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Sample records for all-pressure fluid drop

  1. Validation of an All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model: Heptane Fluid Drops in Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.; Bulzan, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Despite the fact that supercritical fluids occur both in nature and in industrial situations, the fundamentals of their behavior is poorly understood because supercritical fluids combine the characteristics of both liquids and gases, and therefore their behavior is not intuitive. There are several specific reasons for the lack of understanding: First, data from (mostly optical) measurements can be very misleading because regions of high density thus observed are frequently identified with liquids. A common misconception is that if in an experiment one can optically identify "drops" and "ligaments", the observed fluid must be in a liquid state. This inference is incorrect because in fact optical measurements detect any large change (i.e. gradients) in density. Thus, the density ratio may be well below Omicron(10(exp 3)) that characterizes its liquid/gas value, but the measurement will still identify a change in the index of refraction providing that the change is sudden (steep gradients). As shown by simulations of supercritical fluids, under certain conditions the density gradients may remain large during the supercritical binary fluids mixing, thus making them optically identifiable. Therefore, there is no inconsistency between the optical observation of high density regions and the fluids being in a supercritical state. A second misconception is that because a fluid has a liquid-like density, it is appropriate to model it as a liquid. However, such fluids may have liquid-like densities while their transport properties differ from those of a liquid. Considering that the critical pressure of most fuel hydrocarbons used in Diesel and gas turbine engines is in the range of 1.5 - 3 MPa, and the fact that the maximum pressure attained in these engines is about 6 Mps, it is clear that the fuel in the combustion chamber will experience both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Studies of drop behavior over a wide range of pressures were performed in the past

  2. A Validated All-Pressure Fluid Drop Model and Lewis Number Effects for a Binary Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, K.; Bellan, J.

    1999-01-01

    The differences between subcritical liquid drop and supercritical fluid drop behavior are discussed. Under subcritical, evaporative high emission rate conditions, a film layer is present in the inner part of the drop surface which contributes to the unique determination of the boundary conditions; it is this film layer which contributes to the solution's convective-diffusive character. In contrast, under supercritical condition as the boundary conditions contain a degree of arbitrariness due to the absence of a surface, and the solution has then a purely diffusive character. Results from simulations of a free fluid drop under no-gravity conditions are compared to microgravity experimental data from suspended, large drop experiments at high, low and intermediary temperatures and in a range of pressures encompassing the sub-and supercritical regime. Despite the difference between the conditions of the simulations and experiments (suspension vs. free floating), the time rate of variation of the drop diameter square is remarkably well predicted in the linear curve regime. The drop diameter is determined in the simulations from the location of the maximum density gradient, and agrees well with the data. It is also shown that the classical calculation of the Lewis number gives qualitatively erroneous results at supercritical conditions, but that an effective Lewis number previously defined gives qualitatively correct estimates of the length scales for heat and mass transfer at all pressures.

  3. Motility of active fluid drops on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoromskaia, Diana; Alexander, Gareth P.

    2015-12-01

    Drops of active liquid crystal have recently shown the ability to self-propel, which was associated with topological defects in the orientation of active filaments [Sanchez et al., Nature 491, 431 (2013), 10.1038/nature11591]. Here, we study the onset and different aspects of motility of a three-dimensional drop of active fluid on a planar surface. We analyze theoretically how motility is affected by orientation profiles with defects of various types and locations, by the shape of the drop, and by surface friction at the substrate. In the scope of a thin drop approximation, we derive exact expressions for the flow in the drop that is generated by a given orientation profile. The flow has a natural decomposition into terms that depend entirely on the geometrical properties of the orientation profile, i.e., its bend and splay, and a term coupling the orientation to the shape of the drop. We find that asymmetric splay or bend generates a directed bulk flow and enables the drop to move, with maximal speeds achieved when the splay or bend is induced by a topological defect in the interior of the drop. In motile drops the direction and speed of self-propulsion is controlled by friction at the substrate.

  4. Fluid dynamics and solidification of levitated drops and shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The fluid dynamic investigaton of simple free liquid drops is described based on ground-based and low-gravity experimental results. The behavior of compound drops and liquid shells as described in recent theoretical and experimental studies is discussed. Experimental investigations using both levitation devices and drop tubes are considered in the case of 1-g laboratory investigations, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of both techniques.

  5. A 2D electrohydrodynamic model for electrorotation of fluid drops.

    PubMed

    Feng, James Q

    2002-02-01

    A theoretical analysis of spontaneous electrorotation of deformable fluid drops in a DC electric field is presented with a 2D electrohydrodynamic model. The fluids in the system are assumed to be leaky dielectric and Newtonian. If the rotating flow is dominant over the cellular convection type of electrohydrodynamic flow, closed-form solutions for drops of small deformations can be obtained. Because the governing equations are in general nonlinear even when drop deformations are ignored, the general solution for even undeformed drop takes a form of infinite series and can only be evaluated by numerical means. Both closed-form solutions for special cases and numerical solutions for more general cases are obtained here to describe steady-state field variables and first-order drop deformations. In a DC electric field of strength beyond the threshold value, spontaneous electrorotation of a drop is shown to occur when charge relaxation in the surrounding fluid is faster than the fluid inside the drop. With increasing the strength of the applied electric field from the threshold for onset of electrorotation, the axis of drop contraction deviates from from that of the applied electric field in the direction of the rotating flow with an angle increasing with the field strength. PMID:16290391

  6. Coalescence of Drops of a Power-law Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamat, Pritish; Thete, Sumeet; Basaran, Osman

    2014-11-01

    Drop coalescence is crucial in a host of industrial, household, and natural processes that involve dispersions. Coalescence is a rate-controlling process in breaking emulsions and strongly influences drop-size-distributions in sprays. In a continuum approach, coalescence begins by the formation of a microscopic, non-slender bridge connecting the two drops. Indefinitely large axial curvature at the neck results in local lowering of pressure that drives fluid from the bulk of the drops toward the neck, thereby causing the bridge radius r (t) and height z (t) to increase in time t. The coalescence of Newtonian drops in air has heretofore been thoroughly studied. Here, we extend these earlier studies by analyzing the coalescence of drops of power-law fluids because many fluids encountered in real applications, including cosmetic creams, shampoos, grease, and paint, exhibit power-law (deformation-rate thinning) rheology. On account of the non-slender geometry of the liquid bridge connecting the two drops (z << r) , we analyze the resulting free surface flow problem by numerical simulation. Among other results, we present and discuss the nature of flows and scaling behaviors for r and z as functions of the initial viscosity and power-law index (0 < n <= 1) .

  7. Measurements of fluid viscosity using a miniature ball drop device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay X.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes measurement of fluid viscosity using a small ball drop device. It requires as little as 100 μl of fluid. Each measurement can be performed in seconds. The experiment is designed to yield reliable viscosity values by operating at properly chosen tilt angles and with calibration using well-characterized Newtonian fluids such as mixtures of glycerol and water. It also yields dynamical viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids at moderate shear rates. The device is easy to assemble and it allows for the measurement of viscosity even when the fluid samples are too small to measure using most commercial viscometers or rheometers. Therefore, the technique is particularly useful in characterizing biological fluids such as solutions of proteins, DNA, and polymers frequently used in biomaterial applications.

  8. Breakup modes of fluid drops in confined shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, Nilkamal; Mandal, Nibir

    2016-07-01

    Using a conservative level set method we investigate the deformation behavior of isolated spherical fluid drops in a fluid channel subjected to simple shear flows, accounting the following three non-dimensional parameters: (1) degree of confinement (Wc = 2a/h, where a is the drop radius and h is the channel thickness); (2) viscosity ratio between the two fluids (λ = μd/μm, where μd is the drop viscosity and μm is the matrix viscosity); and (3) capillary number (Ca). For a given Wc, a drop steadily deforms to attain a stable geometry (Taylor number and inclination of its long axis to the shear direction) when Ca < 0.3. For Ca > 0.3, the deformation behavior turns to be unsteady, leading to oscillatory variations of both its shape and orientation with progressive shear. This kind of unsteady deformation also occurs in a condition of high viscosity ratios (λ > 2). Here we present a detailed parametric analysis of the drop geometry with increasing shear as a function of Wc, Ca, and λ. Under a threshold condition, deforming drops become unstable, resulting in their breakup into smaller droplets. We recognize three principal modes of breakup: Mode I (mid-point pinching), Mode II (edge breakup), and Mode III (homogeneous breakup). Each of these modes is shown to be most effective in the specific field defined by Ca and λ. Our study also demonstrates the role of channel confinement (Wc) in controlling the transition of Mode I to III. Finally, we discuss implications of the three modes in determining characteristic drop size distributions in multiphase flows.

  9. Microseismicity Induced by Fluid Pressure Drop (Laboratory Study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeny; Melchaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Pore pressure change in saturated porous rocks may result in its fracturing (Maury et Fourmaintraux, 1993) and corresponding microseismic event occurrences. Microseismicity due to fluid injection is considered in numerous papers (Maxwell, 2010, Shapiro et al., 2005). Another type of the porous medium fracturing is related with rapid pore pressure drop at some boundary. The mechanism of such fracturing was considered by (Khristianovich, 1985) as a model of sudden coal blowing and by (Alidibirov, Panov, 1998) as a model of volcano eruptions. If the porous saturated medium has a boundary where it directly contacted with fluid under the high pressure (in a hydraulic fracture or in a borehole), and the pressure at that boundary is dropped, the conditions for tensile cracks can be achieved at some distance from the boundary. In the paper, the results of experimental study of saturated porous sample fracturing due to pore pressure rapid drop are discussed. The samples (82 mm high, ∅60 mm) were made of quartz sand, which was cemented by "liquid glass" glue with mass fraction 1%. The sample (porosity 35%, uniaxial unconfined compression strength 2.5 MPa) was placed in a mould and saturated by oil. The upper end of the sample contacted with the mould upper lid, the lower end contacted with fluid. The fluid pressure was increased to 10 MPa and then discharged through the bottom nipple. The pressure increases/drops were repeated 30-50 times. Pore pressure and acoustic emission (AE) were registered by transducers mounted into upper and bottom lids of the mould. It was found, that AE sources (corresponded to microfracturing) were spreading from the open end to the closed end of the sample, and that maximal number of AE events was registered at some distance from the opened end. The number of AE pulses increased with every next pressure drop, meanwhile the number of pulses with high amplitudes diminished. It was found that AE maximal rate corresponded to the fluid pressure

  10. Evaporation and fluid dynamics of a sessile drop of capillary size.

    SciTech Connect

    Barash, L. Yu.; Bigioni, T. P.; Vinokur, V. M.; Shchur, L. N.; Materials Science Division; Landau Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical description and numerical simulation of an evaporating sessile drop are developed. We jointly take into account the hydrodynamics of an evaporating sessile drop, effects of the thermal conduction in the drop, and the diffusion of vapor in air. A shape of the rotationally symmetric drop is determined within the quasistationary approximation. Nonstationary effects in the diffusion of the vapor are also taken into account. Simulation results agree well with the data of evaporation rate measurements for the toluene drop. Marangoni forces associated with the temperature dependence of the surface tension generate fluid convection in the sessile drop. Our results demonstrate several dynamical stages of the convection characterized by different number of vortices in the drop. During the early stage the array of vortices arises near a surface of the drop and induces a nonmonotonic spatial distribution of the temperature over the drop surface. The initial number of near-surface vortices in the drop is controlled by the Marangoni cell size which is similar to that given by Pearson for flat fluid layers. This number quickly decreases with time resulting in three bulk vortices in the intermediate stage. The vortices finally transform into the single convection vortex in the drop existing during about 1/2 of the evaporation time.

  11. Interferometric technique for nanoscale dynamics of fluid drops on arbitrary substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Gopal; Pandey, Mrityunjay; Singh, Kamal P.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a simple interferometric probe to detect nanoscale dynamics of sessile fluid drops on arbitrary rough or flexible substrates. The technique relies on producing high-contrast Newton-ring like dynamical fringes by interference between a weak Fresnel reflection from the air-fluid interface of the drop and an air-glass interface of a convex lens placed above the drop in quasi-normal geometry. By analyzing the dynamical fringes, we observed 100-700 nm/s fluctuations in water drops evaporating on metal, leaves, insect wing, and sand paper due to their surface roughness. Similar fluctuations were also observed during spreading of non-volatile glycerin drops on various rough surfaces. Another application of the technique is demonstrated in precision measurement of change in evaporation rate of a water drop due to cooling of a metal substrate. This technique can be further miniaturized with a microscope objective with potential for wide applications.

  12. Osteoarthritis screening using Raman spectroscopy of dried human synovial fluid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Mandair, Gurjit S.; Esmonde-White, Francis W. L.; Raaii, Farhang; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to investigate synovial fluid drops deposited onto fused silica microscope slides. This spectral information can be used to identify chemical changes in synovial fluid associated with osteoarthritis (OA) damage to knee joints. The chemical composition of synovial fluid is predominately proteins (enzymes, cytokines, or collagen fragments), glycosaminoglycans, and a mixture of minor components such as inorganic phosphate crystals. During osteoarthritis, the chemical, viscoelastic and biological properties of synovial fluid are altered. A pilot study was conducted to determine if Raman spectra of synovial fluid correlated with radiological scoring of knee joint damage. After informed consent, synovial fluid was drawn and x-rays were collected from the knee joints of 40 patients. Raman spectra and microscope images were obtained from the dried synovial fluid drops using a Raman microprobe and indicate a coarse separation of synovial fluid components. Individual protein signatures could not be identified; Raman spectra were useful as a general marker of overall protein content and secondary structure. Band intensity ratios used to describe protein and glycosaminoglycan structure were used in synovial fluid spectra. Band intensity ratios of Raman spectra indicate that there is less ordered protein secondary structure in synovial fluid from the damage group. Combination of drop deposition with Raman spectroscopy is a powerful approach to examining synovial fluid for the purposes of assessing osteoarthritis damage.

  13. Prediction of pressure drop in fluid tuned mounts using analytical and computational techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, William C.; Khalilollahi, Amir; Mischler, John; Uhric, Tom

    1993-01-01

    A simplified model for predicting pressure drop in fluid tuned isolator mounts was developed. The model is based on an exact solution to the Navier-Stokes equations and was made more general through the use of empirical coefficients. The values of these coefficients were determined by numerical simulation of the flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package FIDAP.

  14. Drop Tower Experiments concerning Fluid Management under Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulke, Diana; Dreyer, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Transport and positioning of liquid under microgravity is done utilizing capillary forces. Therefore, capillary transport processes have to be understood for a wide variety of space applications, ranging from propellant management in tanks of space transportation systems to eating and drinking devices for astronauts. There are two types of liquid transportation in microgravity using capillary forces. First, the driven liquid flow in open channels where the capillary forces at free surfaces ensure a gas and vapor free flow. Here it is important to know the limiting flow rate through such an open channel before the free surface collapses and gas is sucked into the channel. A number of different experiments at the drop tower Bremen, on sounding rockets and at the ISS have been conducted to analyse this phenomenon within different geometries. As result a geometry dependent theory for calculating the maximum flow rate has been found. On the other hand liquid positioning and transportation requires the capillary pressure of curved surfaces to achieve a liquid flow to a desired area. Especially for space applications the weight of structure has to be taken into account for development. For example liquid positioning in tanks can be achieved via a complicated set of structure filling the whole tank resulting in heavy devices not reasonable in space applications. Astrium developed in cooperation with ZARM a propellant management device much smaller than the tank volume and ensuring a gas and vapour free supply of propellant to the propulsion system. In the drop tower Bremen a model of this device was tested concerning different microgravity scenarios. To further decrease weight and ensure functionality within different scenarios structure elements are designed as perforated geometries. Capillary transport between perforated plates has been analyzed concerning the influence of geometrical pattern of perforations. The conducted experiments at the drop tower Bremen show the

  15. Deformation of a partially engulfed compound drop slowly moving in an immiscible viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, L.; Lavrenteva, O. M.; Spivak, R.; Nir, A.

    2011-02-01

    Compound drops are comprised of two or more immiscible phases, one of which entirely or partially engulfs the others. In this work, we consider a partially engulfed compound drop comprised of two immiscible incompressible fluids, dispersed in an isothermal liquid, and that moved under the action of gravity and buoyancy. The contact angles between the three phases are determined by three interfacial tensions associated with the different fluids comprising the compound drop. The surfaces deform as the drop moves through the ambient fluid. If the capillary number is small (Ca≪1), corrections to the shapes of the undeformable case (Ca=0) are constructed, making use of a perturbation technique. We report on stationary drops' deformation for a variety of the physical parameters involved, such as volume ratio and surface tension of each interface, which determine the unperturbed configuration and the distribution of density between the two phases of the drop. Several examples of various transient behaviors of highly deformable compound drops are computed using FLUENT software and are presented as well.

  16. Acoustic microfluidics: Capillary waves and vortex currents in a spherical fluid drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev-Stepanov, P. V.; Rudenko, O. V.

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the radiation forces in a spherical drop lying on a solid substrate. The forces form as a result of the action of a capillary wave on a fluid as it propagates along the free spherical surface. We study the structure of acoustic currents excited by the radiation forces.

  17. Pressure drop and pumping power for fluid flow through round tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, D.

    1973-01-01

    Program, written for Hewlett-Packard 9100A electronic desk computer provides convenient and immediate solution to problem of calculating pressure drop and fluid pumping power for flow through round tubes. Program was designed specifically for steady-state analysis and assumes laminar flow.

  18. Reduction, partial evaporation, and spattering - Possible chemical and physical processes in fluid drop chondrule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    The major chemical differences between fluid drop chondrules and their probable parent materials may have resulted from the loss of volatiles such as S, H2O, Fe, and volatile siderophile elements by partial evaporation during the chondrule-forming process. Vertical access solar furnace experiments in vacuum and hydrogen have demonstrated such chemical fractionation trends using standard rock samples. The formation of immiscible iron droplets and spherules by in situ reduction of iron from silicate melt and the subsequent evaporation of the iron have been observed directly. During the time that the main sample bead is molten, many small spatter spherules are thrown off the main bead, thereby producing many additional chondrule-like melt spherules that cool rapidly and generate a population of spherules with size frequency distribution characteristics that closely approximate some populations of fluid drop chondrules in chondrites. It is possible that spatter-produced fluid drop chondrules dominate the meteoritic fluid drop chondrule populations. Such meteoritic chondrule populations should be chemically related by various relative amounts of iron and other volatile loss by vapor fractionation.

  19. An undergraduate lab on measuring fluid viscosity using a miniature ball drop device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jay

    2015-11-01

    I would like to describe measurement of fluid viscosity using a small ball drop device. It requires as little as 100 microliters of fluid. Each measurement can be performed in seconds. Through simple experimentation, students observe fluid flow confined in a thin cylindrical tube. They analyze forces and torques on a tiny ball falling and rolling down in an inclined tube. They gain practice in observing and identifying sources of errors and variability in their measurements beyond those indicated by standard error bars. The experiment is designed to yield reliable viscosity values by operating at properly chosen tilt angles and with calibration using well-characterized fluids such as mixtures of glycerol and water. The technique is also useful in research and technological applications as the device is easy to assemble and it allows the measurement of viscosity even when the fluid samples are too small to measure using most commercial viscometers or rheometers. Work Partially Supported by the NSF Fluid Physics Program (Award number CBET 1438033).

  20. On self-similarity in the drop-filament corner region formed during pinch-off of viscoelastic fluid threads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pradeep P.; Appathurai, Santosh; Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2012-08-01

    A characteristic feature of pinch-off of fluid threads is the formation of drops connected to thinning filaments. This phenomenon is encountered in a number of widely used applications requiring the production of drops such as electronics microfabrication via inkjet printing, spray coating/drying, and microarraying. In pinch-off of viscoelastic fluid threads, the region that connects the drops to the filaments develops into a sharp corner. Recently, Clasen et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 556, 283-308 (2006)], 10.1017/S0022112006009633 showed that such a corner evolves self-similarly. They, however, neglected the capillary pressure in the drop. A modified similarity solution is presented here that incorporates the drop capillary-pressure term, and transient simulations of corner region profiles are shown to converge onto the new similarity solution better than that of Clasen et al. Indeed, the new similarity solution is valid in all the three regions: the drop, the corner, and the filament regions. Similarity solutions, so obtained, are particularly useful in capillary-breakup rheometry where they are employed to estimate a fluid's extensional viscosity—a material property of viscoelastic fluids that influences greatly the drop formation process.

  1. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  2. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid-rock interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water-silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water-rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly with eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water-rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.

  3. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid-rock interactions.

    PubMed

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water-silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water-rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly with eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water-rock interactions without changes in oxidation state. PMID:26529259

  4. Response of an emulsion of leaky dielectric drops immersed in a simple shear flow: Drops more conductive than the suspending fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Arturo

    2008-04-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used to examine the rheological properties of an emulsion of leaky dielectric fluids when an electric field is applied to the system. The emulsion consisting of neutrally buoyant drops is immersed in a simple shear flow where an electric potential difference is applied between the plates. It is assumed that drops are more conductive than the suspending fluid and that the electrical conductivity ratio between the drops and the suspending fluid, R =σi/σo, is larger than the dielectric permittivity ratio, S =ɛo/ɛi. If a single leaky dielectric drop is immersed in an electric field, this combination of properties leads to a viscous fluid motion from the equator to the poles. The response of an emulsion depends on the competition between the electrical forces and the fluid shear. This relation is quantified by the Mason number, Mn =(3λ+2)μγ˙/6(λ+1)ɛ0β2E∞2. The significance of drop deformability is measured through the electric capillary number, Ce=ɛ0β2E∞2a/γ. The microstructure and properties of an emulsion depend mainly on Mn, Ce, and R. An emulsion immersed in an electric field exhibits three different regimes for increasing Mn. When the electrical forces are substantially larger than the fluid shear, Mn <0.02, the drops aggregate in structures oriented parallel to the electric field that dictate the response of the system. At intermediate shear rates, 0.02fluid shear results in a continuous rearrangement of the aggregated structures. When the shear rate is increased further, Mn >0.2, the aggregated structures are broken up, and the effect of the electrical interaction weakens. The application of an electric field leads electrorheological emulsions to exhibit an increase in their effective viscosity for the range of properties examined here, 0.001

  5. Drop formation, pinch-off dynamics and liquid transfer of simple and complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinic, Jelena; Sharma, Vivek

    Liquid transfer and drop formation processes underlying jetting, spraying, coating, and printing - inkjet, screen, roller-coating, gravure, nanoimprint hot embossing, 3D - often involve formation of unstable columnar necks. Capillary-driven thinning of such necks and their pinchoff dynamics are determined by a complex interplay of inertial, viscous and capillary stresses for simple, Newtonian fluids. Micro-structural changes in response to extensional flow field that arises within the thinning neck give rise to additional viscoelastic stresses in complex, non- Newtonian fluids. Using FLOW-3D, we simulate flows realized in prototypical geometries (dripping and liquid bridge stretched between two parallel plates) used for studying pinch-off dynamics and influence of microstructure and viscoelasticity. In contrast with often-used 1D or 2D models, FLOW-3D allows a robust evaluation of the magnitude of the underlying stresses and extensional flow field (both uniformity and magnitude). We find that the simulated radius evolution profiles match the pinch-off dynamics that are experimentally-observed and theoretically-predicted for model Newtonian fluids and complex fluids.

  6. Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

  7. Numerical modelling of the impact of a liquid drop on the surface of a two-phase fluid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sochan, Agata; Lamorski, Krzysztof; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Ryżak, Magdalena

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was validation of a numerical model of the impact of a liquid drop on the surface of a two-phase system of immiscible fluids. The drop impact phenomenon was recorded using a high-speed camera (Vision Research MIRO M310) and the data were recorded at 2000 frames per second. The numerical calculations were performed with the Finite Volume Method (FVM) solving the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for three phases: air and two selected immiscible fluids. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique was employed for modelling of the boundaries between the phases. Numerical modelling was done with the Finite Volume Method using an available OpenFOAM software. The experiment was based on three variables: • the height from which the drop of the selected fluids fell (the speed of the drop), • the thickness of the layers of the two selected immiscible fluids (a thin layer of the fluid with a lower density was spread over the higher-density fluid), • the size of the fluid droplet. The velocity and radius of the falling drop was calculated based on the recorded images. The used parameters allowed adequate projection of the impact of fluid droplets on a system of two immiscible liquids. Development of the numerical model of splash may further have practical applications in environmental protection (spraying of hazardous fluids, spread of fuels and other hazardous substances as a result of disasters, spraying (water cooling) of hot surfaces), and in agriculture (prevention of soil erosion). The study was partially funded from the National Science Centre (Poland) based on the decision no. DEC-2012/07/N/ST10/03280.

  8. Fast Imaging Technique to Study Drop Impact Dynamics of Non-Newtonian Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qin; Peters, Ivo; Wilken, Sam; Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    In the field of fluid mechanics, many dynamical processes not only occur over a very short time interval but also require high spatial resolution for detailed observation, scenarios that make it challenging to observe with conventional imaging systems. One of these is the drop impact of liquids, which usually happens within one tenth of millisecond. To tackle this challenge, a fast imaging technique is introduced that combines a high-speed camera (capable of up to one million frames per second) with a macro lens with long working distance to bring the spatial resolution of the image down to 10 µm/pixel. The imaging technique enables precise measurement of relevant fluid dynamic quantities, such as the flow field, the spreading distance and the splashing speed, from analysis of the recorded video. To demonstrate the capabilities of this visualization system, the impact dynamics when droplets of non-Newtonian fluids impinge on a flat hard surface are characterized. Two situations are considered: for oxidized liquid metal droplets we focus on the spreading behavior, and for densely packed suspensions we determine the onset of splashing. More generally, the combination of high temporal and spatial imaging resolution introduced here offers advantages for studying fast dynamics across a wide range of microscale phenomena. PMID:24637404

  9. Equilibrium shapes and stability of nonconducting pendant drops surrounded by a conducting fluid in an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.

    1995-03-15

    The shapes and stability of pendant drops in the presence of an electric field is a classical problem in capillarity. This problem has been studied in great detail by numerous investigators when the drops are either perfect conductors or nonconductors and the surrounding fluid is a nonconductor. In this paper, the axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of a nonconducting drop hanging from a nonconducting nozzle that is immersed in a perfectly conducting ambient fluid, a problem that has heretofore not been considered in the literature, are determined by solving the free boundary problem comprised of the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and an integral equation for the electric field distribution. Here the free boundary problem is discretized by a hybrid technique in which the Young-Laplace equation is solved by the finite element method and the electrostatic problem solved by the boundary element method.

  10. Sizing of colloidal particle and protein molecules in a hanging fluid drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1995-01-01

    We report non-invasive particle size measurements of polystyrene latex colloidal particles and bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein molecules suspended in tiny hanging fluid drops of 30 micro-Liter volume using a newly designed fiber optic probe. The probe is based upon the principles of the technique of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The motivation for this work comes from growing protein crystals in outer space. Protein crystals have been grown previously in hanging drops in microgravity experiments on-board the space shuttle orbiter. However, obtaining quantitative information on nucleation and growth of the protein crystals in real time has always been a desired goal, but hitherto not achieved. Several protein researchers have shown interest in using DLS to monitor crystal growth process in a droplet, but elaborate instrumentation and optical alignment problems have made in-situ applications difficult. We demonstrate that such an experiment is now possible. Our system offers fast (5 seconds) determination of particle size, utilize safe levels of very low laser power (less than or equal to 0.2 mW), a small scattering volume (approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) cu mm) and high spatial coherence (Beta) values. This is a major step forward when compared to currently available DLS systems.

  11. Merging drops in a Teflon tube, and transferring fluid between them, illustrated by protein crystallization and drug screening.

    PubMed

    Feuerborn, A; Prastowo, A; Cook, P R; Walsh, E

    2015-01-01

    The ability to manipulate drops with small volumes has many practical applications. Current microfluidic devices generally exploit channel geometry and/or active external equipment to control drops. Here we use a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump and exploit the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids to create particular fluidic architectures. We then go on to merge any number of drops (with volumes of micro- to nano-liters) at predefined points in time and space in the tube; for example, 51 drops were merged in a defined order to yield one large drop. Using a different architecture, specified amounts of fluid were transferred between 2 nl drops at specified rates; for example, 2.5 pl aliquots were transferred (at rates of ~500 fl s(-1)) between two drops through inter-connecting nano-channels (width ~40 nm). One proof-of-principle experiment involved screening conditions required to crystallize a protein (using a concentration gradient created using such nano-channels). Another demonstrated biocompatibility; drugs were mixed with human cells grown in suspension or on surfaces, and the treated cells responded like those grown conventionally. Although most experiments were performed manually, moderate high-throughput potential was demonstrated by mixing ~1000 different pairs of 50 nl drops in ~15 min using a robot. We suggest this reusable, low-cost, and versatile methodology could facilitate the introduction of microfluidics into workflows of many experimental laboratories. PMID:26246015

  12. On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A

    2015-03-13

    The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of

  13. Lateral migration of a viscoelastic drop in a Newtonian fluid in a shear flow near a wall

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Swarnajay; Sarkar, Kausik

    2014-01-01

    Wall induced lateral migration of a viscoelastic (FENE-MCR) drop in a Newtonian fluid is investigated. Just like a Newtonian drop, a viscoelastic drop reaches a quasi-steady state where the lateral velocity only depends on the instantaneous distance from the wall. The drop migration velocity and the deformation scale inversely with the square and the cube of the distance from the wall, respectively. The migration velocity varies non-monotonically with increasing viscoelasticity (increasing Deborah number); initially increasing and then decreasing. An analytical explanation has been given of the effects by computing the migration velocity as arising from an image stresslet field due to the drop. The semi-analytical expression matches well with the simulated migration velocity away from the wall. It contains a viscoelastic stresslet component apart from those arising from interfacial tension and viscosity ratio. The migration dynamics is a result of the competition between the viscous (interfacial tension and viscosity ratio) and the viscoelastic effects. The viscoelastic stresslet contribution towards the migration velocity steadily increases. But the interfacial stresslet—arising purely from the drop shape—first increases and then decreases with rising Deborah number causing the migration velocity to be non-monotonic. The geometric effect of the interfacial stresslet is caused by a corresponding nonmonotonic variation of the drop inclination. High viscosity ratio is briefly considered to show that the drop viscoelasticity could stabilize a drop against breakup, and the increase in migration velocity due to viscoelasticity is larger compared to the viscosity-matched case. PMID:25378894

  14. Modeling the vertical motion of drops bouncing on a bounded fluid reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchette, François

    2016-03-01

    We present a first-principles model of drops bouncing on a liquid reservoir. We consider a nearly inviscid liquid reservoir and track the waves that develop in a bounded domain. Bouncing drops are modeled as vertical linear springs. We obtain an expression for the contact force between drop and liquid surface and a model where the only adjustable parameter is an effective viscosity used to describe the waves on the reservoir's surface. With no adjustable parameters associated to the drop, we recover experimental bouncing times and restitution coefficients. We use our model to describe the effect of the Bond, Ohnesorge, and Weber numbers on drops bouncing on a stationary reservoir. We also use our model to describe drops bouncing on an oscillated reservoir, describing various bouncing modes and a walking threshold.

  15. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell

    PubMed Central

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes’ drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. PMID:27562151

  16. Scaling crossover in thin-film drag dynamics of fluid drops in the Hele-Shaw cell.

    PubMed

    Yahashi, Misato; Kimoto, Natsuki; Okumura, Ko

    2016-01-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the descending motion due to gravity of a fluid drop surrounded by another immiscible fluid in a confined space between two parallel plates, i.e., in the Hele-Shaw cell. As a result, we show a new scaling regime of a nonlinear drag friction in viscous liquid that replaces the well-known Stokes' drag friction through a clear collapse of experimental data thanks to the scaling law. In the novel regime, the dissipation in the liquid thin film formed between the drop and cell walls governs the dynamics. The crossover of this scaling regime to another scaling regime in which the dissipation inside the droplet is dominant is clearly demonstrated and a phase diagram separating these scaling regimes is presented. PMID:27562151

  17. Near-field acousto monitoring shear interactions inside a drop of fluid: The role of the zero-slip condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Fernandez, Rodolfo; Li, Nan; Hung, Hsien-Chih; Venkataraman, Anuradha; Nordstrom, Richard; La Rosa, Andres H.

    2016-05-01

    A full understanding of nanometer-range (near-field) interactions between two sliding solid boundaries, with a mesoscopic fluid layer sandwiched in between, remains challenging. In particular, the origin of the blue-shift resonance frequency experienced by a laterally oscillating probe when approaching a substrate is still a matter of controversy. A simpler problem is addressed here, where a laterally oscillating solid probe interacts with a more sizable drop of fluid that rests on a substrate, aiming at identifying interaction mechanisms that could also be present in the near-field interaction case. It is found that the inelastic component of the probe-fluid interaction does not constitute the main energy-dissipation channel and has a weak dependence on fluid's viscosity, which is attributed to the zero-slip hydrodynamic condition. In contrast, the acoustic signal engendered by the fluid has a stronger dependence on the fluid's viscosity (attributed also to the zero-slip hydrodynamic condition) and correlates well with the probe's resonance frequency red-shift. We propose a similar mechanism happens in near field experiments, but a blue-shift in the probe's resonance results as a consequence of the fluid molecules (subjected to the zero-slip condition at both the probe and substrate boundaries) exerting instead a spring type restoring force on the probe.

  18. Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a typical tubular exchanger employing alumina nano-fluid as the tube side hot fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeel, A. E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Nano-fluids are used to improve the heat transfer rates in heat exchangers, especially; the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that is considered one of the most important types of heat exchangers. In the present study, an experimental loop is constructed to study the thermal characteristics of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger; at different concentrations of Al2O3 nonmetallic particles (0.0, 2, 4, and 6 %). This material concentrations is by volume concentrations in pure water as a base fluid. The effects of nano-fluid concentrations on the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger have been conducted based on the overall heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor, the pressure drop in tube side, and the entropy generation rate. The experimental results show that; the highest heat transfer coefficient is obtained at a nano-fluid concentration of 4 % of the shell side. In shell side the maximum percentage increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient has reached 29.8 % for a nano-fluid concentration of 4 %, relative to the case of the base fluid (water) at the same tube side Reynolds number. However; in the tube side the maximum relative increase in pressure drop has recorded the values of 12, 28 and 48 % for a nano-material concentration of 2, 4 and 6 %, respectively, relative to the case without nano-fluid, at an approximate value of 56,000 for Reynolds number. The entropy generation reduces with increasing the nonmetallic particle volume fraction of the same flow rates. For increase the nonmetallic particle volume fraction from 0.0 to 6 % the rate of entropy generation decrease by 10 %.

  19. Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a typical tubular exchanger employing alumina nano-fluid as the tube side hot fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeel, A. E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Nano-fluids are used to improve the heat transfer rates in heat exchangers, especially; the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that is considered one of the most important types of heat exchangers. In the present study, an experimental loop is constructed to study the thermal characteristics of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger; at different concentrations of Al2O3 nonmetallic particles (0.0, 2, 4, and 6 %). This material concentrations is by volume concentrations in pure water as a base fluid. The effects of nano-fluid concentrations on the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger have been conducted based on the overall heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor, the pressure drop in tube side, and the entropy generation rate. The experimental results show that; the highest heat transfer coefficient is obtained at a nano-fluid concentration of 4 % of the shell side. In shell side the maximum percentage increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient has reached 29.8 % for a nano-fluid concentration of 4 %, relative to the case of the base fluid (water) at the same tube side Reynolds number. However; in the tube side the maximum relative increase in pressure drop has recorded the values of 12, 28 and 48 % for a nano-material concentration of 2, 4 and 6 %, respectively, relative to the case without nano-fluid, at an approximate value of 56,000 for Reynolds number. The entropy generation reduces with increasing the nonmetallic particle volume fraction of the same flow rates. For increase the nonmetallic particle volume fraction from 0.0 to 6 % the rate of entropy generation decrease by 10 %.

  20. High-Pressure Transport Properties Of Fluids: Theory And Data From Levitated Drops At Combustion-Relevant Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Ohsaka, Kenichi

    2003-01-01

    Although the high pressure multicomponent fluid conservation equations have already been derived and approximately validated for binary mixtures by this PI, the validation of the multicomponent theory is hampered by the lack of existing mixing rules for property calculations. Classical gas dynamics theory can provide property mixing-rules at low pressures exclusively. While thermal conductivity and viscosity high-pressure mixing rules have been documented in the literature, there is no such equivalent for the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. The primary goal of this investigation is to extend the low pressure mixing rule theory to high pressures and validate the new theory with experimental data from levitated single drops. The two properties that will be addressed are the diffusion coefficients and the thermal diffusion factors. To validate/determine the property calculations, ground-based experiments from levitated drops are being conducted.

  1. Supercritical (and Subcritical) Fluid Behavior and Modeling: Drops, Streams, Shear and Mixing Layers, Jets and Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.

    1999-01-01

    A critical review of recent investigations in the real of supercritical (and subcritical) fluid behavior is presented with the goal of obtaining a perspective on the peculiarities of high pressure observations.

  2. Evaporation dynamics of non-spherical sessile drops of pure fluids and binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Pedro J.; Matar, Omar K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Valluri, Prashant; Kim, Jungho

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of pure axisymmetric volatile sessile droplets have been meticulously examined over the last four decades but remain poorly understood. Studies focusing on more realistic non-spherical configurations are virtually non-existent. The dynamics of the latter are examined in this investigation by means of experiments and numerical simulations. We show that the lifetime and bulk flow characteristics of these drops depend on their size and shape. The irregular geometries lead to the emergence preferential convection currents in the liquid as well as differential local evaporation rates noticeable along the contact line. Similarly, we inspect the thermocapillary stability of the flow, which results as the liquid volatility increases, and find that this is also affected by the non-uniform wettability along the triple line. The Marangoni-driven instabilities grow in an intricate spatio-temporal fashion leading to the emergence of different flow regimes. Finally, we also provide new insights into the evaporation process of binary-mixture drops. Memphis Multiphase (EPSRC EP/K003976/1) & ThermaPOWER (EU IRSES-PIRSES GA-2011-294905).

  3. High Pressure, Transport Properties of Fluids: Theory and Data from Levitated Fluid-Drops at Combustion-Relevant Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Ohaska, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to derive a set of consistent mixing rules for calculating diffusivities and thermal diffusion factors over a thermodynamic regime encompassing the subcritical and supercritical ranges. These should serve for modeling purposes, and therefore for accurate simulations of high pressure phenomena such as fluid disintegration, turbulent flows and sprays. A particular consequence of this work will be the determination of effective Lewis numbers for supercritical conditions, thus enabling the examination of the relative importance of heat and mass transfer at supercritical pressures.

  4. An Experimental Investigation of Fluid Flow Resulting from the Impact of a Water Drop with an Unyielding Dry Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stow, C. D.; Hadfield, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    The flow of fluid associated with the impact of water drops of radius R at a speed V onto unyielding dry metal surfaces of known roughness R_a is described. Spatial dimensions of the deforming drop are normalized by transformations of the kind x' = x/R, and time scales are normalized according to t' = tV/R, to permit comparison of events where R or V differ. It is shown that the primary influence of the surface roughness parameter R_a is the determination of the condition for the ejection of secondary droplets by the excitation of an instability in the developing watersheet; provided R_a ~= R, it is possible to evaluate the condition to a high degree of accuracy, and for R_a = 0.84 μ m it is found to be α4/3RV1.69 > 7.4, where α is the eccentricity of the drop at the moment of impact. Deceleration of the drop apex does not commence until t' > 0.6, contrary to the prediction of Engel (1955) but in good agreement with that of Savic & Boult (1957). Close examination of the very early stages of impact suggests strongly that the so-called watersheet originates at a moment t' = 0.01 after first contact, regardless of the absolute values of R, V or R_a; the initial normalized watersheet velocity is of order 5. Where there is ejected material, its normalized velocity at the moment of ejection is of the order of 20% greater than that of the watersheet substrate. Simple calculations also suggest that initial fluid velocities greater than 10V are required immediately before the initiation of the watersheet (t' < 0.01). Impacts at speeds considerably greater than the appropriate terminal fall speed in air show no deviations in character from those investigated at much lower speeds. A simple subsidiary experiment also suggests that greater impact velocities are required to produce splashing on inclined targets.

  5. Evaluation of Steadiness and Drop Size Distribution in Sprays Generated by Different Twin-Fluid Atomizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaremba, Matouš; Mlkvik, Marek; Malý, Milan; Jedelský, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Twin-fluid atomizers underwent a significant development during the last few decades. They are common in many industrial applications such as fuel spraying, melt atomization and food processing. This paper is focused on the evaluation of four different twin-fluid atomizers. The aim is to compare the quality of sprays generated by various atomizers with similar dimensions and in the same operating regimes. A phase- Doppler anemometry (PDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to measure spray characteristics such as velocity and size of the droplets. Measured data were used to compare droplet size distribution and to evaluate steadiness of the spray. Visualisations were made to support measured data and to clarify the principles of primary atomization and its influence on the spray.

  6. Earthquake dynamics. Mapping pressurized volcanic fluids from induced crustal seismic velocity drops.

    PubMed

    Brenguier, F; Campillo, M; Takeda, T; Aoki, Y; Shapiro, N M; Briand, X; Emoto, K; Miyake, H

    2014-07-01

    Volcanic eruptions are caused by the release of pressure that has accumulated due to hot volcanic fluids at depth. Here, we show that the extent of the regions affected by pressurized fluids can be imaged through the measurement of their response to transient stress perturbations. We used records of seismic noise from the Japanese Hi-net seismic network to measure the crustal seismic velocity changes below volcanic regions caused by the 2011 moment magnitude (M(w)) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We interpret coseismic crustal seismic velocity reductions as related to the mechanical weakening of the pressurized crust by the dynamic stress associated with the seismic waves. We suggest, therefore, that mapping seismic velocity susceptibility to dynamic stress perturbations can be used for the imaging and characterization of volcanic systems. PMID:24994652

  7. Controlling the Mobility of the Fluid Interface of Moving Gas Bubbles or Liquid Drops by Using Micellar Solutions of Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maldarelli, Charles; Papageorgiou, Demetrios

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity processes must rely on mechanisms other than buoyancy to move bubbles or droplets from one region to another in a continuous liquid phase. One suggested method is thermocapillary migration in which a temperature gradient is applied to the continuous phase. A significant and as yet unresolved impediment to the use of thermocapillary migration to direct bubble or drop motion is that these migrations can be significantly retarded by the adsorption onto the fluid particle surface of surface active impurities unavoidably present in the continuous or (if the particle is a liquid) droplet phases. The focus of our research was to develop a theory for remobilizing fluid particle interfaces retarded by a surfactant impurity in an effort to make more viable the use of thermocapillary migrations for the management of bubbles and drops in microgravity. We postulated that a surfactant at high bulk concentration which kinetically exchanges rapidly with the surface can restore interface mobility. The scaling arguments along with a discussion of the previous literature is reviewed in the context of the scaling framework. The specific objectives of the research were twofold. The first was to prove the remobilization theory by studying a model problem. As the mechanism for remobilization is independent of the force which drives the particle, the fluid particle shape and the presence of fluid inertia, we chose the simplest model consisting of a spherical bubble rising steadily by buoyancy in creeping flow. We solved the hydrodynamic and surfactant transport equations for rapid kinetic exchange to demonstrate that as the concentration increases, the Marangoni retardation at first increases (the low k behavior) and then decreases (the high k behavior). The second objective was to develop a method to determine the kinetic rate constants of a surfactant molecule, since this information is necessary to select surfactants which will exchange rapidly enough relative to the

  8. High-Speed Transport of Fluid Drops and Solid Particles via Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Lih, Shyh-shiuh

    2012-01-01

    A compact sampling tool mechanism that can operate at various temperatures, and transport and sieve particle sizes of powdered cuttings and soil grains with no moving parts, has been created using traveling surface acoustic waves (SAWs) that are emitted by an inter-digital transducer (IDT). The generated waves are driven at about 10 MHz, and it causes powder to move towards the IDT at high speed with different speeds for different sizes of particles, which enables these particles to be sieved. This design is based on the use of SAWs and their propelling effect on powder particles and fluids along the path of the waves. Generally, SAWs are elastic waves propagating in a shallow layer of about one wavelength beneath the surface of a solid substrate. To generate SAWs, a piezoelectric plate is used that is made of LiNbO3 crystal cut along the x-axis with rotation of 127.8 along the y-axis. On this plate are printed pairs of fingerlike electrodes in the form of a grating that are activated by subjecting the gap between the electrodes to electric field. This configuration of a surface wave transmitter is called IDT. The IDT that was used consists of 20 pairs of fingers with 0.4-mm spacing, a total length of 12.5 mm. The surface wave is produced by the nature of piezoelectric material to contract or expand when subjected to an electric field. Driving the IDT to generate wave at high amplitudes provides an actuation mechanism where the surface particles move elliptically, pulling powder particles on the surface toward the wavesource and pushing liquids in the opposite direction. This behavior allows the innovation to separate large particles and fluids that are mixed. Fluids are removed at speed (7.5 to 15 cm/s), enabling this innovation of acting as a bladeless wiper for raindrops. For the windshield design, the electrodes could be made transparent so that they do not disturb the driver or pilot. Multiple IDTs can be synchronized to transport water or powder over larger

  9. Retaining activity of enzymes after capture and extraction within a single-drop of biological fluid using immunoaffinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Youji; Sato, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was the measurement of enzyme activity within a single-drop of biological fluid after micropurification. Esterase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) retained their enzymatic activities after being captured by membrane-immobilized antibodies, which were prepared by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis, transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride and then stained by Ponceau S. The activities of both enzymes were also measured after being captured by antibodies and biotinylated antibodies bound to membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, respectively. After esterase and LDH were captured from biological samples by membrane-immobilized protein A or avidin, their activities were semi-quantitatively measured on the surface of the membrane using fluorescence determination. More than 51% of enzyme activities were retained even after the enzymes were captured by biotinylated antibody bound to membrane-immobilized avidin and eluted by rinsing with 5μL of 1% Triton X-100, compared with the activities of the enzyme on the immunoaffinity membrane. PMID:26776499

  10. Foot Drop

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Foot Drop Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Foot Drop? Foot drop describes the inability to raise ...

  11. Pressure drop and heat transfer in turbulent non-Newtonian pipe flow of advanced energy transmission fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, U. S.; Liu, K. V.; Kasza, K. E.

    1988-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, is making significant progress on the development of advanced energy transmission fluids for thermal systems, in particular district heating and cooling systems. ANL has identified two concepts for developing advanced energy transmission fluids. Tests have been conducted at ANL to prove these concepts. This paper presents experimental results and discusses the degradation behavior of linear polymer additives and the flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-melting slurry flows. The experimental data obtained in this study provide support for the use of friction reducing additives and slurries in thermal system applications.

  12. Gas Pressure-Drop Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical engineering undergraduate laboratories have fluid mechanics experiments in which pressure drops through pipes are measured over a range of Reynolds numbers. The standard fluid is liquid water, which is essentially incompressible. Since density is constant, pressure drop does not depend on the pressure in the pipe. In addition, flow…

  13. Drag on Sessile Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Nobes, David; Sen, Debjyoti; Amirfazli, Alidad; University of Alberta Mechanical Engineering Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    We present the first ever direct measurements of the coefficient of drag on sessile drops at Reynolds numbers from the creeping flow regime up to the point of incipient motion, made using a newly developed floating element differential drag sensor. Surfaces of different wettabilities (PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic surface (SHS)), wet by water, hexadecane, and various silicone oils, are used to study the effects of drop shape, and fluid properties on drag. The relation between drag coefficient and Reynolds number (scaled by drop height) varies slightly with liquid-solid system and drop volume with results suggesting the drop experiences increased drag compared to similar shaped solid bodies due to drop oscillation influencing the otherwise laminar flow. Drops adopting more spherical shapes are seen to experience the greatest force at any given airspeed. This indicates that the relative exposed areas of drops is an important consideration in terms of force, with implications for the shedding of drops in applications such as airfoil icing and fuel cell flooding. The measurement technique used in this work can be adapted to measure drag force on other deformable, lightly adhered objects such as dust, sand, snow, vesicles, foams, and biofilms. The authours acknowledge NSERC, Alberta Innovates Technology Futures, and the Killam Trusts.

  14. Drop impact of suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoraval, M.-J.; Boyer, F.; Sandoval Nava, E.; Dijksman, J. F.; Lohse, D.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2014-11-01

    Drop impact studies have a wide range of applications, many of which involve complex fluids. We study here the liquid drop impact of a silver nano-particles dispersion on a solid glass surface. This dispersion is used for inkjet printing of functional electronic materials. When the impact velocity increases, the drop classically splashes into smaller droplets. However, it surprisingly stops splashing above a critical impact velocity. We combine high-speed imaging experiments with different characterizations of the dispersion to understand this transition to non-splashing.

  15. Effect of particle geometry on triple line motion of nano-fluid drops and deposit nano-structuring.

    PubMed

    Askounis, Alexandros; Sefiane, Khellil; Koutsos, Vasileios; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2015-08-01

    We illustrate the importance of particle geometry on droplet contact line pinning, 'coffee-stain' formation and nano-structuring within the resulting rings. We present the fundamentals of pure liquid droplet evaporation and then discuss the effect of particles on the evaporation process. The resulting coffee-stain patterns and particle structuring within them are presented and discussed. In the second part, we turn our attention to the effect of particle geometry on the evaporation process. A wide range of particle shapes, categorised according to aspect ratio, from the simple shape of a sphere to the highly irregular shapes of platelets and tubes is discussed. Particle geometry effect on evaporation behaviour was quantified in terms of change in contact angle and contact radius for the stick-slip cases. Consequently the hysteretic energy barrier pinning the droplets was estimated, showing an increasing trend with particle aspect ratio. The three-phase contact line (TL) motion kinetics are complemented with analysis of the nano-structuring behaviour of each shape, leading to the identification of the two main parameters affecting nanoparticle self-assembly behaviour at the wedge. Flow velocity and wedge constraints were found to have antagonist effects on particle deposition, although these varied with particle shape. This description should help in understanding the drying behaviour of more complex fluids. Furthermore, knowing the fundamentals of this simple and inexpensive surface patterning technique should permit its tailoring to the needs of many potential applications. PMID:24927853

  16. Drop dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    The drop dynamics module is a Spacelab-compatible acoustic positioning and control system for conducting drop dynamics experiments in space. It consists basically of a chamber, a drop injector system, an acoustic positioning system, and a data collection system. The principal means of collecting data is by a cinegraphic camera. The drop is positioned in the center of the chamber by forces created by standing acoustic waves generated in the nearly cubical chamber (about 12 cm on a side). The drop can be spun or oscillated up to fission by varying the phse and amplitude of the acoustic waves. The system is designed to perform its experiments unattended, except for start-up and shutdown events and other unique events that require the attention of the Spacelab payload specialist.

  17. Pressure Drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  18. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  19. Viscous effects in drop impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, Roberto; Schroll, Robert; Blanchette, Francois; Zhang, Wendy

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the onset of splash for a viscous drop impacting a solid surface. The simulation is based on the volume-of-fluid methods of Popinet and Zaleski [Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 30, 775-793 (1999)] and tracks the interface evolution explicitly. The qualitative shape evolution and the quantitative spreading dynamics are examined and compared against available experimental results.

  20. Drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, David; Sobac, Benjamin; Loquet, Boris; Sampol, José.

    2010-11-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood is fascinating by the complexity of the physical mechanisms that occur as well as the beauty of the phenomenon which has never been previously evidenced in the literature. The final stage of full blood evaporation reveals for a healthy person the same regular pattern with a good reproducibility. Other tests on anemia and hyperlipidemic persons were performed and presented different patterns. By means of digital camera, the influence of the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) which represent about 50% of the blood volume, is revealed as well as its consequences on the final stages of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid and solid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of hematology. Our group is the first to evidence that the specific regular patterns characteristic of a healthy individual do not appear in a dried drop of blood from a person with blood disease. Blood is a complex colloidal suspension for which the flow motion is clearly non-Newtonian. When drops of blood evaporate, all the colloids are carried by the flow motion inside the drop and interact.

  1. Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

  2. Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer Characteristics of The Fluid Flow through an Array of Interrupted, Parallel-Plate Heat Transfer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Sadanari; Yagi, Yoshinao

    A scale-up modeling technique was used to examine the effect of the geometrical properties of interrupted surfaces on the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of compact heat exchangers having off-set-strip and slotted fins. The test cores, each consisting of a number of machined copper finns, were tested in a subsonic wind tunnel. The heat transfer and the pressure drop for each test core was measured for various fin lengths (in flow direction) and slot distances. Flow visualization and local turbulence intensity and pressure measurements within each test core were also performed to gain insight into the mechanisms of heat transfer augmentation in compact heat exchangers with interrupted surfaces. The effect of the geometrical properties of the fins as well as the Reynolds number on the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop were determined and those results were interpreted in terms of observed flow structure. Basic heat transfer and pressure drop data are presented in terms of Colburn j-factors and Fanning friction factors plotted versus Reynolds number. An empirical correlation for heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics for off-set-strip fins are presented.

  3. Large amplitude drop shape oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study of large amplitude drop shape oscillation was conducted in immiscible liquids systems and with levitated free liquid drops in air. In liquid-liquid systems the results indicate the existence of familiar characteristics of nonlinear phenomena. The resonance frequency of the fundamental quadrupole mode of stationary, low viscosity Silicone oil drops acoustically levitated in water falls to noticeably low values as the amplitude of oscillation is increased. A typical, experimentally determined relative frequency decrease of a 0.5 cubic centimeters drop would be about 10% when the maximum deformed shape is characterized by a major to minor axial ratio of 1.9. On the other hand, no change in the fundamental mode frequency could be detected for 1 mm drops levitated in air. The experimental data for the decay constant of the quadrupole mode of drops immersed in a liquid host indicate a slight increase for larger oscillation amplitudes. A qualitative investigation of the internal fluid flows for such drops revealed the existence of steady internal circulation within drops oscillating in the fundamental and higher modes. The flow field configuration in the outer host liquid is also significantly altered when the drop oscillation amplitude becomes large.

  4. Microfluidics with compound ``bubble-drops''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Saif A.; Duraiswamy, Suhanya

    2008-11-01

    ``Bubble-drops'' are compound fluid particles comprising a gas bubble and liquid drop that flow as a single fluid object through another immiscible liquid in a microchannel network. These fluid particles represent discrete multiphase `quanta', and expand the sphere of application of droplet microfluidics to inter-phase phenomena. We present here a simple method to generate monodisperse bubble-drop trains in microfabricated channel networks. The difference in drag force exerted on flowing bubbles and drops by the immiscible carrier liquid implies different translational speeds, thus providing the driving force for bubble-drop formation. We outline the criteria for stable generation and analyze factors influencing bubble-drop dynamics. We will also highlight several applications in chemical and biological synthesis and screening.

  5. Characterisation of heat transfer and pressure drop in condensation processes within mini-channel tubes with last generation of refrigerant fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Belchi, D. Alejandro

    Heat exchanger developments are driven by energetic efficiency increase and emissionreduction. To reach the standards new system are required based on mini-channels. Mini-channels can be described as tubes with one or more ports extruded in aluminiumwith hydraulic diameter are in the range of 0.2 to 3 mm. Its use in refrigeration systemsfor some years ago is a reality thanks to the human ability to made micro-scale systems.Some heat exchanger enterprises have some models developed specially for their use inautomotive sector, cooling sector, and industrial refrigeration without having a deepknowledge of how these reduced geometries affect the most important parameters suchas pressure drop and the heat transfer coefficient. To respond to this objective, an exhaustive literature review of the last two decades hasbeen performed to determinate the state of the research. Between all the publications,several models have been selected to check the predicting capacities of them becausemost of them were developed for single port mini-channel tubes. Experimentalmeasurements of heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop were recorded inan experimental installation built on purpose at the Technical University of Cartagena.Multiple variables are recorded in this installation in order to calculate local heattransfer coefficient in two-phase condensing flow within mini-channels. Both pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient experimental measurements arecompared to the previously mentioned models. Most of them capture the trend correctlybut others fail predicting experimental data. These differences can be explained by theexperimental parameters considered during the models development. In some cases themodels found in the literature were developed specific conditions, consequently theirpredicting capacities are restricted. As main contributions, this thesis provides new modelling tools for mini-channelscondensing pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient

  6. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  7. Leidenfrost drops: Effect of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, L.; Brandenbourger, M.; Sobac, B.; Biance, A.-L.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2015-04-01

    A specific experimental set-up has been installed in a large centrifuge facility in order to study different aspects of Leidenfrost drops under high-gravity conditions (5, 10, 15 and 20 times the Earth gravity). In particular, the drop lifetime and more precisely the variations of drop diameter vs. time have shown to be in good agreement with previous experiments and scaling analysis (Biance A.-L. et al., Phys. Fluids, 15 (2003) 1632). Moreover, so-called chimneys are expectedly observed in the large puddles, the distance between two chimneys depending linearly on the capillary length. Finally, the Leidenfrost point, i.e. the temperature above which the Leidenfrost effect takes place, was unexpectedly found to increase slightly with gravity. A qualitative explanation based on a refined model (Sobac B. et al., Phys. Rev. E, 90 (2014) 053011) recognizing the non-trivial shape of the vapor film under the drop is proposed to explain this observation.

  8. Exploding Water Drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Water has the unusual property that it expands on freezing, so that ice has a specific gravity of 0.92 compared to 1.0 for liquid water. The most familiar demonstration of this property is ice cubes floating in a glass of water. A more dramatic demonstration is the ice bomb shown in Fig. 1. Here a cast iron flask is filled with water and tightly stoppered. The flask is then cooled, either by leaving it outdoors in winter or by immersing it in a cryogenic fluid, until the water freezes. As the water freezes and expands, the pressure inside the flask increases dramatically, eventually becoming sufficient to fracture the metal walls of the enclosure. A related, but much less familiar, phenomenon is the explosive fracturing of small water drops upon freezing. That water drops can fracture in this way has been known for many years, and the phenomenon has been described in detail in the atmospheric sciences literature, where it is seen as relevant to the freezing of raindrops as they fall through cold air. Carefully controlled experiments have been done documenting how the character and frequency of fracture is affected by such variables as drop size, rate of cooling, chemistry of dissolved gases, etc. Here I describe instead a simple demonstration of fracture suitable for video analysis and appropriate for study at the introductory physics level. Readers may also be interested in other characteristics of freezing and fragmenting water drops, for example, charge separation upon fracture and the appearance of spikes and bulges on the surface.

  9. Binary drop coalescence in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungyong

    Experiments on binary drop collisions within an index-matched liquid were conducted for Weber numbers (We) of 1-50 and collision angles of 15-80° below the horizontal. Drop pairs of water/glycerin mixture were injected into silicone oil and, due to gravitational effects, traveled on downward trajectories before colliding. A dual-field high-speed PIV measurement system was employed to quantify drop trajectories and overall collision conditions while simultaneously examining detailed velocity fields near the collision interface. In the We range examined, for equal size drops, both rebounding and coalescing behavior occurred. The drops coalesced for We > 10 and rebounded for We < 10, and this boundary was found to be insensitive to collision angle. Coalescence was found to result from a combination of vortical flow within drops and strong drop deformation characteristic of higher We. Flow through the centers of opposing ring vortices, strengthened by drop deformation, enhanced drainage of the thin film in the impact region, leading to film rupture and coalescence. The collision angle affected the eventual location of film rupture, with the rupture location moving higher in the thin film region as the collision angle increased. The film rupture location correlated closely with the location of maximum downward velocity in the thin film. The time between collision and rupture increases with We until We = 30. For We > 30, the time decreases as We increases. Unequal size drop collisions with drop size ratios (Ds/D L) of 0.7 and 0.5 were also examined. Coalescence occurs above We* = 11 similar to equal size drops. As drop size ratio decreases, the intervening film deforms more. If the velocity ratio uL/u s < 1, the deformed interface becomes flat before coalescence. The rupture location varies due to the asymmetry of the drops. As collision offset increases (B > 0), the film rupture time is shortened and mixing of the fluid from both drops is enhanced after coalescence

  10. Shapes of Bubbles and Drops in Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, James

    2000-01-01

    Explains the shape distortions that take place in fluid packets (bubbles or drops) with steady flow motion by using the laws of Archimedes, Pascal, and Bernoulli rather than advanced vector calculus. (WRM)

  11. Review on drop towers and long drop tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayuzick, R. J.; Hofmeister, W. H.; Robinson, M. B.

    1987-01-01

    A drop tube is an enclosure in which a molten sample can be solidified while falling; three such large tubes are currently in existence, all at NASA research facilities, and are engaged in combustion and fluid physics-related experiments rather than in materials research. JPL possesses smaller tubes, one of which can be cryogenically cooled to produce glass and metal microshells. A new small drop tube will soon begin operating at NASA Lewis that is equipped with four high-speed two-color pyrometers spaced equidistantly along the column.

  12. Air induced breakup of drops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jaehoon; Tryggvason, Gretar

    1997-11-01

    The deformation and breakup of drops subject to both sudden and gradual acceleration is examined by axisymmetric inviscid and full numerical simulations. In the full simulations, the Navier Stokes equations are solved for the fluid inside and outside of the drop by a Front Tracking/Finite Difference Method. In the limit of small density stratification, inviscid simulations show the formation of a toroidal drop for small surface tension and the formation of skirts as the surface tension is increased. The viscous computations show a similar transition plus a RbagS break up for a relatively high surface tension, but not high enough so that the drop reaches a steady state deformation. The RbagS break up mode appears when the drop slows down due to viscous dissipation after most of its fluid has accumulated in the rim, forming a torous connected by a thin film. A RbagS is formed when the rim starts to fall faster than the film. The various break up modes, as a function of the Ohnesorge and Weber (or Eotvos) numbers as well as property ratios is discussed. Supported by AFOSR.

  13. Electrohydrodynamics of a particle-covered drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouriemi, Malika; Vlahovska, Petia

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of a drop nearly-completely covered with a particle monolayer in a uniform DC electric field. The weakly conducting fluid system consists of a silicon oil drop suspended in castor oil. A broad range of particle sizes, conductivities, and shapes is explored. In weak electric fields, the presence of particles increases drop deformation compared to a particle-free drop and suppresses the electrohydrodynamic flow. Very good agreement is observed between the measured drop deformation and the small deformation theory derived for surfactant-laden drops (Nganguia et al., 2013). In stronger electric fields, where drops are expected to undergo Quincke rotation (Salipante and Vlahovska, 2010), the presence of the particles greatly decreases the threshold for rotation and the stationary tilted drop configuration observed for clean drop is replaced by a spinning drop with either a wobbling inclination or a very low inclination. These behaviors resemble the predicted response of rigid ellipsoids in uniform electric fields. At even stronger electric fields, the particles can form dynamic wings or the drop implodes. The similar behavior of particle-covered and surfactant-laden drops provides new insights into understanding stability of Pickering emulsions. Supported by NSF-CBET 1437545.

  14. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  15. Production of ultra-small ink jet drops using drop-on-demand (DOD) drop formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haijing; Xu, Qi; Harris, Michael; Basaran, Osman

    2009-11-01

    The formation of drops having radii that are smaller than the radii of the nozzle from which they are ejected is an active area of research in drop-on-demand (DOD) ink jet printing. In the last decade, Chen and Basaran (Phys Fluids, 2002; US patent, 2003) showed experimentally and computationally that several fold reduction in drop radius R (an order of magnitude reduction in drop volume V) is possible by judicious use of waveform modulation in which one or more intrinsic time scales such as capillary time, time for vorticity diffusion, and time for piezo actuation are varied. In this paper, we report the results of a computational study through which we have uncovered a novel method for achieving a factor of 5-10 reduction in R (about two to three orders of magnitude reduction in V). Scaling arguments are also developed which yield a simple expression for the size of the ultra-small drops formed as a function of the governing dimensionless groups. Formation of such small drops using DOD technology may prove especially attractive in applications involving direct printing of flexible electronics and solar cells.

  16. Joint fluid Gram stain

    MedlinePlus

    Gram stain of joint fluid ... A sample of joint fluid is needed. The fluid sample is sent to a lab where a small drop is placed in a ... on how to prepare for the removal of joint fluid, see joint fluid aspiration .

  17. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Smith, Robbie E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus (10) is constructed having a cylindrical enclosure (16) within which a disc-shaped wicking element (18) is positioned. A well or recess (22) is cut into an upper side (24) of this wicking element, and a glass cover plate or slip (28) having a protein drop disposed thereon is sealably positioned on the wicking element (18), with drop (12) being positioned over well or recess (22). A flow of control fluid is generated by a programmable gradient former (16), with this control fluid having a vapor pressure that is selectively variable. This flow of control fluid is coupled to the wicking element (18) where control fluid vapor diffusing from walls (26) of the recess (22) is exposed to the drop (12), forming a vapor pressure gradient between the drop (12) and the control fluid vapor. Initially, this gradient is adjusted to draw solvent from the drop (12) at a relatively high rate, and as the critical supersaturation point is approached (the point at which crystal nucleation occurs), the gradient is reduced to more slowly draw solvent from the drop (12). This allows discrete protein molecules more time to orient themselves into an ordered crystalline lattice, producing protein crystals which, when processed by X-ray crystallography, possess a high degree of resolution.

  18. Head-on collision of drops: A numerical investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobari, M. R.; Jan, Y.-J.; Tryggvason, G.

    1993-01-01

    The head-on collision of equal sized drops is studied by full numerical simulations. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved for fluid motion both inside and outside the drops using a front tracking/finite difference technique. The drops are accelerated toward each other by a body force that is turned off before the drops collide. When the drops collide, the fluid between them is pushed outward leaving a thin later bounded by the drop surface. This layer gets progressively thinner as the drops continue to deform and in several of the calculations this double layer is artificially removed once it is thin enough, thus modeling rupture. If no rupture takes place, the drops always rebound, but if the film is ruptured the drops may coalesce permanently or coalesce temporarily and then split again.

  19. A Different Cone: Bursting Drops in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuanhe

    2013-03-01

    Drops in fluids tend to be spheres--a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

  20. Computations of Drop Collision and Coalescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Juric, Damir; Nas, Selman; Mortazavi, Saeed

    1996-01-01

    Computations of drops collisions, coalescence, and other problems involving drops are presented. The computations are made possible by a finite difference/front tracking technique that allows direct solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for a multi-fluid system with complex, unsteady internal boundaries. This method has been used to examine the various collision modes for binary collisions of drops of equal size, mixing of two drops of unequal size, behavior of a suspension of drops in linear and parabolic shear flows, and the thermal migration of several drops. The key results from these simulations are reviewed. Extensions of the method to phase change problems and preliminary results for boiling are also shown.

  1. Alternate drop pulse polarography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, J.H.; Jackson, L.L.; Osteryoung, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The new technique of alternate drop pulse polarography is presented. An experimental evaluation of alternate drop pulse polarography shows complete compensation of the capacitative background due to drop expansion. The capillary response phenomenon was studied in the absence of faradaic reaction and the capillary response current was found to depend on the pulse width to the -0.72 power. Increased signal-to-noise ratios were obtained using alternate drop pulse polarography at shorter drop times.

  2. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A crystal growth apparatus is presented. It utilizes a vapor diffusion method for growing protein crystals, and particularly such an apparatus wherein a ball mixer is used to mix the fluids that form a drop within which crystals are grown. Particular novelty of this invention lies in utilizing a ball mixer to completely mix the precipitate and protein solutions prior to forming the drop. Additional novelty lies in details of construction of the vials, the fluid deployment system, and the fluid storage system of the preferred embodiment.

  3. Thermocapillary Migration and Interactions of Bubbles and Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Lacy, Claud E.; Wozniak, Guenter; Subramanian, R. Shankar

    1996-01-01

    When a drop or bubble is placed in another fluid and subjected to the action of a temperature gradient, the drop will move. Such motion is a direct consequence of the variation of interfacial tension with temperature, and is termed thermocapillary migration. This paper discusses results from experiments conducted in reduced gravity on the thermocapillary motion of bubbles and drops.

  4. Electrolytic drops in an electric field: A numerical study of drop deformation and breakup.

    PubMed

    Pillai, R; Berry, J D; Harvie, D J E; Davidson, M R

    2015-07-01

    The deformation and breakup of an axisymmetric, conducting drop suspended in a nonconducting medium and subjected to an external electric field is numerically investigated here using an electrokinetic model. This model uses a combined level set-volume of fluid formulation of the deformable surfaces, along with a multiphase implementation of the Nernst-Planck equation for transport of ions, that allows for varying conductivity inside the drop. A phase diagram, based on a parametric study, is used to characterize the stability conditions. Stable drops with lower ion concentration are characterized by longer drop shapes than those achieved at higher ion concentrations. For higher drop ion concentration, greater charge accumulation is observed at drop tips. Consequently, such drops break up by pinching off rather than tip streaming. The charge contained in droplets released from unstable drops is shown to increase with drop ion concentration. These dynamic drop behaviors depend on the strength of the electric field and the concentration of ions in the drop and result from the interplay between the electric forces arising from the permittivity jump at the drop interface and the ions in the bulk. PMID:26274270

  5. Micro-explosion of compound drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Kuei; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Introducing water into spray combustion systems, by either water-in-oil emulsification or supplementary water injection, is one of the major techniques for combustion improvement and NOx reduction. Plentiful researches are available on combustion of water-in-oil emulsion fuel drops. The emulsified liquid is a heterogeneous mixture of immiscible liquids. One component forms the continuous phase and the other component forms the discrete phase. The discrete phase consists of globules of the one fluid that are suspended in the continuous phase fluid. Water-in-oil emulsions are commonly considered for combustion applications because emulsions can result in micro-explosion, thereby reducing the average drop diameter to enhance liquid vaporization, and suppressing the formation of soot and NOx. However, the water addition generally does not exceed about 20% for smooth engine operations[!, 21. The combustion characteristics and micro-explosion of emulsion drop were studied by many researchers. The micro-explosion of water in fuel emulsion drops was caused by very fast growth of superheated water vapor bubbles, its superheat limits must be lower than the boiling point temperature of the fuel. These bubbles were primarily governed by the pressure difference between the superheated vapor and the liquid, and by the inertia imparted to the liquid by the motion of the bubble surface[3 6 In this study, we used a coaxial nozzle to generation the multi-component drop. The different type of water-in-oil fuel drops called the compound drops. Unlike an emulsion drop, a compound drop consists of a water core and a fuel shell, which can originate from the phase separation of emulsion[7, 81 or a water drop colliding with a fuel drop[9, 101 Burning and micro-explosion of compound drops have been found to be distinct from those of emulsion drops[9-111 Wang et al.[9 , 101 studied the combustion characteristics of collision merged alkane-water drops. The merged drops appeared in adhesive

  6. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Alvin U.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  7. Generalized Charts for Determination of Pressure Drop of a High-speed Compressible Fluid in Heat-exchanger Passages I : Air Heated in Smooth Passages of Constant Area with Constant Wall Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valerino, Michael F

    1948-01-01

    In the present paper an analysis is made of the compressible-flow variations occurring in heat-exchanger passages. The results of the analysis describe the flow and heating characteristics for which specific flow passages can be treated as segments of generalized flow systems. The graphical representation of the flow variations in the generalized flow systems can then be utilized as working charts to determine directly the pressure changes occurring in any specific flow passage. On the basis of these results, working charts are constructed to handle the case of air heated at constant wall temperature under turbulent-flow conditions. A method is given of incorporating the effect on the heat-exchanger flow process of high temperature differential between passage wall and fluid as based on recent NACA experimental data. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and the chart pressure-drop values for passage-wall average temperatures as high as 1752 degrees R (experimental limit) and for flow Mach numbers ranging from 0.32 to 1.00 (choke) at the passage exit.

  8. Attracting Water Drops

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ... Loading... Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia Cataract Conjunctivitis Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) ...

  10. Ternary drop collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Hannes; Planchette, Carole; Brenn, Günter

    2015-10-01

    It has been recently proposed to use drop collisions for producing advanced particles or well-defined capsules, or to perform chemical reactions where the merged drops constitute a micro-reactor. For all these promising applications, it is essential to determine whether the merged drops remain stable after the collision, forming a single entity, or if they break up. This topic, widely investigated for binary drop collisions of miscible and immiscible liquid, is quite unexplored for ternary drop collisions. The current study aims to close this gap by experimentally investigating collisions between three equal-sized drops of the same liquid arranged centri-symmetrically. Three drop generators are simultaneously operated to obtain controlled ternary drop collisions. The collision outcomes are observed via photographs and compared to those of binary collisions. Similar to binary collisions, a regime map is built, showing coalescence and bouncing as well as reflexive and stretching separation. Significant differences are observed in the transitions between these regimes.

  11. Measuring the force of drag on air sheared sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2012-11-01

    To blow a drop along or off of a surface (i.e. to shed the drop), the drag force on the drop (based on flow conditions, drop shape, and fluid properties) must overcome the adhesion force between the drop and the surface (based on surface tension, drop shape, and contact angle). While the shedding of sessile drops by shear flow has been studied [Milne, A. J. B. & Amirfazli, A. Langmuir 25, 14155 (2009).], no independent measurements of the drag or adhesion forces have been made. Likewise, analytic predictions are limited to hemispherical drops and low air velocities. We present, therefore, measurements of the drag force on sessile drops at air velocities up to the point of incipient motion. Measurements were made using a modified floating element shear sensor in a laminar low speed wind tunnel to record drag force over the surface with the drop absent, and over the combined system of the surface and drop partially immersed in the boundary layer. Surfaces of different wettabilities were used to study the effects of drop shape and contact angles, with drop volume ranged between approximately 10 and 100 microlitres. The drag force for incipient motion (which by definition equals the maximum of the adhesion force) is compared to simplified models for drop adhesion such as that of Furmidge

  12. NMR velocity imaging of single liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, A.; Stapf, S.; Bluemich, B.

    2007-03-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction processes are often found in industrial applications when a bulk phase needs to be purified from dissolved components. The extraction strategy consists of dissolving the impurities into a second, carrier phase, with optimal performance being guaranteed by maximizing both contact interface area and mass transfer rate, in the shape of a swarm of dispersed droplets. Their buoyancy-driven flow within the continuous medium induces internal fluid motion driven by momentum transfer at the drop surface. This convective transport enhances mass transfer and the efficiency of an extraction column. However, understanding mass transfer depends on a proper description of the flow field inside and outside the drops. For that purpose, a cell was built that enables the levitation of a single drop within a counterstream of water. NMR velocity imaging was then applied to drops of different fluids to monitor the internal dynamics as a function of drop size, age, and interface tension. Vortex-type patterns in at least part of the drop were observed where their size and velocity magnitude depended on the system impurity concentration.

  13. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  14. Effect of neighboring perturbations on drop coalescence at an interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Ankur Deep; Longmire, Ellen K.

    2012-06-01

    Coalescence at a quiescent silicone oil/water glycerine interface was investigated for water/glycerine drops with Bond number ˜7 and Ohnesorge number = 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry. In addition to a single drop case, three perturbation cases were considered corresponding with a second drop, a solid particle wetted in oil, and a solid particle wetted in water/glycerine placed adjacent to the coalescing drop. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The initial retraction speed of the ruptured film was higher for drops initially tilted at significant angles, and the local variations in retraction speed correlated well with the expected variations in local film thickness. The drop fluid always collapsed away from the drop axis in the direction of the rupture location in all unperturbed or perturbed cases. In the case of a drop next to a particle wetted in water/glycerine, the collapsing fluid travelled away from the particle, and the downward propagating vortex ring which developed was similar to that resulting from an unperturbed drop rupture. By contrast, the drop fluid collapsed toward either a second drop or a particle wetted in oil. The resulting vortex rings were more asymmetric, and viscous interaction between the particle and collapsing fluid hindered the downward motion of the associated ring.

  15. Drop Tower Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in "The Physics Teacher" in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at…

  16. Youth Crime Drop. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey A.

    This report examines the recent drop in violent crime in the United States, discussing how much of the decrease seen between 1995-99 is attributable to juveniles (under age 18 years) and older youth (18-24 years). Analysis of current FBI arrest data indicates that not only did America's violent crime drop continue through 1999, but falling youth…

  17. Axisymmetric Liquid Hanging Drops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Erich C.; Latychevskaia, Tatiana Yu

    2006-01-01

    The geometry of drops hanging on a circular capillary can be determined by numerically solving a dimensionless differential equation that is independent on any material properties, which enables one to follow the change of the height, surface area, and contact angle of drops hanging on a particular capillary. The results show that the application…

  18. Dielectrophoresis of a surfactant-laden viscous drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-06-01

    The dielectrophoresis of a surfactant-laden viscous drop in the presence of non-uniform DC electric field is investigated analytically and numerically. Considering the presence of bulk-insoluble surfactants at the drop interface, we first perform asymptotic solution for both low and high surface Péclet numbers, where the surface Péclet number signifies the strength of surface convection of surfactants as compared to the diffusion at the drop interface. Neglecting fluid inertia and interfacial charge convection effects, we obtain explicit expression for dielectrophoretic drop velocity for low and high Péclet numbers by assuming small deviation of drop shape from sphericity and small deviation of surfactant concentration from the equilibrium uniform distribution. We then depict a numerical solution, assuming spherical drop, for arbitrary values of Péclet number. Our analyses demonstrate that the asymptotic solution shows excellent agreement with the numerical solution in the limiting conditions of low and high Péclet numbers. The present analysis shows that the flow-induced redistribution of the surfactants at the drop interface generates Marangoni stress, owing to the influence of the surfactant distribution on the local interfacial tension, at the drop interface and significantly alters the drop velocity at steady state. For a perfectly conducting/dielectric drop suspended in perfectly dielectric medium, Marangoni stress always retards the dielectrophoretic velocity of the drop as compared with a surfactant-free drop. For a leaky dielectric drop suspended in another leaky dielectric medium, in the low Péclet number limit, depending on the electrical conductivity and permittivity of both the liquids, the Marangoni stress may aid or retard the dielectrophoretic velocity of the drop. The Marangoni stress also has the ability to move the drop in the opposite direction as compared with a surfactant-free drop. This non-intuitive reverse motion of the drop is

  19. Pattern formation in drying drops of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brutin, D.; Sobac, B.; Loquet, B.; Sampol, J.

    2011-01-01

    The drying of a drop of human blood exhibits coupled physical mechanisms, such as Marangoni flow, evaporation and wettability. The final stage of a whole blood drop evaporation reveals regular patterns with a good reproducibility for a healthy person. Other experiments on anaemic and hyperlipidemic people were performed, and different patterns were revealed. The flow motion inside the blood drop is observed and analyzed with the use of a digital camera: the influence of the red blood cells (RBCs) motion is revealed at the drop periphery as well as its consequences on the final stage of drying. The mechanisms which lead to the final pattern of the dried blood drops are presented and explained on the basis of fluid mechanics in conjunction with the principles of haematology. The blood drop evaporation process is evidenced to be driven only by Marangoni flow. The same axisymetric pattern formation is observed, and can be forecast for different blood drop diameters. The evaporation mass flux can be predicted with a good agreement, assuming only the knowledge of the colloids mass concentration.

  20. Investigation of drop motion through circular orifices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Ankur; Longmire, Ellen; Kong, Xiangzhao; Saar, Martin

    2011-11-01

    The motion of drops though porous media occurs in numerous science and engineering fields including multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface during groundwater flow, geothermal energy recovery, and geologic carbon dioxide sequestration. Here, we simplify the porous medium to a thin plate with an orifice to study the interactions between the drop and the solid medium. Drops of water/glycerin with diameter, D, are released in a tank of silicone oil with matched refractive index and allowed to fall downward by gravity. After reaching terminal speed, the drops encounter a thin plate with orifice diameter, d, placed horizontally within the surrounding tank. Drop deformation, contact with the orifice, and breakage are investigated using high-speed imaging, and velocity fields are determined by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Effects of diameter ratio d/D, drop Reynolds number, and drop offset with respect to the orifice center are examined. The experimental results are compared to results from numerical simulations using an immiscible, two-color BGK lattice-Boltzmann method performed under similar test conditions. Supported by DOE (DOE EERE-PMC-10EE0002764).

  1. Gravity driven current during the coalescence of two sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Oberdick, Samuel D.; Swanson, Ellen R.; Anna, Shelley L.; Garoff, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Coalescence of liquid drops is critical in many phenomena such as emulsion stability, inkjet printing, and coating applications. For sessile drops on a solid surface, the coalescence process is more complicated than the coalescence of drops suspended in a fluid medium as a result of the coupling of the contact line motions to the fluid flow. In this paper, we use video microscopy to track the evolution of the interfaces and contact lines as well as the internal fluid motion within a merged sessile droplet. In this study, the fluids in the coalescing drops are miscible and have similar surface tensions and drop volumes but different viscosities and densities. Coalescence occurs in three stages. During the first stage, rapid healing of the bridge between the drops occurs just after they touch. In the second stage, slower rearrangement of the liquids occurs. We show that these intermediate rearrangements are driven by gravity even for density differences of the two fluids as small as 1%. For the systems examined, little to no mixing occurs during these first two stages. Finally, in the third stage, diffusion leads to mixing of the fluids. Dimensional analysis reveals the scaling of the intermediate flow behavior as a function of density difference and geometric dimensions of the merged drop; however, the scaling with viscosity is more complicated, motivating development of a lubrication analysis of the coalescence problem. Numerical calculations based on the lubrication analysis capture aspects of the experimental observations and reveal the governing forces and time scales of the coalescence process. The results reveal that internal fluid motions persist over much longer time scales than imaging of the external interface alone would reveal. Furthermore, nearly imperceptible motions of the external composite drop interface can lead to important deviations from the predominant gravity current scaling, where viscous resistance of the lighter fluid layer plays a

  2. Drop Tower Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, William A. Toby

    2014-10-01

    The drop towers of yesteryear were used to make lead shot for muskets, as described in The Physics Teacher1 in April 2012. However, modern drop towers are essentially elevators designed so that the cable can "break" on demand, creating an environment with microgravity for a short period of time, currently up to nine seconds at the drop tower in Bremen, Germany. Using these drop towers, one can briefly investigate various physical systems operating in this near zero-g environment. The resulting "Drop Tower Physics" is a new and exciting way to challenge students with a physical example that requires solid knowledge of many basic physics principles, and it forces them to practice the scientific method. The question is, "How would a simple toy, like a pendulum, behave when it is suddenly exposed to a zero-g environment?" The student must then postulate a particular behavior, test the hypothesis against physical principles, and if the hypothesis conforms to these chosen physical laws, the student can formulate a final conclusion. At that point having access to a drop tower is very convenient, in that the student can then experimentally test his or her conclusion. The purpose of this discussion is to explain the response of these physical systems ("toys") when the transition is made to a zero-g environment and to provide video demonstrations of this behavior to support in-class discussions of Drop Tower Physics.

  3. The Flow Induced by the Coalescence of Two Initially Stationary Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nobari, M. R.; Tryggvason, G.

    1994-01-01

    The coalescence of two initially stationary drops of different size is investigated by solving the unsteady, axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations numerically, using a Front-Tracking/Finite Difference method. Initially, the drops are put next to each other and the film between them ruptured. Due to surface tension forces, the drops coalesce rapidly and the fluid from the small drop is injected into the larger one. For low nondimensional viscosity, or Ohnesorge number, little mixing takes place and the small drop fluid forms a blob near the point where the drops touched initially. For low Ohnesorge number, on the other hand, the small drop forms a jet that penetrates far into the large drop. The penetration depth also depends on the size of the drops and shows that for a given fluid of sufficiently low viscosity, there is a maximum penetration depth for intermediate size ratios.

  4. Drop Tower Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Ground based microgravity facilities are an important proving ground for space experiments, ground-based research and space hardware risk mitigation. An overview of existing platforms will be discussed with an emphasis on drop tower capabilities. The potential for extension to partial gravity conditions will be discussed. Input will be solicited from attendees for their potential to use drop towers in the future and the need for enhanced capabilities (e.g. partial gravity)

  5. Determination of pressure drop coefficient by CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skočilasová, Blanka; Skočilas, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with method applied to the verification of the turbulence models. The turbulence models were used in the simulation of the Newtonian fluid turbulent flow in the circular tube. The principle of the method is in the comparison of the pressure drop obtained by the simulation and the analytic solution. The parameters of the fluid flow were varied with the specified Reynolds number range. The pressure drop of inserted element in the pipe is evaluated.

  6. Sliding viscoelastic drops on slippery surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Clarke, A.; Rothstein, J. P.; Poole, R. J.

    2016-06-01

    We study the sliding of drops of constant-viscosity dilute elastic liquids (Boger fluids) on various surfaces caused by sudden surface inclination. For smooth or roughened hydrophilic surfaces, such as glass or acrylic, there is essentially no difference between these elastic liquids and a Newtonian comparator fluid (with identical shear viscosity, surface tension, and static contact angle). In contrast for embossed polytetrafluoroethylene superhydrophobic surfaces, profound differences are observed: the elastic drops slide at a significantly reduced rate and complex branch-like patterns are left on the surface by the drop's wake including, on various scales, beads-on-a-string like phenomena. Microscopy images indicate that the strong viscoelastic effect is caused by stretching filaments of fluid from isolated islands, residing at pinning sites on the surface pillars, of the order ˜30 μm in size. On this scale, the local strain rates are sufficient to extend the polymer chains, locally increasing the extensional viscosity of the solution, retarding the drop and leaving behind striking branch-like structures on much larger scales.

  7. Destabilising Pickering emulsions by drop flocculation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Catherine P; Khairul Anwar, Hunainah; Hughes, James

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated how emulsions of water drops coated by organoclay particles destabilise in organic solvents. The drops destabilise and the emulsions undergo a fluid-solid transition if the particles are poorly wetted by the solvent. We show that the drops adhere together and form three-dimensional networks as the fraction of the poor-quality solvent in the mixture increases. Microscopic observations revealed that the drops coalesce into buckled, non-spherical shapes in mixtures rich in poor-quality solvent. A key finding is that destabilisation is favoured under conditions where the energy of adhesion between the particle layers coating drops is comparable to the energy required to detach the particles from the drops. Rupture of the interfacial layer produces particle flocs and uncoated, unstable water drops that settle out of the emulsion. PMID:26674231

  8. Jumps, somersaults, and symmetry breaking in Leidenfrost drops.

    PubMed

    Chen, Simeng; Bertola, Volfango

    2016-08-01

    When a droplet of water impacts a heated surface, the drop may be observed to bounce. Recently is has been found that small quantities (∼100 ppm) of polymer additives such as polyethylene oxide can significantly increase the maximum bouncing height of drops. This effect has been explained in terms of the reduction of energy dissipation caused by polymer additives during the drop retraction and rebound, resulting in higher mechanical energy available for bouncing. Here we demonstrate, by comparing three types of fluids (Newtonian, shear-thinning, and viscoelastic), that the total kinetic energy carried by low-viscosity Newtonian drops during retraction is partly transformed into rotational kinetic energy rather than dissipated when compared with high-viscosity or non-Newtonian drops. We also show that non-Newtonian effects play little role in the energy distribution during drop impact, while the main effect is due to the symmetry break observed during the retraction of low-viscosity drops. PMID:27627234

  9. Coalescing drops in microfluidic parking networks: A multifunctional platform for drop-based microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Bithi, Swastika S.; Wang, William S.; Sun, Meng; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiwell plate and pipette systems have revolutionized modern biological analysis; however, they have disadvantages because testing in the submicroliter range is challenging, and increasing the number of samples is expensive. We propose a new microfluidic methodology that delivers the functionality of multiwell plates and pipettes at the nanoliter scale by utilizing drop coalescence and confinement-guided breakup in microfluidic parking networks (MPNs). Highly monodisperse arrays of drops obtained using a hydrodynamic self-rectification process are parked at prescribed locations in the device, and our method allows subsequent drop manipulations such as fine-gradation dilutions, reactant addition, and fluid replacement while retaining microparticles contained in the sample. Our devices operate in a quasistatic regime where drop shapes are determined primarily by the channel geometry. Thus, the behavior of parked drops is insensitive to flow conditions. This insensitivity enables highly parallelized manipulation of drop arrays of different composition, without a need for fine-tuning the flow conditions and other system parameters. We also find that drop coalescence can be switched off above a critical capillary number, enabling individual addressability of drops in complex MPNs. The platform demonstrated here is a promising candidate for conducting multistep biological assays in a highly multiplexed manner, using thousands of submicroliter samples. PMID:25379078

  10. Coalescing drops in microfluidic parking networks: A multifunctional platform for drop-based microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Bithi, Swastika S; Wang, William S; Sun, Meng; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2014-05-01

    Multiwell plate and pipette systems have revolutionized modern biological analysis; however, they have disadvantages because testing in the submicroliter range is challenging, and increasing the number of samples is expensive. We propose a new microfluidic methodology that delivers the functionality of multiwell plates and pipettes at the nanoliter scale by utilizing drop coalescence and confinement-guided breakup in microfluidic parking networks (MPNs). Highly monodisperse arrays of drops obtained using a hydrodynamic self-rectification process are parked at prescribed locations in the device, and our method allows subsequent drop manipulations such as fine-gradation dilutions, reactant addition, and fluid replacement while retaining microparticles contained in the sample. Our devices operate in a quasistatic regime where drop shapes are determined primarily by the channel geometry. Thus, the behavior of parked drops is insensitive to flow conditions. This insensitivity enables highly parallelized manipulation of drop arrays of different composition, without a need for fine-tuning the flow conditions and other system parameters. We also find that drop coalescence can be switched off above a critical capillary number, enabling individual addressability of drops in complex MPNs. The platform demonstrated here is a promising candidate for conducting multistep biological assays in a highly multiplexed manner, using thousands of submicroliter samples. PMID:25379078

  11. Rain Drop Charge Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S, Sreekanth T.

    begin{center} Large Large Rain Drop Charge Sensor Sreekanth T S*, Suby Symon*, G. Mohan Kumar (1) , S. Murali Das (2) *Atmospheric Sciences Division, Centre for Earth Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram 695011 (1) D-330, Swathi Nagar, West Fort, Thiruvananthapuram 695023 (2) Kavyam, Manacaud, Thiruvananthapuram 695009 begin{center} ABSTRACT To study the inter-relations with precipitation electricity and precipitation microphysical parameters a rain drop charge sensor was designed and developed at CESS Electronics & Instrumentation Laboratory. Simultaneous measurement of electric charge and fall speed of rain drops could be done using this charge sensor. A cylindrical metal tube (sensor tube) of 30 cm length is placed inside another thick metal cover opened at top and bottom for electromagnetic shielding. Mouth of the sensor tube is exposed and bottom part is covered with metal net in the shielding cover. The instrument is designed in such a way that rain drops can pass only through unhindered inside the sensor tube. When electrically charged rain drops pass through the sensor tube, it is charged to the same magnitude of drop charge but with opposite polarity. The sensor tube is electrically connected the inverted input of a current to voltage converter operational amplifier using op-amp AD549. Since the sensor is electrically connected to the virtual ground of the op-amp, the charge flows to the ground and the generated current is converted to amplified voltage. This output voltage is recorded using a high frequency (1kHz) voltage recorder. From the recorded pulse, charge magnitude, polarity and fall speed of rain drop are calculated. From the fall speed drop diameter also can be calculated. The prototype is now under test running at CESS campus. As the magnitude of charge in rain drops is an indication of accumulated charge in clouds in lightning, this instrument has potential application in the field of risk and disaster management. By knowing the charge

  12. Liquid metal drop ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khuri-Yakub, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this project was to demonstrate the possibility of ejecting liquid metals using drop on demand printing technology. The plan was to make transducers for operation in the 100 MHz frequency range and to use these transducers to demonstrate the ability to eject drops of liquid metals such as gallium. Two transducers were made by indium bonding piezoelectric lithium niobate to quartz buffer rods. The lithium niobate plates were thinned by mechanical polishing to a thickness of 37 microns for operation at 100 MHz. Hemispherical lenses were polished in the opposite ends of the buffer rods. The lenses, which focus the sound waves in the liquid metal, had an F-number equals 1. A mechanical housing was made to hold the transducers and to allow precise control over the liquid level above the lens. We started by demonstrating the ability to eject drops of water on demand. The drops of water had a diameter of 15 microns which corresponds to the wavelength of the sound wave in the water. A videotape of this ejection was made. We then used a mixture of Gallium and Indium (used to lower the melting temperature of the Gallium) to demonstrate the ejection of liquid metal drops. This proved to be difficult because of the oxide skin which forms on the surface of the liquid. In some instances, we were able to eject metal drops, however, this was not consistent and reproducible. An experiment was set up at NASA-Lewis to stabilize the process of drop on demand liquid metal ejection. The object was to place the transducer and liquid metal in a vacuum station so that no oxide would form on the surface. We were successful in demonstrating that liquid metals could be ejected on demand and that this technology could be used for making sheet metal in space.

  13. Nanofluid Drop Evaporation: Experiment, Theory, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, William James

    Nanofluids, stable colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid, have potential applications in the heat transfer, combustion and propulsion, manufacturing, and medical fields. Experiments were conducted to determine the evaporation rate of room temperature, millimeter-sized pendant drops of ethanol laden with varying amounts (0-3% by weight) of 40-60 nm aluminum nanoparticles (nAl). Time-resolved high-resolution drop images were collected for the determination of early-time evaporation rate (D2/D 02 > 0.75), shown to exhibit D-square law behavior, and surface tension. Results show an asymptotic decrease in pendant drop evaporation rate with increasing nAl loading. The evaporation rate decreases by approximately 15% at around 1% to 3% nAl loading relative to the evaporation rate of pure ethanol. Surface tension was observed to be unaffected by nAl loading up to 3% by weight. A model was developed to describe the evaporation of the nanofluid pendant drops based on D-square law analysis for the gas domain and a description of the reduction in liquid fraction available for evaporation due to nanoparticle agglomerate packing near the evaporating drop surface. Model predictions are in relatively good agreement with experiment, within a few percent of measured nanofluid pendant drop evaporation rate. The evaporation of pinned nanofluid sessile drops was also considered via modeling. It was found that the same mechanism for nanofluid evaporation rate reduction used to explain pendant drops could be used for sessile drops. That mechanism is a reduction in evaporation rate due to a reduction in available ethanol for evaporation at the drop surface caused by the packing of nanoparticle agglomerates near the drop surface. Comparisons of the present modeling predictions with sessile drop evaporation rate measurements reported for nAl/ethanol nanofluids by Sefiane and Bennacer [11] are in fairly good agreement. Portions of this abstract previously appeared as: W. J

  14. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  15. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOEpatents

    Botts, Thomas E.; Powell, James R.; Lenard, Roger

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  16. The fate of electrospray drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaran, Osman; Collins, Robert; Sambath, Krishnaraj; Harris, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Drops subjected to strong electric fields emit thin fluid jets from conical structures (Taylor cones) that form at their surfaces. Such behavior has practical, e.g. electrospray mass spectrometry, and fundamental, e.g. raindrops in thunderclouds, implications. Theoretical analysis of the temporal development of such EHD tip-streaming phenomena is challenging given the large disparity in length scales between the macroscopic drops and the microscopic jets. Furthermore, there exist conflicting theories and measurements on the size and charge of these small electrospray droplets. We use theory and simulation to show that conductivity can be tuned to yield three scaling regimes for droplet radius and charge, a finding missed by previous studies. The amount of charge Q that electrospray droplets carry determines whether they are coulombically stable and charged below the Rayleigh limit of stability R or are unstable and hence prone to further explosions once formed. Previous experiments reported droplet charge values ranging from 1/10th to in excess of R. Simulations unequivocally show that electrospray droplets are coulombically stable at the instant they are created and that there exists a universal scaling law for droplet charge, Q=0.44 R.

  17. On the Stability of Rotating Drops

    PubMed Central

    Nurse, A. K.; Coriell, S. R.; McFadden, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the equilibrium and stability of rotating axisymmetric fluid drops by appealing to a variational principle that characterizes the equilibria as stationary states of a functional containing surface energy and rotational energy contributions, augmented by a volume constraint. The linear stability of a drop is determined by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the second variation of the energy functional. We compute equilibria corresponding to both oblate and prolate shapes, as well as toroidal shapes, and track their evolution with rotation rate. The stability results are obtained for two cases: (i) a prescribed rotational rate of the system (“driven drops”), or (ii) a prescribed angular momentum (“isolated drops”). For families of axisymmetric drops instabilities may occur for either axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric perturbations; the latter correspond to bifurcation points where non-axisymmetric shapes are possible. We employ an angle-arc length formulation of the problem which allows the computation of equilibrium shapes that are not single-valued in spherical coordinates. We are able to illustrate the transition from spheroidal drops with a strong indentation on the rotation axis to toroidal drops that do not extend to the rotation axis. Toroidal drops with a large aspect ratio (major radius to minor radius) are subject to azimuthal instabilities with higher mode numbers that are analogous to the Rayleigh instability of a cylindrical interface. Prolate spheroidal shapes occur if a drop of lower density rotates within a denser medium; these drops appear to be linearly stable. This work is motivated by recent investigations of toroidal tissue clusters that are observed to climb conical obstacles after self-assembly [Nurse et al., Journal of Applied Mechanics 79 (2012) 051013]. PMID:26958440

  18. Surface structuring of particle laden drops using electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommersnes, P.; Fossum, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Emulsion drops readily adsorb particles at their surfaces, which may lead to a fluid or solid layer encapsulating the drop, known as an armored drop. In this review, we discuss how electric fields can be used to manipulate colloidal surface structures, by dielectrophoretic or electro-hydrodynamic mechanisms and we also compare this to related phenomena in lipid bilayer vesicles. The phenomena discussed are important for a wide range of uses of particle laden drops, including emulsion stabilization, Janus or patchy mesocapsule-, scaffold- or other materials-production.

  19. Experimental study of the oscillating interface of a falling drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Suhwan; Ward, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The drop interface oscillation generated from detachment from a nozzle due to gravity are experimentally studied. The fluids used in the experiments are glycerol-water mixtures with viscosities ranging from 0.005 to 0.410 Pa s, mineral oil having a viscosity of 0.0270 Pa s, and DI water with viscosity of 0.0009 Pa s. The drop oscillating is taken by fast camera to make observations. For large drops, where the interface relative to a polar angle may be measured, the periodic deformation is plotted as a function of time. For smaller drops we measure the deformation as switching between an oblate and prolate drop as a function of time. The phenomenon is clearly a function of the fluid viscosity but we seek to propose a pinch-off mechanism for understanding the source of the observed oscillations.

  20. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  1. Immersed Interface Method for Drop Electrohydrodynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganguia, Herve; Young, Yuan-Nan; Layton, Anita; Hu, Wei-Fan; Lai, Ming-Chih

    2014-11-01

    A numerical scheme based on the immersed interface method (IIM) is developed to simulate the dynamics of an axisymmetric viscous drop under an electric field. In this work, the IIM is used to solve both the fluid velocity field and the electric potential field. Detailed numerical studies on the numerical scheme shows second-order convergence. Moreover, the numerical scheme is further validated by the good agreement with published analytical models, and results from the Boundary Integral method. The IIM code is used to investigate inertia effects and/or time-varying electric field on drop electro-deformation. Results from the simulations illustrate how the inertia effects and time dependence of the electric field affect the electro-deformation of a viscous leaky dielectric drop.

  2. Hydrodynamic interaction of two deformable drops in confined shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongping; Wang, Chengyao

    2014-09-01

    We investigate hydrodynamic interaction between two neutrally buoyant circular drops in a confined shear flow based on a computational fluid dynamics simulation using the volume-of-fluid method. The rheological behaviors of interactive drops and the flow regimes are explored with a focus on elucidation of underlying physical mechanisms. We find that two types of drop behaviors during interaction occur, including passing-over motion and reversing motion, which are governed by the competition between the drag of passing flow and the entrainment of reversing flow in matrix fluid. With the increasing confinement, the drop behavior transits from the passing-over motion to reversing motion, because the entrainment of the reversing-flow matrix fluid turns to play the dominant role. The drag of the ambient passing flow is increased by enlarging the initial lateral separation due to the departure of the drop from the reversing flow in matrix fluid, resulting in the emergence of passing-over motion. In particular, a corresponding phase diagram is plotted to quantitatively illustrate the dependence of drop morphologies during interaction on confinement and initial lateral separation.

  3. Sheathless hydrodynamic positioning of buoyant drops and bubbles inside microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Claudiu A.; Guglielmini, Laura; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Caviezel, Daniel; Stone, Howard A.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-09-01

    Particles, bubbles, and drops carried by a fluid in a confined environment such as a pipe can be subjected to hydrodynamic lift forces, i.e., forces that are perpendicular to the direction of the flow. We investigated the positioning effect of lift forces acting on buoyant drops and bubbles suspended in a carrier fluid and flowing in a horizontal microchannel. We report experiments on drops of water in fluorocarbon liquid, and on bubbles of nitrogen in hydrocarbon liquid and silicone oil, inside microchannels with widths on the order of 0.1-1 mm. Despite their buoyancy, drops and bubbles could travel without contacting with the walls of channels; the most important parameters for reaching this flow regime in our experiments were the viscosity and the velocity of the carrier fluid, and the sizes of drops and bubbles. The dependencies of the transverse position of drops and bubbles on these parameters were investigated. At steady state, the trajectories of drops and bubbles approached the center of the channel for drops and bubbles almost as large as the channel, carried by rapidly flowing viscous liquids; among our experiments, these flow conditions were characterized by larger capillary numbers and smaller Reynolds numbers. Analytical models of lift forces developed for the flow of drops much smaller than the width of the channel failed to predict their transverse position, while computational fluid dynamic simulations of the experiments agreed better with the experimental measurements. The degrees of success of these predictions indicate the importance of confinement on generating strong hydrodynamic lift forces. We conclude that, inside microfluidic channels, it is possible to support and position buoyant drops and bubbles simply by flowing a single-stream (i.e., “sheathless”) carrier liquid that has appropriate velocity and hydrodynamic properties.

  4. Drop breakup and deformation in sudden onset strong flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Charles Raphael

    This work characterizes the deformation and breakup of a single drop subjected to a sudden onset shear flow. The drop is immersed in a second fluid (the matrix) with which it is immiscible. A cylindrical couette device is used to create a flow field which, in the absence of the drop, would constitute a close approximation of simple shear flow. The magnitude of the imposed shear rate was greater than that which would be necessary to just break the drop. The experiments conducted were limited to matrix fluid viscosities above 7Pa˙ s and shear rates below 15/s, ensuring that the flows considered were inertialess. The matrix fluid was a corn syrup solution. The drop fluids were polybutadiene, paraffin oil and silicone oil, leading to a range of interfacial tensions. At the shear rates used in these experiments the fluids used Newtonian. Viscosity ratios (drop/matrix) ranging from 0.01 to 1 were considered. Two breakup mechanisms were observed to contribute to the dispersion of the original drop. In all cases elongative end pinching, defined by this study, caused the ends of a stretching drop to break off and form daughter drops. Breakup due to elongative end pinching was always the first breakup observed. The daughter drops formed by elongative end pinching were always the largest daughter drops formed. In cases when the experimental conditions were sufficiently stronger than the critical conditions (needed to just barely break up the drop), a second type of breakup, capillary wave breakup, was also observed. Measurement of the characteristic time scales and length scales were made of each type of breakup. The lengths (a) were found to scale as capillary numbers: Ca=a mg/s. The times (t) were found to scale as strains: s=t g. A qualitative explanation for the capillary number scaling is presented and quantitatively compared to predictions based on small deformation analysis. Additionally the daughter drop size distributions resulting from drop breakup is characterized

  5. Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2012-10-01

    Fluid drops tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting.

  6. Bursting Drops in Solid Dielectrics Caused by High Voltages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Drops in fluids tend to be spheres—a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nano-fibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high-energy-density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting. PMID:23093194

  7. Bursting drops in solid dielectrics caused by high voltages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiming; Suo, Zhigang; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2012-01-01

    Fluid drops tend to be spheres--a shape that minimizes surface energy. In thunderstorm clouds, drops can become unstable and emit thin jets when charged beyond certain limits. The instability of electrified drops in gases and liquids has been widely studied and used in applications including ink-jet printing, electrospinning nanofibers, microfluidics and electrospray ionization. Here we report a different scenario: drops in solids become unstable and burst under sufficiently high electric fields. We find the instability of drops in solids morphologically resembles that in liquids, but the critical electric field for the instability follows a different scaling due to elasticity of solids. Our observations and theoretical models not only advance the fundamental understanding of electrified drops, but also suggest a new failure mechanism of high energy density dielectric polymers, which have diverse applications ranging from capacitors for power grids and electric vehicles to muscle-like transducers for soft robots and energy harvesting. PMID:23093194

  8. Digitizing of drop table output

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, K.

    1984-01-01

    The method for monitoring and analyzing the drop pulses from the MTS1212 drop table system has been upgraded from a labor intensive manual system to an automatic digital system. The pulse from each drop is recorded, analyzed and printed out. The data printed out includes all product information, the drop parameters calculated and a plot of the drop pulse. Some of the advantages of this system, besides the replacement of old and obsolete equipment, include the dropping of the repeatability check requirement, ease of operation, complete automatic documentation of each drop, no need to take Polaroid pictures of a drop nor is it necessary to have a drop film read by the film analysis group. Data comparisons between the old method and the new digital method have been very favorable.

  9. Drop tube technical tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Criteria, using fundamental thermochemical dynamics, were developed to assist a scientist using the Drop Tube Facility in designing a good experiment. The types of parameters involved in designing the experiments include the type of furnace, the type of atmosphere, and in general which materials are better behaved than others as determined by past experience in the facility. One of the major advantages of the facility lies in its ability to provide large undercoolings in the cooling curve during the drops. A beginning was to consider the effect of oxygen and other gases upon the amount of undercooling observed. The starting point of the thermochemistry was given by Ellingham and later transformed into what is known as the Richardson Chart. The effect of surface oxidations upon the nucleation phenomena can be observed in each specimen.

  10. Drop interaction with solid boundaries in liquid/liquid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoloi, Ankur Deep

    The present experimental work was motivated primarily by the CO 2 sequestration process. In a possible scenario during this process, gravity driven CO2 bubbles coalesce at an interface near the rock surface. In another scenario, trapped CO2 fluid may escape from a porous matrix overcoming interfacial force inside a pore. Based on these potential scenarios, the current research was divided into two broad experimental studies. In the first part, coalescence at a quiescent interface of two analogous fluids (silicone oil and water/glycerin mixture) was investigated for water/glycerin drops with Bond number (Bo) ~7 and Ohnesorge number ~ 0.01 using high-speed imaging and time-resolved tomographic PIV. Two perturbation cases with a solid particle wetted in oil and water/glycerin placed adjacent to the coalescing drop were considered. The results were compared with coalescence of a single drop and that of a drop neighBored by a second drop of equivalent size. Each perturbing object caused an initial tilting of the drop, influencing its rupture location, subsequent film retraction and eventual collapse behavior. Once tilted, drops typically ruptured near their lowest vertical position which was located either toward or away from the perturbing object depending on the case. The trends in local retraction speed of the ruptured film and the overall dynamics of the collapsing drops were discussed in detail. In the second part, the motion of gravity driven drops (B o~0.8-11) through a confining orifice d/D<1) was studied using high speed imaging and planar PIV. Drops of water/glycerin, surrounded by silicone oil, fall toward and encounter the orifice plate after reaching terminal speed. The effects of surface wettability were investigated for Both round-edged and sharp-edged orifices. For the round-edged case, a thin film of surrounding oil prevented the drop fluid from contacting the orifice surface, such that the flow outcomes of the drops were independent of surface

  11. The Drop Tower Bremen -Experiment Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; von Kampen, Peter; Rath, Hans J.

    The idea behind the drop tower facility of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Micro-gravity (ZARM) in Bremen is to provide an inimitable technical opportunity of a daily access to short-term weightlessness on earth. In this way ZARM`s european unique ground-based microgravity laboratory displays an excellent economic alternative for research in space-related conditions at low costs comparable to orbital platforms. Many national and international ex-perimentalists motivated by these prospects decide to benefit from the high-quality and easy accessible microgravity environment only provided by the Drop Tower Bremen. Corresponding experiments in reduced gravity could open new perspectives of investigation methods and give scientists an impressive potential for a future technology and multidisciplinary applications on different research fields like Fundamental Physics, Astrophysics, Fluid Dynamics, Combus-tion, Material Science, Chemistry and Biology. Generally, realizing microgravity experiments at ZARM`s drop tower facility meet new requirements of the experimental hardware and may lead to some technical constraints in the setups. In any case the ZARM Drop Tower Operation and Service Company (ZARM FAB mbH) maintaining the drop tower facility is prepared to as-sist experimentalists by offering own air-conditioned laboratories, clean rooms, workshops and consulting engineers, as well as scientific personal. Furthermore, ZARM`s on-site apartment can be used for accommodations during the experiment campaigns. In terms of approaching drop tower experimenting, consulting of experimentalists is mandatory to successfully accomplish the pursued drop or catapult capsule experiment. For this purpose there will be a lot of expertise and help given by ZARM FAB mbH in strong cooperation to-gether with the experimentalists. However, in comparison to standard laboratory setups the drop or catapult capsule setup seems to be completely different at first view. While defining a

  12. Leidenfrost Drop on a Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quere, David

    2008-11-01

    When deposited on a hot plate, a water droplet evaporates quickly. However, a vapor film appears under the drop above a critical temperature, called Leidenfrost temperature, which insulates the drop from its substrate. Linke & al (2006) reported a spontaneous movement of such a drop, when deposited on a ratchet. We study here the case of a flat substrate decorated with a single micrometric step. The drop is deposited on the lower part of the plate and pushed towards the step at small constant velocity. If the kinetic energy of the drop is sufficient, it can climb up the step. In that case, depending on the substrate temperature, the drop can either be decelerated or accelerated by the step. We try to understand the dynamics of these drops, especially the regime where they accelerate. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we could then build a multiple-step setup, making it possible for a Leidenfrost drop to climb stairs.

  13. Dynamics of Rising Dispersant Laden Oil Drops in a Quiescent Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Aponte, Khalil; Mehdi, Faraz; Sheng, Jian

    2014-11-01

    We study the dynamics of rising oil drops in a quiescent fluid chamber under uniform and density stratified conditions. Digital in-line holography allows for high resolution topological measurements and tracking of drop trajectories. Statistics of rising velocities, drop shapes and sizes are compared as functions of different oil-dispersant ratios. A conceptual model of an oil drop developing appendages and its subsequent breakdown into much smaller droplets is also discussed.

  14. Resonances, radiation pressure and optical scattering phenomena of drops and bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, P. L.; Goosby, S. G.; Langley, D. S.; Loporto-Arione, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Acoustic levitation and the response of fluid spheres to spherical harmonic projections of the radiation pressure are described. Simplified discussions of the projections are given. A relationship between the tangential radiation stress and the Konstantinov effect is introduced and fundamental streaming patterns for drops are predicted. Experiments on the forced shape oscillation of drops are described and photographs of drop fission are displayed. Photographs of critical angle and glory scattering by bubbles and rainbow scattering by drops are displayed.

  15. Effects of an electrostatic field on a suspension of drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Arturo; Tryggvason, Gretar

    2003-11-01

    "Effects of an electrostatic field on a suspension of drops" Arturo Fernandez and Gretar Tryggvason A numerical study on the effects of an electrostatic field in a suspension of drops will be presented. Three-dimensional results from a direct numerical simulation show that the drops distribution and the modification in the base flow depend on the competition between the dielectrophoretic attraction and the viscous fluid motion caused by the presence of the electric field. Here, we will focus on prolate drops that present a wider variety of behaviors. Because the fluid motion can go either from the equator to the poles or from the poles to the equator, the attraction in the direction perpendicular or parallel to the electric field are respectively enhanced.

  16. Linear oscillations of a supported bubble or drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejrazka, Jiri; Vobecka, Lucie; Tihon, Jaroslav

    2013-06-01

    Shape oscillations of a spherical bubble or drop, for which part of its interface is fixed due to contact with a solid support, are studied analytically using variational methods. Linear oscillations and irrotational flow are assumed. The present analysis is parallel to those of Strani and Sabetta ["Free vibrations of a drop in partial contact with a solid support," J. Fluid Mech. 141, 233-247 (1984)], 10.1017/S0022112084000811; and Bostwick and Steen ["Capillary oscillations of a constrained liquid drop," Phys. Fluids 21, 032108 (2009)], 10.1063/1.3103344 but is also able to determine the response of bubbles or drops to movements imposed on their supports or to variations of their volumes. The analysis leads to equations of motion with a simple structure, from which the eigenmodes and frequency response to periodic forcing are easily determined.

  17. Drop foot corrective device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A light weight, economical device to alleviate a plurality of difficulties encountered in walking by a victim suffering from a drop foot condition is discussed. A legband girdles the leg below the knee and above the calf providing an anchor point for the upper end of a ligament having its lower end attached to a toe of a shoe or a toe on the foot. The ligament is of such length that the foot is supported thereby and retained in a normal position during walking.

  18. Liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Schellenberger, Frank; Papadopoulos, Periklis; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-06-25

    The dynamics of liquid drops impacting superamphiphobic coatings is studied by high-speed video microscopy. Superamphiphobic coatings repel water and oils. The coating consists of a fractal-like hydrophobized silica network. Mixtures of ethanol-water and glycerin-water are chosen to investigate the influence of interfacial tension and viscosity on spreading and retraction dynamics. Drop spreading is dominated by inertia. At low impact velocity, the drops completely rebound. However, the contact time increases with impact velocity, whereas the restitution coefficient decreases. We suggest that the drop temporarily impales the superamphiphobic coating, although the drop completely rebounds. From an estimate of the pressure, it can be concluded that impalement is dominated by depinning rather than sagging. With increasing velocity, the drops partially pin, and an increasing amount of liquid remains on the coating. A time-resolved study of the retraction dynamics reveals two well-separated phases: a fast inertia-dominated phase followed by a slow decrease of the contact diameter of the drop. The crossover occurs when the diameter of the retracting drop matches the diameter of the drop before impact. We suggest that the depth of impalement increases with impact velocity, where impalement is confined to the initial impact zone of the drop. If the drop partially pins on the coating, the depth of impalement exceeds a depth, preventing the whole drop from being removed during the retraction phase. PMID:23697383

  19. How to Use Ear Drops

    MedlinePlus

    How to Use Ear Drops(Having someone else give you the ear drops may make this procedure easier.) Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and ... facecloth and then dry your ear. Warm the drops to near body temperature by holding the container ...

  20. Mixing in Sessile Drops Merging on a Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anna, Shelley; Zhang, Ying; Oberdick, Samuel; Garoff, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the mixing of two sessile drops that merge on a surface. The drops consist of low viscosity glycerol-water mixtures deposited on a silicone elastomer surface with contact angle near 90°. We observe the shape of the drops and the location of their intersection by placing a fluorescent dye in one drop and using a laser light sheet to image a plane perpendicular to the surface. The initial healing of the meniscus bridge between the merging drops, and the damping of capillary waves appearing on their surfaces occur on timescales comparable to the inertio-capillary relaxation time. However, the interface between the two fluids remains sharp, broadening diffusively over several minutes. The shape of the merged drops and the boundary between them also continues to evolve on a timescale of minutes. This later motion is controlled by gravity, capillary pressure, and viscous stresses. Images of the 3D drop shape indicate that small contact line motions are correlated to the slow relaxation. Although the two drops contain identical liquids except for the presence of the dye, the shape of the interface consistently evolves asymmetrically, assuming a characteristic crescent shape. We note that very tiny surface tension gradients can produce an asymmetric flow like the one observed here. We characterize the long timescale flow as a function of the drop sizes, and we use numerical simulations to aid in elucidating the essential physics.

  1. Formation and Combustion of Unconfined Drop Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Craig, G.; Zhang, Y.; Ruff, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Single-drop and droplet array studies have become common methods to isolate and investigate the effects of any of the complexities that enter into the drop combustion process. Microgravity environments are required to allow larger drops to be studied while minimizing or eliminating the confounding effects of buoyancy. Based on the results from current isolated drop, drop array, and spray studies funded through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division, it has become clear that even with the effects of buoyancy removed, the extrapolation of results from droplet array studies to spray flames is difficult. The problem occurs because even the simplest spray systems introduce complexities of multi-disperse drop sizes and drop-drop interactions, coupled with more complicated fluid dynamics. Not only do these features make the interpretation of experimental data difficult, they also make the problem very difficult to analyze computationally. Group combustion models, in which the interaction between droplets is treated on a statistical manner, have become a popular method to investigate the behavior of large numbers of interacting droplets, particularly through the work of Ryan et al. and Bellan and co-workers. While these models idealize the actual spray systems to a point where they can be treated computationally, the experimental analogy to these models is difficult to achieve because it requires the formation and Combustion of drop clusters without the effects of buoyancy. Therefore, even though these models have provided useful and insightful information, the verification of the results by direct comparison with experimental data is still lacking.

  2. An evaporation model of multicomponent solution drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Silvana; Liñán, Amable; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2010-11-01

    Solutions of polymers are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry as tablets coatings. These allow controlling the rate at which the drug is delivered, taste or appearance. The coating is performed by spraying and drying the tablets at moderate temperatures. The wetting of the coating solution on the pill's surface depends on the droplet Webber and Re numbers, angle of impact and on the rheological properties of the droplet. We present a model for the evaporation of multicomponent solutions droplets in a hot air environment with temperatures substantially lower than the boiling temperature of the solvent. As the liquid vaporizes from the surface the fluid in the drop increases in concentration, until reaching its saturation point. After saturation, precipitation occurs uniformly within the drop. As the surface regresses, a compacting front formed by the precipitate at its maximum packing density advances into the drop, while the solute continues precipitating uniformly. This porous shell grows fast due to the double effect of surface regression and precipitation. The evaporation rate is determined by the rates at which heat is transported to the droplet surface and at which liquid vapor diffuses away from it. When the drop is fully compacted, the evaporation is drastically reduced.

  3. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  4. Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yahua; Andrew, Matthew; Li, Jing; Yeomans, Julia M.; Wang, Zuankai

    2015-11-01

    The impact of liquid drops on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature, and of practical importance in many industrial processes. A drop hitting a flat surface retains a circular symmetry throughout the impact process. Here we show that a drop impinging on Echevaria leaves exhibits asymmetric bouncing dynamics with distinct spreading and retraction along two perpendicular directions. This is a direct consequence of the cylindrical leaves that have a convex/concave architecture of size comparable to the drop. Systematic experimental investigations on mimetic surfaces and lattice Boltzmann simulations reveal that this novel phenomenon results from an asymmetric momentum and mass distribution that allows for preferential fluid pumping around the drop rim. The asymmetry of the bouncing leads to ~40% reduction in contact time.

  5. Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yahua; Andrew, Matthew; Li, Jing; Yeomans, Julia M.; Wang, Zuankai

    2015-01-01

    The impact of liquid drops on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature, and of practical importance in many industrial processes. A drop hitting a flat surface retains a circular symmetry throughout the impact process. Here we show that a drop impinging on Echevaria leaves exhibits asymmetric bouncing dynamics with distinct spreading and retraction along two perpendicular directions. This is a direct consequence of the cylindrical leaves that have a convex/concave architecture of size comparable to the drop. Systematic experimental investigations on mimetic surfaces and lattice Boltzmann simulations reveal that this novel phenomenon results from an asymmetric momentum and mass distribution that allows for preferential fluid pumping around the drop rim. The asymmetry of the bouncing leads to ∼40% reduction in contact time. PMID:26602170

  6. Symmetry breaking in drop bouncing on curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yahua; Andrew, Matthew; Li, Jing; Yeomans, Julia M; Wang, Zuankai

    2015-01-01

    The impact of liquid drops on solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature, and of practical importance in many industrial processes. A drop hitting a flat surface retains a circular symmetry throughout the impact process. Here we show that a drop impinging on Echevaria leaves exhibits asymmetric bouncing dynamics with distinct spreading and retraction along two perpendicular directions. This is a direct consequence of the cylindrical leaves that have a convex/concave architecture of size comparable to the drop. Systematic experimental investigations on mimetic surfaces and lattice Boltzmann simulations reveal that this novel phenomenon results from an asymmetric momentum and mass distribution that allows for preferential fluid pumping around the drop rim. The asymmetry of the bouncing leads to ∼40% reduction in contact time. PMID:26602170

  7. Deformation and stability of surfactant - or particle - laden drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosseau, Quentin; Pradillo, Gerardo; Oberlander, Andrew; Vlahovska, Petia; SoftMech@Brown Team

    2015-11-01

    We present an experimental study of the behavior of a drop covered with insoluble surfactant or colloidal particles in a uniform DC electric field. Steady drop shapes, drop evolution upon application of the field, and drop relaxation after the field is turned off are observed for leaky dielectric fluids: Polybutadiene (PB), Silicon oil (PDMS), and Castor oil (CO). The surfactant is generated at the drop interface by reaction between end-functionalized PB and PDMS. The experimental data is compared with existing theoretical models for the steady shape of surfactant covered droplet, and adjusted models taking into account the presence of colloidal spheres with range of electrical properties. We will discuss the complex interplay of shape deformation, surfactant elasticity, particle redistribution, and interfacial charging in droplet electrohydrodynamics. Our results are important for understanding electrorheology of emulsions commonly found in the petroleum industry. We acknowledge grant NSF CBET 1437545 for funding.

  8. Two-dimensional, high flow, precisely controlled monodisperse drop source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, John L.

    1993-03-01

    A versatile acoustically-driven fluid atomizer was designed and operated that creates precise monodisperse sprays by Rayleigh breakup or polydisperse sprays by the acoustic driving of amplitude dependent instabilities. The atomizer forms a cylindrical, conical, or flat (sheet) liquid jet by means of a photofabricated nozzle. The spray pattern and spray volume are altered by changing the nozzle. A piezoelectric driver, constructed to efficiently couple energy to the liquid, modulates the fluid velocity. When operated at low power, the drop generator can produce arrays of monodisperse drops as small as 15 microns in diameter. Operating the piezoelectric driver at high power produces perturbations with sufficient energy to break the liquid jets into drops, with a net increase in surface energy. The resulting drop sizes are influenced by the frequency and amplitude of the driving signal and nozzle size. The spatial distribution of the spray is controlled by the spacing and geometry of the holes in the nozzle plate, the amplitude of the acoustic signal, and the swirl in the fluid manifold. This device is more robust than the typical acoustic drop generator because small drops can be made from large holes, reducing the plugging problem. No air flow is used.

  9. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    PubMed

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation. PMID:17580951

  10. Coffee Stains from Drops with Receding Contact Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed-Brown, Julian

    2015-03-01

    We present a framework for calculating the surface density profile of a coffee stain deposited by a drying drop with a receding contact line. For standard coffee stains, the fluid pins to the substrate, forces flow towards the exterior of the drop and deposits a thin, concentrated ring of particles. Unlike a pinned drop, a receding drop pushes fluid towards its interior and continuously deposits mass across its substrate as it evaporates. This gives rise to a new class of mountain-like morphologies that are not seen in the standard coffee ring effect but are reminiscent of recent experimental results. For a thin, circular drop with uniform evaporation, we calculate the surface density profile analytically and find that it diverges towards the center of the drop as η ~r - 1 / 2 , where r is the distance from the center. We estimate how this divergence is softened due to solute interactions at the final stage of drying. Our framework can easily be extended numerically or analytically to investigate novel stain morphologies left by drying drops of different shapes and evaporation profiles. This work is part of a thesis project advised by Tom Witten. It was supported in part by the National Science Foundation's MRSEC Program under Award Number DMR 0820054.

  11. Electro-rheological fluids. A brief description and typical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossides, S. D.

    1982-10-01

    Fiber formation; electrorheological (ER) fluids composition; electrical properties of ER fluids; modes of operation of ER fluids; valve pressure drop calculation; valve type devices; ER clutch; and damping devices are reviewed.

  12. Drop tube research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the activities performed in the Drop Tube Study which The University of Alabama in Huntsville designed, fabricated and performed various low gravity experiments in materials processing from November 1, 1991 through October 30, 1992. During the performance of this contract the utilization of these ground-based containerless processing facilities has been instrumental in providing the opportunity to determine the feasibility of performing a number of solidification experiments in a simulated space environment, without the expense of a space-based experiment. A number of periodic reports have been given to the TCOR during the course of this contract hence this final report is meant only to summarize the many activities performed and not redundantly cover materials already submitted.

  13. Stability of the shape of a translating viscoelastic drop at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Haj-Hariri, H.; Borhan, A.

    2012-11-01

    We examine the stability of the shape of a viscoelastic drop translating in an immiscible, otherwise quiescent Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number. Non-Newtonian stresses in the drop phase are characterized by the finitely extensible nonlinear elastic-Chilcott-Rallison model. A boundary integral method is used to numerically examine the time-evolution of initially perturbed drop shapes over a range of dimensionless parameters. For sufficiently small capillary numbers, the drop achieves an oblate spheroidal steady shape. For large initial deformations or capillary numbers, however, the drop deforms continuously and eventually breaks up through either the formation of an elongated tail or the development of a re-entrant cavity at its trailing end. These mechanisms of drop breakup are qualitatively similar to those reported earlier for Newtonian drops [C. J. Koh and L. G. Leal, Phys. Fluids A 1, 1309 (1989), 10.1063/1.857359; C. Pozrikidis, J. Fluid Mech. 210, 1 (1990), 10.1017/S0022112090001203; H. A. Stone, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26, 65 (1994), 10.1146/annurev.fl.26.010194.000433]. Compared to the case of a Newtonian drop, drop phase elasticity is found to have a stabilizing (destabilizing) effect for initially oblate (prolate) shape perturbations, due to the development of polymeric stresses caused by deformation of polymer chains in alignment with streamlines of the flow. Polymer viscosity has a strong influence on the stability of the shape of drops, whereas polymer relaxation time and extensibility have relatively weak influences.

  14. First drop dissimilarity in drop-on-demand inkjet devices

    SciTech Connect

    Famili, Amin; Palkar, Saurabh A.; Baldy, William J. Jr.

    2011-01-15

    As inkjet printing technology is increasingly applied in a broader array of applications, careful characterization of its method of use is critical due to its inherent sensitivity. A common operational mode in inkjet technology known as drop-on-demand ejection is used as a way to deliver a controlled quantity of material to a precise location on a target. This method of operation allows ejection of individual or a sequence (burst) of drops based on a timed trigger event. This work presents an examination of sequences of drops as they are ejected, indicating a number of phenomena that must be considered when designing a drop-on-demand inkjet system. These phenomena appear to be driven by differences between the first ejected drop in a burst and those that follow it and result in a break-down of the linear relationship expected between driving amplitude and drop mass. This first drop, as quantified by high-speed videography and subsequent image analysis, can be different in morphology, trajectory, velocity, and volume from subsequent drops within a burst. These findings were confirmed orthogonally by both volume and mass measurement techniques which allowed quantitation down to single drops.

  15. Drop shape visualization and contact angle measurement on curved surfaces.

    PubMed

    Guilizzoni, Manfredo

    2011-12-01

    The shape and contact angles of drops on curved surfaces is experimentally investigated. Image processing, spline fitting and numerical integration are used to extract the drop contour in a number of cross-sections. The three-dimensional surfaces which describe the surface-air and drop-air interfaces can be visualized and a simple procedure to determine the equilibrium contact angle starting from measurements on curved surfaces is proposed. Contact angles on flat surfaces serve as a reference term and a procedure to measure them is proposed. Such procedure is not as accurate as the axisymmetric drop shape analysis algorithms, but it has the advantage of requiring only a side view of the drop-surface couple and no further information. It can therefore be used also for fluids with unknown surface tension and there is no need to measure the drop volume. Examples of application of the proposed techniques for distilled water drops on gemstones confirm that they can be useful for drop shape analysis and contact angle measurement on three-dimensional sculptured surfaces. PMID:21889152

  16. Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based experiments together with analytical studies are presently being conducted for levitated drops. Both acoustic and electrostatic techniques are being employed to achieve levitation of drops in a gaseous environment. The scientific effort is principally on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the thermocapillary flow associated with local spot heating is being studied. Fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved with some exceptions when random rotational motion of the drop persists. The flow visualization has been carried out by light scattering from smoke particles for the exterior flow and fluorescent tracer particles in the drop. The results indicate a lack of axial symmetry in the internal flow even though the apparatus and the heating are symmetric. The theoretical studies for the past year have included fundamental analyses of acoustically levitated spherical drops. The flow associated with a particle near the velocity antinode is being investigated by the singular perturbation technique. As a first step towards understanding the effect of the particle displacement from the antinode, the flow field about the node has been calculated for the first time. The effect of the acoustic field on the interior of a liquid drop has also been investigated. The results predict that the internal flow field is very weak.

  17. Axisymmetric model of drop spreading on a horizontal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistry, Aashutosh; Muralidhar, K.

    2015-09-01

    Spreading of an initially spherical liquid drop over a textured surface is analyzed by solving an integral form of the governing equations. The mathematical model extends Navier-Stokes equations by including surface tension at the gas-liquid boundary and a force distribution at the three phase contact line. While interfacial tension scales with drop curvature, the motion of the contact line depends on the departure of instantaneous contact angle from its equilibrium value. The numerical solution is obtained by discretizing the spreading drop into disk elements. The Bond number range considered is 0.01-1. Results obtained for sessile drops are in conformity with limiting cases reported in the literature [J. C. Bird et al., "Short-time dynamics of partial wetting," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234501 (2008)]. They further reveal multiple time scales that are reported in experiments [K. G. Winkels et al., "Initial spreading of low-viscosity drops on partially wetting surfaces," Phys. Rev. E 85, 055301 (2012) and A. Eddi et al., "Short time dynamics of viscous drop spreading," Phys. Fluids 25, 013102 (2013)]. Spreading of water and glycerin drops over fully and partially wetting surfaces is studied in terms of excess pressure, wall shear stress, and the dimensions of the footprint. Contact line motion is seen to be correctly captured in the simulations. Water drops show oscillations during spreading while glycerin spreads uniformly over the surface.

  18. The dropped big toe.

    PubMed

    Satku, K; Wee, J T; Kumar, V P; Ong, B; Pho, R W

    1992-03-01

    Surgical procedures for exposure of the upper third of the fibula have been known to cause weakness of the long extensor of the big toe post-operatively. The authors present three representative cases of surgically induced dropped big toe. From cadaveric dissection, an anatomic basis was found for this phenomenon. The tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles have their origin at the proximal end of the leg and receive their first motor innervation from a branch that arises from the common peroneal or deep peroneal nerve at about the level of the neck of the fibula. However, the extensor hallucis longus muscle originates in the middle one-third of the leg and the nerves innervating this muscle run a long course in close proximity to the fibula for up to ten centimeters from a level below the neck of the fibula before entering the muscle. Surgical intervention in the proximal one-third of the fibula just distal to the origin of the first motor branch to the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles carries a risk of injury to the nerves innervating the extensor hallucis longus. PMID:1519891

  19. System for Manipulating Drops and Bubbles Using Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The manipulation and control of drops of liquid and gas bubbles is achieved using high intensity acoustics in the form of and/or acoustic radiation pressure and acoustic streaming. generated by a controlled wave emission from a transducer. Acoustic radiation pressure is used to deploy or dispense drops into a liquid or a gas or bubbles into a liquid at zero or near zero velocity from the discharge end of a needle such as a syringe needle. Acoustic streaming is useful in manipulating the drop or bubble during or after deployment. Deployment and discharge is achieved by focusing the acoustic radiation pressure on the discharge end of the needle, and passing the acoustic waves through the fluid in the needle. through the needle will itself, or coaxially through the fluid medium surrounding the needle. Alternatively, the acoustic waves can be counter-deployed by focusing on the discharge end of the needle from a transducer axially aligned with the needle, but at a position opposite the needle, to prevent premature deployment of the drop or bubble. The acoustic radiation pressure can also be used for detecting the presence or absence of a drop or a bubble at the tip of a needle or for sensing various physical characteristics of the drop or bubble such as size or density.

  20. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  1. Free vibrations of a spherical drop constrained at an azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami; Basaran, Osman A.

    2012-08-01

    Two droplets coupled through a liquid filled (a) hole in a plate or (b) tube is referred to as a double droplet system (DDS) or a capillary switch. Such capillary systems are gaining increasing attention due to their utility in applications. A particularly exciting application is one where a DDS is employed as a liquid lens, one flavor of which entails using a DDS as a variable focus lens by keeping it under sustained oscillations at its natural frequencies. The natural modes of oscillation of a DDS are determined analytically here in the limit in which the plate thickness (or tube length) is vanishingly small and when the effect of gravity is negligible compared to that of surface tension. In this limit, a DDS at rest reduces to two spherical caps that are pinned to and coupled along a common circular ring of contact of negligible thickness. Here, the caps are taken to be complementary pieces of a sphere so that the equilibrium state of the system is a sphere that is constrained by a ring of negligible thickness at an azimuthal angle with respect to the center of the sphere. Both the constrained drop and the fluid exterior to it are taken to be inviscid fluids undergoing irrotational flow. Similar to the linear oscillations of a free drop first studied by Rayleigh, the analytical formulation of the linear oscillations of the constrained drop results in a linear operator eigenvalue problem but with one additional boundary condition, i.e., that which accounts for zero shape perturbation along the circle of contact. Exploiting properties of linear operators, an implicit expression is obtained for the frequency of each mode of oscillation, a feat that appears not to have been accomplished to date in any problem involving oscillations of constrained drops. An extension of a method based on Green's functions that was developed to analyze the linear oscillations of a drop in contact with a spherical bowl [M. Strani and F. Sabetta, "Free-vibrations of a drop in partial

  2. Dynamics of polymeric drop breakup in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Paulo; Gollub, Jerry; Durian, Douglas

    2006-11-01

    The dynamics of drop formation of sheared polymeric and Newtonian fluids are investigated in a 50 μm microchannel. Inverse emulsions are obtained in a cross-like geometry by impinging a continuous oil phase (with surfactant) onto either a polymeric or a Newtonian aqueous solution. The viscosity ratio between the continuous and dispersed phases is kept close to unity, and both flow rates are varied. Solutions containing small amounts (100 ppm) of flexible polymers strongly affect the filament and drop breakup processes when compared to a Newtonian solution of similar viscosity. We find that the thinning of the filament for the Newtonian case is characterized by linear decline followed by a rapid approach to breakup. The polymeric case shows an initial Newtonian-like thinning followed by a slower, elasticity- dominated thinning. Consequently, the filament breakup time and length are considerably increased for the polymeric solutions. Also, larger primary drops and beads-on-string phenomena are found for the polymer solutions.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  4. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  5. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  6. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing. PMID:26337704

  7. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-01-01

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing. PMID:26337704

  8. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row ofmore » vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.« less

  9. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  10. Initiation of liquid-solid contact beneath an impacting drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel; Kolinski, John

    2015-11-01

    Before an impacting drop contacts the solid surface it must first drain the air beneath it. As a prelude to wetting, before any contact occurs, the impinging liquid confines the intervening air into a nanometers-thin film. Once liquid-solid contact initiates by the spontaneous formation of a liquid bridge, the fluid rapidly wicks through the thin film of air, permanently binding the drop to the surface. Here, we experimentally examine these initial stages in the formation of the liquid solid contact beneath the impacting drop. Fast TIR microscopy enables unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution of the wetting process beneath the impacting drop and permits 3-dimensional imaging of the real contact line as well as nanometer-resolution of the thin film of air separating the liquid from the solid.

  11. Magnetic control of Leidenfrost drops.

    PubMed

    Piroird, Keyvan; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2012-05-01

    We show how a magnetic field can influence the motion of a paramagnetic drop made of liquid oxygen in a Leidenfrost state on solids at room temperature. It is demonstrated that the trajectory can be modified in both direction and velocity and that the results can be interpreted in terms of classical mechanics as long as the drop does not get too close to the magnet. We study the deviation and report that it can easily overcome 180∘ and even diverge under certain conditions, leading to situations where a drop gets captured. In the vicinity of the magnet, another type of trapping is observed, due to the deformation of the drop in this region, which leads to a strong energy dissipation. Conversely, drops can be accelerated by moving magnets (slingshot effect). PMID:23004866

  12. Electrohydrodynamic flow and chaotic mixing inside drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiumei

    Electrohyodynamics, proposed by G. I. Taylor (1966), is the study of fluid motion under the influence of electric fields. In this work, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the electrohydrodynamic flow field inside a dielectric liquid drop and its application in driving chaotic mixing. Previous works on the electrohydrodynamic flows are mainly restricted to neutrally buoyant drops. Since settling drops are expected to occur more commonly in applications, in the first part of this thesis we extend Taylor's theory to deal with translating drops. Both shape distortion and charge convection, when coupled with an asymmetric velocity profile, will produce a net drag and a shift in the settling speed. Corrections to the settling velocity from both contributions are calculated to the first order. Experiments are performed using a PMM/castor oil system, and are in qualitative agreement with the theory: the deformations and the change in settling velocity are all proportional to E2, as predicted, and the settling speed shows the correct trends with drop size. In the second part of this thesis, we investigate three dimensional chaotic mixing driven by the electrohydrodynamic flows. A spatially uniform electric field is periodically switched through an angle, which is equivalent to switching the symmetry axis of the Taylor circulation back and forth, chaotic mixing is therefore generated inside a drop. Mixing efficiency is studied numerically by tracing trajectories of Lagrangian particles. Our calculations of the mixed volume fraction and Lyapunov exponents give optimal mixing conditions. Mixing experiments for a switching angle of 0.5pi are performed using a silicone oil/castor oil system, and show excellent agreement with the theory. In the third part of this thesis, we discuss effects of finite charge relaxation and charge convection on the flow field in both DC and AC electric fields. A pole-to-equator convection, acting together with a slow charge relaxation

  13. Bed of polydisperse viscous spherical drops under thermocapillary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharanya, V.; Raja Sekhar, G. P.; Rohde, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Viscous flow past an ensemble of polydisperse spherical drops is investigated under thermocapillary effects. We assume that the collection of spherical drops behaves as a porous media and estimates the hydrodynamic interactions analytically via the so- called cell model that is defined around a specific representative particle. In this method, the hydrodynamic interactions are assumed to be accounted by suitable boundary conditions on a fictitious fluid envelope surrounding the representative particle. The force calculated on this representative particle will then be extended to a bed of spherical drops visualized as a Darcy porous bed. Thus, the "effective bed permeability" of such a porous bed will be computed as a function of various parameters and then will be compared with Carman-Kozeny relation. We use cell model approach to a packed bed of spherical drops of uniform size (monodisperse spherical drops) and then extend the work for a packed bed of polydisperse spherical drops, for a specific parameters. Our results show a good agreement with the Carman-Kozeny relation for the case of monodisperse spherical drops. The prediction of overall bed permeability using our present model agrees well with the Carman-Kozeny relation when the packing size distribution is narrow, whereas a small deviation can be noted when the size distribution becomes broader.

  14. Instant freezing of impacting wax drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Virot, Emmanuel; Rubinstein, Shmuel

    2015-11-01

    We present the impact of hot liquid drops of wax on surfaces whose temperature is below the solidifying temperature of the drops. During the fall the drops remain mostly liquid, but upon impact, their temperature quickly decreases resulting in the solidification of the drop. Depending on the impact energy, drops size and the temperature difference between the drop and the surface this results in plethora of solid shapes: simple lenses, triangular drops, spherical caps and popped popcorn shapes.

  15. Solid substrate and head-on impact of viscous drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroll, Robert D.

    Using a volume-of-fluid method, we simulate liquid drops impacting at several meters per second, both onto a solid substrate and in a head-on geometry. The boundary condition that the fluid cannot flow through the impact plane controls the early-time impact dynamics. Whether fluid can flow along the impact plane, the difference between the two configurations, is not as important during the early times, but it does become important later. We also quantify when and where the small effects of viscosity and surface tension affect the dominantly inertial impact dynamics.

  16. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  17. Electrokinetics of isolated electrified drops.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Rohit; Berry, Joseph D; Harvie, Dalton J E; Davidson, Malcolm R

    2016-04-14

    Using a recently developed multiphase electrokinetic model, we simulate the transient electrohydrodynamic response of a liquid drop containing ions, to both small and large values of electric field. The temporal evolution is found to be governed primarily by two dimensionless groups: (i) Ohnesorge number (Oh), a ratio of viscous to inertio-capillary effects, and (ii) inverse dimensionless Debye length (κ), a measure of the diffuse regions of charge that develop in the drop. The effects of dielectric polarization dominate at low Oh, while effects of separated charge gain importance with increase in Oh. For small values of electric field, the deformation behaviour of a drop is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytical expression. At large electric fields, the drops are unstable and eject progeny drops. Depending on Oh and κ this occurs via dripping or jetting; the regime transitions are shown by a Oh-κ phase map. In contrast to previous studies, we find universal scaling relations to predict size and charge of progeny drops. Our simulations suggest charge transport plays a significant role in drop dynamics for 0.1 ≤ Oh ≤ 10, a parameter range of interest in microscale flows. PMID:26954299

  18. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  19. Automated single cell sorting and deposition in submicroliter drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salánki, Rita; Gerecsei, Tamás; Orgovan, Norbert; Sándor, Noémi; Péter, Beatrix; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-08-01

    Automated manipulation and sorting of single cells are challenging, when intact cells are needed for further investigations, e.g., RNA or DNA sequencing. We applied a computer controlled micropipette on a microscope admitting 80 PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tubes to be filled with single cells in a cycle. Due to the Laplace pressure, fluid starts to flow out from the micropipette only above a critical pressure preventing the precise control of drop volume in the submicroliter range. We found an anomalous pressure additive to the Laplace pressure that we attribute to the evaporation of the drop. We have overcome the problem of the critical dropping pressure with sequentially operated fast fluidic valves timed with a millisecond precision. Minimum drop volume was 0.4-0.7 μl with a sorting speed of 15-20 s per cell. After picking NE-4C neuroectodermal mouse stem cells and human primary monocytes from a standard plastic Petri dish we could gently deposit single cells inside tiny drops. 94 ± 3% and 54 ± 7% of the deposited drops contained single cells for NE-4C and monocytes, respectively. 7.5 ± 4% of the drops contained multiple cells in case of monocytes. Remaining drops were empty. Number of cells deposited in a drop could be documented by imaging the Petri dish before and after sorting. We tuned the adhesion force of cells to make the manipulation successful without the application of microstructures for trapping cells on the surface. We propose that our straightforward and flexible setup opens an avenue for single cell isolation, critically needed for the rapidly growing field of single cell biology.

  20. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  1. Gravity driven current during sessile drop coalescence on a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Oberdick, Samuel; Garoff, Stephen; Anna, Shelley

    2013-11-01

    We study the mixing behavior of two sessile drops following coalescence on a flat surface. The surface is composed of silicone elastomer on which the drops exhibit contact angles of about 90 degree. The two drops are of equal volume at coalescence, but different densities and viscosities. Using laser induced fluorescence, we obtain both a top view of the contact line motion and a side view of the cross-sectional flow. During the coalescence stage, the initial healing of the meniscus bridge and damping of capillary waves occur on time scales comparable to the inertio-capillary time. However, the interface between the dyed and undyed components remains sharp, with diffusive mixing occurring at much longer timescales. At intermediate time scales the motion is controlled by a gravity current, which leads to the eventual stratification into two separate horizontal layers within the composite drop. Using lubrication analysis, we characterize the gravity current as a function of the drop sizes, and the density and viscosity differences between the two merging fluids. The numerical solution of the lubrication analysis captures the observed scaling of the time dependent interface movement as a function of fluid and geometric parameters.

  2. Investigation of Drop Formation by a Vortex Ring in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernal, Luis P.; Maksimovic, Pepi

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of drop formation by a vortex ring propagating through one or more fluid interfaces in microgravity is described. The main goal of the research is to determine the dynamics of drop formation by vortical flows in the capillary limit with large density change across the intel-face. Dimensional analysis shows that in microgravity experiments the capillary limit can be studied using a relatively large vortex ring diameter to facilitate experimental characterization of the interaction. Results obtained in density matched systems are reviewed to illustrate the complex nature of these interactions.

  3. Damping of drop oscillations by surfactants and surface viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, Brian M.; Nadim, Ali

    1999-01-01

    An energy equation is derived for the general case of a viscous drop suspended in a viscous medium with surfactants contaminating the interface. It contains terms that clearly identify dissipation contributions from the viscous effects in the bulk fluids, surface shear and dilatational viscosity effects at the interface, and surfactant transport. An efficient boundary integral method is developed which incorporates the effects of a constant surface dilatational viscosity in simulations of an oscillating two-dimensional inviscid drop. Surface dilatational viscosity is shown to have a significant damping effect on the otherwise undamped inviscid oscillations.

  4. Unsteady Thermocapillary Migration of Isolated Drops in Creeping Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Loren H.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of an isolated immiscible drop that slowly migrates due to unsteady thermocapillary stresses is considered. All physical properties except for interfacial tension are assumed constant for the two Newtonian fluids. Explicit expressions are found for the migration rate and stream functions in the Laplace domain. The resulting microgravity theory is useful, e.g., in predicting the distance a drop will migrate due to an impulsive interfacial temperature gradient as well as the time required to attain steady flow conditions from an initially resting state.

  5. Structure and Dynamics of Interfaces: Drops and Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, J. Adin, Jr.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Meyer, William V.; Neumann, A. Wilhelm; Tavana, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    We aim to acquire measurements of the structure and dynamics of certain liquid-fluid interfaces using an ensemble of techniques in collaboration: (1) Total internal reflection (TIR) Surface light scattering spectroscopy (SLSS), (2) Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and (3) Drop-shape analysis. SLSS and BAM can be done on a shared interfacial footprint. Results using a 50-50 mixture of pentane-isohexane, which extends the range of NASA's Confined Vapor Bubble (CVB) experiment, yield surface tension results that differ from the expected Langmuir Fit. These results were confirmed using both the SLSS and drop-shape analysis approaches.

  6. Electrostatic Liquid-Drop-Levitation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won Kyu; Chung, San Kun; Hyson, Michael T.; Elleman, Daniel D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrostatic levitator has levitated drops of liquid up to 4 mm in diameter while maintaining spherical drop shapes. Stable levitation of spherical drops valuable in experiments involving super-cooling, solidification, and crystal growth.

  7. Finite element analysis of axisymmetric oscillations of sessile liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, N. E.; Benner, R. E.

    Inviscid oscillations of sessile liquid drops are simulated by the Galerkin finite element method in conjunction with the time integrator proposed by Gresho, et al. Simulations are of drops in spherical containers which are subjected to imposed oscillations of specified frequency and amplitude. Five equations govern drop response: (1) Laplace's equation for velocity potential within the drop; (2) a kinematic condition at the free surface; (3) a Bernoulli equation augmented to include gravity and capillary pressure at the free surface; (4) a kinematic condition at the solid surface; and (5) either a condition for fixed contact line or fixed contact angle. Each of these equations is modified to account for an accelerating frame of reference which moves the container. Normalized drop volume, contact angle, and gravitational Bond number are dimensionless parameters which control drop response to an imposed oscillation. Given a set of fluid properties, such as those for mercury, gravitational Bond number is uniquely defined by the container radius. Resonant frequencies and mode interaction are detected by Fourier analysis of a transient signal, such as free surface position at the pole of a spherical coordinate system. Results, especially resonant frequencies, are found to depend strongly on contact line condition. Calculation of resonant frequencies by eigenanalysis with Stewart's method is also discussed.

  8. Distinguishing between microscale gaseous bubbles and liquid drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Chan, Chon U.; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been strong research interest in decorating surfaces with tiny bubbles and drops due to their potential applications in reducing slippage in micro and nanofluidic devices. Both nanobubbles and nanodrops are typically nucleated by exchanging fluids over a suitable substrate. However, the nucleation experiments present many challenges, such as reproducibility and the possibility of contamination. The use of one-use plastic syringes and needle cannulas in nucleation experiments can introduce polymeric contamination. A contaminated experiment may nucleate bubbles, drops or both. Moreover, it is surprisingly difficult to distinguish between bubbles and drops under the usual atomic force microscopy or optical techniques. Here we present an experimental study comparing bubbles and oil (PDMS) drops on an atomically smooth surface (HOPG). Instead of nucleating the objects via solvent exchange, we directly introduced bubbles via electrolysis, and oil drops by injecting a dilute solution. Contrary to previous reports, we find that under careful AFM characterisation, liquid drops and gaseous bubbles respond differently to a change in imaging force, and moreover present different characteristic force curves.

  9. Forced Oscillations of Supported Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Edward D.; Basaran, Osman A.

    1996-01-01

    Oscillations of supported liquid drops are the subject of wide scientific interest, with applications in areas as diverse as liquid-liquid extraction, synthesis of ceramic powders, growing of pure crystals in low gravity, and measurement of dynamic surface tension. In this research, axisymmetric forced oscillations of arbitrary amplitude of viscous liquid drops of fixed volume which are pendant from or sessile on a rod with a fixed or moving contact line and surrounded by an inviscid ambient gas are induced by moving the rod in the vertical direction sinusiodally in time. In this paper, a preliminary report is made on the computational analysis of the oscillations of supported drops that have 'clean' interfaces and whose contact lines remain fixed throughout their motions. The relative importance of forcing to damping can be increased by either increasing the amplitude of rod motion A or Reynolds number Re. It is shown that as the ratio of forcing to damping rises, for drops starting from an initial rest state a sharp increase in deformation can occur when they are forced to oscillate in the vicinity of their resonance frequencies, indicating the incipience of hysteresis. However, it is also shown that the existence of a second stable limit cycle and the occurrence of hysteresis can be observed if the drop is subjected to a so-called frequency sweep, where the forcing frequency is first increased and then decreased over a suitable range. Because the change in drop deformation response is abrupt in the vicinity of the forcing frequencies where hysteresis occurs, it should be possible to exploit the phenomenon to accurately measure the viscosity and surface tension of the drop liquid.

  10. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  11. Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Bubble and Drop Nonlinear Dynamics (BDND) experiment was designed to improve understanding of how the shape and behavior of bubbles respond to ultrasound pressure. By understanding this behavior, it may be possible to counteract complications bubbles cause during materials processing on the ground. This 12-second sequence came from video downlinked from STS-94, July 5 1997, MET:3/19:15 (approximate). The BDND guest investigator was Gary Leal of the University of California, Santa Barbara. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced fluid dynamics experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (189KB JPEG, 1293 x 1460 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300163.html.

  12. Static Magnetowetting of Ferrofluid Drops.

    PubMed

    Rigoni, Carlo; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Talbot, Delphine; Massart, René; Bacri, Jean-Claude; Abou-Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-01

    We report results of a comprehensive study of the wetting properties of sessile drops of ferrofluid water solutions at various concentrations deposited on flat substrates and subjected to the action of permanent magnets of different sizes and strengths. The amplitude and the gradient of the magnetic field experienced by the ferrofluid are changed by varying the magnets and their distance to the surface. Magnetic forces up to 100 times the gravitational one and magnetic gradients up to 1 T/cm are achieved. A rich phenomenology is observed, ranging from flattened drops caused by the magnetic attraction to drops extended normally to the substrate because of the normal traction of the magnetic field. We find that the former effect can be conveniently described in terms of an effective Bond number that compares the effective drop attraction with the capillary force, whereas the drop's vertical elongation is effectively expressed by a dimensionless number S, which compares the pressure jump at the ferrofluid interface because of the magnetization with the capillary pressure. PMID:27385506

  13. The stress system generated by an electromagnetic field in a suspension of drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    The stress generated in a suspension of drops in the presence of a uniform electric field and a pure straining motion, taking into account that the magnetohydrodynamic effects are dominant was calculated. It was found that the stress generated in the suspension depended on the direction of the applied electric field, the dielectric constants, the vicosity coefficients, the conductivities, and the permeabilities of fluids inside and outside the drops. The expression of the particle stress shows that for fluids which are good conductors and poor dielectrics, especially for larger drops, magnetohydrodynamic effects end to reduce the dependence on the direction of the applied electric field.

  14. Measurement of extensional viscosity using the falling drop technique. Final report, October 27, 1992--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.K.; Wildman, D.J. |

    1998-02-01

    In the falling drop technique, a drop is formed by slowly extruding a liquid downward through a small tube. The drop eventually falls, and fluid adheres to both the tube and the drop, creating a distinct extending fiber. Extensional viscosity may be determined by measuring the dimensions of the fiber as it extends. The flow of fluid in a falling drop has been modeled in order to determine extensional viscosity by measuring the extending fiber. A falling drop rheometer was built, and fiber dimensions were measured using two digital cameras and an image processing system. Extensional viscosity was measured for various solutions of glycerol, xanthan gum, and water. The falling drop technique proved to be an effective extensional rheometer for a range of solution concentrations. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Two-Dimensional Microfluidics: hydrodynamics of drops and interfaces in flowing smectic liquid crystal channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiyuan; Nguyen, Zoom; Park, Cheol; Maclennan, Joe; Maclennan, Matt; Clark, Noel

    2012-02-01

    The quantization of film thickness in freely suspended fluid smectic liquid crystal film enables the study of the hydrodynamics of drops and interfaces in 2D. We report microfluidic experiments, in which we observe the hydrodynamics of 2D drops flowing in channels. Using high-speed video microscopy, we track the shape of 2D drops and interfaces, visualizing the deterministic lateral displacement-based separation and pinched flow separation phenomena previously observed only in 3D. Finally, we demonstrate techniques for 2D drop generation and sorting, which will be used for 2D microfluidic applications.

  16. Rheological properties, shape oscillations, and coalescence of liquid drops with surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, R. E.; Holt, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed to deduce dynamic interfacial properties of liquid drops. The method involves measuring the frequency and damping of free quadrupole oscillations of an acoustically levitated drop. Experimental results from pure liquid-liquid systems agree well with theoretical predictions. Additionally, the effects of surfactants is considered. Extension of these results to a proposed microgravity experiment on the drop physics module (DPM) in USML-1 are discussed. Efforts are also underway to model the time history of the thickness of the fluid layer between two pre-coalescence drops, and to measure the film thickness experimentally. Preliminary results will be reported, along with plans for coalescence experiments proposed for USML-1.

  17. Fat drops in wrist tendon sheaths on MRI in conjunction with a radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Martijn V; Chesaru, Ileana

    2016-08-01

    A case is presented in which fat drops are seen on MRI inside extensor compartment 2 and 3, in conjunction with a radius fracture. The occurrence of traumatic tendon sheath fat-fluid levels has been sparsely reported on CT and MR imaging. This case is the first report of post-traumatic tendon sheath fat drops. Although the clinical relevance of tendon sheath fat drops seems to be limited, it is important to detect and correctly diagnose these fat drops in order to provide an accurate and complete radiologic report. PMID:27170371

  18. Isoelectric Focusing in a Drop

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Noah G.; Hayes, Mark A.; Garcia, Antonio A.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach to molecular separations is investigated using a technique termed droplet-based isoelectric focusing. Drops are manipulated discretely on a superhydrophobic surface, subjected to low voltages for isoelectric focusing, and split—resulting in a preparative separation. A universal indicator dye demonstrates the generation of stable, reversible pH gradients (3–10) in ampholyte buffers and these gradients lead to protein focusing within the drop length. Focusing was visually characterized, spectroscopically verified, and assessed quantitatively by non-invasive light scattering measurements. It was found to correlate with a quantitative model based on 1D steady state theory. This work illustrates that molecular separations can be deployed within a single open drop and the differential fractions can be separated into new discrete liquid elements. PMID:21117663

  19. Statistical Mechanics of Inhomogeneous Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, P.; Henderson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the microscopic stress tensor in an inhomogenous fluid is discussed, with emphasis on the statistical mechanics of drops. Changes in free energy for isothermal deformations of a fluid are expressible as volume integrals of the stress tensor 'times' a strain terror. A particular radial distortion of a drop leads to statistical mechanical expressions for the pressure difference across the surface of the drop. We find that the stress tensor is not uniquely defined by the microscopic laws embodying conservation of momentum and angular momentum and that the ambiguity remains in the ensemble average, or pressure tensor, in regions of inhomomogeneity. This leads to difficulties in defining statistical mechanical expressions for the surface tension of a drop.

  20. Effect of External Pressure Drop on Loop Heat Pipe Operating Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentung, Ku; Ottenstein, Laura; Rogers, Paul; Cheung, Kwok; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of the pressure drop on the operating temperature in a loop heat pipe (LHP). Because the evaporator and the compensation chamber (CC) both contain two-phase fluid, a thermodynamic constraint exists between the temperature difference and the pressure drop for these two components. As the pressure drop increases, so will the temperature difference. The temperature difference in turn causes an increase of the heat leak from the evaporator to the CC, resulting in a higher CC temperature. Furthermore, the heat leak strongly depends on the vapor void fraction inside the evaporator core. Tests were conducted by installing a valve on the vapor line so as to vary the pressure drop, and by charging the LHP with various amounts of fluid. Test results verify that the LHP operating temperature increases with an increasing differential pressure, and the temperature increase is a strong function of the fluid inventory in the loop.

  1. 49 CFR 178.965 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.965 Section 178.965 Transportation... Packagings § 178.965 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all...) Special preparation for the drop test. Large Packagings must be filled in accordance with § 178.960....

  2. 49 CFR 178.1045 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.1045 Section 178.1045... Containers § 178.1045 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all... subpart. (b) Special preparation for the drop test. Flexible Bulk Containers must be filled to...

  3. 49 CFR 178.810 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.810 Section 178.810 Transportation... Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types... the drop test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBCs intended to contain solids must be...

  4. 49 CFR 178.603 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 178.603 Section 178.603 Transportation... Packagings and Packages § 178.603 Drop test. (a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the... than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point...

  5. Stability of a compound sessile drop at the axisymmetric configuration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chatain, Dominique; Anna, Shelley L; Garoff, Stephen

    2016-01-15

    The equilibrium configuration of compound sessile drops has been calculated previously in the absence of gravity. Using the Laplace equations, we establish seven dimensionless parameters describing the axisymmetric configuration in the presence of gravity. The equilibrium axisymmetric configuration can be either stable or unstable depending on the fluid properties. A stability criterion is established by calculating forces on a perturbed Laplacian shape. In the zero Bond number limit, the stability criterion depends on the density ratio, two ratios of interfacial tensions, the volume ratio of the two drops, and the contact angle. We use Surface Evolver to examine the stability of compound sessile drops at small and large Bond numbers and compare with the zero Bond number approximation. Experimentally, we realize a stable axisymmetric compound sessile drop in air, where the buoyancy force exerted by the air is negligible. Finally, using a pair of fluids in which the density ratio can be tuned nearly independently of the interfacial tensions, the stability transition is verified for the axisymmetric configuration. Even though the perturbations are different for the theory, simulations and experiments, both simulations and experiments agree closely with the zero Bond number approximation, exhibiting a small discrepancy at large Bond number. PMID:26433481

  6. Micro-scale drop dynamics for heat transfer enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Marianne; Shyy, Wei

    2002-05-01

    With rapid advances in micro-device fabrication, computational techniques, and diagnostic tools, there is a significant interest in applying micro-scale fluid dynamics and heat transfer to flow control, flight vehicle protection, and thermal management. Utilizing energy transfer associated with phase change, multiphase systems offer many new opportunities. To elucidate the main scientific issues and technical implications, recent research addressing the interplay between capillarity, moving boundaries, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and phase change of micro-scale multiphase systems is reviewed. The parametric variations in contact angle, surface tension, impact velocity, and liquid viscosity related to drop impingement and heat transfer are discussed.

  7. Linear oscillations of a drop in uniform alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wenrui; Carleson, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    Oscillations of a conducting drop immersed in a dielectric fluid in an alternating electric field has been modelled in order to understand the enhancement of the transport processes by the electric field. Numerical solutions for oscillation amplitude, velocity distribution, resonant frequency and streamlines were obtained. The effects of viscosity and density on the resonant frequency and the velocity distribution were investigated. It was found that the resonant frequency of viscous fluids was always smaller than the free oscillation frequency of the same droplet. The predicted scanning frequency response curve and the streamlines agree well with the experimental observations.

  8. Size distribution of detached drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, V. V.; Stepanov, V. M.

    1989-10-01

    The law governing the size distribution of detached gas-liquid streams of drops has been determined analytically, and a comparison is carried out against experimental data existing in the literature. The derived theoretical relationships offer an excellent description of existing experimental results.

  9. Getting the Drop on Sediment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1977-01-01

    In this exercise, students examine Aristotle's weight hypothesis by testing variously shaped marble chips. These chips are weighed and dropped down a water tube. Average fall times and weights are recorded and graphed. Students are asked to apply this information to rock and soil deposition by streams. (MA)

  10. Routines for Computing Pressure Drops in Venturis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    de Quay, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    A set of computer-program routines has been developed for calculating pressure drops and recoveries of flows through standard venturis, nozzle venturis, and orifices. Relative to prior methods used for such calculations, the method implemented by these routines offers greater accuracy because it involves fewer simplifying assumptions and is more generally applicable to wide ranges of flow conditions. These routines are based on conservation of momentum and energy equations for real nonideal fluids, the properties of which are calculated by curve-fitting subroutines based on empirical properties data. These routines are capable of representing cavitating, choked, non-cavitating, and unchoked flow conditions for liquids, gases, and supercritical fluids. For a computation of flow through a given venturi, nozzle venturi, or orifice, the routines determine which flow condition occurs: First, they calculate a throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is unchoked or non-cavitating, then they calculate the throat pressure under the assumption that the flow is choked or cavitating. The assumption that yields the higher throat pressure is selected as the correct one.

  11. The rate of collisions due to Brownian or gravitational motion of small drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Davis, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of the collision rate of two spherical drops undergoing Brownian diffusion or gravitational sedimentation are presented. The diffusion equation for relative Brownian motion of two drops is derived, and the relative motion of pairs of drops in gravitational sedimentation is traced via a trajectory analysis in order to develop theoretical models to determine the collision efficiencies, both with and without interparticle forces applied between the drops. It is concluded that finite collision rates between nondeforming fluid drops are possible for Brownian diffusion or gravitational sedimentation in the absence of attractive forces, in stark contrast to the prediction that lubrication forces prevent rigid spheres from contacting each other unless an attractive force that becomes infinite as the separation approaches zero is applied. Collision rates are shown to increase as the viscosity of the drop-phase decreases. In general, hydrodynamic interactions reduce the collision rates more for gravitational collisions than for Brownian collisions.

  12. Compound pendant drop tensiometry for interfacial tension measurement at zero bond number.

    PubMed

    Neeson, Michael J; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2014-12-30

    A widely used method to determine the interfacial tension between fluids is to quantify the pendant drop shape that is determined by gravity and interfacial tension forces. Failure of this method for small drops or small fluid density differences is a critical limitation in microfluidic applications and when only small fluid samples are available. By adding a small spherical particle to the interface to apply an axisymmetric deformation, both the particle density and the interfacial tension can be simultaneously and precisely determined, providing an accurate and elegant solution to a long-standing problem. PMID:25494530

  13. More investigations in capillary fluidics using a drop tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollman, Andrew; Weislogel, Mark; Wiles, Brently; Pettit, Donald; Snyder, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    A variety of contemplative demonstrations concerning intermediate-to-large length scale capillary fluidic phenomena were made possible by the brief weightless environment of a drop tower (Wollman and Weislogel in Exp Fluids 54(4):1, 2013). In that work, capillarity-driven flows leading to unique spontaneous droplet ejections, bubble ingestions, and multiphase flows were introduced and discussed. Such efforts are continued herein. The spontaneous droplet ejection phenomena (auto-ejection) is reviewed and demonstrated on earth as well as aboard the International Space Station. This technique is then applied to novel low-g droplet combustion where soot tube structures are created in the wakes of burning drops. A variety of new tests are presented that routinely demonstrate `puddle jumping,' a process defined as the spontaneous recoil and ejection of large liquid drops from hydrophobic surfaces following the step reduction in `gravity' characteristic of most drop towers. The inverse problem of `bubble jumping' is also demonstrated for the case of hydrophilic surfaces. A variety of puddle jump demonstrations are presented in summary as a means of suggesting the further exploitation of drop towers to study such large length scale capillary phenomena.

  14. Collision between immiscible drops with large surface tension difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arienti, Marco; Li, Xiaoyi; Soteriou, Marios; Sussman, Mark

    2009-11-01

    Immiscible drop collision, as occurring in fuel-oxidizer sprays or in the release of certain fire-extinguishing agents, tends to exhibit a much richer behavior with respect to miscible drops collision thanks to the formation of a liquid-liquid interface during impact. For instance, in near-head-on diesel-water drop collisions, ``overlaying'' may occur in which the diesel oil flows from the collision point around the water drop to gather at the opposite location of the drop. To simulate this class of multi-material flows, the combined volume-of-fluid / level set methodology that sharply captures a single liquid-gas interface (Sussman et al, J. of Comp. Phys., 2007) needs to be duplicated for a second, independent interface. In this presentation, we will show that simulation results are not affected by the reconstruction order of the interfaces, as in other surface capturing methods. We will also propose different numerical solutions to treat surface tension in the triple point computational cells, and examine the characteristics of the flow developing at the contact line between the two liquids and air in overlaying head-on collisions.

  15. Experimental study of drop impacts on soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawar, Ali; Basu, Saikat; Concha, Andres; Bandi, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    Impinging drops on flowing and static soap films demonstrate at least three distinct types of impact regimes: (a) the drop bounces off the film surface, (b) it coalesces with the downstream flow for a moving film and for static films it gets assimilated within the film, and (c) it pierces through the film. The interaction presents a unique opportunity to explore the impact of a quasi one-dimensional object on a two-dimensional fluid, much like a comet impacting on a thin atmosphere. We present a detailed experimental study of droplet impacts on soap film flow, for a number of film inclination angles and falling heights of the drop. Imaging techniques employed include sodium lamp interferometry to measure film thickness fluctuations and particle tracking velocimetry to measure the velocity field. Film thickness measures approximately 10 microns and the drop diameter is 1 mm. We mostly observe the bouncing-off regime for smaller inclination angles. However, at higher impact angles, puncturing of the film becomes a more common occurrence. We show that when the drop bounces off the film, there is a momentum transfer leading to vortex dipole shedding, along with the generation of capillary waves; an impulsive regime that may share correspondence with the locomotion of water striders.

  16. Rayleigh Taylor instability of viscoelastic drops at high Weber numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, D. D.; Beavers, G. S.; Funada, T.

    2002-02-01

    Movies of the breakup of viscous and viscoelastic drops in the high-speed airstream behind a shock wave in a shock tube have been reported by Joseph, Belanger & Beavers (1999). They performed a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for the initial breakup of a drop of Newtonian liquid and found that the most unstable Rayleigh Taylor wave fits nearly perfectly with waves measured on enhanced images of drops from the movies, but the effects of viscosity cannot be neglected. Here we construct a Rayleigh Taylor stability analysis for an Oldroyd-B fluid using measured data for acceleration, density, viscosity and relaxation time [lambda]1. The most unstable wave is a sensitive function of the retardation time [lambda]2 which fits experiments when [lambda]2/[lambda]1 = O(10-3). The growth rates for the most unstable wave are much larger than for the comparable viscous drop, which agrees with the surprising fact that the breakup times for viscoelastic drops are shorter. We construct an approximate analysis of Rayleigh Taylor instability based on viscoelastic potential flow which gives rise to nearly the same dispersion relation as the unapproximated analysis.

  17. Two touching spherical drops in a uniaxial compressional flow: The effect of interfacial slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Sachin; Ramachandran, Arun

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a semi-analytical solution for the problem of two touching drops with slipping interfaces pushed against each other in a uniaxial compressional flow at low capillary and Reynolds numbers. The jump in the tangential velocity at the liquid-liquid interface is modeled using the Navier slip condition. Analytical solutions of the contact force, the drop-scale stresses, and the drop-scale pressure are provided as functions of the slip coefficient (" separators=" α ) , the viscosity ratio (" separators=" κ ) , and the drop size ratio (" separators=" k ) . Since unequal drop sizes are considered, two problems are solved in the tangent sphere co-ordinate system to determine the steady state position: a pair of touching drops with its contact point at the origin of an axisymmetric straining flow, and two touching drops placed in a uniform flow parallel to the axis of symmetry of the drops. A general observation is that the effect of slip is manifested most strongly for drops whose viscosity is much greater than the suspending fluid (" separators=" κ ≫ 1 ) . For highly viscous drops, the flow and stress fields transition from those corresponding to solid particles for ακ ≪ 1, to those for inviscid drops in the limit ακ ≫ 1. The analytical expressions provided here for the contact force and the stress distributions will serve to provide the restrictions that complete the definition of the lubrication flow problem in the thin film between the two colliding drops. While the contact force that drains fluid out of the thin film is relatively unaffected by slip, the tangential stress and pressure in the near-contact region are mitigated significantly for ακ ≫ 1. The latter is expected to assist coalescence at high capillary numbers.

  18. Serious Fun: Using Toys to Demonstrate Fluid Mechanics Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saviz, Camilla M.; Shakerin, Said

    2014-01-01

    Many students have owned or seen fluids toys in which two immiscible fluids within a closed container can be tilted to generate waves. These types of inexpensive and readily available toys are fun to play with, but they are also useful for provoking student learning about fluid properties or complex fluid behavior, including drop formation and…

  19. Shape change, engulfment, and breakup of partially engulfed compound drops undergoing thermocapillary migration.

    PubMed

    Lavrenteva, O M; Rosenfeld, L; Nir, A

    2011-11-01

    Compound drops comprise two or more immiscible phases, one of which entirely or partially engulfs the others. In this work we consider the thermocapillary-induced motion of partially engulfed compound drops, composed of two phases, in an immiscible fluid. If the capillary number is negligibly small, Ca < 1, the partially engulfed compound drop is composed of three spherical surface segments, intersecting at contact angles that are determined by the three interfacial tensions associated with the three fluid phases that make up the compound drop and the ambient medium. Corrections to the shapes of the undeformable case at Ca = 0 are expected to be of the order Ca. However, as the drop propagates through the nonisothermal fluid, the temperature at the three-phase contact line and, hence, the contact angles, may considerably change, resulting in a dramatic change of the compound drop shape. Moreover, the changes in the interfacial tensions may be so significant that the partially engulfed configuration may become impossible and either two immiscible parts of the compound drop separate or one of them becomes completely engulfed by the other. PMID:22181514

  20. Pollutant particle scavenging by rain drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. J.; Cârsteanu, A. A.; García, C. A.

    2003-04-01

    Scavenging of air pollutants by rain drops has been studied from various angles of the phenomenon: spatial distribution of drops, size distribution of the larger drops, and scavenging properties of individual drops have been taken into account. The latter makes the object of the present work. In order to study the movement of pollutant particles in the neighborhood of a falling rain drop, a fixed drop is subjected in situ to a vertical air current containing pollutant particles of several microns in size, originating from a Diesel engine exhaust, which are essentially composed of soot. While the speed of the air current reproduces the terminal velocity of the respective rain drop, the trajectories of the particles around the drops are being followed by digital imagery, through an optical microscope. We present the adhesion statistics of boundary layer particles to the water drops, and the incorporation of these results into a multifractal rainfall field model.

  1. The Stability of Two Connected Pendant Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobozhanin, Lev A.; Alexander, J. Iwan

    2004-01-01

    The stability of an equilibrium system of two drops suspended from circular holes is examined. The drop surfaces are disconnected surfaces of a connected liquid body. For holes of equal radii and identical pendant drops axisymmetric perturbations are always the most dangerous. The stability region for two identical drops differs considerably from that for a single drop. Loss of stability leads to a transition from a critical system of identical drops to a stable system of axisymmetric non-identical. This system of non-identical drops reaches its own stability limit (to isochoric or non-isochoric paturbations). For non-identical drops, loss of stability results in dripping or streaming from the holes. Critical volumes for non-identical drops have been calculated as functions of the Bond number, B. For unequal hole radii, stability regions have been constructed for a set of hole radius, K. The dependence of critical volumes on K and B is analyzed.

  2. Drop impact on a fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Gil; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drop impact on a thin fiber. Using high-speed videography, we analyze the dynamics of droplet collision with a fiber. Based on the systematic experiments, we identify three outcomes of collision: capturing, single drop falling, and splitting. The outcomes are presented in a regime map, where the regime boundaries are explained through a scale analysis of forces. We also measure the liquid retention on the fiber after the droplet impact. By considering a liquid film on the fiber, we develop a mechanical model that predicts the residual water mass. Our model reveals that the residual mass depends critically on the fiber thickness and less on the impact speed. Our study can be extended to predicting the remaining droplet, critical problems in air filtration, water collection, and fiber coating.

  3. Containerless protein crystallization in floating drops: application to crystal growth monitoring under reduced nucleation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorber, Bernard; Giegé, Richard

    1996-10-01

    A micromethod was developed for the batch crystallization of proteins under conditions were the solution has no contact with the container walls. Drops of crystallization solutions (5 to 100 μl) are placed at the interface between two layers of inert and non-miscible silicone fluids contained in square glass or plastic cuvettes. The densities of the fluids are either lower or higher than those of the major precipitating agents of macromolecules, including aqueous solutions containing salts, polyethylene glycols or alcohols. Several proteins and a spherical plant virus were crystallized in the temperature range 4°C-20°C using this set-up. A thermostated device was built for the dynamic control of the temperature of crystallization drops and the monitoring of crystal growth by video-microscopy. In all cases, the habit of the crystals grown in floating drops are identical to those of controls grown in sealed glass tubes without silicone fluid. The comparison of the number of crystals in drops kept under one layer of fluid and in floating drops of the same volume indicates that heterogeneous nucleation is minimized when protein crystallization is performed in floating drops. The advantages and limitations of this novel containerless crystallization method are discussed.

  4. Surfactant Saturation of Drops in Microgravity by Terrestrial Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviani, Antonio

    It is well known that diffusion plays an appreciable role in mass transfer only in the case of weak gravitational convection. However, even under such conditions the use of a surfactant as a dif-fusing substance essentially complicates the mass transfer processes. The appearance of gas or liquid inclusions in the surfactant solution causes the development of solutocapillary motion on their surface, which may become a generator of the large-scale flows in the surrounding liquid, especially in microgravity conditions. The paper presents the results of terrestrial simulation of such flows during saturation of the drop of weakly soluble fluid by a surfactant from its water solution forming a thin ( 1 ) horizontal layer. In our experiments, we used chlorobenzene and water as the basic fluids of the drop and the surrounding medium, respectively, and isopropyl alcohol -as a surfactant. The initial concentration 0 of the alcohol in the solution ranged from 5 to 50%. This lent specific feature to the saturation process, manifesting itself in the fact that at concentration higher than 25% a mutual dissolution of water and chlorobenzene began to increase. Visualization of flow structures and concentration fields showed that in laboratory conditions even at maximum suppression of the gravitational convection the saturation of the surfactant is a rather complicated process specified by the initial surfactant concentration in the solution and by the degree of the solution homogeneity. In the case of initially homoge-neous solution, a complicated character of mass transfer between the drop and the surrounding medium is evidently due to the small values of surfactant diffusion coefficients in basic flu-ids. Penetration of the surfactant into the drop leads to the formation of local inhomigeneities of the solution density at both sides of the interface and to the development of a slow three-dimensional flow of gravitational nature. An increase in the concentration gives rise to a

  5. Fragmentation of hot classical drops

    SciTech Connect

    Vicentini, A.; Jacucci, G.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1985-05-01

    Time evolution of hot drops of matter containing approx.230 or approx.130 particles is studied by classical molecular dynamics. Initially, the drops have uniform density and a sharp surface. The chosen initial conditions include three values of density and a range of temperatures wide enough to study the phenomena of evaporation, fragmentation, and total vaporization in a unified fashion. The average density and temperature of central matter is measured periodically to obtain trajectories of the evolution in the rho,T plane. These trajectories indicate that the matter expands almost adiabatically until it reaches the region of adiabatic instabilities. Density inhomogeneities develop in this region, but the matter fragments only if the expansion continues to average densities of less than one-fourth the liquid density, otherwise it recondenses into a single blob. The recondensed matter and fragments have very crooked surfaces. If the temperature is high enough, the expanding matter does not enter the region of adiabatic instabilities and totally vaporizes. For initial densities of the order of equilibrium density, matter does not fragment or develop large inhomogeneities in the region enclosed by the isothermal and adiabatic spinodals. Thus it appears unlikely that fragmentation of small drops (nuclei) can be used to study the isothermal critical region of gas-liquid phase transition. A detailed tabulation of the energies and number of monomers, dimers, light, and heavy fragments emitted in each event is presented.

  6. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  7. How to freeze drop oscillations with powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, Jeremy; Zhu, Ying; Vakarelski, Ivan; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2012-11-01

    We present experiments that show when a water drop impacts onto a bed of fine, hydrophobic powder, the final form of the drop can be very different from the spherical form with which it impacts. For all drop impact speeds, the drop rebounds due to the hydrophobic nature of the powder. However, we observe that above a critical impact speed, the drop undergoes a permanent deformation to a highly non-spherical shape with a complete coverage of powder, thus creating a deformed liquid marble. This powder coating acts to freeze the drop oscillations during rebound.

  8. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  9. How to Use Eye Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tablets, Suppositories, and Creams How to Use Eye Drops Properly (Using a mirror or having someone else ... gently squeeze the dropper so that a single drop falls into the pocket made by the lower ...

  10. Progress on Concepts for Next-Generation Drop Tower Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kaczmarczik, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM about 100 scientists, engineers, and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important research center for space sciences and technologies in Europe. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM's ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10-6 g (microgravity), which is one of the best achievable for ground-based flight opportunities. Scientists may choose up to three times a day between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and an experiment in ZARM's worldwide unique catapult system with 9.3 s in weightlessness. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 7500 drops or catapult launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like fundamental physics, combustion, fluid dynamics, planetary formation / astrophysics, biology and materials sciences have been accomplished so far. In addition, more and more technology tests have been conducted under microgravity conditions at the Bremen Drop Tower in order to effectively prepare appropriate space missions in advance. In this paper we report on the progress on concepts for next-generation drop tower systems based on the GraviTower idea utilizing a guided electro-magnetic linear drive. Alternative concepts motivated by the scientific demand for higher

  11. Drag and drop display & builder

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  12. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. 14 CFR 91.15 - Dropping objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dropping objects. 91.15 Section 91.15... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.15 Dropping objects. No pilot in command of a civil aircraft may allow any object to be dropped from that aircraft in...

  14. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  15. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  16. 49 CFR 572.102 - Drop test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drop test. 572.102 Section 572.102 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Free Motion Headform § 572.102 Drop test. (a) When the headform is dropped from a height of 14.8 inches in accordance with paragraph (b)...

  17. Unusual Contact-Line Dynamics of Thick Films and Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veretennikov, Igor; Agarwal, Abhishek; Indeikina, Alexandra; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    1999-01-01

    We report several novel phenomena In contact-line and fingering dynamics of macroscopic spinning drops and gravity-driven films with dimensions larger than the capillary length. It is shown through experimental and theoretical analysis that such macroscopic films can exhibit various interfacial shapes, including multi valued ones, near the contact line due to a balance between the external body forces with capillarity. This rich variety of front shapes couples with the usual capillary, viscous, and intermolecular forces at the contact line to produce a rich and unexpected spectrum of contact-line dynamics. A single finger develops when part of the front becomes multivalued on a partially wetting macroscopic spinning drop in contrast to a different mechanism for microscopic drops of completely wetting fluids. Contrary to general expectation, we observe that, at high viscosity and low frequencies of rotation, the speed of a glycerine finger increases with increasing viscosity. Completely wetting Dow Corning 200 Fluid spreads faster over a dry inclined plane than a prewetted one. The presence of a thin prewetted film suppresses fingering both for gravity-driven flow and for spin coating. We analyze some of these unique phenomena in detail and offer qualitative physical explanations for the others.

  18. Drops on an arbitrarily wetting substrate: a phase field description.

    PubMed

    Borcia, Rodica; Borcia, Ion Dan; Bestehorn, Michael

    2008-12-01

    We propose a scheme for studying thin liquid films on a solid substrate using a phase field model. For a van der Waals fluid-far from criticality-the most natural phase field function is the fluid density. The theoretical description is based on the Navier-Stokes equation with extra phase field terms and the continuity equation. In this model free of interface conditions, the contact angle can be controlled through the boundary conditions for the density field at the solid walls [L. M. Pismen and Y. Pomeav, Phys. Rev. E 62, 2480 (2000)]. We investigate the stability of a thin liquid film on a flat homogeneous solid support with variable wettability. For almost hydrophobic surfaces, the liquid film breaks up and transitions from a flat film to drops occur. Finally, we report on two-dimensional numerical simulations for static liquid drops resting on a flat horizontal solid support and for drops sliding down on inclined substrates under gravity effects. PMID:19256945

  19. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  20. Ground based studies of thermocapillary flows in levitated drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Analytical studies along with ground-based experiments are presently being carried out in connection with thermocapillary phenomena associated with drops and bubbles in a containerless environment. The effort here focuses on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of acoustically levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the Marangoni effect on drops under conditions of local spot-heating and other types of heating are being studied. With the experiments conducted to date, fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved and successful flow visualization by light scattering from smoke particles has been carried out. The results include situations with and without heating. As a preliminary qualitative interpretation of these experimental results, we consider the external flow pattern as a superposition of three discrete circulation cells operating on different spatial scales. The observations of the flow fields also indicate the existence of a steady state torque induced by the streaming flows. The theoretical studies have been concentrated on the analysis of streaming flows in a gaseous medium with the presence of a spherical particle undergoing periodic heating. A matched asymptotic analysis was carried out for small parameters derived from approximations in the high frequency range. The heating frequency being 'in tune' with the acoustic frequency results in a nonzero time-averaged thermal field. This leads to a steady heat flow across the equatorial plane of the sphere.

  1. Drop deformation and breakup in flows with and without shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kékesi, Tímea; Amberg, Gustav; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The deformation and breakup of liquid drops in gaseous flows are studied numerically using the Volume of Fluid method. Fragmentation of fuel drops has a key role in combustion, determining the rate of mixing and the efficiency of the process. It is common to refer to Weber number 12 as the onset of breakup, and to define breakup mode regimes as a function of Weber number. These definitions are established for simple flows and do not take density and viscosity ratios into account. The main objective of this work is the dynamics of the drop leading to breakup. Fully developed uniform flows and flows with various shear rates are considered. A Weber number of 20, Reynolds numbers 20-200, density ratios 20-80, and viscosity ratios 0.5-50 were used. Results for uniform flows are presented in Kékesi T. et al. (2014). The final aim of the project is to extend existing atomization models for fuel sprays by accounting for density and viscosity ratios in addition to the Reynolds and Weber numbers already present in current models. Estimations for the lifetime of the drop are provided; furthermore, the history of the drag coefficient is compared for several cases. Examples of the observed phenomena and ideas for possible model modifications will be presented. This work is supported by the Swedish Research Council and the Linné FLOW Centre.

  2. Measurement of surface and interfacial tension using pendant drop tensiometry.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joseph D; Neeson, Michael J; Dagastine, Raymond R; Chan, Derek Y C; Tabor, Rico F

    2015-09-15

    Pendant drop tensiometry offers a simple and elegant solution to determining surface and interfacial tension - a central parameter in many colloidal systems including emulsions, foams and wetting phenomena. The technique involves the acquisition of a silhouette of an axisymmetric fluid droplet, and iterative fitting of the Young-Laplace equation that balances gravitational deformation of the drop with the restorative interfacial tension. Since the advent of high-quality digital cameras and desktop computers, this process has been automated with high speed and precision. However, despite its beguiling simplicity, there are complications and limitations that accompany pendant drop tensiometry connected with both Bond number (the balance between interfacial tension and gravitational forces) and drop volume. Here, we discuss the process involved with going from a captured experimental image to a fitted interfacial tension value, highlighting pertinent features and limitations along the way. We introduce a new parameter, the Worthington number, Wo, to characterise the measurement precision. A fully functional, open-source acquisition and fitting software is provided to enable the reader to test and develop the technique further. PMID:26037272

  3. Capillarity driven contact line motion in cyclic bridge-drop grab-release events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lengerich, Henrik; Steen, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Motivated by a reversible adhesion device which uses capillary forces to adhere to a substrate, we study the mechanical work done in a grab-release cycle. That is, the volume of a drop is increased until it grabs the substrate and forms a bridge and then shrunk until it goes unstable and releases from the substrate and forms a drop again. In the instant that a drop becomes a bridge (or vice versa) no work is done on the system, however, energy is dissipated due to the decrease in interfacial energy. This dissipation can be compared with the mechanical dissipation based on the fluid flow. For viscous fluids, a wedge model shows that most of the dissipation occurs in the vicinity of the contact line. The thermodynamic dissipation is compared with that expected in the fluid without the need of static contact angle or slip length.

  4. Electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop with inertia.

    PubMed

    Nganguia, H; Young, Y-N; Layton, A T; Lai, M-C; Hu, W-F

    2016-05-01

    Most of the existing numerical and theoretical investigations on the electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop have focused on the creeping Stokes flow regime, where nonlinear inertia effects are neglected. In this work we study the inertia effects on the electrodeformation of a viscous drop under a DC electric field using a novel second-order immersed interface method. The inertia effects are quantified by the Ohnesorge number Oh, and the electric field is characterized by an electric capillary number Ca_{E}. Below the critical Ca_{E}, small to moderate electric field strength gives rise to steady equilibrium drop shapes. We found that, at a fixed Ca_{E}, inertia effects induce larger deformation for an oblate drop than a prolate drop, consistent with previous results in the literature. Moreover, our simulations results indicate that inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation are dictated by the direction of normal electric stress on the drop interface: Larger drop deformation is found when the normal electric stress points outward, and smaller drop deformation is found otherwise. To our knowledge, such inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation has not been reported in the literature. Above the critical Ca_{E}, no steady equilibrium drop deformation can be found, and often the drop breaks up into a number of daughter droplets. In particular, our Navier-Stokes simulations show that, for the parameters we use, (1) daughter droplets are larger in the presence of inertia, (2) the drop deformation evolves more rapidly compared to creeping flow, and (3) complex distribution of electric stresses for drops with inertia effects. Our results suggest that normal electric pressure may be a useful tool in predicting drop pinch-off in oblate deformations. PMID:27300985

  5. Electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop with inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganguia, H.; Young, Y.-N.; Layton, A. T.; Lai, M.-C.; Hu, W.-F.

    2016-05-01

    Most of the existing numerical and theoretical investigations on the electrohydrodynamics of a viscous drop have focused on the creeping Stokes flow regime, where nonlinear inertia effects are neglected. In this work we study the inertia effects on the electrodeformation of a viscous drop under a DC electric field using a novel second-order immersed interface method. The inertia effects are quantified by the Ohnesorge number Oh, and the electric field is characterized by an electric capillary number CaE. Below the critical CaE, small to moderate electric field strength gives rise to steady equilibrium drop shapes. We found that, at a fixed CaE, inertia effects induce larger deformation for an oblate drop than a prolate drop, consistent with previous results in the literature. Moreover, our simulations results indicate that inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation are dictated by the direction of normal electric stress on the drop interface: Larger drop deformation is found when the normal electric stress points outward, and smaller drop deformation is found otherwise. To our knowledge, such inertia effects on the equilibrium drop deformation has not been reported in the literature. Above the critical CaE, no steady equilibrium drop deformation can be found, and often the drop breaks up into a number of daughter droplets. In particular, our Navier-Stokes simulations show that, for the parameters we use, (1) daughter droplets are larger in the presence of inertia, (2) the drop deformation evolves more rapidly compared to creeping flow, and (3) complex distribution of electric stresses for drops with inertia effects. Our results suggest that normal electric pressure may be a useful tool in predicting drop pinch-off in oblate deformations.

  6. Small drops from large nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Said Mohamed, Ahmed; Castrejon-Pita, Jose Rafael; Herrada, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    We report experimental and numerical results of the generation of drops which are significantly smaller than the nozzle from which they are generated. The system consists of a cylindrical reservoir and two endplates. One plate is a thin metal sheet with a small orifice in its centre which acts as the nozzle. The other end consists of a piston which moves by the action of an elecromechanical actuator which in turn is driven by sine-shape pull-mode pulses. The meniscus (formed at the nozzle) is thus first overturned, forming a cavity. This cavity collapses and a thin and fast jet emerges from its centre. Under appropriate conditions the tip of this jet breaks up and produces a single diminutive drop. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results was found. Also, a series of experiments were performed in order to study the effects that the pulse amplitude and width, together with variations in the liquid properties, have over the final size of the droplet. Based on these experiments, a predictive law for the droplet size has been derived. This work was funded by the Royal Society (University Research Fellowship and Research Grant), the John Fell Fund (Oxford University Press), the Ministry of Science and Education (DPI2013-46485 Spain), and the Junta de Andalucia (P08-TEP-31704128 Spain).

  7. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  8. Liquid-metal, pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L. )

    1995-02-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This article investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post crystal with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in the literature on pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information on the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even rarer. Because the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry is very similar to that of the pin post, the pressure drop correlation data for the cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank are studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. The emphasis of this article is on the influence of two variables on the pressure drop: viscosity and density of fluid. The difference and correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the predication of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  9. Deformation and secondary breakup of drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, L.-P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Drop properties during and after secondary breakup in the bag, multimode and shear breakup regimes were observed for shock wave initiated disturbances in air at normal temperature and pressure. Test liquids included water, n-heptane, ethyl alcohol and glycerol mixtures to yield Weber numbers of 15-600. Ohnesorge numbers of 0.0025-0.039, liquid/gas density ratios of 579-985 and Reynolds numbers of 1060-15080. Measurements included pulsed shadowgraphy and double-pulsed holography to find drop sizes and velocities after breakup. Drop size distributions after breakup satisfied Simmons' universal root normal distribution in all three breakup regimes, after removing the core (or drop-forming) drop from the drop population for shear breakup. The size and velocity of the core drop after shear breakup then was correlated successfully based on the observation that the end of drop stripping corresponded to a constant Eotvos number. The relative velocities of the drop liquid were significantly reduced during secondary breakup, due both to large drag coefficients during the drop deformation stage and reduced relaxation times of smaller drops. These effects were correlated successfully based on a simplified phenomenological theory.

  10. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOEpatents

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.