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Sample records for allama iqbal open

  1. Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU): A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsiddig, Mukhtar Osman

    1993-01-01

    Describes Pakistan's Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), which reaches a mass student population through correspondence study, radio and television, tutorials, and course assignments. Descriptions of AIOU's course offerings, teaching methods, organization and administration, and an assessment of services are provided. (Contains 13 references.)…

  2. The Allama Iqbal Open University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ul-Hassan, Mahmud

    1984-01-01

    This profile of an open university library system in Pakistan covers its primary objective; functional organization; library collection and collection development; staffing, budgets and expenditures; library services (users, technical, reference); departmental libraries (on-campus branch, regional); and the library building. A list of 16 library…

  3. Teachers Training through Distance Mode in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumani, Nabi Bux; Rahman, Fazalur; Chishti, Saeedul Hasan; Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia and established in 1974 on the model of UKOU. AIOU uses different media for the delivery of instruction. It has a well established Institute of Educational Technology which has radio and TV production facilities and advance level of work in computer technology. AOU offers…

  4. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  5. Students' and Tutors' Perceptions of Learning at Allama Iqbal Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saga, Hiroo

    This study was designed to find out why and how students of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan learn through its distance education system. Questionnaire surveys of the students and tutors were conducted in November and December, 1990. Out of 1,650 randomly selected B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) students, 661 students returned the…

  6. The Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. A Case Study in Distance Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, A. R.

    A brief description of Pakistan (physical setting, population, economy, government, communications, and rural development program) and its educational system introduce a description of the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Islamabad. AIOU was established by the Pakistani government primarily to provide adult and continuing education through…

  7. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  8. Correlation between Marks Obtained By Students in Assignments and Final Examination of Master of Education Conducted by Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Muhammed; Ahmed, Aijaz; Malik, Ashraf, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to find out the correlation between the marks obtained by the students of Allama Iqbal Open University in assignments and final examination of M.A (Education) M.Ed in Autumn 2006. For this purpose, the result gazette of M.A (Education) M.Ed was obtained from the regional campus of Allama Iqbal Open…

  9. Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Distance Learning Courses: A Study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Afzaal; Ramay, Muhammad I.; Shahzad, Mudasar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan.…

  10. Climbing the Ladder: A Case Study of the Women's Secondary Education Programme of Allama Iqbal Open University, Pakistan. Innodata Monographs 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Riffat; Batool, Syeda Najeeba

    The Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan started the Women's Secondary Education Project through distance learning in 1986. It was designed to meet the educational needs of rural women who are denied access to the formal education system because of social and economic constraints. The distance education method suited these women because by…

  11. Instruction Design System of Allama Iqbal Open University: A Vehicle for Improvement or Mere a Salogon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…

  12. Use of Libraries in Open and Distance Learning System: Barriers to the Use of AIOU Libraries by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…

  13. Exploring the Role of Distributed Learning in Distance Education at Allama Iqbal Open University: Academic Challenges at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir; Chaudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Distributed learning is derived from the concept of distributed resources. Different institutions around the globe connected through network and the learners are diverse, located in the different cultures and communities. Distributed learning provides global standards of quality to all learners through synchronous and asynchronous communications…

  14. Effectiveness of M.A. EPM Program Launched Through Distance Education System of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain Shah, Syed Manzoor; Ahmad, Masoor

    2014-01-01

    The study focus the effectiveness of the M.A EPM program launched through distance education system of AIOU. For this purpose the performance of heads of educational institutions with and without M.A EPM degree was analyzed keeping in view different major aspects i.e. planning strategies, managerial approaches, coordination, administration and use…

  15. A Critical Analysis of Managerial Skills Competencies of Secondary School Heads Trained through Distance Mode of Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhlaq, Muhammad; Sulehri, Shazia Munawar

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is to analyze the managerial skills competencies of secondary schools heads trained through distance mode of education in Pakistan. For this purpose a sample 300 secondary school teachers and 100 secondary schools head-teachers trained through distance mode and working in the Federal Government Educational Institutions…

  16. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...'s Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor The United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor presented by Secretary Hilda Solis, United States... Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor. 2. Purpose: To outline...

  17. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... of Child Labor The United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child... Elimination of Child Labor. 2. Purpose: To outline the eligibility criteria, the nomination process and the... Child Labor, and to solicit nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih...

  18. Student Persistence in Distance Education: A Cross-Cultural Multi-Institutional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study which examined relationships between academic persistence and turn-around time, feedback interval, and contacts between student and institution beyond assignment submissions at Allama Iqbal Open University, Darling Downs Institute of Advanced Education, Open Learning Institute of British Columbia, Tasmanian State Institute of…

  19. Comparative Study of Student Support Services of AIOU and UKOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhry, Amtul Hafeez; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support…

  20. Development of Reflective Thinking through Distance Teacher Education Programs at AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow's theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four…

  1. Preparing Future Teachers through Distance Learning: An Empirical Study on Students' Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Mohammed; Ali, Akhtar; Maqbool, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan.…

  2. A Critical Review of Instructional Design Process of Distance Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; ur-Rahman, Fazal

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design refers to planning, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. It is an applied field of study aiming at the application of descriptive research outcomes in regular instructional settings. The present study was designed to critically review the process of instructional design at Allama Iqbal Open University…

  3. A Study of Student's Attitude towards Distance Education Programme in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Akhlaque, Muhammad; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2007-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to measure the attitude of the students towards teacher training programs through Distance Education offered by Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), Islamabad, Pakistan. To achieve the said end, the descriptive method of research was considered appropriate. The population of the study consisted of the B. Ed.…

  4. Information Seeking Behaviour of AIOU Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Malik Tariq

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) administrators in Pakistan. Information is obtained by using a wide variety of informal and formal sources, human sources, Internet as well as print media. The present study found that AIOU administrators are more…

  5. Drugs, Devices & Discovery: Using Fee-Shifting to Resolve the Twombly/Iqbal Problem for Parallel Claims Under the FDCA.

    PubMed

    Norris, Cameron T

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decisions in Twombly and Iqbal ushered in a new federal pleading standard, requiring plaintiffs to state a "plausible" claim to relief before they can access discovery. Plausibility pleading, however, presents a unique burden for plaintiffs who have been injured by a Class III medical device. In Riegel, the Supreme Court held that state-law claims against device manufacturers are preempted unless they "parallel" federal requirements. However, the relevant federal requirements are located in the manufacturer's premarket approval agreement, which is confidential. Thus, it is nearly impossible for plaintiffs to allege a plausible claim against a Class III device manufacturer because they do not know what to plead in the first place. The Seventh Circuit tried to remedy this Catch-22 by lowering the pleading standards for parallel claims. However, its approach misapplies Twombly and Iqbal and overburdens device manufacturers. Instead of tinkering with pleading standards, this paper advocates a different approach. Congress should create a one-way fee-shifting mechanism that allows plaintiffs to access premarket approval agreements if they agree to pay the defendant's discovery fees (should their claim prove unsuccessful). Fee-shifting is a middle-ground approach that would better compensate plaintiffs without overdeterring device manufacturers. PMID:26292477

  6. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  7. Open Arms, Open Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Connie J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes state open-records laws and school district policies and procedures for responding to citizen requests for public records information. Includes information about requirement in recently enacted No Child Left Behind Act for districts to provide the military with access to student directory information. (PKP)

  8. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous

  9. Open code for open science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterbrook, Steve M.

    2014-11-01

    Open source software is often seen as a path to reproducibility in computational science. In practice there are many obstacles, even when the code is freely available, but open source policies should at least lead to better quality code.

  10. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  11. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear

  12. How "Open" is Open Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisey, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    The roots of the open learning system approach to education are explored and the relationship between its goals and the succeeding models/methodologies are examined in the context of open and closed systems theories. An open systems orientation to learning system development is recommended. (MSE)

  13. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder

  14. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  15. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  16. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  17. Opening Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    In these opening remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.

  18. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER. PMID:19119226

  19. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  20. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  1. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  2. Opening Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2002-01-01

    What a wonderful day it is. We are taking the opportunity this morning to reflect on what it has meant since 1961 to he a spacefaring nation. We are also looking forward to the next forty years of human adventure in space and what it might bring us as a civilization. While the specifics of what will unfold during the first part of the twenty-first century are not certain-and that's the wonder of the space program-I can say with certainty that the possibilities are boundless. Accordingly, I am both excited about where we have been and where we are going. Alan Shepard, Of Course, had become the first American to fly into space during a 15-minute suborbital flight on 5 May 1961, riding a Redstone booster in his Freedom 7 spacecraft. At the ceremony that followed, President Kennedy recognized the courage and sacrifice of all those involved in America's first human spaceflight. The President commented that Shepard's success as the first United States astronaut was an outstanding contribution to the advancement of human knowledge, space technology, and a demonstration of man's capabilities in suborbital flight. President Kennedy also juxtaposed the very public flight of Alan Shepard with the secrecy of our rival at the time, the Soviet Union: "I also want to pay cognizance to the fact that this flight was made out in the open with all the possibilities of failure, which have been damaging to our country's prestige. Because great risks were taken in that regard, it seems to me that we have some right to claim that this open society of ours, which risked much, gained much."

  3. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  4. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source

  5. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  6. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  7. Open Schools for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Alexander

    Arguing against the "bandwagon" approach to innovation and change, and pressing for careful consideration of the potentials inherent in "openness" in education, the author explores the interactions among the phenomena of open space, open structure, and open curriculum. In examining the nature of these interactions, he sets the complex of concepts

  8. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters

  9. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  10. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science

  11. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  12. Open access and open source in chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Matthew H

    2007-01-01

    Scientific data are being generated and shared at ever-increasing rates. Two new mechanisms for doing this have developed: open access publishing and open source research. We discuss both, with recent examples, highlighting the differences between the two, and the strengths of both. PMID:17939849

  13. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country. PMID:26327966

  14. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... means that the chest is "cut" open. The definition of open heart surgery has become less clear. ... Tetralogy of Fallot repair Total anomalous pulmonary venous return correction Transplant of the heart Transposition of great ...

  15. Temporomandibular Joint, Open

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Joint, Open The Temporomandibular Joint, Open ...

  16. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  17. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open

  18. The Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braybrook, Susan

    This booklet describes Governors State University, an open university responding to the needs of junior/community college graduates and others working towards a baccalaureate and master's degree. Emphasis is placed on the concept of the open university, planning of the open university, who are the students and how they influence the planning…

  19. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  20. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  1. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  2. The open access advantage.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open access papers continues to widen. I conclude with the observation that the "open access advantage" has at least three components: (1) a citation count advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), (2) an end user uptake advantage, and (3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. More research is needed, and JMIR is inviting research on all aspects of open access. As the advantages for publishing open access from a researchers' point of view become increasingly clear, questions around the sustainability of open access journals remain. This journal is a living example that "lean publishing" models can create successful open access journals. Open source tools which have been developed by the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia with contributions from the Epublishing & Open Access group at the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation in Toronto are an alternative to hosting journals on commercial open access publisher sites. PMID:16867971

  3. The Open Future: Openness as Catalyst for an Educational Reformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2010-01-01

    The word "open" is receiving a lot of attention in education circles. For over a decade, "open" has been used as an adjective to modify a variety of nouns that describe teaching and learning materials. For example, open content, open educational resources, open courseware, and open textbooks are all part of the current higher education discourse.…

  4. Open Babel: An open chemical toolbox

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A frequent problem in computational modeling is the interconversion of chemical structures between different formats. While standard interchange formats exist (for example, Chemical Markup Language) and de facto standards have arisen (for example, SMILES format), the need to interconvert formats is a continuing problem due to the multitude of different application areas for chemistry data, differences in the data stored by different formats (0D versus 3D, for example), and competition between software along with a lack of vendor-neutral formats. Results We discuss, for the first time, Open Babel, an open-source chemical toolbox that speaks the many languages of chemical data. Open Babel version 2.3 interconverts over 110 formats. The need to represent such a wide variety of chemical and molecular data requires a library that implements a wide range of cheminformatics algorithms, from partial charge assignment and aromaticity detection, to bond order perception and canonicalization. We detail the implementation of Open Babel, describe key advances in the 2.3 release, and outline a variety of uses both in terms of software products and scientific research, including applications far beyond simple format interconversion. Conclusions Open Babel presents a solution to the proliferation of multiple chemical file formats. In addition, it provides a variety of useful utilities from conformer searching and 2D depiction, to filtering, batch conversion, and substructure and similarity searching. For developers, it can be used as a programming library to handle chemical data in areas such as organic chemistry, drug design, materials science, and computational chemistry. It is freely available under an open-source license from http://openbabel.org. PMID:21982300

  5. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  6. Open meetings without fear.

    PubMed

    Cowsert, W E

    1979-09-01

    An open meeting, properly prepared for and conducted, can be one of the best public relations tools a hospital has. This article contains practical suggestions to guide the board and the chief executive officer in preparing for and conducting board meetings that are open to the press and the public. PMID:10243728

  7. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  8. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  9. Open-sight Alidades

    Open-sight Alidades. This type of alidade is a straightedge with a sighting device parallel to the edge. Early alidades were simple bars with open sights on either end, while telescopic alidades were introduced in the early 1800s. The examples here of solid brass and an early plastic/wood combinatio...

  10. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  11. Egress door opening assister

    DOEpatents

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  12. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content

  13. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for

  14. CAPE-OPEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CAPE-OPEN standard is the de facto standard for interfacing process modeling software components for use in the design and operation of chemical processes. It is based on universally recognized software technologies, such as COM and CORBA. The CO standard is open, multi-platf...

  15. Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is confirmed, open discectomy may be recommended. Currently, spine surgery is undergoing a revolution in the way certain ... anesthesia. In some simpler cases, this type of surgery may be recommended. ... by the spine community for surgical treatment of herniated discs. Open ...

  16. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  17. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  18. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a "fair share" scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  19. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  20. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  1. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  2. The Argument for Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

  3. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  4. Open extensor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Amirtharajah, Mohana; Lattanza, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    The extensor tendons in the dorsum of the hand lie relatively superficially, making open injuries to the extensor mechanism a common source of morbidity. These injuries can range from simple clean lacerations to complex open injuries associated with severe skin and soft tissue loss. Although many advances in the treatment of tendon injuries focused on the flexor tendon, the extensor tendon has begun to receive more attention in recent literature. Knowledge of modern repair techniques and rehabilitation protocols may improve patient outcomes. This Current Concepts article summarizes the treatment of open extensor tendon injuries with a focus on the recent literature. PMID:25557773

  5. Open cyclic thermoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated invversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept, Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  6. Let's be open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-02-01

    Scientists, governments and funding agencies have for some time been pushing for data generated by publicly supported scientific research to be made available and free. But just how could "open data" work in practice? Jon Cartwright investigates.

  7. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  8. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  9. The open way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, Colin

    1974-01-01

    Author discussed the deportment and attitudes of the girls at the York Way open class, attached to the Starcross School, and the influence the school has on influencing the girls from becoming truants. (RK)

  10. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  11. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.

  12. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  13. openPMD-viewer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for thesemore » results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.« less

  14. openPMD-viewer

    SciTech Connect

    Lehe, Remi

    2015-10-01

    Many simulation software produce data in the form of a set of field values or of a set of particle positions. (one such example is that of particle-in-cell codes, which produce data on the electromagnetic fields that they simulate.) However, each particular software uses its own particular format and layout, for the output data. This makes it difficult to compare the results of different simulation software, or to have a common visualization tool for these results. However, a standardized layout for fields and particles has recently been developed: the openPMD format ( HYPERLINK "http://www.openpmd.org/"www.openpmd.org) This format is open- source, and specifies a standard way in which field data and particle data should be written. The openPMD format is already implemented in the particle-in-cell code Warp (developed at LBL) and in PIConGPU (developed at HZDR, Germany). In this context, the proposed software (openPMD-viewer) is a Python package, which allows to access and visualize any data which has been formatted according to the openPMD standard. This package contains two main components: - a Python API, which allows to read and extract the data from a openPMD file, so as to be able to work with it within the Python environment. (e.g. plot the data and reprocess it with particular Python functions) - a graphical interface, which works with the ipython notebook, and allows to quickly visualize the data and browse through a set of openPMD files. The proposed software will be typically used when analyzing the results of numerical simulations. It will be useful to quickly extract scientific meaning from a set of numerical data.

  15. Open Universities in India 2000: Brief Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Bharat, Comp.; Lele, Nalini A., Comp.; Rausaria, R. R., Comp.

    This report contains information on the following open universities in India: (1) Indira Gandhi National Open University; (2) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University; (3) Kota Open University; (4) Nalanda Open University; (5) Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University; (6) Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University; (7) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open

  16. Re-Invigorating Openness at The Open University: The Role of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Brenda; Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the internal motivations and external drivers that led The Open University UK to enter the field of Open Educational Resources through its institution-wide OpenLearn initiative (www.open.ac.uk/openlearn). It also describes some of the emerging evidence of the impacts inside and outside the university. Through the rapid…

  17. Mainstreaming Open Textbooks: Educator Perspectives on the Impact of OpenStax College Open Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research between open textbook provider OpenStax College (OSC) and the OER Research Hub (OERRH), a Hewlett funded mixed methods open research project examining the impact of open educational resources (OER) on learning and teaching. The paper focuses primarily on the results of two surveys that were…

  18. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  19. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  20. Bargaining for Open Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojahn, Oliver W.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the bargaining problem between countries when negotiating bilateral air service agreements. To do so, we use the methods of bargaining and game theory. We give special attention to the case where a liberal minded country is trying to convince a less liberal country to agree to bilateral open skies, and the liberal country might also unilaterally open up its market. The following analysis is positive in the sense that the results help explain and predict the outcome of negotiations under different payoffs and structures of the bargaining process. They are normative in the sense that adequate manipulation of the bargaining conditions can ensure a desired outcome.

  1. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary support vector machines. Building from the success of statistical EVT based recognition methods such as PI-SVM and W-SVM on the open set problem, we present a new general supervised learning algorithm for multi-class classification and multi-class open set recognition called the Extreme Value Local Basis (EVLB). The design of this algorithm is motivated by the observation that extrema from known negative class distributions are the closest negative points to any positive sample during training, and thus should be used to define the parameters of a probabilistic decision model. In the EVLB, the kernel distribution for each positive training sample is estimated via an EVT distribution fit over the distances to the separating hyperplane between positive training sample and closest negative samples, with a subset of the overall positive training data retained to form a probabilistic decision boundary. Using this subset as a frame of reference, the probability of a sample at test time decreases as it moves away from the positive class. Possessing this property, the EVLB is well-suited to open set recognition problems where samples from unknown or novel classes are encountered at test. Our experimental evaluation shows that the EVLB provides a substantial improvement in scalability compared to standard radial basis function kernel machines, as well as P I-SVM and W-SVM, with improved accuracy in many cases. We evaluate our algorithm on open set variations of the standard visual learning benchmarks, as well as with an open subset of classes from Caltech 256 and ImageNet. Our experiments show that PI-SVM, WSVM and EVLB provide significant advances over the previous state-of-the-art solutions for the same tasks.

  2. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  3. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  4. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  5. Open Learning and ESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Liz

    Suggestions are presented that are drawn from basic skills instruction at the English Learning Centre at Gloucestershire College of Arts and Technology (England), an open learning center geared specifically for ESOL students. Funded for 2 years as a special project by the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, the center examines procedures that…

  6. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  7. Videoconferencing in Open Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Quick, Kevin A.; Scott, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of videoconferencing as a tool to enhance collaboration amongst online learners in an open learning context. We present quantitative data from a longitudinal study of naturalistic videoconferencing interactions held via the FM videoconference tool, indicating its global use. The case study presented is analysed…

  8. Open Systems Interconnection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Ray

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for standards allowing computer-to-computer communication and gives examples of technical issues. The seven-layer framework of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model is explained and illustrated. Sidebars feature public data networks and Recommendation X.25, OSI standards, OSI layer functions, and a glossary.…

  9. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the

  10. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  11. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  12. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  13. Minnesota's Open Enrollment Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Michael C.; And Others

    This document examines the implementation and early effects of Minnesota's open-enrollment option, which allows families to apply to enroll their children in a public school in any nonresident school district in the state. During 1989-90, surveys were mailed to 2,663 participating families, 1,966 secondary school students, and all 432 district

  14. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in

  15. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about

  16. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  17. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  18. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school

  19. Project Open Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Bert D.

    1968-01-01

    Project Open Future offers a summer residential program and Saturday classes during the school year to about 200 disadvantaged junior high school students selected from the East Los Angeles, Compton, and Watts areas. Instruction is given in reading, written and verbal expression, mathematics, science, and social studies. Computer training and a…

  20. Chimney Open Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    In the process of developing a design for the design report, many side questions or comments arose which were not completely answered or investigated because the work was outside the scope of developing a base design. I have pored over my meeting notes and tried to list all such chimney 'open issues' in this engineering note.

  1. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,

  2. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for

  3. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  4. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  5. Opening the books.

    PubMed

    Case, J

    1997-01-01

    For years, small companies have experimented with forms of open-book management. Open-book systems have smoothed change efforts by giving workers the why instead of just the how of initiatives; they have enabled employees to think like owners. Now divisions of large organizations such as R.R. Donnelley & Sons and Amoco Canada are finding opening the books can work for them, too. It isn't easy, and companies must adapt the principles to their own situations. AES Corporation, for example, found that it had to declare all its employees "insiders" when it went public. One of the reasons for large companies' interest in open-book management is the success of a role-model company, Missouri-based Springfield ReManufacturing. Leaders of divisions of large companies have been able to visit and ask questions. Other early adopters are also showing competitive advantages. Among them are Wabash National, now the nation's leading truck and tractor manufacturer, and Physician Sales & Service, a distributor of supplies to doctors' office. Open-book principles are the same whether a company is large or small: every employee must receive all relevant financial information and be taught to understand it; managers must hold employees accountable for making their unit's goals; and the compensation system must reward everyone for the overall success of the business. Hexacomb Corporation is one large organization that has done well. Workers at the company's seven plants are inspired by a system of splitting profits over budget fifty-fifty: half goes to the company and half to the bonus pool. Such companies are learning the benefits of having everyone work to push the numbers in the right direction. PMID:10165446

  6. The OpenSHMEM Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-07-30

    The OpenSHMEM Analyzer is a compiler-based tool that can help users detect errors and provide useful analyses about their OpenSHMEM applications. The tool is built on top of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler) and presents OpenSHMEM information as feedback to the user. Some of the analyses it provides include checks for correct usage of symmetric variables in OpenSHMEM calls, out-of-bounds checks for symmetric data, checks for the correct initialization of pointers tomore » symmetric data, and symmetric data alias information.« less

  7. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePlus

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  8. Open architecture CNC system

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

  9. Naval open systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  10. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  11. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  12. OpenEIS Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  13. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  14. Open boundary molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Sablić, J.; Praprotnik, M.

    2015-09-01

    This contribution analyzes several strategies and combination of methodologies to perform molecular dynamic simulations in open systems. Here, the term open indicates that the total system has boundaries where transfer of mass, momentum and energy can take place. This formalism, which we call Open Boundary Molecular Dynamics (OBMD), can act as interface of different schemes, such as Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) and Hybrid continuum-particle dynamics to link atomistic, coarse-grained (CG) and continuum (Eulerian) fluid dynamics in the general framework of fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations. The core domain of the simulation box is solved using all-atom descriptions. The CG layer introduced using AdResS is located at the outer part of the open box to make feasible the insertion of large molecules into the system. Communications between the molecular system and the outer world are carried out in the outer layers, called buffers. These coupling preserve momentum and mass conservation laws and can thus be linked with Eulerian hydro- dynamic solvers. In its simpler form, OBMD allows, however, to impose a local pressure tensor and a heat flux across the system's boundaries. For a one component molecular system, the external normal pressure and temperature determine the external chemical potential and thus the independent parameters of a grand-canonical ensemble simulation. Extended ensembles under non-equilibrium stationary states can also be simulated as well as time dependent forcings (e.g. oscillatory rheology). To illustrate the robustness of the combined OBMD-AdResS method, we present simulations of star-polymer melts at equilibrium and in sheared flow.

  15. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  16. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create

  17. Open Education: A Learning Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grush, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The term "open education" has been in use at least since the 1920s, when it emerged as an educational experiment in the Soviet Union. But since the spread of the internet in the late 20th century, open education has come to be inextricably associated with information technology. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Open Educational Resources…

  18. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent…

  19. Open Educational Resources and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackall, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

  20. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent

  1. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  2. Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards in chemistry: The Blue Obelisk five years on

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Blue Obelisk movement was established in 2005 as a response to the lack of Open Data, Open Standards and Open Source (ODOSOS) in chemistry. It aims to make it easier to carry out chemistry research by promoting interoperability between chemistry software, encouraging cooperation between Open Source developers, and developing community resources and Open Standards. Results This contribution looks back on the work carried out by the Blue Obelisk in the past 5 years and surveys progress and remaining challenges in the areas of Open Data, Open Standards, and Open Source in chemistry. Conclusions We show that the Blue Obelisk has been very successful in bringing together researchers and developers with common interests in ODOSOS, leading to development of many useful resources freely available to the chemistry community. PMID:21999342

  3. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (ζ{sub k{sub 1}}ζ{sub k{sub 2}}ζ{sub k{sub 3}})∝1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ≈ k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius.

  4. Bispectrum from open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ζ, generated during ``open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ``vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ``Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as langleζk1ζk2ζk3ranglepropto1/k12k34 in the so-called squeezed configurations, k3 << k1 ≈ k2, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k1 = k2+k3, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order when the wavelength of ζ is smaller than the curvature radius.

  5. "The Open Library at AU" (Athabasca University): Supporting Open Access and Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Colin; Fabbro, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    To address challenges that learners, course creators, librarians and academics involved with OER and MOOCs are facing when looking for scholarly materials, Athabasca University Library has initiated the development of "the Open Library at AU." This open library is a full library website that provides easy access to open and free…

  6. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them. PMID:12389463

  7. Open Rotor Test Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of low noise, counter-rotating open rotor propulsion concepts has been ongoing at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with General Electric Company. The presentation is an overview of the testing that has been completed to date and previews the upcoming test entries. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project Diagnostics entry is the most recent to finish. That test entry included acoustic phased array, pressure sensitive paint, particle image velocimetry, pylon installed measurements and acoustic shielding measurements. A preview of the data to be acquired in the 8x6 high-speed wind tunnel is also included.

  8. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  9. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  10. Opening the spaceways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponable, Jess M.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies spaceplane technical concepts proposed by both large and small companies. Highlights that the size and complexity of spaceplanes can be bounded by two well-defined concepts: the Lockheed Martin X-33/Venturestar concept and the Boeing Military Spaceplane vehicle. Also identifies a number of spaceplane concepts being proposed by small commercially financed companies. Reviews possible policy, regulatory, technology, financing and market catalysts that the government and Congress can establish to improve the business climate and encourage investment in spaceplane ventures. Argues that the government has a role and an obligation to help open the spaceways through a prudent mix of government investments and business incentives. .

  11. LISA: Opening New Horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-borne observatory that will open the low frequency (approx.0.1-100 mHz) gravitational wave window on the universe. LISA will observe a rich variety of gravitational wave sources, including mergers of massive black holes, captures of stellar black holes by massive black holes in the centers of galaxies, and compact Galactic binaries. These sources are generally long-lived, providing unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy in the transient sky. This talk will present an overview of these scientific arenas, highlighting how LISA will enable stunning discoveries in origins, understanding the cosmic order, and the frontiers of knowledge.

  12. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  13. Opening ceremonies celebrate nurses.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kath

    The opening ceremonies of what many consider the greatest show on earth took place on Friday 27 July and hundreds of nurses took part. Many were chosen for a special sequence dedicated to NHS workers. Others, however, were chosen to interact with audience members as a result of some of the same attributes that make nurses uniquely qualified to deliver patient care. Kath Lynch, a clinical lead nurse at the Royal Free Travel Health Centre, was one of the selected few and was even honoured for her enthusiasm with four real Olympic medals. PMID:22874863

  14. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1999-06-01

    The beginning of the VLT era was marked by two major events: the VLT Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March 1999, preceded by the VLT Opening Symposium on 1-4 March. ESO is indebted to Professor J.A. Music Tomicic, Rector of the Universidad Católica del Norte, for hosting this symposium. Another major event occurred on the night of 4 March: First light was achieved ahead of schedule at Kueyen, the second 8.2-m VLT unit telescope.

  15. Open Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Norman C.; Strangway, Donald W.

    1964-01-01

    Steady improvement in the diagnostic appraisal of obscure pulmonary and mediastinal disease has permitted more intelligent treatment, better prognosis, and where necessary more accurate assessment of compensability. Open lung biopsy is designed to obtain material for pathological study when there is no pleural, mediastinal, or airway lesion on which to base a working diagnosis. A study of 54 patients in whom lung biopsy was performed at the Toronto General Hospital and Weston Sanatorium is reported. A positive tissue diagnosis was obtained in approximately 75%. The procedure is considered relatively innocuous if sensible selection is exercised to exclude patients with terminal disease, particularly that associated with severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. No major complications occurred in this series. It is concluded that open lung biopsy might reasonably receive much wider application than in the past in cases in which a definite diagnosis cannot otherwise be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14180532

  16. A secure open system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The notion of a large distributed computing system in support of a program like EOSDIS, carries with it the requirement that the system provide the user with guarantees about the integrity of the data and certain assurances about the security of the network of computing systems. This paper examines the challenges of providing a `secure' open system and how these challenges may be addressed from both an architectural as well as functional viewpoint. The role of discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and detection and control of computer viruses is discussed. It has often been observed that the role of the security engineer is one of restricting access to data, whereas the role of the system architect, of an open system that is encouraging research, should make data easy to obtain and utilize. This paradox is manifest in a system such a EOSDIS where to be useful, the systems data must be easy to obtain, but to ensure the integrity of the data it must exercise some level of security. This paper address the use and role of the Security Services of the OSF Distributed Computing Environment in support of networked applications, such as those that may be used in the implementation of the EOS Science Network. It further examines the role of mandatory access control mechanisms to provide data integrity guarantees. The paper further discusses how a system like EOSDIS may prevent computer viruses using a system of automated detection mechanisms and configuration control.

  17. Open geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Denis; Ilyin, Vladimir; Bashev, Anton

    2010-05-01

    We regard "geochemical data" as data on chemical parameters of the environment, linked with the geographical position of the corresponding point. Boosting development of global positioning system (GPS) and measuring instruments allows fast collecting of huge amounts of geochemical data. Presently they are published in scientific journals in text format, that hampers searching for information about particular places and meta-analysis of the data, collected by different researchers. Part of the information is never published. To make the data available and easy to find, it seems reasonable to elaborate an open database of geochemical information, accessible via Internet. It also seems reasonable to link the data with maps or space images, for example, from GoogleEarth service. For this purpose an open geochemical database is being elaborating (http://maps.sch192.ru). Any user after registration can upload geochemical data (position, type of parameter and value of the parameter) and edit them. Every user (including unregistered) can (a) extract the values of parameters, fulfilling desired conditions and (b) see the points, linked to GoogleEarth space image, colored according to a value of selected parameter. Then he can treat extracted values any way he likes. There are the following data types in the database: authors, points, seasons and parameters. Author is a person, who publishes the data. Every author can declare his own profile. A point is characterized by its geographical position and type of the object (i.e. river, lake etc). Value of parameters are linked to a point, an author and a season, when they were obtained. A user can choose a parameter to place on GoogleEarth space image and a scale to color the points on the image according to the value of a parameter. Currently (December, 2009) the database is under construction, but several functions (uploading data on pH and electrical conductivity and placing colored points onto GoogleEarth space image) are available yet. We hope that open database will help exchanging geochemical information and call everybody for sharing the geochemical data. We also call for feedback on the structure, interface and operation of the database.

  18. OpenSSO Project Patches

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  19. OpenMDAO Framework Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Advancing and exploring the science of Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization (MDAO) capabilities are high-level goals in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project. The OpenMDAO team has made significant progress toward completing the Alpha OpenMDAO deliverable due in September 2010. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the OpenMDAO framework, example usage of OpenMDAO, technology transfer plans, near term plans, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations.

  20. An opening electromagnetic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Tubular solenoids have been widely used without any change since an electrical wire was discovered to create magnetic fields by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 and thereby the wire was first coiled as a helix into a solenoid coil by William Sturgeon in 1823 and was improved by Joseph Henry in 1829 [see http://www.myetymology.com/encyclopedia/History_of_the_electricity.html; J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010); and F. Winterberg, Plasma Phys. 8, 541553 (1996)]. A magnetic control method of C-shaped carrying-current wire is proposed, and thereby a new opening electromagnetic transducer evidently differing from the traditional tubular solenoid is created, capable of directly encircling and centering the acted objects in it, bringing about convenient and innovative electromagnetic energy conversion for electromagnetic heating, electromagnetic excitation, physical information capture, and electro-mechanical motion used in science research, industry, and even biomedical activities.

  1. The open science grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pordes, Ruth; OSG Consortium; Petravick, Don; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Würthwein, Frank; Foster, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; Blatecky, Alan; McGee, John; Quick, Rob

    2007-07-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support it's use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  2. The Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wurthwein, Frank; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  3. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  4. The Open Learning Object Model to Promote Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Gentile, Manuel; Taibi, Davide; Allegra, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of research work, that forms part of the activities of the EU-funded project SLOOP: Sharing Learning Objects in an Open Perspective, aimed at encouraging the definition, development and management of Open Educational Resources based on the Learning Object paradigm (Wiley, 2000). We present a model of Open…

  5. Open University Staff Development Materials for Tutors of Open Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Anne; Perkins, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of staff development and the new Supporting Open Learners' (SOL) materials at the United Kingdom Open University. Outlines objectives of the SOL program. Discusses issues arising from use of SOL materials, including instructional attitudes; modelling good practice; developing the reflective practitioner; perceived value;…

  6. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. Introduction: The Open Education Movement. Prespectives on Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolakes, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    Argues that we cannot transplant'' the open classroom from its English culture base and expect it to work in our society. Suggests that we be wary of cheap'' innovations and that open classrooms should be viewed as an alternative to our formal programs rather than as a panacea for all our ecucational problems. Recommends the evolution of a small…

  8. Equipping the Open-Plan School, Equipping for Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Frank

    The performance specifications of furniture and equipment for open education and open-plan schools differ from conventional classroom furniture in that it must be easily moved, have a range of dimensions, contain multipurpose interchangeable components, and be designed to accommodate a variety of student/teacher uses. The author suggests some…

  9. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  10. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  11. Next Stop: OpenSim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhappy with conditions in Second Life, educators are migrating to a developing virtual world that offers them greater autonomy and a safer platform for their students at far less a cost. OpenSimulator is an open source virtual world platform that schools can run for free on their own servers or can get cheaply and quickly--the space can be up and

  12. Open Archives: A Key Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses interoperability as a key challenge to digital libraries and describes efforts of the Open Archives initiative (formerly Universal Preprint Service initiative) to develop an open architecture that supports simultaneous searching and retrieval of papers from disparate archives. Highlights include scientific information and journal…

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePlus

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  14. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a

  15. OpenSM Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, T. A.

    2015-04-17

    The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.

  16. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  17. Next Stop: OpenSim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhappy with conditions in Second Life, educators are migrating to a developing virtual world that offers them greater autonomy and a safer platform for their students at far less a cost. OpenSimulator is an open source virtual world platform that schools can run for free on their own servers or can get cheaply and quickly--the space can be up and…

  18. Open Science: A Zealot's View

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open science encompasses many concepts, but most agree that for science to be truly open four things must be true. First, all components of the scientific project must be freely available including manuscripts, code, and data. Second, others must be able to repeat your work and ...

  19. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  20. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  1. Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Openly Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Roberts, Verena; LaBonte, Randy; Graham, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs as the importance of digital literacy and digital freedoms for all learners grows. This article describes current open learning policy, open educational resources and potential implications for open practice and ends with suggestions for future research in open

  2. China opens the door

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  3. OpenStudio: An Open Source Integrated Analysis Platform; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Macumber, D.; Long, N.

    2011-12-01

    High-performance buildings require an integrated design approach for all systems to work together optimally; systems integration needs to be incorporated in the earliest stages of design for efforts to be cost and energy-use effective. Building designers need a full-featured software framework to support rigorous, multidisciplinary building simulation. An open source framework - the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) - is being developed to address this need. In this paper, we discuss the needs that drive OpenStudio's system architecture and goals, provide a development status report (the SDK is currently in alpha release), and present a brief case study that illustrates its utility and flexibility.

  4. NASA Open Rotor Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. However, to make open rotor systems truly competitive, they must be made to be acoustically acceptable too. To address this challenge, NASA in collaboration with industry is exploring the design space for low-noise open rotor propulsion systems. The focus is on the system level assessment of the open rotors compared with other candidate concepts like the ultra high bypass ratio cycle engines. To that end there is an extensive research effort at NASA focused on component testing and diagnostics of the open rotor acoustic performance as well as assessment and improvement of open rotor noise prediction tools. In this presentation and overview of the current NASA research on open rotor noise will be provided. Two NASA projects, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, have been funding this research effort.

  5. openBEB: open biological experiment browser for correlative measurements

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background New experimental methods must be developed to study interaction networks in systems biology. To reduce biological noise, individual subjects, such as single cells, should be analyzed using high throughput approaches. The measurement of several correlative physical properties would further improve data consistency. Accordingly, a considerable quantity of data must be acquired, correlated, catalogued and stored in a database for subsequent analysis. Results We have developed openBEB (open Biological Experiment Browser), a software framework for data acquisition, coordination, annotation and synchronization with database solutions such as openBIS. OpenBEB consists of two main parts: A core program and a plug-in manager. Whereas the data-type independent core of openBEB maintains a local container of raw-data and metadata and provides annotation and data management tools, all data-specific tasks are performed by plug-ins. The open architecture of openBEB enables the fast integration of plug-ins, e.g., for data acquisition or visualization. A macro-interpreter allows the automation and coordination of the different modules. An update and deployment mechanism keeps the core program, the plug-ins and the metadata definition files in sync with a central repository. Conclusions The versatility, the simple deployment and update mechanism, and the scalability in terms of module integration offered by openBEB make this software interesting for a large scientific community. OpenBEB targets three types of researcher, ideally working closely together: (i) Engineers and scientists developing new methods and instruments, e.g., for systems-biology, (ii) scientists performing biological experiments, (iii) theoreticians and mathematicians analyzing data. The design of openBEB enables the rapid development of plug-ins, which will inherently benefit from the “house keeping” abilities of the core program. We report the use of openBEB to combine live cell microscopy, microfluidic control and visual proteomics. In this example, measurements from diverse complementary techniques are combined and correlated. PMID:24666611

  6. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data treatment could be conducted in other programs after extraction the filtered data into *.csv file. It makes the database understandable for non-experts. The database employs open data format (*.csv) and wide spread tools: PHP as the program language, MySQL as database management system, JavaScript for interaction with GoogleMaps and JQueryUI for create user interface. The database is multilingual: there are association tables, which connect with elements of the database. In total the development required about 150 hours. The database still has several problems. The main problem is the reliability of the data. Actually it needs an expert system for estimation the reliability, but the elaboration of such a system would take more resources than the database itself. The second problem is the problem of stream selection - how to select the stations that are connected with each other (for example, belong to one water stream) and indicate their sequence. Currently the interface is English and Russian. However it can be easily translated to your language. But some problems we decided. For example problem "the problem of the same station" (sometimes the distance between stations is smaller, than the error of position): when you adding new station to the database our application automatically find station near this place. Also we decided problem of object and parameter type (how to regard "EC" and "electrical conductivity" as the same parameter). This problem has been solved using "associative tables". If you would like to see the interface on your language, just contact us. We should send you the list of terms and phrases for translation on your language. The main advantage of the database is that it is totally open: everybody can see, extract the data from the database and use them for non-commercial purposes with no charge. Registered users can contribute to the database without getting paid. We hope, that it will be widely used first of all for education purposes, but professional scientists could use it also.

  7. Scattering Amplitudes with Open Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cascioli, F.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.

    2012-03-01

    We introduce a new technique to generate scattering amplitudes at one loop. Traditional tree algorithms, which handle diagrams with fixed momenta, are promoted to generators of loop-momentum polynomials that we call open loops. Combining open loops with tensor-integral and Ossola-Papadopoulos-Pittau reduction results in a fully flexible, very fast, and numerically stable one-loop generator. As demonstrated with nontrivial applications, the open-loop approach will permit us to obtain precise predictions for a very wide range of collider processes.

  8. An Open Source Model for Open Access Journal Publication

    PubMed Central

    Blesius, Carl R.; Williams, Michael A.; Holzbach, Ana; Huntley, Arthur C.; Chueh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We describe an electronic journal publication infrastructure that allows a flexible publication workflow, academic exchange around different forms of user submissions, and the exchange of articles between publishers and archives using a common XML based standard. This web-based application is implemented on a freely available open source software stack. This publication demonstrates the Dermatology Online Journal's use of the platform for non-biased independent open access publication. PMID:16779183

  9. An open source model for open access journal publication.

    PubMed

    Blesius, Carl R; Williams, Michael A; Holzbach, Ana; Huntley, Arthur C; Chueh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We describe an electronic journal publication infrastructure that allows a flexible publication workflow, academic exchange around different forms of user submissions, and the exchange of articles between publishers and archives using a common XML based standard. This web-based application is implemented on a freely available open source software stack. This publication demonstrates the Dermatology Online Journal's use of the platform for non-biased independent open access publication. PMID:16779183

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  11. 77 FR 57086 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  12. 78 FR 16852 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  13. 77 FR 74661 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  14. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing

  15. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  16. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Against the Odds Exhibition Opens Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... Research in Bethesda. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson "Against the Odds" is a remarkable story of achievement ...

  17. Open Systems: A Second Opinion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James

    1987-01-01

    Describes the advantages of the development of open systems, i.e., a configuration which combines software and hardware from separate vendors into a single system, as a means of increasing the possible applications of library automation. (CLB)

  18. Skinner and the Open Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1972-01-01

    Author examines the implications of a major scientific work of behavioral ressearch and concludes that positive reinforcement techniques will make possible the creation of an open classroom, that, in itself, will minimize the negative effects of control. (Author/RK)

  19. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  20. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  1. Opening the door to innovation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Janine; Graus, Yvo F; Labrijn, Aran F; Ruuls, Sigrid R; Parren, Paul WHI

    2014-01-01

    Open innovation is the new buzz, with initiatives popping up left and right. Here, we give a personal perspective on a very successful, knowledge-driven innovation initiated in an academia- industry alliance, which culminated in technology platforms that enable the generation of therapeutic antibodies with novel properties. To start, we provide a general background on open innovation in the drug development field. PMID:24784437

  2. Workshop on Repetitive Opening Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    1981-04-01

    A workshop on Repetitive Opening Switches was conducted by Texas Tech University for the U.S. Army Research Office. Several papers on a wide range of innovative opening switch concepts were presented. Discussions about the research needs to advance the state-of-the-art in this important, emerging field are summarized. A concensus on research topics and their importance is summarized and a suggested research priority list given.

  3. Open XAL Status Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2013-01-01

    XAL is the well established, accelerator physics application programming framework developed for and used at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab. Due to interest from other accelerator labs, the Open XAL project was formed in 2010 to port XAL to be more suitable for collaboration. The Open XAL architecture along with the objectives, status and roadmap of this effort are presented in this paper.

  4. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  5. OOI's Cyberinfrastructure: An Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Ampe, T.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A. D.; Cressey, R.; Jul, S.; McPhail, T.; Meisinger, M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Schofield, O.; Stocks, K.; Thomas, J.; Vernon, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative is a long-term, NSF-funded program to provide 25-30 years of sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics. The OOI will enable powerful new scientific approaches for exploring the complexities of Earth-ocean-atmosphere interactions, thereby accelerating progress toward the goal of understanding, predicting, and managing our ocean environment. The OOI can foster new discoveries that, in turn, move research in unforeseen directions. The OOI Cyberinfrastructure will connect and coordinate the operations of OOI marine components and data processes, to meet the objectives of the oceanographic research and education communities. The CI will let all users easily interact with deployed resources, access collected data, and apply those data to their specific research and educational needs. The CI is a free and open product that adopts innovative and flexible strategies to bring the oceans to users, any time, any place, on any suitable device. The OOI CI is dedicated to "using the latest computing technologies to solve the interoperability problem among vast amounts of heterogeneous geospatial data from various sources." OOI CI's charge is to be transformative, and its technologies and goals are just that (see URL). The Cyberinfrastructure integrates state-of-the-art and best-practice approaches to provide fully interoperable access to the widest possible collection of geospatial data. From the system-of-systems model of the planned observatories and the ingestion of data, models, and services; to the configurable, automated workflows producing real-time products, data curation and quality management strategies are supported to the fullest possible extent. How do we build a system to efficiently support 750 core instruments across numerous platform types, add as-yet unknown instruments during the operations phase, and support any number of processes and external data in the system throughout its 25+ years of operation? What key strategies must be adopted, architectural approaches applied, and technologies integrated to provide complete discovery, access, and use of the system and its data? What defines the critical characteristics expected of the core system, the complete system, and the transformative system? And how can this system be leveraged by multiple science users, programs, and organizations beyond its initial target functionality? We will present the CI team's best responses to these questions. The project is completing Release 2, two-thirds of the way to a fully public release, and halfway to the final system. The engagement of OOI marine operations and marine science teams prepares us to support marine operations, and the software will be applied to "real operations" very soon. Most of the fundamental marine and operational scenarios are in place at a basic level, and the capabilities have been laid out for a full suite of mature operations and science activities. From these beginnings, we offer technical, social, and strategic perspectives on the challenges and solutions in geoinformatics data systems, and ask "Where to from here?" Funding for OOI is provided by the National Science Foundation through a Cooperative Agreement with the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, which in turn funds the CI project.

  6. Veratridine modifies open sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The state dependence of Na channel modification by the alkaloid neurotoxin veratridine was investigated with single-channel and whole- cell voltage-clamp recording in neuroblastoma cells. Several tests of whole-cell Na current behavior in the presence of veratridine supported the hypothesis that Na channels must be open in order to undergo modification by the neurotoxin. Modification was use dependent and required depolarizing pulses, the voltage dependence of production of modified channels was similar to that of normal current activation, and prepulses that caused inactivation of normal current had a parallel effect on the generation of modified current. This hypothesis was then examined directly at the single-channel level. Modified channel openings were easily distinguished from normal openings by their smaller current amplitude and longer burst times. The modification event was often seen as a sudden, dramatic reduction of current through an open Na channel and produced a somewhat flickery channel event having a mean lifetime of 1.6 s at an estimated absolute membrane potential of -45 mV (23 degrees C). The modified channel had a slope conductance of 4 pS, which was 20-25% the size of the slope conductance of normal channels with the 300 mM NaCl pipette solution used. Most modified channel openings were initiated by depolarizing pulses, began within the first 10 ms of the depolarizing step, and were closely associated with the prior opening of single normal Na channels, which supports the hypothesis that modification occurs from the normal open state. PMID:2454286

  7. Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness.…

  8. Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Openly Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Roberts, Verena; LaBonte, Randy; Graham, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs as the importance of digital literacy and digital freedoms for all learners grows. This article describes current open learning policy, open educational resources and potential implications for open practice and ends with suggestions for future research in open…

  9. Open Educational Partnerships and Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    At the Open University in Scotland "openness" is part of our sense of self; our engagement with Open Educational Resources and Practices (OER/OEP) seems obvious. In this paper we explore some of those obvious aspects and using our partnership with a third sector organisation explore some of the less apparent aspects of openness. In…

  10. The Kepler Open Cluster Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Soren; Kepler Team

    2010-01-01

    We will present The Kepler Open Cluster Study, a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around select members of 4 open star clusters with ages from 0.5-10 Gyr. With measurements of unique duration, cadence, and precision, Kepler may detect the first transiting planet in an open cluster, and promise to open a new window to the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars by measuring rotation periods for cluster stars with ages beyond that of the Hyades and of the Sun. Such Kepler results will help further develop a new technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation. This application alone has broad implications in general, and for the field of extra-solar planets and the Kepler mission in particular. In addition to the specifics of the program we will present a "first look" at Kepler light curves for late-type members of open clusters. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

  11. Open laminoforaminotomy: A lost art?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open cervical laminoforaminotomy (CLF) provides safe and effective decompression/excision of lateral/foraminal disc herniations/spurs contributing to nerve root compression. CLF's advantages over anterior cervical discectomy/fusion (ACDF) include the lack of risk to anterior structures (esophagus, trachea, carotid, and recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the avoidance of a fusion. Further, advantages over minimally invasive surgery CLF (MIS CLF) include a lower incidence of dural tears, infections, and neural injury. Furthermore, complications are now more often reported in medicolegal suits rather than the spinal surgical literature. Methods: Here, in a select review of the spinal literature in which we specifically focused on the benefits, risks, and complication of open CLF versus the various MIS CLS techniques. Results: Open CLF is a unique posterior cervical surgical technique that is technically demanding. When using an MIS CLF approach that provides limited visualization and maneuverability while incurring greater morbidity (e.g., risks more dural tears, infection, and neural damage). Conclusions: Why not utilize open CLF, adequately and safely, to decompress lateral/foraminally compromised cervical nerve roots, and avoid the risks of MIS CLF or ACDF? Presently, too many spine surgeons automatically choose MIS CLF or ACDF over open CLF; is this because it is a “lost art”? PMID:26693388

  12. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive. The text below summarizes the individual projects. Comprehensive texts with all photos and diagrammes are available in nine separate web documents ( ESO PR Photos 08/99 to 16/99 ) that may be accessed via the links at the top of each section. The degree of detail and level of complexity of the texts depend on the subject and the available materials. 1. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group ESO PR Photo 10a/99 ESO PR Photo 10a/99 The Antlia Galaxy (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photos 10a-d/99 In addition to large spiral galaxies like the Milky Way Galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy and Messier 33, the Local Group of Galaxies contains many dwarf galaxies. The VLT has observed two of these, Antlia and NGC 6822 . Antlia is a low-surface brightness, spheroidal dwarf galaxy that was only discovered in 1997. While it contains a large amount of atomic hydrogen at its centre, no young stars are found, and it appears that most of its stars are old. This is unlike other dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way neighbourhood, as star formation is expected to occur within dense hydrogen clouds. Further observations will be necessary to understand this unusual characteristics. The VLT also obtained images of an irregular dwarf galaxy in the Local Group, NGC 6822, as well as spectra of some of its stars. This galaxy is of the "irregular" type and is situated at a distance of about 2 million light-years. A comparison of the spectra of supergiant stars in NGC 6822 shows that many spectral lines are much weaker than in stars of similar type in the Milky Way, but of similar strength as in stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This confirms an earlier finding that NGC 6822 has chemical composition (a lower "metallicity") that is different from what is observed in our Galaxy. 2. The Double Stellar Cluster NGC 1850 in the LMC ESO PR Photo 15/99 ESO PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 is a double cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to the Milky Way Galaxy. This cluster is representative of a class of objects, young, globular-like stellar associations , that has no counterpart in our own Galaxy. The VLT images show faint nebulosity in this area, with filaments and various sharp "shocks". This offers support to the theory of supernova-induced star birth in the younger of the two clusters. It is estimated that about 1000 stars in the older of the clusters have exploded during the past 20 million years. 3. The Barred Galaxy NGC 1365 ESO PR Photo 08a/99 ESO PR Photo 08a/99 The Barred Galaxy NGC 1365 (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photos 08a-e/99 NGC 1365 is one of the most prominent "barred" galaxies in the sky. It is a supergiant galaxy and is a member of the Fornax Cluster of Galaxies, at a distance of about 60 million light-years. This galaxy has an intricate structure with a massive straight bar and two pronounced spiral arms. There are many dust lanes and emission nebulae in these and also a bright nuclear region at the center that may hide a black hole. Several images of NGC 1365 have recently been obtained with all three astronomical instruments, now installed at the VLT UT1. They show the overall structure of this magnificent galaxy, and also the fine details of the innermost region, close to the centre. An infrared ISAAC image penetrates deep into the obscuring dust clouds in this area. 4. The colours of NGC 1232 ESO PR Photo 13a/99 ESO PR Photo 13a/99 Differential (UV-B) image of NGC 1232 (FORS1) . Access full text and PR Photos 13a-b/99 NGC 1232 is a large spiral galaxy in the constellation Eridanus (The River). With a diameter of nearly 200,000 light-years, it is about twice the size of the Milky Way galaxy. The distance is about 100 million light-years, but the excellent optical quality of the VLT and FORS allows us to see an incredible wealth of details. Computer processed "colour-index images" have been prepared that show the "difference" between images of the galaxy, as seen in different wavebands. Since different types of objects have different brightness in different colours, this method is very useful to locate objects of a particular type and to obtain an overview of their distribution in the galaxy. The distribution of star-forming regions and dust lanes in NGC 1232 are shown on two such photos. 5. A Selection of ISAAC Spectra ESO PR Photo 11a/99 ESO PR Photo 11a/99 He I 1038 nm line in SN1987A (ISAAC spectrum) . Access full text and PR Photos 11a-c/99 Various observations were made with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument at the Nasmyth focus of VLT UT1 during the recent commissioning periods for this infrared multi-mode instrument. They impressively demonstrate the unique capabilities of this facility. The new data include several infrared spectra of faint objects with interesting features. A spectrum was obtained in the near-infrared region of the ring nebula around SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. It consists of material blown off the progenitor star during its evolution. Of particular interest is a jet like structure in the dispersion direction which reveals the presence of a broad, blueshifted, HeI component which presumably originates in the shock ionized ejecta. Another spectrum shows emission features in two galaxies at redshift z = 0.6 [1] that allow the determination of a rotation curve at this large distance. The 1 - 2.5 µm infrared spectrum of the radio galaxy MRC0406 at z =2.42 is also included. 6. The Cluster of Galaxies MS1008.1-1224 ESO PR Photo 09b/99 ESO PR Photo 09b/99 Centre of the Cluster of Galaxies MS1008.1-122 (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photos 09a-b/99 The study of "Deep Fields" is becoming a common tool in astronomy. Among the various sky fields that have been selected for detailed investigation of the faint and distant objects therein, is the FORS Deep Field that will be observed during FORS1 "guaranteed time", available to astronomers from institutes that built this instrument. In preparation of this work, an imaging programme was carried out during the FORS1 Science Verification programme. Multicolour (UBVRI) deep images were obtained of the galaxy cluster MS1008.1-1224 , to be complemented with infrared (JHK) images with ISAAC of the cluster core. The redshift is z = 0.306 and many arclets from gravitational lensing are seen within the cluster area. Such observations serve many purposes, including the study of the distribution of mass and the associated gravitational field of the cluster, of individual cluster galaxies, and also of background objects whose images are amplified and distorted by gravitational lensing caused by the cluster. 7. Quasar Spectra ESO PR Photo 14a/99 ESO PR Photo 14c/99 Spectrum of Quasar at z = 5 Access full text and PR Photos 14a-c/99 The FORS1 multi-mode instrument is able to record images as well as spectra of even very distant objects. During the past months, data have been obtained that show the properties of some of the remotest known objects in the Universe. Three spectral tracings of very distant quasars are included, for which the redshifts have been determined as z = 3.11, 3.83 and 5.0. They were taken by the FORS Commissioning Team in September and December 1998 in the long-slit spectroscopy mode of FORS1. This instrument is very efficient; even for the most distant and faintest quasar, the exposure time was only 1 hour. All spectra show a wealth of details. 8. Spectrum of a Gravitationally Lensed Galaxy ESO PR Photo 16c/99 ESO PR Photo 16c/99 Spectrum of Gravitationally Lensed Galaxy at z = 3.23 (FORS1) . Access full text and PR Photos 16a-c/99 The galaxy cluster 1ES 0657-55 is located in the southern constellation Carina (The Keel), at redshift z = 0.29. It emits strong and very hot X-ray emission and has an asymmetric galaxy distribution, indicating a large mass and recent formation. Earlier images with the ESO NTT at La Silla have revealed the presence of a gravitational arc, i.e. a background galaxy at larger distance, whose image is strongly distorted by the gravitational field of this cluster. New images of this cluster have been obtained with FORS1 under good seeing conditions. They show that this arc is very thin and long. Other arcs and arclets are also visible. It was possible to obtain a spectrum of the arc. Several absorption lines are well visible and show that the arc is the highly distorted image of a young, background galaxy at redshift z = 3.23. 9. Spectra of Faint Primordial Objects ESO PR Photo 12d/99 ESO PR Photo 12d/99 Spectrum of Distant Galaxy EIS 107 at z = 3.92 (FORS1) . Access full text and PR Photos 12a-f/99 During the recent commissioning and science verification of FORS1, spectra were taken of several objects, thought to be high-redshift galaxies. These objects are extremely faint and their spectra can only be observed with very large telescopes like the VLT and a highly efficient spectrograph. The near-infrared (I) magnitudes of the objects studied during the present test observations ranged between 23.4 and 25.5, or between 10 and 65 million times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. As predicted, a large fraction of the spectra obtained turned out to be those of extremely distant galaxies, in the redshift range between z = 2.8 - 4.0. Outlook These observations provide but a small demonstration of the great capability of the ESO VLT to provide front-line astronomical data. Many others will be discussed during the Symposium and contribute to the future planning of the best possible exploitation of this great new research facility. The first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT1) with which the observations reported in this Press Release were made will soon be joined by UT2, for which "First Light" is expected shortly, cf. PR Photos 07/99. The first instrument to be mounted on this telescope will be UVES that will provide the capability of obtaining high-dispersion spectra; the next is FORS2. During the coming years, more instruments of different types and capabilities will become available on the four 8.2-m telescopes, together providing an unrivalled potential for astronomical investigations. Note: [1]: In astronomy, the redshift (z) denotes the fraction by which the lines in the spectrum of an object are shifted towards longer wavelengths. The observed redshift of a distant galaxy or quasar gives a direct estimate of the universal expansion (i.e. the `recession velocity'). Since this expansion rate increases with the distance, the velocity (and thus the redshift) is itself a function (the Hubble relation) of the distance to the object. The larger the distance, the longer it has taken the light from the object to reach us, and the larger is the "look-back" time, i.e. the fraction of the age of the Universe that has elapsed since the light we now receive, was emitted from the object. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../ ). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory . Note also the comprehensive VLT Information site.

  13. Open String on Symmetric Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Yutaka

    We discuss some basic properties of the open string on the symmetric product which is supposed to describe the open string field theory in discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ). We first derive the consistent twisted boundary conditions for Annulus/Möbius/Klein Bottle diagrams and give the explicit form of the corresponding amplitude. They have the interpretation as the long open (or closed) string amplitude but the world sheet topology viewed from the short string and from the long string is in general different. Boundary (cross-cap) states of the short string are classified into three categories, the boundary (cross-cap) states of the long string and the "joint" state which connects two strings. The partition function has the typical structure of the string field theory in DLCQ. Tadpole condition is also analyzed and gives a reasonable gauge group SO(213).

  14. Nutrition and the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nathan J; Collier, Bryan

    2012-08-01

    Adequate nutrition support is critical in the management of patients with an open abdomen. Despite the literature supporting its use in trauma patients, provider concerns and clinical controversies remain regarding the early administration and long-term sequelae of enteral nutrition (EN) therapy in these patients. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical concepts behind the use of the open abdomen, as well as examine the altered nutrition requirements associated with the maintenance of a temporary laparostomy. The rationale for early EN is described, as well as the pros and cons surrounding the use of supplemental parenteral nutrition in those patients unable to meet nutrition goals enterally in a reasonable time frame. Finally, an open abdomen nutrition support algorithm is provided as part of the critical care plan in these patients who represent the sickest of surgical patients. PMID:22695711

  15. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  16. An Open Source Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

  17. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  18. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these

  19. Assessing Open and Distance Learners. Open and Distance Learning Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Chris; O'Reilly, Meg

    This book is designed to help readers reflect upon their personal approaches to open and distance learning (ODL) assessment and to adapt their techniques to benefit learners. Part A explores issues and themes in ODL assessment. It examines key terms in assessment; the important relationship between assessment and learning; unique issues of…

  20. OpenMP for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  1. OpenFOAM for beginners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin

    2015-11-01

    OpenFOAM has gained significant popularity in academia and industry, but is still not widely introduced to CFD novices - e.g., undergraduate students. This is likely due to the steep learning curve of the software. A relatively short tutorial was developed to introduce students to the basic features of OpenFOAM, allowing them to modify and create simulations, and to better understand other online resources. The tutorial has been successfully introduced to students working on undergraduate capstone projects at the University of New Hampshire and parts of it were presented at a tech-camp for K-12 students.

  2. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  3. The Open University in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Great Plains National Instructional Television Library.

    This catalog describes audiovisual format courses produced by the Open University of Great Britain and presently available in the United States. The courses are: (1) Art and Environment; (2) Environmental Control and Public Health; (3) History of Architecture and Design 1890-1939; (4) History of Mathematics; (5) International Politics and Foreign…

  4. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  5. An Online Open Learning Campus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Gert; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of online networks for distance education based on a workshop sponsored by the Australian Open Learning Information Network. Topics addressed include Pegasus, an Australian electronic network; the perspectives of teachers and students who were involved with online distance education courses; and services provided by ILANET…

  6. Self-Examination Promotes Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her view on the academic freedom debate and focuses on the Ohio State University's commitment to the principles of academic freedom and intellectual diversity. She states that Ohio State is strongly committed to the free, open, and civil exchange of views as part of the educational process. The Inter-University…

  7. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming

  8. Opening Doors on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Innovative programs for migrant students prove the payoff of making parents partners in classroom learning. This article features "Abriendo Puertas," or Opening Doors, an innovative program developed by Texas A&M University specifically for migrant education. The program emphasizes on literacy, academic success, and--most importantly--parental…

  9. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  10. Understanding massively open online courses.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2014-02-01

    Massively open online courses (MOOCs) are an innovative delivery system for educational offerings. MOOCs have been hailed with optimism for making education accessible to many, but at the same time, they have been criticized for poor participant completion rates. Nurse educators are considering whether and how to use MOOCs; this column explains MOOCs and their advantages and disadvantages for nurse educators. PMID:24494660

  11. Sainsbury's Evolving Open Learning Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David; Houldsworth, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of Sainsbury's, a United Kingdom food retailer who adopted innovations in retail technology and whose resulting training needs were met in part through open learning technology. Highlights include networked personal computers, course materials created by trainers, and implications for higher education. (LRW)

  12. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  13. Self-Examination Promotes Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her view on the academic freedom debate and focuses on the Ohio State University's commitment to the principles of academic freedom and intellectual diversity. She states that Ohio State is strongly committed to the free, open, and civil exchange of views as part of the educational process. The Inter-University

  14. Open File: Professionalism in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Lo, Leslie N. K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on professionalism in teaching. It begins with an article in Viewpoints/Controversies titled "A Renewed Sense for the Purposes of Schooling: The Challenges of Education and Social Cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia" (Stephen P. Heyneman; Sanja Todoric-Bebic). In Open File: Professionalism in…

  15. "Open-Sourcing" Personal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Sebastian H.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a critical reflection on the contemporary Open Educational Resource (OER) movement, its unquestioned investment in a collective "content fetish" and an educational "problem description" that focuses on issues of scarcity, access, and availability of quality materials. It also argues that OER proponents fail…

  16. Teachers toward Open School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    Examined are teachers' perceptions of "everyday" politics in schools. Of the 777 teachers responding, 404 described the political strategies they used with principals as "open" and "effective." Discussed are these strategies, teachers' reasons/purposes, teachers' feelings, and strategy effectiveness. (73 references) (SI)

  17. Meritocracy and the Open Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacquinta, Joseph B.

    1976-01-01

    A growing conflict between two fundamental American values, meritocracy and egalitarianism, is at the heart of a major upheaval in our social system. Author investigated the part that open education may play in this conflict if it is implemented on a large scale. (Author/RK)

  18. LERU roadmap towards Open Access.

    PubMed

    Ayris, Paul; Björnshauge, Lars; Collier, Mel; Ferwerda, Eelco; Jacobs, Neil; Sinikara, Kaisa; Swan, Alma; de Bries, Saskia; van Wesenbeeck, Astrid

    2015-09-01

    Money which is not directly spent on research and education, even though it is largely taxpayers´ money. As Harvard University already denounced in 2012, many large journal publishers have rendered the situation "fiscally unsustainable and academically restrictive", with some journals costing as much as $40,000 per year (and publishers drawing profits of 35% or more). If one of the wealthiest universities in the world can no longer afford it, who can? It is easy to picture the struggle of European universities with tighter budgets. In addition to subscription costs, academic research funding is also largely affected by "Article Processing Charges" (APC), which come at an additional cost of €2000/article, on average, when making individual articles Gold Open Access. Some publishers are in this way even being paid twice for the same content ("double dipping"). In the era of Open Science, Open Access to publications is one of the cornerstones of the new research paradigm and business models must support this transition. It should be one of the principal objectives of Commissioner Carlos Moedas and the Dutch EU Presidency (January-June 2016) to ensure that this transition happens. Further developing the EU´s leadership in research and innovation largely depends on it. With this statement "Moving Forwards on Open Access", LERU calls upon all universities, research institutes, research funders and researchers to sign this statement and give a clear signal towards the European Commission and the Dutch EU Presidency. [Int Microbiol 18(3):195-202 (2015)]. PMID:27036747

  19. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  20. Open Book Professional Accountancy Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, J. E.; Forsyth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure and rationale for an open-book approach in professional accountancy examinations. The concept of knowledge management and the recognition that some knowledge ought to be embedded in the minds of professional accountants while other knowledge ought to be readily accessible and capable of application forms the

  1. Dossier: Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Fred, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine addresses diverse educational issues in different parts of the world. Articles in this issue are: "Education for All: Governments Must Do Much More to Make Schooling Accessible for All Children" (G. Machel and N. Mandela); "Afghanistan: Education Opens Up New Perspective"; "South Korea: Behind the Facade" (W. van der Schaaf);…

  2. Curiosity and Open Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit

    2007-01-01

    Asking questions is an activity central to inquiry learning. This research examined documents created during an open inquiry learning process of the Biomind programme for Israeli high school students. In addition, to understand how students express and develop curiosity in learning, we observed students during a molecular biology lesson, a subject…

  3. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of

  4. Opening Up Without Cracking Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Maggie

    In recognition of the fact that there are individual differences and preferences among teachers, the teachers at the Las Posas School in Camarillo, California were given the opportunity to use the methods they found most comfortable. This resulted in a variety of open classroom situations, with alternatives for parents, students, and teachers.…

  5. THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

  6. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  7. Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

  8. OpenFOAM: Open source CFD in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasak, Hrvoje

    2009-12-01

    The current focus of development in industrial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is integration of CFD into Computer-Aided product development, geometrical optimisation, robust design and similar. On the other hand, in CFD research aims to extend the boundaries ofpractical engineering use in "non-traditional " areas. Requirements of computational flexibility and code integration are contradictory: a change of coding paradigm, with object orientation, library components, equation mimicking is proposed as a way forward. This paper describes OpenFOAM, a C++ object oriented library for Computational Continuum Mechanics (CCM) developed by the author. Efficient and flexible implementation of complex physical models is achieved by mimicking the form ofpartial differential equation in software, with code functionality provided in library form. Open Source deployment and development model allows the user to achieve desired versatility in physical modeling without the sacrifice of complex geometry support and execution efficiency.

  9. The Open Course: Through the Open Door--Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Dave; Siemens, George

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, as educators have increasingly experimented with social technologies and interactive pedagogies, the concept of a "course" has been significantly challenged. In particular, questions have arisen as to the key value of the course in the educational system. The numerous high-profile open courseware initiatives from elite…

  10. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics Management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2002-01-01

    The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting orders, performing exam resource scheduling, providing Digital communications in Medicine (DICOM) work list information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third-party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an open database connectivity bridge to a Linux server with Health Level 7 (HL7), DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a browser, whereas other informatics systems communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete, as are key pieces of the Web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12105742

  11. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  12. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  13. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  14. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  15. Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-12-04

    An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.

  16. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  17. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  18. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Barkal, Amira A.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K.; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding. PMID:27031353

  19. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  20. Modification of Heister Jaw Opener.

    PubMed

    Dengra, Seema; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Sharma, Nidhi

    2016-03-01

    Heister introduced a mouth gag of incentric pattern which is still being used. Heister jaw opener has narrow blades which rest on the occlusal surface of molar teeth. The force of mouth gag is not equally distributed on all the teeth, therefore there is great risk of tooth avulsion in periodontally compromised dentition and fracture of tooth while using standard Heister appliance. To overcome this modification of Heister mouth gag is done. PMID:26929566

  1. Open loop digital frequency multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An open loop digital frequency multiplier is described which has a multiplied output synchronized to low frequency clock pulse. The system includes a multistage digital counter which provides a pulse output as a function of an integer divisor. The integer divisor and the timing or counting cycle of the counter are interrelated to the frequency of a clock input. The counting cycle is controlled by a one shot multivibrator which, in turn, is driven by a reference frequency input.

  2. Liquid chromatography in open tubes.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, M P; Sepaniak, M J; Balchunas, A T; Vargo, J D

    1984-09-01

    Liquid chromatography in open tubes is evaluated for applicability to clinical analysis. The principal advantages of this technique include high separation power, reduced solvent consumption, and small sample volume requirements. Technology for the production of columns as small as 8 micron (i.d.) is described. Preliminary results are encouraging and, with further development in column and detector technology, the technique should find wide applicability in clinical analysis. PMID:6467564

  3. Liquid chromatography in open tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Sepaniak, M.J.; Balchunas, A.T.; Vargo, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid chromatography in open tubes is evaluated for applicability to clinical analysis. The principal advantages of this technique include high separation power, reduced solvent consumption, and small sample volume requirements. Technology for the production of columns as small as 8 ..mu..m (i.d.) is described. Preliminary results are encouraging and, with further development in column and detector technology, the technique should find wide applicability in clinical analysis.

  4. Towards printable open air microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Collord, Andrew; Cook, Adam W.; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Fenton, Kyle Ross; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Branson, Eric D.

    2010-04-01

    We have demonstrated a novel microfluidic technique for aqueous media, which uses super-hydrophobic materials to create microfluidic channels that are open to the atmosphere. We have demonstrated the ability to perform traditional electrokinetic operations such as ionic separations and electrophoresis using these devices. The rate of evaporation was studied and found to increase with decreasing channel size, which places a limitation on the minimum size of channel that could be used for such a device.

  5. Open strangeness production in CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Niculescu

    2003-05-01

    An extensive program dedicated to the study of open strangeness systems was established in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. This program takes full advantage of the excellent characteristics of the CEBAF accelerator combined with the almost complete angular coverage of the CLAS detector. A general overview of the program is given, as well as results for the angular dependence of the electroproduction of kaon-hyperon final states.

  6. Case for an open universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the geometrical structure of the universe through the magnitude-vs-redshift relation in standard cosmology has not been very successful, mainly because of the intrinsic insensitivity of the m-vs-z relation to a deceleration parameter, which determines the spatial curvature and therefore the geometry. By relaxing the assumption usually made, i.e., the identity of gravitational and atomic clocks, sufficient sensitivity is achieved. Existing observational evidence then leads one to conclude that the universe is open.

  7. Stimulated recombination in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Muoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.; Jimenez, P.; Pea, J.

    1986-09-01

    In this comment we study the problem of the stimulated recombination in an open system from a stochastic point of view. We set up the bivariate master equation for the number of photons and ions inside the system. Then we perform a systematic expansion, with the system volume as an expansion parameter, and we obtain the fluctuations of the number of photons and ions around its macroscopic values in the linear noise approximation; the stationary solution is also investigated.

  8. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hung, Ling-Yan; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  9. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by θ{sub j} ∼ 1/5Γ{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, Γ{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of θ{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle θ{sub j,{sub max}} ∼ 1/5 ∼ 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  10. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  11. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  12. The Battle for Open--A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author argues that openness in education has been successful in establishing itself as an approach. However, this initial victory should be viewed as part of a larger battle around the nature of openness. Drawing lessons from history and the green movement, a number of challenges for the open education movement are identified…

  13. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

  14. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital

  15. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  16. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open agricultural... portions of rules are disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural... February 21, 1972, and previously approved under 40 CFR 52.223, are retained as applicable to the...

  17. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  18. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  19. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  20. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  1. Managing Open Learning. Management in Colleges Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Latcham, Jack

    This guide, which is aimed primarily at those responsible for providing learning opportunities within further education in England and Wales, deals with managing open learning. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the nature of open learning; the production of learning materials; the impact of open learning…

  2. Open Educational Practices for Curriculum Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armellini, Alejandro; Nie, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP) are relatively new areas in educational research. How OER and OEP can help practitioners enhance curricula is one of a number of under-researched topics. This article aims to enable practitioners to identify and implement appropriate open practices to enhance higher education…

  3. Permission Granted: Open Licensing for Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Ahrash N.

    2009-01-01

    Open licences are critical for defining Open Educational Resources. The goal of this article is to explain the logic of open licensing to teachers, funders, and educational policy-makers--to explain the relatively simple but vital considerations that are necessary to build this global educational commons of free learning material. In particular,…

  4. Interdistrict Open Enrollment: The Benign Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Presents three major areas of concern: social and ethnic stratification; the impact of competition; and open enrollment effects on academic achievement. Explores what is presently known (and not known) about the impact of interdistrict open enrollment in three areas. Focuses on the effect of open enrollment in Minnesota, which has been the site of

  5. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

  6. 29 CFR 1918.35 - Open hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open hatches. 1918.35 Section 1918.35 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.35 Open hatches. Open weather deck hatches around which employees must work that are not protected to a height of 24 inches (.61 m)...

  7. The Open-Ended Approach Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical…

  8. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  9. 20 CFR 200.6 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... time. The Board may change the subject matter, or its determination to open or close a meeting or... meeting, or any change in the scheduling, agenda, or the open or closed status of a meeting; or (ii... meeting is to be open or closed to the public. (3) The Board may change the time and place of a...

  10. 20 CFR 200.6 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... time. The Board may change the subject matter, or its determination to open or close a meeting or... meeting, or any change in the scheduling, agenda, or the open or closed status of a meeting; or (ii... meeting is to be open or closed to the public. (3) The Board may change the time and place of a...

  11. Assessments: An Open and Closed Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, R. Nazim

    2015-01-01

    Open book assessment is not a new idea, but it does not seem to have gained ground in higher education. In particular, not much literature is available on open book examinations in mathematics and statistics in higher education. The objective of this paper is to investigate the appropriateness of open book assessments in a first-year business…

  12. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  15. 40 CFR 52.273 - Open burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rules are disapproved because they contain exemptions to open burning (including open agricultural... portions of rules are disapproved because they relax the control on open burning (including agricultural... February 21, 1972, and previously approved under 40 CFR 52.223, are retained as applicable to the...

  16. Permission Granted: Open Licensing for Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Ahrash N.

    2009-01-01

    Open licences are critical for defining Open Educational Resources. The goal of this article is to explain the logic of open licensing to teachers, funders, and educational policy-makers--to explain the relatively simple but vital considerations that are necessary to build this global educational commons of free learning material. In particular,

  17. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  18. 46 CFR 64.49 - Labeling openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling openings. 64.49 Section 64.49 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.49 Labeling openings. Each opening of a tank must be labeled...

  19. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  20. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the

  1. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  2. Distance Learning at the Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1999-01-01

    The success of Great Britain's Open University has become a model for distance education in the United States. The Open University is nonselective in admissions and designs its courses for part-time students and working adults. It plans to begin enrolling American students in a new sister institution, the United States Open University. (MSE)

  3. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  4. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  5. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public...

  6. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in...

  7. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  8. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  9. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface openings. 3595.1 Section 3595.1... OPERATIONS Protection Against Mining Hazards § 3595.1 Surface openings. (a) The operator/lessee shall substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations...

  10. Open Book Testing in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Glenda C.

    2008-01-01

    One continuing concern associated with online courses is assessment of student performance. One option for online assessment is the use of open book tests. This study investigated the impact of training in open book test-taking strategies on student test performance in online, timed, unproctored, open book tests. When the tutorial was required…

  11. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  12. Open Courses and MOOCs as Professional Development--Is the Openness a Hindrance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse if open courses, including massive open online courses (MOOCs), can be used as professional development despite their openness since the openness not only brings together individuals from different organizations but also may make the results of collaboration public. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  13. The Openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a self-reflection on the state of openness of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). An exploratory and descriptive study, it aims not only to define the elements of openness of UPOU, but also to unravel the causes and solutions to the issues and concerns that limit its options to becoming a truly open university.…

  14. The Four "R"s of Openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David; Stein, Jared; Johnson, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By "open" it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, "open" is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and…

  15. The Four "R"s of Openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David; Stein, Jared; Johnson, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By "open" it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, "open" is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and

  16. Opening our science: Open science and cyanobacterial research at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this blog post we introduce the idea of Open Science and discuss multiple ways we are implementing these concepts in our cyanobacteria research. We give examples of our open access publications, open source code that support our research, and provide open access to our resear...

  17. Extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the findings of the recent OPAL report "Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices". In doing so, it defines current understanding of open educational resources and open educational practices, and highlights the shift from open content to open practice. The article includes a framework for supporting…

  18. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical functions of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor-intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. Interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes the detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures and their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next-generation knee models is noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age groups and pathological states. PMID:26444849

  19. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  20. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  1. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  2. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve

    2002-06-01

    The benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system (PACS/RIS) archive built with open source tools and methods are 2-fold. Open source permits an inexpensive development model where interfaces can be updated as needed, and the code is peer reviewed by many eyes (analogous to the scientific model). Integration of PACS/RIS functionality reduces the risk of inconsistent data by reducing interfaces among databases that contain largely redundant information. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools--reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting HL7 orders, performing examination and resource scheduling, providing digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) worklist information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an ODBC bridge to a Linux server with HL7, DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a web browser, whereas automated informatics services communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete as well as key pieces of the web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12297975

  3. Will this open space work?

    PubMed

    Vischer, J

    1999-01-01

    Northern Oil is moving offices, and CEO Fritz Schumacher wants to make the most of the move in this fictional case study. He believes that adopting an open-plan work space will reinvent how the company works, not to mention cut costs. Facilities manager Sasha Pasternak also supports the open plan. Her job would be easier, and her budget would stretch further, if Northern had standardized workstations and used partitions, not walls. And she likes the way the new design flattens the organization: everyone has the same amount of space and the same ergonomically sound furniture. The new building would have more conference rooms and just-in-time work spaces for employees who worked mostly off-site. And although she knew that initial meetings between the architects and Northern employees hadn't yielded much support for open space--people were attached to their private offices--she expected that people would warm to the idea. But when the new design was unveiled, employees were less than enthusiastic. They hurled questions like, How will workers concentrate if they can't shut their office doors? How will people have confidential meetings with their boss? And why would people stay at Northern when the competition offers them private offices? There was even talk of circulating a petition refusing to move to the new space. A week later, the architect presented revised plans to the project group. The new options would add costs and reduce the amount of space savings, but offering a choice to employees might make them feel less threatened. What should the project team do? Five commentators offer advice. PMID:10387577

  4. Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2008-01-24

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, the master equation for two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment is solved in the asymptotic long-time regime. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that in the long-time regime they manifest non-local quantum correlations. We calculate also the logarithmic negativity characterizing the degree of entanglement of the asymptotic state.

  5. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

  6. Laser acceleration with open waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    1999-03-01

    A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

  7. Lateral genetic transfer: open issues

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive force in evolution, contributing to metabolic, physiological and ecological innovation in most prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. Genomic sequences and other data have begun to illuminate the processes, mechanisms, quantitative extent and impact of LGT in diverse organisms, populations, taxa and environments; deep questions are being posed, and the provisional answers sometimes challenge existing paradigms. At the same time, there is an enhanced appreciation of the imperfections, biases and blind spots in the data and in analytical approaches. Here we identify and consider significant open questions concerning the role of LGT in genome evolution. PMID:19571244

  8. Quasiequilibria in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, Jamie D.

    2010-03-15

    In this work, the steady-state or quasiequilibrium resulting from periodically modulating the Liouvillian of an open quantum system, L-circumflex-circumflex(t), is investigated. It is shown that differences between the quasiequilibrium and the instantaneous equilibrium occur due to nonadiabatic contributions from the gauge field connecting the instantaneous eigenstates of L-circumflex-circumflex(t) to a fixed basis. These nonadiabatic contributions are shown to result in an additional rotation and/or depolarization for a single spin-1/2 in a time-dependent magnetic field and to affect the thermal mixing of two coupled spins interacting with a time-dependent magnetic field.

  9. A Principled Method for Exploiting Opening Books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudel, Romaric; Hoock, Jean-Baptiste; Pérez, Julien; Sokolovska, Nataliya; Teytaud, Olivier

    In the past we used a great deal of computational power and human expertise for storing a rather big dataset of good 9x9 Go games, in order to build an opening book. We improved the algorithm used for generating and storing these games considerably. However, the results were not very robust, as (i) opening books are definitely not transitive, making the non-regression testing extremely difficult, (ii) different time settings lead to opposite conclusions, because a good opening for a game with 10s per move on a single core is quite different from a good opening for a game with 30s per move on a 32-cores machine, and (iii) some very bad moves sometimes still occur. In this paper, we formalize the optimization of an opening book as a matrix game, compute the Nash equilibrium, and conclude that a naturally randomized opening book provides optimal performance (in the sense of Nash equilibria). Moreover, our research showed that from a finite set of opening books, we can choose a distribution on these opening books so that the resultant randomly constructed opening book has a significantly better performance than each of the deterministic opening books.

  10. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, L.; Pers, C.; Isberg, K.; Nyström, K.; Arheimer, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model. It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. HYPE has been successfully used in many hydrological applications at SMHI. For Europe, we currently have three different models; The S-HYPE model for Sweden; The BALT-HYPE model for the Baltic Sea; and the E-HYPE model for the whole Europe. These models simulate hydrological conditions and nutrients for their respective areas and are used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded from hypeweb.smhi.se. In addition, we provide models for the Arctic region, the Arab (Middle East and Northern Africa) region, India, the Niger River basin, the La Plata Basin. This demonstrates the applicability of the HYPE model for large scale modeling in different regions of the world. An important goal with our work is to make our data and tools available as open data and services. For this aim we created the HYPE Open Source Community (OSC) that makes the source code of HYPE available for anyone interested in further development of HYPE. The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modeling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code are delivered frequently. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modeling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. By joining the HYPE OSC you get access a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model. The HYPE source code is designed to efficiently handle large scale modeling for forecast, hindcast and climate applications. The code is under constant development to improve the hydrological processes, efficiency and readability. In the beginning of 2013 we released a version with new and better modularization based on hydrological processes. This will make the code easier to understand and further develop for a new user. An important challenge in this process is to produce code that is easy for anyone to understand and work with, but still maintain the properties that make the code efficient enough for large scale applications. Input from the HYPE Open Source Community is an important source for future improvements of the HYPE model. Therefore, by joining the community you become an active part of the development, get access to the latest features and can influence future versions of the model.

  11. Perturbative approach to open circuit QED systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, Francesco; Koch, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Perturbation theory (PT) is a powerful and commonly used tool in the investigation of closed quantum systems. In the context of open quantum systems, PT based on the Markovian quantum master equation is much less developed. The investigation of open systems mostly relies on exact diagonalization of the Liouville superoperator or quantum trajectories. In this approach, the system size is rather limited by current computational capabilities. Analogous to closed-system PT, we develop a PT suitable for open quantum systems. The proposed method is useful in the analytical understanding of open systems as well as in the numerical calculation of system observables, which would otherwise be impractical. This enables us to investigate a variety of open circuit QED systems, including the open Jaynes-Cummings lattice model.

  12. Open access intrapartum CTG database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is a monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Since 1960 it is routinely used by obstetricians to assess fetal well-being. Many attempts to introduce methods of automatic signal processing and evaluation have appeared during the last 20 years, however still no significant progress similar to that in the domain of adult heart rate variability, where open access databases are available (e.g. MIT-BIH), is visible. Based on a thorough review of the relevant publications, presented in this paper, the shortcomings of the current state are obvious. A lack of common ground for clinicians and technicians in the field hinders clinically usable progress. Our open access database of digital intrapartum cardiotocographic recordings aims to change that. Description The intrapartum CTG database consists in total of 552 intrapartum recordings, which were acquired between April 2010 and August 2012 at the obstetrics ward of the University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. All recordings were stored in electronic form in the OB TraceVue®;system. The recordings were selected from 9164 intrapartum recordings with clinical as well as technical considerations in mind. All recordings are at most 90 minutes long and start a maximum of 90 minutes before delivery. The time relation of CTG to delivery is known as well as the length of the second stage of labor which does not exceed 30 minutes. The majority of recordings (all but 46 cesarean sections) is – on purpose – from vaginal deliveries. All recordings have available biochemical markers as well as some more general clinical features. Full description of the database and reasoning behind selection of the parameters is presented in the paper. Conclusion A new open-access CTG database is introduced which should give the research community common ground for comparison of results on reasonably large database. We anticipate that after reading the paper, the reader will understand the context of the field from clinical and technical perspectives which will enable him/her to use the database and also understand its limitations. PMID:24418387

  13. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, Lena; Arheimer, Berit; Pers, Charlotta; Isberg, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model (Lindström et al., 2010). It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. In Sweden, the model is used by water authorities to fulfil the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. It is used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded for free from three different HYPE applications: Europe (www.smhi.se/e-hype), Baltic Sea basin (www.smhi.se/balt-hype), and Sweden (vattenweb.smhi.se) The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modelling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code will be delivered frequently. The main objective of the HYPE OSC is to provide public access to a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model and to encourage hydrologic expertise from different parts of the world to contribute to model improvement. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modelling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. The HYPE Open Source Community was initiated in November 2011 by a kick-off and workshop with 50 eager participants from twelve different countries. In beginning of 2013 we will release a new version of the code featuring new and better modularization, corresponding to hydrological processes which will make the code easier to understand and further develop. During 2013 we also plan a new workshop and HYPE course for everyone interested in the community. Lindström, G., Pers, C.P., Rosberg, R., Strömqvist, J., Arheimer, B. 2010. Development and test of the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model - A water quality model for different spatial scales. Hydrology Research 41.3-4:295-319

  14. Open inflation in the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Daisuke; Linde, Andrei; Naruko, Atsushi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2011-08-01

    The open inflation scenario is attracting a renewed interest in the context of the string landscape. Since there are a large number of metastable de Sitter vacua in the string landscape, tunneling transitions to lower metastable vacua through the bubble nucleation occur quite naturally, which leads to a natural realization of open inflation. Although the deviation of Ω0 from unity is small by the observational bound, we argue that the effect of this small deviation on the large-angle CMB anisotropies can be significant for tensor-type perturbation in the open inflation scenario. We consider the situation in which there is a large hierarchy between the energy scale of the quantum tunneling and that of the slow-roll inflation in the nucleated bubble. If the potential just after tunneling is steep enough, a rapid-roll phase appears before the slow-roll inflation. In this case the power spectrum is basically determined by the Hubble rate during the slow-roll inflation. On the other hand, if such a rapid-roll phase is absent, the power spectrum keeps the memory of the high energy density there in the large angular components. Furthermore, the amplitude of large angular components can be enhanced due to the effects of the wall fluctuation mode if the bubble wall tension is small. Therefore, although even the dominant quadrupole component is suppressed by the factor (1-Ω0)2, one can construct some models in which the deviation of Ω0 from unity is large enough to produce measurable effects. We also consider a more general class of models, where the false vacuum decay may occur due to Hawking-Moss tunneling, as well as the models involving more than one scalar field. We discuss scalar perturbations in these models and point out that a large set of such models is already ruled out by observational data, unless there was a very long stage of slow-roll inflation after the tunneling. These results show that observational data allow us to test various assumptions concerning the structure of the string theory potentials and the duration of the last stage of inflation.

  15. Accuracy Of An Optical Open Area Ratiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, Fred M.; Jones, Bruce W.

    1983-04-01

    An optical open area ratiometer for measuring the percent open area of perforated sheet materials has been developed. The device uses a technique based on Fourier optics in which a detector is employed to measure a small central portion of the light in the Frau nhofer diffraction pattern of the perforated sheet. This paper discusses the associated problems and results of testing the accuracy of the device. The accuracy is shown to be on the order of 2% of the open area ratio.

  16. Free for All: Open Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to

  17. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  18. Free for All: Open Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

  19. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO (CAPtools (Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit) OpenMP) parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report some results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  20. Open-source hardware for medical devices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Open-source hardware is hardware whose design is made publicly available so anyone can study, modify, distribute, make and sell the design or the hardware based on that design. Some open-source hardware projects can potentially be used as active medical devices. The open-source approach offers a unique combination of advantages, including reducing costs and faster innovation. This article compares 10 of open-source healthcare projects in terms of how easy it is to obtain the required components and build the device. PMID:27158528

  1. Weather forecasting with open source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, Marc; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    To forecast the weather situation during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns, we employ a tool chain of existing and self-developed open source software tools and open standards. Of particular value are the Python programming language with its extension libraries NumPy, SciPy, PyQt4, Matplotlib and the basemap toolkit, the NetCDF standard with the Climate and Forecast (CF) Metadata conventions, and the Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service standard. These open source libraries and open standards helped to implement the "Mission Support System", a Web Map Service based tool to support weather forecasting and flight planning during field campaigns. The tool has been implemented in Python and has also been released as open source (Rautenhaus et al., Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 55-71, 2012). In this presentation we discuss the usage of free and open source software for weather forecasting in the context of research flight planning, and highlight how the field campaign work benefits from using open source tools and open standards.

  2. 77 FR 38630 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... meeting. By notice of intent to establish the Open Internet Advisory Committee, published at 76 FR 22395... Research Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Science and Artificial...

  3. Bandgap Opening by Patterning Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Marc; Oswald, William; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electronic and transport properties, graphene has great potential of replacing silicon for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics; but its zero bandgap associated with Dirac fermions prevents such applications. Among numerous attempts to create semiconducting graphene, periodic patterning using defects, passivation, doping, nanoscale perforation, etc., is particularly promising and has been realized experimentally. However, despite extensive theoretical investigations, the precise role of periodic modulations on electronic structures of graphene remains elusive. Here we employ both the tight-binding modeling and first-principles electronic structure calculations to show that the appearance of bandgap in patterned graphene has a geometric symmetry origin. Thus the analytic rule of gap-opening by patterning graphene is derived, which indicates that if a modified graphene is a semiconductor, its two corresponding carbon nanotubes, whose chiral vectors equal graphene's supercell lattice vectors, are both semimetals. PMID:23887253

  4. [Antiscientific attitudes in open society].

    PubMed

    Pérez Iglesias, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The social controversy created in regard to the use and experiments with transgenic seeds and organisms serves as an example to illustrate the effects and consequences that can lead to antiscientific attitudes, which have gained great force in contemporary society. It has been suggested that the same functional relationship, from which the Enlightenment, science, and liberalism were born, is currently being applied in the opposite direction, so that the current antiscientific attitudes, along with the support they receive from post-modern thought, can end up undermining the bases of an open and democratic society. The consequences of this phenomenon are already manifested by the approval of certain regulations that lack scientific basis. PMID:19860343

  5. The LIGO Open Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele; Kanner, Jonah; Williams, Roy; Weinstein, Alan; Stephens, Branson

    2015-05-01

    The LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) fulfills LIGO's commitment to release, archive, and serve LIGO data in a broadly accessible way to the scientific community and to the public, and to provide the information and tools necessary to understand and use the data. In August 2014, the LOSC published the full dataset from Initial LIGO's “S5” run at design sensitivity, the first such large-scale release and a valuable testbed to explore the use of LIGO data by non-LIGO researchers and by the public, and to help teach gravitational-wave data analysis to students across the world. In addition to serving the S5 data, the LOSC web portal (losc.ligo.org) now offers documentation, data-location and data-quality queries, tutorials and example code, and more. We review the mission and plans of the LOSC, focusing on the S5 data release.

  6. Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardakci, Korkut

    2006-02-16

    In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

  7. Open-pore polyurethane product

    DOEpatents

    Jefferson, R.T.; Salyer, I.O.

    1974-02-17

    The method is described of producing an open-pore polyurethane foam having a porosity of at least 50% and a density of 0.1 to 0.5 g per cu cm, and which consists of coherent spherical particles of less than 10 mu diam separated by interconnected interstices. It is useful as a filter and oil absorbent. The product is admirably adapted to scavenging of crude oil from the surface of seawater by preferential wicking. The oil-soaked product may then be compressed to recover the oil or burned for disposal. The crosslinked polyurethane structures are remarkably solvent and heat-resistance as compared with known thermoplastic structures. Because of their relative inertness, they are useful filters for gasoline and other hydrocarbon compounds. (7 claims)

  8. Open issues in MPI implementation.

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-01

    MPI (the Message Passing Interface) continues to be the dominant programming model for parallel machines of all sizes, from small Linux clusters to the largest parallel supercomputers such as IBM Blue Gene/L and Cray XT3. Although the MPI standard was released more than 10 years ago and a number of implementations of MPI are available from both vendors and research groups, MPI implementations still need improvement in many areas. In this paper, we discuss several such areas, including performance, scalability, fault tolerance, support for debugging and verification, topology awareness, collective communication, derived datatypes, and parallel I/O. We also present results from experiments with several MPI implementations (MPICH2, Open MPI, Sun, IBM) on a number of platforms (Linux clusters, Sun and IBM SMPs) that demonstrate the need for performance improvement in one-sided communication and support for multithreaded programs.

  9. Open Architecture SDR for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

  10. An Open Hybrid Plasma Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmström, M.; Nilsson, H.

    2012-09-01

    We present a hybrid plasma solver (particle ions, fluid mass-less electrons). The software is built on the public available FLASH software, developed at the University of Chicago [1], that provide adaptive grids and is fully parallelized. FLASH is a general parallel solver for compressible flow problems. It is written in Fortran 90, well structured into modules, has good support, and is open source. The parallelization is done using a block-structured adaptive cartesian grid with the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) library as the underlying communication layer. The hybrid solver in FLASH uses cell centered finite differences [2] and conserves energy well [3]. Recently we have added to the hybrid solver the capability of handling vacuum regions, non-uniform resistivity, external fields, and hyperresistivity. We also present an application of the solver to the interaction between the Moon and the solar wind [4], as illustrated in Fig. 1.

  11. The open quantum Brownian motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Michel; Bernard, Denis; Tilloy, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    Using quantum parallelism on random walks as the original seed, we introduce new quantum stochastic processes, the open quantum Brownian motions. They describe the behaviors of quantum walkers—with internal degrees of freedom which serve as random gyroscopes—interacting with a series of probes which serve as quantum coins. These processes may also be viewed as the scaling limit of open quantum random walks and we develop this approach along three different lines: the quantum trajectory, the quantum dynamical map and the quantum stochastic differential equation. We also present a study of the simplest case, with a two level system as an internal gyroscope, illustrating the interplay between the ballistic and diffusive behaviors at work in these processes. Notation H_z : orbital (walker) Hilbert space, {C}^{{Z}} in the discrete, L^2({R}) in the continuum H_c : internal spin (or gyroscope) Hilbert space H_sys=H_z\\otimesH_c : system Hilbert space H_p : probe (or quantum coin) Hilbert space, H_p={C}^2 \\rho^tot_t : density matrix for the total system (walker + internal spin + quantum coins) \\bar \\rho_t : reduced density matrix on H_sys : \\bar\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\bar\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | \\hat \\rho_t : system density matrix in a quantum trajectory: \\hat\\rho_t=\\int dxdy\\, \\hat\\rho_t(x,y)\\otimes | x \\rangle _z\\langle y | . If diagonal and localized in position: \\hat \\rho_t=\\rho_t\\otimes| X_t \\rangle _z\\langle X_t | ρt: internal density matrix in a simple quantum trajectory Xt: walker position in a simple quantum trajectory Bt: normalized Brownian motion ξt, \\xi_t^\\dagger : quantum noises

  12. OpenEI: Datasets in the OpenEnergyInfo Data Repository

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open Energy Information initiative (OpenEI) is a platform to connect the world's energy data. It is a linked open data platform bringing together energy information to provide improved analyses, unique visualizations, and real-time access to data. OpenEI follows guidelines set by the White House Open Government Initiative , which is focused on transparency, collaboration, and participation. OpenEI strives to provide open access to this energy information, with the ultimate goal of spurring creativity and driving innovation in the energy sector.[Copied from the OpenEI Wiki main page]. It features a wiki, a blog, a list of information gateways, and a browsing list of deposited data sets.

  13. Beyond Open Source: According to Jim Hirsch, Open Technology, Not Open Source, Is the Wave of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent for technology at Piano Independent School District in Piano, Texas. Hirsch serves as a liaison for the open technologies committee of the Consortium for School Networking. In this interview, he shares his opinion on the significance of open source in K-12.

  14. Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education as a matter of engaging educational activities in…

  15. Open Government Partnership as a Platform for Advancing Open Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gondol, Jan; Allen, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    An exciting new avenue for establishing and expanding national commitments to open education has emerged through the Open Government Partnership (OGP), a multilateral initiative that aims to secure commitments from governments to make their governance more open, accountable and responsive to citizens. In the past, there has not been a strong link…

  16. Open Badges for Education: What Are the Implications at the Intersection of Open Systems and Badging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June; Pellicone, Anthony; Butler, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla's Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined

  17. Opening Teaching Landscapes: The Importance of Quality Assurance in the Delivery of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Scholars are increasingly being asked to share teaching materials, publish in open access journals, network in social media, and reuse open educational resources (OER). The theoretical benefits of Open Educational Practices (OEP) have become understood in the academic community but thus far, the use of OER has not been rapidly adopted. We aim to…

  18. Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Open Data is the name given to datasets which have been generated by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic researchers, and made freely available online and openly-licensed. These datasets can be used by educators as Open Educational Resources (OER) to support different teaching and learning activities, allowing students to…

  19. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... comments or discussions at open meetings, as a general rule, will not become part of the official record...) Deliberations, discussions, comments or observations made during the course of open meetings do not themselves... discussion and may not reflect the ultimate position of a Commissioner....

  20. 29 CFR 1918.35 - Open hatches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.35 Open hatches. Open weather deck hatches around which employees must work that are not protected to a height of 24 inches (.61 m)...

  1. Schools and Teachers Supporting Student Open Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, David; Tytler, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of the BHP Billiton Science Awards to explore the ways in which open investigation work occurs in schools. The research used interviews with teachers and students and state organisers to develop a picture of what happens on the ground in running student open investigations, and to trace how schools have built a culture…

  2. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

  3. Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

  4. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  5. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic

  6. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  7. Open Education as a "Heterotopia of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The movement towards "openness" in education has tended to position itself as inherently democratising, radical, egalitarian and critical of powerful gatekeepers to learning. While "openness" is often positioned as a critique, I will argue that its mainstream discourses--while appearing to oppose large-scale operations of…

  8. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  9. Open Marriage: Implications for Human Service Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Nena; O'Neill, George

    1973-01-01

    The authors of Open Marriage reiterate the meaning and possibilities of the open marriage concept and advance suggestions for change in the areas of residence, work, child care, and educational patterns. Human service systems must search out the universal values to be maintained in all human relationships. (Editor)

  10. Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

  11. A Method for Measuring International Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrieri, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    The author illustrates a method for measuring international openness by bringing forward some examples. The index proposed measures the capacity of countries for a given phenomenon, adjusted for their weight in the phenomena concerned. In this study, the Index is applied to measure the degree of openness to international migration in a number of

  12. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  13. Open Educational Resources: Staff Attitudes and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes are changing in education globally to promote the open sharing of educational courses and resources. The aim of this study was to explore staff awareness and attitudes towards "open educational resources" (OER) as a benchmark for monitoring future progress. Faculty staff (n = 6) were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews…

  14. Examining the Reuse of Open Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David A.; Lutz, Neil

    2012-01-01

    An important element of open educational resources (OER) is the permission to use the materials in new ways, including revising and remixing them. Prior research has shown that the revision and remix rates for OER are relatively low. In this study we examined the extent to which the openly licensed "Flat World Knowledge" textbooks were being…

  15. Opening Statements and Speeches. Plenary Session. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Official opening statements, organizational reports, and papers on libraries in a technological world, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) welcoming addresses by Franz Georg Kaltwasser and Mathilde Berghofer-Weichner; (2) opening speeches by Else Granheim (IFLA president)…

  16. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  17. Psychological Effects of the "Open Classroom."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Robert

    As interest in open education has increased, so have demands for systematic evaluative research on its effects. There now exists a fairly sizable body of work on academic and psychological effects of open classroom teaching. In 1975, the author reviewed the relevant literature and summarized it in a monograph published by the North Dakota Study

  18. An Administrator's Checklist for Open-Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Robert R.; Roper, Susan Stavert

    A checklist is provided of practical steps to be considered and acted upon in planning and implementing an open-space school. The document divides the process into three phases: initial planning, just prior to moving, and post-move. Considerations in the planning stage involve: staff and community input in deciding upon open space; clarification…

  19. Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities and commercial firms have demonstrated great progress in realizing the vision proffered for "Open Source 2007," and 2010 will mark even greater progress. Although much work remains in refining open source for higher education applications, the signals are now clear: the collaborative development of software can provide…

  20. Open Educational Resources: A Faculty Author's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    As the coauthor (with Susan Dean) of a formally for-profit and now open (i.e., free on the web) textbook, "Collaborative Statistics," this author has received many questions about open educational resources (OER), which can be summarized as follows: (1) What are OER?; (2) Why do you support, actively promote, and speak about OER?; (3) If a book is…

  1. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  2. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when

  3. Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities and commercial firms have demonstrated great progress in realizing the vision proffered for "Open Source 2007," and 2010 will mark even greater progress. Although much work remains in refining open source for higher education applications, the signals are now clear: the collaborative development of software can provide

  4. Accelerated IDL using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloy, M. D.; Fillmore, D. W.; Rood, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is also widely used in this community for data analysis and visualization. Previously, we have developed GPULib, a library of routines in IDL for accelerating common scientific operations including arithmetic, FFTs, interpolation, and other computations using using CUDA-enabled GPUs from NVIDIA. We have now ported portions of this library to OpenCL, making GPU accelerated IDL available on any modern GPU or CPU. Currently, our OpenCL library supports basic array operations and the ability to execute user-defined OpenCL kernels. Use of the open standard OpenCL implemented by several hardware vendors from within GPULib is an exciting prospect with several advantages: 1) OpenCL is an open standard and runs on multiple vendor hardware implementations including for both CPU and GPU hardware, and 2) OpenCL uses runtime compilation of kernels allowing easy construction of custom kernels at runtime (useful for creating user-defined fitting functions) In addition, we have a library of GPU accelerated routines (using CUDA) to perform Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting. In addition, GPU accelerated LAPACK routines provided by MAGMA and simple ways to access user-written CUDA kernels have also been added to support this library.

  5. Regulating open disclosure: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Stuart; Beitat, Katja; Lauterberg, Jrg; Vollmann, Jochen

    2012-02-01

    The issue of open disclosure has received growing attention from policy-makers, legal experts and academic researchers, predominantly in a number of English-speaking countries. While implementing open disclosure in practice is still an on-going process, open disclosure now forms an integral part of health policy in various American states, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, with a number of measures having been put in place to encourage open disclosure and to mitigate some of the barriers to such open communication. In contrast, this issue has received little attention in non-English-speaking countries and there is currently no empirical data relating to actual practice or practitioners' attitudes and views in most countries in continental Europe. This article critically examines Germany's current approach to open disclosure. It finds that the issue plays no significant role in German health policy with very limited measures explicitly concerning such communication currently in place. While a number of aspects of the wider regulatory framework appear to be supportive, Germany is still in the early stages of a systematic approach and additional measures are required to further promote open disclosure within the self-governing German healthcare system. This exploration provides an example of a non-English-speaking country's approach to open disclosure and may be of particular interest to neighbouring German-speaking and civil law countries such as Switzerland and Austria. PMID:22140192

  6. An Open School in the Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Boguslaw, Ed.; And Others

    Describing Poland's 1978 educational model based on what is termed the "open school" concept (a concept similar to what is known in the U.S. as community education), this document presents: (1) Data on the Polish People's Republic; (2) The Concept of an Open School; (3) The Role of School in the Transformation of the Rural Community and Principles

  7. Using Open Space Technology for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes a theory referred to as Open Space Technology (OST), which holds that the most productive learning in conference settings takes place in the open space between formally scheduled conference sessions. Argues that OST can be applied to staff development days and other educational development programs. (Contains 10 references.) (NB)

  8. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 0.602 Section 0.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.602 Open meetings. (a) All meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. (b)...

  9. Open Learning: The Unique Australian Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latchem, Colin; Pritchard, Tony

    1994-01-01

    Describes Open Learning Australia (OLA), a national program that was developed to widen and facilitate access to undergraduate education by providing open admission. Highlights include other Australian distance education programs; services provided by OLA and those provided by participating universities; electronic support services; fees; and…

  10. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  11. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  12. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  13. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  14. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  15. 39 CFR 7.2 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 39 CFR Part 232, concerning conduct on postal property, apply with regard to meetings of the Board. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 7.2 Section 7.2 Postal Service... (ARTICLE VII) § 7.2 Open meetings. (a) It is the policy of the United States, established in section 2...

  16. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board,...

  17. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a...

  18. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  19. Bypassing An Open-Circuit Power Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannemacher, Harry E.

    1994-01-01

    Collection of bypass circuits enables battery consisting series string of cells to continue to function when one of its cells fails in open-circuit (high-resistance) condition. Basic idea simply to shunt current around defective cell to prevent open circuit from turning off battery altogether. Bypass circuits dissipate little power and are nearly immune to false activation.

  20. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  1. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  2. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  3. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  4. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  5. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  6. 46 CFR 64.31 - Inspection opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection opening. 64.31 Section 64.31 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.31 Inspection opening. An MPT must have an inspection...

  7. Open Education as a "Heterotopia of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The movement towards "openness" in education has tended to position itself as inherently democratising, radical, egalitarian and critical of powerful gatekeepers to learning. While "openness" is often positioned as a critique, I will argue that its mainstream discourses--while appearing to oppose large-scale operations of

  8. Fostering the Exploitation of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Thomas; Veith, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The central concept behind Open Educational Resources (OER) is opening up the access to educational resources for stakeholders who are not the usual target user group. This concept must be perceived as innovative because it describes a general economic and social paradigm shift: Education, which formerly was limited to a specific group of…

  9. Teacher Adaptation to Open Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterator, Scott; Deed, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The "open classroom" emerged as a reaction against the industrial-era enclosed and authoritarian classroom. Although contemporary school architecture continues to incorporate and express ideas of openness, more research is needed about how teachers adapt to new and different built contexts. Our purpose is to identify teacher reaction to…

  10. Open Learning Materials and Learning Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan; Walmsley, Joyce

    The availability and nature of open learning materials and centers in Great Britain were examined in a study that focused on the following: the open learning market; learning materials; commercial suppliers; basic skills materials; information technology materials; online learning; information technology and tutors; qualifications; prices;…

  11. CONNECTICUT MUNICIPAL AND PRIVATE OPEN SPACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property owned by Connecticut municipalities and private organizations for the purpose of preserving open space. It is a polygon Shapefile that primarily includes land conservation trust property, town open space, parks, school playgrounds, ...

  12. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  13. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:26927885

  14. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  15. 39 CFR 7.2 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 39 CFR Part 232, concerning conduct on postal property, apply with regard to meetings of the Board. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 7.2 Section 7.2 Postal Service... (ARTICLE VII) § 7.2 Open meetings. (a) It is the policy of the United States, established in section 2...

  16. 39 CFR 7.2 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 39 CFR Part 232, concerning conduct on postal property, apply with regard to meetings of the Board. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 7.2 Section 7.2 Postal Service... (ARTICLE VII) § 7.2 Open meetings. (a) It is the policy of the United States, established in section 2...

  17. Open Access, Education Research, and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The open access movement has successfully drawn attention to economic and political aspects of scholarly communication through a significant body of commentary that debates the merits of open access and the potential damage it may do to scholarly publishing. Researchers within the field of education research, notably John…

  18. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares the…

  19. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  20. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a...

  1. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board,...

  2. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board,...

  3. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  4. Four Strategies for Teaching Open-Mindedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    2012-01-01

    An open mind--the willingness to consider experiences, beliefs, values, perspectives, etc. that differ from one's own--allows the learner to explore how diverse people across the world think and act. Open-mindedness creates opportunities to rethink assumptions, identify misinformation, and consider alternative ways to make decisions.…

  5. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  6. A Method for Measuring International Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrieri, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    The author illustrates a method for measuring international openness by bringing forward some examples. The index proposed measures the capacity of countries for a given phenomenon, adjusted for their weight in the phenomena concerned. In this study, the Index is applied to measure the degree of openness to international migration in a number of…

  7. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO... committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided...

  8. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  9. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  10. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  11. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  12. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and

  13. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  14. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  15. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  16. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  17. 6 CFR 1003.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 1003.3 Section 1003.3 Domestic Security PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BOARD IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 1003.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of a Board...

  18. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  19. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  20. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  1. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  2. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  3. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  4. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that

  5. Teachers With Children: Curriculum in Open Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dropkin, Ruth, Ed.

    This collection of personal essays relates elementary classroom experiences representative of curriculum themes in open education. Essays are concerned with such topics as: (1) the question of what is the curriculum of the open classroom; (2) development of a curriculum on a medieval theme in a fourth-fifth grade class; (3) study of prehistoric…

  6. Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottani, Norberto, Ed.; Favre, Bernard, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The editorial, "Some Aspects of the Educational Change Dynamic: Setting School Autonomy and Evaluation in Context" (Cecilia Braslavsky), explains the focus of this issue. This "Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation" section contains: "Introduction to the Open File" (Norberto Bottani; Bernard Favre); "IPES The System of Indicators for Secondary…

  7. A Bibliometric Mapping of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zancanaro, Airton; Todesco, José Leomar; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) is a topic that has aroused increasing interest by researchers as a powerful contribution to improve the educational system quality and openness, both in face to face and distance education. The goal of this research is to map publications related to OER, dating from 2002 to 2013, and available through the Web of…

  8. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context. PMID:18789227

  9. Information security considerations in open systems architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, S.A. ); Menendez, J.N. )

    1993-02-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Data Bases, SCADA, Inter and Intra-System Communications, and Man Machine Interfaces.'' This paper discusses information security and issues related to its achievement in open systems architectures. Beginning with a discussion of the goals of information security and their relation to open systems, the paper provides examples of the threats to electric utility computer systems and the consequences associated with these threats, presents basic countermeasures applicable to all computer systems, and discusses issues specific to open systems architectures.

  10. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  11. Effects of artificial openings of intermittently opening estuaries on macroinvertebrate assemblages of the entrance barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, William; Hacking, Nicole; Owen, Vanessa

    2006-05-01

    Intermittently opening estuaries are artificially opened to manage flood risk, water quality, recreational amenity, and fisheries; however, the ecological impacts of this management technique are incompletely understood. During 2001 and 2004, this study assessed the impacts of artificial openings on the macroinvertebrates of entrance barriers of intermittently opening estuaries in New South Wales (Australia). In 2001 macroinvertebrates were sampled once before artificial opening and 9 and 25 d after re-formation of the entrance barrier. A multiple before-after-control-impact analysis found that, although entrance barriers were destroyed by the artificial openings and then re-formed naturally by wave action, significant interactions for taxonomic richness, density of the amphipod Paracalliope australis (Gammaridae) and density of the gastropod mollusc Aschoris victoriae (Hydrobiidae) meant that the effects of this disturbance could not be distinguished from the natural variations that occurred in unopened estuaries. Multivariate analyses found that assemblages at both opened and unopened estuaries changed from before to after the openings, and the magnitude of the dissimilarity between times varied between estuaries. In 2004, macroinvertebrates were sampled on three randomly selected days within each of three periods (before, 3 d and 42 d after) at one opened and three unopened estuaries. Asymmetrical analysis of this modified before-after-control-impact study found that the change in taxonomic richness at the opened estuary from before to after opening did not differ from temporal changes that occurred in unopened estuaries. Short-term variation (i.e. between days) in total density of macroinvertebrates and density of P. australis in the re-formed entrance barrier of the opened estuary also did not differ from the variation in the control estuaries. Additionally, assemblage structure was not significantly changed by the opening and assemblages at two control estuaries were also unchanged over the same time. Individual taxa and assemblages of macroinvertebrates in entrance barriers of these intermittently open estuarine systems appear to be resilient to the habitat disturbance caused by artificial openings.

  12. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  13. Embracing Openness: The Challenges of OER in Latin American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Nadia Paola Mireles

    2013-01-01

    The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in…

  14. Chronic open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adatia, Feisal A.; Damji, Karim F.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, including in Canada. It presents a challenge in diagnosis, as disease often progresses without symptoms; an estimated 50% of cases are undetected. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE searches, reference lists of articles, and expert knowledge from one of the authors (K.F.D.), a glaucoma specialist, were used. MAIN MESSAGE A casefinding approach using early referral to optometrists and ophthalmologists for early detection of COAG is helpful for patients with risk factors such as age above 50, a positive family history, black race, and myopia. Moderate evidence for referral also exists for the following risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Treatment with intraocular pressure–lowering medication can arrest or slow the course of the disease, permitting patients to retain good visual function. Family physicians should be aware that some intraocular pressure–lowering medications, particularly topical beta-blockers, can pose iatrogenic harm to patients and result in or exacerbate such conditions as asthma, cardiovascular disturbances, depression, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION Appropriate referral patterns and an understanding of common as well as serious side effects of glaucoma medications are important in optimizing management of patients at risk of developing, or who have, COAG. PMID:16190176

  15. Information network supports open access

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, G.; Hirsch, P.; Vojdani, A.; Saxton, T.; Cleveland, F.

    1996-07-01

    On March 29, 1995, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) aimed at promoting wholesale competition through nondiscriminatory open transmission access. Industry working groups were formed to define the content of the transmission services information to be communicated over an electronic network and to define the requirements of the network itself.FERC issued final rules on April 24, 1996. At this writing, the transmission services information network (TSIN) is just completing design, and initial implementation should be in place by November 1, 1996. There will be about 20--35 nodes representing all public transmission systems in the US. The network will use the Internet as a base, allowing access by all authorized users anywhere in the world. The tools used will be based on the standard Internet tools such as World-Wide Web (Web) browsers. This provides a low-cost, high-function, consistent interconnected network to provide information to all transmission customers. The network will have good performance and be secure. It will allow transmission customers to have available information on available transmission capacity, cost and tariffs for transmission capacity, and cost of ancillary services. This article outlines the content of the industry reports and the FERC rulings.

  16. Open cycle - OTEC turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, W. H.; Rogers, J. D.; Thompson, D. F.; Young, M. I.

    1981-12-01

    The design of a low-pressure, open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) is described. Near-surface ocean water at 80 F is allowed to expand in a one-half psi evaporator for passage through a turbine; cold water (40 F), pumped upward from a 3,000 ft depth, is used to recondense the steam. Plans for a 2.5-3 MWe prototype plant, as a proof-of-principle project for a 100 MWe plant, include seawater pumps driven off the generator shaft, potable water as a by-product of the condensor, ease of access for O and M, and an integrated, gear-driven deaerator system with reinjection into the warm seawater discharge. An inlet flow of 3,000,000 cu ft/sec, a single stage vertical turbine with 40 ft fiber reinforced composite blades, 200 rpm operation on a 65 ft diameter disk, and an overall efficiency of 3% are features of the 100 MWe plant. A flowfield analysis, a velocity triangle analysis, and a structural dynamics analysis are outlined, along with materials applications and manufacturing process considerations in blade design. The 3MWe OTEC will be one-sixth the size of a 100MWe OTEC.

  17. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  18. Secrecy versus Openness: Historical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, George

    2014-03-01

    ``I think all members of the laboratory are agreed that the work which is being pursued here is of such importance that we should not like to see it or any part of it fall into private or foreign hands,'' J. Robert Oppenheimer announced to his colleagues at Los Alamos on November 15, 1943, putting the first formal secrecy policies into effect-while promising ``to make the procedure as little burdensome as possible, and to reduce its interference with the actual prosecution of the work.'' ``After the war, the question of secrecy was reconsidered... but the practice of classification continued; it was our `security,' whether it worked or failed,'' Oppenheimer's colleague Edward Teller updated us in 1981, halfway between the mimeographed handout of 1943 and the labyrinthine security policies of today. ``We now have millions of classified technical documents,'' Teller continued, and ``the limitations we impose on ourselves by restricting information are far greater than any advantage others could gain.'' Teller titled his critique ``The Road to Nowhere.'' Is there a road back? In some notable cases (digital computing, satellite reconnaissance, GPS) we have taken the road to openness, and Teller's opinion, at least in this domain, appears to have been correct.

  19. Open charm photoproduction at Zeus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nylander, Paul Andrew

    1999-11-01

    The inclusive production of charm quarks in positron- proton collisions at center of mass energy 300 GeV is measured near zero photon virtuality. Open charm events have been identified through the decay chain D*(2010) --> D0πs with the subsequent decay of D 0 --> Kπ. Production is expected to be dominated by the leading order boson - gluon fusion process, although higher orders cannot be neglected. This is examined by comparing observed cross sections with next-to-leading order QCD predictions in the ``massive'' and ``massless'' charm limits as a function of reconstructed D* transverse momentum, pseudo rapidity, and photon - proton center of mass energy. The measured total cross section in the restricted kinematic range of Pt(D*) >3.0 GeV, |h(D*) |<1.5, and 130 < Wγp < 280 GeV is s=9.7+/-0.6+0.7-0.9 nb. A clear disagreement with the phenomenological predictions, inconsistent with experimental or theoretical errors, is seen in the differential cross sections, most notably in the angular distribution.

  20. Adiabaticity in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    We provide a rigorous generalization of the quantum adiabatic theorem for open systems described by a Markovian master equation with time-dependent Liouvillian L (t ) . We focus on the finite system case relevant for adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing. Adiabaticity is defined in terms of closeness to the instantaneous steady state. While the general result is conceptually similar to the closed-system case, there are important differences. Namely, a system initialized in the zero-eigenvalue eigenspace of L (t ) will remain in this eigenspace with a deviation that is inversely proportional to the total evolution time T . In the case of a finite number of level crossings, the scaling becomes T-η with an exponent η that we relate to the rate of the gap closing. For master equations that describe relaxation to thermal equilibrium, we show that the evolution time T should be long compared to the corresponding minimum inverse gap squared of L (t ) . Our results are illustrated with several examples.

  1. An open tubular ion chromatograph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingcheng; Zhang, Min; Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-01

    We describe an open tubular ion chromatograph (OTIC) that uses anion exchange latex coated 5 μm radius silica and 9.8 μm radius poly(methyl methacrylate) tubes and automated time/pressure based hydrodynamic injection for pL-nL scale injections. It is routinely possible to generate 50,000 plates or more (up to 150,000 plates/m, columns between 0.3 and 0.8 m have been used), and as such, fast separations are possible, comparable to or in some cases better than the current practice of IC. With an optimized admittance detector, nonsuppressed detection permits LODs of submicromolar to double digit micromolar for a variety of analytes. However, large volume injections are possible and can significantly improve on this. A variety of eluents, the use of organic modifiers, and variations of eluent pH can be used to tailor a given separation. The approach is discussed in the context of extraterrestrial exploration, especially Mars, where the existence of large amounts of perchlorate in the soil needs to be confirmed. These columns can survive drying and freezing, and small footprint, low power consumption, and simplicity make OTIC a good candidate for such a mission. PMID:25394230

  2. Measured opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened diaphragm for the Langley expansion tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from an experimental study of the opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened, 15.24 cm diameter diaphragm are presented. This diaphragm consists of a polyester film bonded to a preformed wire and is opened by passing a current pulse (capacitor discharge) through the wire. The diaphragm separates the acceleration section of the expansion tunnel from the nozzle so that the nozzle may be at a lower pressure than the acceleration section prior to a test. Opening times and cleanness of the opened area were examined for dependence on diaphragm thickness, on wire diameter, on technique of bonding the wire to the diaphragm, and on voltage and energy level of the energy source. Time histories of the pitot pressure measured at the expansion-tunnel nozzle entrance location are presented for (1) no diaphragm, (2) a flow-opened diaphragm, and (3) an electromagnetically opened diaphragm.

  3. A proposal of an open PET geometry.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Inaniwa, Taku; Minohara, Shinichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Shibuya, Kengo; Lam, Chih Fung; Murayama, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 degrees opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by letting the beams pass through the gap. The proposed open PET geometry will also allow simultaneous PET/CT measurements of the same PET FOV as the CT FOV, in contrast to the conventional PET/CT where each FOV is separated by several tens of centimeters. PMID:18199913

  4. Assess arsenic distribution in groundwater applying GIS in capital of Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. M.; Zhonghua, T.; Sissou, Z.; Mohamadi, B.

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Arsenic causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in portable water. The major sources of arsenic pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of arsenic containing minerals and anthropogenic activities. Lahore is groundwater dependent city, arsenic contamination is a major issue of portable water and has recently been most environmental health management issue especially in the plain region, where population density is very high. GIS was used in this study for visualizing distribution of arsenic groundwater concentration through geostatistics analysis technique, and exposure risk zones for two years (2010 and 2012). Town's data was compared and concentration variation evaluated. ANOVA test was also applied to compare concentration between cities and years. Arsenic concentrations widely range 7.3-67.8 and 5.2-69.3 μg L-1 in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Over 71% area is represented arsenic concentration range from 20 to 30 μg L-1 in both analyzed years. However, in 2012 arsenic concentration over 40 μg L-1 has covered 7.6% area of Data Gunjbuksh and 8.1% of Ravi Town, while over 90% area of Allama Iqbal, Aziz Bhatti and Samanabad Town contain arsenic concentration between 20-30 μg L-1. ANOVA test depicts concentration probability less than 0.05, while differences were detected among towns. In light of current results, it needs urgent step to ensure groundwater protection and preservation for future.

  5. Towards an open architecture for vector GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunfey, Robert I.; Gittings, Bruce M.; Batcheller, James K.

    2006-12-01

    A range of open source software tools are now available to the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) analyst. However these tools are not necessarily interoperable and rarely significantly interoperable with proprietary systems. The open architectures, which have been developed for web-oriented systems, together with those proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), suggest that an open GIS architecture could be developed as an alternative to proprietary systems. The architecture would use open source components to store, translate, analyse, render and visualise GI data and would escape many of the problems of monolithic systems. Particularly what is proposed permits the loose coupling of any number of components and data stores in a manner that is both open and flexible. This paper proposes such an architecture and focuses on determining the suitability of Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), an open vector-oriented eXtensible Markup Language (XML) grammar, as a significant component of such architecture. SVG is shown as an effective means of rendering GI data, not least because of its compatibility with the WC3 Document Object Model (DOM), permitting GIS-specific client tools to be written and transmitted to the web browser along with the SVG pages. While realising that the technology is in its infancy, the conclusion reached is that SVG currently provides a powerful solution and has enormous future potential.

  6. The ethics of open access publishing.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication. PMID:23521857

  7. An open framework for hydrological data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, H.; Ridler, M. E.; Velzen, N. V.; Hummel, S.; Sandholt, I.; Falk, A. K.; Heemink, A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. Thus far, many of the efforts on implementation of data assimilation in hydrological modeling have been model specific. This requires access to as well as an in-depth knowledge of the numerical core of the models. A means to deal with the interaction between model and data assimilation algorithm in a more generic way is the use of the Open Model Interface (OpenMI). This open source standard interface allows models to exchange data during runtime, thus transforming a complex numerical model to a plug and play like component. For data assimilation, the OpenDA data assimilation toolbox is an open interface standard that includes a set of tools, assimilation algorithms, and numerical techniques to quickly implement data assimilation in numerical models. This paper presents a new generic data assimilation framework that uses OpenMI to interface models within OpenDA. This enables the many OpenMI hydrological models already available access to a robust and flexible data assimilation library. A synthetic test case is presented that highlights the potential of this new framework. An ensemble based Kalman filter is demonstrated for assimilation of groundwater levels in the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system. The simulated groundwater levels over the entire domain were significantly improved by data assimilation. Furthermore, the river discharges (which were not assimilated) were also corrected.

  8. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new perspectives for future applications. We are most grateful that you agreed with the special format of the symposium which clearly does not follow conven- tional conferences. Allow me to call your special attention once again to two main differences: The presentations are not review papers praising already achieved break-throughs but introductions to a list of open questions and issues for which our understanding is still unsatisfactory. To give such presentations requires courage and scientific integrity. I would like to thank all speakers now already for their willingness to cope with such a difficult task. We have allocated at least 50 minutes for discussion after each presentation not only for discussing the paper as such but, if possible, to find answers to the open questions. If one or several participants in the audience during the discussion think they can contribute to improving our understanding of heterostructures, they are invited to write their ideas up and, if the referees agree, we are more than happy to publish these ideas in the proceedings. We admit that the program is rather demanding. For that reason, we plan to have a break on Thursday afternoon by first going to Denmark and touring the Hamlet castle of Kronborg. We then sail back to Sweden and will be hosted by the Krapperup castle where we will have a candle-light dinner and thereafter a baroque music concert featuring the Concerto Copenhagen. All participants, observers, and accompanying spouses are invited and we hope you will all enjoy the excur- sion. The local organising committee acknowledges with pleasure the financial and all other support received from the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Institute of Physics as well as the initial initiative taken by the chairman of the Nobel Com- mittee for Physics, Prof. Nordling, who was the first to suggest this Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semicon- ductors". Special thanks also to the members of the program committee who have been of inestimable value in putting together the program and suggesting speakers and potential participants. Moreover, I should like to thank Mrs. Medborg, Dr. Olajos, Dr. Mats Kleverman and in particular Dr. Ask who took care of all time-consuming negotiations and details. Without their help, the Symposium would not be what it is. The Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Committee for Physics, the Nobel Institute of Physics and the local organisers hope that you will enjoy the Symposium and I promise you, we will all do our best to make your stay as pleasant as possible and this Symposium a success. Once again welcome to Arild and the Symposium!

  9. Open architecture in control system integration

    SciTech Connect

    Wysor, R.W.; Carnal, C.L.; Igou, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    Open architecture offers the manufacturing community a number of advantages in the integration of future machine control systems. Among these advantages is the ability to upgrade and take advantage of innovative new control strategies. A key enabling technology in open architecture control systems is the digital signal processor (DSP). DSPs can be used to provide a complete control system or can enhance the computational capability of larger control systems. The use of DSPs in the integration of open architecture control systems is discussed, including their impact on reliability and control system functionality. In addition, the role of DSPs in control system architecture is addressed.

  10. A flexible Open Data Assimilation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Ridler, Marc E.; Altaf, Umer; Madsen, Henrik; Heemink, Arnold; Dijkzeul, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. The implementation of data assimilation techniques is traditionally in a model specific form. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to have in-depth knowledge of the numerical core computations and it does not allow to freely experiment with data assimilation algorithms and measurement sources without the need of additional programming. We present a more flexible approach to setup a forecasting system. The OpenDA data assimilation framework contains many state of the art data assimilation algorithms to easily set up a forecasting system. The setup of the framework allows users to select and experiment with various algorithms. OpenDA defines an interface between model and data assimilation algorithms. This interface only needs to be implemented once for a particular model. The OpenDA model interface is already implemented for various models. Besides these models it is very easy to couple models that are already implementing the Open Model Interface (OpenMI) to OpenDA using the generic OpenMI-OpenDA coupler. Using a synthetic test case we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach using OpenMI and OpenDA. We use the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system to demonstrate how various ensemble based algorithms can be used to improve the forecasted groundwater level and river discharges. Biases in the measurements are detected and corrected by the generic bias correction module of OpenDA and spurious correlations are handled using both heuristic as automatic localization strategies.

  11. Relief Valve Opens And Closes Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svejkovsky, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Relief valve opens quickly to relieve excess pressure and closes quickly when pressure drops slightly below relief pressure. O-ring exposes one or more ports under high pressure, releasing excess pressurized fluid. Adjusting screw used to change compression on Belleville-spring washers and to set pressure at which valve opens. Designed for use aboard Space Shuttle to vent pressurized hydrazine to vacuum, valve concept useful in industrial applications where rapid opening, rapid closing, or low susceptibility to blockage by vented fluid required.

  12. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  13. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  14. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  15. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  16. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  17. VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR AREA, NOTE FOUNDATIONS OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  18. 75 FR 1418 - Implementation of Open Government Directive

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION Implementation of Open Government Directive AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., 2009, Open Government Directive, which helps to implement the President's January 21, 2009, Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is requesting...

  19. The Open Medicine student peer review program

    PubMed Central

    Lail, Parabhdeep; Wilkinson, Krista; Metcalfe, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Open Medicine has provided an opportunity to acquire experience in peer review for a group of graduate students in the Department of Community Health Sciences at the University of Calgary. To date, approximately 40 students have regularly participated in the peer review of manuscripts for Open Medicine. Participating students attend group sessions on the practicalities of reviewing papers, the revision and resubmission process, and specific topic areas that arise from particular papers. Through these experiences, the students have gained insight into the importance of quality peer review, Open Access publication and research reporting guidelines. Open Medicine encourages the proliferation of similar programs at other universities, as this valuable part of medical research is not formally taught in most graduate health research programs. PMID:22046221

  20. Quantum computing Hyper Terahertz Facility opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Chadha, Kulvinder

    2016-01-01

    A new facility has opened at the University of Surrey to use terahertz radiation for quantum computing. The Hyper Terahertz Facility (HTF) is a joint collaboration between the University of Surrey and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL).

  1. 12 CFR 604.415 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... discussion of matters which are within one or more of the exemptive provisions listed in § 604.420 of this part, and that the public interest is not served by the discussion of such matters in an open meeting....

  2. 12 CFR 604.415 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... discussion of matters which are within one or more of the exemptive provisions listed in § 604.420 of this part, and that the public interest is not served by the discussion of such matters in an open meeting....

  3. Open Plan Furniture: An Investigation and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    In attempting to select an open plan furniture system for a client, architects compiled data on available systems, then set up a test area where the systems could be used and evaluated by the personnel. (Author)

  4. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  5. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  6. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  7. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  8. Open Rotor Spin Test - Duration: 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  9. The Open University in the Third World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    A description of the Open University as a multimedia system for teaching at a distance with consideration of possibilities of transplanting both the concept and the actuality of the university as an institution to the Third World. (HB)

  10. OpenMP Experiences and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Terry; Thigpen, William W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The document discusses message passage interfaces (MPI), open message passage issues and parallelization. A comparison of the two vector platforms, C90 and SVlex is presented. Sections of the document are written in computer code.

  11. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  12. A Second Law for Open Markov Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Blake S.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we define the notion of an open Markov process. An open Markov process is a generalization of an ordinary Markov process in which populations are allowed to flow in and out of the system at certain boundary states. We show that the rate of change of relative entropy in an open Markov process is less than or equal to the flow of relative entropy through its boundary states. This can be viewed as a generalization of the Second Law for open Markov processes. In the case of a Markov process whose equilibrium obeys detailed balance, this inequality puts an upper bound on the rate of change of the free energy for any non-equilibrium distribution.

  13. Openness versus secrecy? Historical and historiographical remarks.

    PubMed

    Vermeir, Koen

    2012-06-01

    Traditional historiography of science has constructed secrecy in opposition to openness. In the first part of the paper, I will challenge this opposition. Openness and secrecy are often interlocked, impossible to take apart, and they might even reinforce each other. They should be understood as positive (instead of privative) categories that do not necessarily stand in opposition to each other. In the second part of this paper, I call for a historicization of the concepts of 'openness' and 'secrecy'. Focusing on the early modern period, I briefly introduce three kinds of secrecy that are difficult to analyse with a simple oppositional understanding of openness and secrecy. In particular, I focus on secrecy in relation to esoteric traditions, theatricality and allegory. PMID:23050366

  14. Predicting Student Withdrawals in Open Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, Paul B.; Giltrow, David R.

    1978-01-01

    This study reports on progress in predicting overall completion rates for various open learning courses, given the demographic, curricular, and administrative conditions prevailing at the City Colleges of Chicago. (Author)

  15. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  16. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  17. Open string in a nonrelativistic background

    SciTech Connect

    Kluson, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the open string description of Wilson loops and quarks in nonrelativistic quantum field theory that are expected to be dual of gravity in Schroedinger space-time.

  18. What Do You Have for Openers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes some "openers" to use in science class to attract attention, create interest or maintain interest. Some examples of materials that can be used are a radiometer, a drinking bird, Geiger-Muller Counter and a human skeleton. (BR)

  19. Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

  20. Flow distances on open flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangzhu; Lou, Xiaodan; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    An open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state mode of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. An open flow network is different from a closed flow network because it considers the flows from or to the environment (the source and the sink). For instance, in energetic food webs, species obtain energy not only from other species but also from the environment (sunlight), and species also dissipate energy to the environment. Flow distances between any two nodes i and j are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from i to j. The conventional method for the calculation of the random walk distance on closed flow networks cannot be applied to open flow networks. Therefore, we derive novel explicit expressions for flow distances of open flow networks according to their underlying Markov matrix of the network in this paper. We apply flow distances to two types of empirical open flow networks, including energetic food webs and economic input-output networks. In energetic food webs, we visualize the trophic level of each species and compare flow distances with other distance metrics on the graph. In economic input-output networks, we rank sectors according to their average flow distances and cluster sectors into different industrial groups with strong connections. Other potential applications and mathematical properties are also discussed. To summarize, flow distance is a useful and powerful tool to study open flow systems.