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Sample records for allama iqbal open

  1. Teachers Training through Distance Mode in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumani, Nabi Bux; Rahman, Fazalur; Chishti, Saeedul Hasan; Malik, Samina

    2011-01-01

    Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) is the first Open University in Asia and established in 1974 on the model of UKOU. AIOU uses different media for the delivery of instruction. It has a well established Institute of Educational Technology which has radio and TV production facilities and advance level of work in computer technology. AOU offers…

  2. Libraries' Services at Distance: A Survey of Allama Iqbal Open University Tutors in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the satisfaction level of distance education tutors with the location and physical setup, collection, resources and services being offered at thirty-four regional campuses and centers' libraries network of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) in Pakistan including Azad Jummu and Kashmir territory. A semi…

  3. Correlation between Marks Obtained By Students in Assignments and Final Examination of Master of Education Conducted by Allama Iqbal Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslam, Muhammed; Ahmed, Aijaz; Malik, Ashraf, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to find out the correlation between the marks obtained by the students of Allama Iqbal Open University in assignments and final examination of M.A (Education) M.Ed in Autumn 2006. For this purpose, the result gazette of M.A (Education) M.Ed was obtained from the regional campus of Allama Iqbal Open

  4. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  5. Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Distance Learning Courses: A Study of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Afzaal; Ramay, Muhammad I.; Shahzad, Mudasar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the primary objective of the research team was to find out the relationship between student satisfaction and the following variables of the distance learning environment: instructors' performance, course evaluation and student-instructor interaction. The sample consisted of 245 students of Allama Iqbal Open University of Pakistan.…

  6. Instruction Design System of Allama Iqbal Open University: A Vehicle for Improvement or Mere a Salogon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Iqbal, Muhammad Javed

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to ensure instructional quality, effectiveness, efficiency and enjoyment. Instructional design maximizes the value of the instructions for the learners. Instructional design include identifying instructional out-comes, developing instructional contents and established how instructional effectiveness will be…

  7. Exploring the Role of Distributed Learning in Distance Education at Allama Iqbal Open University: Academic Challenges at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukhsh, Qadir; Chaudhary, Muhammad Ajmal

    2015-01-01

    Distributed learning is derived from the concept of distributed resources. Different institutions around the globe connected through network and the learners are diverse, located in the different cultures and communities. Distributed learning provides global standards of quality to all learners through synchronous and asynchronous communications…

  8. Effectiveness of M.A. EPM Program Launched Through Distance Education System of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain Shah, Syed Manzoor; Ahmad, Masoor

    2014-01-01

    The study focus the effectiveness of the M.A EPM program launched through distance education system of AIOU. For this purpose the performance of heads of educational institutions with and without M.A EPM degree was analyzed keeping in view different major aspects i.e. planning strategies, managerial approaches, coordination, administration and use…

  9. Use of Libraries in Open and Distance Learning System: Barriers to the Use of AIOU Libraries by Tutors and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Abdul Jabbar; Jumani, Nabi Bux

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the library needs of students and tutors of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU), utilization level of the library facilities and resources, the problems in the use of library, and suggestions for improvement of library facilities for students and tutors. Data collected from 4080 students and 526 tutors belonging to 15 different…

  10. Information Seeking Behaviour of AIOU Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Malik Tariq

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this research study is to investigate the information-seeking behavior of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) administrators in Pakistan. Information is obtained by using a wide variety of informal and formal sources, human sources, Internet as well as print media. The present study found that AIOU administrators are more…

  11. Preparing Future Teachers through Distance Learning: An Empirical Study on Students' Perception of Teacher Education Program Provided by AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Mohammed; Ali, Akhtar; Maqbool, Saira

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyse the pre service teachers training programs for the distance learners of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan. This kind of training is provided to the future teachers enrolled to acquire pre service training to become a teacher in a Government educational institution in Pakistan.…

  12. Development of Reflective Thinking through Distance Teacher Education Programs at AIOU Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the possibilities of developing reflective thinking among learners through distance education programs. The case of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan is examined to achieve this task. The study is based on Mezirow's theory of reflective thinking, which divides thinking in four…

  13. Drugs, Devices & Discovery: Using Fee-Shifting to Resolve the Twombly/Iqbal Problem for Parallel Claims Under the FDCA.

    PubMed

    Norris, Cameron T

    2015-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decisions in Twombly and Iqbal ushered in a new federal pleading standard, requiring plaintiffs to state a "plausible" claim to relief before they can access discovery. Plausibility pleading, however, presents a unique burden for plaintiffs who have been injured by a Class III medical device. In Riegel, the Supreme Court held that state-law claims against device manufacturers are preempted unless they "parallel" federal requirements. However, the relevant federal requirements are located in the manufacturer's premarket approval agreement, which is confidential. Thus, it is nearly impossible for plaintiffs to allege a plausible claim against a Class III device manufacturer because they do not know what to plead in the first place. The Seventh Circuit tried to remedy this Catch-22 by lowering the pleading standards for parallel claims. However, its approach misapplies Twombly and Iqbal and overburdens device manufacturers. Instead of tinkering with pleading standards, this paper advocates a different approach. Congress should create a one-way fee-shifting mechanism that allows plaintiffs to access premarket approval agreements if they agree to pay the defendant's discovery fees (should their claim prove unsuccessful). Fee-shifting is a middle-ground approach that would better compensate plaintiffs without overdeterring device manufacturers. PMID:26292477

  14. Openings

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Reviewing his clinic patient schedule for the day, a physician reflects on the history of a young woman he has been caring for over the past 9 years. What starts out as a routine visit then turns into a unique opening for communication and connection. A chance glimpse out the window of the exam room leads to a deeper meditation on parenthood, survival, and healing, not only for the patient but also for the physician. How many missed opportunities have we all had, without even realizing it, to allow this kind of fleeting but profound opening? PMID:26195687

  15. Esophagectomy - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Trans-hiatal esophagectomy; Trans-thoracic esophagectomy; En bloc esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - open; Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy, Blunt esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - open; Cancer of the esophagus - esophagectomy - open

  16. The Open University Opens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunstall, Jeremy, Ed.

    Conceived by the British Labor Government in the 1960's the Open University was viewed as a way to extend higher education to Britain's working class, but enrollment figures in classes that represent traditional academic disciplines show that the student population is predominantly middle class. Bringing education into the home presents numerous…

  17. Open Content in Open Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansa, Sarah Whitcher; Kansa, Eric C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the challenges and rewards of sharing research content through a discussion of Open Context, a new open access data publication system for field sciences and museum collections. Open Context is the first data repository of its kind, allowing self-publication of research data, community commentary through tagging, and clear…

  18. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  19. Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  20. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  1. Opening Remarks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    In these opening remarks to a symposium reflecting on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin, reviews the impact that Alan Shepard had on him personally, to NASA, and to the whole idea of manned spaceflight. Mr Goldin cites Shepard as an example of the past and future of manned spaceflight.

  2. Opening Remarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Laura

    2002-01-01

    In these opening remarks, the First Lady welcomes the attendees to the White House Conference on School Libraries, including four members of Congress and several guest speakers. Presents conference focus on libraries - school libraries, community libraries - as places that are designed to enrich lives and learning. (MES)

  3. Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1994-09-01

    Included in this paper are the opening remarks of S.G. Hildebrand, from Environmental Science Division, ORNL, to a conference on water resources and water resource issues. Wetlands are the focus of this talk, with an emphasis on conservation and land use to conserve wetland functions and values.

  4. Opening education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER. PMID:19119226

  5. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  6. Open University

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  7. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  8. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the IMGC this is an extremely valuable opportunity to compare our results with others using combined x-ray and optical interferometry to measure Si lattice spacing and dimensional and mass metrology to determine Si density. The initial impetus for the organization of this workshop was given by several colleagues, and with special emphasis and competence by the late Prof. Peter Seyfried of the PTB. We all mourn the loss of such a distinguished scientist to whom very important achievements in NA determination have to be credited. Prof. Seyfried was well known at the IMGC, some of our scientists having very profitably cooperated with him and his co-workers—a cooperation that is being steadily carried on. I wish to acknowledge the endorsements of the Regione Piemonte, of the CNR, of Turin University, and of the Commission of the European Communities, in terms of grants and other resources without which the workshop could not have been realized. I also wish to very warmly thank my colleagues on the Organizing Committee who have worked so well for this event. Lastly, I am pleased to acknowledge the fruitful cooperation between the IMGC and the Istituto di Fisica Generale "A Avogadro"—not the first case of its kind and, I am convinced, not the last. To conclude, let me draw your attention to an enlargement of an Italian stamp commemorating A Avogadro. The statement reads: "Equal volumes of gas in the same temperature and pressure conditions contain the same number of molecules". He simply stated the existence of such a number, leaving us with the pleasure of measuring it.

  9. Open Questions.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A few items in this issue of the Report explore a hodge-podge of questions associated with cutting-edge genetics research. In the lead article, Charles Dupras and Vardit Ravitsky look at research into epigenetics, which refers to molecular mechanisms that affect how genes are expressed. As Dupras and Ravitsky explain, research into epigenetics might turn out to be useful for developing environmental and social strategies for improving public health, but it might also end up leading to clinical tools-tools that work at the "molecular" instead of the social level and that target individuals rather than the collective public. Dupras and Ravitsky plainly hope to see a good effort to develop environmental and social strategies, and they fear that funding and interest will go mostly the other way, toward ever more "molecular" interventions. That trend in funding and interest is reflected, to some degree, in the second article, in which Oscar Zarate and colleagues explore how the Personal Genome Project, an endeavor launched at Harvard University to collect and share personal genetic and health information in order to facilitate research, is perceived by the people who consent to be part of it. Questions about open consent and subjects' role in fostering research recur in several shorter contributions to this issue. In the lead essay, Carl Elliott reflects on how and why the language used to describe research has been updated ("subjects" giving way to "participants" and "experimentation" to "research") and suggests that the changes reflect an effort to deflect concerns about the treatment of subjects. PMID:26786031

  10. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  11. Open Source, Openness, and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    2006-01-01

    In this article David Wiley provides an overview of how the general expansion of open source software has affected the world of education in particular. In doing so, Wiley not only addresses the development of open source software applications for teachers and administrators, he also discusses how the fundamental philosophy of the open source…

  12. Opening Address

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, it is my great honor and pleasure to present an opening address of the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3). On the behalf of the organizing committee, I certainly welcome all your visits to KGU Kannai Media Center belonging to Kanto Gakuin University, and stay in Yokohama. In particular, to whom come from abroad more than 17 countries, I would appreciate your participations after long long trips from your homeland to Yokohama. The first international workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics", called SOTANCP, was held in Strasbourg, France, in 2008, and the second one was held in Brussels, Belgium, in 2010. Then the third workshop is now held in Yokohama. In this period, we had the traditional 10th cluster conference in Debrecen, Hungary, in 2012. Thus we have the traditional cluster conference and SOTANCP, one after another, every two years. This obviously shows our field of nuclear cluster physics is very active and flourishing. It is for the first time in about 10 years to hold the international workshop on nuclear cluster physics in Japan, because the last cluster conference held in Japan was in Nara in 2003, about 10 years ago. The president in Nara conference was Prof. K. Ikeda, and the chairpersons were Prof. H. Horiuchi and Prof. I. Tanihata. I think, quite a lot of persons in this room had participated at the Nara conference. Since then, about ten years passed. So, this workshop has profound significance for our Japanese colleagues. The subjects of this workshop are to discuss "the state of the art in nuclear cluster physics" and also discuss the prospect of this field. In a couple of years, we saw significant progresses of this field both in theory and in experiment, which have brought better and new understandings on the clustering aspects in stable and unstable nuclei. I think, the concept of clustering has been more important than ever. This is true also in the related fields such as nuclear astrophysics, hypernuclear physics, hadron physics, and condensate matter physics so on. In fact, in this workshop, we also discuss the clustering aspects in the related fields. Thus, I expect in this workshop we can grasp the present status of the nuclear cluster physics and demonstrate its perspective in near future. This workshop is sponsored by several institutes and organizations. In particular, I would express our thanks for financial supports to Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Joint Institute for Computational Fundamental Science (JICFuS), and RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator- Based Science. They are cohosting this workshop. I would like also to appreciate my University, Kanto Gakuin University, who offers this nice place for one week and helps us to hold this workshop smoothly and conveniently. Today, the president of my University, Prof. Kuku, is here to present a welcome address. Thank you very much. Finally, with many of the participants leading this field both in theory and in experiment, we wish this workshop offers an opportunity to simulate communications not only during the workshop but also in the future. In addition, we hope you enjoy exploring city of Yokohama and the area around, as well as scientific discussions. Thank you very much for your attention.

  13. Open Schools for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Alexander

    Arguing against the "bandwagon" approach to innovation and change, and pressing for careful consideration of the potentials inherent in "openness" in education, the author explores the interactions among the phenomena of open space, open structure, and open curriculum. In examining the nature of these interactions, he sets the complex of concepts…

  14. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  15. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  16. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  17. Open access and open source in chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Matthew H

    2007-01-01

    Scientific data are being generated and shared at ever-increasing rates. Two new mechanisms for doing this have developed: open access publishing and open source research. We discuss both, with recent examples, highlighting the differences between the two, and the strengths of both. PMID:17939849

  18. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students’ Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country. PMID:26327966

  19. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open

  20. In Brief: Open government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama's Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government requires federal agencies to take steps toward increased transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Agencies are accepting suggestions until 19 March 2010. For more information, visit http://www.whitehouse.gov/open and http://www.usa.gov/webcontent/open/tool_poc.shtml.

  1. The Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braybrook, Susan

    This booklet describes Governors State University, an open university responding to the needs of junior/community college graduates and others working towards a baccalaureate and master's degree. Emphasis is placed on the concept of the open university, planning of the open university, who are the students and how they influence the planning…

  2. Openness as infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry. PMID:21999327

  3. Asian Open Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of open universities in Asia is of interest to Australian educators, particularly since the Asian institutions differ in some respects from the British model which combined open entry to all and extensively employed the electronic media. The Asian Open Universities have provided access to higher education for many. (SSH)

  4. Open Access Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

  5. Mitral valve surgery - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Mitral valve replacement - open; Mitral valve repair - open; Mitral valvuloplasty ... your heart function. You are having open-heart surgery for another reason and your doctor may want to replace or repair your mitral valve at the same time. Your heart valve has ...

  6. Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at the open hearth steelmaking plant; open hearth stockhouse in foreground and open hearth furnace building in background - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Open Hearth Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  7. The open access advantage.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open access papers continues to widen. I conclude with the observation that the "open access advantage" has at least three components: (1) a citation count advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), (2) an end user uptake advantage, and (3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. More research is needed, and JMIR is inviting research on all aspects of open access. As the advantages for publishing open access from a researchers' point of view become increasingly clear, questions around the sustainability of open access journals remain. This journal is a living example that "lean publishing" models can create successful open access journals. Open source tools which have been developed by the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia with contributions from the Epublishing & Open Access group at the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation in Toronto are an alternative to hosting journals on commercial open access publisher sites. PMID:16867971

  8. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  9. Opening Up Access to Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Ross

    2008-01-01

    As the corpus of gray literature grows and the price of serials rises, it becomes increasingly important to explore ways to integrate the free and open Web seamlessly into one's collections. Users, after all, are discovering these materials all the time via sites such as Google Scholar and Scirus or by searching arXiv.org or CiteSeer directly.…

  10. Open-sight Alidades

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Open-sight Alidades. This type of alidade is a straightedge with a sighting device parallel to the edge. Early alidades were simple bars with open sights on either end, while telescopic alidades were introduced in the early 1800s. The examples here of solid brass and an early plastic/wood combinatio...

  11. Demystifying Open Access

    SciTech Connect

    Mele, Salvatore

    2007-05-14

    The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

  12. Creating Open Source Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Darien Library, where the author serves as head of knowledge and learning services, launched a new website on September 1, 2008. The website is built with Drupal, an open source content management system (CMS). In this article, the author describes how she and her colleagues overhauled the library's website to provide an open source content…

  13. Open Source Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are turning to open source as a way to meet their technology infrastructure and application needs. Open source has changed life for visionary CIOs and their campus communities nationwide. The author discusses what these technologists see as the benefits--and the considerations.

  14. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  15. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  16. Opening up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iiyoshi, Toru, Ed.; Kumar, M. S. Vijay, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available--from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for…

  17. Open and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Farhad, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Examines concepts that are closely associated with distance education. Discusses the beginnings of open education; open access and admission criteria; course availability; access to technology; the E-rate program for those on the less fortunate side of the "digital divide"; beyond flexibility; and the learner's responsibility for learning. (AEF)

  18. Open meetings without fear.

    PubMed

    Cowsert, W E

    1979-09-01

    An open meeting, properly prepared for and conducted, can be one of the best public relations tools a hospital has. This article contains practical suggestions to guide the board and the chief executive officer in preparing for and conducting board meetings that are open to the press and the public. PMID:10243728

  19. The Argument for Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Is open source business intelligence (OS BI) software ready for prime time? The author thoroughly investigated each of three OS BI toolsets--Pentaho BI Suite, Jaspersoft BI Suite, and Talend Open Studio--by installing the OS BI tools himself, by interviewing technologists at academic institutions who had implemented these OS BI solutions, and by…

  20. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  1. Egress door opening assister

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Thomas L.

    2015-10-06

    A door opening spring assistance apparatus is set forth that will automatically apply a door opening assistance force using a combination of rods and coil springs. The release of the rods by the coil springs reduces the force required to set the door in motion.

  2. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  3. Opening a New Door

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of K-12 districts are taking the open source plunge, both to cope with tight budgets and to escape proprietary vendor lock-in and expensive upgrade cycles. With the potential for cost savings and a growing number of educational applications, open source software is proving to be an effective alternative for schools willing to make…

  4. CAPE-OPEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CAPE-OPEN standard is the de facto standard for interfacing process modeling software components for use in the design and operation of chemical processes. It is based on universally recognized software technologies, such as COM and CORBA. The CO standard is open, multi-platf...

  5. Open Rotor Aeroacoustic Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel efficiency, there is renewed interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems that are both efficient and quiet. The major contributor to the overall noise of an open rotor system is the propulsor noise, which is produced as a result of the interaction of the airstream with the counter-rotating blades. As such, robust aeroacoustic prediction methods are an essential ingredient in any approach to designing low-noise open rotor systems. To that end, an effort has been underway at NASA to assess current open rotor noise prediction tools and develop new capabilities. Under this effort, high-fidelity aerodynamic simulations of a benchmark open rotor blade set were carried out and used to make noise predictions via existing NASA open rotor noise prediction codes. The results have been compared with the aerodynamic and acoustic data that were acquired for this benchmark open rotor blade set. The emphasis of this paper is on providing a summary of recent results from a NASA Glenn effort to validate an in-house open noise prediction code called LINPROP which is based on a high-blade-count asymptotic approximation to the Ffowcs-Williams Hawkings Equation. The results suggest that while predicting the absolute levels may be difficult, the noise trends are reasonably well predicted by this approach.

  6. Stability of open pathways

    PubMed Central

    Flach, Edward H.; Schnell, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    We consider the steady state of an open biochemical pathway, with controlled flow. Previously we have shown that the steady state of open enzyme catalysed reactions may be unstable, which discourages the application of the quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) (IEE Proc. Syst. Biol. 153 (2006) 187). Here we examine basic open biochemical pathway structures, to see the stability of their steady states. Following De Leenheer et al. (J. Math. Chem. 41 (2007) 295), we employ the Gershgorin circle theorem, which elegantly assesses stability. This is the key tool for our analysis. Once we have the linear stability matrix laid out in a suitable form, the application of the method is straightforward. We find that in open biochemical pathways, simple chains, branches and loops always have stable steady states. We conclude that simple open pathways are stable. PMID:20875827

  7. Open-Minded Cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Erika; Ottati, Victor; Wilson, Chase; Kim, Soyeon

    2015-11-01

    The present research conceptualizes open-minded cognition as a cognitive style that influences how individuals select and process information. An open-minded cognitive style is marked by willingness to consider a variety of intellectual perspectives, values, opinions, or beliefs-even those that contradict the individual's opinion. An individual's level of cognitive openness is expected to vary across domains (such as politics and religion). Four studies develop and validate a novel measure of open-minded cognition, as well as two domain-specific measures of religious and political open-minded cognition. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (controlling for acquiescence bias) are used to develop the scales in Studies 1 to 3. Study 4 demonstrates that these scales possess convergent and discriminant validity. Study 5 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcome of Empathic Concern (Davis, 1980). Study 6 demonstrates the scale's unique predictive validity using the outcomes of warmth toward racial, religious, and sexual minorities. PMID:26315581

  8. Education and the Open Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkinson, Henry J.

    1973-01-01

    The concept of an open society, wherein all the social, political and economic arrangements are open to criticism, is explored. The central role of education is considered to be the creation and maintenance of an open society. (Author/KM)

  9. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  10. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  11. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy (third trimester) ...

  12. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart (such ... heart is still beating. Related topics include: Aortic valve surgery -- minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery -- open Atrial ...

  13. Let's be open

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-02-01

    Scientists, governments and funding agencies have for some time been pushing for data generated by publicly supported scientific research to be made available and free. But just how could "open data" work in practice? Jon Cartwright investigates.

  14. PWC Opens up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2011-01-01

    Coming up with the latest and greatest learning curriculum for employees year after year can be overwhelming--especially if one works for a small or mid-size company with minimal resources. Fortunately, there is a burgeoning trend that three-time No. 1 Top 125er PwC is helping to "open" up. In creating PwC Open University, the professional…

  15. OpenTopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C.; Nandigam, V.; Phan, M.; Cowart, C.

    2012-04-01

    OpenTopography is a cyberinfrastructure-based facility for online access to high-resolution topography and tools. The project is an outcome of the Geosciences Network (GEON) project, which was a research project funded several years ago in the US to investigate the use of cyberinfrastructure to support research and education in the geosciences. OpenTopography provides online access to large LiDAR point cloud datasets along with services for processing these data. Users are able to generate custom DEMs by invoking DEM services provided by OpenTopography with custom parameter values. Users can track the progress of their jobs, and a private myOpenTopo area retains job information and job outputs. Data available at OpenTopography are provided by a variety of data acquisition groups under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding (MoU). These include national facilities such as the National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping, as well as local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography is also being designed as a hub for high-resolution topography resources. Datasets and services available at other locations can also be registered here, providing a "one-stop shop" for such information. We will describe the OpenTopography system architecture and its current set of features, including the service-oriented architecture, a job-tracking database, and social networking features. We will also describe several design and development activities underway to archive and publish datasets using digital object identifiers (DOIs); create a more flexible and scalable high-performance environment for processing of large datasets; extend support for satellite-based and terrestrial lidar as well as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data; and create a "pluggable" infrastructure for third-party services. OpenTopography has successfully created a facility for sharing lidar data. In the next phase, we are developing a facility that will also enable equally easy and successful sharing of services related to these data.

  16. The Open AUC Project.

    PubMed

    Cölfen, Helmut; Laue, Thomas M; Wohlleben, Wendel; Schilling, Kristian; Karabudak, Engin; Langhorst, Bradley W; Brookes, Emre; Dubbs, Bruce; Zollars, Dan; Rocco, Mattia; Demeler, Borries

    2010-02-01

    Progress in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) has been hindered by obstructions to hardware innovation and by software incompatibility. In this paper, we announce and outline the Open AUC Project. The goals of the Open AUC Project are to stimulate AUC innovation by improving instrumentation, detectors, acquisition and analysis software, and collaborative tools. These improvements are needed for the next generation of AUC-based research. The Open AUC Project combines on-going work from several different groups. A new base instrument is described, one that is designed from the ground up to be an analytical ultracentrifuge. This machine offers an open architecture, hardware standards, and application programming interfaces for detector developers. All software will use the GNU Public License to assure that intellectual property is available in open source format. The Open AUC strategy facilitates collaborations, encourages sharing, and eliminates the chronic impediments that have plagued AUC innovation for the last 20 years. This ultracentrifuge will be equipped with multiple and interchangeable optical tracks so that state-of-the-art electronics and improved detectors will be available for a variety of optical systems. The instrument will be complemented by a new rotor, enhanced data acquisition and analysis software, as well as collaboration software. Described here are the instrument, the modular software components, and a standardized database that will encourage and ease integration of data analysis and interpretation software. PMID:19296095

  17. Open coil traction system.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2012-01-01

    Sliding mechanics have become a popular method for space closure, with the development of preadjusted edgewise appliances. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and extensively evaluated for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness is enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low load deflection rate/force decay. With the advent of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) springs in orthodontics, load deflection rates have been markedly reduced. To use Ni-Ti springs, clinicians have to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. The open coil traction system, or open coil retraction spring, is developed utilizing Ni-Ti open coil springs for orthodontic space closure. This article describes the fabrication and clinical application of the open coil traction system, which has a number of advantages. It sustains a low load deflection rate with optimum force magnitude, and its design is adjustable for a desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (ie, it cannot be overactivated, and the decompression limit of the open coil is controlled by the operator). The open coil traction system can be offset from the mucosa to help reduce soft tissue impingement. PMID:22567645

  18. Open Energy Info (OpenEI) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The Open Energy Information (OpenEI.org) initiative is a free, open-source, knowledge-sharing platform. OpenEI was created to provide access to data, models, tools, and information that accelerate the transition to clean energy systems through informed decisions.

  19. Commentary: open access, open business, closed fairness!

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    A strong trend to move from print to online publication is largely perceived in scientific and nonscientific fields. A growing number of publishers increasingly opt for online publication as an option or a compulsory alternative. From readers' perspective, this is a highly appreciated facility, but from the author's, things are different mainly because of excessive article processing charges (APC) that make the open access system sometimes as a hindrance for many authors but a lucrative enterprise for many shareholders, enticing the most traditional and conservative publishers. PMID:25897769

  20. Open Universities in India 2000: Brief Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhushan, Bharat, Comp.; Lele, Nalini A., Comp.; Rausaria, R. R., Comp.

    This report contains information on the following open universities in India: (1) Indira Gandhi National Open University; (2) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Open University; (3) Kota Open University; (4) Nalanda Open University; (5) Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University; (6) Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University; (7) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Open

  1. The open boundary equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederen, D.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Toffolon, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new equation describing the hydrodynamics in infinitely long tidal channels (i.e., no reflection) under the influence of oceanic forcing. The proposed equation is a simple relationship between partial derivatives of water level and velocity. It is formally derived for a progressive wave in a frictionless, prismatic, tidal channel with a horizontal bed. Assessment of a large number of numerical simulations, where an open boundary condition is posed at a certain distance landward, suggests that it can also be considered accurate in the more natural case of converging estuaries with nonlinear friction and a bed slope. The equation follows from the open boundary condition and is therefore a part of the problem formulation for an infinite tidal channel. This finding provides a practical tool for evaluating tidal wave dynamics, by reconstructing the temporal variation of the velocity based on local observations of the water level, providing a fully local open boundary condition and allowing for local friction calibration.

  2. Mainstreaming Open Textbooks: Educator Perspectives on the Impact of OpenStax College Open Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of collaborative research between open textbook provider OpenStax College (OSC) and the OER Research Hub (OERRH), a Hewlett funded mixed methods open research project examining the impact of open educational resources (OER) on learning and teaching. The paper focuses primarily on the results of two surveys that were…

  3. Re-Invigorating Openness at The Open University: The Role of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Brenda; Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the internal motivations and external drivers that led The Open University UK to enter the field of Open Educational Resources through its institution-wide OpenLearn initiative (www.open.ac.uk/openlearn). It also describes some of the emerging evidence of the impacts inside and outside the university. Through the rapid…

  4. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  5. Open system environment procurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Gary

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between the request for procurement (RFP) process and open system environment (OSE) standards are described. A guide was prepared to help Federal agency personnel overcome problems in writing an adequate statement of work and developing realistic evaluation criteria when transitioning to an OSE. The guide contains appropriate decision points and transition strategies for developing applications that are affordable, scalable and interoperable across a broad range of computing environments. While useful, the guide does not eliminate the requirement that agencies posses in-depth expertise in software development, communications, and database technology in order to evaluate open systems.

  6. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary support vector machines. Building from the success of statistical EVT based recognition methods such as PI-SVM and W-SVM on the open set problem, we present a new general supervised learning algorithm for multi-class classification and multi-class open set recognition called the Extreme Value Local Basis (EVLB). The design of this algorithm is motivated by the observation that extrema from known negative class distributions are the closest negative points to any positive sample during training, and thus should be used to define the parameters of a probabilistic decision model. In the EVLB, the kernel distribution for each positive training sample is estimated via an EVT distribution fit over the distances to the separating hyperplane between positive training sample and closest negative samples, with a subset of the overall positive training data retained to form a probabilistic decision boundary. Using this subset as a frame of reference, the probability of a sample at test time decreases as it moves away from the positive class. Possessing this property, the EVLB is well-suited to open set recognition problems where samples from unknown or novel classes are encountered at test. Our experimental evaluation shows that the EVLB provides a substantial improvement in scalability compared to standard radial basis function kernel machines, as well as P I-SVM and W-SVM, with improved accuracy in many cases. We evaluate our algorithm on open set variations of the standard visual learning benchmarks, as well as with an open subset of classes from Caltech 256 and ImageNet. Our experiments show that PI-SVM, WSVM and EVLB provide significant advances over the previous state-of-the-art solutions for the same tasks.

  7. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  8. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  9. Videoconferencing in Open Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Quick, Kevin A.; Scott, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of videoconferencing as a tool to enhance collaboration amongst online learners in an open learning context. We present quantitative data from a longitudinal study of naturalistic videoconferencing interactions held via the FM videoconference tool, indicating its global use. The case study presented is analysed…

  10. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  11. Openers for Biology Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  12. Open Access and beyond.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shawn; Schmidt, Christian; Das, Chhaya; Tucker, Philip W

    2006-01-01

    Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature. PMID:16956402

  13. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  14. Open Source in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Jhunjhunwala, Kavita

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions have rushed to put their academic resources and services online, beginning the global community onto a common platform and awakening the interest of investors. Despite continuing technical challenges, online education shows great promise. Open source software offers one approach to addressing the technical problems in…

  15. Open-Source Colorimeter

    PubMed Central

    Anzalone, Gerald C.; Glover, Alexandra G.; Pearce, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of what have historically been sophisticated research-related sensors and tools has limited their adoption to a relatively small group of well-funded researchers. This paper provides a methodology for applying an open-source approach to design and development of a colorimeter. A 3-D printable, open-source colorimeter utilizing only open-source hardware and software solutions and readily available discrete components is discussed and its performance compared to a commercial portable colorimeter. Performance is evaluated with commercial vials prepared for the closed reflux chemical oxygen demand (COD) method. This approach reduced the cost of reliable closed reflux COD by two orders of magnitude making it an economic alternative for the vast majority of potential users. The open-source colorimeter demonstrated good reproducibility and serves as a platform for further development and derivation of the design for other, similar purposes such as nephelometry. This approach promises unprecedented access to sophisticated instrumentation based on low-cost sensors by those most in need of it, under-developed and developing world laboratories. PMID:23604032

  16. Opening the ICU doors.

    PubMed

    Westley, Michael E; Ching, Joan M; Sherman, Shirley A; Smith, Ian A

    2014-12-01

    Family member presence may contribute to the healing of hospitalized patients, but may also be in conflict with the perceived needs of delivering intensive care. We detail our experience with "opening the doors" of the intensive care unit (ICU), allowing family members to be present and participate in the care of loved ones without restriction. "Opening the doors" challenged the traditions, legacy and sense of professional entitlement that were a part of ICU culture and generated considerable initial resistance among nurses and physicians. We describe our "opening the doors" transformation to more patient- and family-centered care in four steps: (1) enlist support of administrative and local leaders; (2) create a collective aim; (3) test on a small scale, and (4) scale up after initial successes. Preparing ICU staff so that they are comfortable with more "on stage" time (i.e., greater family presence) was critical to our success. "Opening the doors" now serves as a guiding vision to organizing the ICU's work. PMID:26250633

  17. The Open Storage Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orcutt, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, open storage facilities have been established at four major museums in order to address the long-standing problem of lack of gallery space for putting collections on view. While making tens of thousands of objects available to visitors represents a great leap forward in accessibility, it raises inherent questions about…

  18. Open Learning and ESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Liz

    Suggestions are presented that are drawn from basic skills instruction at the English Learning Centre at Gloucestershire College of Arts and Technology (England), an open learning center geared specifically for ESOL students. Funded for 2 years as a special project by the Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit, the center examines procedures that…

  19. Minnesota's Open Enrollment Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Michael C.; And Others

    This document examines the implementation and early effects of Minnesota's open-enrollment option, which allows families to apply to enroll their children in a public school in any nonresident school district in the state. During 1989-90, surveys were mailed to 2,663 participating families, 1,966 secondary school students, and all 432 district…

  20. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  1. Van: An Open Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieman, John Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This essay is an open letter from a classroom teacher to a concerned citizen. The letter lists a variety of problems caused largely by standardization and the more corrosive effects of positivism. Many of these problems are unknown to those outside the immediate school setting. While the letter focuses on a specific setting, an inner city school…

  2. Presto: Open Inquiry!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    Although inquiry-based science teaching has been around since the 1960s, many teachers are slow to incorporate inquiry principles into their science lessons. The authors address this issue by using an analogy between a magician's card trick and open inquiry. This analogy was chosen to portray a difference of perspective and demonstrate how the…

  3. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  4. Massive and Open

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasimpaur, Karen

    2013-01-01

    MOOCs--massive open online courses--are all the rage these days, with hundreds of thousands of participants signing up and investors plunking down millions to get a piece of the pie. Why is there so much excitement about this new disruptive form of online learning, and how does this model apply to professional learning for teachers? Traditional…

  5. Opening AP to All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a school's effort to open Advanced Placement (AP) to all by challenging its students to take the leap into AP courses. Samuel W. Wolfson High School, on the south side of Jacksonville, Florida, is one of 27 schools in five cities across the country that chose to participate in a College Board initiative called EXCELerator.…

  6. Open Mind Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Alexander H.

    1995-01-01

    Open Mind, The Association for the achievement of diversity in higher education, met in conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, between October 16 and 18, 1992. A number of workgroups met to discuss the goals, structure, and generally evaluate the Association and its achievements. A summary of the workgroup sessions and their minutes are included.

  7. Evaluating Open Source Portals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Dion; Luyt, Brendan; Chua, Alton; Yee, See-Yong; Poh, Kia-Ngoh; Ng, How-Yeu

    2008-01-01

    Portals have become indispensable for organizations of all types trying to establish themselves on the Web. Unfortunately, there have only been a few evaluative studies of portal software and even fewer of open source portal software. This study aims to add to the available literature in this important area by proposing and testing a checklist for…

  8. Chimney Open Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    In the process of developing a design for the design report, many side questions or comments arose which were not completely answered or investigated because the work was outside the scope of developing a base design. I have pored over my meeting notes and tried to list all such chimney 'open issues' in this engineering note.

  9. Open-Door Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses an open-door policy and innovative program of Thorncliffe Park Public School, located in the heart of the diverse immigrant community in Toronto, that greatly expands community use of public schools. Community use of schools is hardly a new concept in Canada or in the United States, where schools have traditionally been the…

  10. The Open Learning Object Model to Promote Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Gentile, Manuel; Taibi, Davide; Allegra, Mario

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of research work, that forms part of the activities of the EU-funded project SLOOP: Sharing Learning Objects in an Open Perspective, aimed at encouraging the definition, development and management of Open Educational Resources based on the Learning Object paradigm (Wiley, 2000). We present a model of Open

  11. Infant open heart surgery (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia. ... During open-heart surgery an incision is made through the breastbone (sternum) while the child is under general anesthesia.

  12. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.

  13. Open scientific communication urged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    In a report released last week the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security concluded that the ‘limited and uncertain benefits’ of controls on the dissemination of scientific and technological research are ‘outweighed by the importance of scientific progress, which open communication accelerates, to the overall welfare of the nation.’ The 18-member panel, chaired by Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, was created last spring (Eos, April 20, 1982, p. 241) to examine the delicate balance between open dissemination of scientific and technical information and the U.S. government's desire to protect scientific and technological achievements from being translated into military advantages for our political adversaries.The panel dealt almost exclusively with the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union but noted that there are ‘clear problems in scientific communication and national security involving Third World countries.’ Further study of this matter is necessary.

  14. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  15. Open architecture CNC system

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

  16. Naval open systems architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  17. OMG: Open Molecule Generator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Computer Assisted Structure Elucidation has been used for decades to discover the chemical structure of unknown compounds. In this work we introduce the first open source structure generator, Open Molecule Generator (OMG), which for a given elemental composition produces all non-isomorphic chemical structures that match that elemental composition. Furthermore, this structure generator can accept as additional input one or multiple non-overlapping prescribed substructures to drastically reduce the number of possible chemical structures. Being open source allows for customization and future extension of its functionality. OMG relies on a modified version of the Canonical Augmentation Path, which grows intermediate chemical structures by adding bonds and checks that at each step only unique molecules are produced. In order to benchmark the tool, we generated chemical structures for the elemental formulas and substructures of different metabolites and compared the results with a commercially available structure generator. The results obtained, i.e. the number of molecules generated, were identical for elemental compositions having only C, O and H. For elemental compositions containing C, O, H, N, P and S, OMG produces all the chemically valid molecules while the other generator produces more, yet chemically impossible, molecules. The chemical completeness of the OMG results comes at the expense of being slower than the commercial generator. In addition to being open source, OMG clearly showed the added value of constraining the solution space by using multiple prescribed substructures as input. We expect this structure generator to be useful in many fields, but to be especially of great importance for metabolomics, where identifying unknown metabolites is still a major bottleneck. PMID:22985496

  18. Open boundary molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R.; Sabli?, J.; Praprotnik, M.

    2015-09-01

    This contribution analyzes several strategies and combination of methodologies to perform molecular dynamic simulations in open systems. Here, the term open indicates that the total system has boundaries where transfer of mass, momentum and energy can take place. This formalism, which we call Open Boundary Molecular Dynamics (OBMD), can act as interface of different schemes, such as Adaptive Resolution Scheme (AdResS) and Hybrid continuum-particle dynamics to link atomistic, coarse-grained (CG) and continuum (Eulerian) fluid dynamics in the general framework of fluctuating Navier-Stokes equations. The core domain of the simulation box is solved using all-atom descriptions. The CG layer introduced using AdResS is located at the outer part of the open box to make feasible the insertion of large molecules into the system. Communications between the molecular system and the outer world are carried out in the outer layers, called buffers. These coupling preserve momentum and mass conservation laws and can thus be linked with Eulerian hydro- dynamic solvers. In its simpler form, OBMD allows, however, to impose a local pressure tensor and a heat flux across the system's boundaries. For a one component molecular system, the external normal pressure and temperature determine the external chemical potential and thus the independent parameters of a grand-canonical ensemble simulation. Extended ensembles under non-equilibrium stationary states can also be simulated as well as time dependent forcings (e.g. oscillatory rheology). To illustrate the robustness of the combined OBMD-AdResS method, we present simulations of star-polymer melts at equilibrium and in sheared flow.

  19. OpenEIS Algorithms

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-07-29

    The OpenEIS Algorithm package seeks to provide a low-risk path for building owners, service providers and managers to explore analytical methods for improving building control and operational efficiency. Users of this software can analyze building data, and learn how commercial implementations would provide long-term value. The code also serves as a reference implementation for developers who wish to adapt the algorithms for use in commercial tools or service offerings.

  20. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  1. Open-Source GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju; Burk, Thomas E; Lime, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The components making up an Open Source GIS are explained in this chapter. A map server (Sect. 30.1) can broadly be defined as a software platform for dynamically generating spatially referenced digital map products. The University of Minnesota MapServer (UMN Map Server) is one such system. Its basic features are visualization, overlay, and query. Section 30.2 names and explains many of the geospatial open source libraries, such as GDAL and OGR. The other libraries are FDO, JTS, GEOS, JCS, MetaCRS, and GPSBabel. The application examples include derived GIS-software and data format conversions. Quantum GIS, its origin and its applications explained in detail in Sect. 30.3. The features include a rich GUI, attribute tables, vector symbols, labeling, editing functions, projections, georeferencing, GPS support, analysis, and Web Map Server functionality. Future developments will address mobile applications, 3-D, and multithreading. The origins of PostgreSQL are outlined and PostGIS discussed in detail in Sect. 30.4. It extends PostgreSQL by implementing the Simple Feature standard. Section 30.5 details the most important open source licenses such as the GPL, the LGPL, the MIT License, and the BSD License, as well as the role of the Creative Commons.

  2. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  3. Open Educational Resources and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackall, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

  4. How Is Open Source Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapor, Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    Open source software projects involve the production of goods, but in software projects, the "goods" consist of information. The open source model is an alternative to the conventional centralized, command-and-control way in which things are usually made. In contrast, open source projects are genuinely decentralized and transparent. Transparent…

  5. Characteristics of Open Learning Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Charles A.

    The ideal concept of open education would take the form of education permanente, although no present program includes all the features implied by this concept. Up to now the literature on open learning has focused on concern for a learner oriented system. The present focus is on the open learning system itself, with the identification of 10…

  6. Educators Assess "Open Content" Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the open-content movement in education. A small but growing movement of K-12 educators is latching on to educational resources that are "open," or free for others to use, change, and republish on web sites that promote sharing. The open-content movement is fueled partly by digital creation tools that make it easy to create…

  7. Bispectrum from open inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Komatsu, Eiichiro E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2013-11-01

    We calculate the bispectrum of primordial curvature perturbations, ?, generated during ''open inflation.'' Inflation occurs inside a bubble nucleated via quantum tunneling from the background false vacuum state. Our universe lives inside the bubble, which can be described as a Friedmann-Lema?tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe with negative spatial curvature, undergoing slow-roll inflation. We pay special attention to the issue of an initial state for quantum fluctuations. A ''vacuum state'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by open coordinates is different from the Euclidean vacuum (which is equivalent to the so-called ''Bunch-Davies vacuum'' defined by a positive-frequency mode in de Sitter space charted by flat coordinates). Quantum tunneling (bubble nucleation) then modifies the initial state away from the original Euclidean vacuum. While most of the previous study on modifications of the initial quantum state introduces, by hand, an initial time at which the quantum state is modified as well as the form of the modification, an effective initial time naturally emerges and the form is fixed by quantum tunneling in open inflation models. Therefore, open inflation enables a self-consistent computation of the effect of a modified initial state on the bispectrum. We find a term which goes as (?{sub k{sub 1}}?{sub k{sub 2}}?{sub k{sub 3}})?1/k{sub 1}{sup 2}k{sub 3}{sup 4} in the so-called squeezed configurations, k{sub 3} << k{sub 1} ? k{sub 2}, in agreement with the previous study on modifications of the initial state. The bispectrum in the exact folded limit, e.g., k{sub 1} = k{sub 2}+k{sub 3}, is also enhanced and remains finite. However, these terms are exponentially suppressed when the wavelength of ? is smaller than the curvature radius of the universe. The leading-order bispectrum is equal to the usual one from single-field slow-roll inflation; the terms specific for open inflation arise only in the sub-leading order when the wavelength of ? is smaller than the curvature radius.

  8. Open Data, Open Source and Open Standards in chemistry: The Blue Obelisk five years on

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Blue Obelisk movement was established in 2005 as a response to the lack of Open Data, Open Standards and Open Source (ODOSOS) in chemistry. It aims to make it easier to carry out chemistry research by promoting interoperability between chemistry software, encouraging cooperation between Open Source developers, and developing community resources and Open Standards. Results This contribution looks back on the work carried out by the Blue Obelisk in the past 5 years and surveys progress and remaining challenges in the areas of Open Data, Open Standards, and Open Source in chemistry. Conclusions We show that the Blue Obelisk has been very successful in bringing together researchers and developers with common interests in ODOSOS, leading to development of many useful resources freely available to the chemistry community. PMID:21999342

  9. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them. PMID:12389463

  10. The open science grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE & NSF Laboratories and Universities & Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus.

  11. Opening the spaceways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponable, Jess M.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies spaceplane technical concepts proposed by both large and small companies. Highlights that the size and complexity of spaceplanes can be bounded by two well-defined concepts: the Lockheed Martin X-33/Venturestar concept and the Boeing Military Spaceplane vehicle. Also identifies a number of spaceplane concepts being proposed by small commercially financed companies. Reviews possible policy, regulatory, technology, financing and market catalysts that the government and Congress can establish to improve the business climate and encourage investment in spaceplane ventures. Argues that the government has a role and an obligation to help open the spaceways through a prudent mix of government investments and business incentives. .

  12. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  13. Open airscrew VTOL concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepniewski, W. Z.; Tarczynski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The following concepts, based on using open airscrew(s) for VTOL maneuvers, are re-examined in light of current technology: (1) tip-driven helicopters, (2) compound helicopters; and (3) high-speed VTOL aircraft, represented by tiltrotors, tiltwings, retractoplanes and stoppable rotors. Criteria, permitting one to compare performance of aircraft using diverse lifting and propelling methods are established. Determination of currently possible performance, indication of near-future potentials, and comparison of those items with the baseline levels (as represented by contemporary shaft-driven helicopters, first generation tiltrotors, and commercial turboprop fixed-wind aircraft) constitutes bulk of this report.

  14. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  15. Open Rotor Test Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    Testing of low noise, counter-rotating open rotor propulsion concepts has been ongoing at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with General Electric Company. The presentation is an overview of the testing that has been completed to date and previews the upcoming test entries. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project Diagnostics entry is the most recent to finish. That test entry included acoustic phased array, pressure sensitive paint, particle image velocimetry, pylon installed measurements and acoustic shielding measurements. A preview of the data to be acquired in the 8x6 high-speed wind tunnel is also included.

  16. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, J.

    1999-06-01

    The beginning of the VLT era was marked by two major events: the VLT Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March 1999, preceded by the VLT Opening Symposium on 1-4 March. ESO is indebted to Professor J.A. Music Tomicic, Rector of the Universidad CatĂłlica del Norte, for hosting this symposium. Another major event occurred on the night of 4 March: First light was achieved ahead of schedule at Kueyen, the second 8.2-m VLT unit telescope.

  17. LISA: Opening New Horizons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a space-borne observatory that will open the low frequency (approx.0.1-100 mHz) gravitational wave window on the universe. LISA will observe a rich variety of gravitational wave sources, including mergers of massive black holes, captures of stellar black holes by massive black holes in the centers of galaxies, and compact Galactic binaries. These sources are generally long-lived, providing unprecedented opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy in the transient sky. This talk will present an overview of these scientific arenas, highlighting how LISA will enable stunning discoveries in origins, understanding the cosmic order, and the frontiers of knowledge.

  18. Open Lung Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Norman C.; Strangway, Donald W.

    1964-01-01

    Steady improvement in the diagnostic appraisal of obscure pulmonary and mediastinal disease has permitted more intelligent treatment, better prognosis, and where necessary more accurate assessment of compensability. Open lung biopsy is designed to obtain material for pathological study when there is no pleural, mediastinal, or airway lesion on which to base a working diagnosis. A study of 54 patients in whom lung biopsy was performed at the Toronto General Hospital and Weston Sanatorium is reported. A positive tissue diagnosis was obtained in approximately 75%. The procedure is considered relatively innocuous if sensible selection is exercised to exclude patients with terminal disease, particularly that associated with severe cardiorespiratory insufficiency. No major complications occurred in this series. It is concluded that open lung biopsy might reasonably receive much wider application than in the past in cases in which a definite diagnosis cannot otherwise be made. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11 PMID:14180532

  19. A secure open system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, James A.

    1993-08-01

    The notion of a large distributed computing system in support of a program like EOSDIS, carries with it the requirement that the system provide the user with guarantees about the integrity of the data and certain assurances about the security of the network of computing systems. This paper examines the challenges of providing a `secure' open system and how these challenges may be addressed from both an architectural as well as functional viewpoint. The role of discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and detection and control of computer viruses is discussed. It has often been observed that the role of the security engineer is one of restricting access to data, whereas the role of the system architect, of an open system that is encouraging research, should make data easy to obtain and utilize. This paradox is manifest in a system such a EOSDIS where to be useful, the systems data must be easy to obtain, but to ensure the integrity of the data it must exercise some level of security. This paper address the use and role of the Security Services of the OSF Distributed Computing Environment in support of networked applications, such as those that may be used in the implementation of the EOS Science Network. It further examines the role of mandatory access control mechanisms to provide data integrity guarantees. The paper further discusses how a system like EOSDIS may prevent computer viruses using a system of automated detection mechanisms and configuration control.

  20. OpenSSO Project Patches

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-06-08

    These are patches to Sun Microsystems open source OpenSSO project to fix various bugs and incorporate changes for Sandia and NNSA to use the product including fixes to improve OpenSSO's authentication and authorization abilities. These fixes will then by incorporated by Sun into their Sun Access Manager product, which is used by various DOE/NNSA plants and labs. Having Sun maintain these changes will relieve SNL and DOE from the cost of maintaining the changes themselves.

  1. OpenMDAO Framework Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naiman, Cynthia Gutierrez

    2010-01-01

    Advancing and exploring the science of Multidisciplinary Analysis & Optimization (MDAO) capabilities are high-level goals in the Fundamental Aeronautics Program s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) project. The OpenMDAO team has made significant progress toward completing the Alpha OpenMDAO deliverable due in September 2010. Included in the presentation are: details of progress on developing the OpenMDAO framework, example usage of OpenMDAO, technology transfer plans, near term plans, progress toward establishing partnerships with external parties, and discussion of additional potential collaborations.

  2. The open science grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pordes, Ruth; OSG Consortium; Petravick, Don; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Würthwein, Frank; Foster, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; Blatecky, Alan; McGee, John; Quick, Rob

    2007-07-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support it's use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  3. Opening up optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Cox, Felicity M; Lwin, Richard; Large, Maryanne C J; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2007-09-17

    A unique optical fibre design is presented in this work: a laterally accessible microstructured optical fibre, in which one of the cladding holes is open to the surrounding environment and the waveguide core exposed over long lengths of fibre. Such a fibre offers the opportunity of real-time chemical sensing and biosensing not previously possible with conventional microstructured optical fibres, as well as the ability to functionalize the core of the fibre without interference from the cladding. The fabrication of such a fibre using PMMA is presented, as well as experimental results demonstrating the use of the fibre as a evanescent wave absorption spectroscopy pH sensor using the indicator Bromothymol Blue. PMID:19547546

  4. The Open Science Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wurthwein, Frank; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  5. An opening electromagnetic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanhua; Kang, Yihua

    2013-12-01

    Tubular solenoids have been widely used without any change since an electrical wire was discovered to create magnetic fields by Hans Christian Oersted in 1820 and thereby the wire was first coiled as a helix into a solenoid coil by William Sturgeon in 1823 and was improved by Joseph Henry in 1829 [see http://www.myetymology.com/encyclopedia/History_of_the_electricity.html; J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2010); and F. Winterberg, Plasma Phys. 8, 541553 (1996)]. A magnetic control method of C-shaped carrying-current wire is proposed, and thereby a new opening electromagnetic transducer evidently differing from the traditional tubular solenoid is created, capable of directly encircling and centering the acted objects in it, bringing about convenient and innovative electromagnetic energy conversion for electromagnetic heating, electromagnetic excitation, physical information capture, and electro-mechanical motion used in science research, industry, and even biomedical activities.

  6. Open water bells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramati, Manjula; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2016-03-01

    A smooth circular moving liquid sheet is formed by the head-on impingement of two equal laminar water jets. We subject such a liquid sheet to uniform laminar air flow from one side such that the direction of air velocity is perpendicular to the liquid sheet. The pressure of the moving air deforms the liquid sheet giving rise to an open water bell. The water bell is symmetric suggesting that the gas flow around the bell is also symmetric and that the gravitational force is negligible. We have captured the shape of the water bells for varying air flow rates and for varying Weber numbers, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions obtained from a force balance involving liquid inertia, surface tension, and pressure difference across the sheet. The pressure exerted by the gas phase on the front and the rear surface of the deformed liquid sheet is obtained from known results of flow past flat circular discs. The predicted steady state shapes match well with the measurements at low Weber numbers but differences are observed at high Weber numbers, where the sheet flaps and is no longer smooth. Interestingly, the shape predicted by assuming a constant pressure difference equal to the stagnation pressure over the whole of the front face of the sheet and free stream value over the whole of the rear face yields nearly identical results suggesting that an open water bell is similar to a closed water bell in that, to a good approximation, the pressure on either sides of the water bell is homogeneous.

  7. 35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. James River Visitor Center. Opened as an open air visitor center in 1962, it was enclosed and a heating system installed in 1984 to allow use through the cooler months and help reduce vandalism. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. 75 FR 38835 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    .... Originator: Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking of the Bureau of International Labor... Child Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200 Constitution... Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200 Constitution...

  9. 76 FR 48902 - Solicitation of Nominations for the United States Department of Labor's Iqbal Masih Award for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Child Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor and Human Trafficking, Room S-5317, 200 Constitution.... Department of Labor, Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking, Room S- 5317, 200... Trafficking of the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB/OCFT). 4. Background: The award is to...

  10. Next Stop: OpenSim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korolov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Unhappy with conditions in Second Life, educators are migrating to a developing virtual world that offers them greater autonomy and a safer platform for their students at far less a cost. OpenSimulator is an open source virtual world platform that schools can run for free on their own servers or can get cheaply and quickly--the space can be up and…

  11. Open Science: A Zealot's View

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open science encompasses many concepts, but most agree that for science to be truly open four things must be true. First, all components of the scientific project must be freely available including manuscripts, code, and data. Second, others must be able to repeat your work and ...

  12. An open architecture motion controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossol, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    Nomad, an open architecture motion controller, is described. It is formed by a combination of TMOS, C-WORKS, and other utilities. Nomad software runs in a UNIX environment and provides for sensor-controlled robotic motions, with user replaceable kinematics. It can also be tailored for highly specialized applications. Open controllers such as Nomad should have a major impact on the robotics industry.

  13. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  14. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  15. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    MedlinePLUS

    Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part in your aorta. This is called an aneurysm. The ... Open surgery to repair an abdominal aortic aneurysm is sometimes ... is bleeding inside your body from the aneurysm. You may have an ...

  16. Canadian Open Tennis. Puzzle Corner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the du Maurier Open, a women's tennis tournament. Explains that tennis becomes an elite sport at the level of the du Maurier Open. Presents a crossword puzzle that focuses on many of the female tennis stars and provides the across and down clues, a word list, and the answer key. (CMK)

  17. Teacher Beliefs and Open Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wlodarczyk, Steven

    The beliefs of teachers with respect to open education are discussed. The point is made that a teacher who expresses a desire to move toward an open classroom environment must first come to trust beliefs and values that may be alien to her own beliefs and must learn to value the following ideas: (1) The life of a child in school is not a…

  18. OpenSM Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-17

    The OpenSM Monitoring System includes a collection of diagnostic and monitoring tools for use on Infiniband networks. The information this system gathers is obtained from a service, which in turn is obtained directly from the OpenSM subnet manager.

  19. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  20. Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Openly Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Roberts, Verena; LaBonte, Randy; Graham, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs as the importance of digital literacy and digital freedoms for all learners grows. This article describes current open learning policy, open educational resources and potential implications for open practice and ends with suggestions for future research in open

  1. OpenStudio: An Open Source Integrated Analysis Platform; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Macumber, D.; Long, N.

    2011-12-01

    High-performance buildings require an integrated design approach for all systems to work together optimally; systems integration needs to be incorporated in the earliest stages of design for efforts to be cost and energy-use effective. Building designers need a full-featured software framework to support rigorous, multidisciplinary building simulation. An open source framework - the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) - is being developed to address this need. In this paper, we discuss the needs that drive OpenStudio's system architecture and goals, provide a development status report (the SDK is currently in alpha release), and present a brief case study that illustrates its utility and flexibility.

  2. NASA Open Rotor Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Ed

    2010-01-01

    Owing to their inherent fuel burn efficiency advantage compared with the current generation high bypass ratio turbofan engines, there is resurgent interest in developing open rotor propulsion systems for powering the next generation commercial aircraft. However, to make open rotor systems truly competitive, they must be made to be acoustically acceptable too. To address this challenge, NASA in collaboration with industry is exploring the design space for low-noise open rotor propulsion systems. The focus is on the system level assessment of the open rotors compared with other candidate concepts like the ultra high bypass ratio cycle engines. To that end there is an extensive research effort at NASA focused on component testing and diagnostics of the open rotor acoustic performance as well as assessment and improvement of open rotor noise prediction tools. In this presentation and overview of the current NASA research on open rotor noise will be provided. Two NASA projects, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project and the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project, have been funding this research effort.

  3. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data treatment could be conducted in other programs after extraction the filtered data into *.csv file. It makes the database understandable for non-experts. The database employs open data format (*.csv) and wide spread tools: PHP as the program language, MySQL as database management system, JavaScript for interaction with GoogleMaps and JQueryUI for create user interface. The database is multilingual: there are association tables, which connect with elements of the database. In total the development required about 150 hours. The database still has several problems. The main problem is the reliability of the data. Actually it needs an expert system for estimation the reliability, but the elaboration of such a system would take more resources than the database itself. The second problem is the problem of stream selection - how to select the stations that are connected with each other (for example, belong to one water stream) and indicate their sequence. Currently the interface is English and Russian. However it can be easily translated to your language. But some problems we decided. For example problem "the problem of the same station" (sometimes the distance between stations is smaller, than the error of position): when you adding new station to the database our application automatically find station near this place. Also we decided problem of object and parameter type (how to regard "EC" and "electrical conductivity" as the same parameter). This problem has been solved using "associative tables". If you would like to see the interface on your language, just contact us. We should send you the list of terms and phrases for translation on your language. The main advantage of the database is that it is totally open: everybody can see, extract the data from the database and use them for non-commercial purposes with no charge. Registered users can contribute to the database without getting paid. We hope, that it will be widely used first of all for education purposes, but professional scientists could use it also.

  4. An open source model for open access journal publication.

    PubMed

    Blesius, Carl R; Williams, Michael A; Holzbach, Ana; Huntley, Arthur C; Chueh, Henry

    2005-01-01

    We describe an electronic journal publication infrastructure that allows a flexible publication workflow, academic exchange around different forms of user submissions, and the exchange of articles between publishers and archives using a common XML based standard. This web-based application is implemented on a freely available open source software stack. This publication demonstrates the Dermatology Online Journal's use of the platform for non-biased independent open access publication. PMID:16779183

  5. 78 FR 16852 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  6. 77 FR 74661 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  7. 77 FR 57086 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    AAA - open - discharge; Repair - aortic aneurysm - open - discharge ... You had open aortic aneurysm surgery to repair an aneurysm (a widened part) in your aorta, the large artery that carries blood to your ...

  9. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  10. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  11. LAVA Applications to Open Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin C.; Housman, Jeff; Barad, Mike; Brehm, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Outline: LAVA (Launch Ascent Vehicle Aerodynamics); Introduction; Acoustics Related Applications; LAVA Applications to Open Rotor; Structured Overset Grids; Cartesian Grid with Immersed Boundary; High Speed Case; High Speed Case with Plate Low Speed Case.

  12. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Akyol, Bora A.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Kang, Timothy; Sharma, Poorva

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  13. Skinner and the Open Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1972-01-01

    Author examines the implications of a major scientific work of behavioral ressearch and concludes that positive reinforcement techniques will make possible the creation of an open classroom, that, in itself, will minimize the negative effects of control. (Author/RK)

  14. Opening the door to innovation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Janine; Graus, Yvo F; Labrijn, Aran F; Ruuls, Sigrid R; Parren, Paul WHI

    2014-01-01

    Open innovation is the new buzz, with initiatives popping up left and right. Here, we give a personal perspective on a very successful, knowledge-driven innovation initiated in an academia- industry alliance, which culminated in technology platforms that enable the generation of therapeutic antibodies with novel properties. To start, we provide a general background on open innovation in the drug development field. PMID:24784437

  15. Open XAL Status Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom

    2013-01-01

    XAL is the well established, accelerator physics application programming framework developed for and used at the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge National Lab. Due to interest from other accelerator labs, the Open XAL project was formed in 2010 to port XAL to be more suitable for collaboration. The Open XAL architecture along with the objectives, status and roadmap of this effort are presented in this paper.

  16. OpenADR Open Source Toolkit: Developing Open Source Software for the Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2011-02-01

    Demand response (DR) is becoming an increasingly important part of power grid planning and operation. The advent of the Smart Grid, which mandates its use, further motivates selection and development of suitable software protocols to enable DR functionality. The OpenADR protocol has been developed and is being standardized to serve this goal. We believe that the development of a distributable, open source implementation of OpenADR will benefit this effort and motivate critical evaluation of its capabilities, by the wider community, for providing wide-scale DR services

  17. The VLT Opening Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive. The text below summarizes the individual projects. Comprehensive texts with all photos and diagrammes are available in nine separate web documents ( ESO PR Photos 08/99 to 16/99 ) that may be accessed via the links at the top of each section. The degree of detail and level of complexity of the texts depend on the subject and the available materials. 1. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group ESO PR Photo 10a/99 ESO PR Photo 10a/99 The Antlia Galaxy (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photos 10a-d/99 In addition to large spiral galaxies like the Milky Way Galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy and Messier 33, the Local Group of Galaxies contains many dwarf galaxies. The VLT has observed two of these, Antlia and NGC 6822 . Antlia is a low-surface brightness, spheroidal dwarf galaxy that was only discovered in 1997. While it contains a large amount of atomic hydrogen at its centre, no young stars are found, and it appears that most of its stars are old. This is unlike other dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way neighbourhood, as star formation is expected to occur within dense hydrogen clouds. Further observations will be necessary to understand this unusual characteristics. The VLT also obtained images of an irregular dwarf galaxy in the Local Group, NGC 6822, as well as spectra of some of its stars. This galaxy is of the "irregular" type and is situated at a distance of about 2 million light-years. A comparison of the spectra of supergiant stars in NGC 6822 shows that many spectral lines are much weaker than in stars of similar type in the Milky Way, but of similar strength as in stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This confirms an earlier finding that NGC 6822 has chemical composition (a lower "metallicity") that is different from what is observed in our Galaxy. 2. The Double Stellar Cluster NGC 1850 in the LMC ESO PR Photo 15/99 ESO PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 (FORS1 colour composite) . Access full text and PR Photo 15/99 NGC 1850 is a double cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy t

  18. OOI's Cyberinfrastructure: An Opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graybeal, J.; Ampe, T.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A. D.; Cressey, R.; Jul, S.; McPhail, T.; Meisinger, M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Schofield, O.; Stocks, K.; Thomas, J.; Vernon, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative is a long-term, NSF-funded program to provide 25-30 years of sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics. The OOI will enable powerful new scientific approaches for exploring the complexities of Earth-ocean-atmosphere interactions, thereby accelerating progress toward the goal of understanding, predicting, and managing our ocean environment. The OOI can foster new discoveries that, in turn, move research in unforeseen directions. The OOI Cyberinfrastructure will connect and coordinate the operations of OOI marine components and data processes, to meet the objectives of the oceanographic research and education communities. The CI will let all users easily interact with deployed resources, access collected data, and apply those data to their specific research and educational needs. The CI is a free and open product that adopts innovative and flexible strategies to bring the oceans to users, any time, any place, on any suitable device. The OOI CI is dedicated to "using the latest computing technologies to solve the interoperability problem among vast amounts of heterogeneous geospatial data from various sources." OOI CI's charge is to be transformative, and its technologies and goals are just that (see URL). The Cyberinfrastructure integrates state-of-the-art and best-practice approaches to provide fully interoperable access to the widest possible collection of geospatial data. From the system-of-systems model of the planned observatories and the ingestion of data, models, and services; to the configurable, automated workflows producing real-time products, data curation and quality management strategies are supported to the fullest possible extent. How do we build a system to efficiently support 750 core instruments across numerous platform types, add as-yet unknown instruments during the operations phase, and support any number of processes and external data in the system throughout its 25+ years of operation? What key strategies must be adopted, architectural approaches applied, and technologies integrated to provide complete discovery, access, and use of the system and its data? What defines the critical characteristics expected of the core system, the complete system, and the transformative system? And how can this system be leveraged by multiple science users, programs, and organizations beyond its initial target functionality? We will present the CI team's best responses to these questions. The project is completing Release 2, two-thirds of the way to a fully public release, and halfway to the final system. The engagement of OOI marine operations and marine science teams prepares us to support marine operations, and the software will be applied to "real operations" very soon. Most of the fundamental marine and operational scenarios are in place at a basic level, and the capabilities have been laid out for a full suite of mature operations and science activities. From these beginnings, we offer technical, social, and strategic perspectives on the challenges and solutions in geoinformatics data systems, and ask "Where to from here?" Funding for OOI is provided by the National Science Foundation through a Cooperative Agreement with the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, which in turn funds the CI project.

  19. Veratridine modifies open sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The state dependence of Na channel modification by the alkaloid neurotoxin veratridine was investigated with single-channel and whole- cell voltage-clamp recording in neuroblastoma cells. Several tests of whole-cell Na current behavior in the presence of veratridine supported the hypothesis that Na channels must be open in order to undergo modification by the neurotoxin. Modification was use dependent and required depolarizing pulses, the voltage dependence of production of modified channels was similar to that of normal current activation, and prepulses that caused inactivation of normal current had a parallel effect on the generation of modified current. This hypothesis was then examined directly at the single-channel level. Modified channel openings were easily distinguished from normal openings by their smaller current amplitude and longer burst times. The modification event was often seen as a sudden, dramatic reduction of current through an open Na channel and produced a somewhat flickery channel event having a mean lifetime of 1.6 s at an estimated absolute membrane potential of -45 mV (23 degrees C). The modified channel had a slope conductance of 4 pS, which was 20-25% the size of the slope conductance of normal channels with the 300 mM NaCl pipette solution used. Most modified channel openings were initiated by depolarizing pulses, began within the first 10 ms of the depolarizing step, and were closely associated with the prior opening of single normal Na channels, which supports the hypothesis that modification occurs from the normal open state. PMID:2454286

  20. Open Educational Partnerships and Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macintyre, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    At the Open University in Scotland "openness" is part of our sense of self; our engagement with Open Educational Resources and Practices (OER/OEP) seems obvious. In this paper we explore some of those obvious aspects and using our partnership with a third sector organisation explore some of the less apparent aspects of openness. In…

  1. Open Source: Everyone Becomes a Printer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram

    2000-01-01

    Discusses "open source": a method of distributing software in which programmers make available to all the actual text of their programs. Notes that this makes possible "open-source" writing in the same way that the printing press made possible "open-source" reading, enabling mass literacy. Examines implications of open source for how people…

  2. Teaching, Learning, and Sharing Openly Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Byrne, W. Ian; Roberts, Verena; LaBonte, Randy; Graham, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Open learning is becoming a critical focus for K-12 technology-supported programs as the importance of digital literacy and digital freedoms for all learners grows. This article describes current open learning policy, open educational resources and potential implications for open practice and ends with suggestions for future research in open…

  3. Assumptions and Challenges of Open Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, educators, policymakers, and other education stakeholders hope and anticipate that openness and open scholarship will generate positive outcomes for education and scholarship. Given the emerging nature of open practices, educators and scholars are finding themselves in a position in which they can shape and/or be shaped by openness.…

  4. Open laminoforaminotomy: A lost art?

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open cervical laminoforaminotomy (CLF) provides safe and effective decompression/excision of lateral/foraminal disc herniations/spurs contributing to nerve root compression. CLF's advantages over anterior cervical discectomy/fusion (ACDF) include the lack of risk to anterior structures (esophagus, trachea, carotid, and recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the avoidance of a fusion. Further, advantages over minimally invasive surgery CLF (MIS CLF) include a lower incidence of dural tears, infections, and neural injury. Furthermore, complications are now more often reported in medicolegal suits rather than the spinal surgical literature. Methods: Here, in a select review of the spinal literature in which we specifically focused on the benefits, risks, and complication of open CLF versus the various MIS CLS techniques. Results: Open CLF is a unique posterior cervical surgical technique that is technically demanding. When using an MIS CLF approach that provides limited visualization and maneuverability while incurring greater morbidity (e.g., risks more dural tears, infection, and neural damage). Conclusions: Why not utilize open CLF, adequately and safely, to decompress lateral/foraminally compromised cervical nerve roots, and avoid the risks of MIS CLF or ACDF? Presently, too many spine surgeons automatically choose MIS CLF or ACDF over open CLF; is this because it is a “lost art”? PMID:26693388

  5. An Open Source Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the current state of the art of open source real time programming practices. This document includes what technologies are available, how easy is it to obtain, configure, and use them, and some performance measures done on the different systems. A matrix of vendors and their products is included as part of this investigation, but this is not an exhaustive list, and represents only a snapshot of time in a field that is changing rapidly. Specifically, there are three approaches investigated: 1. Completely open source on generic hardware, downloaded from the net. 2. Open source packaged by a vender and provided as free evaluation copy. 3. Proprietary hardware with pre-loaded proprietary source available software provided by the vender as for our evaluation.

  6. OMEGA: The Open MEG Archive.

    PubMed

    Niso, Guiomar; Rogers, Christine; Moreau, Jeremy T; Chen, Li-Yuan; Madjar, Cecile; Das, Samir; Bock, Elizabeth; Tadel, François; Evans, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Baillet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    In contrast with other imaging modalities, there is presently a scarcity of fully open resources in magnetoencephalography (MEG) available to the neuroimaging community. Here we present a collaborative effort led by the McConnell Brain Imaging Centre of the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the Université de Montréal to build and share a centralised repository to curate MEG data in raw and processed form for open dissemination. The Open MEG Archive (OMEGA, omega.bic.mni.mcgill.ca) is bound to become a continuously expanding repository of multimodal data with a primary focus on MEG, in addition to storing anatomical MRI volumes, demographic participant data and questionnaires, and other forms of electrophysiological data such as EEG. The OMEGA initiative offers both the technological framework for multi-site MEG data aggregation, and serves as one of the largest freely available resting-state and eventually task-related MEG datasets presently available. PMID:25896932

  7. OpenEIS. Developer Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutes, Robert G.; Neubauer, Casey C.; Haack, Jereme N.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Monson, Kyle E.; Allwardt, Craig H.; Sharma, Poorva; Akyol, Bora A.

    2015-03-31

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office (BTO) is supporting the development of an open-source software tool for analyzing building energy and operational data: OpenEIS (open energy information system). This tool addresses the problems of both owners of building data and developers of tools to analyze this data. Building owners and managers have data but lack the tools to analyze it while tool developers lack data in a common format to ease development of reusable data analysis tools. This document is intended for developers of applications and explains the mechanisms for building analysis applications, accessing data, and displaying data using a visualization from the included library. A brief introduction to the visualizations can be used as a jumping off point for developers familiar with JavaScript to produce their own. Several example applications are included which can be used along with this document to implement algorithms for performing energy data analysis.

  8. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  9. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are introduced--these…

  10. OpenMP for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  11. Self-Examination Promotes Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her view on the academic freedom debate and focuses on the Ohio State University's commitment to the principles of academic freedom and intellectual diversity. She states that Ohio State is strongly committed to the free, open, and civil exchange of views as part of the educational process. The Inter-University…

  12. Open problems in artificial life.

    PubMed

    Bedau, M A; McCaskill, J S; Packard, N H; Rasmussen, S; Adami, C; Green, D G; Ikegami, T; Kaneko, K; Ray, T S

    2000-01-01

    This article lists fourteen open problems in artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated. PMID:11348587

  13. THE OPEN SOURCING OF EPANET

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal was made at the 2009 EWRI Congress in Kansas City, MO to establish an Open Source Project (OSP) for the widely used EPANET pipe network analysis program. This would be an ongoing collaborative effort among a group of geographically dispersed advisors and developers, wo...

  14. Cyclic Thermodynamics with Open Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.S.; Ward, W.C.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    Some general features of a new class of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process are discussed and experimentally demonstrated in the context of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Open Book Professional Accountancy Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlands, J. E.; Forsyth, D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the structure and rationale for an open-book approach in professional accountancy examinations. The concept of knowledge management and the recognition that some knowledge ought to be embedded in the minds of professional accountants while other knowledge ought to be readily accessible and capable of application forms the…

  16. Open File: Professionalism in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy, Ed.; Lo, Leslie N. K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on professionalism in teaching. It begins with an article in Viewpoints/Controversies titled "A Renewed Sense for the Purposes of Schooling: The Challenges of Education and Social Cohesion in Asia, Africa, Latin America, Europe, and Central Asia" (Stephen P. Heyneman; Sanja Todoric-Bebic). In Open File: Professionalism in…

  17. [The design of open magnet].

    PubMed

    Zhou, T; Zhang, J X

    2000-07-01

    The thesis introduces the whole designing process of open magnet used in MRI. In the process, we use a new algorithm that is called Integral Equation. According to this algorithm, we have made an optimized design and manufactured the main magnet. We also have made a comparison between the theoretical calculation results and the measued data. PMID:12583132

  18. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  19. Opening Up Without Cracking Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Maggie

    In recognition of the fact that there are individual differences and preferences among teachers, the teachers at the Las Posas School in Camarillo, California were given the opportunity to use the methods they found most comfortable. This resulted in a variety of open classroom situations, with alternatives for parents, students, and teachers.…

  20. Opening up Library Automation Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  1. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  2. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns and…

  3. "Open-Sourcing" Personal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Sebastian H.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a critical reflection on the contemporary Open Educational Resource (OER) movement, its unquestioned investment in a collective "content fetish" and an educational "problem description" that focuses on issues of scarcity, access, and availability of quality materials. It also argues that OER proponents fail…

  4. The Inevitability of Open Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  5. The Openness to Therapy Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grold, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the Openness to Therapy Assessment (OTA), a test designed to help clients entering therapy to feel more comfortable. The OTA includes such issues as confidentiality, feeling hopeless, feeling ashamed of going to a therapist, and being afraid of going for therapy. The self-evaluation also includes how to deal with these fears. (GCP)

  6. Curiosity and Open Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit

    2007-01-01

    Asking questions is an activity central to inquiry learning. This research examined documents created during an open inquiry learning process of the Biomind programme for Israeli high school students. In addition, to understand how students express and develop curiosity in learning, we observed students during a molecular biology lesson, a subject…

  7. Opening Doors on the Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Innovative programs for migrant students prove the payoff of making parents partners in classroom learning. This article features "Abriendo Puertas," or Opening Doors, an innovative program developed by Texas A&M University specifically for migrant education. The program emphasizes on literacy, academic success, and--most importantly--parental…

  8. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  9. Dossier: Open and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Fred, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This magazine addresses diverse educational issues in different parts of the world. Articles in this issue are: "Education for All: Governments Must Do Much More to Make Schooling Accessible for All Children" (G. Machel and N. Mandela); "Afghanistan: Education Opens Up New Perspective"; "South Korea: Behind the Facade" (W. van der Schaaf);…

  10. Open-celled polyurethane foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. W.

    1970-01-01

    Open-celled polyurethane foam has a density of 8.3 pounds per cubic foot and a compressive strength of 295 to 325 psi. It is useful as a porous spacer in layered insulation and as an insulation material in vacuum tight systems.

  11. Project Open Door. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheyden-Hilliard, Mary Ellen

    The major purpose of Project Open Door was to design, develop, test, and disseminate a portable module for vocational educators and others to use with junior high school students in pre-vocational exploration free of sex stereotyping. The module produced contained a slide presentation with accompanying cassette tape and a leader's guide. An…

  12. Health Education by Open Broadcast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICIT Report, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This issue focuses on uses and techniques of radio for educational purposes in developing nations. Two health education projects are described which are utilizing open broadcasting to attract a mass audience of listeners not committed to a structured radio education program. Kenya's Swahili language radio serial, "Giving Birth and Caring for your…

  13. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  14. Using THOMAS for Service Oriented Open MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julian, V.; Rebollo, M.; Argente, E.; Botti, V.; Carrascosa, C.; Giret, A.

    Recent technological advances in open systems have imposed new needs on multi-agent systems. Nowadays, open systems require open autonomous scenarios in which heterogeneous entities (agents or services) interact to fulfill the system goals. This impose the need for open architectures and computational models for large-scale open multi-agent systems based on service-oriented approaches. THOMAS is a new architecture specifically addressed for the design of virtual organizations for open systems. In this paper we present a case study that exemplifies the usage of THOMAS for implementing a management system of a travel agency.

  15. Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of the improvements in patient safety, quality of patient care, and efficiency that health care information systems have the potential to bring has led to significant investment. Globally the sale of health care information systems now represents a multibillion dollar industry. As policy makers, health care professionals, and patients, we have a responsibility to maximize the return on this investment. To this end we analyze alternative licensing and software development models, as well as the role of standards. We describe how licensing affects development. We argue for the superiority of open source licensing to promote safer, more effective health care information systems. We claim that open source licensing in health care information systems is essential to rational procurement strategy. PMID:21447469

  16. OpenFOAM: Open source CFD in research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasak, Hrvoje

    2009-12-01

    The current focus of development in industrial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is integration of CFD into Computer-Aided product development, geometrical optimisation, robust design and similar. On the other hand, in CFD research aims to extend the boundaries ofpractical engineering use in "non-traditional " areas. Requirements of computational flexibility and code integration are contradictory: a change of coding paradigm, with object orientation, library components, equation mimicking is proposed as a way forward. This paper describes OpenFOAM, a C++ object oriented library for Computational Continuum Mechanics (CCM) developed by the author. Efficient and flexible implementation of complex physical models is achieved by mimicking the form ofpartial differential equation in software, with code functionality provided in library form. Open Source deployment and development model allows the user to achieve desired versatility in physical modeling without the sacrifice of complex geometry support and execution efficiency.

  17. The Open Course: Through the Open Door--Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Dave; Siemens, George

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, as educators have increasingly experimented with social technologies and interactive pedagogies, the concept of a "course" has been significantly challenged. In particular, questions have arisen as to the key value of the course in the educational system. The numerous high-profile open courseware initiatives from elite…

  18. The Open Course: Through the Open Door--Open Courses as Research, Learning, and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Dave; Siemens, George

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, as educators have increasingly experimented with social technologies and interactive pedagogies, the concept of a "course" has been significantly challenged. In particular, questions have arisen as to the key value of the course in the educational system. The numerous high-profile open courseware initiatives from elite…

  19. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics Management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G

    2002-01-01

    The following are benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system archive built with open-source tools and methods: open source, inexpensive interfaces can be updated as needed, and reduced risk of redundant and inconsistent data. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools, reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting orders, performing exam resource scheduling, providing Digital communications in Medicine (DICOM) work list information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third-party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an open database connectivity bridge to a Linux server with Health Level 7 (HL7), DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a browser, whereas other informatics systems communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete, as are key pieces of the Web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12105742

  20. 78 FR 27215 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... and Technology --Risk and Risk Communications --Acquisition and Project Management --Management... Environmental Management Advisory Board Meeting Notice of Open Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management...

  1. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  2. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  3. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  4. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  5. 28 CFR 16.202 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Observation of Parole Commission Meetings § 16.202 Open meetings. (a) Every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public observation unless closed to the public pursuant to the provisions of §...

  6. Dissipative quantum computing with open quantum walks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinayskiy, Ilya; Petruccione, Francesco

    2014-12-04

    An open quantum walk approach to the implementation of a dissipative quantum computing scheme is presented. The formalism is demonstrated for the example of an open quantum walk implementation of a 3 qubit quantum circuit consisting of 10 gates.

  7. Limits to Open Class Performance?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.

  8. Open loop digital frequency multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. C. (inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An open loop digital frequency multiplier is described which has a multiplied output synchronized to low frequency clock pulse. The system includes a multistage digital counter which provides a pulse output as a function of an integer divisor. The integer divisor and the timing or counting cycle of the counter are interrelated to the frequency of a clock input. The counting cycle is controlled by a one shot multivibrator which, in turn, is driven by a reference frequency input.

  9. Open strangeness production in CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Niculescu

    2003-05-01

    An extensive program dedicated to the study of open strangeness systems was established in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. This program takes full advantage of the excellent characteristics of the CEBAF accelerator combined with the almost complete angular coverage of the CLAS detector. A general overview of the program is given, as well as results for the angular dependence of the electroproduction of kaon-hyperon final states.

  10. Liquid chromatography in open tubes.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, M P; Sepaniak, M J; Balchunas, A T; Vargo, J D

    1984-09-01

    Liquid chromatography in open tubes is evaluated for applicability to clinical analysis. The principal advantages of this technique include high separation power, reduced solvent consumption, and small sample volume requirements. Technology for the production of columns as small as 8 micron (i.d.) is described. Preliminary results are encouraging and, with further development in column and detector technology, the technique should find wide applicability in clinical analysis. PMID:6467564

  11. Liquid chromatography in open tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Sepaniak, M.J.; Balchunas, A.T.; Vargo, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid chromatography in open tubes is evaluated for applicability to clinical analysis. The principal advantages of this technique include high separation power, reduced solvent consumption, and small sample volume requirements. Technology for the production of columns as small as 8 ..mu..m (i.d.) is described. Preliminary results are encouraging and, with further development in column and detector technology, the technique should find wide applicability in clinical analysis.

  12. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  13. Stimulated recombination in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Muoz-Cobo, J.L.; Verdu, G.; Jimenez, P.; Pea, J.

    1986-09-01

    In this comment we study the problem of the stimulated recombination in an open system from a stochastic point of view. We set up the bivariate master equation for the number of photons and ions inside the system. Then we perform a systematic expansion, with the system volume as an expansion parameter, and we obtain the fluctuations of the number of photons and ions around its macroscopic values in the linear noise approximation; the stationary solution is also investigated.

  14. OPENING ANGLES OF COLLAPSAR JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuta, Akira; Ioka, Kunihito

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the jet propagation and breakout from the stellar progenitor for gamma-ray burst (GRB) collapsars by performing two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic simulations and analytical modeling. We find that the jet opening angle is given by ?{sub j} ? 1/5?{sub 0} and infer the initial Lorentz factor of the jet at the central engine, ?{sub 0}, is a few for existing observations of ?{sub j}. The jet keeps the Lorentz factor low inside the star by converging cylindrically via collimation shocks under the cocoon pressure and accelerates at jet breakout before the free expansion to a hollow-cone structure. In this new picture, the GRB duration is determined by the sound crossing time of the cocoon, after which the opening angle widens, reducing the apparent luminosity. Some bursts violating the maximum opening angle ?{sub j,{sub max}} ? 1/5 ? 12° imply the existence of a baryon-rich sheath or a long-acting jet. We can explain the slopes in both Amati and Yonetoku spectral relations using an off-centered photosphere model, if we make only one assumption that the total jet luminosity is proportional to the initial Lorentz factor of the jet. We also numerically calibrate the pre-breakout model (Bromberg et al.) for later use.

  15. Towards "open applied" Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schildhauer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Concepts of open science -- in the context of cyber/digital technology and culture -- could greatly benefit applied and secondary Earth science efforts. However, international organizations (e.g., environmental agencies, conservation groups and sustainable development organizations) that are focused on applied science have been slow to incorporate open practices across the spectrum of scientific activities, from data to decisions. Myriad benefits include transparency, reproducibility, efficiency (timeliness and cost savings), stakeholder engagement, direct linkages between research and environmental outcomes, reduction in bias and corruption, improved simulation of Earth systems and improved availability of science in general. We map out where and how open science can play a role, providing next steps, with specific emphasis on applied science efforts and processes such as environmental assessment, synthesis and systematic reviews, meta-analyses, decision support and emerging cyber technologies. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the organizations for which they work and/or represent.

  16. Open-coil retraction spring.

    PubMed

    Vibhute, Pavankumar Janardan

    2011-01-01

    Sliding mechanic has become a popular method for space closure with developments in preadjusted edgewise appliance. Furthermore, various space closing auxiliaries have been developed and evaluated extensively for their clinical efficiency. Their effectiveness enhanced with optimum force magnitude and low-load deflection rate (LDR)/force decay. With the advent of NiTi springs in orthodontics, LDRs have been markedly reduced. For use of NiTi, clinician has to depend upon prefabricated closed coil springs. "Open Coil Retraction Spring (OCRS)" is developed utilizing NiTi open-coil spring for orthodontic space closure. This paper describes fabrication and clinical application of OCRS which have number of advantages. It sustains low LDR with optimum force magnitude. Its design is adjustable for desired length and force level. It is fail-safe for both activation and deactivation (i.e., it cannot be over activated, and decompression limit of open coil is also controlled by the operator, resp.). A possibility to offset the OCRS away from mucosa helps to reduce its soft-tissue impingement. PMID:22567437

  17. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Hung, Ling-Yan; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  18. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

  19. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3...

  20. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  1. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3...

  2. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting of the Commission shall be open to public...

  3. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  4. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PUBLIC ACCESS TO MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in...

  5. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  6. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  7. 11 CFR 9407.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Open meetings. 9407.3 Section 9407.3 Federal Elections ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 9407.3 Open... every Commission meeting shall be open to public observation. (c) No additional right to participate...

  8. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3...

  9. 45 CFR 1622.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MEETINGS UNDER THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1622.3 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Board, a committee or a council shall be open in its entirety to public observation except as otherwise provided in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 1622.3 Section 1622.3...

  10. The Open University: a Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkridge, David G., Comp.

    After initial hostility and skepticism to Open Universities, the critical response became more favorable. From 1971 onwards there was a tremendous amount of writing about the Open University, not only in British journals and newspapers but also abroad. This bibliography incorporates over 130 entries dealing with the Open University in Great…

  11. Open Educational Practices for Curriculum Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armellini, Alejandro; Nie, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP) are relatively new areas in educational research. How OER and OEP can help practitioners enhance curricula is one of a number of under-researched topics. This article aims to enable practitioners to identify and implement appropriate open practices to enhance higher education…

  12. Interdistrict Open Enrollment: The Benign Choice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Presents three major areas of concern: social and ethnic stratification; the impact of competition; and open enrollment effects on academic achievement. Explores what is presently known (and not known) about the impact of interdistrict open enrollment in three areas. Focuses on the effect of open enrollment in Minnesota, which has been the site of…

  13. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  14. Periodicals Price Survey 2008: Embracing Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orsdel, Lee C.; Born, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for open access as an emergent, global state of mind is everywhere. The "New York Times" went "open" last September, and the "Wall Street Journal" is slated to follow. Increasingly, scholarly communities are breaking with tradition and calling for the open sharing of research, software, and data. Amongst these global initiatives is the…

  15. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  16. Sunday Opening in UK Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Chris; Creaser, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first survey of public library authorities in the UK to explore Sunday opening, undertaken in 2007 as part of the Clore Leadership Programme. It provides a snapshot of Sunday opening practice, set against a context of societal, economic, and policy developments, and examines whether Sunday opening furthers the…

  17. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  18. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel shall be open to the public, with the exception of meetings that are listed in §...

  19. 7 CFR 1409.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 1409.3 Section 1409.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION § 1409.3 Open meetings. Every portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors will be open...

  20. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not... portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors shall be open to public observation, subject to...

  1. 12 CFR 604.415 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 604.415 Section 604.415 Banks... MEETINGS § 604.415 Open meetings. Every meeting and portion of a meeting of the Board shall be open to public observation unless the Board determines that such meeting or portion of a meeting will involve...

  2. 12 CFR 604.415 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 604.415 Section 604.415 Banks... MEETINGS § 604.415 Open meetings. Every meeting and portion of a meeting of the Board shall be open to public observation unless the Board determines that such meeting or portion of a meeting will involve...

  3. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture... GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as provided for in § 1600.6 every portion of every meeting of the Board shall be open...

  4. 45 CFR 1802.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 1802.3 Section 1802.3 Public... MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES § 1802.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct... portion of every meeting of the Board of Trustees or any committees of the Board shall be open to...

  5. 45 CFR 1802.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 1802.3 Section 1802.3 Public... MEETING PROCEDURES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES § 1802.3 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct... portion of every meeting of the Board of Trustees or any committees of the Board shall be open to...

  6. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture... GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as provided for in § 1600.6 every portion of every meeting of the Board shall be open...

  7. 7 CFR 1409.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 1409.3 Section 1409.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION § 1409.3 Open meetings. Every portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors will be open...

  8. Open Access Publishing: What Authors Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nariani, Rajiv; Fernandez, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Campus-based open access author funds are being considered by many academic libraries as a way to support authors publishing in open access journals. Article processing fees for open access have been introduced recently by publishers and have not yet been widely accepted by authors. Few studies have surveyed authors on their reasons for publishing…

  9. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

  10. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums...

  14. The Battle for Open--A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In this article the author argues that openness in education has been successful in establishing itself as an approach. However, this initial victory should be viewed as part of a larger battle around the nature of openness. Drawing lessons from history and the green movement, a number of challenges for the open education movement are identified…

  15. Managing Open Learning. Management in Colleges Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Derek W.; Latcham, Jack

    This guide, which is aimed primarily at those responsible for providing learning opportunities within further education in England and Wales, deals with managing open learning. Addressed in the individual chapters of the guide are the following topics: the nature of open learning; the production of learning materials; the impact of open learning…

  16. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  17. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  18. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  19. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  20. 29 CFR 1209.04 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open meetings. 1209.04 Section 1209.04 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD MEETINGS § 1209.04 Open meetings. Every portion of every Board meeting shall be open to public...

  1. Open Book Testing in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Glenda C.

    2008-01-01

    One continuing concern associated with online courses is assessment of student performance. One option for online assessment is the use of open book tests. This study investigated the impact of training in open book test-taking strategies on student test performance in online, timed, unproctored, open book tests. When the tutorial was required…

  2. Open-Mindedness and Intellectual Humility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Among those who regard open-mindedness as a virtue, there is dispute over whether the trait is essentially an attitude toward particular beliefs or toward oneself as a believer. I defend William Hare's account of open-mindedness as a first-order attitude toward one's beliefs and critique Peter Gardner's view of open-mindedness as a non-commital…

  3. Permission Granted: Open Licensing for Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissell, Ahrash N.

    2009-01-01

    Open licences are critical for defining Open Educational Resources. The goal of this article is to explain the logic of open licensing to teachers, funders, and educational policy-makers--to explain the relatively simple but vital considerations that are necessary to build this global educational commons of free learning material. In particular,…

  4. The Openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria Fe

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a self-reflection on the state of openness of the University of the Philippines Open University (UPOU). An exploratory and descriptive study, it aims not only to define the elements of openness of UPOU, but also to unravel the causes and solutions to the issues and concerns that limit its options to becoming a truly open university.…

  5. Extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the findings of the recent OPAL report "Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices". In doing so, it defines current understanding of open educational resources and open educational practices, and highlights the shift from open content to open practice. The article includes a framework for supporting…

  6. Opening our science: Open science and cyanobacterial research at the US EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this blog post we introduce the idea of Open Science and discuss multiple ways we are implementing these concepts in our cyanobacteria research. We give examples of our open access publications, open source code that support our research, and provide open access to our resear...

  7. The Four "R"s of Openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David; Stein, Jared; Johnson, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    A significant movement in education concerns the use of open educational resources. By "open" it is generally meant that the resource is available at no cost to others for adaptation and reuse in different contexts. However, "open" is not a simple dichotomy; rather, there is a continuum of openness. We discuss four separate aspects of reuse and…

  8. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ahmet

    2016-02-01

    Virtual representations of the knee joint can provide clinicians, scientists, and engineers the tools to explore mechanical functions of the knee and its tissue structures in health and disease. Modeling and simulation approaches such as finite element analysis also provide the possibility to understand the influence of surgical procedures and implants on joint stresses and tissue deformations. A large number of knee joint models are described in the biomechanics literature. However, freely accessible, customizable, and easy-to-use models are scarce. Availability of such models can accelerate clinical translation of simulations, where labor-intensive reproduction of model development steps can be avoided. Interested parties can immediately utilize readily available models for scientific discovery and clinical care. Motivated by this gap, this study aims to describe an open source and freely available finite element representation of the tibiofemoral joint, namely Open Knee, which includes the detailed anatomical representation of the joint's major tissue structures and their nonlinear mechanical properties and interactions. Three use cases illustrate customization potential of the model, its predictive capacity, and its scientific and clinical utility: prediction of joint movements during passive flexion, examining the role of meniscectomy on contact mechanics and joint movements, and understanding anterior cruciate ligament mechanics. A summary of scientific and clinically directed studies conducted by other investigators are also provided. The utilization of this open source model by groups other than its developers emphasizes the premise of model sharing as an accelerator of simulation-based medicine. Finally, the imminent need to develop next-generation knee models is noted. These are anticipated to incorporate individualized anatomy and tissue properties supported by specimen-specific joint mechanics data for evaluation, all acquired in vitro from varying age groups and pathological states. PMID:26444849

  9. OPEN PROBLEM: Spatially localized structures in dissipative systems: open problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, E.

    2008-04-01

    Stationary spatially localized structures, sometimes called dissipative solitons, arise in many interesting and important applications, including buckling of slender structures under compression, nonlinear optics, fluid flow, surface catalysis, neurobiology and many more. The recent resurgence in interest in these structures has led to significant advances in our understanding of the origin and properties of these states, and these in turn suggest new questions, both general and system-specific. This paper surveys these results focusing on open problems, both mathematical and computational, as well as on new applications.

  10. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  11. Open access: changing global science publishing.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D

    2013-08-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  12. Open access: changing global science publishing

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Kitas, George D.

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects on open access as a strategy of changing the quality of science communication globally. Successful examples of open-access journals are presented to highlight implications of archiving in open digital repositories for the quality and citability of research output. Advantages and downsides of gold, green, and hybrid models of open access operating in diverse scientific environments are described. It is assumed that open access is a global trend which influences the workflow in scholarly journals, changing their quality, credibility, and indexability. PMID:23986284

  13. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  14. Dispersion model development for open burn/open detonation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, J.C.; Templeman, B.; Banta, R.; Weber, R.; Mitchell, W.

    1996-12-31

    The disposal of obsolete munitions, propellants, and manufacturing wastes is conducted at Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The most common disposal method is open burning (OB) and open detonation (OD) of the material, which occurs in an earthen pit or bermed area. OB/OD operations generate air pollutants and require predictions of pollutant concentrations. The pollutants include SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, volatile organic compounds and toxic materials such as metals, semivolatile organics, etc. Dispersion models are used to estimate pollutant concentrations given the source and meteorological conditions. However, there is currently no recommended EPA dispersion model to address OB/OD sources. Due to the constraints of existing models, a model development program was initiated under the DOD/DOE Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. In Section 2, the authors give an overview of the model design which is divided into simple and research components. Sections 3 and 4 describe the simple component which includes Gaussian puff and analytic plume models.

  15. OpenRIMS: an open architecture radiology informatics management system.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve

    2002-06-01

    The benefits of an integrated picture archiving and communication system/radiology information system (PACS/RIS) archive built with open source tools and methods are 2-fold. Open source permits an inexpensive development model where interfaces can be updated as needed, and the code is peer reviewed by many eyes (analogous to the scientific model). Integration of PACS/RIS functionality reduces the risk of inconsistent data by reducing interfaces among databases that contain largely redundant information. Also, wide adoption would promote standard data mining tools--reducing user needs to learn multiple methods to perform the same task. A model has been constructed capable of accepting HL7 orders, performing examination and resource scheduling, providing digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) worklist information to modalities, archiving studies, and supporting DICOM query/retrieve from third party viewing software. The multitiered architecture uses a single database communicating via an ODBC bridge to a Linux server with HL7, DICOM, and HTTP connections. Human interaction is supported via a web browser, whereas automated informatics services communicate over the HL7 and DICOM links. The system is still under development, but the primary database schema is complete as well as key pieces of the web user interface. Additional work is needed on the DICOM/HL7 interface broker and completion of the base DICOM service classes. PMID:12297975

  16. Laser acceleration with open waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    1999-03-01

    A unified framework based on solid-state open waveguides is developed to overcome all three major limitations on acceleration distance and hence on the feasibility of two classes of laser acceleration. The three limitations are due to laser diffraction, acceleration phase slippage, and damage of waveguide structure by high power laser. The two classes of laser acceleration are direct-field acceleration and ponderomotive-driven acceleration. Thus the solutions provided here encompass all mainstream approaches for laser acceleration, either in vacuum, gases or plasmas.

  17. Lateral genetic transfer: open issues

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Mark A.; Beiko, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Lateral genetic transfer (LGT) is an important adaptive force in evolution, contributing to metabolic, physiological and ecological innovation in most prokaryotes and some eukaryotes. Genomic sequences and other data have begun to illuminate the processes, mechanisms, quantitative extent and impact of LGT in diverse organisms, populations, taxa and environments; deep questions are being posed, and the provisional answers sometimes challenge existing paradigms. At the same time, there is an enhanced appreciation of the imperfections, biases and blind spots in the data and in analytical approaches. Here we identify and consider significant open questions concerning the role of LGT in genome evolution. PMID:19571244

  18. Macroeconomics in an open economy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R N

    1986-09-12

    The customary treatment of national economies as closed and self-contained must be substantially modified to allow for those economies that typically trade goods, services, and securities with other countries in increasing volume. Open economy macroeconomics is essential to understanding the major events of the U.S. economy over the past half dozen years. Both the sharp rise in the dollar and the unprecedentedly large U.S. trade deficit are linked to the U.S. budget deficit, as is the drop in the rate of inflation. PMID:17756868

  19. AKM in Open Source Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamelos, Ioannis; Kakarontzas, George

    Previous chapters in this book have dealt with Architecture Knowledge Management in traditional Closed Source Software (CSS) projects. This chapterwill attempt to examine the ways that knowledge is shared among participants in Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS 1) projects and how architectural knowledge is managed w.r.t. CSS. FLOSS projects are organized and developed in a fundamentally different way than CSS projects. FLOSS projects simply do not develop code as CSS projects do. As a consequence, their knowledge management mechanisms are also based on different concepts and tools.

  20. Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2008-01-24

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, the master equation for two independent harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment is solved in the asymptotic long-time regime. Using the Peres-Simon necessary and sufficient condition for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that the two non-interacting systems become asymptotically entangled for certain environments, so that in the long-time regime they manifest non-local quantum correlations. We calculate also the logarithmic negativity characterizing the degree of entanglement of the asymptotic state.

  1. Java based open architecture controller

    SciTech Connect

    Weinert, G F

    2000-01-13

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the authors have been developing an open architecture machine tool controller. This work has been patterned after the General Motors (GM) led Open Modular Architecture Controller (OMAC) work, where they have been involved since its inception. The OMAC work has centered on creating sets of implementation neutral application programming interfaces (APIs) for machine control software components. In the work at LLNL, they were among the early adopters of the Java programming language. As an application programming language, it is particularly well suited for component software development. The language contains many features, which along with a well-defined implementation API (such as the OMAC APIs) allows third party binary files to be integrated into a working system. Because of its interpreted nature, Java allows rapid integration testing of components. However, for real-time systems development, the Java programming language presents many drawbacks. For instance, lack of well defined scheduling semantics and threading behavior can present many unwanted challenges. Also, the interpreted nature of the standard Java Virtual Machine (JVM) presents an immediate performance hit. Various real-time Java vendors are currently addressing some of these drawbacks. The various pluses and minuses of using the Java programming language and environment, with regard to a component-based controller, will be outlined.

  2. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  3. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, L.; Pers, C.; Isberg, K.; Nyström, K.; Arheimer, B.

    2013-12-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model. It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. HYPE has been successfully used in many hydrological applications at SMHI. For Europe, we currently have three different models; The S-HYPE model for Sweden; The BALT-HYPE model for the Baltic Sea; and the E-HYPE model for the whole Europe. These models simulate hydrological conditions and nutrients for their respective areas and are used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded from hypeweb.smhi.se. In addition, we provide models for the Arctic region, the Arab (Middle East and Northern Africa) region, India, the Niger River basin, the La Plata Basin. This demonstrates the applicability of the HYPE model for large scale modeling in different regions of the world. An important goal with our work is to make our data and tools available as open data and services. For this aim we created the HYPE Open Source Community (OSC) that makes the source code of HYPE available for anyone interested in further development of HYPE. The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modeling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code are delivered frequently. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modeling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. By joining the HYPE OSC you get access a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model. The HYPE source code is designed to efficiently handle large scale modeling for forecast, hindcast and climate applications. The code is under constant development to improve the hydrological processes, efficiency and readability. In the beginning of 2013 we released a version with new and better modularization based on hydrological processes. This will make the code easier to understand and further develop for a new user. An important challenge in this process is to produce code that is easy for anyone to understand and work with, but still maintain the properties that make the code efficient enough for large scale applications. Input from the HYPE Open Source Community is an important source for future improvements of the HYPE model. Therefore, by joining the community you become an active part of the development, get access to the latest features and can influence future versions of the model.

  4. Reconstructing Open Surfaces via Graph-Cuts.

    PubMed

    Wan, Min; Wang, Yu; Bae, Egil; Tai, Xue-Cheng; Wang, Desheng

    2013-02-01

    A novel graph-cuts-based method is proposed for reconstructing open surfaces from unordered point sets. Through a Boolean operation on the crust around the data set, the open surface problem is translated to a watertight surface problem within a restricted region. Integrating the variational model, Delaunay-based tetrahedral mesh and multiphase technique, the proposed method can reconstruct open surfaces robustly and effectively. Furthermore, a surface reconstruction method with domain decomposition is presented, which is based on the new open surface reconstruction method. This method can handle more general surfaces, such as nonorientable surfaces. The algorithm is designed in a parallel-friendly way and necessary measures are taken to eliminate cracks and conflicts between the subdomains. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method on watertight, open orientable, open nonorientable surfaces and combinations of such. PMID:22566468

  5. Using OpenGL for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, Randi J.

    1996-04-01

    Although OpenGL is not usually thought of as a library for imaging, it was designed to expose the capabilities of modern frame buffer hardware. The emphasis in OpenGL is on 3D graphics (i.e., geometry), but OpenGL also includes a fairly rich set of capabilities for 2D imaging. This paper describes the capabilities of OpenGL for imaging applications, including pixel transfer operations (draw, read, copy); color lookup tables; linear transformation of color values; pixel conversion capabilities; and pixel operations such as blending, masking, and clipping. Several recently proposed extensions to OpenGL add significant capabilities to the core imaging model, including convolution, window level mapping, and image transformation and resampling. These capabilities are discussed in the context of the pixel processing pipeline defined by OpenGL.

  6. The HYPE Open Source Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, Lena; Arheimer, Berit; Pers, Charlotta; Isberg, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    The Hydrological Predictions for the Environment (HYPE) model is a dynamic, semi-distributed, process-based, integrated catchment model (Lindström et al., 2010). It uses well-known hydrological and nutrient transport concepts and can be applied for both small and large scale assessments of water resources and status. In the model, the landscape is divided into classes according to soil type, vegetation and altitude. The soil representation is stratified and can be divided in up to three layers. Water and substances are routed through the same flow paths and storages (snow, soil, groundwater, streams, rivers, lakes) considering turn-over and transformation on the way towards the sea. In Sweden, the model is used by water authorities to fulfil the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. It is used for characterization, forecasts, and scenario analyses. Model data can be downloaded for free from three different HYPE applications: Europe (www.smhi.se/e-hype), Baltic Sea basin (www.smhi.se/balt-hype), and Sweden (vattenweb.smhi.se) The HYPE OSC (hype.sourceforge.net) is an open source initiative under the Lesser GNU Public License taken by SMHI to strengthen international collaboration in hydrological modelling and hydrological data production. The hypothesis is that more brains and more testing will result in better models and better code. The code is transparent and can be changed and learnt from. New versions of the main code will be delivered frequently. The main objective of the HYPE OSC is to provide public access to a state-of-the-art operational hydrological model and to encourage hydrologic expertise from different parts of the world to contribute to model improvement. HYPE OSC is open to everyone interested in hydrology, hydrological modelling and code development - e.g. scientists, authorities, and consultancies. The HYPE Open Source Community was initiated in November 2011 by a kick-off and workshop with 50 eager participants from twelve different countries. In beginning of 2013 we will release a new version of the code featuring new and better modularization, corresponding to hydrological processes which will make the code easier to understand and further develop. During 2013 we also plan a new workshop and HYPE course for everyone interested in the community. Lindström, G., Pers, C.P., Rosberg, R., Strömqvist, J., Arheimer, B. 2010. Development and test of the HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model - A water quality model for different spatial scales. Hydrology Research 41.3-4:295-319

  7. Open access intrapartum CTG database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is a monitoring of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Since 1960 it is routinely used by obstetricians to assess fetal well-being. Many attempts to introduce methods of automatic signal processing and evaluation have appeared during the last 20 years, however still no significant progress similar to that in the domain of adult heart rate variability, where open access databases are available (e.g. MIT-BIH), is visible. Based on a thorough review of the relevant publications, presented in this paper, the shortcomings of the current state are obvious. A lack of common ground for clinicians and technicians in the field hinders clinically usable progress. Our open access database of digital intrapartum cardiotocographic recordings aims to change that. Description The intrapartum CTG database consists in total of 552 intrapartum recordings, which were acquired between April 2010 and August 2012 at the obstetrics ward of the University Hospital in Brno, Czech Republic. All recordings were stored in electronic form in the OB TraceVue®;system. The recordings were selected from 9164 intrapartum recordings with clinical as well as technical considerations in mind. All recordings are at most 90 minutes long and start a maximum of 90 minutes before delivery. The time relation of CTG to delivery is known as well as the length of the second stage of labor which does not exceed 30 minutes. The majority of recordings (all but 46 cesarean sections) is – on purpose – from vaginal deliveries. All recordings have available biochemical markers as well as some more general clinical features. Full description of the database and reasoning behind selection of the parameters is presented in the paper. Conclusion A new open-access CTG database is introduced which should give the research community common ground for comparison of results on reasonably large database. We anticipate that after reading the paper, the reader will understand the context of the field from clinical and technical perspectives which will enable him/her to use the database and also understand its limitations. PMID:24418387

  8. Free for All: Open Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

  9. Free for All: Open Source Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

  10. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO (CAPtools (Computer Aided Parallelization Toolkit) OpenMP) parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report some results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  11. 77 FR 38630 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... meeting. By notice of intent to establish the Open Internet Advisory Committee, published at 76 FR 22395... Research Scientist, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Science and Artificial...

  12. The open cluster NGC 6716

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, N.A.; Dawson, D.W. Western Connecticut State Univ., Danbury, CT )

    1990-08-01

    NGC 6716 is a young open star cluster in Sagittarius. Lindoff (1971) obtained photoelectric photometry for 12 stars and photographic UBV photometry for 115 stars in the cluster field down to V = 13.8. This work has been expanded to include more photoelectric standards and IRIS photometry for 332 stars in the cluster field down to V = 16. A reddening E(B-V) = 0.17 mag, a distance modulus of 8.69 + or - 0.15 mag (d = 547 pc), and an age of around 100 million years for the cluster are derived. Of the stars studied, 75 were judged as likely cluster members, 63 as possible members, and 194 as probable nonmembers. 13 refs.

  13. The LIGO Open Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele; Kanner, Jonah; Williams, Roy; Weinstein, Alan; Stephens, Branson

    2015-05-01

    The LIGO Open Science Center (LOSC) fulfills LIGO's commitment to release, archive, and serve LIGO data in a broadly accessible way to the scientific community and to the public, and to provide the information and tools necessary to understand and use the data. In August 2014, the LOSC published the full dataset from Initial LIGO's “S5” run at design sensitivity, the first such large-scale release and a valuable testbed to explore the use of LIGO data by non-LIGO researchers and by the public, and to help teach gravitational-wave data analysis to students across the world. In addition to serving the S5 data, the LOSC web portal (losc.ligo.org) now offers documentation, data-location and data-quality queries, tutorials and example code, and more. We review the mission and plans of the LOSC, focusing on the S5 data release.

  14. Open Architecture SDR for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Carl; Long, Chris; Liebetreu, John; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an open-architecture SDR (software defined radio) infrastructure that is suitable for space-based operations (Space-SDR). SDR technologies will endow space and planetary exploration systems with dramatically increased capability, reduced power consumption, and significantly less mass than conventional systems, at costs reduced by vigorous competition, hardware commonality, dense integration, reduced obsolescence, interoperability, and software re-use. Significant progress has been recorded on developments like the Joint Tactical Radio System (JSTRS) Software Communication Architecture (SCA), which is oriented toward reconfigurable radios for defense forces operating in multiple theaters of engagement. The JTRS-SCA presents a consistent software interface for waveform development, and facilitates interoperability, waveform portability, software re-use, and technology evolution.

  15. Open issues in MPI implementation.

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, R.; Gropp, W.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-01-01

    MPI (the Message Passing Interface) continues to be the dominant programming model for parallel machines of all sizes, from small Linux clusters to the largest parallel supercomputers such as IBM Blue Gene/L and Cray XT3. Although the MPI standard was released more than 10 years ago and a number of implementations of MPI are available from both vendors and research groups, MPI implementations still need improvement in many areas. In this paper, we discuss several such areas, including performance, scalability, fault tolerance, support for debugging and verification, topology awareness, collective communication, derived datatypes, and parallel I/O. We also present results from experiments with several MPI implementations (MPICH2, Open MPI, Sun, IBM) on a number of platforms (Linux clusters, Sun and IBM SMPs) that demonstrate the need for performance improvement in one-sided communication and support for multithreaded programs.

  16. Summing Planar Bosonic Open Strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardakci, Korkut

    2006-02-16

    In earlier work, planar graphs of massless {phi}{sup 3} theory were summed with the help of the light cone world sheet picture and the mean field approximation. In the present article, the same methods are applied to the problem of summing planar bosonic open strings. They find that in the ground state of the system, string boundaries form a condensate on the world sheet, and a new string emerges from this summation. Its slope is always greater than the initial slope, and it remains non-zero even when the initial slope is set equal to zero. If they assume the initial string tends to a field a theory in the zero slope limit, this result provides evidence for string formation in field theory.

  17. Open Standards for Emergency Mangement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E.

    2012-04-01

    The mission of the OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) Emergency Management Technical Committee (EM-TC) is to create incident and emergency-related standards for data interoperability. The TC welcomes participation from members of the emergency management community, developers and implementers, and members of the public concerned with disaster management and response. Since the foundation of the EM-TC in 2003, there have been several Standards developed to support this mission. The first and most widely accepted has been the Common Alerting Protocol (CAP). CAP has been adopted worldwide and is also ITU Recommendation 1303. The EM-TC has continued in the development of content data standards to support the emergency management mission. This suite of standards is referred to as the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) family of standards. The EDXL suite of standards are developed starting with a defined requirement from the response community. The requirements are vetted through a working group process, reviewed by the development community to determine whether the concepts once "standardized" will result in software that will be developed then provided with comments to the OASIS EM-TC for defining the standard. The OASIS process includes an open public review period where all comments are accepted and publically adjudicated. The EDXL-Distribution Element (DE), EDXL-Resource Management (RM), EDXL-Hospital Availability eXchange (HAVE) are all now ratified Standards. The EDXL-Situation Reporting (SitRep) Standard is in final review and the EXDL-Tracking of Emergency Patients (TEP) is in development. This presentation will briefly present each of the OASIS EM-TC Standards as well as the process for their development and review. Information will be provided about how to participate in the process as well as where open source code can be found to get started developing systems of systems using the EDXL Standards.

  18. DISCONNECTING OPEN SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-20

    Disconnection of open magnetic flux by reconnection is required to balance the injection of open flux by coronal mass ejections and other eruptive events. Making use of recent advances in heliospheric background subtraction, we have imaged many abrupt disconnection events. These events produce dense plasma clouds whose distinctive shape can now be traced from the corona across the inner solar system via heliospheric imaging. The morphology of each initial event is characteristic of magnetic reconnection across a current sheet, and the newly disconnected flux takes the form of a 'U-'shaped loop that moves outward, accreting coronal and solar wind material. We analyzed one such event on 2008 December 18 as it formed and accelerated at 20 m s{sup -2} to 320 km s{sup -1}, thereafter expanding self-similarly until it exited our field of view 1.2 AU from the Sun. From acceleration and photometric mass estimates we derive the coronal magnetic field strength to be 8 {mu}T, 6 R{sub Sun} above the photosphere, and the entrained flux to be 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} Wb (1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} Mx). We model the feature's propagation by balancing inferred magnetic tension force against accretion drag. This model is consistent with the feature's behavior and accepted solar wind parameters. By counting events over a 36 day window, we estimate a global event rate of 1 day{sup -1} and a global solar minimum unsigned flux disconnection rate of 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} Wb yr{sup -1} (6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} Mx yr{sup -1}) by this mechanism. That rate corresponds to {approx} - 0.2 nT yr{sup -1} change in the radial heliospheric field at 1 AU, indicating that the mechanism is important to the heliospheric flux balance.

  19. Disconnecting Open Solar Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeForest, C. E.; Howard, T. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Disconnection of open magnetic flux by reconnection is required to balance the injection of open flux by coronal mass ejections and other eruptive events. Making use of recent advances in heliospheric background subtraction, we have imaged many abrupt disconnection events. These events produce dense plasma clouds whose distinctive shape can now be traced from the corona across the inner solar system via heliospheric imaging. The morphology of each initial event is characteristic of magnetic reconnection across a current sheet, and the newly disconnected flux takes the form of a "U-"shaped loop that moves outward, accreting coronal and solar wind material. We analyzed one such event on 2008 December 18 as it formed and accelerated at 20 m s-2 to 320 km s-1, thereafter expanding self-similarly until it exited our field of view 1.2 AU from the Sun. From acceleration and photometric mass estimates we derive the coronal magnetic field strength to be 8 ?T, 6 R ? above the photosphere, and the entrained flux to be 1.6 × 1011 Wb (1.6 × 1019 Mx). We model the feature's propagation by balancing inferred magnetic tension force against accretion drag. This model is consistent with the feature's behavior and accepted solar wind parameters. By counting events over a 36 day window, we estimate a global event rate of 1 day-1 and a global solar minimum unsigned flux disconnection rate of 6 × 1013 Wb yr-1 (6 × 1021 Mx yr-1) by this mechanism. That rate corresponds to ~ - 0.2 nT yr-1 change in the radial heliospheric field at 1 AU, indicating that the mechanism is important to the heliospheric flux balance.

  20. OpenEI: Datasets in the OpenEnergyInfo Data Repository

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Open Energy Information initiative (OpenEI) is a platform to connect the world's energy data. It is a linked open data platform bringing together energy information to provide improved analyses, unique visualizations, and real-time access to data. OpenEI follows guidelines set by the White House Open Government Initiative , which is focused on transparency, collaboration, and participation. OpenEI strives to provide open access to this energy information, with the ultimate goal of spurring creativity and driving innovation in the energy sector.[Copied from the OpenEI Wiki main page]. It features a wiki, a blog, a list of information gateways, and a browsing list of deposited data sets.

  1. Beyond Open Source: According to Jim Hirsch, Open Technology, Not Open Source, Is the Wave of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jim Hirsch, an associate superintendent for technology at Piano Independent School District in Piano, Texas. Hirsch serves as a liaison for the open technologies committee of the Consortium for School Networking. In this interview, he shares his opinion on the significance of open source in K-12.

  2. Open Data as Open Educational Resources: Towards Transversal Skills and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Open Data is the name given to datasets which have been generated by international organisations, governments, NGOs and academic researchers, and made freely available online and openly-licensed. These datasets can be used by educators as Open Educational Resources (OER) to support different teaching and learning activities, allowing students to…

  3. Open Badges for Education: What Are the Implications at the Intersection of Open Systems and Badging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, June; Pellicone, Anthony; Butler, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Badges have garnered great interest among scholars of digital media and learning. In addition, widespread initiatives such as Mozilla's Open Badge Framework expand the potential of badging into the realm of open education. In this paper, we explicate the concept of open badges. We highlight some of the ways that researchers have examined…

  4. Dimensions of Openness: Beyond the Course as an Open Format in Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present a pedagogical approach to openness. The paper develops a framework for understanding the pedagogical opportunities of openness in education. Based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and sociocultural learning theory, the paper defines openness in education as a matter of engaging educational activities in…

  5. Open and Positive Attitudes toward Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chia-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This chapter argues that the most important thing for a nonnative English-speaking teacher is to have an open and positive attitude toward students. A teacher's willingness to work out problems with individual students, coupled with openness to students' ideas and criticism, should help improve students' negative attitudes toward…

  6. An Ethnographic Analysis of Open Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirabayshi, Richard

    A study to investigate the significance of teacher decisions concerning the social and physical dimensions of the Open Classroom was conducted. Preliminary observation reviewed teacher goals and decisions for the Open Classroom. This research is based upon Hall's theory of culture reflecting the communication model. There are five basic structural…

  7. Open Educational Resources: A Faculty Author's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    As the coauthor (with Susan Dean) of a formally for-profit and now open (i.e., free on the web) textbook, "Collaborative Statistics," this author has received many questions about open educational resources (OER), which can be summarized as follows: (1) What are OER?; (2) Why do you support, actively promote, and speak about OER?; (3) If a book is…

  8. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  9. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  10. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  11. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  12. 46 CFR 169.823 - Openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Openings. 169.823 Section 169.823 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.823 Openings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all watertight doors in...

  13. Assessment in Massive Open Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admiraal, Wilfried; Huisman, Bart; Pilli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Open online distance learning in higher education has quickly gained popularity, expanded, and evolved, with Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the most recent development. New web technologies allow for scalable ways to deliver video lecture content, implement social forums and track student progress in MOOCs. However, we remain limited in…

  14. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  15. 46 CFR 108.455 - Enclosure openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Enclosure openings. 108.455 Section 108.455 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.455 Enclosure openings. (a) Mechanical ventilation for...

  16. Open Educational Resources in Canada 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Conrad, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Canada's important areas of expertise in open educational resources (OER) are beginning to be built upon or replicated more broadly in all education and training sectors. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in OER initiatives and open higher education in general in Canada, providing insights into what is happening nationally…

  17. CAPE-OPEN WITH .NET TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    On March 7, 2007 in Heidelberg, Germany, the CAPE-OPEN Laboratories Network (CO-LaN) is offering a one-day training seminar on implementing CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling components (PMCs) using .NET-based development tools. This seminar will be geared to component develope...

  18. Open Educational Resources: Staff Attitudes and Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes are changing in education globally to promote the open sharing of educational courses and resources. The aim of this study was to explore staff awareness and attitudes towards "open educational resources" (OER) as a benchmark for monitoring future progress. Faculty staff (n = 6) were invited to participate in semi-structured interviews…

  19. Excellence, Equality, and the Open University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Naomi E.; Woodley, Alan

    The Open University offers part-time courses for adults by means of a multimedia distance teaching system. By adopting an open admissions policy and offering undergraduate courses, it is aiming for excellence and equality on a cost-effective basis. The university does appear to have achieved a high academic standard, both in its courses and its…

  20. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 0.602 Section 0.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.602 Open meetings. (a) All meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. (b)...

  1. Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottani, Norberto, Ed.; Favre, Bernard, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The editorial, "Some Aspects of the Educational Change Dynamic: Setting School Autonomy and Evaluation in Context" (Cecilia Braslavsky), explains the focus of this issue. This "Open File: School Autonomy and Evaluation" section contains: "Introduction to the Open File" (Norberto Bottani; Bernard Favre); "IPES The System of Indicators for Secondary…

  2. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

  3. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  4. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  5. 18 CFR 375.203 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Open meetings. 375.203... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Procedures Under the Government in the Sunshine Act § 375.203 Open meetings. (a) General rule. Except as provided in § 375.206, meetings of the...

  6. 39 CFR 7.2 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 39 CFR Part 232, concerning conduct on postal property, apply with regard to meetings of the Board. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 7.2 Section 7.2 Postal Service... (ARTICLE VII) § 7.2 Open meetings. (a) It is the policy of the United States, established in section 2...

  7. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  8. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act § 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  9. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations § 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  10. 75 FR 9083 - Notice of Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part IV Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission Notice of Open Meeting; Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 38 / Friday, February 26, 2010 / Notices#0;#0; ] FINANCIAL CRISIS INQUIRY COMMISSION Notice of Open Meeting SUMMARY:...

  11. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  12. 18 CFR 375.203 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open meetings. 375.203... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Procedures Under the Government in the Sunshine Act § 375.203 Open meetings. (a) General rule. Except as provided in § 375.206, meetings of the...

  13. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act § 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  14. 6 CFR 1003.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 1003.3 Section 1003.3 Domestic Security PRIVACY AND CIVIL LIBERTIES OVERSIGHT BOARD IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 1003.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of a Board...

  15. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act § 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  16. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations § 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  17. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations § 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  18. 18 CFR 375.203 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open meetings. 375.203... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Procedures Under the Government in the Sunshine Act § 375.203 Open meetings. (a) General rule. Except as provided in § 375.206, meetings of the...

  19. 45 CFR 503.23 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Government in the Sunshine Regulations § 503.23 Open meetings. Every meeting of the Commission... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 503.23 Section 503.23...

  20. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  1. 18 CFR 1301.43 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Open meetings. 1301.43 Section 1301.43 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROCEDURES Government in the Sunshine Act § 1301.43 Open meetings. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of...

  2. 50 CFR 560.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 560.3 Section 560.3 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE ACT § 560.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this part, every portion of every meeting...

  3. 18 CFR 375.203 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Open meetings. 375.203... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Procedures Under the Government in the Sunshine Act § 375.203 Open meetings. (a) General rule. Except as provided in § 375.206, meetings of the...

  4. 18 CFR 375.203 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Open meetings. 375.203 Section 375.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION Procedures Under the Government in the Sunshine Act § 375.203 Open meetings. (a) General...

  5. An Open Letter to Premier Wen Jiabao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education and Society, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article is an open letter of a group of early childhood education (ECE) practitioners to Premier Wen Jiabao. This open letter was written with one goal in mind: to ask Premier Wen's government to take measures to protect young children and support early childhood education. These practitioners have become worried about the many accidents that…

  6. Bypassing An Open-Circuit Power Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannemacher, Harry E.

    1994-01-01

    Collection of bypass circuits enables battery consisting series string of cells to continue to function when one of its cells fails in open-circuit (high-resistance) condition. Basic idea simply to shunt current around defective cell to prevent open circuit from turning off battery altogether. Bypass circuits dissipate little power and are nearly immune to false activation.

  7. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  8. Accelerated IDL using OpenCL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloy, M. D.; Fillmore, D. W.; Rood, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Interactive Data Language (IDL) is also widely used in this community for data analysis and visualization. Previously, we have developed GPULib, a library of routines in IDL for accelerating common scientific operations including arithmetic, FFTs, interpolation, and other computations using using CUDA-enabled GPUs from NVIDIA. We have now ported portions of this library to OpenCL, making GPU accelerated IDL available on any modern GPU or CPU. Currently, our OpenCL library supports basic array operations and the ability to execute user-defined OpenCL kernels. Use of the open standard OpenCL implemented by several hardware vendors from within GPULib is an exciting prospect with several advantages: 1) OpenCL is an open standard and runs on multiple vendor hardware implementations including for both CPU and GPU hardware, and 2) OpenCL uses runtime compilation of kernels allowing easy construction of custom kernels at runtime (useful for creating user-defined fitting functions) In addition, we have a library of GPU accelerated routines (using CUDA) to perform Levenberg-Marquardt curve fitting. In addition, GPU accelerated LAPACK routines provided by MAGMA and simple ways to access user-written CUDA kernels have also been added to support this library.

  9. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  10. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  11. 7 CFR 1600.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Open meetings. 1600.3 Section 1600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Meetings of the Board of Directors of the Rural Telephone Bank § 1600.3 Open...

  12. Defining an Open Source Strategy for NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Crichton, D. J.; Lindsay, F.; Berrick, S. W.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the course of the past year, we have worked to help frame a strategy for NASA and open source software. This includes defining information processes to understand open source licensing, attribution, commerciality, redistribution, communities, architectures, and interactions within the agency. Specifically we held a training session at the NASA Earth Science Data Systems Working Group meeting in Open Source software as it relates to the NASA Earth Science data systems enterprise, including EOSDIS, the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), ACCESS proposals, and the MEASURES communities, and efforts to understand how open source software can be both consumed and produced within that ecosystem. In addition, we presented at the 1st NASA Open Source Summit (OSS) and helped to define an agency-level strategy, a set of recommendations and paths forward for how to identify healthy open source communities, how to deal with issues such as contributions originating from other agencies, and how to search out talent with the right skills to develop software for NASA in the modern age. This talk will review our current recommendations for open source at NASA, and will cover the set of thirteen recommendations output from the NASA Open Source Summit and discuss some of their implications for the agency.

  13. Open Education as a "Heterotopia of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The movement towards "openness" in education has tended to position itself as inherently democratising, radical, egalitarian and critical of powerful gatekeepers to learning. While "openness" is often positioned as a critique, I will argue that its mainstream discourses--while appearing to oppose large-scale operations of…

  14. 7 Questions to Ask Open Source Vendors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    With their budgets under increasing pressure, many campus IT directors are considering open source projects for the first time. On the face of it, the savings can be significant. Commercial emergency-planning software can cost upward of six figures, for example, whereas the open source Kuali Ready might run as little as $15,000 per year when…

  15. Open Source 2010: Reflections on 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Brad

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities and commercial firms have demonstrated great progress in realizing the vision proffered for "Open Source 2007," and 2010 will mark even greater progress. Although much work remains in refining open source for higher education applications, the signals are now clear: the collaborative development of software can provide…

  16. Designing Software to Shape Open Government Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Harlan Ming-Tun

    2012-01-01

    Modern information technologies have transformed the meaning and promise of "open government." The term originally stood for the ideas of government transparency and public accountability. But with the rise of the Internet, "open government" has grown to encompass a wide range of civic goals--greater public participation and…

  17. Schools and Teachers Supporting Student Open Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, David; Tytler, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a study of the BHP Billiton Science Awards to explore the ways in which open investigation work occurs in schools. The research used interviews with teachers and students and state organisers to develop a picture of what happens on the ground in running student open investigations, and to trace how schools have built a culture…

  18. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  19. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  20. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  1. 43 CFR 2091.2-2 - Opening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opening. 2091.2-2 Section 2091.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SPECIAL LAWS AND RULES Segregation and Opening...

  2. A Method for Measuring International Openness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrieri, Gaetano

    2006-01-01

    The author illustrates a method for measuring international openness by bringing forward some examples. The index proposed measures the capacity of countries for a given phenomenon, adjusted for their weight in the phenomena concerned. In this study, the Index is applied to measure the degree of openness to international migration in a number of…

  3. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of Foundation business other than in accordance with these procedures....

  4. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of Foundation business other than in accordance with these procedures....

  5. 22 CFR 1500.4 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Open meetings. 1500.4 Section 1500.4 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS § 1500.4 Open meetings. (a) Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of Foundation business other than in accordance with these procedures....

  6. Openness, Technologies, Business Models and Austerity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Open education emerged when the state had an active role in shaping and financing post-secondary education. In the twenty-first century, two pressures influence the way openness is conceived. The first is the compounding of neo-liberal economics with austerity following the financial crash of 2008. The second is the consolidation of networked and…

  7. Opening Statements and Speeches. Plenary Session. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Official opening statements, organizational reports, and papers on libraries in a technological world, which were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) welcoming addresses by Franz Georg Kaltwasser and Mathilde Berghofer-Weichner; (2) opening speeches by Else Granheim (IFLA president)…

  8. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-03-10

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:26927885

  9. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  10. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Open meetings. 0.602 Section 0.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.602 Open meetings. (a) All meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. (b)...

  11. Photosonochemical catalytic ring opening of ?-epoxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Memarian, Hamid R; Saffar-Teluri, Ali

    2007-01-01

    The combination of ultrasound and photochemical methods has been used for the catalytic ring opening of ?-epoxyketones by 1-benzyl-2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (NBTPT) as photocatalyst in methanol. Sonication of these compounds in the presence of NBTPT did not result in the opening of epoxide ring, but the use of ultrasound increased the rate of photoreaction. PMID:17257437

  12. Teacher Adaptation to Open Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterator, Scott; Deed, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The "open classroom" emerged as a reaction against the industrial-era enclosed and authoritarian classroom. Although contemporary school architecture continues to incorporate and express ideas of openness, more research is needed about how teachers adapt to new and different built contexts. Our purpose is to identify teacher reaction to…

  13. Open Access, Education Research, and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlough, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The open access movement has successfully drawn attention to economic and political aspects of scholarly communication through a significant body of commentary that debates the merits of open access and the potential damage it may do to scholarly publishing. Researchers within the field of education research, notably John…

  14. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  15. Regulating open disclosure: a German perspective.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Stuart; Beitat, Katja; Lauterberg, Jörg; Vollmann, Jochen

    2012-02-01

    The issue of open disclosure has received growing attention from policy-makers, legal experts and academic researchers, predominantly in a number of English-speaking countries. While implementing open disclosure in practice is still an on-going process, open disclosure now forms an integral part of health policy in various American states, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, with a number of measures having been put in place to encourage open disclosure and to mitigate some of the barriers to such open communication. In contrast, this issue has received little attention in non-English-speaking countries and there is currently no empirical data relating to actual practice or practitioners' attitudes and views in most countries in continental Europe. This article critically examines Germany's current approach to open disclosure. It finds that the issue plays no significant role in German health policy with very limited measures explicitly concerning such communication currently in place. While a number of aspects of the wider regulatory framework appear to be supportive, Germany is still in the early stages of a systematic approach and additional measures are required to further promote open disclosure within the self-governing German healthcare system. This exploration provides an example of a non-English-speaking country's approach to open disclosure and may be of particular interest to neighbouring German-speaking and civil law countries such as Switzerland and Austria. PMID:22140192

  16. 37 CFR 251.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open meetings. 251.11 Section... ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Public Access to Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel Meetings § 251.11 Open meetings. (a) All meetings of a...

  17. A New Era of Open Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Paul; Macauley, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There has been a push for open access journals for more than a decade in a higher education and research environment in which the "publish or perish" syndrome is as dominant as ever. This article examines the success, or otherwise, of open access schemes in light of the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative. It compares the…

  18. CONNECTICUT MUNICIPAL AND PRIVATE OPEN SPACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a 1:24,000-scale datalayer of property owned by Connecticut municipalities and private organizations for the purpose of preserving open space. It is a polygon Shapefile that primarily includes land conservation trust property, town open space, parks, school playgrounds, ...

  19. Open Learning Materials and Learning Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Alan; Walmsley, Joyce

    The availability and nature of open learning materials and centers in Great Britain were examined in a study that focused on the following: the open learning market; learning materials; commercial suppliers; basic skills materials; information technology materials; online learning; information technology and tutors; qualifications; prices;…

  20. 17 CFR 200.400 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Open meetings. 200.400 Section 200.400 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT... Meetings § 200.400 Open meetings. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, meetings of the...

  1. 12 CFR 791.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 791.11 Section 791.11 Banks and... OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Public Observation of NCUA Board Meetings Under the Sunshine Act § 791.11 Open meetings. Except as provided in § 791.12(a), any portion of any meeting of the Board shall be...

  2. 17 CFR 200.400 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open meetings. 200.400 Section 200.400 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT... Meetings § 200.400 Open meetings. Except as otherwise provided in this subpart, meetings of the...

  3. 12 CFR 912.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 912.3 Section 912.3 Banks and... INFORMATION REGARDING MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD § 912.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as provided in § 912.4, every portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors...

  4. 12 CFR 791.11 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open meetings. 791.11 Section 791.11 Banks and... OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Public Observation of NCUA Board Meetings Under the Sunshine Act § 791.11 Open meetings. Except as provided in § 791.12(a), any portion of any meeting of the Board shall be...

  5. 12 CFR 912.3 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open meetings. 912.3 Section 912.3 Banks and... INFORMATION REGARDING MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD § 912.3 Open meetings. (a) Except as provided in § 912.4, every portion of every meeting of the Board of Directors...

  6. 47 CFR 0.602 - Open meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Open meetings. 0.602 Section 0.602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Meeting Procedures § 0.602 Open meetings. (a) All meetings shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this subpart. (b)...

  7. Open-Access Electronic Textbooks: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Given the challenging economic climate in the United States, many academics are looking to open-access electronic textbooks as a way to provide students with traditional textbook content at a more financially advantageous price. Open access refers to "the free and widely available information throughout the World Wide Web. Once an article's author…

  8. Open Educational Resources: A Faculty Author's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    As the coauthor (with Susan Dean) of a formally for-profit and now open (i.e., free on the web) textbook, "Collaborative Statistics," this author has received many questions about open educational resources (OER), which can be summarized as follows: (1) What are OER?; (2) Why do you support, actively promote, and speak about OER?; (3) If a book is…

  9. An Open School in the Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cichy, Boguslaw, Ed.; And Others

    Describing Poland's 1978 educational model based on what is termed the "open school" concept (a concept similar to what is known in the U.S. as community education), this document presents: (1) Data on the Polish People's Republic; (2) The Concept of an Open School; (3) The Role of School in the Transformation of the Rural Community and Principles…

  10. A Bibliometric Mapping of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zancanaro, Airton; Todesco, José Leomar; Ramos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) is a topic that has aroused increasing interest by researchers as a powerful contribution to improve the educational system quality and openness, both in face to face and distance education. The goal of this research is to map publications related to OER, dating from 2002 to 2013, and available through the Web of…

  11. Equity for open-access journal publishing.

    PubMed

    Shieber, Stuart M

    2009-08-01

    Open-access journals, which provide access to their scholarly articles freely and without limitations, are at a systematic disadvantage relative to traditional closed-access journal publishing and its subscription-based business model. A simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity could put open-access publishing on a path to become a sustainable, efficient system. PMID:19652697

  12. Open Access and Civic Scientific Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuccala, Alesia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We examine how residents and citizens of The Netherlands perceive open access to acquire preliminary insight into the role it might play in cultivating civic scientific literacy. Open access refers to scientific or scholarly research literature available on the Web to scholars and the general public in free online journals and…

  13. Using Open Space Technology for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, David

    2002-01-01

    Describes a theory referred to as Open Space Technology (OST), which holds that the most productive learning in conference settings takes place in the open space between formally scheduled conference sessions. Argues that OST can be applied to staff development days and other educational development programs. (Contains 10 references.) (NB)

  14. Teachers With Children: Curriculum in Open Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dropkin, Ruth, Ed.

    This collection of personal essays relates elementary classroom experiences representative of curriculum themes in open education. Essays are concerned with such topics as: (1) the question of what is the curriculum of the open classroom; (2) development of a curriculum on a medieval theme in a fourth-fifth grade class; (3) study of prehistoric…

  15. Psychological Effects of the "Open Classroom."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Robert

    As interest in open education has increased, so have demands for systematic evaluative research on its effects. There now exists a fairly sizable body of work on academic and psychological effects of open classroom teaching. In 1975, the author reviewed the relevant literature and summarized it in a monograph published by the North Dakota Study…

  16. Open Education as a "Heterotopia of Desire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The movement towards "openness" in education has tended to position itself as inherently democratising, radical, egalitarian and critical of powerful gatekeepers to learning. While "openness" is often positioned as a critique, I will argue that its mainstream discourses--while appearing to oppose large-scale operations of…

  17. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  18. Open Rotor - Analysis of Diagnostic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching open rotor propulsion as part of its technology research and development plan for addressing the subsonic transport aircraft noise, emission and fuel burn goals. The low-speed wind tunnel test for investigating the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a benchmark blade set at the approach and takeoff conditions has recently concluded. A high-speed wind tunnel diagnostic test campaign has begun to investigate the performance of this benchmark open rotor blade set at the cruise condition. Databases from both speed regimes will comprise a comprehensive collection of benchmark open rotor data for use in assessing/validating aerodynamic and noise prediction tools (component & system level) as well as providing insights into the physics of open rotors to help guide the development of quieter open rotors.

  19. Standardization as an Arena for Open Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grřtnes, Endre

    This paper argues that anticipatory standardization can be viewed as an arena for open innovation and shows this through two cases from mobile telecommunication standardization. One case is the Android initiative by Google and the Open Handset Alliance, while the second case is the general standardization work of the Open Mobile Alliance. The paper shows how anticipatory standardization intentionally uses inbound and outbound streams of research and intellectual property to create new innovations. This is at the heart of the open innovation model. The standardization activities use both pooling of R&D and the distribution of freely available toolkits to create products and architectures that can be utilized by the participants and third parties to leverage their innovation. The paper shows that the technology being standardized needs to have a systemic nature to be part of an open innovation process.

  20. [Open access :an opportunity for biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Duchange, Nathalie; Autard, Delphine; Pinhas, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Open access within the scientific community depends on the scientific context and the practices of the field. In the biomedical domain, the communication of research results is characterised by the importance of the peer reviewing process, the existence of a hierarchy among journals and the transfer of copyright to the editor. Biomedical publishing has become a lucrative market and the growth of electronic journals has not helped lower the costs. Indeed, it is difficult for today's public institutions to gain access to all the scientific literature. Open access is thus imperative, as demonstrated through the positions taken by a growing number of research funding bodies, the development of open access journals and efforts made in promoting open archives. This article describes the setting up of an Inserm portal for publication in the context of the French national protocol for open-access self-archiving and in an international context. PMID:18789227

  1. Effects of artificial openings of intermittently opening estuaries on macroinvertebrate assemblages of the entrance barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, William; Hacking, Nicole; Owen, Vanessa

    2006-05-01

    Intermittently opening estuaries are artificially opened to manage flood risk, water quality, recreational amenity, and fisheries; however, the ecological impacts of this management technique are incompletely understood. During 2001 and 2004, this study assessed the impacts of artificial openings on the macroinvertebrates of entrance barriers of intermittently opening estuaries in New South Wales (Australia). In 2001 macroinvertebrates were sampled once before artificial opening and 9 and 25 d after re-formation of the entrance barrier. A multiple before-after-control-impact analysis found that, although entrance barriers were destroyed by the artificial openings and then re-formed naturally by wave action, significant interactions for taxonomic richness, density of the amphipod Paracalliope australis (Gammaridae) and density of the gastropod mollusc Aschoris victoriae (Hydrobiidae) meant that the effects of this disturbance could not be distinguished from the natural variations that occurred in unopened estuaries. Multivariate analyses found that assemblages at both opened and unopened estuaries changed from before to after the openings, and the magnitude of the dissimilarity between times varied between estuaries. In 2004, macroinvertebrates were sampled on three randomly selected days within each of three periods (before, 3 d and 42 d after) at one opened and three unopened estuaries. Asymmetrical analysis of this modified before-after-control-impact study found that the change in taxonomic richness at the opened estuary from before to after opening did not differ from temporal changes that occurred in unopened estuaries. Short-term variation (i.e. between days) in total density of macroinvertebrates and density of P. australis in the re-formed entrance barrier of the opened estuary also did not differ from the variation in the control estuaries. Additionally, assemblage structure was not significantly changed by the opening and assemblages at two control estuaries were also unchanged over the same time. Individual taxa and assemblages of macroinvertebrates in entrance barriers of these intermittently open estuarine systems appear to be resilient to the habitat disturbance caused by artificial openings.

  2. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  3. The Impact of Openness on Bridging Educational Digital Divides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Openness has been a feature of higher education for many decades, particularly through the establishment of open universities, although there remain debates about what openness means in practice. Digital technologies, some based on open principles, and digital content, aided by open licences, have both contributed recently to an extension of what…

  4. Embracing Openness: The Challenges of OER in Latin American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Nadia Paola Mireles

    2013-01-01

    The Open Educational Resources (OER) movement and the Open Access began only over a decade ago. During this period, the progress of the Open Educational Resources movement took place in developed countries for the most part. Recently, new projects have begun to emerge with a strong emphasis on open education. Yet, the concept of openness in…

  5. Open cycle - OTEC turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, W. H.; Rogers, J. D.; Thompson, D. F.; Young, M. I.

    1981-12-01

    The design of a low-pressure, open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system (OTEC) is described. Near-surface ocean water at 80 F is allowed to expand in a one-half psi evaporator for passage through a turbine; cold water (40 F), pumped upward from a 3,000 ft depth, is used to recondense the steam. Plans for a 2.5-3 MWe prototype plant, as a proof-of-principle project for a 100 MWe plant, include seawater pumps driven off the generator shaft, potable water as a by-product of the condensor, ease of access for O and M, and an integrated, gear-driven deaerator system with reinjection into the warm seawater discharge. An inlet flow of 3,000,000 cu ft/sec, a single stage vertical turbine with 40 ft fiber reinforced composite blades, 200 rpm operation on a 65 ft diameter disk, and an overall efficiency of 3% are features of the 100 MWe plant. A flowfield analysis, a velocity triangle analysis, and a structural dynamics analysis are outlined, along with materials applications and manufacturing process considerations in blade design. The 3MWe OTEC will be one-sixth the size of a 100MWe OTEC.

  6. An open tubular ion chromatograph.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingcheng; Zhang, Min; Kanyanee, Tinakorn; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-01

    We describe an open tubular ion chromatograph (OTIC) that uses anion exchange latex coated 5 ?m radius silica and 9.8 ?m radius poly(methyl methacrylate) tubes and automated time/pressure based hydrodynamic injection for pL-nL scale injections. It is routinely possible to generate 50,000 plates or more (up to 150,000 plates/m, columns between 0.3 and 0.8 m have been used), and as such, fast separations are possible, comparable to or in some cases better than the current practice of IC. With an optimized admittance detector, nonsuppressed detection permits LODs of submicromolar to double digit micromolar for a variety of analytes. However, large volume injections are possible and can significantly improve on this. A variety of eluents, the use of organic modifiers, and variations of eluent pH can be used to tailor a given separation. The approach is discussed in the context of extraterrestrial exploration, especially Mars, where the existence of large amounts of perchlorate in the soil needs to be confirmed. These columns can survive drying and freezing, and small footprint, low power consumption, and simplicity make OTIC a good candidate for such a mission. PMID:25394230

  7. Open Clients for Distributed Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.; Arko, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    We are actively developing a collection of open source example clients that demonstrate use of our "back end" data management infrastructure. The data management system is reported elsewhere at this meeting (Arko and Chayes: A Scaleable Database Infrastructure). In addition to their primary goal of being examples for others to build upon, some of these clients may have limited utility in them selves. More information about the clients and the data infrastructure is available on line at http://data.ldeo.columbia.edu. The available examples to be demonstrated include several web-based clients including those developed for the Community Review System of the Digital Library for Earth System Education, a real-time watch standers log book, an offline interface to use log book entries, a simple client to search on multibeam metadata and others are Internet enabled and generally web-based front ends that support searches against one or more relational databases using industry standard SQL queries. In addition to the web based clients, simple SQL searches from within Excel and similar applications will be demonstrated. By defining, documenting and publishing a clear interface to the fully searchable databases, it becomes relatively easy to construct client interfaces that are optimized for specific applications in comparison to building a monolithic data and user interface system.

  8. Secrecy versus Openness: Historical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, George

    2014-03-01

    ``I think all members of the laboratory are agreed that the work which is being pursued here is of such importance that we should not like to see it or any part of it fall into private or foreign hands,'' J. Robert Oppenheimer announced to his colleagues at Los Alamos on November 15, 1943, putting the first formal secrecy policies into effect-while promising ``to make the procedure as little burdensome as possible, and to reduce its interference with the actual prosecution of the work.'' ``After the war, the question of secrecy was reconsidered... but the practice of classification continued; it was our `security,' whether it worked or failed,'' Oppenheimer's colleague Edward Teller updated us in 1981, halfway between the mimeographed handout of 1943 and the labyrinthine security policies of today. ``We now have millions of classified technical documents,'' Teller continued, and ``the limitations we impose on ourselves by restricting information are far greater than any advantage others could gain.'' Teller titled his critique ``The Road to Nowhere.'' Is there a road back? In some notable cases (digital computing, satellite reconnaissance, GPS) we have taken the road to openness, and Teller's opinion, at least in this domain, appears to have been correct.

  9. Chronic open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Adatia, Feisal A.; Damji, Karim F.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Chronic open-angle glaucoma (COAG) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, including in Canada. It presents a challenge in diagnosis, as disease often progresses without symptoms; an estimated 50% of cases are undetected. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE searches, reference lists of articles, and expert knowledge from one of the authors (K.F.D.), a glaucoma specialist, were used. MAIN MESSAGE A casefinding approach using early referral to optometrists and ophthalmologists for early detection of COAG is helpful for patients with risk factors such as age above 50, a positive family history, black race, and myopia. Moderate evidence for referral also exists for the following risk factors: hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and sleep apnea. Treatment with intraocular pressure–lowering medication can arrest or slow the course of the disease, permitting patients to retain good visual function. Family physicians should be aware that some intraocular pressure–lowering medications, particularly topical beta-blockers, can pose iatrogenic harm to patients and result in or exacerbate such conditions as asthma, cardiovascular disturbances, depression, and sexual dysfunction. CONCLUSION Appropriate referral patterns and an understanding of common as well as serious side effects of glaucoma medications are important in optimizing management of patients at risk of developing, or who have, COAG. PMID:16190176

  10. Information network supports open access

    SciTech Connect

    Cauley, G.; Hirsch, P.; Vojdani, A.; Saxton, T.; Cleveland, F.

    1996-07-01

    On March 29, 1995, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) aimed at promoting wholesale competition through nondiscriminatory open transmission access. Industry working groups were formed to define the content of the transmission services information to be communicated over an electronic network and to define the requirements of the network itself.FERC issued final rules on April 24, 1996. At this writing, the transmission services information network (TSIN) is just completing design, and initial implementation should be in place by November 1, 1996. There will be about 20--35 nodes representing all public transmission systems in the US. The network will use the Internet as a base, allowing access by all authorized users anywhere in the world. The tools used will be based on the standard Internet tools such as World-Wide Web (Web) browsers. This provides a low-cost, high-function, consistent interconnected network to provide information to all transmission customers. The network will have good performance and be secure. It will allow transmission customers to have available information on available transmission capacity, cost and tariffs for transmission capacity, and cost of ancillary services. This article outlines the content of the industry reports and the FERC rulings.

  11. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within Ëś 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  12. Measured opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened diaphragm for the Langley expansion tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from an experimental study of the opening characteristics of an electromagnetically opened, 15.24 cm diameter diaphragm are presented. This diaphragm consists of a polyester film bonded to a preformed wire and is opened by passing a current pulse (capacitor discharge) through the wire. The diaphragm separates the acceleration section of the expansion tunnel from the nozzle so that the nozzle may be at a lower pressure than the acceleration section prior to a test. Opening times and cleanness of the opened area were examined for dependence on diaphragm thickness, on wire diameter, on technique of bonding the wire to the diaphragm, and on voltage and energy level of the energy source. Time histories of the pitot pressure measured at the expansion-tunnel nozzle entrance location are presented for (1) no diaphragm, (2) a flow-opened diaphragm, and (3) an electromagnetically opened diaphragm.

  13. Assess arsenic distribution in groundwater applying GIS in capital of Punjab, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, M. M.; Zhonghua, T.; Sissou, Z.; Mohamadi, B.

    2015-03-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater resources threatens the health of millions of people worldwide, particularly in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. Arsenic causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in portable water. The major sources of arsenic pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of arsenic containing minerals and anthropogenic activities. Lahore is groundwater dependent city, arsenic contamination is a major issue of portable water and has recently been most environmental health management issue especially in the plain region, where population density is very high. GIS was used in this study for visualizing distribution of arsenic groundwater concentration through geostatistics analysis technique, and exposure risk zones for two years (2010 and 2012). Town's data was compared and concentration variation evaluated. ANOVA test was also applied to compare concentration between cities and years. Arsenic concentrations widely range 7.3-67.8 and 5.2-69.3 ?g L-1 in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Over 71% area is represented arsenic concentration range from 20 to 30 ?g L-1 in both analyzed years. However, in 2012 arsenic concentration over 40 ?g L-1 has covered 7.6% area of Data Gunjbuksh and 8.1% of Ravi Town, while over 90% area of Allama Iqbal, Aziz Bhatti and Samanabad Town contain arsenic concentration between 20-30 ?g L-1. ANOVA test depicts concentration probability less than 0.05, while differences were detected among towns. In light of current results, it needs urgent step to ensure groundwater protection and preservation for future.

  14. A proposal of an open PET geometry.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Taiga; Inaniwa, Taku; Minohara, Shinichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Shibuya, Kengo; Lam, Chih Fung; Murayama, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 degrees opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by letting the beams pass through the gap. The proposed open PET geometry will also allow simultaneous PET/CT measurements of the same PET FOV as the CT FOV, in contrast to the conventional PET/CT where each FOV is separated by several tens of centimeters. PMID:18199913

  15. The ethics of open access publishing.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the social sciences and humanities, there has been little if any discussion about the implications of open access for ethics. This is surprising given both the central role of public reason and critique in ethics and the fact that many of the arguments made for and against open access have been couched in moral terms. In what follows I argue that those who work in ethics have a strong interest in supporting moves towards more open publishing approaches which have the potential both to inform and promote richer and more diverse forms of public deliberation and to be enriched by them. The importance of public deliberation in practical and applied ethics suggests that ethicists have a particular interest in the promotion of diverse and experimental forms of publication and debate and in supporting new, more creative and more participatory approaches to publication. PMID:23521857

  16. Open Access: "ŕ consommer avec modération"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Terence J.

    There is increasing pressure on academics and researchers to publish the results of their investigations in open access journals. Indeed, some funding agencies make open access publishing a basic requirement for funding projects, and the EU is considering taking firm steps in this direction. I argue that astronomy is already one of the most open of disciplines, and that access - both to the general public (in terms of a significantly growing outreach effort) and to developing countries (through efforts to provide computing facilities and Internet access, as well as schemes to provide research centres of limited resources with journals) - is becoming more and more open in a genuine and lasting way. I further argue that sudden switches to more formal kinds of open access schemes could cause irreparable harm to astronomical publishing. Several of the most prestigious astronomical research journals (e.g. MN, ApJ, AJ) have for more than a century met the publishing needs of the research community and continue to adapt successfully to changing demands on the part of that community. The after-effects of abrupt changes in publishing practices - implemented through primarily political concerns - are hard to predict and could be severely damaging. I conclude that open access, in its current acceptation, should be studied with great care and with sufficient time before any consideration is given to its implementation. If forced on the publishing and research communities, open access could well result in much more limited access to properly vetted research results.

  17. Benefits of Openness for US Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael M.

    2000-04-01

    The US has been very successful in applying science and engineering to defense and space. The US has also run the most open defense research and development establishment in the world. The openness is connected with the success by making possible open criticism of mistakes and failures, access of foreign-born citizens, and participation of cleared scientists and engineers in open science around the world. This open system is at risk today, when it is more badly needed than ever. The right strategy is first, to draw a clear line around the information that should be kept secret, with some margin so that this information would not be partially given away by its boundary, and to continue with the open system elsewhere. The US, because it invests more, usually profits more from common knowledge. Second, spies are caught through good line leadership and good security work. The constraints now being discussed on unclassified information or on foreign visitors would not have helped catch them. Third, new guidance is needed for exports control. The US must cooperate with countries that are partners in trade and in international initiatives of the first importance, but which may also be political, economic and military rivals. Guidelines to protect what is key to our current military edge while retaining the open system are suggested.

  18. An open framework for hydrological data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, H.; Ridler, M. E.; Velzen, N. V.; Hummel, S.; Sandholt, I.; Falk, A. K.; Heemink, A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. Thus far, many of the efforts on implementation of data assimilation in hydrological modeling have been model specific. This requires access to as well as an in-depth knowledge of the numerical core of the models. A means to deal with the interaction between model and data assimilation algorithm in a more generic way is the use of the Open Model Interface (OpenMI). This open source standard interface allows models to exchange data during runtime, thus transforming a complex numerical model to a plug and play like component. For data assimilation, the OpenDA data assimilation toolbox is an open interface standard that includes a set of tools, assimilation algorithms, and numerical techniques to quickly implement data assimilation in numerical models. This paper presents a new generic data assimilation framework that uses OpenMI to interface models within OpenDA. This enables the many OpenMI hydrological models already available access to a robust and flexible data assimilation library. A synthetic test case is presented that highlights the potential of this new framework. An ensemble based Kalman filter is demonstrated for assimilation of groundwater levels in the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system. The simulated groundwater levels over the entire domain were significantly improved by data assimilation. Furthermore, the river discharges (which were not assimilated) were also corrected.

  19. Open-pit equipment notebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Beds of consolidated material need to be drilled and blasted before successful excavation. In open-pit mining it is common to move fragmented material across to spoil piles by dragline, shovel, or bucketwheel excavator. One method recently introduced uses explosives to throw much of the overburden across the pit, thus reducing the amount of material needing rehandling. The increased cost of explosives must be balanced with the reduced cost of power needed by the prime excavator. The drill hole pattern and the use of high energy explosives require careful design. Making the choice between hydraulic excavators with a backhoe or front shovel, wheel loaders, and rope-operated shovels continues to be an interesting area of debate. While the rope-operated electric shovel is best for large output, smaller shovels are being replaced by hydraulic excavators for numerous reasons. One of the advantages of hydraulic excavators is that they weigh around half that of rope-operated shovels with the same size bucket. Another advantage is their mobility. They can move at a speed roughly twice that of a rope-operated shovel. Hydraulic excavators can successfully attack a solid face that needs blasting before being loaded by a wheel loader or rope-operated shovel. Neither the rope-operated shovel nor the wheel loader has the wrist-action of the hydraulic excavator. The backhoe's ability to dig below the level on which it is situated and to load trucks that are on the pit floor is important. Recently, many equipment manufacturers have introduced microprocessor-controlled systems for higher power and simpler operation. The choice between wheel loaders and hydraulic excavators should be based on site conditions.

  20. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new perspectives for future applications. We are most grateful that you agreed with the special format of the symposium which clearly does not follow conven- tional conferences. Allow me to call your special attention once again to two main differences: The presentations are not review papers praising already achieved break-throughs but introductions to a list of open questions and issues for which our understanding is still unsatisfactory. To give such presentations requires courage and scientific integrity. I would like to thank all speakers now already for their willingness to cope with such a difficult task. We have allocated at least 50 minutes for discussion after each presentation not only for discussing the paper as such but, if possible, to find answers to the open questions. If one or several participants in the audience during the discussion think they can contribute to improving our understanding of heterostructures, they are invited to write their ideas up and, if the referees agree, we are more than happy to publish these ideas in the proceedings. We admit that the program is rather demanding. For that reason, we plan to have a break on Thursday afternoon by first going to Denmark and touring the Hamlet castle of Kronborg. We then sail back to Sweden and will be hosted by the Krapperup castle where we will have a candle-light dinner and thereafter a baroque music concert featuring the Concerto Copenhagen. All participants, observers, and accompanying spouses are invited and we hope you will all enjoy the excur- sion. The local organising committee acknowledges with pleasure the financial and all other support received from the Nobel Foundation and the Nobel Institute of Physics as well as the initial initiative taken by the chairman of the Nobel Com- mittee for Physics, Prof. Nordling, who was the first to suggest this Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semicon- ductors". Special thanks also to the members of the program committee who have been of inestimable value in putting together the program and suggesting speakers and potential participants. Moreover, I should like to thank Mrs. Medborg, Dr. Olajos, Dr. Mats Kleverman and in particular Dr. Ask who took care of all time-consuming negotiations and details. Without their help, the Symposium would not be what it is. The Nobel Foundation, the Nobel Committee for Physics, the Nobel Institute of Physics and the local organisers hope that you will enjoy the Symposium and I promise you, we will all do our best to make your stay as pleasant as possible and this Symposium a success. Once again welcome to Arild and the Symposium!

  1. Perturbative approach to Markovian open quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Andy C. Y.; Petruccione, F.; Koch, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The exact treatment of Markovian open quantum systems, when based on numerical diagonalization of the Liouville super-operator or averaging over quantum trajectories, is severely limited by Hilbert space size. Perturbation theory, standard in the investigation of closed quantum systems, has remained much less developed for open quantum systems where a direct application to the Lindblad master equation is desirable. We present such a perturbative treatment which will be useful for an analytical understanding of open quantum systems and for numerical calculation of system observables which would otherwise be impractical. PMID:24811607

  2. Open Surgical Approaches for Pulmonary Metastasectomy.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert J; Bains, Manjit S

    2016-02-01

    Surgeons differ in the approach to resection of pulmonary metastases from nonpulmonary primary malignancies, with some favoring procedures that minimize trauma to the patient, and others performing open procedures with the goal of maximizing likelihood of resection of all detectable sites of disease. This article reviews how pulmonary metastasectomy emerged as a therapy for metastatic disease. Discussed is how surgical approaches used for this procedure have evolved, the available literature addressing whether open procedures lead to more complete resections, and if so whether resection by open procedures increases the likelihood of cure following resection. The technical aspects of the various thoracotomy techniques are also reviewed. PMID:26611506

  3. A flexible Open Data Assimilation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Ridler, Marc E.; Altaf, Umer; Madsen, Henrik; Heemink, Arnold; Dijkzeul, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Accurate and reliable real-time hydrological forecasts are essential for protection against water-related hazards, operation of infrastructure, and water resources management. Recent advances in radar rainfall estimation and forecasting, numerical weather predictions, satellite and in-situ monitoring, and faster computing facilities are opening up new opportunities in real-time hydrological forecasting. More effective use of the different information sources via data assimilation will provide the basis for producing more accurate and more reliable forecasts. In this regard, development and implementation of robust and computationally efficient data assimilation algorithms that are feasible for real-time applications remains one of the key challenges. The implementation of data assimilation techniques is traditionally in a model specific form. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to have in-depth knowledge of the numerical core computations and it does not allow to freely experiment with data assimilation algorithms and measurement sources without the need of additional programming. We present a more flexible approach to setup a forecasting system. The OpenDA data assimilation framework contains many state of the art data assimilation algorithms to easily set up a forecasting system. The setup of the framework allows users to select and experiment with various algorithms. OpenDA defines an interface between model and data assimilation algorithms. This interface only needs to be implemented once for a particular model. The OpenDA model interface is already implemented for various models. Besides these models it is very easy to couple models that are already implementing the Open Model Interface (OpenMI) to OpenDA using the generic OpenMI-OpenDA coupler. Using a synthetic test case we demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach using OpenMI and OpenDA. We use the MIKE SHE distributed and integrated hydrological modeling system to demonstrate how various ensemble based algorithms can be used to improve the forecasted groundwater level and river discharges. Biases in the measurements are detected and corrected by the generic bias correction module of OpenDA and spurious correlations are handled using both heuristic as automatic localization strategies.

  4. Transient features of quantum open maps.

    PubMed

    Ermann, Leonardo; Carlo, Gabriel G; Pedrosa, Juan M; Saraceno, Marcos

    2012-06-01

    We study families of open chaotic maps that classically share the same asymptotic properties--forward and backward trapped sets, repeller dimensions, and escape rate--but differ in their short time behavior. When these maps are quantized we find that the fine details of the distribution of resonances and the corresponding eigenfunctions are sensitive to the initial shape and size of the openings. We study phase space localization of the resonances with respect to the repeller and find strong delocalization effects when the area of the openings is smaller than ?. PMID:23005193

  5. VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST LOOKING DOWN FROM OPEN HEARTH TAPPING FLOOR AREA, NOTE FOUNDATIONS OF OPEN HEARTH FURNACES. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  7. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  8. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  9. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  10. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  11. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  12. Openness versus secrecy? Historical and historiographical remarks.

    PubMed

    Vermeir, Koen

    2012-06-01

    Traditional historiography of science has constructed secrecy in opposition to openness. In the first part of the paper, I will challenge this opposition. Openness and secrecy are often interlocked, impossible to take apart, and they might even reinforce each other. They should be understood as positive (instead of privative) categories that do not necessarily stand in opposition to each other. In the second part of this paper, I call for a historicization of the concepts of 'openness' and 'secrecy'. Focusing on the early modern period, I briefly introduce three kinds of secrecy that are difficult to analyse with a simple oppositional understanding of openness and secrecy. In particular, I focus on secrecy in relation to esoteric traditions, theatricality and allegory. PMID:23050366

  13. Open Cast Mining: An Environmental Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents a case study in which students investigate the environmental issue of open cast coal mining. Students examine the issue from different perspectives; interpret the available evidence; draw appropriate conclusions; and evaluate such conclusions. (MDH)

  14. Valve, normally open, titanium: Pyronetics Model 1425

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos, E.

    1972-01-01

    An operating test series was applied to two explosive actuated, normally open, titanium valves. There were no failures. Tests included: proof pressure and external leakage test, gross leak test, post actuation leakage test, and burst pressure test.

  15. What Do You Have for Openers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes some "openers" to use in science class to attract attention, create interest or maintain interest. Some examples of materials that can be used are a radiometer, a drinking bird, Geiger-Muller Counter and a human skeleton. (BR)

  16. Young open clusters in the Carina region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Marigo, Paola; Ventura, Paolo; Romaniello, Martino; Patat, Ferdinando

    We present results of a new investigation (Carraro et al. 2002) aimed at clarifying the mutual relationship between the three most prominent young open clusters close to ? Carinć, namely Trumpler 16, Trumpler 14 and Collinder 232.

  17. Tucker Wireline Open Hole Wireline Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Milliken, M.

    2002-05-23

    The Tucker Wireline unit ran a suite of open hole logs right behind the RMOTC logging contractor for comparison purposes. The tools included Dual Laterolog, Phased Induction, BHC Sonic, and Density-Porosity.

  18. Open Boundary Conditions for Dissipative MHD

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, E T

    2011-11-10

    In modeling magnetic confinement, astrophysics, and plasma propulsion, representing the entire physical domain is often difficult or impossible, and artificial, or 'open' boundaries are appropriate. A novel open boundary condition (BC) for dissipative MHD, called Lacuna-based open BC (LOBC), is presented. LOBC, based on the idea of lacuna-based truncation originally presented by V.S. Ryaben'kii and S.V. Tsynkov, provide truncation with low numerical noise and minimal reflections. For hyperbolic systems, characteristic-based BC (CBC) exist for separating the solution into outgoing and incoming parts. In the hyperbolic-parabolic dissipative MHD system, such separation is not possible, and CBC are numerically unstable. LOBC are applied in dissipative MHD test problems including a translating FRC, and coaxial-electrode plasma acceleration. Solution quality is compared to solutions using CBC and zero-normal derivative BC. LOBC are a promising new open BC option for dissipative MHD.

  19. Disconnection of open coronal magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.; Hundhausen, A.J.; Burkepile, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the Solar Maximum Mission coronagraph/polarimeter observations for evidence of magnetic disconnection of previously open magnetic structures and a number of likely examples have been found. Probable coronal disconnections typically appear as pinching off of helmet streamers followed by the release and outward acceleration of a large U or V-shaped structures. The observed sequence of events is consistent with reconnection across the heliospheric current sheet between previously open magnetic field regions, and the creation of a detached magnetic structure which is open to interplanetary space at both ends. Sunward of the reconnection point, coronal disconnection events would return previously open magnetic flux to the Sun as closed field arches. Here we (1) describe one clear disconnection event (1 June 1989); (2) examine the results of a limited survey of disconnection events; and (3) discuss the potential importance of coronal disconnections for maintaining flux in interplanetary space. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  20. OpenMP Experiences and Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Terry; Thigpen, William W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The document discusses message passage interfaces (MPI), open message passage issues and parallelization. A comparison of the two vector platforms, C90 and SVlex is presented. Sections of the document are written in computer code.

  1. Open string in a nonrelativistic background

    SciTech Connect

    Kluson, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the open string description of Wilson loops and quarks in nonrelativistic quantum field theory that are expected to be dual of gravity in Schroedinger space-time.

  2. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  3. Predicting Student Withdrawals in Open Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duby, Paul B.; Giltrow, David R.

    1978-01-01

    This study reports on progress in predicting overall completion rates for various open learning courses, given the demographic, curricular, and administrative conditions prevailing at the City Colleges of Chicago. (Author)

  4. Open Rotor Spin Test - Duration: 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    An open rotor, also known as a high-speed propeller, is tested in a wind tunnel. The propeller moves much more quickly than a standard propeller, and the blades of the propeller are shaped differen...

  5. Open Plan Furniture: An Investigation and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    In attempting to select an open plan furniture system for a client, architects compiled data on available systems, then set up a test area where the systems could be used and evaluated by the personnel. (Author)

  6. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  7. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  8. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  9. 43 CFR 3595.1 - Surface openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... substantially fill in, fence, protect or close all surface openings, subsidence holes, surface excavations or... abandoned in accordance with the approved mine plan. ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SOLID MINERALS (OTHER THAN COAL) EXPLORATION AND...

  10. Open Access and Global Participation in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James A.; Reimer, Jacob

    2009-02-01

    Investigations into the impact of open access journals on subsequent citations confounded open and electronic access and failed to track availability over time. With new data, we separated these effects. We demonstrate that article and journal citations increase more when a journal comes online freely rather than commercially and that free access journals are cited more by scientists in poorer countries. Together, findings suggest that free Internet access widens the circle of those who read and make use of scientists’ investigations.

  11. Flow distances on open flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liangzhu; Lou, Xiaodan; Shi, Peiteng; Wang, Jun; Huang, Xiaohan; Zhang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    An open flow network is a weighted directed graph with a source and a sink, depicting flux distributions on networks in the steady state mode of an open flow system. Energetic food webs, economic input-output networks, and international trade networks are open flow network models of energy flows between species, money or value flows between industrial sectors, and goods flows between countries, respectively. An open flow network is different from a closed flow network because it considers the flows from or to the environment (the source and the sink). For instance, in energetic food webs, species obtain energy not only from other species but also from the environment (sunlight), and species also dissipate energy to the environment. Flow distances between any two nodes i and j are defined as the average number of transition steps of a random walker along the network from i to j. The conventional method for the calculation of the random walk distance on closed flow networks cannot be applied to open flow networks. Therefore, we derive novel explicit expressions for flow distances of open flow networks according to their underlying Markov matrix of the network in this paper. We apply flow distances to two types of empirical open flow networks, including energetic food webs and economic input-output networks. In energetic food webs, we visualize the trophic level of each species and compare flow distances with other distance metrics on the graph. In economic input-output networks, we rank sectors according to their average flow distances and cluster sectors into different industrial groups with strong connections. Other potential applications and mathematical properties are also discussed. To summarize, flow distance is a useful and powerful tool to study open flow systems.

  12. The Invariance of Open Solar Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. J.; Zhou, X.

    2005-12-01

    A major finding of Ulysses has been the relative invariance of the open magnetic flux transported into the heliosphere from the Sun by the solar wind. The measure of open flux, r- squared Br, where r is heliocentric distance and Br is the radial field component, was found to be independent of both heliolatitude and phase of the solar cycle, being essentially the same (to within much less than a factor of two) at the recent sunspot minimum and maximum (cycle #23). Although such an invariance is generally not a feature of models of the solar-heliospheric field, it was predicted by L. Fisk and N. Schwadron who proposed that newly created open flux is the result of merging of already open flux with adjacent magnetic loops so that reconnecting field lines result in another open field and another loop with the total number of each unchanged. Thus, studying the open flux in the solar wind is a test of this hypothesis. The preceding study of open flux by Smith and Balogh ended shortly after solar maximum in 2001 when the polar cap magnetic fields had just reversed and were still relatively weak. Since then, the polar cap fields have strengthened and are now about one-half their value during the previous two sunspot cycles (#21, 22). We now present further evidence regarding this important question in Ulysses data acquired over the past 4 years. The radial components at Ulysses and in-ecliptic spacecraft are compared since the latter measurements are potentially a measure of open flux extending back to previous sunspot cycles.

  13. Automatic Multilevel Parallelization Using OpenMP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Hao-Qiang; Jost, Gabriele; Yan, Jerry; Ayguade, Eduard; Gonzalez, Marc; Martorell, Xavier; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the extension of the CAPO parallelization support tool to support multilevel parallelism based on OpenMP directives. CAPO generates OpenMP directives with extensions supported by the NanosCompiler to allow for directive nesting and definition of thread groups. We report first results for several benchmark codes and one full application that have been parallelized using our system.

  14. Yttrium and barium in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Korotin, S. A.; Yegorova, I. A.; Kovtukh, V. V.; Carraro, G.

    2013-06-01

    Based on the VLT high-resolution spectra for stars of five open clusters: Ruprecht 4, Ruprecht 7, Berkeley 25, Berkeley 73, and Berkeley 75 (G. Carraro et al., 2007) we determined the yttrium and barium abundances using the synthetic-spectrum method. Barium abundance was calculated under a non-LTE approximation. We analyzed the correlation between yttrium and barium abundances and the ages of open clusters and stars of the Galactic thin disk.

  15. Open source drug discovery - a limited tutorial.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Murray N; Ylioja, Paul M; Williamson, Alice E; Woelfle, Michael; Robins, Michael; Badiola, Katrina A; Willis, Paul; Olliaro, Piero; Wells, Timothy N C; Todd, Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    Open science is a new concept for the practice of experimental laboratory-based research, such as drug discovery. The authors have recently gained experience in how to run such projects and here describe some straightforward steps others may wish to take towards more openness in their own research programmes. Existing and inexpensive online tools can solve many challenges, while some psychological barriers to the free sharing of all data and ideas are more substantial. PMID:23985301

  16. Open architecture controllers for advanced manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    The application of intelligent control systems to the real world of machining and manufacturing will benefit form the presence of open architecture control systems on the machines or the processes. The ability to modify the control system as the process or product changes can be essential to the success of the application of neural net or fuzzy logic controllers. The effort at Los Alamos to obtain a commercially available open architecture machine tool controller is described.

  17. Growth Kinematics of Opening-Mode Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.; Alzayer, Y.; Laubach, S.; Fall, A.

    2014-12-01

    Fracture aperture is a primary control on flow in fractured reservoirs of low matrix permeability including unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and most geothermal systems. Guided by principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture aperture is generally assumed to be a linear function of fracture length and elastic material properties. Natural opening-mode fractures with significant preserved aperture are observed in core and outcrop indicative of fracture opening strain accommodated by permanent solution-precipitation creep. Fracture opening may thus be decoupled from length growth if the material effectively weakens after initial elastic fracture growth by either non-elastic deformation processes or changes in elastic properties. To investigate the kinematics of fracture length and aperture growth, we reconstructed the opening history of three opening-mode fractures that are bridged by crack-seal quartz cement in Travis Peak Sandstone of the SFOT-1 well, East Texas. Similar crack-seal cement bridges had been interpreted to form by repeated incremental fracture opening and subsequent precipitation of quartz cement. We imaged crack-seal cement textures for bridges sampled at varying distance from the tips using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence, and determined the number and thickness of crack-seal cement increments as a function of position along the fracture length and height. Observed trends in increment number and thickness are consistent with an initial stage of fast fracture propagation relative to aperture growth, followed by a stage of slow propagation and pronounced aperture growth. Consistent with fluid inclusion observations indicative of fracture opening and propagation occurring over 30-40 m.y., we interpret the second phase of pronounced aperture growth to result from fracture opening strain accommodated by solution-precipitation creep and concurrent slow, possibly subcritical, fracture propagation. Similar deformation mechanisms are envisioned to govern fracture growth over shorter timescales in reactive chemical subsurface environments including CO2 reservoirs, organic-rich shales, and geothermal systems.

  18. Role of coronoidectomy in increasing mouth opening

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Hemant; Tandon, Parul; Kumar, Deepak; Sinha, Vijay Prakash; Gupta, Sumit; Mehra, Hemant; Singh, Jasmeet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of coronoidectomy in advanced (stage III-IV) oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. Materials and Methods: Five patients clinically diagnosed as grade III/IV OSMF (group 1) and seven patients clinically and radiographically confirmed as TMJ ankylosis (group 2) underwent surgery entailing coronoidectomy in addition to conventional surgical procedures required in both the conditions followed by vigorous mouth opening exercises. The results were evaluated using the interincisal distance at maximum mouth opening as the objective outcome over a follow-up period of 2 months. Results: OSMF patients (group I) showed a mean preoperative interincisal opening of 14.40 mm which increased to 24.60 mm after conventional procedures and showed further increment to 35 and 44.80 mm after unilateral and bilateral coronoidectomy, respectively; which was statistically significant (P = 0.043). Follow-up of 2 months showed a gradual increase in mean mouth opening compared to baseline which was also found to be statistically significant (P = 0.043). In TMJ ankylosis patients (group II), preoperative mean mouth opening of 6.71 mm increased to 24.29 mm after conventional procedures, and further to 37.29 mm after unilateral coronoidectomy which was statistically significant (P = 0.018). On subsequent follow-up of 2 months, a gradual increase in mean mouth opening compared to baseline was observed which was statistically significant (P = 0.018). Conclusion: Coronoidectomy is an effective adjunct in increasing intraoperative and stabilizing postoperative mouth opening. PMID:25298713

  19. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1020 Purchase of open accounts. (a) General. The purchase of open accounts is a... national bank may purchase open accounts in connection with export transactions; the accounts should...

  20. 48 CFR 14.402-3 - Postponement of openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Postponement of openings. 14.402-3 Section 14.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Opening of Bids and Award of Contract 14.402-3 Postponement of openings. (a) A bid opening may...

  1. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  2. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  3. 15. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. OPEN DOORWAY AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR APARTMENT LIVING ROOM INTERIOR. OPEN DOORWAY AT PHOTO CENTER OPENS TO KITCHEN. OPEN DOORWAY AT PHOTO LEFT OPENS TO BATHROOM. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  4. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  5. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  6. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  7. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  8. 30 CFR 56.7805 - Smoking and open flames.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking and open flames. 56.7805 Section 56... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7805 Smoking and open flames. Persons shall not smoke and open... smoking and open flames shall be posted in these areas....

  9. 11. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING OPEN DOOR FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER ONE SHOWING OPEN DOOR FROM LIVING ROOM AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT, OPEN DOOR TO WALK-IN CLOSET AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, OPEN DOOR TO BATHROOM AT PHOTO CENTER, AND OPEN DOOR TO BEDROOM NUMBER TWO AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  10. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  11. 46 CFR 45.149 - Machinery space openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space openings. 45.149 Section 45.149 Shipping... Assignment § 45.149 Machinery space openings. (a) Machinery space openings in position 1 or 2 must be framed... funnel or machinery space ventilator that must be kept open for the essential operations of the ship...

  12. 46 CFR 171.112 - Watertight door openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight door openings. 171.112 Section 171.112 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Penetrations and Openings in Watertight Bulkheads § 171.112 Watertight door openings. (a) The opening for...

  13. 50 CFR 660.311 - Open access fishery-definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open access fishery-definitions. 660.311... Groundfish-Open Access Fisheries § 660.311 Open access fishery—definitions. General definitions for the... specific to the open access fishery covered in this subpart and are in addition to those specified at §...

  14. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…

  15. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  16. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  17. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  18. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  19. 24 CFR 203.270 - Open-end insurance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Open-end insurance charges. 203.270... SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Open-End Insurance Charges-All Mortgages § 203.270 Open-end insurance charges. (a) Required charge. In the case of an insured open-end...

  20. Publishing in Open Access Education Journals: The Authors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coonin, Bryna; Younce, Leigh M.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publishing is now an accepted method of scholarly communication. However, the greatest traction for open access publishing thus far has been in the sciences. Penetration of open access publishing has been much slower among the social sciences. This study surveys 309 authors from recent issues of open access journals in education to…