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1

Teachers Training through Distance Mode in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia and established in 1974 on the model of UKOU. AIOU uses different media for the delivery of instruction. It has a well established Institute of Educational Technology which has radio and TV production facilities and advance level of work in computer technology. AOU offers…

Jumani, Nabi Bux; Rahman, Fazalur; Chishti, Saeedul Hasan; Malik, Samina

2011-01-01

2

A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support…

Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

2009-01-01

3

A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

2009-01-01

4

Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Distance Learning Courses: A Study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan.…

Ali, Afzaal; Ramay, Muhammad I.; Shahzad, Mudasar

2011-01-01

5

Use of Libraries in Open and Distance Learning System: Barriers to the Use of AIOU Libraries by Tutors and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…

Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux

2012-01-01

6

Dedicated to inge grundke-iqbal.  

PubMed

Inge Grundke-Iqbal and Khalid Iqbal found a connection between microtubule associated tau and Alzheimer's disease. They described that abnormally phosphorylated tau is a component of the paired helical filaments found in the disease. Afterwards they described that tau hyperphosphorylation prevents microtubule assembly. Now trying to complement the relationship between microtubules and tau phosphorylation, we have commented on the effect of microtubule disassembly on tau phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the role of microtubule depolymerization induced by nocodazole on tau phosphorylation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results indicate that nocodazole provokes tau phosphorylation mediated by GSK3, as determined by using AT-8 or Tau-1 antibodies. Interestingly, total GSK3? and GSK3? phosphorylation on Ser-9 are not altered during nocodazole treatment. In addition, microtubule stabilization with taxol had similar effects, likely because taxol and tau compete for the same binding sites on microtubules, and in the presence of taxol, tau could be detached from microtubules. Thus, unbound tau from microtubles can be phosphorylated by GSK3, even if the activity of GSK3 is not altered, probably because tau unbound to microtubules could be a better substrate for the kinase than microtubule-associated tau. These findings suggest that microtubule depolymerization can be a primary event in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease and that tau phosphorylation takes place afterwards. PMID:23948896

Hernández, Félix; García-García, Esther; Avila, Jesús

2013-01-01

7

Twombly and Iqbal : Effects on Hostile Work Environment Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court decided two landmark cases, Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly and Ashcroft v. Iqbal, that interpreted Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 8(b)’s pleading requirement. The Court shifted from a notice pleading standard to one that requires more factual substantiation of claims before allowing discovery. This has important ramifications in the area of employment discrimination, as courts dismiss these

Michael ONeil

2012-01-01

8

Muhammad Iqbal and the perfect man: The restoration of Muslim dignity through the integration of philosophy, poetry, politics and conservative Islam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muhammad Iqbal lived at multiple human crossroads: of history as British Colonial power waned in India, of the human relationship with technology during the crisis of Modernism, and of the awakening of political Islam to its mortal conflict with the West. Iqbal perceived an attack on human dignity due to the “Mega-Technique” of Colonialism. In this dissertation, I present an

Dayne E Nix

2007-01-01

9

The Countermodern Moment: A World-Historical Perspective on the Thought of Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, and Liang Shuming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early twentieth century, traditionally minded intellectuals in Asia offered strikingly similar responses to modernity. This article examines the countermodern visions of Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, and Liang Shuming. Inspired by high-culture versions of Hinduism, Islam, and Confucianism, these three thinkers offered parallel critiques of materialism and the decline of self-cultivation. At the same time, they brought issues of

Adam K. Webb

2008-01-01

10

Iqbal, Al-Kidd and Pleading Past Qualified Immunity: What the Cases Mean and How They Demonstrate a Need to Eliminate the Immunity Doctrines from Constitutional Tort Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Supreme Court’s decisions in Ashcroft v. Iqbal and Ashcroft v. al-Kidd contain issue-framing statements indicating that a constitutional tort plaintiff is required to plead facts sufficient to establish the inapplicability of the qualified immunity defense. Yet, framing the issue in this way ignores the Court’s earlier decisions in Gomez v. Toledo and Crawford-El v. Britton and is at odds

John M. Greabe

2011-01-01

11

Scavengers and their Role in the Recycling of Waste in Southwestern Lahore  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with the scavengers and their role in the recycling of waste in southern Lahore. Data was gathered from 325 different scavengers, junkshops and middle men. Waste generation rate in Allama Iqbal town is .80kg\\/capita\\/day. In researched area and other cities of Pakistan there is no formal sorting of waste and this activity is mainly in the hands

Muhammad Asim akhtar; Syeda Adila Batool; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

12

Radio and distance learning in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Radio is a powerful communication vehicle in Pakistan able to reach 3/4 of urban and 2/3 of rural households. Until 1974, most radio broadcasts of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation, a state monopoly, were in the categories of music, drama, and features; news and current affairs; and religious broadcasts. The Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), a distance learning educational institution, was established through an act of the Pakistan Parliament in 1974 and is the only institution in the country to use radio broadcasts for its curriculum. Also established in 1974 within the AIOU was the Institute of Educational Technology (IET). The IET channels the transmission and flow of well-designed educational messages and lessons from the teachers to the students by employing distance teaching methodology that seeks to reinforce students' weekly lessons. IET closely integrates its activities within the University's academic departments. IET staff members not only participate in the development of course curriculum and syllabi, but also help to identify course content needing reinforcement through radio. While the teachers at AIOU convert the course curricula into distance-learning self-study activity-oriented correspondence texts, IET producers transcribe these scripts into actual production scripts. Feedback from students and findings of the University's Research and Statistical Cell are used to make revisions in the scripts. The AIOU enrolls an average of 100,000 students each year. Expansion is being limited only by the costs of purchasing time from the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (Rs 2000 for a 15-minute lesson) and the availability of appropriate time slots. PMID:12281001

Abbas, R

1987-01-01

13

Openness in Higher Education: Open Source, Open Standards, Open Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

For national advisory services in the UK (UKOLN, CETIS, and OSS Watch), varieties of openness (open source software, open standards, and open access to research publications and data) present an interesting challenge. Higher education is often keen to embrace openness, including new tools such as blogs and wikis for students and staff. For advisory services, the goal is to achieve

Brian Kelly; Scott Wilson; Randy Metcalfe

2007-01-01

14

Open Content in Open Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

2007-01-01

15

Open Education and the Open Science Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

Peters, Michael A.

2009-01-01

16

Open access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open-access journals are publishing at a pace that is not much faster than some recently launched subscription-based journals. The swiftest and surest route to full open-access publishing is then for funders, institutions and publishers to agree on the conditions for self-archiving in publicly accessible repositories.

2012-05-01

17

Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

18

OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

2009-01-01

19

The Opening \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research indicated that task conflict benefits knowledge sharing within organization, whereas relationship conflict damages it. However, little is known about the underlying psychological process by which task and relationship conflicts have distinct effects on knowledge sharing. In this study, we aim to open the \\

Xi Zhang; Zhenjiao Chen; Chuanjie Guo

2009-01-01

20

OPEN Study  

Cancer.gov

Over the course of the study, OPEN participants completed 2 Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ), 2 24-recall interviews, and filled out several other health-related questionnaires. They were dosed with doubly labeled water (a biomarker used for measuring energy expenditure), provided several spot urine samples to complete the doubly labeled water assessment, completed two 24-hour urine collections and had their height and weight measured.

21

Open Spaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring articles by leading experts on topics from science policy to ecology (such as Bruce Babbitt and Jane Lubchenko), this new publication from Portland, Oregon attempts to incorporate synthetic, broad perspectives with a host of (familiar) environmental topics. A subscription fee is required to access all articles at the Open Spaces Website, but several interesting sample articles are currently posted for free online viewing. Science writers and scientists interested in widening their perspectives will find this an intriguing resource.

22

Opening education.  

PubMed

Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER. PMID:19119226

Smith, Marshall S

2009-01-01

23

Open Studio  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Studio Project was conceived by Los Angeles artist Mark Bradford, and is the inaugural effort of the Getty Artists Program, an extension of the Museum's education department. The Open Studio Project makes it possible for more schools to have an artist-in-residence, virtually. Any K-12 art classroom with an Internet connection can bring in art-making activities created by a roster of international artists. For example, students can work with Australian photographer Jon Cattapan to create a "Personal diorama", or explore color with painter Amy Sillman, who suggests going on a color tour of your town. Mark Bradford's three-part assignment on "recreating the familiar" is designed to "help you to see more clearly how you feel and relate to the immediate world you live in." Students work with text, rearranging the lyrics of a familiar song that they get to choose, draw a map of the school lunchroom, and create self-portraits with their eyes closed.

Bradsford, Mark

24

Open Spaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service created the "Open Spaces" blog to showcase some of their wildlife refuges and to offer the general public an inside view on the day-to-day operations of the organization. Visitors to the site will find blog posts that profile their work in the Everglades, reflections on September 11th, migratory birds, and the Labrador retrievers that work at the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska. Users of the site can search posts by category, and they will find that each entry also contains a selection of links to other materials, such as park management plans and lesson plans. Finally, visitors can also use the social media buttons here to share each post on Twitter and Facebook.

25

Open wide.  

PubMed

Dentists who work with children can appreciate the difficulties encountered when attempting to provide high quality restorative care within a confined space. In this presentation, I will address the issue of how to maximize space available in the mouth whilst minimizing patient discomfort and maintaining a working position that does not cripple the operator! Topics covered include: Instruments which take up less space in the mouth Behavioural techniques and aids to maximize mouth opening Adaptation of dental equipment for use in the child patient Techniques to obtain radiographs with minimal discomfort Methods for administering local anaesthetic with less fuss Novel methods of rubber dam placement. Space within the dental surgery is also limited. A further issue to be addressed is the management of the whanau/family to optimize their presence in supporting the patient, yet minimize distractions within the confines of the surgery. PMID:11709986

Ayers, K M

2000-10-01

26

Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

Wiley, David

2006-01-01

27

Open for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

Voyles, Bennett

2007-01-01

28

Open for Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

Voyles, Bennett

2007-01-01

29

OpenGL  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

OpenGL is an up-to-date source for this software interface for creating 2D and 3D graphics developed by Silicon Graphics and governed by the Architecture Review Board. The site includes OpenGL documentation, industry news, sample source code, and links to OpenGL tools. The information provided is extremely helpful to graphics programmers involved in or experimenting with OpenGL programming and also to end users looking for OpenGL applications or hardware.

30

Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

Peters, Michael A.

2010-01-01

31

75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Generated positive international attention in support...few minutes to tell us--for example, whether...think is important for us to know. Your comments...Deputy Undersecretary for International Affairs. [FR Doc....

2010-07-06

32

76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...this information of collection is estimated to be 10 hours per response; including the time for reviewing instructions, researching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of...

2011-08-09

33

Plasma Erosion Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) can conduct high current (approx. MA), open quickly (<10ns), and withstand high voltage (approx. MV). This switching technique has been used in inductive energy storage experiments and can be used with existing gen...

R. J. Commisso G. Cooperstein R. A. Meger J. M. Neri P. F. Ottinger

1985-01-01

34

Open Space Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report defines urban open space, both publicly and privately owned. It sets forth objectives, policies and programs for the acquisition, preservation and use of open space for maximum benefit. It also contains an extensive standards and criteria secti...

1973-01-01

35

The Oldest Open Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent survey of candidate old open clusters, Phelps, Janes & Montgomery (1994 AJ, 107, 1079) found 72 clusters with ages as great, or greater, than the Hyades (age about 0.8 Gyr) and 19 clusters with ages as great, or greater, than M67 (age about 5 Gyr). Among the oldest open clusters they found, and perhaps the oldest open

R. L. Phelps; K. A. Janes

1994-01-01

36

Modeling DNA transcriptional openings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We calculate the opening probabilities along specific DNA viral sequences used in experimental transcription studies. A nonlinear dynamical model for the base-pair openings is able to account for the details of the openings need to initiate transcription. The obtained results for different viruses and for a few mutations are in a very good correlation with the corresponding experimental data.

George Kalosakas; Kim O. Rasmussen; Alan R. Bishop; Anny Usheva

2003-01-01

37

Open Space. Conservation Element.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents discussions of the Santa Rosa Open Space Committee held during this year on the issues of open space and conservation. Types of existing open land are identified and analyzed in terms of: the physical, cultural, and historical factors...

1972-01-01

38

OpenLDAP Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, provided by the nonprofit OpenLDAP Foundation and its corporate sponsor, Net Boolean, Inc., hosts information and source code for OpenLDAP, an "open source" implementation of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). The OpenLDAP project aims to provide a commercial-grade, full-featured suite of LDAP applications and development tools using the open source model. That is, the project relies on volunteers to provide code and documentation. The site contains the downloadable source code for version 1.0.1 of OpenLDAP, which is based on code from the University of Michigan and runs on a number of Unix platforms; information on how to participate in the project; links to general LDAP information; and instructions on how to subscribe to various mailing lists about the project.

39

The Open Access Advantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open

Gunther Eysenbach

2006-01-01

40

Ghostly Open Clusters (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review theory and observations of the final stages of the evolution of open clusters. The distinguishing features of these ghostly objects depend upon the original membership of the cluster, the fraction of primordial binaries, and the initial mass function. Remnants of rich open clusters are difficult to detect and might exist in large numbers. We then examine the limited observational data available in this field, and discuss how to use the results of numerical integrations to plan future surveys and evaluate the quality of the available observational information. Current observational results render it very hard to distinguish between a poor open cluster, an open cluster remnant, or part of an association.

de La Fuente Marcos, R.

41

The Argument for Open  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

Byrd, Rob

2008-01-01

42

Openness in International Adoptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along with the increasing numbers of international adoptions, there is a developing trend toward openness. In this study, the authors examined the experiences of U.S. adoptive parents who adopted children from the Republic of Marshall Islands. The surveys addressed their initial motivations, the facilitation process for openness, the terms and conditions and the level of understanding of them by birth

Jini L. Roby; Jamie Wyatt; Gregory Pettys

2005-01-01

43

Opening a New Door  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

Waters, John K.

2007-01-01

44

Open Source Vision  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

45

Open Schools in Norway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School buildings designed in Norway during the early 1970s were frequently of the open plan type. This document briefly describes problems faced in the designing of open plan buildings and planning and implementation of educational activities appropriate to the new facilities. In anticipation of future elementary school construction, the document…

Reitan, Torleiv

46

Free/Open Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the educational movement toward alternative schools and suggests further sources of information concerning this change in American education. Following an analytical comparison of open and traditional schools, the author discusses some of the most important perceived problems related to open schools. Problems noted are…

Helburn, Nicholas

47

Triggered plasma opening switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open

Mendel

1986-01-01

48

Triggered plasma opening switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open

Mendel; Clifford W

1988-01-01

49

Open Heart Surgery Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open heart surgery plan was prepared by the Mid-America Comprehensive Health Planning Agency in Kansas City, Missouri. The purpose of the plan is to establish policies that will guide the development of open heart surgery programs in Kansas City area h...

A. Dennis D. A. Rings

1976-01-01

50

Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

2008-01-01

51

Diffusionism and open access  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This article aims to explore the geographic distribution of open access practices in the world from a diffusionist perspective. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article applies a tempo-spatial analysis to examine the diffusion movement of open access practices from the West to the entire world during the past several decades. Both maps and tables are used to support the analysis.

Jingfeng Xia

2012-01-01

52

OpenMP  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the shared-memory environment that Ranger has on each node, it is much easier to introduce parallelism into your code with OpenMP than to do pthread programming from scratch or to use MPI. This module introduces OpenMP and describes how to use it.

53

The Open Systems University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is focused toward a systems understanding of the contemporary university, the American University being the data base. A general systems conceptualization called the open systems university is presented. Comprehensive and generic in character, it is hoped that the theory of the open university will be viable enough to…

Counelis, James Steve

54

Creating Open Source Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

Sheehan, Kate

2009-01-01

55

Triggered plasma opening switch  

DOEpatents

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01

56

Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced ...

E. Envia

2012-01-01

57

Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced ...

E. Envia

2012-01-01

58

Opening Up Access to Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

Singer, Ross

2008-01-01

59

Open versus closed questions – an open issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our constant asking of questions in our organizations we use a combination of open and closed questions. This is generally done in a haphazard manner according to custom or spontaneity. Argues that research evidence suggests there are appropriate contexts and occasions for the use of either type. Sets out the pros and cons in tabular form. Finds it is

Gerald Vinten

1995-01-01

60

Open Borders? Immigration in Open Source Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source software is built by teams of volunteers. Each project has a core team of developers, who have the authority to commit changes to the repository; this team is the elite, committed foundation of the project, selected through a meritocratic process from a larger number of people who participate on the mailing list. Most projects carefully regulate admission of

Christian Bird; Alex Gourley; Premkumar T. Devanbu; Anand Swaminathan; Greta Hsu

2007-01-01

61

Open Universities in India 2000: Brief Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains information on the following open universities in India: (1) Indira Gandhi National Open University; (2) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University; (3) Kota Open University; (4) Nalanda Open University; (5) Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University; (6) Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University; (7) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open

Bhushan, Bharat, Comp.; Lele, Nalini A., Comp.; Rausaria, R. R., Comp.

62

In Praise of Openness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open access brings greater visibility and impact to the work of scientists as is evidenced in the examples discussed in this paper. Researchers are often reluctant and afraid to deposit their works in Institutional Repositories. However, as is shown here, once they do so, they do not regret it. Open access will shortly become the norm and will be accepted by the vast majority of scientists. Seen through the lens of the philosophy of Bertrand Russell, the moral, economic and philosophical imperatives for open access are indeed strong.

Arunachalam, S.

2010-10-01

63

Business as Usual: Immigration and the National Security Exception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Javaid Iqbal is a native and citizen of Pakistan and a Muslim. After moving to the United States, Iqbal worked as a cable television installer on Long Island. Iqbal was one among hundreds of men apprehended and detained by the United States Department of Justice in the weeks that followed the September 11, 2001 attacks. Iqbal was held in a

Shoba S Wadhia

2010-01-01

64

Openness in Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... Practice Family-Centered Practice Home Philosophy and Key Elements of Family-Centered Practice Family-Centered Practice Across the ... Connections Act Laws & Policies Library Search Mandated Reporters Publications ... Stay Connected Home » Openness in Adoption: Building ...

65

Triggered Plasma Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductor...

C. W. Mendel

1986-01-01

66

Open cycle thermoacoustics  

SciTech Connect

A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

Robert Stowers Reid

2000-01-01

67

'TRANSCRIPT Open Session 0  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. 'TRANSCRIPT Open Session 0 Page 2. r--ý 'ýVYIIý FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Z5. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM DEVICES PANEL ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

68

Research on Parachute Opening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes work carried out in connection with parachute opening theory. Contributions were made in the following areas: (a) prediction of fabric porosity effects; (b) calculation of the external and internal pressure fields during inflation; ...

E. G. U. Band P. R. Payne

1976-01-01

69

PWC Opens up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

Weinstein, Margery

2011-01-01

70

The Open AUC Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software\\u000a incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate\\u000a AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These\\u000a improvements are needed for the next generation of

Helmut Cölfen; Thomas M. Laue; Wendel Wohlleben; Kristian Schilling; Engin Karabudak; Bradley W. Langhorst; Emre Brookes; Bruce Dubbs; Dan Zollars; Mattia Rocco; Borries Demeler

2010-01-01

71

The Open AUC Project.  

PubMed

Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software. PMID:19296095

Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

2009-03-19

72

Toward open set recognition.  

PubMed

To date, almost all experimental evaluations of machine learning-based recognition algorithms in computer vision have taken the form of "closed set" recognition, whereby all testing classes are known at training time. A more realistic scenario for vision applications is "open set" recognition, where incomplete knowledge of the world is present at training time, and unknown classes can be submitted to an algorithm during testing. This paper explores the nature of open set recognition and formalizes its definition as a constrained minimization problem. The open set recognition problem is not well addressed by existing algorithms because it requires strong generalization. As a step toward a solution, we introduce a novel "1-vs-set machine," which sculpts a decision space from the marginal distances of a 1-class or binary SVM with a linear kernel. This methodology applies to several different applications in computer vision where open set recognition is a challenging problem, including object recognition and face verification. We consider both in this work, with large scale cross-dataset experiments performed over the Caltech 256 and ImageNet sets, as well as face matching experiments performed over the Labeled Faces in the Wild set. The experiments highlight the effectiveness of machines adapted for open set evaluation compared to existing 1-class and binary SVMs for the same tasks. PMID:23682001

Scheirer, Walter J; de Rezende Rocha, Anderson; Sapkota, Archana; Boult, Terrance E

2013-07-01

73

DMOZ Open Directory Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NewHoo!, a community-maintained search engine started in June 1998, has just been purchased by Netscape and is now dubbed the DMOZ Open Directory Project. While Web surfers already have an abundance of search engine options, Open Directory distinguishes itself through its method more than its content. That is, sites are selected, categorized, and annotated by over 4,500 "volunteer editors." NewHoo! contained over 100,000 categorized Websites when acquired by Netscape, and content will surely grow. The site also offers information on volunteering as an editor and using copies of the directory. "Netscape will offer a special license, similar to the mozilla.org open source code development license, to allow individuals and organizations to take advantage of and use copies of the directory that they can crawl, archive and reuse on their machines."

1998-01-01

74

Drainage openings at base of wall of arch opening on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Drainage openings at base of wall of arch opening on N elevation. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

75

OpenHRP: Open Architecture Humanoid Robotics Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the open architecture humanoid robotics platform (OpenHRP) which consists of a simulator and motion control library of humanoid robots. The binary software developed on OpenHRP can be applied to the real counterpart as is, thank to the proposed hardware abstraction and synchronization mechanism. The compatibility between the simulation and corresponding experiment has been successfully examined. OpenHRP is

Fumio Kanehiro; Hirohisa Hirukawa; Shuuji Kajita

2004-01-01

76

OpenKODE: an open mobile media development environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Khronos Group has aggressively defined APIs and the supporting technology necessary to create an open, cross-platform, royalty-free development environment called OpenKODE. OpenKODE supports applications targeting mobile media devices. It includes APIs for 3D graphics, scalable vector graphics, video, and audio, as well as an open digital asset schema designed for interactive applications. This course provides an overview of the

Randi Rost; Lars Bishop; Chris Hall; Robert Simpson; Dan Rice; Brian Murray; Mark Barnes; Timo Suoranta

2006-01-01

77

OpenHRP: Open Architecture Humanoid Robotics Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an open architecture hu- manoid robotics platform (OpenHRP for short) on which various building blocks of humanoid robotics can be investigated. OpenHRP is a virtual humanoid robot platform with a compatible humanoid robot, and con- sists of a simulator of humanoid robots and motion control library for them which can also be applied to a compatible humanoid

Hirohisa Hirukawa; Fumio Kanehiro; Shuuji Kajita

2001-01-01

78

A Template for Open Inquiry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the open-inquiry question template . This template was created based on their experience teaching high school scie

Miranda, Rommel J.; Hermann, Ronald S.

2010-11-01

79

Boosting Open CSPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, a new approach called Open CSP (OCSP) was dened as a way of integrate information gathering and problem solving. Instead of collecting all variable values before CSP resolution starts, OCSP asks for values dynamically as required by the solving process, starting from possibly empty domains. This strategy permits to handle unbounded domains keeping completeness. However, current OCSP

Santiago Macho González; Carlos Ansótegui; Pedro Meseguer

2006-01-01

80

Open focus attention training.  

PubMed

This article describes the role of attention training and brainwave synchrony training in the resolution of stress- and pain-related symptoms. It describes the origin of Open Focus attention training as it was distilled from observations of space-generated brain wave activity. It provides a map of the various attentional styles and associated EEG activity. PMID:23538084

Fehmi, Lester G; Shor, Susan B

2013-03-01

81

Videoconferencing in Open Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses the use of videoconferencing as a tool to enhance collaboration amongst online learners in an open learning context. We present quantitative data from a longitudinal study of naturalistic videoconferencing interactions held via the FM videoconference tool, indicating its global use. The case study presented is analysed…

Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Quick, Kevin A.; Scott, Peter J.

2008-01-01

82

Topological Open Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study topological open membranes of BF type in a manifest BV formalism. Our main interest is the effect of the bulk deformations on the algebra of boundary operators. This forms a homotopy Lie algebra, which can be understood in terms of a closed string field theory. The simplest models are associated to quasi-Lie bialgebras and are of Chern-Simons type.

Christiaan Hofman; Jae-Suk Park

2002-01-01

83

Linked open piracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an abundance of semi-structured reports on events being written and made available on the World Wide Web on a daily basis. These reports are primarily meant for human use. A recent movement is the addition of RDF metadata to make automatic processing by computers easier. A fine example of this movement is the Open Government Data initiative which,

Willem Robert van Hage; Véronique Malaisé; Marieke van Erp; Guus Schreiber

2011-01-01

84

Van: An Open Letter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

Tieman, John Samuel

2011-01-01

85

Chimney Open Issues  

SciTech Connect

In the process of developing a design for the design report, many side questions or comments arose which were not completely answered or investigated because the work was outside the scope of developing a base design. I have pored over my meeting notes and tried to list all such chimney 'open issues' in this engineering note.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

86

Open access and beyond  

PubMed Central

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.

Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

2006-01-01

87

Open Source in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

2008-01-01

88

Open Source Software Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article examines and reviews what is known so far about free/open source software development (FOSSD). FOSSD is not the same as software engineering as that is portrayed in common textbooks. Instead, it is a complementary approach to address the many...

W. Scacchi

2011-01-01

89

Open Access and beyond.  

PubMed

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

2006-09-06

90

Project Open Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Project Open Future offers a summer residential program and Saturday classes during the school year to about 200 disadvantaged junior high school students selected from the East Los Angeles, Compton, and Watts areas. Instruction is given in reading, written and verbal expression, mathematics, science, and social studies. Computer training and a…

Hammond, Bert D.

1968-01-01

91

The Open Storage Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions…

Orcutt, Kimberly

2011-01-01

92

The Open Storage Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

Orcutt, Kimberly

2011-01-01

93

Open quantum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damping of the harmonic oscillator is studied in the framework of the\\u000aLindblad theory for open quantum systems. A generalization of the fundamental\\u000aconstraints on quantum mechanical diffusion coefficients which appear in the\\u000amaster equation for the damped quantum oscillator is presented; the\\u000aSchr\\\\\\

A. Isar; A. Sandulescu; H. Scutaru; E. Stefanescu; W. Scheid

2004-01-01

94

Open systems and databases  

SciTech Connect

This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

Martire, G.S. (ECC, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)); Nuttall, D.J.H. (Unified Information, Inc., Kirkland, WA (United States))

1993-05-01

95

Openers for Biology Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering…

Gridley, C. Robert R.

96

Opening AP to All  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

Gewertz, Catherine

2008-01-01

97

Reusable Fast Opening Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic se...

J. P. Van Devender D. Emin

1983-01-01

98

Open Rotor Test Status.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Testing of low noise, counter-rotating open rotor propulsion concepts has been ongoing at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with General Electric Company. The presentation is an overview of the testing that has been completed to date and previews the...

D. E. VanZante

2010-01-01

99

Free open source software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers open source software for the fields of civil and environmental engineering. Their mission statement is "to provide an online web directory for civil & environmental engineering." Nicely organized, the site is a valuable asset for anyone interested in this subject area.

2008-10-15

100

Open Architecture Humanoid Robotics Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an open architecture hu- manoid robotics platform (OpenHRP for short) on which various building blocks of humanoid robotics can be investigated. OpenHRP is a virtual humanoid robot platform with a compatible humanoid robot, and con- sists of a simulator of humanoid robots and motion control library for them which can also be applied to a compatible humanoid

Funiio KANEHIRO; Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Shuuji Kajita; Kazuhito Yokoi; Kenji Kaneko; Hirohisa Hirukawa; Yoshihiko Nakamura; Katsu Yamane

2002-01-01

101

Forecasting of open system behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two dynamic models of the forecasted behaviour of an open thermodynamic system under given expected variations in the open system behaviour have been obtained. The two dynamic models have been presented as two machines. Each machine is made up of a closed system, which is obtained from the open one by isolation, and an environment. The first machine is driven

S. Z. Stefanov

1997-01-01

102

Many Meanings of Open Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term Open Source is widely applied to describe some software development methodologies. This paper does not provide a judgment on the open source approach, but exposes the fact that simply stating that a project is open source does not provide a preci...

C. Gacek T. Lawrie B. Arief

2002-01-01

103

Magnetically insulated opening switch research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the feasibility of an opening switch concept based on magnetic insulation in a coaxial thermionic diode. It is found that the impedance ratio between closed and open states of the diode is marginal for efficient energy transfer via this type of switch. The open, or insulated state of the diode is characterized by current leakage across the magnetic

M. W. McGeoch; R. Kraft

1987-01-01

104

Open Education: A Learning Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The term "open education" has been in use at least since the 1920s, when it emerged as an educational experiment in the Soviet Union. But since the spread of the internet in the late 20th century, open education has come to be inextricably associated with information technology. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Open Educational Resources…

Grush, Mary

2010-01-01

105

Guest Editorial: Open Educational Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE term “open educational resources” (OER) was first proposed at UNESCO’s 2002 Forum on the Impact of Open Courseware for Higher Education in Developing Countries. Open educational resources are learning content or tools that are offered free of charge under a copyright license granting permissions for users to engage in the “4R” activities: reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute. In essence,

Erik Duval; David Wiley

2010-01-01

106

Open accelerating structures  

SciTech Connect

An ''Open'' Accelerating Structure must first perform the mode matching function of any accelerating structure, i.e., it must couple an incoming free field to an accelerating mode. The simplest open periodic structure that can be considered is a grating. There has been an attempt to employ an inverse Purcell effect by illuminating a grating from directly above with plane parallel light and passing the particles over the surface of the grating at right angles to the lines. Unfortunately, it has been shown by the Lawson theorem that these geometries fail to accelerate relativistic particles. This paper will restate Lawson's theorem but show that it applies only to the simple two-dimensional situation. It is shown that accelerating fields above grating can be made to fall off exponentially from that surface. Several structures are examined that deal with the problem of fields spreading over the whole grating surface.

Palmer, R.B.

1986-12-01

107

Naval open systems architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

2013-05-01

108

Open scientific communication urged  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

Richman, Barbara T.

109

Open Society Justice Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With offices in Abuja, Budapest, and New York, the Open Society Justice Institute "performs law reform activities grounded in the protection of human rights, and contributes to the development of legal capacity for open societies worldwide." To that end, the Institute offers a wide range of helpful resources on its website, including access to its in-house journal, _Justice Initiatives_, information about its advocacy efforts around the globe, and an events calendar. The "Books & Monographs" area provides a host of helpful research and primary source materials, such as a handbook for monitoring election campaign finance and a section dedicated to combating discrimination in Russia. Those persons looking for information about the Institute's work in a specific part of the world will want to look through the geographically organized material in the "Regions" area.

110

Open Architecture Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Architecture Network site starts things off with a bold and passionate statement: "Le Corbusier had it all wrong". It's definitely a good way to get visitors" attention upon entering the site. The Network is an online, open source community which seeks to improve living conditions through innovative and sustainable design. On the site, visitors can share their design ideas and plans, review and comment on posted designs, and also collaborate with each other. Visitors will no doubt get exited about the "Projects" section, which is both intellectually stimulating and well-designed. Visitors can search the projects by status, region, location, or theme, or they can also perform a keyword search as well. There are some wonderful finds here, including a childcare school in Sri Lanka, a day laborer shelter, and a "Doc-in-a-Box", which is meant to serve as a mobile health care center.

111

Open beauty production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review measurements of open beauty production at HERA, with emphasis on recent results based on lifetime signatures. The beauty cross sections in photoproduction and deep-inelastic scattering are found to be higher than expected in QCD at next-to-leading order. The discussion includes new results on beauty production in e+e-, gammagamma and bar p p interactions. An outlook on the potential

Felix Sefkow

2002-01-01

112

The open brow lift.  

PubMed

The open brow lift procedure is discussed in terms of relevant surgical anatomy, preoperative evaluation, and detailed surgical technique for pretrichial coronal forehead lift with hair-bearing temporal lift, direct incisional brow lift, and coronal brow lift. Complications are discussed, and information is presented on patient evaluation and expectations, with a discussion of what patients can expect before and after brow lift surgery. PMID:23186761

Walrath, Joseph D; McCord, Clinton D

2012-08-26

113

Open Door Website: Measurements  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource, part of the Open Door website, provides basic information on the role of measurement in experimentation. It explores methods for measuring very small distances, graphing experimental results, "best-fit" line, and explores the role of uncertainty in measurement. For the teacher who expects students to do experimental or quasi-experimental lab work, this resource provides support in graphing results, writing an experimental report, and how uncertainty in measurement affects the final results.

Door, Knock O.

2005-12-14

114

Laparoscopic Versus Open Appendectomy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Data: The value of laparoscopy in appendicitis is not established. Studies suffer from multiple limitations. Our aim is to compare the safety and benefits of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in a prospective randomized double blind study. Methods: Two hundred forty-seven patients were analyzed following either laparoscopic or open appendectomy. A standardized wound dressing was applied blinding both patients and independent data collectors. Surgical technique was standardized among 4 surgeons. The main outcome measures were postoperative complications. Secondary outcome measures included evaluation of pain and activity scores at base line preoperatively and on every postoperative day, as well as resumption of diet and length of stay. Activity scores and quality of life were assessed on short-term follow-up. Results: There was no mortality. The overall complication rate was similar in both groups (18.5% versus 17% in the laparoscopic and open groups respectively), but some early complications in the laparoscopic group required a reoperation. Operating time was significantly longer in the laparoscopic group (80 minutes versus 60 minutes; P = 0.000) while there was no difference in the pain scores and medications, resumption of diet, length of stay, or activity scores. At 2 weeks, there was no difference in the activity or pain scores, but physical health and general scores on the short-form 36 (SF36) quality of life assessment forms were significantly better in the laparoscopic group. Appendectomy for acute or complicated (perforated and gangrenous) appendicitis had similar complication rates, regardless of the technique (P = 0.181). Conclusions: Unlike other minimally invasive procedures, laparoscopic appendectomy did not offer a significant advantage over open appendectomy in all studied parameters except quality of life scores at 2 weeks. It also took longer to perform. The choice of the procedure should be based on surgeon or patient preference.

Katkhouda, Namir; Mason, Rodney J.; Towfigh, Shirin; Gevorgyan, Anna; Essani, Rahila

2005-01-01

115

Open-Source GIS  

SciTech Connect

The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL; Burk, Thomas E [University of Minnesota; Lime, Steve [Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

2012-01-01

116

Moving Open Access to Open Source: Transitioning an Open-Access Journal into the Open Journal Systems Journal Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1994 to 2008, the University of Idaho Library published the Electronic Green Journal, a peer-reviewed, cross-disciplinary, open-access journal on environmental issues. In 2007 the editorial board decided to transition the journal into the Open Journal Systems open-source journal-management system. The new system had to be customized, back issues had to be imported, and the editorial board had to be

Ben Hunter

2010-01-01

117

Open Scholarship and Research Universities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compare the cost per article for publication in commercial journals, not-profit journals, and open-access journals. For universities that support open-archives and open-access journal management software as part of standard university infrastructure, the financial cost of hosting an additional journal is quite low. Scholars who commit to editing and promoting a journal need to focus primarily on the intellectual tasks with

Malcolm Getz; Nashville TN

2005-01-01

118

The institutionalization of Open Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using concepts of neoinstitutional economics, such as transaction cost economics, institutional economics, property rights\\u000a theory, and information economics, the development of the Open Source movement is investigated. Following the evolution of\\u000a institutions in Open Source, it is discussed what the comparative institutional advantages of this model are. The conclusion\\u000a is that it is the institutional framework of Open Source, not

Robert A. Gehring

2006-01-01

119

Mineral Information Office opens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines opened their Mineral Information Office June 21 in Washington, D.C. The new office joins the Survey's recently renovated Earth Science Information Center in the Department of Interior building.The Mineral Information Office offers computer and video disc access to the geologic, geophysical, hydrologic, and cartographic information of both agencies, including the 127,000 items in the Survey's library and current statistics compiled by the Bureau of Mines on worldwide mineral production and use of more than 100 commodities. The staff has mineral experts to help customers.

120

Supersymmetric open Wilson lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we study Open Wilson Lines (OWL's) in the context of two Supersymmetric Yang Mills theories. First we consider four dimensional N=2 Supersymmetric Yang Mills Theory with hypermultiplets transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, and find supersymmetric OWL's only in the superconformal versions of these theories. We then consider four dimensional N=4 SYM coupled to a three dimensional defect hypermultiplet. Here there is a semi-circular supersymmetric OWL, which is related to the ray by a conformal transformation. We perform a perturbative calculation of the operators in both theories, and discuss using localization to compute them non-perturbatively.

Baker, Edward B.

2011-03-01

121

Open Directory Project: Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Directory Project is a volunteer-edited directory of the Web. This section of the site enables the user to browse the Directory's Science pages. The links are organized alphabetically by type (academic departments, chat rooms and forums, educational resources, news and media, and so forth) and by topic (agriculture, astronomy, biology, chemistry, computer science, Earth sciences, and so forth). From this page users can also search either the entire Directory, the Science section, or a topical subsection of Science. The page also offers browsing of similarly organized Science links in a choice of 74 languages, including Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Hebrew, Hindi, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.

2001-02-17

122

Reusable fast opening switch  

DOEpatents

A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

1983-12-21

123

[Open letter to Nestle].  

PubMed

Nestle, a multinational Swiss-based firm, has practically the monopoly for the sale and distribution of infant powdered milk in most African subsaharan countries. In an open letter to the head executive of the firm the journal Famille et Developpement is asking the firm to print on all the labels of powdered milk cans a notice to the effect of the superiority of maternal milk and breast-feeding over artificial milk and bottle-feeding. Such a notice is already printed on all cans distributed in Algeria. PMID:12261306

1979-01-01

124

A multilanguage platform for Open Source Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline that involves collecting information from open sources and analyzing it to produce usable intelligence. The revolution in information technology is making open sources more accessible, ubiquitous, and valuable, making open intelligence at less cost than ever before. The explosion in OSINT is transforming the intelligence world with the emergence of open

N. Baldini; F. Neri; M. Pettoni; STATO MAGGIORE DIFESA

2007-01-01

125

Introduction: The Open Education Movement. Prespectives on Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that we cannot transplant'' the open classroom from its English culture base and expect it to work in our society. Suggests that we be wary of cheap'' innovations and that open classrooms should be viewed as an alternative to our formal programs rather than as a panacea for all our ecucational problems. Recommends the evolution of a small…

Manolakes, Theodore

1972-01-01

126

Open Source and Open Access Resources for Quantum Physics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum mechanics is both a topic of great importance to modern science, engineering, and technology, and a topic with many inherent barriers to learning and understanding. Computational resources are vital tools for developing deep conceptual understanding of quantum systems for students new to the subject. This article outlines two projects that are taking an open source\\/open access approach to create

Mario Belloni; Wolfgang Christian; Bruce Mason

2009-01-01

127

[Opening medicine containers].  

PubMed

In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients. PMID:2142351

Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

1990-07-01

128

Open universe from inflation  

SciTech Connect

We present a natural scenario for obtaining an open universe ({Omega}{sub 0}{lt}1) through inflation. In this scenario, there are two epochs of inflationary expansion---an epoch of ``old inflation,`` during which the inflaton field is stuck in a false vacuum, followed by an epoch of ``new inflation,`` during which the inflation field slowly rolls toward its true minimum. During the first epoch, inflation solves the smoothness and horizon problems. Then an open universe (with negative spatial curvature) is created by the nucleation of a single bubble. In effect {Omega} is instantaneously ``reset`` to zero. During the subsequent ``new`` inflation {Omega} rises toward unity. The value of {Omega} today is calculable in terms of the parameters of the potential, and we show that obtaining values significantly different from zero or unity (though within the range 0{lt}{Omega}{lt}1) does not require significant fine-tuning. We compute the spectrum of density perturbations by evolving the Bunch-Davies vacuum modes across the bubble wall into its interior.

Bucher, M. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)]|[School of Natural Science, Institute for Advanced Study, Olden Lane, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Goldhaber, A.S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3840 (United States); Turok, N. [Physics Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

1995-09-15

129

Open rotor tone scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for calculating the scattering of open rotor tones by an adjacent surface such as the aircraft fuselage or wing. This is of practical importance because shielding by these structures could be used to significantly reduce community noise levels. In the first part of this paper the propeller is modelled as a rotating point source and the effect of propeller translation is neglected. The scattering of sound from this rotating point source by either a rigid circular cylinder or a rigid half-plane is calculated and the reflection/shielding effect is clearly demonstrated. In the second part of this paper, the point source/stationary medium model is extended to include the effect of distributed sources and a moving medium. The extended model is then applied to calculate the effect of scattering of rotor-alone tones by a wing (which is modelled as an infinite half-plane). The effect of wing sweep and the application of the Kutta-condition at the trailing edge is investigated. An approximate method for quickly calculating open rotor tone scattering is also developed and validated.

Kingan, M. J.; Self, R. H.

2012-04-01

130

Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

Krishnamurthy, M.

2008-01-01

131

Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Home OPEN: What is the OPEN Study? Why assess measurement error? How did OPEN assess measurement error? What is the current status of

132

Peace Corps Tales from Open Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: An Introduction to Open Space; Open Space at the Peace Corps; Classic Open Space: One to Three Days; Abidjan and Beyond: Health and Water and Sanitation Workshop; Magic in Madang: Asia-Pacific Administrative Officers and Cashiers Confere...

B. Devlin-Foltz

1998-01-01

133

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

134

Community Open Source Strategic Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Strategic Plan describes the goals and objectives of the Community Open Source Program for the next seven years. It builds on the half-century-plus heritage of Open Source Information providers and users in the Intelligence Community. The Plan project...

1995-01-01

135

The Open Source Acid Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1970s, AT&T openly licensed the source code for its fledgling Unix operating system to universities and government research labs. This move got Bill Joy and Sun Microsystems started and resulted in several other famous open source product developments such as sendmail and BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain). Over the next two decades, Unix took root and became

Ted G. Lewis

1999-01-01

136

Magnetically Insulated Opening Switch Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We examine the feasibility of an opening switch concept based on magnetic insulation in a coaxial thermionic diode. It is found that the impedance ratio between 'closed' and 'open' states of the diode is marginal for efficient energy transfer via this typ...

M. W. McGeoch R. Kraft

1987-01-01

137

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

PubMed Central

Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain, Chris

2007-01-01

138

Game Models for Open Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open system is a system whose behavior is jointly determined by its internal structure and by the input it receives from the environment. To solve control and verification problem open systems have often been modeled as games between the System and the...

L. de Alfaro

2006-01-01

139

Managing Copyright in Open Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for an electronic copyright management system (ECMS) that protects intellectual property rights (IPR) in open network environments continues to grow. Network security issues are classically handled through cryptography; however, cryptography ensures confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity only when a message is transmitted through a public channel, such as an open network. It does not protect against unauthorized copying after

Alessandro Piva; Franco Bartolini; Mauro Barni

2002-01-01

140

What Are Open Universities for?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a framework within which the question as to the purposes of open universities should be examined. It argues that the question has become submerged over time through the establishment of so many open universities that have become natural elements in a higher education landscape rather than remaining radical and innovative…

Tait, Alan

2008-01-01

141

MIT OpenCourseware: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MIT Open Courseware provides free and open resources from a broad range of classes. This Physics collection contains material from physics classes ranging from introductory physics to advanced graduate courses. The content available from each course varies, but often includes a syllabus, calendar, lecture notes, assignments, and laboratories.

2007-11-09

142

Diversity in open social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities have become become a crucial ingredient of e-business. Supporting open social networks builds strong brands and provides lasting value to the consumer. One function of the community is to recommend new products and services. Open social networks tend to be resilient, adaptive, and broad, but simplistic recommender systems can be 'gamed' by members seeking to promote certain products

Daniel Lemire; Stephen Downes; Sébastien Paquet

2008-01-01

143

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

144

OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE AND LIBRARIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

OPEN SOURCE AND ITS DEMOCRATIC PROMISE? Faced with the increased commodifi cation of information resources and ser- vices and the encroaching dominant logics of business\\/corporate culture, today's libraries are in search of innovative technological solutions to protect the free fl ow of ideas. In response to this situation, a growing segment of the library profession is promoting open source software

Ajit Pyati

2008-01-01

145

Open string fields as matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the matter part of the algebra of open string fields using the 3-string vertex over the sliver state, which we call ``comma vertex.'' We show that the matter part of open string fields can be written as matrices. This talk is based on [1]. .

Kazumi Okuyama

2002-01-01

146

Open Source Software in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of today's most innovative products and solutions are developed on the basis of free and open source software (FOSS). Most of us can no longer imagine the world of software engineering without open source operating systems, databases, application servers, Web servers, frameworks, and tools. Brands such as Linux, MySQL, Apache, and Eclipse have shaped product and service development. They

Christof Ebert

2008-01-01

147

Infiniband scalability in Open MPI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiniband is becoming an important interconnect technology in high performance computing. Recent ef- forts in large scale Infiniband deployments are raising scalability questions in the HPC community. Open MPI, a new open source implementation of the MPI standard targeted for production computing, provides several mechanisms to enhance Infiniband scalability. Initial comparisons with MVAPICH, the most widely used Infiniband MPI implementation,

Galen M. Shipman; Timothy S. Woodall; Richard L. Graham; Arthur B. Maccabe; Patrick G. Bridges

2006-01-01

148

Opening up optical fibres.  

PubMed

A unique optical fibre design is presented in this work: a laterally accessible microstructured optical fibre, in which one of the cladding holes is open to the surrounding environment and the waveguide core exposed over long lengths of fibre. Such a fibre offers the opportunity of real-time chemical sensing and biosensing not previously possible with conventional microstructured optical fibres, as well as the ability to functionalize the core of the fibre without interference from the cladding. The fabrication of such a fibre using PMMA is presented, as well as experimental results demonstrating the use of the fibre as a evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy pH sensor using the indicator Bromothymol Blue. PMID:19547546

Cox, Felicity M; Lwin, Richard; Large, Maryanne C J; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

2007-09-17

149

The Open Science Grid  

SciTech Connect

The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

2007-06-01

150

From open source to open content: Organization, licensing and decision processes in open cultural production  

Microsoft Academic Search

article i nfo Available online 4 March 2009 The organization of talent in online communities has been pivotal for the development of open source software. We are currently witnessing a related phenomenon that is at least of equal importance: the 'open- sourcing' of digital content through a dramatic increase in user-generated content and the development of appropriate licenses for users

Giorgos Cheliotis

2009-01-01

151

OpenStudio: An Open Source Integrated Analysis Platform; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

High-performance buildings require an integrated design approach for all systems to work together optimally; systems integration needs to be incorporated in the earliest stages of design for efforts to be cost and energy-use effective. Building designers need a full-featured software framework to support rigorous, multidisciplinary building simulation. An open source framework - the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) - is being developed to address this need. In this paper, we discuss the needs that drive OpenStudio's system architecture and goals, provide a development status report (the SDK is currently in alpha release), and present a brief case study that illustrates its utility and flexibility.

Guglielmetti, R.; Macumber, D.; Long, N.

2011-12-01

152

First Monday: Open Access Publishing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The peer-reviewed Internet journal, First Monday (discussed in the August 23, 1996 Scout Report), presents a dreary picture for open access publishing and research. The author of this article, Joseph J. Esposito, comments on The Unexpected Future of Open Access Publishing. Esposito is skeptical of the idea that the age of the Internet and online publishing will bring access to the world's research publications free for everyone, "by shifting the costs to other places in the value chain and disintermediating publishers." Instead, he argues that Open Access will come about at the cost of authors and their proxies. The author details his argument regarding these unanticipated outcomes in this article.

153

The Usability of Open Source Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source communities have successfully developed a great deal of software although most computer users only use proprietary applications. The usability of open source software is often regarded as one reason for this limited distribution. In this paper we review the existing evidence of the usability of open source software and discuss how the characteristics of open source development influence

David M. Nichols; Michael Twidale

2003-01-01

154

Open Source: Everyone Becomes a Printer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "open source": a method of distributing software in which programmers make available to all the actual text of their programs. Notes that this makes possible "open-source" writing in the same way that the printing press made possible "open-source" reading, enabling mass literacy. Examines implications of open source for how people…

Bruce, Bertram

2000-01-01

155

Public Demand for Preserving Local Open Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased development results in the loss of forest, farm, range, and other open space lands that contribute to the quality of life of U.S. residents. I describe an economic rationale for growing public support for preserving local open space, based the growing scarcity of open space lands. I test the rationale empirically by correlating the prevalence of open space referenda

Jeffrey D. Kline

2006-01-01

156

Open Forum: The Future of Library Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderated by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University, discussion at this open forum on the future of library systems touched on open-source library systems, cloud computing, new initiatives by the Open Library Environment (OLE) Project and OCLC, and desired characteristics of future integrated library systems. Most participants had limited experience with next-generation library systems and attended the open forum

Maria Collins; Andrée J. Rathemacher

2010-01-01

157

Five Open Plan High Schools. A Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assist administrators in determining what they may need for their own districts, examples are offered of five high schools that operate open curriculums in open spaces. Photographs and floor plans illustrate each school's design, and the text relates the history of the educational program and community response to the open curriculum and open

Educational Facilities Labs., Inc., New York, NY.

158

Continuous Integration in Open Source Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial software firms are increasingly using and contributing to open source software. Thus, they need to understand and work with open source software development processes. This paper investigates whether the practice of continuous integration of agile software development methods has had an impact on open source software projects. Using fine-granular data from more than 5000 active open source software projects

Amit Deshpande; Dirk Riehle

2008-01-01

159

Research into open access science publishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some issues and controversies surrounding arguments for research into open access. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper begins with a brief investigation of some background on library, research into open access, questions and then considers three major public definitions of open access, types of open access journals currently available,

Joseph Welfare Irivwieri

2009-01-01

160

Health Education by Open Broadcast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radi...

1976-01-01

161

Against the Odds Exhibition Opens  

MedlinePLUS

... the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Md. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson NIH Director Dr. Elias ... addresses visitors to the opening of the exhibition. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson Brothers Niko and Theo ...

162

Atlantis Exhibit Sets Opening Date  

NASA Video Gallery

The museum exhibition for space shuttle Atlantis will open June 29 at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Florida. The retired Atlantis, which flew the final shuttle mission in 2011, will be the centerpiece.

KSC Web Team

2013-03-08

163

Open Systems Approach to Supportability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The open systems approach is both a technical approach to weapons systems engineering and a preferred business strategy that is becoming widely applied by manufacturers of large complex systems. Today, legacy systems continue to be developed with their ow...

A. G. Larson C. K. Banning J. F. Leonard

2002-01-01

164

NASA Open Rotor Noise Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. H...

E. Envia

2010-01-01

165

OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid  

SciTech Connect

Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

McParland, Charles

2011-02-01

166

Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system ?, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit quasi-regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well-known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe for the first time a zero measure set of control parameter values ? in (0, 1) for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky, leading to a different power law exponent for the Poincaré recurrence time distribution statistics. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited due to MUPOs and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function P(t)\\sim {C}/t are calculated for mushrooms with triangular and rectangular stems. Numerical simulations are also performed which confirm our predictions for both sticky and less sticky mushrooms.

Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

2011-05-01

167

OPEN SERVICES FOR HYDROENGINEERING TASKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open services for hydroengineering tasks provide a practical environment for collaborative engineering via the internet. Cross-platform software development in Java implements a 4-tier client-server concept of data storage, search mechanisms based on standard meta data, software tools for analysis and simulation, and multi media components for presentation. Open services combine the management of thematic maps and time dependent information at

RAINER LEHFELDT; FRANK SELLERHOFF

2001-01-01

168

Is the open organisations profile a valid and reliable measure of openness in organisations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is primarily about the Open Organisations Profile, a questionnaire developed in the United States by Professor Oscar Mink (1991) to assess openness in the workplace and thus assist in decisions on organisational change and development. The Open Organisations Profile was developed as an assessment tool of the Open Organisations theoretical model. The Open Organisations Model offers researchers a

Lee Stubbs

2007-01-01

169

New development about open separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New developments about open separation are discussed. Three-dimensional separation in general can be identified by the convergence (or running-together) of the limiting streamlines in spite that this procedure does not answer all deeper questions. An open separation is shown to start from a regular point in the middle of the surface flow field, this idea is in direct contradiction to the conventional notion of separation and has been a stumbling block for many to accept the open separation concept. The streamline vs. envelope debate remains unsettled even though there are researchers who changed their preference from the envelope to the streamline version. Criticism of open separation is replied in details. Tobak and Peake reversed their previous stand and came to a position essentially the same as ours except in terminology. Cebeci, Khattab and Stewartson objected to our open separation idea on a superficial ground even though this very idea has been supported by all related experiments and calculations. In contract CKS' suggested alternative is a mere speculation with no evidence. Finally the open vs. closed separation concept can be carried over by analogy to unsteady cases.

Wang, K. C.

1982-07-01

170

Open bibliography for science, technology, and medicine.  

PubMed

The concept of Open Bibliography in science, technology and medicine (STM) is introduced as a combination of Open Source tools, Open specifications and Open bibliographic data. An Openly searchable and navigable network of bibliographic information and associated knowledge representations, a Bibliographic Knowledge Network, across all branches of Science, Technology and Medicine, has been designed and initiated. For this large scale endeavour, the engagement and cooperation of the multiple stakeholders in STM publishing - authors, librarians, publishers and administrators - is sought. PMID:21999661

Jones, Richard; Macgillivray, Mark; Murray-Rust, Peter; Pitman, Jim; Sefton, Peter; O'Steen, Ben; Waites, William

2011-10-14

171

Concepts for Effective Facilitation of Open Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a lack of literature on open groups, groups with open and changing membership certainly take place in practice. Some practices with open-ended and single-session groups, detailed in the literature, have relevance for open groups. Four concepts that can help workers address the unpredictable dynamics and diverse membership characteristic of open groups are planning and preparation, worker self-awareness, worker flexibility,

Hope Turner

2011-01-01

172

Broadband Internet: Net Neutrality versus Open Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Network neutrality” and “open access” are two policies designed to preserve openness on the Internet. Open access mandates openness of conduits (e.g. television cable and DSL) to service providers (e.g. America Online), while network neutrality mandates openness to advanced content (streaming video, interactive e-commerce, etc.). We develop a systems model with free entry and competition in all three industry segments

Christiaan Hogendorn

2006-01-01

173

Broadband Internet: net neutrality versus open access  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Network neutrality” and “open access” are two policies designed to preserve openness on the Internet. Open access mandates\\u000a openness of conduits (e.g. television cable and DSL) to intermediaries (e.g. America Online), while network neutrality mandates\\u000a openness to advanced content (streaming video, interactive e-commerce, etc.). We develop a systems model with free entry and\\u000a competition in all three industry segments (conduits,

Christiaan Hogendorn

2007-01-01

174

The OpenMRS Implementers Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: OpenMRS (www.openmrs.org) is a configurable open source electronic medical record application developed and maintained by a large network of open source develop- ers coordinated by the Regenstrief Institute and Partners in Health and mainly used for HIV patient and treatment information management in Africa. Our objective is to develop an open Implementers Network for OpenMRS to provide regional support

Christopher J. Seebregts; Burke W. Mamlin; Paul G. Biondich; Hamish S. F. Fraser; Benjamin A. Wolfe; Darius Jazayeri; Christian Allen; Justin Miranda; Elaine Baker; Nicholas Musinguzi; Daniel Kayiwa; Carl Fourie; Neal Lesh; Andrew Kanter; Constantin T. Yiannoutsos; Christopher Bailey

2009-01-01

175

Uganda opens new fronts.  

PubMed

AIDS and HIV figures released in June 1990 by Uganda's AIDS Control Programme (ACP) prompted the revamping of the country's national AIDS initiative, the passage of legislation designed to stamp out sexual exploitation of minors and a reluctant pledge by President Yoweri Museveni to advocate condom use. Uganda has a massive AIDS prevention campaign estimated to reach 80% of the population, but AIDS cases are doubling every 6 months according to Health Minister Zack Kaheru. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been linked as a co-factor in HIV transmission, therefore treatment of STDs will be linked to the anti-AIDS campaign in free clinics for the treatment of STDs operating in Kampala and Jinja and in new ones planned for Mbale, Mbarara and Fort Portal. The Uganda Aids Commission was created in an effort to strengthen the ACP by insuring that all government departments address AIDS prevention. New laws designed to curb the spread of the disease by sexual contact raised the age of consent for sexual intercourse from 14 to 18 years of age, made prostitution and homosexuality illegal and redefined incest to include extended family members. President Museveni urged Ugandans to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV infection. Because condoms are not 100% reliable, and because their use is not a popular option among rural people due to cultural and religious beliefs, President Museveni and ACP Director Dr. Warren Namara agree that the ultimate weapon against AIDS is educating people to rethink their sexual attitudes and actions. Hopeful signs include more openness about AIDS and more seeking of information about AIDS among the people. PMID:12283896

Tebere, R

1991-03-01

176

An Exploratory Study into Open Source Platform Adoption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on open source software has focused mainly on the motivations of open source programmers and the organization of open source projects (17) (19). Some researchers portray open source as an extension of the earlier open systems movement (36). While there has been some research on open-systems software adoption by corporate MIS organizations (4) the issue of open source adoption

Jason L. Dedrick; Joel West

2004-01-01

177

The VLT Opening Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive. The text below summarizes the individual projects. Comprehensive texts with all photos and diagrammes are available in nine separate web documents ( ESO PR Photos 08/99 to 16/99 ) that may be accessed via the links at the top of each section. The degree of detail and level of complexity of the texts depend on the subject and the available materials. 1. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group ESO PR Photo 10a/99 ESO PR Photo 10a/99 The Antlia Galaxy (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photos 10a-d/99 In addition to large spiral galaxies like the Milky Way Galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy and Messier 33, the Local Group of Galaxies contains many dwarf galaxies. The VLT has observed two of these, Antlia and NGC 6822 . Antlia is a low-surface brightness, spheroidal dwarf galaxy that was only discovered in 1997. While it contains a large amount of atomic hydrogen at its centre, no young stars are found, and it appears that most of its stars are old. This is unlike other dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way neighbourhood, as star formation is expected to occur within dense hydrogen clouds. Further observations will be necessary to understand this unusual characteristics. The VLT also obtained images of an irregular dwarf galaxy in the Local Group, NGC 6822, as well as spectra of some of its stars. This galaxy is of the "irregular" type and is situated at a distance of about 2 million light-years. A comparison of the spectra of supergiant stars in NGC 6822 shows that many spectral lines are much weaker than in stars of similar type in the Milky Way, but of similar strength as in stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This confirms an earlier finding that NGC 6822 has chemical composition (a lower "metallicity") that is different from what is observed in our Galaxy. 2. The Double Stellar Cluster NGC 1850 in the LMC ESO PR Photo 15/99 ESO PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 is a double cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy t

1999-02-01

178

Open Access Publishing in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

2012-08-01

179

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic vesicles dock to the plasma membrane at synapses to facilitate rapid exocytosis. Docking was originally proposed to require the soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins; however, perturbation studies suggested that docking was independent of the SNARE proteins. We now find that the SNARE protein syntaxin is required for docking of all vesicles at synapses in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The active zone protein UNC-13, which interacts with syntaxin, is also required for docking in the active zone. The docking defects in unc-13 mutants can be fully rescued by overexpressing a constitutively open form of syntaxin, but not by wild-type syntaxin. These experiments support a model for docking in which UNC-13 converts syntaxin from the closed to the open state, and open syntaxin acts directly in docking vesicles to the plasma membrane. These data provide a molecular basis for synaptic vesicle docking.

Olsen, Shawn; Jorgensen, Erik M

2007-01-01

180

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Sullivan, Kevin; Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.

2009-02-09

181

Open rotor broadband interaction noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model is presented for calculating the broadband noise produced by the interaction of an open rotor with the wake from either an upstream contra-rotating rotor or a stationary pylon. The model is used to investigate the dependence of the radiated noise on parameters such as pylon–rotor gap and the polar and azimuthal directivity of the noise field. A simple model is also presented which assumes that the unsteady loading on adjacent blades is uncorrelated. It is shown that the simple model can be used to calculate broadband interaction noise for most practical open rotor geometries.

Kingan, Michael J.

2013-08-01

182

Opening a closed Hamiltonian map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closed Hamiltonian map is opened by introducing an interaction with the outside of the system. The resulting open Hamiltonian system possesses an exit with escaping orbits through it. For such a system equipped with two or three exits, the exit basin structure of the escaping orbits is observed to have a fractal boundary and a boundary shared by the three basins, i.e., a Wada basin boundary. In the small size limit of the exits, a complete fractalization of the phase space, where the predictability of the future state is almost lost, is also observed.

Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Horita, Takehiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

2003-03-01

183

Flow through openings in width constrictions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A highway embankment across a stream channel may have one or several bridge openings. In 1953, the pattern of flow through a single opening was quantitatively described by C. E. Kindsvater, R. W. Carter, and H. J. Tracy. The present investigation of the flow pattern at constrictions with two to seven openings is a continuation of the earlier study. Laboratory experiments and the analysis were directed toward the development of methods for (a) computing discharge through multiple-opening constrictions, (b) apportioning a given total discharge among the several openings, and (c) predicting the backwater caused by the constriction. The division of flow among the openings was related to the relative area of each opening, and the relative velocity in the channel immediately upstream from each opening. On the basis of this relationship, the boundaries of the flow channel approaching each opening were established. The head-discharge and backwater characteristics of each opening were then analyzed separately. It is shown that the relations developed for the constriction with a single opening are applicable to each opening of a multiple-opening constriction once the boundaries of the separate flow channels have been established.

Davidian, Jacob; Carrigan, P. H., Jr.; Shen, John

1962-01-01

184

Open Access & Open Lives: The Changing Role of Academic Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing impact of the Internet on library and information services cannot be understated. As with print journalism, the capacity and culture of networked life has transformed every aspect of the library profession, from technical to public services. In the past decade, the open culture and evolving technology of the Internet have created a set of user expectations that have

Isaac Gilman; Lynda Irons

2011-01-01

185

Open Source Intelligence 'OSINT': Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Open source information (OSINT) is derived from newspapers, journals, radio and television, and the Internet. Intelligence analysts have long used such information to supplement classified data, but systematically collecting open source information has no...

A. Cumming R. Best

2008-01-01

186

Business Case Study of Open Source Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper was prepared as part of The MITRE Corporation's FY00 Mission-Oriented Investigation and Experimentation (MOIE) research project 'Open Source Software in Military Systems.' The paper analyzes the business case of open source software. It is inte...

C. A. Kenwood

2001-01-01

187

43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.2-2 Opening. (a) The segregative effect of a Notice of Realty...

2012-10-01

188

Open access transmission tariff, (Bonneville Power Administration).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines the open access transmission tariff for the Bonneville Power Administration. The contents of the document include common service provisions, definitions, ancillary services, open access same-time information system (OASIS), reciproci...

1998-01-01

189

46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in...

2011-10-01

190

46 CFR 64.31 - Inspection opening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...opening. 64.31 Section 64.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.31 Inspection opening....

2012-10-01

191

46 CFR 64.31 - Inspection opening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...opening. 64.31 Section 64.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.31 Inspection opening....

2011-10-01

192

46 CFR 64.49 - Labeling openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...openings. 64.49 Section 64.49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.49 Labeling openings....

2011-10-01

193

Areawide Open Space Element and Program, Kern County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The plan contains the following information: Inventory of existing open space, objectives, criteria, and standards as to location, type, and use of open space, projection of open space needs and deficiencies location of the proposed open space systems, re...

1972-01-01

194

XORP: an open platform for network research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network researchers face a significant problem when deploying software in routers, either for experimentation or for pilot deployment. Router platforms are generally not open systems, in either the open-source or the open-API sense. In this paper we discuss the problems this poses, and present an eXtensible Open Router Platform (XORP) that we are developing to address these issues. Key goals

Mark Handley; Orion Hodson; Eddie Kohler

2003-01-01

195

Open Skies Treaty imaging radar technology issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the imaging radar technology requirements for the Open Skies regime, including the unresolved issues to be discussed at future Open Skies Consultative Commission (OSCC) meetings. Compliance with international rules on shared technology is addressed and some of the practical considerations for operational deployment of the radar imaging equipment in an Open Skies aircraft are presented. The Open Skies Treaty requirements and validation methodologies for imaging radars that were agreed on and those that will require future OSCC review are discussed.

Sandoval, M. B.

1992-06-01

196

Diffraction of water waves (opening)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation allows the user to investigate the diffraction pattern due to opening in a ripple tank. The user can change the wavelength of the waves, and the slit width. This is a part of the "Learn Physics using Java" library of simulations.

Ng, Chiu-King

2010-04-25

197

Student Failure in Open Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses reasons for failure in open learning, describes areas that can adversely affect student performance, and suggests possible corrective actions. Highlights include validation, or developmental testing, of courseware; the climate for learning; the role of local instructors; consequences of success or failure; course design; learning style…

Whitlock, Quentin

1989-01-01

198

Cognitive science and epistemic openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues that one consequence

MICHAEL L. ANDERSON

2003-01-01

199

Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of MS\\/MS peptide spectra generated in proteomics experiments require efficient, sensitive and specific algorithms for peptide identification. In the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm [OMSSA], specificity is calculated by a classic probability score using an explicit model for matching experimental spectra to sequences. At default thresholds, OMSSA matches more spectra from a standard protein cocktail than a comparable

Lewis Y. Geer; Sanford P. Markey; Jeffrey A. Kowalak; Lukas Wagner; Ming Xu; Dawn M. Maynard; Xiaoyu Yang; Wenyao Shi; Stephen H. Bryant

2004-01-01

200

Modelling open access train services  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC policy is to encourage competition in the rail industry, and directives require governments to facilitate competition for freight and certain passenger services. In Great Britain, such competition was envisaged during privatisation in 1994. Here, most passenger rail services are run by franchised operators but open access passenger services are also permitted subject to certain conditions. In 2002, Hull Trains

Martin Prior; James Vickers; John Segal

2011-01-01

201

Opening up Library Automation Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

Breeding, Marshall

2009-01-01

202

Open File: Education in Asia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns…

Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

2000-01-01

203

An eye-opening experience  

PubMed Central

Many aspects of visual development are known to depend on activity. Two recent reports of rapid rewiring of connections in visual cortex and superior colliculus make clear that eye opening is an important event in the maturation of the visual system.

Gandhi, Sunil P; Cang, Jianhua; Stryker, Michael P

2008-01-01

204

Why Our Open Classrooms Fail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The staff in British Infant Schools creates a special learning environment. British parents have differing expectations of the schools and their own educational role. In creating the open classroom, a modification of the British Infant School, American educators seem to have missed these two crucial points. (SJL)

Henson, Kenneth T.

1979-01-01

205

Open retinotomy after submacular surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To report persistent open retinotomy after submacular surgery in patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis.METHODS: Retrospective review. Five eyes of 5 patients with submacular choroidal neovascularization associated with presumed ocular histoplasmosis had pars plana vitrectomy, detachment of the posterior hyaloid, and surgical removal of the neovascular complex using the small retinotomy technique. All eyes were followed postoperatively for a mean

Blake A Cooper; Matthew A Thomas; Nancy M Holekamp

2000-01-01

206

Opening up Library Automation Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

Breeding, Marshall

2009-01-01

207

CALORIMETRY OF OPEN ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A special case of calorimetry of open electrochemical cells, that employing adiabatic enclosures, is examined. Conditions for an experimental realization of such enclosures is discussed in detail. Practi- cal arrangement and method for data collection are presented. Following the announcement by Fleischmann and Pons(1) that anomalous effects, among them excess heat generation, can be observed when deuterium is electrochemically compressed

S. Szpak; P. A. Mosier

208

The Open Door Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Open Door Web Site is a reference source for both students and teachers containing separate sections for physics, biology, technology, history, electronics, and chemistry. Within each of these sections are tutorials, reference information, experiments, and quizzes. A separate Study Guide section provides help with writing bibliographies, and an Internet Guide links with other websites that may help students with their research.

209

THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET  

EPA Science Inventory

A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

210

Open File: Professionalism in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue focuses on professionalism in teaching. It begins with an article in Viewpoints/Controversies titled "A Renewed Sense for the Purposes of Schooling: The Challenges of Education and Social Cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia" (Stephen P. Heyneman; Sanja Todoric-Bebic). In Open File: Professionalism in…

Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Lo, Leslie N. K., Ed.

2000-01-01

211

Open Entry-Open Exit: A Flexible Approach for Providing Skill Training Needs at AVTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Kansas Balance-of-State, a CETA (Comprehensive Employment and Training Act) prime sponsor explored the possibilities of open entry-open exit in meeting the classroom training needs of clients in area vocational technical schools (AVTS). The change to open entry-open exit was found to involve consideration of flexibility and self-paced,…

Robinson, George A.

212

Doing Medical Journals Differently: Open Medicine, Open Access, and Academic Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

With considerable attention now being paid within scholarly commu- nications to publication models that increase access to research, the launch of the open access journal Open Medicine demonstrates the contribution that open access, in all of its various economic models, can make to scholarly traditions of editorial independence, intellectual integrity, and academic freedom. This paper details the history of Open

John Willinsky; Sally Murray; Claire Kendall; Anita Palepu

2007-01-01

213

The Simple Economics of Open Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a recent surge of interest in open source software development, which involves developers at many different locations and organizations sharing code to develop and refine programs. To an economist, the behavior of individual programmers and commercial companies engaged in open source projects is initially startling. This paper makes a preliminary exploration of the economics of open source

Joshua Lerner; Jean Triole

2000-01-01

214

Automating the Measurement of Open Source Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of open source projects raises a num- ber of vital economic, social, and software engineering questions that are subject of intense research. Based on experience analyzing numerous open source and commer- cial projects we propose a set of tools to support extrac- tion and validation of software project data. Such tools would streamline empirical investigation of open source

Daniel German; Audris Mockus

2003-01-01

215

The Many Meanings of Open Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term Open Source is widely applied to describe some software developmentmethodologies. This paper does not provide a judgment on the open source approach,but exposes the fact that simply stating that a project is open source does not provide aprecise description of the approach used to support the project. By taking a multidisciplinarypoint of view, we propose a collection of

Cristina Gacek; Budi Arief

2004-01-01

216

Open educational resources and lifelong learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of open educational resources (OER) for the success and wide implementation of lifelong learning is investigated. Lifelong learning provision is based on the information technology and e-learning together with the emerging mobile learning technologies. Open source and open standards are the means of ldquoopenrdquo information technology support for learning processes. Basic idea, good examples, successful initiatives and development

Dejan Dinevski

2008-01-01

217

Delivering on the promise of open innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – For all the rhetoric – and hype – about open innovation, the reality is that few corporations have institutionalized open innovation practices in ways that have enabled substantial growth or industry leadership. This paper aims to explain how open innovation can achieve its potential in most companies. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Three cases of companies that practice various types of

Jorge Rufat-Latre; Amy Muller; Dave Jones

2010-01-01

218

Open” minimally invasive surgery in pediatric urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) offers alternative operative approaches to standard open surgical techniques. However, MIS has been defined primarily as substituting laparoendoscopic alternatives for the traditional open surgical approach. The concept of MIS methodology may also be applied to open surgery in an effort to decrease incision size, potentially reduce morbidity and enhance convalescence, without compromising ‘gold standard’ outcomes. Pediatric

Josephine Hidalgo-Tamola; Margarett Shnorhavorian; Martin A. Koyle

2009-01-01

219

Open Interactions: The Balance of Specification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses interactive art within the context of participatory culture, mapping current developments towards more open and creative forms of interactivity labelled 'open interactions'. The size of the elements within an artwork, the 'interactive granularity', is stated as key to the creation of open interactions. The metaphor of conversation is used to explore interactivity and suggest future research\\/practice directions.

Karl D. D. Willis

220

Structures having o-minimal open core  

Microsoft Academic Search

The open core of an expansion of a dense linear order is its reduct, in the sense of definability, generated by the collection of all of its open definable sets. In this paper, expansions of dense linear orders that have o-minimal open core are investigated, with emphasis on expansions of densely ordered groups. The first main result establishes conditions under

Alfred Dolich; Chris Miller; Charles Steinhorn

2009-01-01

221

Teachers' Attitudes in Open and Traditional Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers conducting more open programs and/or teaching in architecturally open schools had significantly more positive attitudes towards education, teaching, pupils, and educational innovation than did teachers conducting less open programs and/or teaching in architecturally closed or partially closed schools. This apparently reflects more…

Khan, Sar B.; Traub, Ross E.

1980-01-01

222

37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11...OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration...Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a...will be announced in open meeting and issued as...it is decided that the publication of the original...

2010-07-01

223

37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11...OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration...Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a...will be announced in open meeting and issued as...it is decided that the publication of the original...

2009-07-01

224

Does Trade Openness Promote Multilateral Environmental Cooperation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article puts forward a number of arguments why trade openness might promote multilateral environmental cooperation. Most of these arguments are grounded in the substantive self-interest of the trading country. It tests the proposition using a range of proxy variables for general trade openness as well as specific export interests. The article examines whether countries open to trade are more

Eric Neumayer

2002-01-01

225

Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

2008-01-01

226

Open Access Initiatives in India - an Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Developing countries have embraced open access with a view to promote visibility of research done in these regions. Open access initiatives described in this paper are based on interviews with information professionals responsible for creation and maintenance,of online research repositories in the country. Open access journals, e-print archives and e- theses repositories are covered with an emphasis on the

Leila Fernandez

227

Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

Spiegel, James S.

2012-01-01

228

Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

Anderson, Terry

2013-01-01

229

Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

Spiegel, James S.

2012-01-01

230

Innovation in Open Source Software Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Source Software Development appears to depart radically from conventional notions of software engineering. In particular, requirements for Open Source projects seem to be asserted rather than elicited. This paper examines two Open Source projects, tracing selected new features from rst mention to release, to discover exactly how new requirements are pro- posed, adopted, and implemented.

John Noll

231

Usability Discussions in Open Source Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public nature of discussion in open source projects provides a valuable resource for understanding the mechanisms of open source software development. In this paper we explore how open source projects address issues of usability. We examine bug reports of several projects to characterise how developers address and resolve issues concerning user interfaces and interaction design. We discuss how bug

Michael B. Twidale; David M. Nichols

232

Exploring Usability Discussions in Open Source Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public nature of discussion in open source projects provides a valuable resource for understanding the mechanisms of open source software development. In this paper we explore how open source projects address issues of usability. We examine bug reports of several projects to characterise how developers address and resolve issues concerning user interfaces and interaction design. We discuss how bug

Michael B. Twidale; David M. Nichols

2005-01-01

233

Laparoscopic Versus Open Colorectal Surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Data: Studies comparing the costs of colorectal resection by laparoscopic (LPS) and open approaches are small sized or not randomized. The main purpose of this study is to compare the hospital costs of LPS and open colorectal surgery in a large series of randomized patients. Methods: A total of 517 patients with colorectal disease were randomly assigned to LPS (n = 258) or open (n = 259) resection. The following costs were calculated: surgical instruments, operative room (OR) occupation, routine care, postoperative morbidity, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Follow-up for postoperative morbidity was carried out for 30 days after hospital discharge. Results: Operative time was 37 minutes longer in the LPS group. Overall morbidity rate was 18.2% (47 of 258) in the LPS versus 34.7% (90 of 259) in the open group (P = 0.0005). The mean LOS was 9.9 (2.6) days in the LPS group and 12.4 (3.9) days in the open group (P < 0.0001). The additional OR charge in the LPS group was €1171 per patient randomized (€864 due to surgical instruments and €307 due to longer time). The saving in the LPS group was €1046 per patient randomized (€401 due to shorter LOS and €645 due to the lower cost of postoperative complications). The net balance resulted in €125 extra cost per patient allocated to the LPS group. Conclusions: The present cost-benefit analysis showed a slight additional cost in the LPS group. The better postoperative short-term outcome in patients receiving LPS had a key role to nearly balance the operative room charges due to laparoscopy.

Braga, Marco; Vignali, Andrea; Zuliani, Walter; Frasson, Matteo; Di Serio, Clelia; Di Carlo, Valerio

2005-01-01

234

The Impact of Openness on Bridging Educational Digital Divides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Openness has been a feature of higher education for many decades, particularly through the establishment of open universities, although there remain debates about what openness means in practice. Digital technologies, some based on open principles, and digital content, aided by open licences, have both contributed recently to an extension of what is deemed possible under the heading of openness. Nevertheless,

2009-01-01

235

The Open Course: Through the Open Door--Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the last decade, as educators have increasingly experimented with social technologies and interactive pedagogies, the concept of a "course" has been significantly challenged. In particular, questions have arisen as to the key value of the course in the educational system. The numerous high-profile open courseware initiatives from elite…

Cormier, Dave; Siemens, George

2010-01-01

236

Open access: changing global science publishing.  

PubMed

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

2013-08-28

237

Open access: changing global science publishing  

PubMed Central

The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability.

Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

2013-01-01

238

Beyond open access: open discourse, the next great equalizer.  

PubMed

The internet is expanding the realm of scientific publishing to include free and open public debate of published papers. Journals are beginning to support web posting of comments on their published articles and independent organizations are providing centralized web sites for posting comments about any published article. The trend promises to give one and all access to read and contribute to cutting edge scientific criticism and debate. PMID:17007632

Dayton, Andrew I

2006-08-30

239

OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics Management system.  

PubMed

The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting orders, performing exam resource scheduling, providing Digital communications in Medicine (DICOM) work list information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third-party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an open database connectivity bridge to a Linux server with Health Level 7 (HL7), DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a browser, whereas other informatics systems communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete, as are key pieces of the Web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12105742

Langer, Steve G

2002-03-21

240

The Seattle Open Housing Campaign  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many cities struggled with the issue of open housing in the 1950s and 1960s, and Seattle was a contested site in the struggle for civil rights. Until 1968, it was legal to discriminate against minorities in Seattle when renting apartments or selling real estate. This fine website created by the Seattle Municipal Archives explores the history of the open housing campaign through a range of primary documents, including photographs, legal documents, and so on. The Table of Contents provides a nice introduction to the subject, along with thematic areas such as Restrictive Covenants and Years of Ferment: 1964-1967. Visitors would do well to start with the Restrictive Covenants section, as it explains the role of these clauses in keeping minorities out of certain neighborhoods.

2012-05-11

241

On noncommutative open string theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate new compactifications of OM theory giving rise to a (3+1)-dimensional open string theory with non-commutative x0-x1 and x2-x3 coordinates. The theory can be directly obtained by starting with a D3-brane with parallel (near critical) electric and magnetic field components, in the presence of a RR scalar field. The magnetic parameter permits to interpolate continuously between the x0-x1 non-commutative open string theory and the x2-x3 spatial non-commutative U(N) super Yang-Mills theory. We discuss SL(2,Bbb Z) transformations of this theory. Using the supergravity description of the large-N limit, we also compute corrections to the quark-antiquark Coulomb potential arising in the NCOS theory.

Russo, Jorge G.; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.

2000-07-01

242

Open Studio: The Arts Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Open Studio: The Arts Online, an extensive network of technology training resources, provides artists and nonprofit arts organizations with Web-based tools and models to enhance online publication, communication, and creative expression. Recently relaunched by the Benton Foundation and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA), the Open Studio Website features a directory of connections to regional training and public access sites nationwide. In addition, the Website includes a Toolkit, Digital Canvas, and moderated discussion lists. The Toolkit offers a collection of online training curricula, tutorials, and materials. Digital Canvas is a new electronic magazine devoted to communication technology and the arts. And in the Join the Discussion section, several public fora permit participants to share "lessons learned and best practices" related to the use of the Internet in an artistic, educational environment. Note: users must establish a free user ID and password to participate in the discussions.

1999-01-01

243

Cognitive science and epistemic openness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings in cognitive science suggest that the epistemic subject is more complex and epistemically porous than is generally\\u000a pictured. Human knowers are open to the world via multiple channels, each operating for particular purposes and according\\u000a to its own logic. These findings need to be understood and addressed by the philosophical community. The current essay argues\\u000a that one consequence

Michael L. Anderson

2006-01-01

244

The Open Artery: Electrophysiologic Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prompt opening of the infarct-related artery reduces mortality and subsequent morbid events. Not all benefit of timely thrombolysis or angioplasty appears to be accounted for by myocardial preservation. A favorable modification of the electrophysiologic postinfarction milieu by a patent infarct-related artery has been proposed to help explain this improved outcome. This review investigates the support for such a hypothesis. Long-term

Connor J. Haugh; Munther K. Homoud; Caroline B. Foote; Paul J. Wang; N. A. Mark Estes III

1997-01-01

245

Consistency of open superstring theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infinities and the anomalies in the G!=SO(32) open superstring arise from the same limit of the one-loop Riemann surfaces. The dilaton tadpole infinity is removable by an appropriate choice of background, as in the work of Fischler and Susskind. However, we find that the anomalies arise from the tadpole of an unphysical field, and cannot be removed by any

Joseph Polchinski; Yunhai Cai

1988-01-01

246

NCI Shady Grove Now Open  

Cancer.gov

NCI’s new location, NCI Shady Grove, is open at 9609 Medical Center Drive in Rockville, MD. While NCI's clinical program remains on the NIH campus in Bethesda, NCI Shady Grove will accommodate approximately 2,450 administrative and program staff who previously occupied Executive Plaza and Helgerman Court buildings in Rockville. Offices at NCI started moving into the new building in December 2012 and the move will be completed within six months.

247

Open Access and Bakhtinian Dialogism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores Open Access in the context of recent contributions in communication and public relations theory, notably Bakhtinian dialogism. Increasingly since the 1960s communication and public relations theory have shifted their focus away from one-way, asymmetrical to two-way, symmetrical models, thereby progressing to more equitable and interactive, multi-level conceptual models of dialogic and polyphonic communication (1). It is in

Robert W. Vaagan

2006-01-01

248

Towards printable open air microfluidics.  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated a novel microfluidic technique for aqueous media, which uses super-hydrophobic materials to create microfluidic channels that are open to the atmosphere. We have demonstrated the ability to perform traditional electrokinetic operations such as ionic separations and electrophoresis using these devices. The rate of evaporation was studied and found to increase with decreasing channel size, which places a limitation on the minimum size of channel that could be used for such a device.

Collord, Andrew; Cook, Adam W.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Fenton, Kyle Ross (University of New Mexico); Apblett, Christopher Alan; Branson, Eric D.

2010-04-01

249

Ambient Intelligence and Open Innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although originally developed by Philips as a novel paradigm for consumer electronics, the vision of ambient intelligence\\u000a should not be regarded as a Philips controlled concept. Major efforts enrolled by the European Commission have led to the\\u000a support of the vision by many industrial and academic partners in an open context, thus allowing Europe to regain a major\\u000a competitive position

Emile Aarts

250

Invitation to OpenCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advancement in GPU technology has attracted researchers who need intensive computing to the GPU-based computing (GPGPU) field because of its high and inexpensive performance. However, GPGPU programming platforms are traditionally vendor- or hardware-specific, which complicate the access to the computer power of heterogeneous processors from a single host. The recently released OpenCL is expected to become a standard

Pablo Lamilla Alvarez; Shinichi Yamagiwa

2011-01-01

251

Opening Angles of Collapsar Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ? j ~ 1/5?0 and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?0, is a few for existing observations of ? j . The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ? j, max ~ 1/5 ~ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

2013-11-01

252

A Principled Method for Exploiting Opening Books  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past we used a great deal of computational power and human expertise for storing a rather big dataset of good 9x9 Go games, in order to build an opening book. We improved the algorithm used for generating and storing these games considerably. However, the results were not very robust, as (i) opening books are definitely not transitive, making the non-regression testing extremely difficult, (ii) different time settings lead to opposite conclusions, because a good opening for a game with 10s per move on a single core is quite different from a good opening for a game with 30s per move on a 32-cores machine, and (iii) some very bad moves sometimes still occur. In this paper, we formalize the optimization of an opening book as a matrix game, compute the Nash equilibrium, and conclude that a naturally randomized opening book provides optimal performance (in the sense of Nash equilibria). Moreover, our research showed that from a finite set of opening books, we can choose a distribution on these opening books so that the resultant randomly constructed opening book has a significantly better performance than each of the deterministic opening books.

Gaudel, Romaric; Hoock, Jean-Baptiste; Pérez, Julien; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier

253

Inventory of open dumps, June 1985  

SciTech Connect

RCRA provides for publication of an inventory of open dumps. The Act defines open dumps as facilities which do not comply with EPA's Criteria for Classification of SW Disposal Facilities and Practices (40 CFR 257). To aid the States in satisfying the requirement that the solid waste management plan shall provide for the closing or upgrading of all existing open dumps within the State, EPA has funded State efforts to identify open dumps so that they can plan to provide for their closure or upgrading. In furtherance of this planning effort, the Act requires that EPA publish an inventory of open dumps. Publication of the inventory will serve to inform the Congress and the public of those facilities which the states have found to be open dumps.

Not Available

1985-06-01

254

Open Collaboration within Corporations Using Software Forges  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes our experiences using open source software development practices at SAP. SAP is a major software developer and leader in business applications. We've found that open source practices can complement traditional top-down software development with bottom-up collective intelligence. Software forges offer a mechanism for advancing the adoption of open source best practices within corporations. We illustrate our experiences

Dirk Riehle; John Ellenberger; Tamir Menahem; Boris Mikhailovski; Yuri Natchetoi; Barak Naveh; Thomas Odenwald

2009-01-01

255

Business Models Based on Open Innovation Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global economy is experiencing a transition from industrial, product-centered to innovation, service-centered. This paper provides business model which originated from the integration of views of firm development theory, and then we get a business model based on open innovation paradigm. Open business model is an analysis concerns both value appropriation and value creation. Open-source is a special strategy in knowledge

Yuanzhi Chen

2011-01-01

256

Emergency management of open fractures and luxations.  

PubMed

This article discusses the emergency management of open fractures and traumatic joint luxations. The emergency management of open fractures can be challenging. The proper initial evaluation and treatment of open fractures can have a positive impact on their successful outcome. The clinical signs and diagnosis of traumatic joint luxations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of these injuries in the emergency situation. PMID:10853280

Popovitch, C A; Nannos, A J

2000-05-01

257

Free for All: Open Source Software  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

Schneider, Karen

2008-01-01

258

OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics management system.  

PubMed

The benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system (PACS/RIS) archive built with open source tools and methods are 2-fold. Open source permits an inexpensive development model where interfaces can be updated as needed, and the code is peer reviewed by many eyes (analogous to the scientific model). Integration of PACS/RIS functionality reduces the risk of inconsistent data by reducing interfaces among databases that contain largely redundant information. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools--reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting HL7 orders, performing examination and resource scheduling, providing digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) worklist information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an ODBC bridge to a Linux server with HL7, DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a web browser, whereas automated informatics services communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete as well as key pieces of the web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12297975

Langer, Steve

2002-09-26

259

Open string decoupling and tachyon condensation.  

SciTech Connect

The amplitudes in perturbative open string theory are examined as functions of the tachyon condensate parameter. The boundary state formalism demonstrates the decoupling of the open string modes at the non-perturbative minima of the tachyon potential via a degeneration of open world-sheets and identifies an independence of the coupling constants g{sub s} and g{sub YM} at general values of the tachyon condensate. The closed sector is generated at the quantum level; it is also generated at the classical level through the condensation of the propagating open string modes on the D-brane degrees of freedom.

Chalmers, G.; High Energy Physics

2001-06-01

260

Openability of soft drinks PET packagings.  

PubMed

Studies on packaging accessibility are still incipient in Brazil. Many of these packagings can represent a challenge to users, whether due to non-informative labels, tricky tabs or seals, or even those that need strength to open. This paper brings a simple test to determine the necessary torque force to open PET bottles, and to predict the amount of users that could not open it. The findings suggest that a considerable amount of users could not open it or would have some difficulties to exert the necessary force. PMID:22316905

Silva, Danilo Corrêa; Paschoarelli, Luis Carlos; da Silva, José Carlos Plácido

2012-01-01

261

The OpenMP Memory Model  

SciTech Connect

The memory model of OpenMP has been widely misunderstood since the first OpenMP specification was published in 1997 (Fortran 1.0). The proposed OpenMP specification (version 2.5) includes a memory model section to address this issue. This section unifies and clarifies the text about the use of memory in all previous specifications, and relates the model to well-known memory consistency semantics. In this paper, we discuss the memory model and show its implications for future distributed shared memory implementations of OpenMP.

Hoeflinger, J P; de Supinski, B R

2005-06-01

262

Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially. PMID:22683805

Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend

2012-06-07

263

Laser acceleration with open waveguides  

SciTech Connect

A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

Xie, Ming

1999-03-01

264

Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, L-circumflex-circumflex(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of L-circumflex-circumflex(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.

Walls, Jamie D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida 33124 (United States)

2010-03-15

265

Gamma Astronomy: open theoretical problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent observations of high energy photons (E??0.1GeV) have produced results of extraordinary interest. In this contribution some of these results are reviewed, and the main open problems associated with these observations are discussed. Two main themes are present: the first is the investigation of the existence of photons associated with the annihilation (or decay) of dark matter particles, the second is the production of photons associated with the acceleration of charged particles (p, nuclei and e±) to relativistic energies in different astrophysical sources, and their subsequent propagation.

Lipari, Paolo

2013-06-01

266

Open-chamber combustion study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The test program was undertaken to research trade-offs between engine design and operational parameters on open-chamber, premixed spark-ignited gas engines, with a primary focus on combustion effects. This included combustion chamber designs which are conceptually diametrically opposed -- a high squish design typical of diesel engines and a virtually quiescent design. The reader should note that these data are somewhat abstract compared to conventional engines, because the Labeco test engine has exceptionally high friction and the lean-burn data were run unboosted.

Meyers, D. P.; Meyer, R. C.

1994-04-01

267

Open and hybrid microstrip antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to the features and performance of the open microstrip antenna (OMA), which has four magnetic walls at the periphery, and the hybrid microstrip antenna (HMA), whose magnetic and electric walls share the same structure. Cavity models are used to treat both designs. While the equivalence theorem can be used, the surface must be carefully chosen in order to yield good approximations of the local electric field. Experimental and theoretical results are found to be in good agreement, especially in the case of the HMA with one electric wall. This HMA is shorter than the OMA, although both have the same frequency for a given mode.

Penard, E.; Daniel, J. P.

1984-02-01

268

Macroeconomics in an open economy.  

PubMed

The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

Cooper, R N

1986-09-12

269

Analysis of Activity in the Open Source Software Development Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open Source Software is computer software for which the source code is publicly open for inspection, modifica- tion, and redistribution. While research of a few, large, successful projects have provided insights into the nature and practices of the open source software community; it still leaves open the question about the thousands of other open source projects which are neither large

Scott Christley; Greg Madey

2007-01-01

270

The FIPA-OS agent platform: Open Source for Open Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

FIPA-OS (FIPA Open Source) is an open agent platform originating from Nortel Networks. The platform supports communication between multiple agents using an agent communication language which conforms to the FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents) agent standards. A key focus of the platform is that it supports openness. This is naturally supported by the agent paradigm itself and by the

Stefan Poslad; Phil Buckle; Rob Hadingham

2000-01-01

271

Open Burn/Open Detonation Dispersion Model (OBODM) User's Guide. Volume I. User's Instructions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Open Burn/Open Detonation Dispersion Model (OBODM) is intended for use in evaluating the potential air quality impacts of the open-air burning and detonation (OB/OD) of obsolete munitions and solid propellants. OBODM uses loud/plume rise, dispersion, ...

J. R. Bjorklund J. F. Bowers G. C. Dodd J. M. White

1998-01-01

272

Measured Opening Characteristics of an Electromagnetically Opened Diaphragm for the Langley Expansion Tunnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from an experimental study of the opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened, 15.24 cm diameter diaphragm are presented. This diaphragm consists of a polyester film bonded to a preformed wire and is opened by passing a current pulse ...

J. A. Moore

1976-01-01

273

Beyond Open Source: According to Jim Hirsch, Open Technology, Not Open Source, Is the Wave of the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent for technology at Piano Independent School District in Piano, Texas. Hirsch serves as a liaison for the open technologies committee of the Consortium for School Networking. In this interview, he shares his opinion on the significance of open source in K-12.

Villano, Matt

2006-01-01

274

Open architecture CMM motion controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although initially the only Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) sensor available was a touch trigger probe, technological advances in sensors and computing have greatly increased the variety of available inspection sensors. Non-contact laser digitizers and analog scanning touch probes require very well tuned CMM motion control, as well as an extensible, open architecture interface. This paper describes the implementation of a retrofit CMM motion controller designed for open architecture interface to a variety of sensors. The controller is based on an Intel Pentium microcomputer and a Servo To Go motion interface electronics card. Motor amplifiers, safety, and additional interface electronics are housed in a separate enclosure. Host Signal Processing (HSP) is used for the motion control algorithm. Compared to the usual host plus DSP architecture, single CPU HSP simplifies integration with the various sensors, and implementation of software geometric error compensation. Motion control tuning is accomplished using a remote computer via 100BaseTX Ethernet. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is used to enter geometric error compensation data, and to optimize the motion control tuning parameters. It is shown that this architecture achieves the required real time motion control response, yet is much easier to extend to additional sensors.

Chang, David; Spence, Allan D.; Bigg, Steve; Heslip, Joe; Peterson, John

2001-12-01

275

Java based open architecture controller  

SciTech Connect

At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

Weinert, G F

2000-01-13

276

46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in Watertight Bulkheads § 171.112 Watertight door openings. (a) The opening for a watertight...

2012-10-01

277

46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in Watertight Bulkheads § 171.112 Watertight door openings. (a) The opening for a watertight...

2011-10-01

278

78 FR 64287 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement Open Season AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of open season for enrollment in the VISA program...Administration (MARAD) announces that the open season for Fiscal Year 2014 applications...

2013-10-28

279

47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section 76...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute...

2009-10-01

280

47 CFR 76.1513 - Open video dispute resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open video dispute resolution. 76.1513 Section 76...CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1513 Open video dispute...

2010-10-01

281

50 CFR 660.312 - Open access fishery-prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-prohibitions. 660.312 Section...WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.312 Open access fisheryâprohibitions. General...

2010-10-01

282

75 FR 6063 - Availability of NRC Open Government Web Site  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NRC-2010-0003] Availability of NRC Open Government Web Site AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Notice of Availability of Open Government Web site for Online Public Comments...Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Open Government Web site...

2010-02-05

283

Xspect: bridging open hypermedia and XLink  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the XLink format in comparison with other linking formats. The comparison is based on Xspect, an implementation of XLink. Xspect handles transformation between an open hypermedia format (OHIF) and XLink, and the paper discusses this isomorphic transformation and generalises it to include another open hypermedia format, FOHM. The Xspect system, based on XSLT and Javascript, provides users

Bent Guldbjerg Christensen; Frank Allan Hansen; Niels Olof Bouvin

2003-01-01

284

Light activated solid-state opening switches  

SciTech Connect

Light-activated solid-state opening switches are shown to be a viable approach for switching inductive circuits. Measured photoswitch performance indicates that light-activated opening switches have the power density ratings needed to develop compact inductive power systems.

Petr, R.A.; Kachen, G.I.; Reilly, J.P.; Schaefer, R.B. (W.J. Schafer Associates, Chelmsford, MA (United States)); Heyse, M.W. (Wright Labs., Eglin AFB, FL (United States))

1993-01-01

285

The open source movement: Key research questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the incentives of individual programmers and of commercial companies to participate in open source projects. While these incentives are in our opinion well accounted for by the economic paradigm, much empirical and theoretical work is still needed to answer the many interesting questions suggested by the open source movement.

Josh Lerner; Jean Tirole

2001-01-01

286

The Transformation of Open Source Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

A frequent characterization of open source software is the somewhat outdated, mythical one of a collective of supremely talented software hackers freely volunteering their services to produce uniformly high-quality software. I contend that the open source software phenomenon has metamorphosed into a more mainstream and commercially viable form, which I label as OSS 2.0. I illustrate this transformation using a

Brian Fitzgerald

2006-01-01

287

Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

2011-12-01

288

7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

289

Stormy Days on an Open Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Openness is not necessarily good for the poor. Reducing trade protection has not brought growth to today's poorest countries, and open capital markets have not been good for the poorest households in emerging market economies. In this paper I present evidence on these two points. First, countries highly dependent on primary exports two decades ago, despite their substantial engagement in

Nancy Birdsall

2006-01-01

290

Towards Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper, presented on behalf of the Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) Working Party is extracted from a report available online (http://cern.ch/oa/Scoap3WPReport.pdf). It introduces the Open Access concept and presents the strategy plus timeline proposed by the Consortium in the field of particle physics.

Plaszczynski, Stéphane

291

A proposal of an open PET geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an ‘open PET’ geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 opened gap between

Taiga Yamaya; Taku Inaniwa; Shinichi Minohara; Eiji Yoshida; Naoko Inadama; Fumihiko Nishikido; Kengo Shibuya; Chih Fung Lam; Hideo Murayama

2008-01-01

292

Launched electrons in plasma opening switches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma opening switches have provided a means to improve the characteristics of super-power pulse generators. Recent advances involving plasma control with fast and slow magnetic fields have made these switches more versatile, allowing for improved switch uniformity, triggering, and opening current levels that are set by the level of auxiliary fields. Such switches necessarily involve breaks in the translational symmetry

C. W. Mendel Jr.; G. E. Rochau; M. A. Sweeney; D. H. McDaniel; J. P. Quintenz; M. E. Savage; E. L. Lindman; J. M. Kindel

1989-01-01

293

Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

McDonald, Sandra

2003-01-01

294

Opening Statements and Speeches. Plenary Session. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Official opening statements, organizational reports, and papers on libraries in a technological world, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) welcoming addresses by Franz Georg Kaltwasser and Mathilde Berghofer-Weichner; (2) opening speeches by Else Granheim (IFLA…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

295

Should You Adopt Open Source Software?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organizations use open source infrastructure software such as Linux, and open source software (OSS) is generally considered a viable technology. Both professional and academic literature devote much attention to the OSS phenomenon. However, decision makers considering the adoption of OSS face a plethora of books, research papers, and articles highlighting OSS's advantages and disadvantages. Different articles attach different levels

Kris Ven; Jan Verelst; Herwig Mannaert

2008-01-01

296

The minimal incision for open thyroidectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Thyroid surgery is subjective to certain variables; these include dimensions of the patient’s neck, the size of the gland and the extent of the resection. There is little consensus as to the optimal length of incision for open thyroid surgery. In the advent of emerging endoscopic thyriodectomy techniques, our institution examined the minimal dimensions of open thyroidectomy incisions, which

Ian S. Miller; Mark Rafferty; Joseph Hughes; Conrad A. Timon

2004-01-01

297

Open University Environmental Education and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the approach to environmental education courses at Open University. Includes broad course content, team teaching approach, and philosophy of reorienting education towards sustainable development. Course material for open learning includes self-contained study packs as well as course texts, video, audio, and computer software. Nonformal…

Blackmore, Christine

1996-01-01

298

CONNECTICUT MUNICIPAL AND PRIVATE OPEN SPACE  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property owned by Connecticut municipalities and private organizations for the purpose of preserving open space. It is a polygon Shapefile that primarily includes land conservation trust property, town open space, parks, school playgrounds, ...

299

Open Access and Global Participation in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations into the impact of open access journals on subsequent citations confounded open and electronic access and failed to track availability over time. With new data, we separated these effects. We demonstrate that article and journal citations increase more when a journal comes online freely rather than commercially and that free access journals are cited more by scientists in poorer

James A. Evans; Jacob Reimer

2009-01-01

300

Open-Area Test Site (OATS) Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open-area test site (OATS) calibration is discussed in this tutorial. The calibration is performed according to the CISPR and ANSI\\/IEEE standards. First, theoretical calculations of the normalized-site-attenuation (NSA) procedure are presented. Then, normalized-site-attenuation measurements of a newly established open-area test site are given. Finally, calibration is done through comparisons.

S. Eser; L. Sevgi

2010-01-01

301

Assessing the Reliability of open Source Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source information on the Internet can contribute significantly to such assessments as competitive intelligence, business trends, or evolving social attitudes. However, because the accuracy of this open source information varies widely, the correctness of the information needs to be assessed before it can be used reliably. Current methods for estimating correctness rely on the subjective opinions of knowledgeable people

David F. Noble

302

An Open Source Platform for Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are hundreds of open source projects from simple email software to WWW servers and full operating system. This paper focuses on setting up an online platform for educators by free open sourced educational systems including wiki, blog, bulletin board, content\\/course management system (XOOPS and Moodle), and MOO (MUD, object oriented). The author has experimented and selected these free and

Cheng-chao Su

2005-01-01

303

Open Access Data Takes Center Stage  

Cancer.gov

Posted on February 08, 2012 NCI’s Cancer Bulletin highlight a recent conversation with Drs. Henry Rodriguez and Christopher Kinsinger of OCCPR focusing on Open Data Access in Proteomics. Click here to link to the article. Print This Page Open Access

304

Business models for open access journals publishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to summarise the information about open access publishing models and to analyse the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a review of the academic literature, to conduct a comprehensive SWOT analysis and adopt the multiple case study approach to analyse the open access publishing model. Findings – Useful

Chen Chi Chang

2006-01-01

305

Contextualizing normative open multi-agent systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open MASs can be extremely dynamic due to heterogeneous agents that migrate among them to obtain resources or services not found locally. In order to prevent malicious actions and to ensure agent trust, open MAS should be enhanced with normative mechanisms. However, it is not reasonable to expect that foreign agents know in advance all the norms of the MAS

Carolina Howard Felicíssimo; Caroline Chopinaud; Jean-pierre Briot; Amal El Fallah-seghrouchni; Carlos José Pereira De Lucena

2008-01-01

306

Using Open Space Technology for School Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a theory referred to as Open Space Technology (OST), which holds that the most productive learning in conference settings takes place in the open space between formally scheduled conference sessions. Argues that OST can be applied to staff development days and other educational development programs. (Contains 10 references.) (NB)|

Cox, David

2002-01-01

307

Project Management In Open Source Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Open source software (OSS) development has been a thankful subject for research and study for several years now. Due to the open nature of OSS, many sources of information are available. An OSS project is a typical example of distributed software development, because the various developers within an OSS project are likely to be in geographically dispersed places. Many projects

Guido van Stormbroek

308

Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Colleges and universities and commercial firms have demonstrated great progress in realizing the vision proffered for "Open Source 2007," and 2010 will mark even greater progress. Although much work remains in refining open source for higher education applications, the signals are now clear: the collaborative development of software can provide…

Wheeler, Brad

2007-01-01

309

Openness to Experience and stress regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the association between Openness to Experience and stress regulation (i.e., stress exposure, reactivity, recovery, and restoration). Seventy-three young adults underwent a laboratory stressor, and physiological and affective reactivity and recovery were examined. Openness was positively associated with reports of greater stress exposure during childhood, but was unrelated to the number of stressors in the past year.

Paula G. Williams; Holly K. Rau; Matthew R. Cribbet; Heather E. Gunn

2009-01-01

310

Meromorphic open-string vertex algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A notion of meromorphic open-string vertex algebra is introduced. A meromorphic open-string vertex algebra is an open-string vertex algebra in the sense of Kong and the author satisfying additional rationality (or meromorphicity) conditions for vertex operators. The vertex operator map for a meromorphic open-string vertex algebra satisfies rationality and associativity but in general does not satisfy the Jacobi identity, commutativity, the commutator formula, the skew-symmetry or even the associator formula. Given a vector space h, we construct a meromorphic open-string vertex algebra structure on the tensor algebra of the negative part of the affinization of h such that the vertex algebra structure on the symmetric algebra of the negative part of the Heisenberg algebra associated to h is a quotient of this meromorphic open-string vertex algebra. We also introduce the notion of left module for a meromorphic open-string vertex algebra and construct left modules for the meromorphic open-string vertex algebra above.

Huang, Yi-Zhi

2013-05-01

311

Open Access, Education Research, and Discovery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background/Context: The open access movement has successfully drawn attention to economic and political aspects of scholarly communication through a significant body of commentary that debates the merits of open access and the potential damage it may do to scholarly publishing. Researchers within the field of education research, notably John…

Furlough, Michael

2010-01-01

312

Open access initiatives adoption by Nigerian academics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine Nigerian academics' adoption of open access initiatives as authors and readers of scholarly resources. The study was necessitated by the growing need to have the number of Nigerian scholarly publications increased on the internet and accessible to scholars around the world through the use of open access initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Samuel C. Avemaria Utulu; Omolara Bolarinwa

2009-01-01

313

Developing an Open Access Class for Authors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In early 2004, the Ehrman Medical Library, New York University School of Medicine, decided to offer formal instruction to its authors within the medical school on Open Access publishing. The Library's approach was to engage faculty in a dialogue on the nature of scholarly communication, and to offer Open Access as an alternative model to traditional publishing. Components of the

William L. Spivey; Paul Wrynn

2005-01-01

314

Predicting Student Withdrawals in Open Learning Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analysis of data from four courses shows that (1) female open learning students complete their courses more often than male counterparts, (2) open learning students who register at certain campuses complete their courses more often than students who register at others, and (3) students who complete and return assigned questionnaires are more…

Giltrow, David R.; Duby, Paul B.

315

Multivoltage aware resistive open fault modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistive open fault (ROF) represents common manufacturing defects causing extra delays and reliability risks in affected circuits. ROF behavior is sensitive to the supply voltage and the resistance of open (RO). Modeling this fault behavior and detectability with the supply voltage helps in distinguishing between faults as well as testing of multi-voltage designs. While previous ROF models did not explicitly

Mohamed Tagelsir Mohammadat; Noohul Basheer Zain Ali; Fawnizu Azmadi Hussin

2012-01-01

316

Opening the black boxes of global finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advocates the application to global finance of one of the central heuristics of science studies: open the black box. Black boxes are devices, practices, or organizations that are opaque to outsiders, often because their contents are regarded as ‘technical’. The goal of opening black boxes is to discover how they are kept opaque; how they structure their ‘contexts’;

Donald MacKenzie

2005-01-01

317

Open Rotor: New Option for Jet Engines  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Dale Van Zante describes how the open rotor propulsion system will be tested in a wind tunnel at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Open rotor aircraft engines use high-speed propellers and are considered more fuel efficient than today's turbofan jet engines.

Christopher O

2010-07-22

318

Dynamic Stability of Open-Loop Hopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

the open-loop hopper considered in this study, the system under- goes changes in its equations of motion due not only to physical events (coming into and out of contact with the ground) but also due to time-based events (activation and deactivation of the open- loop forcing function). In the following sections, we review previ- ous work and present the vertical

Jorge G. Cham; Mark R. Cutkosky

2007-01-01

319

The Management of Open Value Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study we strive to develop a framework for the management of open value creation adoption. We conducted eighteen in-depth interviews with IS (information systems) executives and consultants responsible for open value creation projects. We combine the results of our software-supported qualitative analysis with insights from a broad range of existing related literature to develop a concise framework. The

Daniel Schlagwein; Detlef Schoder

2011-01-01

320

Previous Open Rotor Research in the US.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industr...

D. VanZante

2011-01-01

321

Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

Zuccala, Alesia

2010-01-01

322

Usability processes in open source projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore how open source projects address issues of usability. We describe the mechanisms, techniques and technology used by open source communities to design and refine the interfaces to their programs. In particular we consider how these developers cope with their distributed community, lack of domain expertise, limited resources and separation from their users. We also discuss

David M. Nichols; Michael B. Twidale

2006-01-01

323

Mini-open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

The potential advantages of a mini-open transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) operation are reduced blood loss, shorter length of stay, and less soft-tissue trauma compared to the standard open technique. Prior reports from our group and others have demonstrated successful outcomes using MIS techniques in lumbar fusion surgery. In this 3D video, we demonstrate the key steps of the mini-open technique for a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using an expandable tubular retractor and contralateral percutaneous screw fixation for the treatment of a multiple recurrent disc herniation. The video demonstrates patient positioning, surgical opening with development of the Wiltse plane, placement of the tubular retractor, pedicle screw placement through both a percutaneous technique and a mini-open technique, decompression of the neural elements, graft insertion, and wound closure. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/LYRU9lbBdNg. PMID:23829850

Amin, Beejal Y; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Mummaneni, Praveen V

2013-07-01

324

[Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].  

PubMed

Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context. PMID:18789227

Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

325

The HYPE Open Source Community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model (Lindström et al., 2010). It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. In Sweden, the model is used by water authorities to fulfil the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. It is used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded for free from three different HYPE applications: Europe (www.smhi.se/e-hype), Baltic Sea basin (www.smhi.se/balt-hype), and Sweden (vattenweb.smhi.se) The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modelling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code will be delivered frequently. The main objective of the HYPE OSC is to provide public access to a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model and to encourage hydrologic expertise from different parts of the world to contribute to model improvement. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modelling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. The HYPE Open Source Community was initiated in November 2011 by a kick-off and workshop with 50 eager participants from twelve different countries. In beginning of 2013 we will release a new version of the code featuring new and better modularization, corresponding to hydrological processes which will make the code easier to understand and further develop. During 2013 we also plan a new workshop and HYPE course for everyone interested in the community. Lindström, G., Pers, C.P., Rosberg, R., Strömqvist, J., Arheimer, B. 2010. Development and test of the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model - A water quality model for different spatial scales. Hydrology Research 41.3-4:295-319

Strömbäck, Lena; Arheimer, Berit; Pers, Charlotta; Isberg, Kristina

2013-04-01

326

Open inflation in the landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of ?0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-?0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of ?0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning the structure of the string theory potentials and the duration of the last stage of inflation.

Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

2011-08-01

327

10 CFR 1045.6 - Openness Advisory Panel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program...and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.6 Openness Advisory...openness initiatives, including classification and declassification...

2013-01-01

328

An Open Hybrid Plasma Solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a hybrid plasma solver (particle ions, fluid mass-less electrons). The software is built on the public available FLASH software, developed at the University of Chicago [1], that provide adaptive grids and is fully parallelized. FLASH is a general parallel solver for compressible flow problems. It is written in Fortran 90, well structured into modules, has good support, and is open source. The parallelization is done using a block-structured adaptive cartesian grid with the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) library as the underlying communication layer. The hybrid solver in FLASH uses cell centered finite differences [2] and conserves energy well [3]. Recently we have added to the hybrid solver the capability of handling vacuum regions, non-uniform resistivity, external fields, and hyperresistivity. We also present an application of the solver to the interaction between the Moon and the solar wind [4], as illustrated in Fig. 1.

Holmström, M.; Nilsson, H.

2012-09-01

329

Digital Circuits Open Source Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This open source book on WikiBooks will serve as an introduction to Digital Circuits. This book relies heavily on the concepts of Discrete Math, but will not require any previous knowledge of the subject because all necessary math concepts will be developed in the text. This book does assume a knowledge of basic electrical principles such as current, voltage, and resistance, so the reader may want to brush up on their Circuit Theory. The strength of digital technology in any context is fast, easy duplication with no loss of fidelity. In many media, this serves mainly to streamline distribution. While that aspect cannot be completely overlooked, some artistic endeavors, such as animation, are centered on a process of repeated duplication with systematic changes, so that digital tools often become a central part of the creative process.

2011-01-17

330

Bandgap Opening by Patterning Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to its remarkable electronic and transport properties, graphene has great potential of replacing silicon for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics; but its zero bandgap associated with Dirac fermions prevents such applications. Among numerous attempts to create semiconducting graphene, periodic patterning using defects, passivation, doping, nanoscale perforation, etc., is particularly promising and has been realized experimentally. However, despite extensive theoretical investigations, the precise role of periodic modulations on electronic structures of graphene remains elusive. Here we employ both the tight-binding modeling and first-principles electronic structure calculations to show that the appearance of bandgap in patterned graphene has a geometric symmetry origin. Thus the analytic rule of gap-opening by patterning graphene is derived, which indicates that if a modified graphene is a semiconductor, its two corresponding carbon nanotubes, whose chiral vectors equal graphene's supercell lattice vectors, are both semimetals.

Dvorak, Marc; Oswald, William; Wu, Zhigang

2013-07-01

331

Open cycle latent heat engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an open cycle latent heat engine. It comprises: an elevator passageway having an entrance at a lower level and an exit at a higher level having a substantially higher elevation than the lower level; means for inputting warm water vapor into the lower level of the elevator passageway to produce a wet adiabatic expansion of moist air rising in the passageway; a condensate remover in the region of the exit from the elevator, the condensate remover being arranged for removing water condensed from the vapor at the higher elevation of the exit: compressor passageway descending from the region of the elevator passageway exit to the region of the elevator passageway entrance; an ejector arranged at a lower region of the compressor passageway and means for extracting energy from the air circulation flow established by the elevator passageway, the compressor passageway, and the ejector.

Czaja, J.

1989-12-19

332

Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings  

SciTech Connect

In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

Bardakci, Korkut

2006-02-16

333

Open Standards for Emergency Mangement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

Jones, E.

2012-04-01

334

A proposal of an open PET geometry.  

PubMed

The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 degrees opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by letting the beams pass through the gap. The proposed open PET geometry will also allow simultaneous PET/CT measurements of the same PET FOV as the CT FOV, in contrast to the conventional PET/CT where each FOV is separated by several tens of centimeters. PMID:18199913

Yamaya, Taiga; Inaniwa, Taku; Minohara, Shinichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Shibuya, Kengo; Lam, Chih Fung; Murayama, Hideo

2008-01-14

335

Benefits of Openness for US Security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US has been very successful in applying science and engineering to defense and space. The US has also run the most open defense research and development establishment in the world. The openness is connected with the success by making possible open criticism of mistakes and failures, access of foreign-born citizens, and participation of cleared scientists and engineers in open science around the world. This open system is at risk today, when it is more badly needed than ever. The right strategy is first, to draw a clear line around the information that should be kept secret, with some margin so that this information would not be partially given away by its boundary, and to continue with the open system elsewhere. The US, because it invests more, usually profits more from common knowledge. Second, spies are caught through good line leadership and good security work. The constraints now being discussed on unclassified information or on foreign visitors would not have helped catch them. Third, new guidance is needed for exports control. The US must cooperate with countries that are partners in trade and in international initiatives of the first importance, but which may also be political, economic and military rivals. Guidelines to protect what is key to our current military edge while retaining the open system are suggested.

May, Michael M.

2000-04-01

336

The ethics of open access publishing  

PubMed Central

Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication.

2013-01-01

337

Lateral open bite: treatment and stability.  

PubMed

Because of their multifactorial etiologies, dental and skeletal open bites are among the most difficult malocclusions to treat to a successful and stable result. Etiologic factors include vertical maxillary excess, skeletal pattern, abnormalities in dental eruption, and tongue-thrust problems. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite and a unilateral posterior crossbite. The treatment involved nonextraction therapy, including intermaxillary elastics, to obtain dentoalveolar extrusion in the region of the lateral open bite. The treatment results were successful and remained stable 2 years later. PMID:20451792

Cabrera, Marise de Castro; Cabrera, Carlos Alberto Gregório; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

2010-05-01

338

Open source drug discovery with bioclipse.  

PubMed

We present the open source components for drug discovery that has been developed and integrated into the graphical workbench Bioclipse. Building on a solid open source cheminformatics core, Bioclipse has advanced functionality for managing and visualizing chemical structures and related information. The features presented here include QSAR/QSPR modeling, various predictive solutions such as decision support for chemical liability assessment, site-ofmetabolism prediction, virtual screening, and knowledge discovery and integration. We demonstrate the utility of the described tools with examples from computational pharmacology, toxicology, and ADME. Bioclipse is used in both academia and industry, and is a good example of open source leading to new solutions for drug discovery. PMID:23110533

Spjuth, Ola; Carlsson, Lars; Alvarsson, Jonathan; Georgiev, Valentin; Willighagen, Egon; Eklund, Martin

2012-01-01

339

Testing of an open solar regenerator  

SciTech Connect

The use of liquid desiccants in solar energy applications is receiving serious attention at present. In all such applications the most important and one of the most expensive parts of the system is the regenerator. This paper describes a proposed test procedure for determining the performance of the open regenerator. Comparative study of both closed and open loop configurations have been made. Experiments were carried out using open loop configuration. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical model. The study has also been extended to analyse the effect of different meteorological and solution parameters on the regenerator performance.

Gandhidasan, P.

1983-08-01

340

Opening of nucleic-acid double strands by helicases: Active versus passive opening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicase proteins move along double-stranded nucleic-acid molecules and unwind the double helix. This paper presents a theoretical study of the coupling between helicase translocation and duplex unwinding. Two different cases—active and passive opening—are usually distinguished. In active opening, the helicase directly destabilizes the double-stranded nucleic acid (dsNA) to promote opening. Passive opening implies that the helicase binds ssNA available when a thermal fluctuation partially opens the dsNA. We formulate a discrete model for helicase motion. An interaction potential describes how the helicase affects duplex unwinding when near a junction between single-stranded and double-stranded NA. Different choices of the potential correspond to the cases of active and passive opening. An optimal choice of interaction potential leads to a helicase which can unwind NA as rapidly as it translocates on single strands.

Betterton, M. D.; Jülicher, Frank

2005-01-01

341

Oligomerized pool engineering (OPEN): an 'open-source' protocol for making customized zinc-finger arrays.  

PubMed

Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) form the basis of a broadly applicable method for targeted, efficient modification of eukaryotic genomes. In recent work, we described OPEN (oligomerized pool engineering), an 'open-source,' combinatorial selection-based method for engineering zinc-finger arrays that function well as ZFNs. We have also shown in direct comparisons that the OPEN method has a higher success rate than previously described 'modular-assembly' methods for engineering ZFNs. OPEN selections are carried out in Escherichia coli using a bacterial two-hybrid system and do not require specialized equipment. Here we provide a detailed protocol for carrying out OPEN to engineer zinc-finger arrays that have a high probability of functioning as ZFNs. Using OPEN, researchers can generate multiple, customized ZFNs in approximately 8 weeks. PMID:19798082

Maeder, Morgan L; Thibodeau-Beganny, Stacey; Sander, Jeffry D; Voytas, Daniel F; Joung, J Keith

2009-09-17

342

OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework  

PubMed Central

OpenMx is free, full–featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the R statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS–X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced — these novel structures define the user interface framework and provide new opportunities for model specification. Two short example scripts for the specification and fitting of a confirmatory factor model are next presented. We end with an abbreviated list of modeling applications available in OpenMx 1.0 and a discussion of directions for future development.

Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

2012-01-01

343

Analysis on open access citation advantage: an empirical study based on Oxford open journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study takes 12,354 original research articles which were published in 93 Oxford Open journals in 2009 as a sample, and carries out statistic analyses on the citation frequency that these articles have received by July 2010 to validate 3 hypotheses: (1) there is citation advantage for open access articles(OACA) published in Oxford Open journals over the non-OA ones; (2)

Lifang Xu; Jinhong Liu; Qing Fang

2011-01-01

344

Nonlinear equations for p -adic open, closed, and open-closed strings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the structure of solutions of boundary value problems for a one-dimensional nonlinear system of pseudodifferential\\u000a equations describing the dynamics (rolling) of p-adic open, closed, and open-closed strings for a scalar tachyon field using\\u000a the method of successive approximations. For an open-closed string, we prove that the method converges for odd values of p\\u000a of the form p =

V. S. Vladimirov

2006-01-01

345

OpenAD\\/F: A Modular Open-Source Tool for Automatic Differentiation of Fortran Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OpenAD\\/F tool allows the evaluation of derivatives of functions defined by a Fortran pro- gram. The derivative evaluation is performed by a Fortran code resulting from the analysis and transformation of the original program that defines the function of interest. OpenAD\\/F has been designed with a particular emphasis on modularity, flexibility, and the use of open source components. While

Jean Utke; Uwe Naumann; Michael Fagan; Nathan Tallent; Michelle Mills Strout; Patrick Heimbach; Chris Hill; Carl Wunsch

2008-01-01

346

15. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. OPEN DOORWAY AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. OPEN DOORWAY AT PHOTO CENTER OPENS TO KITCHEN. OPEN DOORWAY AT PHOTO LEFT OPENS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

347

Working for Free? - Motivations of Participating in Open Source Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of the Linux operating system has demonstrated the viability of an alternative form of software development: open source software, which challenges traditional assumptions about software markets. Understanding what drives open source developers to participate in open source projects is crucial for assessing the impact of open source software. The article identifies two broad types of motivations that account

Alexander Hars; Shaosong Ou

2001-01-01

348

Setting Up Shop: The Business of Open-Source Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hecker, a developer at Netscape, discusses the business of commercial open-source software, including why a company might adopt an open-source model, how open-source licensing works, what business models might be usable and how various objections relating to open source might be answered

Frank Hecker

1999-01-01

349

Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

2010-01-01

350

Numerical and theoretical developments in plasma erosion opening switch research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only. The plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) can conduct megaampere levels of current for 50 ns to 1 ?s before opening into a load. The opening times can be a factor of ten times smaller than the conduction times. It has been observed experimentally that the switch does not open until the magnetic field and current penetrate through

J. M. Grossmann

1989-01-01

351

Using R to implement spatial analysis in open source environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

R is an open source (GPL) language and environment for spatial analysis, statistical computing and graphics which provides a wide variety of statistical and graphical techniques, and is highly extensible. In the Open Source environment it plays an important role in doing spatial analysis. So, to implement spatial analysis in the Open Source environment which we called the Open Source

Yixi Shao; Dong Chen; Bo Zhao

2007-01-01

352

Functional outcome after open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Detailed information on functional outcome after open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is sparse. Information about functional outcome of open AAA repair is essential to allow comparison of treatment modalities. Methods: To determine the functional outcome of patients after open repair of AAA, we reviewed 154 consecutive, nonemergency open repairs of infrarenal AAAs between 1990 and 1997 and each

W. Kent Williamson; Alexander D. Nicoloff; Lloyd M. Taylor; Gregory L. Moneta; Gregory J. Landry; John M. Porter

2001-01-01

353

Bindings against boundaries: entanglements of life in an open world  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I argue that to inhabit the world is to live life in the open. Yet philosophical attempts to characterise the open lead to paradox. Do we follow Heidegger in treating the open as an enclosed space cleared from within, or Kant (and, following his lead, mainstream science) in placing the open all around on the outside? One

Tim Ingold

2008-01-01

354

11. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING OPEN DOOR FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING OPEN DOOR FROM LIVING ROOM AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER, AND OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER TWO AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

355

Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

2009-01-01

356

3 CFR - Transparency and Open Government  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen...should be collaborative . Collaboration actively engages Americans...agencies should use innovative tools, methods, and systems...and improve their level of collaboration and to identify new...

2010-01-01

357

11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...meetings, the Commission shall make a diligent effort to provide appropriate space, sufficient visibility, and adequate acoustics to accommodate the public attendance anticipated for the meeting. When open meetings are conducted through...

2013-01-01

358

28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be responsible for arranging a suitable site for each open Commission meeting so that ample seating, visibility, and acoustics are provided to the public and ample security measures are employed for the protection of Commissioners and Staff. The...

2013-07-01

359

Trust Management in Open Systems (TMOS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distributed software subjects face the problem of determining one another's trustworthiness. The problem considered in the Trust Management in Open Systems (TMOS) project is management of the exchange of sensitive credentials between strangers for the pur...

V. E. Jones W. H. Winsborough K. Seamons

2002-01-01

360

Open-angle glaucoma: diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Open-angle glaucoma is not a benign disease; untreated, it can lead to total blindness. If intraocular tension is controlled early, before onset of visual field loss or optic nerve degeneration, the prognosis is good. PMID:6413360

Jindra, L F

1983-10-01

361

43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...condition during the term of the lease, license or permit. Before abandonment of operations, all openings, including water discharge points...restoration or protective measures, or both shall be taken. (c) Wells utilized for operations involving solution mining or brine...

2012-10-01

362

43 CFR 2091.3-2 - Opening.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands...expiration of the applicable segregation period set out in...prior to the end of the segregation periods, the lands...under the public land laws and mineral...

2012-10-01

363

Open string in a nonrelativistic background  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to the study of the open string description of Wilson loops and quarks in nonrelativistic quantum field theory that are expected to be dual of gravity in Schroedinger space-time.

Kluson, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37, Brno (Czech Republic)

2010-05-15

364

Analytic Methods in Open String Field Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the basics of recent developments of analytic methods in open string field theory. We in particular explain Schnabl's analytic solution for tachyon condensation in detail, assuming only the basic knowledge on conformal field theory.

Okawa, Y.

2012-12-01

365

Open standards: A call for change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital communication is both pervasive and vital across society. This creates a growing public interest in the technical standards that proscribe public communications. The public is demanding open standards. The rallying cry \\

Ken Krechmer

2009-01-01

366

The Hidden Curriculum and Open Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the ways in which the school environment is organized and warns against changing from traditional to open education without carefully evaluating the messages that the physical and the social environments (including teachers attitudes) are conveying. (Author/SDH)|

Czajkowski, Theodore J.; King, Melon

1975-01-01

367

Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)|

McPartland, Michael

1993-01-01

368

Unexpected bromination ring-opening of tetraarylporphyrins.  

PubMed

An unexpected, mild, efficient bromination ring-opening method has been developed for convenient synthesis of various novel biladienes or brominated porphyrins by controlling the amounts of NBS used. PMID:16465335

Liu, Chao; Shen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Qing-Yun

2006-01-11

369

Increased maternal microchimerism after open fetal surgery  

PubMed Central

Maternal-fetal cellular trafficking (MFCT) during pregnancy leads to the presence of maternal cells in the fetus and of fetal cells in the mother. Since this process may be altered in cases of pregnancy complications, we asked whether open fetal surgery leads to changes in microchimerism levels. We analyzed maternal and fetal microchimerism in fetuses who underwent open fetal surgery for repair of spina bifida and compared their levels to patients who had postnatal repair and to healthy controls. We found that maternal microchimerism levels were increased in patients who had open fetal surgery compared with controls. In contrast, patients who had fetal intervention at the time of delivery did not demonstrate increased microchimerism. These results suggest that open fetal surgery may alter trafficking. Given the importance of MFCT in maternal-fetal tolerance, we discuss potential implications for the field of preterm labor and transplantation tolerance.

Saadai, Payam; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

2012-01-01

370

Increased maternal microchimerism after open fetal surgery.  

PubMed

Maternal-fetal cellular trafficking (MFCT) during pregnancy leads to the presence of maternal cells in the fetus and of fetal cells in the mother. Since this process may be altered in cases of pregnancy complications, we asked whether open fetal surgery leads to changes in microchimerism levels. We analyzed maternal and fetal microchimerism in fetuses who underwent open fetal surgery for repair of spina bifida and compared their levels to patients who had postnatal repair and to healthy controls. We found that maternal microchimerism levels were increased in patients who had open fetal surgery compared with controls. In contrast, patients who had fetal intervention at the time of delivery did not demonstrate increased microchimerism. These results suggest that open fetal surgery may alter trafficking. Given the importance of MFCT in maternal-fetal tolerance, we discuss potential implications for the field of preterm labor and transplantation tolerance. PMID:22992682

Saadai, Payam; MacKenzie, Tippi C

2012-07-01

371

An Open-Ocean Fouling Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Long-term open-ocean fouling of submarine radomes can produce conditions on the radome surface inimical to radio transmission. It recommended measurements further confirm this finding, development should be undertaken of a means of protecting the radome a...

J. W. Hoyt P. R. Kenis C. D. Runge J. A. Beagles

1973-01-01

372

External DC defibrillation during open heart surgery  

PubMed Central

A technique of external DC defibrillation during open heart surgery is described. It has proved of value in second operations and has been consistently successful except in some patients with aortic valve disease and massive left ventricles. Images

Braimbridge, M. V.; Clement, A. J.; Yalav, E.; Ersoz, A.

1971-01-01

373

The Open Medicine student peer review program  

PubMed Central

Open Medicine has provided an opportunity to acquire experience in peer review for a group of graduate students in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the University of Calgary. To date, approximately 40 students have regularly participated in the peer review of manuscripts for Open Medicine. Participating students attend group sessions on the practicalities of reviewing papers, the revision and resubmission process, and specific topic areas that arise from particular papers. Through these experiences, the students have gained insight into the importance of quality peer review, Open Access publication and research reporting guidelines. Open Medicine encourages the proliferation of similar programs at other universities, as this valuable part of medical research is not formally taught in most graduate health research programs.

Lail, Parabhdeep; Wilkinson, Krista; Metcalfe, Amy

2011-01-01

374

Stomatal Opening Quantitatively Related to Potassium Transport  

PubMed Central

When stomata of Vicia faba opened (from a stomatal aperture of about 2 micrometers to one of 12 micrometers) the solute content of the guard cells increased by 4.8 × 10?12 osmoles per stoma. During the same time an average of 4.0 × 10?12 gram equivalents of K+ were transported into each pair of guard cells. This amount of K+, if associated with dibasic anions, is sufficient to produce the changes in guard cell volume and osmotic pressure associated with stomatal opening. Analysis of Cl, P, and S showed that these elements were not transported in significant amounts during stomatal opening. This finding suggests that the anions balancing K+ were predominantly organic. K+ was specifically required because no other elements, likely to be present as cations, were found to accumulate in appreciable quantities in guard cells of open stomata. Images

Humble, G. D.; Raschke, K.

1971-01-01

375

Disconnection of open coronal magnetic structures  

SciTech Connect

We have examined the Solar Maximum Mission coronagraph/polarimeter observations for evidence of magnetic disconnection of previously open magnetic structures and a number of likely examples have been found. Probable coronal disconnections typically appear as pinching off of helmet streamers followed by the release and outward acceleration of a large U or V-shaped structures. The observed sequence of events is consistent with reconnection across the heliospheric current sheet between previously open magnetic field regions, and the creation of a detached magnetic structure which is open to interplanetary space at both ends. Sunward of the reconnection point, coronal disconnection events would return previously open magnetic flux to the Sun as closed field arches. Here we (1) describe one clear disconnection event (1 June 1989); (2) examine the results of a limited survey of disconnection events; and (3) discuss the potential importance of coronal disconnections for maintaining flux in interplanetary space. 7 refs., 3 figs.

McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Hundhausen, A.J.; Burkepile, J.T.

1991-01-01

376

Physicians’ opening questions and patients’ satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the association between the format of physicians’ opening questions that solicit patients’ presenting concerns and patients’ post-visit evaluations of (i.e., satisfaction with) the affective-relational dimension of physicians’ communication.

Jeffrey D. Robinson; John Heritage

2006-01-01

377

Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD  

SciTech Connect

In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

Meier, E T

2011-11-10

378

Transaction Model for an Open Publication Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report proposes an open, distributed publication environment, used by the different specialist contributors, e.g. authors, editors, layout designers, typesetters, jointly producing and distributing a publication. It distinguishes three different kinds...

P. Muth T. C. Rakow W. Klas E. J. Neuhold

1991-01-01

379

Method of opening cased well perforation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of opening perforations in a cased well flow, the cased well having a maximum safe wellhead, using a treating fluid and perforation sealers. It comprises determining the number of perforations in the casing which have already been opened by injection of treating fluid into the well but have not yet been and establishing a treating fluid flow rate such that the treating fluid flows through the already opened perforations which have not yet been sealed at a velocity which is at least as high as the minimum effective sealing velocity but the maximum safe well head pressure will not be exceeded when the next of the already opened perforations which have not yet been sealed is sealed.

McMechan, D.E.

1992-05-19

380

Singular instantons and creation of open universes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singular instantons of the type introduced by Hawking and Turok\\u000a(hep-th\\/9802030) lead to unacceptable physical consequences and cannot,\\u000atherefore, be used to describe the creation of open universes.

Alexander Vilenkin

1998-01-01

381

Bispectrality for the quantum open Toda chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative to Babelon (2003 Lett. Math. Phys. 65 229) construction of dual variables for the quantum open Toda chain is proposed that is based on the 2 × 2 Lax matrix and the corresponding quadratic R-matrix algebra.

Sklyanin, Evgeny

2013-09-01

382

Disc haemorrhages, precursors of open angle glaucoma.  

PubMed

In a long-term study of 1270 patients with at least one of the findings, open-angle glaucoma, disc haemorrhages or retinal vein occlusions, disc haemorrhages were witnessed in approximately 20% of the cases with open-angle glaucoma, and were a precursor of glaucomatous disc changes and associated visual field defects. Disc haemorrhages also preceded a rising intraocular pressure (IOP) in the destructive process among open-angle glaucoma cases. Similar glaucomatous development appears among cases independent of IOP or detection of exfoliation syndrome. Retinal vein occlusions and disc haemorrhages behave similarly with respect to glaucoma. The large number of transgressions is an argument against dividing glaucoma into different types. These findings support a vascular genesis to open-angle glaucoma, presented in earlier epidemiological studies. PMID:11906810

Sonnsjö, Bo; Dokmo, Yvonne; Krakau, Torsten

2002-01-01

383

10 CFR 71.89 - Opening instructions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...71.89 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.89 Opening instructions. Before delivery of a package to a carrier for...

2013-01-01

384

Open Collections Program: Women Working  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in November 2002 with the generous support of the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Open Collections Program at Harvard University Library is designed "to increase the availability and use of textual and visual historical resources for teaching, learning, and research." The first project within the terms of this impressive remit is the Women Working, 1870-1930 digitized collection. Within this broad topical area, the documents currently available here are largely centered around the experience of working women during this period in Boston. Currently, over 450 documents are available for perusal, although at the completion of the project, over 3000 documents will be publicly available through this site. Visitors may browse through the New Additions area, look through the materials by topic (such as home labor, arts, or business), or perform a full text search. Also, users should make sure and browse through the diary of one H. Greene, a woman who lived on her family farm in Seneca County, Ohio, and who offers her recollections of the year 1887.

385

Yellow supergiants in open clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superluminous giant stars (SLGs) have been reported in young globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These stars appear to be in the post asymptotic giant branch phase of evolution. This program was an investigation of galactis SLG candidates in open clusters, which are more like the LMC young globular clusters. These were chosen because luminosity, mass, and age determination can be made for members since cluster distances and interstellar reddenings are known. Color magnitude diagrams were searched for candidates, using the same selection criteria as for SLGs in the LMC. Classification spectra were obtained of 115 program stars from McGraw-Hill Observatory and of 68 stars from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. These stars were visually classified on the MK system using spectral scans of standard stars taken at the respective observations. A total of 62 objects were found to be of high luminosity and to warrant further investigations. Seven stars were monitored over a 90 day period for luminosity variations. These observations were analyzed to measure radial velocities and to detect emission features.

Sowell, James Robert

1986-09-01

386

The open cluster Berkeley 53  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a photometric study of the neglected open cluster Berkeley 53. We derived its fundamental parameters, such as the age, the interstellar reddening, and the distance from the Sun, based on BV photometry combined with near-infrared JH K{S} data. The structure and the mass function of the cluster were also studied and the total number of members and the total mass were estimated. The cluster was found to be a rich and massive stellar system, located in the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way, 3.1±0.1 kpc from the Sun. Its age exceeds 1 Gy but it seems to be very young in the context of its dynamical evolution. The analysis of the two-color diagrams and color-magnitude diagrams indicates that the cluster is significantly reddened. However, both methods resulted in different values of E(B-V), i.e. 1.21±0.04 and 1.52±0.01, respectively. This discrepancy suggests the presence of an abnormal interstellar extinction law toward the cluster. This work is based on observations made with the 2-m telescope of the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by the Institute of Astronomy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.

Maciejewski, G.; Mihov, B.; Georgiev, Ts.

2009-08-01

387

Open cycle - OTEC turbine design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a low-pressure, open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) is described. Near-surface ocean water at 80 F is allowed to expand in a one-half psi evaporator for passage through a turbine; cold water (40 F), pumped upward from a 3,000 ft depth, is used to recondense the steam. Plans for a 2.5-3 MWe prototype plant, as a proof-of-principle project for a 100 MWe plant, include seawater pumps driven off the generator shaft, potable water as a by-product of the condensor, ease of access for O and M, and an integrated, gear-driven deaerator system with reinjection into the warm seawater discharge. An inlet flow of 3,000,000 cu ft/sec, a single stage vertical turbine with 40 ft fiber reinforced composite blades, 200 rpm operation on a 65 ft diameter disk, and an overall efficiency of 3% are features of the 100 MWe plant. A flowfield analysis, a velocity triangle analysis, and a structural dynamics analysis are outlined, along with materials applications and manufacturing process considerations in blade design. The 3MWe OTEC will be one-sixth the size of a 100MWe OTEC.

Coleman, W. H.; Rogers, J. D.; Thompson, D. F.; Young, M. I.

1981-12-01

388

[Screening in open angle glaucoma].  

PubMed

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) represents the second cause of mondial cecity, after retinal diabetes complications, with extremely severe implications in quality of life. Screening testing for glaucoma is justified, because only the diagnosis in very incipient stage will preserve the visual function; any treatment will not assure the reversibility of pre-existent optic nerve lesions. Screening of glaucoma, will take into a consideration the costs, the time of investigation, the adverse effects, and the sensitivity and specificity of tests; the last parameter also will strongly influence the positive predictive value. An ideal screening identifies all subjects that present the disease (sensitivity) and will exclude all healthy subjects (specificity). In this moment, in Dolj district, the diagnosis is based on active diagnosis of new cases of glaucoma on the high risk level population, therefore in a 210000 habitants. 4723 patients with glaucoma are diagnosed, screened and follow-up on medical cabinets and on Center of Glaucoma, which coordinates their activity. To better monitored patients, automatized programs with acquisition and storage for different types of medical imaging facilities had become indispensable to any routine practice. PMID:23755511

Mocanu, Carmen; Mocanu, Andrei

2012-01-01

389

Yttrium and barium in open clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the VLT high-resolution spectra for stars of five open clusters: Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, and Berkeley 75 (G. Carraro et al., 2007) we determined the yttrium and barium abundances using the synthetic-spectrum method. Barium abundance was calculated under a non-LTE approximation. We analyzed the correlation between yttrium and barium abundances and the ages of open clusters and stars of the Galactic thin disk.

Mishenina, T. V.; Korotin, S. A.; Yegorova, I. A.; Kovtukh, V. V.; Carraro, G.

2013-06-01

390

Permeability of open-pore microcellular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple microstructure-based model is proposed for the permeability of open-pore microcellular materials. The permeability of aluminium open-pore foams produced using the replication process is measured using water or glycerine as the fluid, varying the average cell size (75 and 400 ?m) and the relative density from 12% to 32%. Data show the expected dependence on the square of the

Jean-François Despois; Andreas Mortensen

2005-01-01

391

Openadb - An Open Altimeter Data Base  

Microsoft Academic Search

A first preliminary version of a new public and open data base system is introduced that tries to overcome the most limiting obstacles to unify multi-mission altimeter data: the different formats and an in-time update for new models, corrections and algorithms (orbits, ocean tide corrections, etc.). OpenADB has a generic record format to be applied to any mission and the

W. Bosch

2002-01-01

392

Dynamical Decoupling of Open Quantum Systems  

SciTech Connect

We propose a novel dynamical method for beating decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems. We demonstrate the possibility of filtering out the effects of unwanted (not necessarily known) system-environment interactions and show that the noise-suppression procedure can be combined with the capability of retaining control over the effective dynamical evolution of the open quantum system. Implications for quantum information processing are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Viola, L.; Lloyd, S. [d`Arbeloff Laboratory for Information Systems and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Knill, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1999-03-01

393

Berkeley 17: The Oldest Open Cluster?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faint magnitude BVI CCD photometry of the central region of the old open cluster Berkeley 17 (Be 17) has been undertaken to investigate the claim that it is the oldest open cluster yet discovered (Phelps, Janes, & Montgomery). This study reveals Be 17 to have a metallicity -0.30 <= [Fe\\/H] <= 0.00; a reddening 0.52 <= E(B-V) <= 0.68 or

Randy L. Phelps

1997-01-01

394

Open repair of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.  

PubMed

Although the Achilles tendon is the strongest in the body, it also is the most often ruptured. Achilles tendon rupture most often occurs during sports activities in middle-aged men. Operative repair of a ruptured Achilles tendon can be accomplished with a variety of techniques, ranging from open repair, to minimally invasive technique, to endoscopic-assisted repair. This article focuses on open repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Surgical techniques, rehabilitation protocol, and the authors' preferred method are described. PMID:19857843

Rosenzweig, Seth; Azar, Frederick M

2009-12-01

395

Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

Gore, R.A.

1994-03-01

396

The open pore conformation of potassium channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Living cells regulate the activity of their ion channels through a process known as gating. To open the pore, protein conformational changes must occur within a channel's membrane-spanning ion pathway. KcsA and MthK, closed and opened K+ channels, respectively, reveal how such gating transitions occur. Pore-lining `inner' helices contain a `gating hinge' that bends by approximately 30°. In a straight

Youxing Jiang; Alice Lee; Jiayun Chen; Martine Cadene; Brian T. Chait; Roderick MacKinnon

2002-01-01

397

Assessing Free\\/Open Source Software Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to its proponents, one of the most acclaimed advantages of Free\\/Open Source Software (F\\/OSS) is its superior quality. However, this suggestion is an open issue, since there is little concrete evidence to justify whether F\\/OSS quality is indeed better or worse than that of proprietary software products. The general perspective of this article is to discuss the current status

Ioannis Samoladas; Ioannis Stamelos

398

Fuse and Goasap: Open Source Animation Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ActionScript 1.0, animation has consistently been one of the most exciting areas of the open source Flash community.\\u000a This chapter looks at two open source libraries I’ve released for coding animation, one for ActionScript 2 and the other for\\u000a ActionScript 3. Each addresses a wide audience and works as a unifying force in different ways. I started with a

Moses Gunesch

399

SGST: an open source semantic geostreaming toolkit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geo-referenced data streams (geostreams) have created major challenges on streaming data management, query, and integration. Semantically managing geostream data has the potential to provide better data integration and reasoning. We develop an open source Semantic GeoStreaming Toolkit (SGST) that aims to provide an integrated sensor data management solution. In particular, this paper uses the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) GeoSPARQL recommendation

Jong Lee; Yong Liu; Liang Yu

2011-01-01

400

The enigmatic open cluster NGC 7419  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the distance and the age of the open cluster NGC 7419 using accurate photometry and spectroscopy. We analyze spectra for a great number of members; concluding that NGC 7419 has one of the highest Be fractions among Galactic open clusters. We also confirm that the cluster contains five red supergiants but there are no blue supergiants. Both effects may be related to fast rotation, but high Be content and high RSG content do not always go together.

Marco, Amparo; Negueruela, Ignacio

2011-01-01

401

OpenMI - Opportunities For Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

OpenMI is a standard for data exchange between interacting models, designed to enable integrated modelling. With the release in 2005 of the standard and the first implementation, should we expect a major shift from single-issue modelling to integrated modelling? What opportunities does OpenMI offer to wastewater planners? The case for integrated catchment management has been well made, and has become

David Fortune

402

Disc haemorrhages, precursors of open angle glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a long-term study of 1270 patients with at least one of the findings, open-angle glaucoma, disc haemorrhages or retinal vein occlusions, disc haemorrhages were witnessed in approximately 20% of the cases with open-angle glaucoma, and were a precursor of glaucomatous disc changes and associated visual field defects. Disc haemorrhages also preceded a rising intraocular pressure (IOP) in the destructive

Bo Sonnsjö; Yvonne Dokmo; Torsten Krakau

2002-01-01

403

Open channel electrochromatography on a microchip  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glass microchip having a channel with a cross section of 5.6 [mu]m high and 66 [mu]m wide was fabricated using standard photolithographic and etching techniques. The surface of the channel was chemically modified with octadecylsilane to function as the stationary phase for open channel chromatography. Electroosmotic flow was used to [open quotes]load[close quotes] the sample into the microchip and

Stephen C. Jacobson; R. Hergenroeder; Lance B. Koutny; J. Michael. Ramsey

1994-01-01

404

Testing oriented analysis of CMOS ICs with opens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a typical approach to VLSI testing, open faults are modeled by the transistor-stuck-open fault model or are not explicitly covered at all. It is shown that functional faults caused by opens, i.e. by regions with missing material, cannot be modeled well by a transistor stuck-open. It is also shown that the majority of opens which occur in CMOS static

Wojciech Maly; Pranab K. Nag; Phil Nigh

1988-01-01

405

OpenSim: Open-Source Software to Create and Analyze Dynamic Simulations of Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic simulations of movement allow one to study neuromuscular coordination, analyze athletic performance, and estimate internal loading of the musculoskeletal system. Simu- lations can also be used to identify the sources of pathological movement and establish a scientific basis for treatment planning. We have developed a freely available, open-source software system (OpenSim) that lets users develop models of musculoskeletal structures

Scott L. Delp; Frank C. Anderson; Allison S. Arnold; Peter Loan; Ayman Habib; Chand T. John; Eran Guendelman; Darryl G. Thelen

2007-01-01

406

Investigating Advances in the Acquisition of Systems Based on Open Architecture and Open Source Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2007-08, we began an investigation of problems, issues, and opportunities that arise during the acquisition of software systems that rely on open architectures and open source software. The current effort funded for 2009-10 (funding received in 2010) s...

H. Asuncion T. A. Alspaugh W. Scacchi

2011-01-01

407

Open Classroom: Distance Learning In and Out of Schools. Open and Distance Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of essays, which is separated into 4 sections, concerns open and distance learning at school level, or grades K-12. The first section, "The Knowledge Society," includes the following chapters: "Classroom Open Learning: A Case of Old Wine in New Bottles?" (Jenkins); "Living and Learning in the Information Age: From the School to…

Bradley, Jo, Ed.

408

Opening Education: Policies and Practices from Open and Distance Education. Routledge Studies in Distance Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The overall theme of this book is the relationships between government and organizational policies and the work of practitioners in open and distance learning. The book explores a selection of international examples, many of which concern the use of new technologies for opening education. The contributors, many of whom are recognized experts,…

Evans, Terry, Ed.; Nation, Daryl, Ed.

409

OpenDA: Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Geophysical Process Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their use in operational forecasting and real-time control in the fields of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. In meteorological and atmospheric sciences, steady improvements in numerical weather forecasting and climate prediction over the last couple of decades have been enabled to a large degree by the development of community-based models and data assimilation systems. The hydrologic community should learn from the experiences of the meteorological and atmospheric communities by accelerating the transition of hydrologic DA research into operations and developing community-supported, open-source modeling and forecasting systems and data assimilation tools. In 2010, a community based open source initiative named OpenDA was started. The openDA initiative bears similarities with the well-known openMI initiative. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modeling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model describing a process (atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water flow, rainfall-runoff, unsaturated flow, groundwater flow, etc.). Presently, openDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of openDA and the results of some of its practical applications.

Weerts, A.; van Velzen, N.; Verlaan, M.; Sumihar, J.; Hummel, S.; El Serafy, G.; Dhondia, J.; Gerritsen, H.; Vermeer-Ooms, S.; Loots, E.; Markus, A.; Kockx, A.

2011-12-01

410

Scalable open architecture project (SOAP) avionics evolution from Federated to Open Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scalable Open Architecture Project (SOAP) of NAVAIR's Maritime Avionics Subsystems and Technologies (MAST) Program was established in 1996 to demonstrate how to evolve existing aircraft from federated to advanced scalable open systems through incremental system upgrades making maximum use of COTS technology. This project is a multiyear effort with a series of laboratory demonstrations that transform existing federated avionics

J. Ozols

1997-01-01

411

The Impact on Institutional Research of Open Meeting and Open Records Laws in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Institutional researchers should know state and federal laws and attorneys general opinions applicable to higher education concerning open meetings and open records, and be prepared for information requests by media and concerned citizens. Case law is examined, and practical steps researchers can take are outlined, including knowing who will…

Letzring, Timothy D.

1997-01-01

412

Knowledge, Communication and Innovation: the case of Open Source Software as Open Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the major characteristics of Linux Operative System and, more in general, the analysis of the so-called Open Source Phenomenon, is nowadays a central issue in order to appreciate the ongoing evolution of software industry. Free\\/Open Source Software model may appears a \\

Lorenzo Benussi

413

The Impact on Institutional Research of Open Meeting and Open Records Laws in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional researchers should know state and federal laws and attorneys general opinions applicable to higher education concerning open meetings and open records, and be prepared for information requests by media and concerned citizens. Case law is examined, and practical steps researchers can take are outlined, including knowing who will…

Letzring, Timothy D.

1997-01-01

414

Open Classroom: Distance Learning In and Out of Schools. Open and Distance Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays, which is separated into 4 sections, concerns open and distance learning at school level, or grades K-12. The first section, "The Knowledge Society," includes the following chapters: "Classroom Open Learning: A Case of Old Wine in New Bottles?" (Jenkins); "Living and Learning in the Information Age: From the School to…

Bradley, Jo, Ed.

415

Financial development, trade openness and financial openness: do income levels matter for developing countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a panel of 29 African middle and low income countries with data spanning from 1988 to 2007, we analyze linkages between openness and financial intermediary development when income levels matter. Main findings are four: firstly, openness in the last two decades has not been the effect of growth and welfare, but of structural adjustment policies imposed by the IMF

Asongu Simplice A

2010-01-01

416

The Open High School of Utah: Openness, Disaggregation, and the Future of Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the charter movement has a rich history in Utah, virtual charters are a recent development. In 2007, a founding board consisting of faculty, staff, and graduate students in Utah State University's Center for Open and Sustainable Learning prepared and submitted an application to create the state's second virtual charter, called the Open High…

Wiley, David

2009-01-01

417

Opening up down under: The Role of Open Educational Resources in Promoting Social Inclusion in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the role of open and distance learning to widen participation and promote social inclusion within Australian higher education, as well as the benefits that open educational resources (OER) could bring to that context. It also explores some of the most relevant social inclusion policies and related initiatives developed in…

Bossu, Carina; Bull, David; Brown, Mark

2012-01-01

418

Towards an Expert Network in Open Standards and Open Source Software: Research, Expertise and Synergy for Open and Libres Standards and Software (RESOLL) - Version 2.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

CIRANO and its partners are proposing the creation of an Expert Network in Open Standards and Open Source Software (Research, Expertise and Synergy for Open and Libres Standards and Software-RESOLL), which would be a partnership between information technology research centres, government and private user organizations, and businesses working in the field. The network will conduct studies and pilot projects that

Adel El Zaïm; Robert Gérin-Lajoie

2004-01-01

419

Open core control software for surgical robots  

PubMed Central

Object In these days, patients and doctors in operation room are surrounded by many medical devices as resulting from recent advancement of medical technology. However, these cutting-edge medical devices are working independently and not collaborating with each other, even though the collaborations between these devices such as navigation systems and medical imaging devices are becoming very important for accomplishing complex surgical tasks (such as a tumor removal procedure while checking the tumor location in neurosurgery). On the other hand, several surgical robots have been commercialized, and are becoming common. However, these surgical robots are not open for collaborations with external medical devices in these days. A cutting-edge “intelligent surgical robot” will be possible in collaborating with surgical robots, various kinds of sensors, navigation system and so on. On the other hand, most of the academic software developments for surgical robots are “home-made” in their research institutions and not open to the public. Therefore, open source control software for surgical robots can be beneficial in this field. From these perspectives, we developed Open Core Control software for surgical robots to overcome these challenges. Materials and methods In general, control softwares have hardware dependencies based on actuators, sensors and various kinds of internal devices. Therefore, these control softwares cannot be used on different types of robots without modifications. However, the structure of the Open Core Control software can be reused for various types of robots by abstracting hardware dependent parts. In addition, network connectivity is crucial for collaboration between advanced medical devices. The OpenIGTLink is adopted in Interface class which plays a role to communicate with external medical devices. At the same time, it is essential to maintain the stable operation within the asynchronous data transactions through network. In the Open Core Control software, several techniques for this purpose were introduced. Virtual fixture is well known technique as a “force guide” for supporting operators to perform precise manipulation by using a master–slave robot. The virtual fixture for precise and safety surgery was implemented on the system to demonstrate an idea of high-level collaboration between a surgical robot and a navigation system. The extension of virtual fixture is not a part of the Open Core Control system, however, the function such as virtual fixture cannot be realized without a tight collaboration between cutting-edge medical devices. By using the virtual fixture, operators can pre-define an accessible area on the navigation system, and the area information can be transferred to the robot. In this manner, the surgical console generates the reflection force when the operator tries to get out from the pre-defined accessible area during surgery. Results The Open Core Control software was implemented on a surgical master–slave robot and stable operation was observed in a motion test. The tip of the surgical robot was displayed on a navigation system by connecting the surgical robot with a 3D position sensor through the OpenIGTLink. The accessible area was pre-defined before the operation, and the virtual fixture was displayed as a “force guide” on the surgical console. In addition, the system showed stable performance in a duration test with network disturbance. Conclusion In this paper, a design of the Open Core Control software for surgical robots and the implementation of virtual fixture were described. The Open Core Control software was implemented on a surgical robot system and showed stable performance in high-level collaboration works. The Open Core Control software is developed to be a widely used platform of surgical robots. Safety issues are essential for control software of these complex medical devices. It is important to follow the global specifications such as a FDA requirement “General Principles of Software

Kozuka, Hiroaki; Kim, Hyung Wook; Takesue, Naoyuki; Vladimirov, B.; Sakaguchi, Masamichi; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Fujimoto, Hideo

2010-01-01

420

Web Server Security on Open Source Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Administering critical resources has never been more difficult that it is today. In a changing world of software innovation where major changes occur on a daily basis, it is crucial for the webmasters and server administrators to shield their data against an unknown arsenal of attacks in the hands of their attackers. Up until now this kind of defense was a privilege of the few, out-budgeted and low cost solutions let the defender vulnerable to the uprising of innovating attacking methods. Luckily, the digital revolution of the past decade left its mark, changing the way we face security forever: open source infrastructure today covers all the prerequisites for a secure web environment in a way we could never imagine fifteen years ago. Online security of large corporations, military and government bodies is more and more handled by open source application thus driving the technological trend of the 21st century in adopting open solutions to E-Commerce and privacy issues. This paper describes substantial security precautions in facing privacy and authentication issues in a totally open source web environment. Our goal is to state and face the most known problems in data handling and consequently propose the most appealing techniques to face these challenges through an open solution.

Gkoutzelis, Dimitrios X.; Sardis, Manolis S.

421

Dynamics of very rich open clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oldest open clusters in our Galaxy set the lower limit to the age of the Galactic Disk (9-10 Gyr). Although they appear to be very rich now, it is clear that their primordial populations were much larger. Often considered as transitional objects, these populous open clusters show structural differences with respect to globular clusters so their dynamics and characteristic evolutionary time scales can also be different. On the other hand, their large membership lead to different dynamical evolution as compared with average open clusters. In this paper, the differential features of the evolution of rich open clusters are studied using N-body simulations, including several of the largest (10^4 stars) published direct collisional N-body calculations so far, which were performed on a CRAY YMP. The disruption rate of rich open clusters is analysed in detail and the effect of the initial spatial distribution of the stars in the cluster on its dynamics is studied. The results show that cluster life-time depends on this initial distribution, decreasing when it is more concentrated. The effect of stellar evolution on the dynamical evolution of rich clusters is an important subject that also has been considered here. We demonstrate that the cluster's life-expectancy against evaporation increases because of mass loss by evolving high-mass stars.

de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.

422

[Comparison of laparoscopic and open splenectomy].  

PubMed

Introduction: Conventional operative techniques are gradually being replaced by minimally invasive surgical methods in the surgery of the spleen. We summarized our 10-year-experience after the introduction of laparoscopic splenectomy at the University of Szeged, Department of Surgery, comparing open and minimally invasive techniques. Material and method: Between 1st January 2002 and 1st December 2011 we performed 141 splenectomies of which 17 were acute operations. Of the 124 elective procedures 54 were laparoscopic and 70 open operations. In 40 cases (open procedures) splenectomy was part of multivisceral surgery which were excluded from the analysis. In this retrospective analysis a comparison of laparoscopic and open elective technique was carried out. Results: Average operating time of laparoscopic procedures was slightly longer than that of open technique (133 vs. 122 minutes, p = 0.074). After the learning period, duration of laparoscopic procedures became shorter (first five years: 147 min., second five years: 118 min, p = 0.003), larger spleens were removed (220 vs. 450 grams, p = 0.063) and conversion rate became lower. In cases of laparoscopic procedures fewer reoperations needed to be performed (1.5% vs. 6%, p = 0.718), bowel motility recovered earlier (2 vs. 3 days, p = 0.002) and hospital stay was shorter (5 vs. 8 days, p ? 0.001). Conclusion: Our study proves that laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe method with many advantages. Our results correlate with data of international publications. PMID:23428723

Nyilas, Aron; Paszt, Attila; Simonka, Zsolt; Abrahám, Szabolcs; Pál, Tamás; Lázár, György

2013-02-01

423

Relaxation of spheromak configurations with open flux  

SciTech Connect

The relaxation of several kink unstable equilibria with open flux representative of spheromaks sustained by dc helicity injection is studied by means of three-dimensional, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. No external driving is applied, but the initial conditions are chosen to reproduce the current profiles existing in a gun driven spheromak, which has a high current density in the open flux region and a low current density in the closed flux region. The growth and nonlinear saturation of various unstable modes, the dynamo action which converts toroidal flux into poloidal flux, and the evolution of the {lambda} profile ({lambda}={mu}{sub 0}J{center_dot}B/B{sup 2}) are studied. An initial condition is found which results in a dynamo that produces enough poloidal flux to compensate the resistive losses occurred during a characteristic time of the instability. The flux amplification factor around which this case oscillates is consistent with existing experimental data. During the relaxation, the central open flux tube develops a helical distortion and the closed flux surfaces are destroyed. After the relaxation event, close flux surfaces form again but the final profiles are not fully relaxed and the central open flux tube remains distorted. The effect of the Lundquist number on the evolution and its impact on the required level of fluctuations are evaluated. Finally, the dynamics of the system for different current levels in the open flux region is studied.

Garcia-Martinez, Pablo Luis; Farengo, Ricardo [Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA) and Instituto Balseiro (UNCuyo-CNEA), Bariloche, Rio Negro 8400 (Argentina)

2009-11-15

424

Coulomb Oscillations in Partially Open Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coulomb blockade conductance oscillations in quantum dots are ordinarily observed with weak dot-to-lead tunneling. Recent theoryfootnote A. Furusaki and K.A. Matveev, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75 (1995), 709. examines the effect of strong tunneling on Coulomb oscillations. We have measured the zero magnetic field conductance through a 500 × 800 nm^2 quantum dot connected to leads through tunable tunnel barriers, defined in a high mobility near-surface two-dimensional electron gas by four independently tunable split gates on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. We set the conductance of one barrier much less than e^2/h and vary the conductance of the other (G_open) between e^2/h and 6e^2/h. We observe well-defined Coulomb oscillations at 50 mK for the entire range of G_open, except when G_open ? 2e^2/h, where the oscillations are suppressed. The temperature at which the oscillations disappear decreases with increasing G_open; for G_ open>2e^2/h, the oscillations are suppressed at temperatures above the single-particle level spacing.

Crouch, C. H.; Livermore, C.; Westervelt, R. M.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

1996-03-01

425

Characteristics of elite open-water swimmers.  

PubMed

Open-water swimming (5, 10, and 25 km) has many unique challenges that separate it from other endurance sports, like marathon running and cycling. The characteristics of a successful open-water swimmer are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and metabolic characteristics of a group of elite-level open-water swimmers. The open-water swimmers were participating in a 1-week training camp. Anthropometric, metabolic, and blood chemistry assessments were performed on the athletes. The swimmers had a VO(2)peak of 5.51 +/- 0.96 and 5.06 +/- 0.57 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) for males and females, respectively. Their lactate threshold (LT) occurred at a pace equal to 88.75% of peak pace for males and 93.75% for females. These elite open-water swimmers were smaller and lighter than competitive pool swimmers. They possess aerobic metabolic alterations that resulted in enhanced performance in distance swimming. Trainers and coaches should develop dry-land programs that will improve the athlete's muscular endurance. Furthermore, programs should be designed to increase the LT velocity as a percentage of peak swimming velocity. PMID:15142018

VanHeest, Jaci L; Mahoney, Carrie E; Herr, Larry

2004-05-01

426

OpenFLUID: an open-source software environment for modelling fluxes in landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integrative landscape functioning has become a common concept in environmental management. Landscapes are complex systems where many processes interact in time and space. In agro-ecosystems, these processes are mainly physical processes, including hydrological-processes, biological processes and human activities. Modelling such systems requires an interdisciplinary approach, coupling models coming from different disciplines, developed by different teams. In order to support collaborative works, involving many models coupled in time and space for integrative simulations, an open software modelling platform is a relevant answer. OpenFLUID is an open source software platform for modelling landscape functioning, mainly focused on spatial fluxes. It provides an advanced object-oriented architecture allowing to i) couple models developed de novo or from existing source code, and which are dynamically plugged to the platform, ii) represent landscapes as hierarchical graphs, taking into account multi-scale, spatial heterogeneities and landscape objects connectivity, iii) run and explore simulations in many ways : using the OpenFLUID software interfaces for users (command line interface, graphical user interface), or using external applications such as GNU R through the provided ROpenFLUID package. OpenFLUID is developed in C++ and relies on open source libraries only (Boost, libXML2, GLib/GTK, OGR/GDAL, …). For modelers and developers, OpenFLUID provides a dedicated environment for model development, which is based on an open source toolchain, including the Eclipse editor, the GCC compiler and the CMake build system. OpenFLUID is distributed under the GPLv3 open source license, with a special exception allowing to plug existing models licensed under any license. It is clearly in the spirit of sharing knowledge and favouring collaboration in a community of modelers. OpenFLUID has been involved in many research applications, such as modelling of hydrological network transfer, diagnosis and prediction of water quality taking into account human activities, study of the effect of spatial organization on hydrological fluxes, modelling of surface-subsurface water exchanges, … At LISAH research unit, OpenFLUID is the supporting development platform of the MHYDAS model, which is a distributed model for agrosystems (Moussa et al., 2002, Hydrological Processes, 16, 393-412). OpenFLUID web site : http://www.openfluid-project.org

Fabre, Jean-Christophe; Rabotin, Michaël; Crevoisier, David; Libres, Aline; Dagès, Cécile; Moussa, Roger; Lagacherie, Philippe; Raclot, Damien; Voltz, Marc

2013-04-01

427

Mapping DICOM to OpenDocument format  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the readability, extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, we have introduced XML into DICOM file system (SPIE Volume 5748)[1] and the multilayer tree structure into DICOM (SPIE Volume 6145)[2]. In this paper, we proposed mapping DICOM to ODF(OpenDocument Format), for it is also based on XML. As a result, the new format realizes the separation of content(including text content and image) and display style. Meanwhile, since OpenDocument files take the format of a ZIP compressed archive, the new kind of DICOM files can benefit from ZIP's lossless compression to reduce file size. Moreover, this open format can also guarantee long-term access to data without legal or technical barriers, making medical images accessible to various fields.

Yu, Cong; Yao, Zhihong

2009-02-01

428

Openadb - An Open Altimeter Data Base  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first preliminary version of a new public and open data base system is introduced that tries to overcome the most limiting obstacles to unify multi-mission altimeter data: the different formats and an in-time update for new models, corrections and algorithms (orbits, ocean tide corrections, etc.). OpenADB has a generic record format to be applied to any mission and the capability for fast updates of individual record parameter. The system provides a Web-based interface to access high-level products or to extract data for missions, periods and areas. Experienced users are enabled to define content and format of output records by themself and to perform computations with record parameters. The system design is kept modular and allows a distributed processing for new products and parameter updates. The OpenADB source code is available and will be maintained and developed by a small core team according to requirements of altimeter users and experts.

Bosch, W.

429

The Open Microcirculation in Human Spleens  

PubMed Central

It has long been debated whether the red pulp of human spleens harbors an open or a closed microcirculation or both. To solve this issue, the authors differentially stained the endothelium in red pulp arterial microvessels and in venous sinuses using brightfield and fluorescence immunohistology with reagents against CD34 and CD141. Three-dimensional models of red pulp arterial microvessels and sinuses were derived from serial double-stained paraffin sections with the help of license-free open-access software. In each model, arterial microvascular ends were traced and verified by reference to the original serial sections. In total, 142 ends were analyzed in the specimens of three individuals. None of these ends was connected to a sinus, suggesting that the human splenic red pulp harbors an entirely open circulatory system. Thus, the spleen is the only human organ where blood passes through spaces not lined by endothelia or other barrier-forming cells.

Steiniger, Birte; Bette, Michael; Schwarzbach, Hans

2011-01-01

430

Geometric phases in open tripod systems  

SciTech Connect

We first consider stimulated Raman adiabatic passages in a closed four-level tripod system. In this case, the adiabatic eigenstates of the system acquire real geometric phases. When the system is open and subject to decoherence they acquire complex geometric phases that we determine by a Monte Carlo wave function approach. We calculate the geometric phases and the state evolution in the closed as well as in the open system cases and describe the deviation between these in terms of the phases acquired. When the system is closed, the adiabatic evolution implements a Hadamard gate. The open system implements an imperfect gate and hence has a fidelity below unity. We express this fidelity in terms of the acquired geometric phases.

Moeller, Ditte; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Moelmer, Klaus [Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 (Denmark)

2008-02-15

431

FOSE: a framework for open science evaluation  

PubMed Central

Pre-publication peer review of scientific literature in its present state suffers from a lack of evaluation validity and transparency to the community. Inspired by social networks, we propose a framework for the open exchange of post-publication evaluation to complement the current system. We first formulate a number of necessary conditions that should be met by any design dedicated to perform open scientific evaluation. To introduce our framework, we provide a basic data standard and communication protocol. We argue for the superiority of a provider-independent framework, over a few isolated implementations, which allows the collection and analysis of open evaluation content across a wide range of diverse providers like scientific journals, research institutions, social networks, publishers websites, and more. Furthermore, we describe how its technical implementation can be achieved by using existing web standards and technology. Finally, we illustrate this with a set of examples and discuss further potential.

Walther, Alexander; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

2012-01-01

432

A nonsingular model of the open magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modified version of the Toffoletto and Hill (1989) open magnetosphere model that incorporates a tail-like interconection field with a discontinuity 10 represent the slow-mode expansion fan that defines the high-latitude tail magnetopause. (The interconnection field is defined as the perturbation on an initially closed magnetosphere model to make it open.) The expansion fan controls the open field line region in the tail, and the intersection of the fan with the tail current sheet is, by design, the x line. The new interconnection field allows greater control of the tail field structure; in particular, it enables us to eliminate the nightside mapping singularity that occurs in previous models when the interplanetary magnetic field is nonsouthward. Also, in contrast to earlier models, the far tail x line extends farther downstream on the flanks than in the center of the tail, consistent with observations.

Toffoletto, F. R.; Hill, T. W.

1993-02-01

433

Communication security in open health care networks.  

PubMed

Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation. PMID:10724890

Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R

1999-01-01

434

Open channel electrochromatography on a microchip  

SciTech Connect

A glass microchip having a channel with a cross section of 5.6 [mu]m high and 66 [mu]m wide was fabricated using standard photolithographic and etching techniques. The surface of the channel was chemically modified with octadecylsilane to function as the stationary phase for open channel chromatography. Electroosmotic flow was used to [open quotes]load[close quotes] the sample into the microchip and to [open quotes]pump[close quotes] the mobile phase during the experiments. For electric field strengths in the separation column from 27 to 163 V/cm, the linear velocity for the electroosmotic flow ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 mm/s. Detection was performed using direct fluorescence for separation monitoring and indirect fluorescence for void time measurements. Plate heights as low as 4.1 and 5.0 [mu]m were generated for unretained and retained components, respectively. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Jacobson, S.C.; Hergenroeder, R.; Koutny, L.B.; Ramsey, J.M. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1994-07-15

435

Web accessibility and open source software.  

PubMed

A Web browser provides a uniform user interface to different types of information. Making this interface universally accessible and more interactive is a long-term goal still far from being achieved. Universally accessible browsers require novel interaction modalities and additional functionalities, for which existing browsers tend to provide only partial solutions. Although functionality for Web accessibility can be found as open source and free software components, their reuse and integration is complex because they were developed in diverse implementation environments, following standards and conventions incompatible with the Web. To address these problems, we have started several activities that aim at exploiting the potential of open-source software for Web accessibility. The first of these activities is the development of Adaptable Multi-Interface COmmunicator (AMICO):WEB, an infrastructure that facilitates efficient reuse and integration of open source software components into the Web environment. The main contribution of AMICO:WEB is in enabling the syntactic and semantic interoperability between Web extension mechanisms and a variety of integration mechanisms used by open source and free software components. Its design is based on our experiences in solving practical problems where we have used open source components to improve accessibility of rich media Web applications. The second of our activities involves improving education, where we have used our platform to teach students how to build advanced accessibility solutions from diverse open-source software. We are also partially involved in the recently started Eclipse projects called Accessibility Tools Framework (ACTF), the aim of which is development of extensible infrastructure, upon which developers can build a variety of utilities that help to evaluate and enhance the accessibility of applications and content for people with disabilities. In this article we briefly report on these activities. PMID:19565384

Obrenovi?, Zeljko

2009-07-01

436

Connexin-43 hemichannels opened by metabolic inhibition.  

PubMed

The cause of altered ionic homeostasis leading to cell death during ischemia and metabolic inhibition is unclear. Hemichannels, which are precursors to gap junctions, are nonselective ion channels that are permeable to molecules of less than Mr 1000. We show that hemichannels open upon exposure to calcium-free solutions when they are either heterologously overexpressed in HEK293 cells or endogenously expressed in cardiac ventricular myocytes. In the presence of normal extracellular calcium, hemichannels open during metabolic inhibition. During ischemia and other forms of metabolic inhibition, activation of relatively few hemichannels will seriously compromise the cell's ability to maintain ionic homeostasis, which is an essential step promoting cell death. PMID:9867835

John, S A; Kondo, R; Wang, S Y; Goldhaber, J I; Weiss, J N

1999-01-01

437

Open Technology Approaches to Geospatial Interface Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What problems do you not want your software developers to be solving? Choosing open technologies across the entire stack of software development-from low-level shared libraries to high-level user interaction implementations-is a way to help ensure that customized software yields innovative and valuable tools for Earth Scientists. This demonstration will review developments in web application technologies and the recurring patterns of interaction design regarding exploration and discovery of geospatial data through the Vertex: ASF's Dataportal interface, a project utilizing current open web application standards and technologies including HTML5, jQueryUI, Backbone.js and the Jasmine unit testing framework.

Crevensten, B.; Simmons, D.; Alaska Satellite Facility

2011-12-01

438

OSIRIX: open source multimodality image navigation software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of our project is to develop a completely new software platform that will allow users to efficiently and conveniently navigate through large sets of multidimensional data without the need of high-end expensive hardware or software. We also elected to develop our system on new open source software libraries allowing other institutions and developers to contribute to this project. OsiriX is a free and open-source imaging software designed manipulate and visualize large sets of medical images: http://homepage.mac.com/rossetantoine/osirix/

Rosset, Antoine; Pysher, Lance; Spadola, Luca; Ratib, Osman

2005-04-01

439

Open Access: From Myth to Paradox  

SciTech Connect

True open access to scientific publications not only gives readers the possibility to read articles without paying subscription, but also makes the material available for automated ingestion and harvesting by 3rd parties. Once articles and associated data become universally treatable as computable objects, openly available to 3rd party aggregators and value-added services, what new services can we expect, and how will they change the way that researchers interact with their scholarly communications infrastructure? I will discuss straightforward applications of existing ideas and services, including citation analysis, collaborative filtering, external database linkages, interoperability, and other forms of automated markup, and speculate on the sociology of the next generation of users.

Ginsparg, Paul (Cornell University)

2009-05-06

440

Adiabatic approximation for weakly open systems  

SciTech Connect

We generalize the adiabatic approximation to the case of open quantum systems, in the joint limit of slow change and weak open system disturbances. We show that the approximation is 'physically reasonable' as under wide conditions it leads to a completely positive evolution, if the original master equation can be written on a time-dependent Lindblad form. We demonstrate the approximation for a non-Abelian holonomic implementation of the Hadamard gate, disturbed by a decoherence process. We compare the resulting approximate evolution with numerical simulations of the exact equation.

Thunstroem, Patrik; Aaberg, Johan; Sjoeqvist, Erik [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 518, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

2005-08-15

441

Open-PEA Space Charge Measurement System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method has been widely used to observe space charge phenomena in dielectric materials. There have been awaited demands for monitoring space charge phenomena under electron beam or radioactive rays irradiations, or during plasma processing. Therefore we have developed a new PEA space charge measurement system that can observe space charge distributions under such severe conditions. This system uses an open upper electrode that can measure surface and internal space charge profiles at the same time. This paper introduces the 'Open-PEA system' with experimental results obtained during electron irradiation in vacuum.

Imai, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Fukao, Tadashi; Takada, Tatsuo; Maeno, Takashi

442

openEyes: an open-hardware open-source system for low-cost eye tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eye tracking has long held the promise of being a useful methodology for human computer interaction. However, a number of barriers have stood in the way of the integration of eye tracking into everyday applications, including the intrusiveness, robustness, availability and price of eye-tracking systems. To lower these barriers, we have developed the openEyes system. The system consists of an

Dongheng Li; Derrick J. Parkhurst

2006-01-01

443

Kinetic simulation of open beam-plasma systems  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic simulation of open plasma systems is considered within the Maxwell and Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations (MVFP). Two approaches to the discrete simulation of open beam-plasma systems are described. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Batishchev, O.V.; Karas, V.I.; Levchenko, V.D. [Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-07-01

444

7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened...Artificially Openedâ consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements:...

2009-01-01

445

7 CFR 51.2542 - U.S. Artificially Opened.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2542 U.S. Artificially Opened...Artificially Openedâ consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements:...

2010-01-01

446

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. CAPSTANS OF FRONT DECK. MIDDLE DOOR IS OPEN. ALL DOORS COULD OPEN, TO GIVE OPERATOR AN UNIMPEDED VIEW. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

447

49 CFR 554.6 - Opening an investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening an investigation. 554.6 Section 554.6 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.6 Opening an investigation. (a) A compliance or defect...

2012-10-01

448

49 CFR 554.6 - Opening an investigation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening an investigation. 554.6 Section 554.6 Transportation...TRANSPORTATION STANDARDS ENFORCEMENT AND DEFECTS INVESTIGATION § 554.6 Opening an investigation. (a) A compliance or defect...

2011-10-01

449

Proceedings of the Open Source Software Development Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the second in a series of workshops to be supported by the Dependability Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration (DIRC). The focus of the Open Source Software Development workshop is on dependability and open source software development. Dependab...

C. Gacek B. Arief

2003-01-01

450

Open-Source as an Alternative to Commercial Software.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, open-source software has demonstrated rapid growth in popularity with the proliferation of alternatives to commercial applications. This study investigates the feasibility of ADOT using open-source software by determining overall benefits...

S. Coleman

2009-01-01

451

14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Effect of open publication. 1203.401... § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public disclosure, regardless of source or form, of information...by an official Government source, classification of...

2013-01-01

452

14 CFR 1203.401 - Effect of open publication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Effect of open publication. 1203.401... § 1203.401 Effect of open publication. Public disclosure, regardless of source or form, of information...by an official Government source, classification of...

2012-01-01

453

24 CFR 3280.113 - Glass and glazed openings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glass and glazed openings. 3280.113 Section... Planning Considerations § 3280.113 Glass and glazed openings. (a) Windows and sliding glass doors. All windows and sliding glass...

2013-04-01

454

75 FR 68403 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comment,...

2010-11-05

455

76 FR 69799 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...SUMMARY: An open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is soliciting public comments,...

2011-11-09

456

Comparing Acquisition Strategies: Open Architecture versus Product Lines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An open architecture is a development methodology that employs published, widely accepted standards for defining key interfaces within a system. Systems that are 'open' have components that can be provided by different vendors, allowing performance improv...

N. Guertin P. Clements

2010-01-01

457

On Open Loop and Closed Loop Nash Strategies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For deterministic nonzero-sum differential games, every open loop Nash strategy set is a closed loop Nash strategy set. The converse, that the open loop strategy set generated by a closed loop Nash strategy set is Nash, is false.

N. R. Sandell

1973-01-01

458

Neighbourhood-open space relationships in metropolitan planning ...  

Treesearch

... may discount the importance of neighbourhood-open space relationships when ... past decade looking at people's perceptions and uses of urban open space. ... my findings show how adjacent neighbourhoods are critical to the success of ...

459

Some Aspects of an Open Drainage Canal and Maintenance Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet contains many aspects of a drainage program. Topics discussed include principal causes for the failure of open drainage canals, recent research on the mechanics of open drainage canal maintenance, and the Ahmed Davis shovel. Included in the b...

W. J. Davis

1978-01-01

460

46 CFR 178.440 - Drainage of open boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.440 Drainage of open boats. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge. Overboard drainage of the deck is not...

2009-10-01

461

46 CFR 178.440 - Drainage of open boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.440 Drainage of open boats. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge. Overboard drainage of the deck is not...

2010-10-01

462

3. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF OPEN CONCOURSE, SHOWING WOODFRAMED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST CORNER OF OPEN CONCOURSE, SHOWING WOOD-FRAMED WINDOWS AND CEMENTED TILE AND STEEL CEILING - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, Open Concourse & Concourse Roof Extension, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

463

4. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BASEMENT UNDER OPEN CONCOURSE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BASEMENT UNDER OPEN CONCOURSE - CEILING OF BRICK ARCHES; WOOD PANELS MARK LOCATION OF ORIGINAL GLASS PRISM SKYLIGHTS REPLACED WITH CONCRETE - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, Open Concourse & Concourse Roof Extension, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

464

18 CFR 157.34 - Notice of open season.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Open Seasons for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects § 157...actual notice of an open season to the State of Alaska and to the Federal Coordinator for Alaska Natural Gas Transportation Projects....

2013-04-01

465

46 CFR 171.155 - Drainage of an open boat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.155 Drainage of an open boat. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge....

2011-10-01

466

46 CFR 171.155 - Drainage of an open boat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.155 Drainage of an open boat. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge....

2012-10-01

467

46 CFR 178.440 - Drainage of open boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.440 Drainage of open boats. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge....

2012-10-01

468

46 CFR 178.440 - Drainage of open boats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.440 Drainage of open boats. The deck within the hull of an open boat must drain to the bilge....

2011-10-01

469

29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 ...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except...

2010-07-01

470

29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 ...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except...

2013-07-01

471

37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

472

29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 ...SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists. (a) General. (1) Except...

2009-07-01

473

32 CFR 2001.53 - Open storage areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open storage areas. 2001.53 Section 2001...Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL...Safeguarding § 2001.53 Open storage areas. This section...

2013-07-01

474

10 CFR 1704.3 - Open meetings requirement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Open meetings requirement. 1704.3 Section 1704.3 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD RULES IMPLEMENTING THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1704.3 Open meetings...

2013-01-01

475

Resident perspectives of the open space conservation subdivision ...  

Treesearch

Residents share in the ownership of the preserved open space and take ... Greater emphasis on sharing the principles behind the open space conservation approach with homebuyers may lead to a fuller ... Continent: North America. Country ...

476

Fire Induced Flows Through Room Openings - Flow Coefficients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full-scale experimental and theoretical study was made of steady-state fire-induced flows through doorway and window openings. Measurements included two-dimensional temperature and pressure-difference profiles within the opening and vertical temperature...

K. D. Steckler H. R. Baum J. G. Quintiers

1984-01-01

477

Openness: The Way to do Business. Press Conference Fact Sheets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three years after announcing the first Openness Initiative, the Department of Energy is announcing new measures to ensure that openness is the way to do business in the future. In addition, the Department is releasing today more newly declassified materia...

1997-01-01

478

Toroidal compactification of open and closed bosonic strings  

SciTech Connect

Using the duality transformation between open string loops and closed string exchanges, the known compactifications of the closed bosonic string on tori described by even self-dual lattices are coupled to similarly compactified open strings.

Dunbar, D.C.

1988-05-01

479

Policies for Growth - Sarasota County, Florida. Open Space Outdoor Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recreation and open space report represents an effort to make available to local decision makers recreational and open space guidelines. Needs are determined for a number of alternative proposed growth schemes. It is intended that policy makers may by...

1972-01-01

480

76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY...opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon Presidential...the Archivist of the United States in writing of the claimed right, privilege,...

2011-05-10

481

43 CFR 2091.6 - Opening of withdrawn lands: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening of Lands § 2091.6 Opening of withdrawn lands: General....

2012-10-01

482

Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification (Version 1.0)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the Open Automated Demand Response Communications Specification, also known as OpenADR or Open Auto-DR, began in 2002 following the California electricity crisis. The work has been carried out by the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC), which is managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This specification describes an open standards-based communications data model designed to facilitate sending and

Mary Ann Piette; Girish Ghatikar; Sila Kiliccote; Ed Koch; Dan Hennage; Peter Palensky; Charles McParland

2009-01-01

483

Using the OpenURL Framework to Locate Bibliographic Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

OpenURLs are already in use in digital library information services providing links between resources that are appropriate to the context of the end-user. The OpenURL Framework for Context-Sensitive Services, a systematic generalisation of the existing de facto standard OpenURL, is currently an ANSI\\/NISO 'draft standard for trial use'. The zetoc current awareness service has implemented OpenURL links enabling its users

Ann Apps; Ross MacIntyre

484

Federated Data Management and Query Optimization for Linked Open Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Linked Open Data provides data on the web in a machine readable way with typed links between related entities. Means of accessing\\u000a Linked Open Data include crawling, searching, and querying. Search in Linked Open Data allows for more than just keyword-based,\\u000a document-oriented data retrieval. Only complex queries across different data source can leverage the full potential of Linked\\u000a Open Data.

Olaf Görlitz; Steffen Staab

485

How Does Trade Openness Influence Budget Deficits in Developing Countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of trade openness on budget balances by distinguishing the effects of natural openness from those of trade-policy induced openness. Using the GMM-system estimator, the econometric analysis focuses on 66 developing countries during 1974-98. The results show that trade openness increases a country's exposure to external shocks regardless of its underlying causes. This reinforces the adverse

Jean-Louis Combes; Tahsin Saadi-Sedik

2006-01-01

486

Open string Regge trajectory and its field theory limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the properties of the leading Regge trajectory in open string theory including the open string planar one-loop corrections. With SU(N) Chan-Paton factors, the sum over planar open string multiloop diagrams describes the 't Hooft limit N-->? with Ngs2 fixed. Our motivation is to improve the understanding of open string theory at finite alpha' as a model of gauge

Francisco Rojas; Charles B. Thorn

2011-01-01

487

Implementing an open innovation strategy: lessons from Napoleon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to offer learning from NetFlix's open innovation strategy to other firms considering implementing open innovation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This viewpoint looks at the case study of NetFlix. Findings – The paper finds four generalizeable aspects of NetFlix’ open innovation strategy that may be useful to other firms considering implementing open innovation. Originality\\/value –

Stuart Read; David Robertson

2009-01-01

488

Open source business intelligence tools for SMEs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of rapid change and intense competition, companies are looking for innovations and new market segments, in order to understand the present time and act according to the new market trends. To assist managers in making the best decisions, there are numerous business intelligence tools. In this work we evaluate and compare four open source business intelligence tools: Spa

Marco Tereso; Jorge Bernardino

2011-01-01

489

Optically Controlled Solid State Opening Switches.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final technical report for a research program to study optical controlled solid state opening switches. This program covers the period between August, 1988 and May, 1992 under the grant No. AFOSR-88-0246. The goal of the research is to study f...

C. H. Lee M. J. Rhee

1992-01-01

490

An Open Learner Model for Trainee Pilots  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the potential for simple open learner models for highly motivated, independent learners, using the example of trainee pilots. In particular we consider whether such users access their learner model to help them identify their current knowledge level, areas of difficulty and specific misconceptions, to help them plan their…

Gakhal, Inderdip; Bull, Susan

2008-01-01

491

Formal test specifications in open systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of formal test specifications for an open system standard is described. The effort is being conducted within the environment provided by the Clemson Automated Testing System (CATS). CATS features the ability to automatically translate formal test specifications into executable tests. The formal test specifications are written in accordance with a specification language designed in support of this effort.

J. F. Leathrum; K. A. Liburdy

1995-01-01

492

Test data visualization for open system standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a data visualization tool developed to support prototype development and testing of software standard interfaces in the open systems environment. The visualization capability is an extension of the Clemson Automated Testing System (CATS). CATS is a research facility which has proven valuable in exposing and addressing critical issues in emerging areas such as the IEEE POSIX real-time

D. Crane; J. F. Leathrum; Kathleen A. Liburdy

1994-01-01

493

Automated Testing of Open Software Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the power and flexibility of a new approach to creating conformance test suites for open systems software standards such as POSIX. The approach incorporates an automated process for the generation and validation of conformance tests. The automated process has been implemented and comprises key components of the Clemson Automated Testing System (CATS). CATS is a testing facility

James F. Leathrum; K. A. Liburdy

1993-01-01

494

The Yonsei Preschool Open Education Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the open education preschool program of the Child Development Research Institute at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea. Discusses the facility's play areas, learning centers, and outdoor environment; the program's attempts to foster children's creative expression, autonomy and responsibility, and thinking skills; and the program's use of…

Tieszen, Helen R.; Lee, Young

1993-01-01

495

NFW 2011: Teaching with Open Source Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A workshop for new faculty that shows how Open Source Physics tools limit the amount of programming when designing, implementing, distributing, and using computer models. We describe the Tracker video analysis and modeling tool and the Easy Java Simulations modeling and authoring tool and their integration into the comPADRE National Digital Library.

Christian, Wolfgang

2011-11-19

496

Why Open Source software can succeed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses three key economic problems raised by the emergence and diffusion of Open source software: motivation, coordination, and diffusion under a dominant standard. First, the movement took off through the activity of a software development community that deliberately did not follow profit motivations. Second, a hierarchical coordination emerged without the support of an organization with proprietary rights. Third,

Andrea Bonaccorsi; Cristina Rossi

2003-01-01

497

The Scope of Open Source Licensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an initial exploration of the determinants of open source license choice. It first highlights how the decision is shaped not just by the preferences of the licensor itself, but also by that of the community of developers. The article then presents an empirical analysis of the determinants of license choice using the SourceForge database, a compilation of

Josh Lerner; Jean Tirole

2005-01-01

498

The Scope of Open Source Licensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an initial exploration of the determinants of open source license choice. It first enumerates the various considerations that should figure into the licensor's choice of contractual terms, in particular highlighting how the decision is shaped not just by the preferences of the licensor itself, but also by that of the community of developers. The paper then presents

Joshua Lerner; Jean Tirole

2002-01-01

499

The Emotionally Challenging, Open-Ended Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For most job candidates, the interview experience is "an emotionally challenging endeavor." To succeed in interviews, candidates must understand the emotional labor needed to "manage their feelings" as they "create a publicly observable facial and bodily display." This is particularly true when recruiters use open-ended interviews that are not…

Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

2008-01-01

500

Technology Shocks and Employment in Open Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that a positive technology shock leads to a temporary decline in employment. A two-country model is used to demonstrate that the open economy dimension can enhance the ability of sticky price models to account for the evidence. The reasoning is as follows. An improvement in technology appreciates the nominal exchange rate. Under producer-currency

Juha Tervala

2007-01-01