electrode for cost-effective and energy-efficient HER and OER in alkaline medium. Impressively, this electrode displays superior performance compared to non-noble metal catalysts reported previously, benefiting from the unique 3D array architecture with increased exposure and accessibility of active sites, improved vectorial electron transport capability, and enhanced release of gaseous products. Such an integrated and versatile electrode makes the overall water splitting proceed in a more direct and smooth manner, reducing the production cost of practical technological devices. PMID:26783885
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gedney, Stephen D.; Lansing, Faiza
1994-01-01
It has been found that the Discrete Integral Equation (DSI)technique is a highly effective technique for the analysis of microwave circuits and devices [1,2]. The DSI is much more robust than the traditional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method in a number of ways.
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce
2012-06-12
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Hyun, Joo-Bong; Hwang, Dong-Choon; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2007-11-01
A novel curved computational integral imaging reconstruction (C-CIIR) technique for the virtually curved integral imaging (VCII) system is proposed, and its performances are analyzed. In the C-CIIR model, an additional virtual large-aperture lens is included to provide a multidirectional curving effect in the reconstruction process, and its effect is analyzed in detail by using the ABCD matrix. With this method, resolution-enhanced 3D object images can be computationally reconstructed from the picked-up elemental images of the VCII system. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed model, some experiments are carried out. Experiments revealed that the sampling rate in the VCII system could be kept at a maximum value within some range of the distance z, whereas in the conventional integral imaging system it linearly decreased as the distance z increased. It is also shown that resolutions of the object images reconstructed by the C-CIIR method have been significantly improved compared with those of the conventional CIIR method. PMID:17973014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Qinghe; Zhang, Jinfeng; Tan, Feng; Wu, Yuru; Zhang, Na; Yang, Hua; Pang, Qixiu
2015-03-01
Prediction of cohesive sediment transport in storm process is important for both navigation safety and environment of the coastal zone. The difficulties to simulate cohesive sediment transport for a small-scale area such as around a harbor during storm events mainly include the low spatial resolution of the present reanalysis atmosphere forcing, the complex hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes, and their interactions. In this paper, an integrated atmosphere-wave-3D hydrodynamic and cohesive sediment transport model with unstructured grid, which is comprised of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) model, and Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), was developed to solve the abovementioned problems. For cohesive sediment, the flocculation and hindered settling were included, and a self-weight consolidation processes was introduced to the existing FVCOM. Interactions between components were considered by providing data fields to each other in an offline manner. The integrated model was applied to simulate cohesive sediment transport around Lianyungang Harbor, China, during Typhoon Wipha in 2007. Results identify that the atmosphere model WRF performed better in the simulation of wind field during typhoon process compared with QuikSCAT/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (QSCAT/NCEP) data. Simulation of wave model was directly affected by wind results as wave vector field driven by WRF wind field showed anticlockwise vortex while waves driven by QSCAT/NCEP wind field did not. The influence of water elevation and flow field on waves was great at the nearshore area. However, the effect of wave on current was not apparent, while the wind field played a more important role, especially on the current velocity. The cohesive sediment transport was greatly affected by wave due to the combined wave-current-induced shear stress. In general, simulation results of wind, wave, current, and sediment showed
Baranski, Maciej; Bargiel, Sylwester; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe; Jia, Chenping; Frömel, Jörg; Wiemer, Maik
2015-08-01
This paper presents the optical design of a miniature 3D scanning system, which is fully compatible with the vertical integration technology of micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS). The constraints related to this integration strategy are considered, resulting in a simple three-element micro-optical setup based on an afocal scanning microlens doublet and a focusing microlens, which is tolerant to axial position inaccuracy. The 3D scanning is achieved by axial and lateral displacement of microlenses of the scanning doublet, realized by micro-electro-mechanical systems microactuators (the transmission scanning approach). Optical scanning performance of the system is determined analytically by use of the extended ray transfer matrix method, leading to two different optical configurations, relying either on a ball lens or plano-convex microlenses. The presented system is aimed to be a core component of miniature MOEMS-based optical devices, which require a 3D optical scanning function, e.g., miniature imaging systems (confocal or optical coherence microscopes) or optical tweezers. PMID:26368111
Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
2014-03-01
Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Joonyoung; Kim, Jihye; Shin, Jung H.; Lee, Wonhee
2014-09-01
Inertial microfluidics utilizes fluid inertia from high flow velocity to manipulate particles and fluids in 3D. Acquiring a 3D information of particle positions and complex flow patterns within microfluidic devices requires 3D imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy, which are often expensive and slow. Here, we report on a prism-mirror-embedded microfluidic device that allows simultaneous imaging of the top and side view of the microchannel for a high-speed, low-cost 3D imaging. The microprism mirrors are fabricated and integrated into a microfluidic system using conventional microfabrication techniques including wet etch and soft lithography. This inexpensive high quality prism mirror provides a highly reflective, smooth mirror surface with precise 45° reflection angle, enabling 3D measurement of inertial migration of microparticles in a rectangular channel at speeds in excess of 10 000 frame/s.
Large-scale three-dimensional inversion of EarthScope MT data using the integral equation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, M. S.; Green, A.; Gribenko, A.; Cuma, M.
2010-08-01
In this paper we apply 3D inversion to MT data collected in the Northwestern United States as a part of the EarthScope project. By the end of 2009 MT data had been collected from 262 stations located throughout Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and most of Montana and Wyoming. We used data from 139 MT stations in this analysis. We developed fully parallelized rigorous 3D MT inversion software based on the integral equation method with variable background conductivity. We also implemented a receiver footprint approach which considerably reduced the computational resources needed to invert the large volumes of data covering vast areas. The data set used in the inversion was obtained through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). The inversion domain was divided into 2.7 M cells. The inverted electrical conductivity distribution agrees reasonably well with geological features of the region.
Tian, Jingqi; Liu, Qian; Cheng, Ningyan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping
2014-09-01
Searching for inexpensive hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts with high activity has attracted considerable research interest in the past years. Reported herein is the topotactic fabrication of self-supported Cu3 P nanowire arrays on commercial porous copper foam (Cu3 P NW/CF) from its Cu(OH)2 NW/CF precursor by a low-temperature phosphidation reaction. Remarkably, as an integrated three-dimensional hydrogen-evolving cathode operating in acidic electrolytes, Cu3 P NW/CF maintains its activity for at least 25 hours and exhibits an onset overpotential of 62 mV, a Tafel slope of 67 mV dec(-1) , and a Faradaic efficiency close to 100 %. Catalytic current density can approach 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 143 mV. PMID:25044801
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-08-01
We present a method to integrate the gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects. By adopting the spherical polar coordinates centered at the evaluation point as the integration variables, we numerically compute the volume integral representation of the gravitational potential and of the acceleration vector. The variable transformation completely removes the algebraic singularities of the original integrals. The comparison with exact solutions reveals around 15 digits accuracy of the new method. Meanwhile, the 6 digit accuracy of the integrated gravitational field is realized by around 106 evaluations of the integrand per evaluation point, which costs at most a few seconds at a PC with Intel Core i7-4600U CPU running at 2.10 GHz clock. By using the new method, we show the gravitational field of a grand design spiral arm structure as an example. The computed gravitational field shows not only spiral shaped details but also a global feature composed of a thick oblate spheroid and a thin disc. The developed method is directly applicable to the electromagnetic field computation by means of Coulomb's law, the Biot-Savart law, and their retarded extensions. Sample FORTRAN 90 programs and test results are electronically available.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Yuka; Fukushima, Takafumi; Lee, Kang-Wook; Choki, Koji; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa
2013-04-01
To establish liquid-assisted assembly processes applicable to heterogeneous system integrations, we present flip-chip self-assembly of dies with Cu/Sn microbumps using the difference in droplet wetting between hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas. Flip-chip self-assembly is assisted by a water-soluble flux that has high surface tension comparable to that of pure water and contains an additive of a reducing agent for metal oxides. Control of the additive concentration in the flux provides high wettability contrast that enable spontaneous and precise alignment of chips to hydrophilic areas formed on substrates within 5 µm in alignment accuracy. In the subsequent chip bonding process, the reductant can eliminate the metal oxide layer and improve the solder wettability of Sn to the corresponding electrode pads formed on the chips. In addition, we confirm, through electrical characteristic evaluation after thermal compression bonding, that the resulting daisy chain formed between the substrates and self-assembled chips with the flux shows sufficiently low contact resistance of below 20 mΩ/bump without disconnection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohlen, Thomas; Wittkamp, Florian
2016-03-01
We analyse the performance of a higher order accurate staggered viscoelastic time-domain finite-difference method, in which the staggered Adams-Bashforth (ABS) third-order and fourth-order accurate time integrators are used for temporal discretization. ABS is a multistep method that uses previously calculated wavefields to increase the order of accuracy in time. The analysis shows that the numerical dispersion is much lower than that of the widely used second-order leapfrog method. Numerical dissipation is introduced by the ABS method which is significantly smaller for fourth-order than third-order accuracy. In 1-D and 3-D simulation experiments, we verify the convincing improvements of simulation accuracy of the fourth-order ABS method. In a realistic elastic 3-D scenario, the computing time reduces by a factor of approximately 2.4, whereas the memory requirements increase by approximately a factor of 2.2. The ABS method thus provides an alternative strategy to increase the simulation accuracy in time by investing computer memory instead of computing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Ya-Yuan; Lu, Chih-Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Wen; Juang, Jyuhn-Huarng; Enikolopov, Grigori; Sibley, Eric; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Tang, Shiue-Cheng
2010-07-01
Microscopic visualization of islets of Langerhans under normal and diabetic conditions is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. The intrinsic opacity of pancreata, however, limits optical accessibility for high-resolution light microscopy of islets in situ. Because the standard microtome-based, 2-D tissue analysis confines visualization of the islet architecture at a specific cut plane, 3-D representation of image data is preferable for islet assessment. We applied optical clearing to minimize the random light scattering in the mouse pancreatic tissue. The optical-cleared pancreas allowed penetrative, 3-D microscopic imaging of the islet microstructure and vasculature. Specifically, the islet vasculature was revealed by vessel painting-lipophilic dye labeling of blood vessels-for confocal microscopy. The voxel-based confocal micrographs were digitally processed with projection algorithms for 3-D visualization. Unlike the microtome-based tissue imaging, this optical method for penetrative imaging of mouse islets yielded clear, continuous optical sections for an integrated visualization of the islet microstructure and vasculature with subcellular-level resolution. We thus provide a useful imaging approach to change our conventional planar view of the islet structure into a 3-D panorama for better understanding of the islet physiology.
Large-scale three-dimensional inversion of EarthScope MT data using the integral equation method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, M. S.; Gribenko, A.; Green, M.; Cuma, M.
2010-12-01
We have developed fully parallelized rigorous 3D MT inversion software based on the integral equation method with variable background conductivity. We have also implemented a receiver footprint approach which considerably reduces the computational resources needed to invert the large volumes of data covering vast areas. We apply 3D inversion to MT data collected in the western United States as a part of the EarthScope project. The data set used in the inversion was obtained through the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). We have inverted two large datasets: one with the EarthScope MT stations located in the northwestern United States over Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho; another one with the locations of the EarthScope MT stations over Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, including Yellowstone National Park area. The inversion domains were divided into millions of discretization cells. The geoelectrical model of the northwestern U.S. deep interior produced by 3D inversion indicated several electrical conductivity anomalies in the lithosphere including highly conductive anomalies in the upper mantle in parts of Oregon and Idaho. We can also see an indication of a plume associated with the hot conductive material rising from the mantle toward Yellowstone volcano. The conductive body identified in these images is west-dipping in a similar way as the low-velocity body shown in P-wave seismic tomography image data (Smith et al., 2009). We observe a similarity of the images of the Yellowstone plume produced independently by seismic tomography and 3D MT inversion.
Three dimensional interactive display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.
Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Xu, Peng; Jia, Shengyong; Li, Kun
2015-11-01
A novel integrated process with three-dimensional electro-Fenton (3D EF) and biological activated carbon (BAC) was employed in advanced treatment of biologically pretreated Lurgi coal gasification wastewater. SAC-Fe (sludge deserved activated carbon from sewage and iron sludge) and SAC (sludge deserved activated carbon) were used in 3D EF as catalytic particle electrodes (CPEs) and in BAC as carriers respectively. Results indicated that 3D EF with SAC-Fe as CPEs represented excellent pollutants and COLOR removals as well as biodegradability improvement. The efficiency enhancement attributed to generating more H2O2 and OH. The integrated process exhibited efficient performance of COD, BOD5, total phenols, TOC, TN and COLOR removals at a much shorter retention time, with the corresponding concentrations in effluent of 31.18, 6.69, 4.29, 17.82, 13.88mg/L and <20 times, allowing discharge criteria to be met. The integrated system was efficient, cost-effective and ecological sustainable and could be a promising technology for engineering applications. PMID:26227570
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J.; Abubakar, A.
2012-12-01
The ability to accurately and efficiently simulate elastic wave scattering processes is very important in geophysical prospecting applications. A recently proposed formulation of an integral equation for solving three-dimensional elastic wave scattering problems is numerically implemented. The approach is formulated in terms of the stress tensor and particle velocity vector, where the symmetric tensors of rank two are decomposed into their omnidirectional and deviatoric constituents. Subsequently, this integral equation is used to obtain a contrast-source type integral equation. For solving these integral equations we employ a Conjugate Gradient Fast Fourier Transform (CG-FFT) scheme, which is based on quadrature formulas that provide (second-order) accurate approximations while retaining the convolution nature of the relevant integrals that make them amenable to efficient evaluation via Fast Fourier Transforms. As linear solvers we employ the Conjugate Gradient for Normal Residual (CGNR) scheme, which is always monotonically convergent, but has a slow convergent rate, and the Bi-Conjugate Gradient Stabilized (BiCGSTAB) scheme, which is more efficient, but it is less stable. The convergence rates of iterative schemes are further improved through the use of a simple diagonal preconditioner. We show a number of numerical results that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the implemented 3D elastic modeling approach. Numerical models include both simple synthetic models and classic seismic test models (such as the SEG/EAGE salt model and the Marmousi2 model). Excellent benchmark results against a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm are also presented. These features suggest that the present numerical scheme may provide the basis for the so-called contrast-source inversion method.
Three dimensional Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent
Huang, Wenhai; Jia, Weitao; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Liu, Xin; Tomsia, Antoni P.
2011-01-01
Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography (SR microCT), with a micron resolution, was used to evaluate the osteoconduction and osteointegration by borate bioactive glass after implantation 12 weeks in a rabbit tibia model. The study focused on the biomaterial–bone interface. Results from SR microCT two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions provided precise imaging of the biomaterial–bone integration and detailed microarchitecture of both the bone-like glass graft and the newly formed trabecular bone. Osteoconduction, the formation of new trabecular bone within a tibia defect, occurred only in the tibiae implanted with teicoplanin-loaded borate glass but not in those with teicoplanin-loaded CaSO4 beads, indicating the excellent biocompatibility of the glass implants. 3D reconstruction of the tibiae also showed the infiltration of vascular tissue in both the bioactive glass graft and the new trabecular bone. This study indicates that SR microCT can serve as a valuable complementary technique for imaging bone repair when using bioactive glass implants. PMID:21875330
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shih-kang; Chang, Hao-miao; Cho, Cheng-liang; Liu, Yu-chen; Kuo, Yi-kai
2015-07-01
Three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuits (ICs) are the most important packaging technology for next-generation semiconductors. Cu-to-Cu throughsilicon via interconnections with micro-bumps are key components in the fabrication of 3D ICs. However, significant reliability concerns have been raised due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds in the entire 3D IC joints. This study proposes a Ga-based Cu-to-Cu bonding technology with Pt under bump metallurgy (UBM). A systematic analysis of reactive wetting between Ga solders and polycrystalline, single-crystalline, and Ptcoated Cu substrates was conducted. Pt UBM as a wetting layer was identified to be a key component for Ga-based Cu-to-Cu bonding. Pt-coated Cu substrates were bonded using Ga solders with various Ga-to-Pt ratios ( n) at 300℃. When n ≥ 4, the Cu/Pt/Ga/Pt/Cu interface evolves to Cu/facecentered cubic (fcc)/γ1-Cu9Ga4/fcc/Cu, Cu/fcc/γ1-Cu9Ga4 + Ga7Pt3/fcc/Cu, and finally Cu/fcc + Ga7Pt3/Cu structures. The desired ductile solid solution joint formed with discrete Ga7Pt3 precipitates. When n ≤ 1, a Cu/Ga7Pt3/Cu joint formed without Cu actively participating in the reactions. The reaction mechanism and microstructure evolution were elaborated with the aid of CALPHAD thermodynamic modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.
Hao, Ruixia; Meng, Chengcheng; Li, Jianbing
2016-08-01
A three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor (3DBER) was integrated with sulfur autotrophic denitrification (SAD) to improve nitrogen removal performance for wastewater reclamation. The impacts of influent carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, electric current, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were evaluated. The new process, abbreviated as 3DBER-SAD, achieved a more stable denitrification compared to the recently studied 3DBER in literature. Its nitrogen removal improved by about 45 % as compared to 3DBER, especially under low C/N ratio conditions. The results also revealed that the biofilm bacteria community of 3DBER-SAD contained 21.1 % of the genus Thauera, 19.3 % of the genus Thiobacillus and Sulfuricella, as well as 5.3 % of the genus Alicycliphilus, Pseudomonas, and Paracoccus. The synergy between these heterotrophic, sulfur autotrophic, and hydrogenotrophic denitrification bacteria was believed to cause the high and stable nitrogen removal performance under various operating conditions. PMID:27170320
Abe, Hiroya; Ino, Kosuke; Li, Chen-Zhong; Kanno, Yusuke; Inoue, Kumi Y; Suda, Atsushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Matsudaira, Masahki; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu
2015-06-16
In the present study, we used a large-scale integration (LSI)-based amperometric sensor array system, designated Bio-LSI, to image dopamine release from three-dimensional (3D)-cultured PC12 cells (PC12 spheroids). The Bio-LSI device consists of 400 sensor electrodes with a pitch of 250 μm for rapid electrochemical imaging of large areas. PC12 spheroids were stimulated with K(+) to release dopamine. Poststimulation dopamine release from the PC12 spheroids was electrochemically imaged using the Bio-LSI device. Bio-LSI clearly showed the effects of the dopaminergic drugs l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and reserpine on K(+)-stimulated dopamine release from PC12 spheroids. Our results demonstrate that dopamine release from PC12 spheroids can be monitored using the device, suggesting that the Bio-LSI is a promising tool for use in evaluating 3D-cultured dopaminergic cells and the effects of dopaminergic drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe electrochemical imaging of dopamine release by PC12 spheroids using LSI-based amperometric sensors. PMID:25971414
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyata, Tatsuhiko; Ikuta, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Fumio
2010-07-01
This article proposes a free energy calculation method based on the molecular dynamics simulation combined with the three dimensional reference interaction site model theory. This study employs the free energy perturbation (FEP) and the thermodynamic integration (TDI) along the coupling parameters to control the interaction potential. To illustrate the method, we applied it to a complex formation process in aqueous solutions between a crown ether molecule 18-Crown-6 (18C6) and a potassium ion as one of the simplest model systems. Two coupling parameters were introduced to switch the Lennard-Jones potential and the Coulomb potential separately. We tested two coupling procedures: one is a "sequential-coupling" to couple the Lennard-Jones interaction followed by the Coulomb coupling, and the other is a "mixed-coupling" to couple both the Lennard-Jones and the Coulomb interactions together as much as possible. The sequential-coupling both for FEP and TDI turned out to be accurate and easily handled since it was numerically well-behaved. Furthermore, it was found that the sequential-coupling had relatively small statistical errors. TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path was to be carried out carefully, paying attention to a numerical behavior of the integrand. The present model system exhibited a nonmonotonic behavior in the integrands for TDI along the mixed-coupling integral path and also showed a relatively large statistical error. A coincidence within a statistical error was obtained among the results of the free energy differences evaluated by FEP, TDI with the sequential-coupling, and TDI with the mixed-coupling. The last one is most attractive in terms of the computer power and is accurate enough if one uses a proper set of windows, taking the numerical behavior of the integrands into account. TDI along the sequential-coupling integral path would be the most convenient among the methods we tested, since it seemed to be well-balanced between the computational
Three-dimensional laser microvision.
Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y
2001-04-10
A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum. PMID:18357177
Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.
1990-01-01
The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.
All optical OFDM transmission systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lim, Seong-Jin; Kserawi, Malaz
2011-12-01
All-optical OFDM data transmission opens up a new realm of advanced optical transmission at extreme data rates, as subcarriers are multiplexed and demultiplexed by all optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT). This paper reviews the principles of all optical OFDM transmission and its system application techniques, providing the generic ideas and the practical implementation issues to achieve 100Gbps or higher data rates with a spectral efficiency of 1 bps/Hz or better. This paper also include discussions on all-optical OFDM implementation variants such as an AWG-based OFDM multiplexer and demultiplexer, a receiver design without optical sampling, a transmitter design with frequency-locked cw lasers, an OFDM cyclic prefix designs, and a chromatic dispersion mitigation technique.
Three-dimensional silicon micromachining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi, S.; Song, J.; Dang, Z. Y.; Liang, H. D.; Breese, M. B. H.
2012-11-01
A process for fabricating arbitrary-shaped, two- and three-dimensional silicon and porous silicon components has been developed, based on high-energy ion irradiation, such as 250 keV to 1 MeV protons and helium. Irradiation alters the hole current flow during subsequent electrochemical anodization, allowing the anodization rate to be slowed or stopped for low/high fluences. For moderate fluences the anodization rate is selectively stopped only at depths corresponding to the high defect density at the end of ion range, allowing true three-dimensional silicon machining. The use of this process in fields including optics, photonics, holography and nanoscale depth machining is reviewed.
All-optical analog comparator.
Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai
2016-01-01
An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874
Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai
2016-01-01
An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874
Transformation equation in three-dimensional photoelasticity.
Ainola, Leo; Aben, Hillar
2006-03-01
Optical phenomena that occur when polarized light passes through an inhomogeneous birefringent medium are complicated, especially when the principal directions of the dielectric tensor rotate on the light ray. This case is typical in three-dimensional photoelasticity, in particular in integrated photoelasticity by stress analysis on the basis of measured polarization transformations. Analysis of polarization transformations in integrated photoelasticity has been based primarily on a system of two first-order differential equations. Using a transformed coordinate in the direction of light propagation, we have derived a single fourth-order differential equation of three-dimensional photoelasticity. For the case of uniform rotation of the principal directions we have obtained an analytical solution. PMID:16539073
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, D.; Reichart, A.
2000-06-27
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumpe, Norm
2005-01-01
Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…
Three-dimensional stellarator codes
Garabedian, P. R.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke
2000-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mura, John M.
1989-01-01
Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Poliakov, Evgeni Y. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
An apparatus and method wherein polarization rotation in alkali vapors or other mediums is used for all-optical switching and digital logic and where the rate of operation is proportional to the amplitude of the pump field. High rates of speed are accomplished by Rabi flopping of the atomic states using a continuously operating monochromatic atomic beam as the pump.
Gong, Hui; Chen, Shangbin; Zhang, Bin; Ding, Wenxiang; Luo, Qingming; Li, Anan
2014-01-01
Characterizing cytoarchitecture is crucial for understanding brain functions and neural diseases. In neuroanatomy, it is an important task to accurately extract cell populations' centroids and contours. Recent advances have permitted imaging at single cell resolution for an entire mouse brain using the Nissl staining method. However, it is difficult to precisely segment numerous cells, especially those cells touching each other. As presented herein, we have developed an automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method applied to the Nissl staining data, with the following two key steps: 1) concave points clustering to determine the seed points of touching cells; and 2) random walker segmentation to obtain cell contours. Also, we have evaluated the performance of our proposed method with several mouse brain datasets, which were captured with the micro-optical sectioning tomography imaging system, and the datasets include closely touching cells. Comparing with traditional detection and segmentation methods, our approach shows promising detection accuracy and high robustness. PMID:25111442
Three-dimensional fault drawing
Dongan, L. )
1992-01-01
In this paper, the author presents a structure interpretation based on three-dimensional fault drawing. It is required that fault closure must be based on geological theory, spacial plotting principle and restrictions in seismic exploration. Geological structure can be well ascertained by analysing the shapes and interrelation of the faults which have been drawn through reasonable fault point closure and fault point correlation. According to this method, the interrelation of fault points is determined by first closing corresponding fault points in intersecting sections, then reasonably correlating the relevant fault points. Fault point correlation is not achieved in base map, so its correctness can be improved greatly. Three-dimensional fault closure is achieved by iteratively revising. The closure grid should be densified gradually. The distribution of major fault system is determined prior to secondary faults. Fault interpretation by workstation also follows this procedure.
Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.
Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H
2008-04-01
Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM
2011-12-01
A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bocaniov, Serghei A.; Scavia, Donald
2016-06-01
Hypoxia or low bottom water dissolved oxygen (DO) is a world-wide problem of management concern requiring an understanding and ability to monitor and predict its spatial and temporal dynamics. However, this is often made difficult in large lakes and coastal oceans because of limited spatial and temporal coverage of field observations. We used a calibrated and validated three-dimensional ecological model of Lake Erie to extend a statistical relationship between hypoxic extent and bottom water DO concentrations to explore implications of the broader temporal and spatial development and dissipation of hypoxia. We provide the first numerical demonstration that hypoxia initiates in the nearshore, not the deep portion of the basin, and that the threshold used to define hypoxia matters in both spatial and temporal dynamics and in its sensitivity to climate. We show that existing monitoring programs likely underestimate both maximum hypoxic extent and the importance of low oxygen in the nearshore, discuss implications for ecosystem and drinking water protection, and recommend how these results could be used to efficiently and economically extend monitoring programs.
Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)
Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.
2008-05-01
Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.
Three-dimensional Camera Phone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, Keigo
2004-12-01
An inexpensive technique for realizing a three-dimensional (3D) camera phone display is presented. Light from the liquid-crystal screen of a camera phone is linearly polarized, and its direction of polarization is easily manipulated by a cellophane sheet used as a half-waveplate. The novel 3D camera phone display is made possible solely by optical components without resorting to computation, so that the 3D image is displayed in real time. Quality of the original image is not sacrificed in the process of converting it into a 3D image.
Three-dimensional visual stimulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Tsunehiro; Fukui, Yukio; Hashimoto, Keizo; Hiruma, Nobuyuki
1995-02-01
We describe a newly developed three-dimensional visual stimulator (TVS) that can change independently the directions, distances, sizes, luminance, and varieties of two sets of targets for both eyes. It consists of liquid crystal projectors (LCP's) that generate the flexible images of targets, Badal otometers that change target distances without changing the visual angles, and relay-lens systems that change target directions. A special control program is developed for real-time control of six motors and two LCP's in the TVS together with a three-dimensional optometer III that simultaneously measures eye movement, accommodation, pupil diameter, and head movement. distance, 0 to -20 D; direction, 16 horizontally and 15 vertically; size, 0-2 deg visual angle; and luminance, 10-2-10 2 cd/m2. The target images are refreshed at 60 Hz and speeds with which the target makes a smooth change (ramp stimuli) are size, 10 deg/s. A simple application demonstrates the performance.
Direct three-dimensional patterning using nanoimprint lithography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Mingtao; Chen, Lei; Chou, Stephen Y.
2001-05-01
We demonstrated that nanoimprint lithography (NIL) can create three-dimensional patterns, sub-40 nm T-gates, and air-bridge structures, in a single step imprint in polymer and metal by lift-off. A method based on electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching was developed to fabricate NIL molds with three-dimensional protrusions. The low-cost and high-throughput nanoimprint lithography for three-dimensional nanostructures has many significant applications such as monolithic microwave integrated circuits and nanoelectromechanical system.
Three-dimensional coil inductor
Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.
Mosso, Fabian; Barrera, John Fredy; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor; Torroba, Roberto
2011-03-14
We introduce for the first time the concept of an all-optical encrypted movie. This movie joints several encrypted frames corresponding to a time evolving situation employing the same encoding mask. Thanks to a multiplexing operation we compact the encrypted movie information into a single package. But the decryption of this single package implies the existence of cross-talk if we do not adequately pre-process the encoded information before multiplexing. In this regard, we introduce a grating modulation to each encoded image, and then we proceed to multiplexing. After appropriate filtering and synchronizing procedures applied to the multiplexing, we are able to decrypt and to reproduce the movie. This movie is only properly decoded when in possession of the right decoding key. The concept development is carried-out in virtual optical systems, both for the encrypting and the filtering-decrypting stages. Experimental results are shown to confirm our approach. PMID:21445211
High speed all optical networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chlamtac, Imrich; Ganz, Aura
1990-01-01
An inherent problem of conventional point-to-point wide area network (WAN) architectures is that they cannot translate optical transmission bandwidth into comparable user available throughput due to the limiting electronic processing speed of the switching nodes. The first solution to wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) based WAN networks that overcomes this limitation is presented. The proposed Lightnet architecture takes into account the idiosyncrasies of WDM switching/transmission leading to an efficient and pragmatic solution. The Lightnet architecture trades the ample WDM bandwidth for a reduction in the number of processing stages and a simplification of each switching stage, leading to drastically increased effective network throughputs. The principle of the Lightnet architecture is the construction and use of virtual topology networks, embedded in the original network in the wavelength domain. For this construction Lightnets utilize the new concept of lightpaths which constitute the links of the virtual topology. Lightpaths are all-optical, multihop, paths in the network that allow data to be switched through intermediate nodes using high throughput passive optical switches. The use of the virtual topologies and the associated switching design introduce a number of new ideas, which are discussed in detail.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2014-08-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2015-03-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.
Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2014-01-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338
Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro
2000-08-01
Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.
Three-dimensional display technologies
Geng, Jason
2014-01-01
The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827
Three-Dimensional Schlieren Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Bruce; Cochrane, Andrea
2004-11-01
Schlieren systems visualise disturbances that change the index of refraction of a fluid, for example due to temperature or salinity disturbances. `Synthetic schlieren' refers to a recent advance in which these disturbances are visualised with a digital camera and image-processing technology rather than the classical use of parabolic mirrors and a knife-edge. In a typical setup, light from an image of horizontal lines or dots passes almost horizontally through the test section of a fluid to a CCD camera. Refractive index disturbances distort the image and digital comparison of successive images reveals the plan-form structure and time evolution of the disturbances. If the disturbance is effectively two-dimensional, meaning that it is uniform across the line-of-sight of the camera, then its magnitude as well as its structure can measured through simple inversion of an algebraic equation. If the structure is axisymmetric with rotation-axis perpendicular to the line of sight, the magnitude of the disturbance can be measured through inversion of a non-singular square matrix. Here we report upon the extension of this work toward measuring the magnitude of a fully three-dimensional disturbance. This is done by analysing images from two perspectives through the test section and using inversion tomography techniques to reconstruct the disturbance field. The results are tested against theoretical predictions and experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart
2013-01-01
An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.
2011-11-01
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches.
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P; Brigham, Mark D; Naik, Shreesh R; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S
2011-11-01
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches. PMID:21946708
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herbig, U.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Rasztovits, S.
2014-05-01
3D Laser scanning technology gained more and more importance for the recording and documentation of architectural heritage. Especially for the survey of heterogeneous surfaces and complex structures it is a fast and reliable option for survey and so appreciated sources for research in architecture. Therefore the integration of laser scanning as a part of the building survey became a kind of standard procedure for objects of different scale, shape, age and origin. In some cases more than one team records an object with different devices using altering approaches. For example a client provides existing data from a part of the object that can't be accessed anymore, but is important to be integrated into the overall survey. The merging of the datasets may become challenging, especially if one survey is not documented in detail, in particular when it comes to the quality of the result. For a research about the traditional architecture of Saudi Arabia a building in the historic part of Jeddah has been surveyed in detail by a team of researchers of the Vienna University of Technology. Within this frame a workshop for students of the King Abdul Aziz about building archaeological research has been conducted. As part of the results consists of two sets of laserscan data, recorded with different laser scanners. Using these data a possible approach for the registration of scan data from different and/or unknown provenance has been developed which will be outlined in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polcari, Marco; Albano, Matteo; Fernández, José; Palano, Mimmo; Samsonov, Sergey; Stramondo, Salvatore; Zerbini, Susanna
2016-04-01
In this work we present a 3D map of coseismic displacements due to the 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake, California, obtained by integrating displacement information data from SAR Interferometry (InSAR), Multiple Aperture Interferometry (MAI), Pixel Offset Tracking (POT) and GPS data acquired by both permanent stations and campaigns sites. This seismic event produced significant surface deformation along the 3D components causing several damages to vineyards, roads and houses. The remote sensing results, i.e. InSAR, MAI and POT, were obtained from the pair of SAR images provided by the Sentinel-1 satellite, launched on April 3rd, 2014. They were acquired on August 7th and 31st along descending orbits with an incidence angle of about 23°. The GPS dataset includes measurements from 32 stations belonging to the Bay Area Regional Deformation Network (BARDN), 301 continuous stations available from the UNAVCO and the CDDIS archives, and 13 additional campaign sites from Barnhart et al, 2014 [1]. These data constrain the horizontal and vertical displacement components proving to be helpful for the adopted integration method. We exploit the Bayes theory to search for the 3D coseismic displacement components. In particular, for each point, we construct an energy function and solve the problem to find a global minimum. Experimental results are consistent with a strike-slip fault mechanism with an approximately NW-SE fault plane. Indeed, the 3D displacement map shows a strong North-South (NS) component, peaking at about 15 cm, a few kilometers far from the epicenter. The East-West (EW) displacement component reaches its maximum (~10 cm) south of the city of Napa, whereas the vertical one (UP) is smaller, although a subsidence in the order of 8 cm on the east side of the fault can be observed. A source modelling was performed by inverting the estimated displacement components. The best fitting model is given by a ~N330° E-oriented and ~70° dipping fault with a prevailing
Guo, Liang; Lu, Mingmin; Li, Qianqian; Zhang, Jiawen; Zong, Yan; She, Zonglian
2014-11-01
The hydrolysis effect of waste sludge after multi-enzyme and thermophilic bacteria pretreatments is investigated using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) in this study. The compositional characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and dissolved organic matters (DOM) were analyzed to evaluate the sludge disintegration. The EPS and cell wall in sludge were disrupted after hydrolysis which led to carbohydrate, protein and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of DOM increasing in sludge supernatant. The bio-degradability level in the extracted fractions of EPS and DOM depending on the fluorescence zones was found after hydrolysis. The highest proportion of percent fluorescence response (Pi,n) in EPS and DOM was soluble microbial by-product and humic acid-like organics. A significant increase of humic acid-like organics in DOM after thermophilic bacteria hydrolysis was obtained. The assessment of hydrolysis using EEM coupled with FRI provided a new insight toward the bio-utilization process of waste sludge. PMID:25181696
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, P. C.; Haden, C. V.; Ghamarian, I.; Hayes, B. J.; Ales, T.; Penso, G.; Dixit, V.; Harlow, G.
2014-07-01
Electron beam direct manufacturing, synonymously known as electron beam additive manufacturing, along with other additive "3-D printing" manufacturing processes, are receiving widespread attention as a means of producing net-shape (or near-net-shape) components, owing to potential manufacturing benefits. Yet, materials scientists know that differences in manufacturing processes often significantly influence the microstructure of even widely accepted materials and, thus, impact the properties and performance of a material in service. It is important to accelerate the understanding of the processing-structure-property relationship of materials being produced via these novel approaches in a framework that considers the performance in a statistically rigorous way. This article describes the development of a process model, the assessment of key microstructural features to be incorporated into a microstructure simulation model, a novel approach to extract a constitutive equation to predict tensile properties in Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-64), and a probabilistic approach to measure the fidelity of the property model against real data. This integrated approach will provide designers a tool to vary process parameters and understand the influence on performance, enabling design and optimization for these highly visible manufacturing approaches.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, Michael S.; Smith, Robert B.; Gribenko, Alexander; Cuma, Martin; Green, Marie
2011-04-01
Interpretation of the EarthScope MT (magnetotelluric) data requires the development of a large-scale inversion method which can address two common problems of 3D MT inversion: computational time and memory requirements. We have developed an efficient method of 3D MT inversion based on an IE (integral equation) formulation of the MT forward modeling problem and a receiver footprint approach, implemented as a massively parallel algorithm. This method is applied to the MT data collected in the western United States as a part of the EarthScope project. As a result, we present one of the first 3D geoelectrical images of the upper mantle beneath Yellowstone revealed by this large-scale 3D inversion of the EarthScope MT data. These images show a highly conductive body associated with the tomographically imaged mantle plume-like layer of hot material rising from the upper mantle toward the Yellowstone volcano. The conductive body identified in these images is west-dipping in a similar way to a P-wave low-velocity body.
Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. C., III
1976-01-01
The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.
All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc
2013-04-01
The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science.
All-optical signal processing using dynamic Brillouin gratings
Santagiustina, Marco; Chin, Sanghoon; Primerov, Nicolay; Ursini, Leonora; Thévenaz, Luc
2013-01-01
The manipulation of dynamic Brillouin gratings in optical fibers is demonstrated to be an extremely flexible technique to achieve, with a single experimental setup, several all-optical signal processing functions. In particular, all-optical time differentiation, time integration and true time reversal are theoretically predicted, and then numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The technique can be exploited to process both photonic and ultra-wide band microwave signals, so enabling many applications in photonics and in radio science. PMID:23549159
Three-dimensional urban GIS for Atlanta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhaumik, Dharmajyoti; Faust, Nickolas L.; Estrada, Diana; Linares, Jairo
1997-07-01
Georgia Tech has developed a prototype system for the demonstration of the concepts of a virtual 3D geographic information system (GIS) in an urban environment. The virtual GIS integrates the technologies of GIS, remote sensing, and visualization to provide an interactive tool for the exploration of spatial data. A high density urban environment with terrain elevation, imagery, GIS layers, and three dimensional natural and manmade features is a stressing test for the integration potential of such a virtual 3D GIS. In preparation for the 1996 Olympic Games, Georgia Tech developed two highly detailed 3D databases over parts of Atlanta. A 2.5 meter database was used to depict the downtown Atlanta area with much higher resolution imagery being used for photo- texture of individual Atlanta buildings. Less than 1 meter imagery data was used to show a very accurate map of Georgia Tech, the 1996 Olympic Village. Georgia Tech developed visualization software was integrated via message passing with a traditional GIS package so that all commonly used GIS query and analysis functions could be applied within the 3D environment. This project demonstrates the versatility and productivity that can be accomplished by operating GIS functions within a virtual GIS and multi-media framework.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Masahiro; Hachiya, Shogo; Ishii, Tomoya; Ning, Sheyang; Tsurumi, Kota; Takeuchi, Ken
2016-04-01
A 0.6-1.0 V, 25.9 mm2 boost converter is proposed to generate resistive random access memory (ReRAM) write (set/reset) voltage for three-dimensional (3D) integrated ReRAM and NAND flash hybrid solid-state drive (SSD). The proposed boost converter uses an integrated area-efficient V BUF generation circuit to obtain short ReRAM sector write time, small circuit size, and small energy consumption simultaneously. In specific, the proposed boost converter reduces ReRAM sector write time by 65% compared with a conventional one-stage boost converter (Conventional 1) which uses 1.0 V operating voltage. On the other hand, by using the same ReRAM sector write time, the proposed boost converter reduces 49% circuit area and 46% energy consumption compared with a conventional two-stage boost converter (Conventional 2). In addition, by using the proposed boost converter, the operating voltage, V DD, can be reduced to 0.6 V. The lowest 159 nJ energy consumption can be obtained when V DD is 0.7 V.
Wu, Xiaoyu; Li, Songmei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Jianhua; Yu, Mei
2016-02-14
Binary metal sulfides, especially NiCo2S4, hold great promise as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries because of their excellent electronic conductivity and high capacity compared to mono-metal sulfides and oxides. Here, NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays are successfully grown on flexible nitrogen-doped carbon foam (NDCF) substrates with robust adhesion via a facile surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route and the subsequent sulfurization treatment. The obtained NiCo2S4/NDCF composites show unique three-dimensional architectures, in which NiCo2S4 nanotubes of ∼5 μm in length and 100 nm in width are uniformly grown on the NDCF skeletons to form arrays. When used directly as integrated anodes for lithium-ion batteries without any conductive additives and binders, the NiCo2S4/NDCF composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1721 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1), enhanced cycling performance with the capacity maintained at 1182 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, and a remarkable rate capability. The excellent lithium storage performances of the composites could be attributed to the unique material composition, a rationally designed hollow nanostructure and an integrated smart architecture, which offer fast electron transport and ion diffusion, enhanced material/-electrolyte contact area and facile accommodation of strains during the lithium insertion and extraction process. PMID:26796603
Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun
2015-08-20
We propose a method for visualizing three-dimensional objects in scattering media. Our method is based on active illumination using three-dimensionally coded patterns and a numerical algorithm employing a sparsity constraint. We experimentally demonstrated the proposed imaging method for test charts located three-dimensionally at different depths in the space behind a translucent sheet. PMID:26368767
Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György
2009-01-01
The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…
Three-dimensional coherent structures of electrokinetic instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demekhin, E. A.; Nikitin, N. V.; Shelistov, V. S.
2014-07-01
A direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional elektrokinetic instability near a charge-selective surface (electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro- or nanochannels) has been carried out and analyzed. A special finite-difference method has been used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit 31/3-step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. The calculations employ parallel computing. Three characteristic patterns, which correspond to the overlimiting currents, are observed: (a) two-dimensional electroconvective rolls, (b) three-dimensional regular hexagonal structures, and (c) three-dimensional structures of spatiotemporal chaos, which are a combination of unsteady hexagons, quadrangles, and triangles. The transition from (b) to (c) is accompanied by the generation of interacting two-dimensional solitary pulses.
Three-dimensional coherent structures of electrokinetic instability.
Demekhin, E A; Nikitin, N V; Shelistov, V S
2014-07-01
A direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional elektrokinetic instability near a charge-selective surface (electric membrane, electrode, or system of micro- or nanochannels) has been carried out and analyzed. A special finite-difference method has been used for the space discretization along with a semi-implicit 31/3-step Runge-Kutta scheme for the integration in time. The calculations employ parallel computing. Three characteristic patterns, which correspond to the overlimiting currents, are observed: (a) two-dimensional electroconvective rolls, (b) three-dimensional regular hexagonal structures, and (c) three-dimensional structures of spatiotemporal chaos, which are a combination of unsteady hexagons, quadrangles, and triangles. The transition from (b) to (c) is accompanied by the generation of interacting two-dimensional solitary pulses. PMID:25122393
On three-dimensional quasi-Stäckel Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marikhin, V. G.
2014-05-01
A three-dimensional integrable generalization of the Stäckel systems is proposed. A classification of such systems is obtained, which results in two families. The first family is the direct sum of the two-dimensional system which is equivalent to the representation of the Schottky-Manakov top in the quasi-Stäckel form and a Stäckel one-dimensional system. The second family is probably a new three-dimensional system. The system of hydrodynamic type, which we get from this family in the usual way, is a three-dimensional generalization of the Gibbons-Tsarev system. A generalization of the quasi-Stäckel systems to the case of any dimension is discussed.
Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi
2015-07-07
In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein–Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple S{sub N}2 reaction (Cl{sup −} + CH{sub 3}Cl → ClCH{sub 3} + Cl{sup −}) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi
2015-07-01
In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple SN2 reaction (Cl- + CH3Cl → ClCH3 + Cl-) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF.
Kido, Kentaro; Kasahara, Kento; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi
2015-07-01
In this study, we reported the development of a new quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-type framework to describe chemical processes in solution by combining standard molecular-orbital calculations with a three-dimensional formalism of integral equation theory for molecular liquids (multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike (MC-MOZ) method). The theoretical procedure is very similar to the 3D-reference interaction site model self-consistent field (RISM-SCF) approach. Since the MC-MOZ method is highly parallelized for computation, the present approach has the potential to be one of the most efficient procedures to treat chemical processes in solution. Benchmark tests to check the validity of this approach were performed for two solute (solute water and formaldehyde) systems and a simple SN2 reaction (Cl(-) + CH3Cl → ClCH3 + Cl(-)) in aqueous solution. The results for solute molecular properties and solvation structures obtained by the present approach were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by other hybrid frameworks and experiments. In particular, the results of the proposed approach are in excellent agreements with those of 3D-RISM-SCF. PMID:26156461
The GALAXIE all-optical FEL project
Rosenzweig, J. B.; Arab, E.; Andonian, G.; Cahill, A.; Fitzmorris, K.; Fukusawa, A.; Hoang, P.; Jovanovic, I.; Marcus, G.; Marinelli, A.; Murokh, A.; Musumeci, P.; Naranjo, B.; O'Shea, B.; O'Shea, F.; Ovodenko, A.; Pogorelsky, I.; Putterman, S.; Roberts, K.; Shumail, M.; and others
2012-12-21
We describe a comprehensive project, funded under the DARPA AXiS program, to develop an all-optical table-top X-ray FEL based on dielectric acceleration and electromagnetic undulators, yielding a compact source of coherent X-rays for medical and related applications. The compactness of this source demands that high field (>GV/m) acceleration and undulation-inducing fields be employed, thus giving rise to the project's acronym: GV/m AcceLerator And X-ray Integrated Experiment (GALAXIE). There are numerous physics and technical hurdles to surmount in this ambitious scenario, and the integrated solutions include: a biharmonic photonic TW structure, 200 micron wavelength electromagnetic undulators, 5 {mu}m laser development, ultra-high brightness magnetized/asymmetric emittance electron beam generation, and SASE FEL operation. We describe the overall design philosophy of the project, the innovative approaches to addressing the challenges presented by the design, and the significant progress towards realization of these approaches in the nine months since project initialization.
Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.
Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibria by iteration
Boozer, A.H.
1983-02-01
The iterative method of evaluating plasma equilibria is especially simple in a magnetic coordinate representation. This method is particularly useful for clarifying the subtle constraints of three-dimensional equilibria and studying magnetic surface breakup at high plasma beta.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR HYPERTHERMIA CALCULATIONS
Realistic three-dimensional models that predict temperature distributions with a high degree of spatial resolution in bodies exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields are required in the application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment. To ascertain the thermophysiologic response of...
Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Y.
2015-02-01
Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.
Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.
2016-08-01
We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.
Electromagnetic scattering from three dimensional periodic structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Andrew L.
We have developed a numerical method for solving electromagnetic scattering problems from arbitrary, smooth, three dimensional structures that are periodic in two directions and of finite thickness in the third direction. We solve Maxwell's equations via an integral equation that was first formulated by Claus Muller. The Muller integral equation is Fredholm of the second kind, so it is a well-posed problem. The original Muller formulation was for compact scatterers and it used a free space Green's function for the Helmholtz equation. We solve a periodic problem with a periodic Helmholtz Green's function. This Green's function has the same degree of singularity as the free space Helmholtz Green's function, but it is an infinite sum that converges very slowly. We use a resummation technique (due to P. P. Ewald) to perform an efficient calculation of the periodic Green's function. We solve the integral equation by a Galerkin method and use RWG vector basis functions to discretize surface currents on the scatterer. We perform a careful extraction of all singularities from the integrals that we compute. We use a triangular Gaussian quadrature method for calculation of the non-singular parts of the integrals. We analytically compute the remaining singular and nearly singular integrals. We also perform an acceleration technique that treats several frequencies simultaneously and leads to decreased computational times. In addition to the numerical code, we present an alternative way of looking at electromagnetic scattering in terms of Calderon projection operators. We have validated our computer code by comparing the numerical results with results from two separate cases. The first case is that of a flat dielectric slab of finite thickness, for which exact formulae are available. The second case is a periodic array of a row of infinite cylinders. In this case, we compare our results with those obtainedv from a two dimensional code developed by S. P. Shipman, S. Venakides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Zi-Ming; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan
2012-06-01
With the development of micro- or nano-fabrication technologies, great interest has been aroused in exploiting photonic crystal nanobeam structures. In this article the design of high-quality-factor (Q) polymeric photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities suitable for realizing ultrafast all-optical switching is presented based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Adopting the pump-probe technique, the ultrafast dynamic response of the all-optical switching in a nanobeam microcavity with a quality factor of 1000 and modal volume of 1.22 (λ/n)3 is numerically studied and a switching time as fast as 3.6 picoseconds is obtained. Our results indicate the great promise of applying photonic crystal nanobeam microcavities to construct integrated ultrafast tunable photonic devices or circuits incorporating polymer materials with large Kerr nonlinearity and ultrafast response speed.
Huang, Song-Bin; Wang, Shih-Siou; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun; Lin, Yung Chang; Lai, Chao-Sung; Wu, Min-Hsien
2013-03-21
Although microfluidic cell culture systems are versatile tools for cellular assays, their use has yet to set in motion an evolutionary shift away from conventional cell culture methods. This situation is mainly due to technical hurdles: the operational barriers to the end-users, the lack of compatible detection schemes capable of reading out the results of a microfluidic-based cellular assay, and the lack of fundamental data to bridge the gap between microfluidic and conventional cell culture models. To address these issues, we propose a high-throughput, perfusion, three-dimensional (3-D) microfluidic cell culture system encompassing 30 microbioreactors. This integrated system not only aims to provide a user-friendly cell culture tool for biologists to perform assays but also to enable them to obtain precise data. Its technical features include (i) integration of a heater chip based on transparent indium tin oxide glass, providing stable thermal conditions for cell culturing; (ii) a microscale 3-D culture sample loading scheme that is both efficient and precise; (iii) a non-mechanical pneumatically driven multiplex medium perfusion mechanism; and (iv) a microplate reader-compatible waste medium collector array for the subsequent high throughput bioassays. In this study, we found that the 3-D culture sample loading method provided uniform sample loading [coefficient of variation (CV): 3.2%]. In addition, the multiplex medium perfusion mechanism led to reasonably uniform (CV: 3.6-6.9%) medium pumping rates in the 30 microchannels. Moreover, we used the proposed system to perform a successful cell culture-based chemosensitivity assay. To determine the effects of cell culture models on the cellular proliferation, and the results of chemosensitivity assays, we compared our data with that obtained using three conventional cell culture models. We found that the nature of the cell culture format could lead to different evaluation outcomes. Consequently, when establishing a
Vision in our three-dimensional world.
Parker, Andrew J
2016-06-19
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595
Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2014-11-01
Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.
Topology of three-dimensional separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.
1981-01-01
Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.
Three dimensional responsive structure of tough hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xuxu; Ma, Chunxin; Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Yongbin; Zhu, Ziqi; Liu, Junjie; Li, Tiefeng
2015-04-01
Three dimensional responsive structures have high value for the application of responsive hydrogels in various fields such as micro fluid control, tissue engineering and micro robot. Whereas various hydrogels with stimuli-responsive behaviors have been developed, designing and fabricating of the three dimensional responsive structures remain challenging. We develop a temperature responsive double network hydrogel with novel fabrication methods to assemble the complex three dimensional responsive structures. The shape changing behavior of the structures can be significantly increased by building blocks with various responsiveness. Mechanical instability is built into the structure with the proper design and enhance the performance of the structure. Finite element simulation are conducted to guide the design and investigate the responsive behavior of the hydrogel structures
Vision in our three-dimensional world
2016-01-01
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
Binocular three-dimensional measurement system using a Dammann grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kun; Zhou, Changhe; Wei, Shengbin; Wang, Shaoqing; Li, Shubin; Li, Yanyang; Wang, Jin; Lu, Yancong
2014-11-01
In this paper, we develop a binocular three-dimensional measurement system using a Dammann grating. A laser diode and a Dammann grating are employed to generate a regular and square laser spot array. Dammann array illuminator is placed between two cameras and narrowband-pass filters are embedded in the project lens to eliminate the interference of background light. During the measurement, a series of laser spot arrays are projected toward the target object and captured by two cameras simultaneously. Similar to stereo vision of human eyes, stereo matching will be performed to search the homologous spot which is a pair of image points resulting from the same object point. At first, the sub-pixel coordinates of the laser spots are extracted from the stereo images. Then stereo matching is easily performed based on a fact that laser spots with the same diffraction order are homologous ones. Because the system has been calibrated before measurement, single frame three-dimensional point cloud can be obtained using the disparity of homologous points by triangulation methods. Finally, three-dimensional point clouds belong to different frame which represent different view of the object will be registered to build up an integral three-dimensional object using ICP algorithm. On one hand, this setup is small enough to meet the portable outdoor applications. On the other hand, measurement accuracy of this system is better than 0.3 mm which can meet the measurement accuracy requirements in most situations.
Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Thinh V.
1989-01-01
Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.
Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.
Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity.
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan
2016-06-24
We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques. PMID:27391712
Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan
2016-06-01
We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques.
Analysis of autostereoscopic three-dimensional images using multiview wavelets.
Saveljev, Vladimir; Palchikova, Irina
2016-08-10
We propose that multiview wavelets can be used in processing multiview images. The reference functions for the synthesis/analysis of multiview images are described. The synthesized binary images were observed experimentally as three-dimensional visual images. The symmetric multiview B-spline wavelets are proposed. The locations recognized in the continuous wavelet transform correspond to the layout of the test objects. The proposed wavelets can be applied to the multiview, integral, and plenoptic images. PMID:27534470
Three-dimensional models. [For orbital celestial mechanics
Hunter, C. )
1990-06-01
The Schwarzschild (1979) approach to the analysis of three-dimensional galactic models is reviewed. An analysis of triaxial Staeckel models is discussed which shows that such models have a wide variety of possible distribution functions. The uniqueness that Schwarzschild first encountered in his discrete formulation of the problem of finding a three-integral distribution function for a triaxial density is real and not an artifact of the finite cell approximation. 27 refs.
Three-dimensional photon counting double-random-phase encryption.
Cho, Myungjin; Javidi, Bahram
2013-09-01
In this Letter, we present a three-dimensional (3D) photon counting double-random-phase encryption (DRPE) technique using passive integral imaging. A 3D photon counting DRPE can encrypt a 3D scene and provides more security and authentications due to photon counting Poisson nonlinear transformation on the encrypted image. In addition, 3D imaging allows verification of the 3D object at different depths. Preliminary results and performance evaluation have been presented. PMID:23988912
Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke
2001-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julian, Glenn M.
1993-01-01
Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)
Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakoch, Douglas A.
One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.