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Sample records for allergic contact sensitizing

  1. Allergic contact sensitizing chemicals as environmental carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, R E

    1997-01-01

    Chemicals that were bioassayed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and that also produce allergic dermatitis (ACD) in humans were evaluated for their tumorigenic characteristics. The impetus for the study was that most contact sensitizers, i.e., those that produce ACD, and genotoxic carcinogens are chemically similar in that they are electrophilic, thereby producing adducts on macromolecules including protein and DNA. This similarity in chemical behavior suggests that many contact sensitizers might be environmental carcinogens. All of the published NTP bioassays by early 1996 that had both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity studies were included in this analysis. The NTP chemicals had been chosen for bioassay without regard to their ability to produce ACD. Of the 209 chemicals that were bioassayed, there were 36 (17%) that were known to be human contact sensitizers; about half of these were positive on tumor bioassays. The contact sensitizers differed from the NTP sample as a whole by having a proportionately larger number of nongenotoxic chemicals by the Ames Salmonella assay, presumably because more of them were selected on the basis of widespread usage rather than structural resemblance to known carcinogens. Compared to the nongenotoxic chemicals, the genotoxics were stronger carcinogens in that they had a higher incidence of positive tumor bioassays, with twice the number of organs in which tumors were induced. The nongenotoxic chemicals had a preference for tumor induction in parenchymal tissues in contrast to epithelial tissues. The contact sensitizers showed essentially the same characteristics as the whole NTP sample when stratified according to genotoxicity. Judging by the chemicals that were chosen primarily for their widespread use rather than for their structural resemblance to carcinogens, the addition of a test for contact sensitization to the Ames test as a screening tool would increase the tumorigenic detection efficiency by about 40% because of

  2. Concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Vega, Francisco; Ramos, Tania; Las Heras, Paloma; Blanco, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant allergic reactions to multiple drugs are uncommon. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who presented with concomitant sensitization to inhaled budesonide and oral nystatin presenting as allergic contact stomatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis. It is notable that one of the reactions was caused by oral nystatin, which generally is not considered to be allergenic due to its poor intestinal absorption. Diagnoses were confirmed on patch testing with histologic examination along with oral challenge testing. We also used challenge testing to rule out cross-reactivity among nystatin and other macrolide drugs, both antifungals and antibiotics. PMID:26919353

  3. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  4. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  5. Incidence of allergic contact sensitization in central Chinese subjects with chronic urticaria*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Nan; Li, Wenjing; Dong, Xiang; Zhu, Rongfei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic urticaria (CU) can be provoked by a wide variety of causes. Some studies suggest contact sensitization may play a role in the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the incidence and distribution characteristics of allergic contact sensitization in central Chinese subjects with CU, and assess contact allergen avoidance measures in managing CU. METHODS Patch tests were performed, following the recommended standard procedure, with 20 selected allergens, in line with the European baseline series. All subjects with positive results were prescribed appropriate avoidance measures for the sensitizing substances, while subjects with negative results served as the control group. CU severity was assessed daily from week1 to week4 and for each subject, applying the Urticaria Activity Score. RESULTS 42.9% (233/543) of subjects with CU showed positive reactions to one or more contact allergen(s). Potassium dichromate, benzene mix and carba mix were more common in male patients, while nickel sulfate was more frequent in females. The positive rates for different allergens varied with age and occupation. The median (interquartile range) severity scores at week 1 were 20 (14-21) and 15 (14-27) for the allergen avoidance group and control group, respectively (P>0.05); and 12 (7-15) and 14 (12-17) at week 4 (P<0.001). CONCLUSION The incidence of allergic contact sensitization in CU patients was high, and appropriate contact allergen avoidance measures benefitted CU management. Contact allergens may play a role in the pathogenic mechanism of CU and patch tests are an option for CU patients. PMID:27192515

  6. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  7. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from oxygen cannulas.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A J

    1980-10-01

    A patient experienced allergic contact dermatitis on two occasions two months apart as a result of wearing the same brand of polyvinyl chloride oxygen cannula. In one instance the cannula was removed and not replaced, as continuing oxygen was unnecessary; on the other occasion the original cannula was replaced by a cannula of another brand. In both cases the dermatitis disappeared after removal of the original cannula. The reaction was probably to a resin remaining in the polyvinyl chloride after the curing process in the manufacture of the plastic from which the cannula was made. Allergic reactions to plastics have been documented in other medical products but have not previously been reported in respiratory therapy plastic appliances. Because of variability in residual resins in different brands and batches of plastics, and because of varying individual sensitivity, therapists and others should be alert to the possibility of allergic contact dermatitis from respiratory therapy devices. PMID:10315103

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  11. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Björkner, B; Lepoittevin, J P

    1995-03-01

    Glues based on cyanoacrylates are widely used as contact adhesives for metal, glass, rubber, plastics and textiles, as well for biological materials, including binding tissues and sealing wounds in surgery. In this paper, an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue, in which the major monomer was shown to be the sensitizer, is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone with the Finn Chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using Van der Bend chambers. With petrolatum as vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between Finn Chamber technique and Van der Bend chamber technique. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed. PMID:7774187

  12. Contact allergic dermatitis "current topic in tropical dermatology".

    PubMed

    Soyinka, F

    1978-11-01

    Out of a total of 2,666 new dermatology patients, 128 (4.8%) were clinically diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Of these, 107 (4%) reacted positively to different antigens in the patch-test. The commonest contact sensitizers among females were nickel and dyes. Among male patients, the commonest sensitizers were mecaptobenzol-thiazole, chrome and nickel. The incidence of occupational contact dermatitis among bricklayers, construction workers and builders were found to be low and the sensitization rate against chromate was 0.6%. There was no sensitization against cobalt and nickel in the group, however, the length of occupational contact with cement among these group was short. Allergic contact dermatitis is not as uncommon among the Nigeria populace as is generally believed. It seems to be on the increase especially with increase rate of industrialization. PMID:753055

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from a wooden necklace.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1997-09-01

    A 36-year-old female kitchenworker twice developed eczematous lesions corresponding exactly to the area around her neck where she had worn a wooden necklace. Contact dermatitis lasted longer than 1 week. The necklace consisted of 42 brown wooden beads and 63 other wooden parts, 0.5 to 3 cm diameter. Most parts could be identified as Cocobolo wood, Brazilian and East Indian rosewood, and teak. Patch tests with the pure constituents gave +3-reactions to three dalbergions and obtusaquinone, which are known to be the sensitizers of Cocobolo and the above-mentioned rosewoods. Because of these test results, the identification of the species by eye examination could be corroborated. Further detailed questioning revealed that the patient had played a recorder, probably made from Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), when a child, to which she unknowingly became allergic. PMID:9249295

  15. Fragrance mix reactions and lime allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Swerdlin, Amy; Rainey, David; Storrs, Frances J

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis due to citrus fruits is rare, but has been reported in cooks and bartenders. We report an interesting case of a bartender with hand dermatitis who had an allergic contact sensitivity to lime peel, fragrance mix I, and fragrance mix II. Most reported cases of citrus peel allergy are due to d-limonene, which makes up the majority of the peel oil. However, our patient had an allergic reaction to geraniol, which is a minor component of the peel oil and is present in fragrance mix I. It is important to consider a contact sensitivity to citrus in patients who have positive reactions to fragrance mix I and II and who are occupationally exposed to citrus fruits. An initial positive reaction to fragrance mixes should prompt further testing to citrus in these individuals. PMID:20646673

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis due to a herbicide (barban).

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Lane, P R

    1985-01-01

    Canadian farmers are using increasing amounts of herbicides. Often they do not use adequate skin protection. Two cases of severe allergic contact dermatitis due to the herbicide barban are described. Patch testing with various substances, including barban, confirmed the diagnosis. Sensitization studies in guinea pigs and in one of the authors showed that barban is a potent sensitizer. It is recommended that if skin contact with barban occurs the skin be washed immediately with soap and water. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3971254

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  18. Allergic sensitization: screening methods.

    PubMed

    Ladics, Gregory S; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Madsen, Charlotte B; Penninks, André; Pomés, Anna; Roggen, Erwin L; Smit, Joost; Wal, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute's Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  19. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing potential of a novel protein. However, they would be extremely useful in the discovery and research phases of understanding the mechanisms of food allergy development, and may prove fruitful to provide information regarding potential allergenicity risk assessment of future products on a case by case basis. These data and findings were presented at a 2012 international symposium in Prague organized by the Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute’s Health and Environmental Sciences Institute. PMID:24739743

  20. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. PMID:27185422

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Walgrave, Susan E; Warshaw, Erin M; Glesne, Lynn A

    2005-12-01

    Propolis is commonly used in cosmetic and medicinal preparations because of its antiseptic, antiinflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Its therapeutic qualities have been well documented. However, 1.2 to 6.6% of patients who are patch-tested for dermatitis are sensitive to propolis. The main allergens are 3-methyl-2-butenyl caffeate and phenylethyl caffeate. Benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate are less frequent sensitizers. Propolis is found in a number of "natural" products, including lip balms, cosmetics, lotions and ointments, shampoos, conditioners, and toothpastes. Dermatologists should consider patch testing with propolis in users of such remedies. PMID:16536336

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  5. Contact sensitization in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Luisa; Ayala, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Contact dermatitis from irritant and allergic sources is the reason for 6% to 10% of all dermatologic visits with considerable morbidity and economic impact. Allergic contact dermatitis is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction and develops in predisposed individuals as a consequence of environmental exposure to allergens. Aging is correlated with the rate and type of contact sensitization because of "immunosenescence." The number of old people is growing around the world. This contribution reviews the main findings from published epidemiologic studies on contact allergy in elderly populations. In all examined studies, patch testing was performed in patients with cutaneous manifestations possibly related to contact dermatitis; the prevalence of contact dermatitis in the elderly was from 33% to 64%. Establishing the most frequent allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly is a hard task. The commonest allergens reported were nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, diamino diphenylmethane, lanolin alcohols, paraben mix, Euxyl K400, quinoline mix, and balsam of Peru. We emphasize that allergens surveillance is needed to realize an "elderly series" for having a useful adjunct to contact allergy that may help the treatment of each patient. PMID:21146728

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis in dermatologic surgery: review of common allergens.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lara; Mowad, Christen

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of dermatologic surgeries performed each year comes an increased potential for patient exposure and sensitization to allergens. Patients are exposed to many well-documented allergens in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative settings during surgery. Postoperative skin complications of allergic contact dermatitis increase health care costs and cause patient suffering. Early recognition, diagnosis, and treatment by dermatologic surgeons are essential to decrease morbidity related to medically necessary and elective cutaneous surgeries. While a specific standard screening panel for cutaneous surgery-related allergens is not well established, we propose several categories of allergens be strongly considered and tested if a patient is suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis in an attempt to reveal pertinent allergens and prevent future exposures. PMID:24030369

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  8. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  9. Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tuchinda, P; Gaspari, A A

    2010-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that has significant socio-economic impact. ACD is mediated by a T-cell mediated inflammatory reaction. Langerhans cells (LCs) are an epidermal DCs subset specialized in antigen presentation. After hapten exposure, LCs play a major role as in induction adaptive immune response against allergens. LCs recognize, take up and process haptens and migrate to the local draining lymph nodes. However, LCs specific functions and the LCs migration to local draining lymph nodes are not yet clearly defined. Recent advance in the knowledge of LCs function has increased in the past decades including the evidence for a tolerogenic function of LCs. The present review will focus on the role for LCs response to contact allergens. PMID:21139551

  10. Allergic contact sensitivity to quinophthalone.

    PubMed

    Komamura, H; Kozuka, T; Ishii, M; Yoshikawa, K; Iyoda, M

    1989-03-01

    A 73-year-old patient, diagnosed as having seborrheic dermatitis, was patch tested with his hair preparations. The hair stick gave a positive reaction. Among its ingredients, D & C Yellow No. 11, from 0.0001% to 0.1%, and perfume showed positive reactions. D & C Yellow No. 11 was found to consist only of quinophthalone by chemical analyses. The concentration of quinophthalone in the hair stick was determined as 9.41 ppm w/w by high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:2524349

  11. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by etofenamate].

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, A; Zick, C; Hausen, B M

    1988-06-15

    We report on 3 cases of contact dermatitis following topical application of etofenamat. Each patient developed positive reactions in patch tests with etofenamat in concentrations of both 10% and 1%. After testing, one patient showed secondary inflammatory reactions at the original site of application. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization seems to be relatively rare. PMID:2970161

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David; Chow, Elizabeth T

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to hair dye is the most frequent route of sensitisation to para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a common contact allergen. International studies have examined the profile of PPD, but Australian-sourced information is lacking. Patients are often dissatisfied with advice to stop dyeing their hair. This study examines patients' characteristics, patch test results and outcomes of PPD allergy from a single Australian centre, through a retrospective analysis of patch test data from 2006 to 2013 at the Liverpool Hospital Dermatology Department. It reviews the science of hair dye allergy, examines alternative hair dyes and investigates strategies for hair dyeing. Of 584 patients, 11 were allergic to PPD. Our PPD allergy prevalence rate of 2% is at the lower end of international reported rates. About half these patients also react to para-toluenediamine (PTD). Affected patients experience a significant lifestyle disturbance. In all, 78% tried alternative hair dyes after the patch test diagnosis and more than half continued to dye their hair. Alternative non-PPD hair dyes are available but the marketplace can be confusing. Although some patients are able to tolerate alternative hair dyes, caution is needed as the risk of developing an allergy to other hair dye ingredients, especially PTD, is high. PMID:25302475

  14. [Housing conditions and allergic sensitization in children].

    PubMed

    Heinrich, J; Hölscher, B; Wjst, M

    1998-09-01

    Genetic predisposition and indoor exposure to allergens-especially during the very early childhood years are major factors for the development of allergic diseases later in life. The present study analyzed the association between allergic sensitization in children aged 5 to 14 years and residing since birth in homes of different building types. A cross-sectional study of 811 children aged 5 to 14 years who resided in the same home since birth investigated indoor factors using a questionnaire and allergic sensitization assessed by skin prick test. The prevalence of allergic sensitization was compared between children who lived since birth in five different building types. After adjustment for age, gender, parental education and study area the odds of allergic sensitization were higher among children who lived in prefabricated concrete slab buildings built after 1970 (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) and among children who lived in new brick buildings (OR 1.75, 95% CI: 0.88-3.47) than among children who lived in old brick buildings. Moreover, the odds of pollen sensitization was higher among children who lived in the new building types (prefabricated slab buildings: OR 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04-2.72; new brick buildings: OR 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64-3.42) while living in timber-framed houses was associated with a higher odds of sensitization against mites (OR 1.63, 95% CI: 0.77-3.44). The step by step inclusion of single indoor factors like type of heating, numbers of building storeys, number of persons per room, environmental tobacco smoke, use of gas for cooking purposes, dampness of the home or visible moulds in the logistic regression model only marginally changed the odds ratios. Modern living conditions are associated with a higher odds of allergic sensitization. PMID:9789357

  15. Allergic sensitization and the environment: latest update.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young; Perzanowski, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases is still increasing both in developed and developing countries. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant allergens is common and, although not sufficient, a necessary step in the development of allergic diseases. Despite a small number of proteins from certain plants and animals being common allergens in humans, we still do not fully understand who will develop sensitization and to which allergens. Environmental exposure to these allergens is essential for the development of sensitization, but what has emerged clearly in the literature in the recent years is that the adjuvants to which an individual is exposed at the same time as the allergen are probably an equally important determinant of the immune response to the allergen. These adjuvants act on all steps in the development of sensitization from modifying epithelial barriers, to facilitating antigen presentation, to driving T-cell responses, to altering mast cell and basophil hyperreactivity. The adjuvants come from biogenic sources, including microbes and the plants and animals that produce the allergens, and from man-made sources (anthropogenic), including unintended by-products of combustion and chemicals now ubiquitous in modern life. As we better understand how individuals are exposed to these adjuvants and how the exposure influences the likelihood of an allergic response, we may be able to design individual and community-level interventions that will reverse the increase in allergic disease prevalence, but we are not there yet. PMID:25149167

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis mimicking angioedema due to paraphenylendiamine hypersensitivity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tukenmez Demirci, Gulsen; Kivanc Altunay, Ilknur; Atis, Guldehan; Kucukunal, Asli

    2012-09-01

    Active sensitization to paraphenylendiamine (PPD) and related compounds from temporary black henna tattoos has become an epidemic in the recent years. Hair dyes also include PPD like black henna tatoos which cause allergic contact dermatitis. Skin lesions of allergic contact dermatitis from PPD are mostly seen as an exudative erythema, an erythema multiforme-like eruption or a bullous contact dermatitis. We, herein, report a 27 year-old woman with an angioedema-like reaction occurring after the first exposure to hair dye who was unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from black henna tattoo. PMID:22181557

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  19. Contact sensitization in children.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Ferdani, G; Simonetti, V; Donini, M; Seidenari, S

    1998-01-01

    Our study concerns contact sensitization in children, the frequency of which is still debated in the literature, even though specific reports are increasing. During a 7 year period (1988-1994) 670 patients, 6 months to 12 years of age, were patch tested with the European standard series, integrated with 24 haptens, at the same concentrations as for adults. We observed positive results in 42% of our patients. Thimerosal, nickel sulfate, Kathon CG, fragrance mix, neomycin, wool alcohols, and ammoniated mercury induced most of the positive responses. The highest sensitization rate was found in children from 0 to 3 years of age. Comments on main positive haptens are reported. Seventy-seven percent of our sensitized patients were atopics, suggesting that atopy represents a predisposing factor for contact hypersensitivity. Patch testing represents a useful diagnostic procedure for the definition of childhood eczematous dermatitis and for the identification of agents inducing contact sensitization which is frequently associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9496796

  20. Exacerbation of allergic contact dermatitis during immunosuppression with cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Prignano, F; Bonciolini, V; Bonciani, D; Lotti, T

    2010-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the commonest occupational diseases in industrialized countries, where it comprises 20-70% of all occupational diseases. Recent studies found out the top ten allergens, but there are some differences in their frequency in relation to gender and age of patients: Myroxylon pereirae and Carba mix resulted the most prevalent allergens in men, while in women the most common sensitizers were nickel sulfate, PPD, fragrance mix and cobalt chloride. ACD is an inflammatory skin disease caused by repeated skin exposure to contact allergens, in which the lesions are due to T CD8+ cells in a type IV, delayed or cell-mediated, immune reaction. The typical skin lesions of ACD in general outburst in contact areas with the specific allergens and they are erythematosus-squamous lesions with other little differences in relation to localization, for example edema, vesicular-exuding lesions or onychodystrophy. Different treatment options exist and are applied according to the severity of the lesions. Topical treatments consist of bland emollients, corticosteroids ointments, topical immunomodulators such as tacrolimus and pimecrolimus ointments, coal tar and derivatives and irradiation with ultraviolet lights or X-rays; while azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine A, oral retinoids or oral corticosteroids represent systemic options of therapy. Nevertheless, the control of chronic ACD is often difficult, overall in patients with chronic ACD. PMID:20823796

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause. PMID:24602035

  2. Allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick misdiagnosed as herpes labialis: Subsequent worsening due to Zovirax contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Esen; Topkarci, Zeynep; Ozarmağan, Güzin

    2007-08-01

    A 29-year-old Turkish woman with allergic contact cheilitis from a lipstick was misdiagnosed as herpes labialis and subsequently worsened with the application of Zovirax cream. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, propylene glycol, the patient's favourite lipstick and propyl gallate. No reaction was seen with Zovirax ophthalmic ointment and Zovirax tablet. The propylene glycol component of the Zovirax cream and the propyl gallate component of the lipstick were regarded as the responsible contact sensitizers. The differential diagnosis was challenging due to concomitant contact sensitization with these agents. PMID:17680974

  3. Do lipids influence the allergic sensitization process?

    PubMed Central

    Bublin, Merima; Eiwegger, Thomas; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Allergic sensitization is a multifactorial process that is not only influenced by the allergen and its biological function per se but also by other small molecular compounds, such as lipids, that are directly bound as ligands by the allergen or are present in the allergen source. Several members of major allergen families bind lipid ligands through hydrophobic cavities or electrostatic or hydrophobic interactions. These allergens include certain seed storage proteins, Bet v 1–like and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from pollens and fruits, certain inhalant allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches, and lipocalins. Lipids from the pollen coat and furry animals and the so-called pollen-associated lipid mediators are codelivered with the allergens and can modulate the immune responses of predisposed subjects by interacting with the innate immune system and invariant natural killer T cells. In addition, lipids originating from bacterial members of the pollen microbiome contribute to the outcome of the sensitization process. Dietary lipids act as adjuvants and might skew the immune response toward a TH2-dominated phenotype. In addition, the association with lipids protects food allergens from gastrointestinal degradation and facilitates their uptake by intestinal cells. These findings will have a major influence on how allergic sensitization will be viewed and studied in the future. PMID:24880633

  4. Allergic contact urticaria from natural rubber latex in healthcare and non-healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Valks, Ruud; Conde-Salazar, Luis; Cuevas, Manuela

    2004-04-01

    To compare the prevalence of natural rubber latex (NRL) sensitization and allergic contact urticaria from NRL in healthcare and non-healthcare workers, we studied all 1171 patients who attended our clinic during 2001 and 2002. Prick testing for NRL and patch testing with European standard series were performed in all patients and an additional rubber series in those who had contact with rubber. Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels against NRL and tropical fruits were measured when prick testing was positive. Sensitization to NRL (positive prick test and specific IgE levels) was much more common in healthcare workers than that in non-healthcare workers, 16.7 versus 2.3%. Among the non-healthcare workers, sensitization to NRL was more common in food handlers (17.1%), construction workers (6.6%), painters (6.2%), hairdressers (5.1%) and cleaners (3.8%). The difference in the prevalence of specific IgE to tropical fruits was not significant. Allergic contact urticaria from NRL was also much more frequent in healthcare workers, 71.4 versus 28.6%. In conclusion, sensitization to NRL and allergic contact urticaria from NRL are more common in healthcare workers, but this is a growing problem in non-healthcare workers and should be investigated in all workers with a history of NRL intolerance or who have contact with NRL. PMID:15186377

  5. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis from 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate in an adhesive on an electrosurgical earthing plate.

    PubMed

    Kanerva, L; Alanko, K

    1998-01-01

    A highly (meth)acrylate-allergic patient underwent surgery because of nodular struma. Three days after her operation she developed an itching dermatitis on her left thigh. She came to our attention 18 days after the operation, because of an oozing, highly pruritic dermatitis, 8 x 19 cm in width on her left thigh, at the site where an electrosurgical earthing plate had been used during the surgery. It was revealed that the pressure-sensitive adhesive of the pad contained 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) to which the patient earlier had had an allergic patch test reaction. The patient was negative on patch testing to other (meth)acrylates present in the pad. Patients should be questioned about possible methacrylate sensitivity before methacrylate-containing electrosurgical earthing plates are used during surgery. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylic adhesives is briefly reviewed. PMID:9854170

  7. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers].

    PubMed

    Latorre, N; Silvestre, J F; Monteagudo, A F

    2011-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is widely used as a preservative in toiletries and cosmetics and in products for household and industrial use. Both formaldehyde itself and substances that can release it are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. This condition often becomes chronic, given that these allergens are found nearly everywhere and it is difficult for patients to avoid them completely. This article reviews the sources of exposure to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers and the clinical manifestations of allergen exposure. We also review current debates and recent developments and propose guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with formaldehyde contact dermatitis. PMID:21338980

  8. Neutrophil recruitment by allergens contribute to allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoki, Koa; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To discuss the presence and role of neutrophils in asthma and allergic diseases, and outline importance of pollen and cat dander-induced innate neutrophil recruitment in induction of allergic sensitization and allergic inflammation. Recent findings Uncontrolled asthma is associated with elevated numbers of neutrophils, and levels of neutrophil-attracting chemokine IL-8 and IL-17 in BAL fluids. These parameters negatively correlate with lung function. Pollen allergens and cat dander recruit neutrophils to the airways in a TLR4, MD2 and CXCR2-dependent manner. Repeated recruitment of activated neutrophils by these allergens facilitates allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophil recruitment with CXCR2 inhibitor, disruption of TLR4, or siRNA against MD2 also inhibits allergic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms by which neutrophils shift the inflammatory response of the airways to inhaled allergens to an allergic phenotype is an area of active research. Summary Recent studies have revealed that neutrophil recruitment is important in development of allergic sensitization and inflammation. Inhibition of neutrophils recruitment may be strategy to control allergic inflammation. PMID:26694038

  9. [Allergic contact eczema to etofenamate and dwarf pine oil].

    PubMed

    Knöll, R; Ulrich, R; Spallek, W

    1990-06-01

    A typical case of contact dermatitis following topical applications of etofenamat is reported and a short review of literature is given. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization is relatively rare. PMID:2143316

  10. SKIN SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (BASIC COURSE): THE GLOBAL REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT - CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE; 1 OF 4 SPEAKERS FOR AN SOT BASIC COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  11. Severe Onychodystrophy due to Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Acrylic Nails

    PubMed Central

    Mattos Simoes Mendonca, Marcela; LaSenna, Charlotte; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Acrylic nails, including sculptured nails and the new ultraviolet-curable gel polish lacquers, have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We report 2 cases of ACD to acrylic nails with severe onychodystrophy and psoriasiform changes including onycholysis and subungual hyperkeratosis. In both cases, the patients did not realize the association between the use of acrylate-based manicures and nail changes. One patient had been previously misdiagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for nail psoriasis. The informed clinician should elicit a history of acrylic manicure in patients with these nail changes, especially in cases of suspected nail psoriasis refractory to treatment. Patch testing is a useful tool in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27170940

  12. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis to fiberglass in a factory worker of wind turbine blades.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana; Morais, Paulo; Cunha, Ana Paula; Azevedo, Filomena

    2011-09-01

    Fiberglass is extensively used due to its properties of thermal, acoustic and electrical insulation, and also to reinforce other materials such as plastics. Irritant contact dermatitis to fiberglass is a well established occupational dermatose and is due to penetration of small fragments in the cornified layer of the skin. On the other hand, allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is rare and is more often triggered by sensitivity to the additives and resins used in the manufacture of fiberglass products. We report a case of ACD to fiberglass in a factory worker of fiberglass reinforced products. PMID:21190399

  13. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dusts.

    PubMed

    Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Alanko, K; Kanerva, L

    2001-04-01

    Exposure to wood dusts may cause various skin and mucosal symptoms. Allergic dermatoses, caused by wood dusts, diagnosed at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health during 1976-1999 are reported here. 16 had allergic contact dermatitis and, 2 had contact urticaria. 9 men (3 cabinet makers, 3 joiners, 1 carpenter, 1 knifemaker and 1 machinist) were mainly exposed to tropical hardwoods. 1 man had dermatitis caused by western red cedar. 5 patients, 3 men and 2 women, were exposed to Finnish pine or spruce dusts, and 1 man to aspen. 7 also had rhinitis, 4 asthma or dyspnoea and 3 conjunctivitis. On patch testing, 10 men reacted to 9 different wood dusts, including teak (5), palisander (3), jacaranda (2), mahogany (2), walnut (2) and obeche (1). Reactions to wood allergens, including lapachol (2), deoxylapachol (1), (R)-3,4-dimethoxydahlbergione (2), 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (1), mansonone A (2) and salicyl alcohol (1), were noted in 4 cases. All but 1 of 5 patients exposed to pine or spruce dusts reacted to the sawdusts, all 5 to colophonium, 3 to abietic acid, 2 to tall oil resin, 3 to wood tar mix and 4 to other wood gum resins. Of the 2 CU patients, 1 was prick and RAST positive to obeche, 1 reacted with urticarial dermatitis to punah wood dust on chamber exposure. Occupational allergic dermatoses are mainly caused by the dusts of hardwoods, mostly due to Type IV allergy, but may also be caused by softwood dusts. Patch tests can be done with wood dusts, but should be confirmed by patch testing with wood allergens if possible. PMID:11260236

  14. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  15. Facilitation of Allergic Sensitization and Allergic Airway Inflammation by Pollen-Induced Innate Neutrophil Recruitment.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Brasier, Allan R; Kurosky, Alexander; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naive mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation need to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE) challenge in naive mice induces C-X-C motif ligand (CXCL) chemokine synthesis, which stimulates chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2)-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment induced by a single RWPE challenge and inhibits induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation after repeated exposures to RWPE. Forced induction of CXCL chemokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in mice lacking TLR4 also reconstitutes the ability of multiple challenges of RWPE to induce allergic airway inflammation. Blocking RWPE-induced neutrophil recruitment in wild-type mice by administration of a CXCR2 inhibitor inhibits the ability of repeated exposures to RWPE to stimulate allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Administration of neutrophils derived from naive donor mice into the airways of Tlr4 knockout recipient mice after each repeated RWPE challenge reconstitutes allergic sensitization and inflammation in these mice. Together these observations indicate that pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils is TLR4 and CXCR2 dependent and that recruitment of neutrophils is a critical rate-limiting event that stimulates induction of allergic sensitization and airway inflammation. Inhibiting pollen-induced recruitment of neutrophils, such as by administration of CXCR2 antagonists, may be a novel strategy to prevent initiation of pollen-induced allergic airway inflammation. PMID:26086549

  16. Allergic sensitization to ornamental plants in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ömür; Erkekol, Ferda Öner; Misirloigil, Zeynep; Demirel, Yavuz Selim; Mungan, Dilşad

    2014-01-01

    Ornamental plants (OPs) can lead to immediate-type sensitization and even asthma and rhinitis symptoms in some cases. This study aimed to evaluate sensitization to OPs in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and to determine the factors affecting the rate of sensitization to OPs. A total of 150 patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographics and disease characteristics were recorded. Skin-prick tests were performed with a standardized inhalant allergen panel. Skin tests by "prick-to-prick" method with the leaves of 15 Ops, which are known to lead to allergenic sensitization, were performed. Skin tests with OPs were positive in 80 patients (47.1%). There was no significant difference between OP sensitized and nonsensitized patients in terms of gender, age, number of exposed OPs, and duration of exposure. Skin test positivity rate for OPs was significantly high in atopic subjects, patients with allergic rhinitis, food sensitivity, and indoor OP exposure, but not in patients with pollen and latex allergy. Most sensitizing OPs were Yucca elephantipes (52.5%), Dieffenbachia picta (50.8%), and Euphorbia pulcherrima (47.5%). There was significant correlation between having Saintpaulia ionantha, Croton, Pelargonium, Y. elephantipes, and positive skin test to these plants. Sensitivity to OPs was significantly higher in atopic subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and indoor OP exposure. Furthermore, atopy and food sensitivity were found as risk factors for developing sensitization to indoor plants. Additional trials on the relationship between sensitization to OPs and allergic symptoms are needed. PMID:24717779

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis from cetearyl alcohol in Thrombocid® ointment.

    PubMed

    Armengot-Carbo, Miquel Armengot-Carbo1; Rodríguez-Serna, Mercedes; Taberner-Bonastre, Pilar; Miquel-Miquel, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocid® ointment (Lacer, Barcelona, Spain) is widely used in Spain and other countries for varicose veins and 22 hematomas. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis following its use. Herein we present 23 two cases of allergic contact dermatitis to Thrombocid® ointment, owing to cetearyl alcohol. PMID:27617733

  18. Allergic Contact Dermatitis with Diffuse Erythematous Reaction from Diisopropanolamine in a Compress

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Tomoko; Oiso, Naoki; Hirao, Ayaka; Kawada, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Compresses containing a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) are commonly used in Japan. However, this treatment may induce both allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis from the NSAIDs and their ingredients. Here, we describe a case of allergic contact dermatitis with diffuse erythematous reaction due to diisopropanolamine in the applied compress. The absorption of diisopropanolamine might have been enhanced by the occlusive condition. PMID:21173928

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis: Kids are not just little people.

    PubMed

    Brod, Bruce A; Treat, James R; Rothe, Marti Jill; Jacob, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last ten years, there has been an increased awareness of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, in addition to adults. Historically, ACD was not considered a significant disease in the pediatric population. This may have been due to failure to employ patch testing, which is the gold standard for establishing a diagnosis of ACD. A number of epidemiologic studies now reflect upon the significance of positive patch tests in children and its utility in diagnosing ACD. While there is significant overlap among the most common allergens in children and adults, the patterns of exposure and sources of allergens can significantly differ, because children have distinct experiences related to their exposure to personal care products, articles of clothing, and time spent in play as opposed to work. Evaluation of the pediatric patient with dermatitis involves specialized knowledge in taking the pediatric history and specific techniques employed for successful patch test application. PMID:26686012

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up. PMID:24504525

  1. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD. PMID:18173214

  2. Role of sensitization to mammalian serum albumin in allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Asero, Riccardo; D'Amato, Maria; D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-10-01

    Serum albumin (SA) constitutes an intriguing puzzle that is involved in allergic sensitizations from different sources and induces different clinical manifestations. In this article, we describe the role of sensitization to SAs in inducing allergic diseases and the complex interactions and cross-reactivity between SA resulting from its presence in various mammalian tissues and fluids. SAs alone are an uncommon cause of allergic sensitization in airways, but these allergenic proteins likely play a significant role as cross-reacting allergens in individuals sensitized to several types of animal dander. SAs are a minor allergen in milk but a major allergen in meats. Recently, bovine SA has been added to the culture medium of spermatozoids used for artificial insemination. As a consequence, some case reports have shown that bovine SA may be a causative agent in severe anaphylaxis after standard intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:21809117

  3. Acute allergic contact dermatitis of the lips from peppermint oil in a lip balm.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh; Pratt, Melanie; DeKoven, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of cheilitis is often not readily apparent. We present a case series of four patients with allergic contact cheilitis (ACC) secondary to exposure to peppermint oil contained in a lip balm product. These patients developed eczematous dermatitis involving their lips and perioral skin. They were tested with the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series as well as with an expanded series of flavoring agents, sunscreens, plant and fragrance components, and their own products. The lip balm contained potential sensitizers such as propolis, lanolin, coconut oil, almond oil, peppermint oil, and vitamin E. Our patch-test results showed that peppermint oil was the most likely culprit in these patients' ACC. Peppermint oil is less commonly reported as causing ACC than are more common contactants such as balsam of Peru or nickel sulfate. However, with the widespread use of lip balms containing peppermint oil, more cases of peppermint oil-induced ACC may be expected. PMID:20233551

  4. Triclosan Exposure and Allergic Sensitization in Norwegian Children

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Løvik, Martinus; Calafat, Antonia M.; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; London, Stephanie J.; Carlsen, Karin C. Lødrup

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to the synthetic antimicrobial chemical, triclosan, used in personal care products, has been hypothesized to lead to allergic disease. We investigated whether triclosan exposure was associated with allergic sensitization and symptoms in 10-year old Norwegian children. Methods Urinary concentrations of triclosan were measured in one first morning void from 623 children, collected 2001– 2004. Logistic regression models, controlling for urine specific gravity, parental allergic disease, maternal education, and household income, were fitted for allergic sensitization (either skin prick test positivity or serum specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to at least one of 15 evaluated inhalant and food allergens), current rhinitis, and current asthma (questionnaire and exercise challenge test). Results The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for allergic sensitization among those in the fourth quartile of triclosan concentration was 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 3.4) compared with the reference group (< the limit of detection) and the aOR per log10 unit increase in triclosan was 1.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 1.4). The aOR for current rhinitis was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.4) for the fourth quartile and 1.2 (95% CI:0.97, 1.4) per log10 unit increase in triclosan. Conclusion Triclosan concentrations were associated with allergic sensitization, especially inhalant and seasonal allergens rather thanfood allergens. Current rhinitis was associated with the highest levels of triclosan, whereas no association was seen for current asthma. These results are consistent with recent findings in other studies and provide additional evidence for an association between triclosan and allergy. PMID:23146048

  5. Neoprene Orthopaedic Supports: An Underrecognised Cause of Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, S; Ghaffar, S

    2015-01-01

    Thioureas, often contained within neoprene to provide water resistance, are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in those who use neoprene products. We wish to present three cases of thiourea-induced ACD from three different orthopaedic supports containing neoprene. The first case was a 67-year-old woman who developed an itchy rash on her heel three weeks after using a neoprene insole for plantar fasciitis. The second case was a 47-year-old man who developed an itchy rash on his wrist after wearing neoprene wrist splints for psoriatic arthropathy. The third case was a 77-year-old woman who experienced a severe erythematous rash with blistering from a neoprene elbow brace she received following a humeral fracture. All patients were patch tested to the British Society of Cutaneous Allergy Standard and rubber series and a cut piece from all the relevant supports. At 96 hours, all patients had a + reaction to mixed dialkylthiourea, diethylthiourea, and the supports' material. No other positive patch test reactions were identified. As neoprene is fast becoming one of the most popular materials used for orthopaedic supports, awareness of this reaction and close liaison between dermatologists and orthopaedic surgeons are therefore essential to allow for early recognition of this complication. PMID:26236520

  6. Multicentre study of allergic contact cheilitis from toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Francalanci, S; Sertoli, A; Giorgini, S; Pigatto, P; Santucci, B; Valsecchi, R

    2000-10-01

    The present work reports the results of a multicentre study of toothpaste allergic contact cheilitis (TACC) conducted by GIRDCA (Gruppo Italiano Ricerca Dermatiti da Contatto e Ambientali). The study examined 54 patients with eczematous lesions on the lips, the possible cause of which was suspected to be the use of toothpastes. Patch tests were conducted with a standard series, a specially-targeted series (toothpaste cheilitis series, TCS), and with suspected toothpaste(s). A stop-restart test (SRT) was carried out with these, together with a use test to identify possible alternative products. The TCS produced 17 positive reactions in 13 patients, the most frequent being to spearmint oil. Of the 54 patients, 5 displayed positive reactions only to the TCS. The patch tests with toothpaste produced positive reactions in 11/32 patients, the SRT a positive response in 10/12 cases. The diagnosis of TACC was confirmed in 15/54 patients. Alternative products were identified for 5 patients. In conclusion, the allergens most frequently responsible for TACC were the flavourings, and the additional series proved to be useful in many cases (together with patch tests with toothpastes and the SRT) for correct diagnosis and to initiate effective prevention. PMID:11011921

  7. Clinical and allergic sensitization characteristics of allergic rhinitis among the elderly population in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ayse Bilge; Ozyigit, Leyla Pur; Olmez, Merve Ozata

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in elderly population in Turkey is not known. Studies on the prevalence and features of allergy in older adults are needed to identify safe and effective diagnostic/therapeutic methods for elderly AR patients. We aimed to identify the clinical and allergic characteristics of sensitization to aeroallergens among individuals aged ≥60 years with allergic rhinitis admitted to an allergy outpatient clinic in Istanbul. Of 109 patients, 33.9 % were atopic. Sixty-five percent of subjects were sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, 17 % to a grass-pollen mixture, 8 % to Aspergillus fumigatus, and 8 % to Blattella germanica. There was no difference between mono- and polysensitized patients in terms of the duration of rhinitis and symptom severity. No significant difference was observed between the two groups according to age, sex, smoking status, AR onset (<40 or ≥40 years), or duration/severity of disease. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the prevalence of asthma and conjunctivitis, (p = 0.256). Atopic dermatitis/eczema was more prevalent in those with AR (p = 0.046). Clinical characteristics of AR in the elderly could be different from those in non-allergic patients, and the prevalence of allergy may be higher than expected. PMID:25680346

  8. Quantitative risk assessment for the induction of allergic contact dermatitis: uncertainty factors for mucosal exposures.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Bjerke, Donald L; Mahony, Catherine; Blackburn, Karen L; Gerberick, G Frank

    2003-09-01

    The quantitative risk assessment (QRA) paradigm has been extended to evaluating the risk of induction of allergic contact dermatitis from consumer products. Sensitization QRA compares product-related, topical exposures to a safe benchmark, the sensitization reference dose. The latter is based on an experimentally or clinically determined 'no observable adverse effect level' (NOAEL) and further refined by incorporating 'sensitization uncertainty factors' (SUFs) that address variables not adequately reflected in the data from which the threshold NOAEL was derived. A critical area of uncertainty for the risk assessment of oral care or feminine hygiene products is the extrapolation from skin to mucosal exposures. Most sensitization data are derived from skin contact, but the permeability of vulvovaginal and oral mucosae is greater than that of keratinized skin. Consequently, the QRA for some personal products that are exposed to mucosal tissue may require the use of more conservative SUFs. This article reviews the scientific basis for SUFs applied to topical exposure to vulvovaginal and oral mucosae. We propose a 20-fold range in the default uncertainty factor used in the contact sensitization QRA when extrapolating from data derived from the skin to situations involving exposure to non-keratinized mucosal tissue. PMID:14678210

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis due to urethane acrylate in ultraviolet cured inks.

    PubMed Central

    Nethercott, J R; Jakubovic, H R; Pilger, C; Smith, J W

    1983-01-01

    Seven workers exposed to ultraviolet printing inks developed contact dermatitis. Six cases were allergic and one irritant. A urethane acrylate resin accounted for five cases of sensitisation, one of which was also sensitive to pentaerythritol triacrylate and another also to an epoxy acrylate resin. One instance of allergy to trimethylpropane triacrylate accounted for the sixth case of contact dermatitis in this group of workers. An irritant reaction is presumed to account for the dermatitis in the individual not proved to have cutaneous allergy by patch tests. In this instance trimethylpropane triacrylate was thought to be the most likely irritating agent. Laboratory investigation proved urethane acrylate to be an allergen. The results of investigations of the sensitisation potentials of urethane acrylate, methylmethacrylate, epoxy acrylate resins, toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, and other multifunctional acrylic monomers in the albino guinea pig are presented. The interpretation of such predictive tests is discussed. Images PMID:6223656

  10. Allergic contact dermatitis to Plectranthus amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyue-Luen; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yang, Chin-Hsun; Hong, Hong-Shang

    2005-12-01

    This report discusses a case of a 69-year-old woman who developed chronic non-healing leg ulcers after long-term topical use of Plectranthus amboinicus. The ulcer was proven to be allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus by a patch test. The ulcer healed after discontinuation of P. amboinicus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis to P. amboinicus masquerading as chronic leg ulcer. PMID:16364130

  11. Patch testing a patient with allergic contact hand dermatitis who is taking infliximab.

    PubMed

    Rosmarin, David; Bush, Michelle; Scheinman, Pamela L

    2008-07-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed allergic contact hand dermatitis while receiving infliximab infusions for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Patch testing showed multiple positive allergens. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of successful patch testing in a patient receiving tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade therapy. TNF-alpha blockers do not necessarily suppress allergic contact hypersensitivity and are not an absolute contraindication to patch testing. PMID:18468722

  12. A Case of Psoriasis Replaced by Allergic Contact Dermatitis in a 12-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Browning, John C

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant clinical problem in children and one that the use of essential oils and natural remedies probably exacerbates. We report a case of chronic plaque psoriasis replaced by allergic contact dermatitis in a 12-year-old boy. We suspect that the immunologic response to a hapten in lavender oil disrupted the pathogenesis of psoriasis, causing the psoriasis to temporarily "disappear." PMID:26646574

  13. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  14. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung; Park, Jin-Woo; Khang, Dongwoo; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo Song; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreased skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  16. Xanthii Fructus inhibits allergic response in the ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Nam-Gil; Kim, Eun-Young; Lee, Bina; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Im, Yong-Seok; Lee, Ka-Yeon; Jun-Kum, Chang; Kim, Ho-Seok; Cho, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Hyuk-Sang; Sohn, Youngjoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Xanthii Fructus (XF) is widely used in traditional anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory Asian medicine. Allergic rhinitis is a common inflammatory disease characterized by markedly increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the nasal mucosa. We investigated the effects of XF in the allergen-induced rhinitis model. Materials and Methods: Following ovalbumin (OVA)/alum intraperitoneal injection on days 0, 7 and 14, the BALB/c mice (albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mice) were challenged intranasally with OVA for 10 days a week after the last sensitization. The number of sneezes was recorded for 10 days; additionally, the levels of cytokines, histamine, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific serum IgE were estimated. Eosinophil infiltration, thickness of nasal mucosa and expression of caspase-1 were determined by immunohistochemistry. We also evaluated the effect of XF on the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-alpha (IκB-α) in human mast cell-1 (HMC-1), by Western blotting. Results: The administration of XF significantly decreased sneezing and the serum levels of histamine, IgE, OVA-specific IgE, and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-5, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). XF inhibited the changes in thickness of the nasal septum, influx of eosinophils and expression of capase-1. In addition, XF inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB in phorbol-myristate-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion: This study suggests that XF acts a potent anti-allergic drug which alleviates the allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mouse allergic rhinitis model. PMID:26664025

  17. Allergic contact dermatitis is accompanied by severe abnormal changes in antioxidativity of blood.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Maigi; Kaur, Sirje; Rehema, Aune; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Vihalemm, Tiiu; Zilmer, Kersti; Kairane, Ceslava; Zilmer, Mihkel

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether the oxidative stress (OS) caused by skin inflammation could reflect in the blood, in a 21-year-old female student sensitized to nickel, colophony and abitole with often relapsing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). As glutathione redox ratio was increased in the blood not only during the relapse but also in the beginning of remission phase, we prescribed natural medical preparations of d-alpha-tocopherol (in the first week 100 mg three times a day followed by 100 mg/day) and ascorbic acid (200 mg/day) for 25 days to her. After using antioxidants in the remission period, one of the principal OS markers-the glutathione redox ratio reached the normal physiological level. In this report, we showed that during acute extensive ACD OS is expressed in the blood and simultaneous supplementation of d-alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid might reduce systemic OS. PMID:15183853

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum: causes, incidence of, and differentiating factors.

    PubMed

    Harper, Justin; Zirwas, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Review of allergic contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum, including causes, incidence of, and differentiating factors. The causes include common allergens found in everyday products. The true incidence of contact dermatitis of the vagina and perineum is unknown, however, it is a common problem facing clinicians. The differentiating factors include itching, erythema, and persistence. PMID:25608257

  19. Contact sensitization to N-(cyclohexylthio)phthalimide.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J; Schnuch, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Previous reports revealed relative high sensitization rates to the rubber chemical N-(cyclohexylthio)phthalimide (CTP; CAS-No. 17796-82-6), but the relevance of positive reactions remained unknown. It was discussed whether the test concentration of 1% pet. needed to be changed. The German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) added CTP in 3 concentrations, i.e. 0.25% pet., 0.5% pet, 1% pet., to the rubber series. From June 1999 to December 2000, 1936 patients in 30 departments of dermatology were tested with CTP. Of the 56 patients with a positive test reaction (2.9%), 52 reacted to CTP 1% pet., 21 to CTP 0.5% pet., and 9 to CTP 0.25% pet. The reaction indices were about the same with all concentrations. 34 patients with a positive reaction to CTP 1% pet. did not react to the lower concentrations. The majority of these reactions are probably false-positive. With CTP 0.25% pet., however, the majority of true allergic reactions to CTP were missed. Analysis of population characteristics and concomitant sensitizations to other rubber chemicals led to the conclusion that a positive reaction to CTP 0.5% pet. was a good indicator of contact allergy to CTP. Thus, the DKG decided to continue patch testing with CTP 0.5% pet. in the rubber series. Manufacturers' information about the use of CTP seem to partly contradict the patients' characteristics seen in this study. So the relevance of positive CTP patch test reactions, and the causative exposures in patients with CTP allergy, still remain to be clarified. PMID:12641571

  20. Clinical manifestation and sensitization of allergic children from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background An epidemiological rise of allergic diseases in developing countries raises new challenges. Currently a paucity of data exists describing allergy symptomology and sensitization to common food and aeroallergens in young children from developing countries. Objective To compare changes in symptomology, food allergen sensitization and aeroallergen sensitization in a cross-sectional study of children <2 years and 2-10 years. Methods A total of 192 allergic children (aged <2 years, 35 children; aged 2-10 years, 157 children) underwent specific IgE (>0.35 kU/L) to common food (egg white, cow's milk, cod fish, wheat, peanut, soya, peanut, and shrimp) and house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis). Results In children <2 years, atopic dermatitis (65.7%) was the most common symptom whereas in children 2-10 years it was rhinoconjunctivitis (74.5%). Higher sensitization rate to eggs (p < 0.01) and cow's milk (p = 0.044) was seen in <2 years group when compared to the 2-10 years group, but no significant differences for shrimp (p = 0.29), wheat (p = 0.23) and soya (p = 0.057). Interestingly, sensitization to peanut (p = 0.012) and fish (p = 0.035) was significantly decreased in the 2-10 years group. Sensitization to house dust mites (p < 0.01) dramatically increased in the older children. Conclusion Our study supports concept of atopic march from a developing country like Malaysia. PMID:25938072

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Hugh; Williams, Jason; Tate, Bruce

    2006-12-01

    Dexpanthenol is the alcohol corresponding to pantothenic acid (the water-soluble vitamin B(5)). Although it is a common ingredient in many pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contact allergy is relatively uncommon. Cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate is a phospholipid complex derived from pure coconut oil, and contact allergy is rare. We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to panthenol and cocamidopropyl PG dimonium chloride phosphate in a facial hydrating lotion. PMID:17101018

  2. Possible Immune Regulation of Natural Killer T Cells in a Murine Model of Metal Ion-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kenichi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Shigematsu, Hiroaki; Matsubara, Ryota; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Eguchi, Takanori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Nakasone, Yasunari; Sato, Koichiro; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Satsuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    Metal often causes delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, which are possibly mediated by accumulating T cells in the inflamed skin, called irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. However, accumulating T cells during development of a metal allergy are poorly characterized because a suitable animal model is unavailable. We have previously established novel murine models of metal allergy and found accumulation of both metal-specific T cells and natural killer (NK) T cells in the inflamed skin. In our novel models of metal allergy, skin hypersensitivity responses were induced through repeated sensitizations by administration of metal chloride and lipopolysaccharide into the mouse groin followed by metal chloride challenge in the footpad. These models enabled us to investigate the precise mechanisms of the immune responses of metal allergy in the inflamed skin. In this review, we summarize the immune responses in several murine models of metal allergy and describe which antigen-specific responses occur in the inflamed skin during allergic contact dermatitis in terms of the T cell receptor. In addition, we consider the immune regulation of accumulated NK T cells in metal ion–induced allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26771600

  3. A Case Report of Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Mandragora Radix

    PubMed Central

    Baysak, Sevim; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Atacan, Damla; Ergin, Can

    2015-01-01

    An 82-year-old male presented with rash, burning, and itching on his knees that had started 4 days after the local application of Mandragora Radix sap for 3 consecutive days. A dermatological examination revealed erythematous, edematous, and scaly plaque lesions on the patient's knees. An open application test with M. Radix was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with allergic contact dermatitis due to M. Radix. Mandragora species, which belong to the Solanaceae family, have sedative, aphrodisiac, emetic, analgesic, and anesthetic properties. To the best of our knowledge, only one case of M. Radix-induced allergic contact dermatitis has been previously reported. PMID:26347280

  4. Psychophysical measurements of itch and nociceptive sensations in an experimental model of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pall, Parul S.; Hurwitz, Olivia E.; King, Brett A.; LaMotte, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common condition that can significantly impact the quality of life. Contact with allergens results in delayed hypersensitivity reactions involving T-lymphocytes, with associated skin inflammation and spontaneous itch and nociceptive sensations. However, psychophysical studies of these sensations are lacking. In the present study, we sensitized eight healthy volunteers to squaric acid dibutyl ester (SADBE). Two weeks later, one volar forearm was challenged with SADBE, and the other with acetone vehicle control. Subsequently, subjects rated the maximal perceived intensity of spontaneous itch, pricking/stinging, and burning every 6–12 hours for one week, using the generalized labeled magnitude scale. In the laboratory, they judged stimulus-evoked sensations within and outside the chemically-treated area. The SADBE- but not the acetone-treated skin resulted in a) localized inflammation, with spontaneous itch and nociceptive sensations peaking at 24–48 hours post-challenge, b) alloknesis, hyperknesis, and hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli that were reduced or eliminated by anesthetic cooling of the SADBE-treated area and restored upon re-warming, suggesting sensations and dysesthesias are dependent on ongoing peripheral neural activity, and c) enhanced itch to intradermal injection of histamine, BAM8-22, or β-alanine. This experimental model of T-cell-mediated inflammation may prove useful in evaluating potential treatments of itch from ACD. PMID:26002605

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis from methyldibromo glutaronitrile in a sanitary pad and review of Australian clinic data.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jason D; Frowen, Kathryn E; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-03-01

    Methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) has rarely been reported as an allergen in adhesives but is recognized as a common allergen in skin care products in Europe. It has been banned for use in leave-on products by the European Union. In this study, we present a case with an unusual source of this common allergen and review all cases of allergy to MDBGN from our clinics over a 12-year period. A 49-year-old nurse presented with dermatitis affecting the vulva caused by MDBGN present in her sanitary pad. All other cases of allergy to MDBGN in patients attending the occupational dermatology or contact dermatitis clinics at the Skin and Cancer Foundation, Victoria, between January 1993 and December 2004, were reviewed. Patch testing was positive to her sanitary pad, the adhesive and MDBGN, which were used as a biocide in the pad adhesive. Only 20 cases of allergy to MDBGN have been diagnosed in 2837 patients tested during this period (0.7%). To conclude, this study highlights the importance of considering allergic contact dermatitis in the differential diagnosis of vulval rashes and the emergence of MDBGN as an important sensitizer. However, our review suggests that MDBGN remains an infrequent cause of allergy in Australia. PMID:17295694

  6. Transcription factor NFAT1 controls allergic contact hypersensitivity through regulation of activation induced cell death program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Gi-Cheon; Hwang, Ji Sun; Kim, Young; Chae, Chang-Suk; Nam, Jong Hee; Jun, Chang-Duk; Rudra, Dipayan; Surh, Charles D.; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is an inflammatory skin disease mediated by allergen specific T cells. In this study, we investigated the role of transcription factor NFAT1 in the pathogenesis of contact hypersensitivity. NFAT1 knock out (KO) mice spontaneously developed CHS-like skin inflammation in old age. Healthy young NFAT1 KO mice displayed enhanced susceptibility to hapten-induced CHS. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from NFAT1 KO mice displayed hyper-activated properties and produced significantly enhanced levels of inflammatory T helper 1(Th1)/Th17 type cytokines. NFAT1 KO T cells were more resistant to activation induced cell death (AICD), and regulatory T cells derived from these mice showed a partial defect in their suppressor activity. NFAT1 KO T cells displayed a reduced expression of apoptosis associated BCL-2/BH3 family members. Ectopic expression of NFAT1 restored the AICD defect in NFAT1 KO T cells and increased AICD in normal T cells. Recipient Rag2−/− mice transferred with NFAT1 KO T cells showed more severe CHS sensitivity due to a defect in activation induced hapten-reactive T cell apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggest the NFAT1 plays a pivotal role as a genetic switch in CD4+/CD8+ T cell tolerance by regulating AICD process in the T cell mediated skin inflammation. PMID:26777750

  7. Knowledge of Surgery-Related Allergic Contact Dermatitis among Florida Dermatological Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Panta; Kirsner, Robert S.; Amado, Antoine; Fleming, Lora E.; Nouri, Keyvan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To assess knowledge base and practice habits of dermatological surgeons regarding surgery-related allergic contact dermatitis. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. The Florida Society of Dermatologic Surgery served as the study group. Participants. Cohort of dermatological surgeons. Measurements. An anonymous, close-ended survey instrument eliciting common surgical practices as well as allergic contact dermatitis knowledge. Results. Among the 45 respondents, 87 percent reported performing surgery more than 10 times per week and only 14 percent of respondents reported using latex-free gloves in their practice. Nearly two-thirds (66%) of respondents reported diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis either among themselves, their surgical staff, and/or patients. Surgeons were noted to use the TRUE Test® to screen for adhesive allergy. While colophony can be found both in adhesive products and on the TRUE Test, the main adhesives found in perisurgical products, acrylates, cannot. Similarly, the TRUE Test does not screen for antiseptics, yet this group of respondents suspected antiseptics nearly one-fourth of the time and used the TRUE Test to screen for them. Lastly, six dermatological surgeons used the TRUE Test to screen for suture allergy. While only two used chromated cat gut (the TRUE Test screens for chromium), the other surgical components are not screened. Conclusion. Education among dermatological surgeons is needed regarding exposure to a potential allergen in the surgical setting and risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:20725578

  8. Racial Differences in Allergic Sensitization: Recent Findings and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Johnson, Christine Cole; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Racial disparities are present in many facets of health and disease. Allergy and asthma are no exceptions. Secondary results from cross-sectional and cohort studies have provided information on the scope of racial disparities in allergic sensitization in the United States. African American/Black individuals tend to be sensitized more frequently than White individuals. Little is known about rates in other race groups. Genetics are unlikely to be the sole or major cause of the observed differences. Home dust allergen and endotoxin levels cannot explain the differences. Studies that have been designed to specifically address the sources of these racial disparities are needed. A “Multilevel Framework” that considers the roles of the individual, family and community presents an excellent approach to guide design of future studies of the causes of these disparities. Understanding the causes of the disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:23435599

  9. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  10. Six children with allergic contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone in wet wipes (baby wipes).

    PubMed

    Chang, Mary Wu; Nakrani, Radhika

    2014-02-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) is a combination preservative used in personal care and household products and is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Recently, MI alone, without MCI, has been increasingly used in consumer products in attempts to minimize allergic reactions. Wet wipes are extensively tested and traditionally believed to be innocuous. MI in wet wipes ("baby wipes") has not been previously reported to cause ACD in children in the United States. Only 1 previous report of ACD in a child in Belgium has been recently reported. We report 6 children with chronic, perianal/buttock, and facial eczematous dermatitis, refractory to multiple topical and oral antibiotics and corticosteroids. All tested positive to MCI/MI on patch testing. None wore diapers. All patients had been using wet wipes containing MI (without MCI) to affected areas. Discontinuation of wipes resulted in rapid and complete resolution. This is the first report of pediatric ACD to MI in wet wipes in the United States, and the largest series to date. ACD to MI in wet wipes is frequently misdiagnosed as eczema, impetigo, or psoriasis. Wet wipes are increasingly marketed in personal care products for all ages, and MI exposure and sensitization will likely increase. Dermatitis of the perianal, buttock, facial, and hand areas with a history of wet wipe use should raise suspicion of ACD to MI and prompt appropriate patch testing. Rapid resolution occurs after the allergen exposure is eliminated. All isothiozolinones should be avoided in personal care and household products for these patients. PMID:24420805

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: A Model of Inflammatory Itch and Pain in Human and Mouse.

    PubMed

    LaMotte, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of published observations from our laboratory on the psychophysics and neurobiology of the persistent itch and pain of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD is a clinically significant problem with many features characteristic of other pruritic disorders. Our approach was to produce ACD experimentally in humans and in the mouse. The goal was to use the mouse as an animal model for investigating the peripheral neural mechanisms of itch and pain of ACD in humans. Humans and mice were each sensitized by cutaneous topical application of squaric acid dibutyl ester, a hapten not encountered in the environment. Subsequent challenge at another cutaneous site produced local inflammation ("ACD") with humans reporting persistent itch (lasting up to a week) and mice exhibiting persistent itch- and pain-like behaviors directed toward the ACD site. Enhanced mechanically evoked itch and pain in surrounding skin in humans were reversibly blocked by numbing the ACD site with cold, suggesting dependence on ongoing activity from the site. In mice, in vivo recordings revealed spontaneous activity in a subset of pruriceptive, mechanoheat-sensitive nociceptors with unmyelinated axons innervating the ACD site. These and a larger subpopulation of acutely dissociated small-diameter neurons innervating the ACD site exhibited an upregulation of the receptor CXCR3 and excitatory responses to one of its ligands, the chemokine CXCL10 (IP-10) that contributes to the pathogenesis of ACD. Preliminary findings point to possible therapeutic targets that could be investigated in inflammatory itch disorders in humans. PMID:26900060

  12. Combined contact and photocontact allergic dermatitis to etofenamate in flogoprofen gel.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Pérez, J; Sánchez, T S; García-Díez, A

    2001-12-01

    We report a case of combined contact and photocontact allergic dermatitis to etofenamate in Flogoprofen gel (Chiesi Wasserman, Barcelona, Spain). Patch test results were positive at the nonirradiated site, but there was a stronger reaction at the irradiated site with etofenamate 0.05% in petrolatum (pet.) at d2 and d4. The use frequent of topical agents containing etofenamate and sun exposure can result in a predisposition to contact photoallergy. Clinical findings caused by etofenamate are uncommon. Allergic contact dermatitis is the most common cutaneous reaction reported. In American studies observed, no reactions were observed to etofenamate in subjects with photosensitivity because it was not included in the series of antigens used in testing. PMID:11753896

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Psoriasis Patients: Typical, Delayed, and Non-Interacting

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Maria; Eyerich, Stefanie; Knapp, Bettina; Nasorri, Francesca; Scarponi, Claudia; Mattii, Martina; Garzorz, Natalie; Harlfinger, Anna T.; Jaeger, Teresa; Grosber, Martine; Pennino, Davide; Mempel, Martin; Schnopp, Christina; Theis, Fabian J.; Albanesi, Cristina; Cavani, Andrea; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Ring, Johannes; Eyerich, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is characterized by an apoptosis-resistant and metabolic active epidermis, while a hallmark for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is T cell-induced keratinocyte apoptosis. Here, we induced ACD reactions in psoriasis patients sensitized to nickel (n = 14) to investigate underlying mechanisms of psoriasis and ACD simultaneously. All patients developed a clinically and histologically typical dermatitis upon nickel challenge even in close proximity to pre-existing psoriasis plaques. However, the ACD reaction was delayed as compared to non-psoriatic patients, with a maximum intensity after 7 days. Whole genome expression analysis revealed alterations in numerous pathways related to metabolism and proliferation in non-involved skin of psoriasis patients as compared to non-psoriatic individuals, indicating that even in clinically non-involved skin of psoriasis patients molecular events opposing contact dermatitis may occur. Immunohistochemical comparison of ACD reactions as well as in vitro secretion analysis of lesional T cells showed a higher Th17 and neutrophilic migration as well as epidermal proliferation in psoriasis, while ACD reactions were dominated by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a Th2 signature. Based on these findings, we hypothesized an ACD reaction directly on top of a pre-existing psoriasis plaque might influence the clinical course of psoriasis. We observed a strong clinical inflammation with a mixed psoriasis and eczema phenotype in histology. Surprisingly, the initial psoriasis plaque was unaltered after self-limitation of the ACD reaction. We conclude that sensitized psoriasis patients develop a typical, but delayed ACD reaction which might be relevant for patch test evaluation in clinical practice. Psoriasis and ACD are driven by distinct and independent immune mechanisms. PMID:25058585

  14. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I.; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M. Craig; McAlexander, M. Allen; Herrick, Christina A.; Jordt, Sven E.

    2013-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1−/− mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis.—Liu, B., Escalera, J., Balakrishna, S., Fan, L., Caceres, A. I., Robinson, E., Sui, A., McKay, M. C., McAlexander, M. A., Herrick, C. A., Jordt, S. E. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  15. Cheilitis granulomatosa associated with allergic contact dermatitis to betel quid.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cheng-Sheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun

    2008-04-01

    Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare disorder of unknown origin, which is characterized clinically by painless, recurrent or persistent swelling of 1 or both lips. Betel quids, composed of betel nuts (seeds of the Areca catechu), slake lime, and Piper betel leaf/or Piper betel inflorescence, are widely used in Asia and strongly associated with oral mucosal disease. It has also been found to be a cause of contact leukomelanosis because of its ingredients of various chemicals. We describe a case of CG induced by betel quid chewing. PMID:18353040

  16. Immunomodulation of malignant melanoma by contact sensitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Ryan M; Mitkov, Mario V; Pittelkow, Mark R; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    The importance of host defense against malignant melanoma is underlined by the use of immunomodulating agents as effective therapies. Diphencyprone and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) have been used successfully as contact sensitizing agents in this regard. Through haptenation of cell surface and cytoplasmic proteins, these agents trigger a CD8(+) T-lymphocyte predominant allergic contact hypersensitivity response. Th17 cells may also play a critical role. The effectiveness of these agents at stimulating tumor defense may be limited to melanoma of the skin. Response to immunotherapy using diphencyprone and DNCB is governed by the immune status of the host, which is affected by tumor burden, UV light and age. Additionally, diphencyprone and DNCB elicit synergy with other methods of treatment and thus may be used as adjuncts. Two current prospective trials may aid in elucidating the impact that this treatment modality has on the prognosis and quality of life of patients with melanoma. PMID:24308833

  17. [Contact allergic gastritis : Rare manifestation of a metal allergy].

    PubMed

    Pföhler, C; Vogt, T; Müller, C S L

    2016-05-01

    Only a few cases of contact allergic gastritis in patients with nickel allergy have been reported in the literature. We report a case of probable contact-allergic gastritis in a 46-year-old woman. Clinical examination revealed lichenoid mucosal lesions of the gums adjacent to a bridge and crowns that had been implanted several weeks previously. Since implantation, the patient suffered from gastrointestinal complaints including stomach pain. Gastroscopy and histological investigation of stomach biopsies showed eosinophilic gastritis. Patch testing done under the diagnosis of contact allergic stomatitis showed positive reactions to gold sodium thiosulphate, manganese (II) chloride, nickel (II) sulphate, palladium chloride, vanadium (III) chloride, zirconium (IV) chloride, and fragrances. The crowns and the bridge contained gold, palladium, and zirconium, hence they were replaced by titan-based dentition. Shortly after replacing the artificial dentition, all gastrointestinal symptoms resolved spontaneously without further treatment. Delayed-type allergy to components in the artificial dentition seem to have caused the gastritis. PMID:26909810

  18. Pre-Emptive Avoidance Strategy (P.E.A.S.) - addressing allergic contact dermatitis in pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Hill, Hannah; Goldenberg, Alina; Golkar, Linda; Beck, Kristyn; Williams, Judith; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Pediatric allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) has been increasingly recognized in the United States. Reported rates of positive patch tests in children referred for suspected ACD range between 27 and 95.6%. Many young children are becoming sensitized to contact allergens found in personal hygiene products. We reviewed five recent pediatric patch test studies to determine the top allergens associated with this source of ACD in children. The top ten allergens were neomycin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix, lanolin, cocamidopropylbetaine, formaldehyde, corticosteroids, methylchlorisothiazolinone (MCI)/methylisothiazolinone (MI), propylene glycol, and benzalkonium chloride. We estimate that one third of children suffering from ACD could potentially benefit from a 'pre-emptive avoidance strategy' (P.E.A.S.) of the stated top 10 allergens. PMID:26764601

  19. Contact sensitization in chronic venous insufficiency: modern wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Gallenkemper, G; Rabe, E; Bauer, R

    1998-05-01

    Patch tests with an expanded European standard series and 20 different wound dressings revealed sensitization in 78% of all (36) patients. The charts of allergens were headed by ointment bases (wool wax alcohols sensitization in 33% of all patients; Amerchol L-101 19.4%; cetearyl alcohol 13.9%; propylene glycol 8.3%), followed by plant resins/ethereal oils (balsam of Peru 22.2%; colophony 13.9%, fragrance mix 8.3%; propolis 5.6%) and topical antibiotics (neomycin sulfate 16.7%, chloramphenicol 13.9%), while usually common sensitizers like metal salts were not found as often (nickel sulfate 16.7%; potassium dichromate 13.9%; cobalt chloride 5.6%). Sensitization to modern wound dressings was found in 8.3% (3 cases) and was caused by propylene glycol as an ingredient of hydrogels; no sensitization was found to hydrocolloids, alginates or polyurethane foams. The overall sensitization rate in 2nd degree CVI was nearly as high as in 3rd degree CVI, but sensitization to ointments, their additives and topical antibiotics was significantly higher in 3rd degree CVI. Significant differences in sensitization frequencies to individual allergens were found between male and female patients. Our investigation points out the high risk of sensitization in 2nd as well as 3rd degree CVI, especially to ointment bases and active principles of topical drugs. Even wound dressings may cause allergic contact reactions. PMID:9667445

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies 10 loci influencing allergic sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Granell, Raquel; Strachan, David P; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Linneberg, Allan; Curtin, John A; Warrington, Nicole M; Standl, Marie; Kerkhof, Marjan; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Bukvic, Blazenka K; Kaakinen, Marika; Sleimann, Patrick; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Schramm, Katharina; Baltic, Svetlana; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Simpson, Angela; St Pourcain, Beate; Coin, Lachlan; Hui, Jennie; Walters, Eugene H; Tiesler, Carla M T; Duffy, David L; Jones, Graham; Ring, Susan M; McArdle, Wendy L; Price, Loren; Robertson, Colin F; Pekkanen, Juha; Tang, Clara S; Thiering, Elisabeth; Montgomery, Grant W; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Husemoen, Lise L; Herder, Christian; Kemp, John P; Elliot, Paul; James, Alan; Waldenberger, Melanie; Abramson, Michael J; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Knight, Julian C; Gupta, Ramneek; Thompson, Philip J; Holt, Patrick; Sly, Peter; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Blekic, Mario; Weidinger, Stephan; Hakonarsson, Hakon; Stefansson, Kari; Heinrich, Joachim; Postma, Dirkje S; Custovic, Adnan; Pennell, Craig E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Koppelman, Gerard H; Timpson, Nicholas; Ferreira, Manuel A; Bisgaard, Hans; Henderson, A John

    2016-01-01

    Allergen-specific IgE (allergic sensitization) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. We performed the first large-scale genome wide association study (GWAS) of allergic sensitization in 5,789 affected individuals and 10,056 controls and followed up the top SNP from 26 loci in 6,114 affected individuals and 9,920 controls. We increased the number of susceptibility loci with genome-wide significant association to allergic sensitization from three to 10, including SNPs in or near TLR6, C11orf30, STAT6, SLC25A46, HLA-DQB1, IL1RL1, LPP, MYC, IL2 and HLA-B. All the top-SNPs were associated with allergic symptoms in an independent study. Risk variants at these 10 loci were estimated to account for at least 25% of allergic sensitization and allergic rhinitis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations may provide novel insight into the etiology of allergic disease. PMID:23817571

  1. Positive lymphocyte transformation test in a patient with allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp after short-term use of topical minoxidil solution.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Tobias; Schlütter-Böhmer, Brigitte; Allam, Jean-Pierre; Bieber, Thomas; Novak, Natalija

    2005-07-01

    Topical 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) solution has been widely used for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia for over 15 years now and the substance is currently approved for this indication in 2% and 5% formulation. Typical side effects of this topical treatment include irritative dermatitis going along with pruritus, erythema, scaling and dryness, which occur especially at the onset of the therapy. In some cases, allergic contact dermatitis or exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis has been reported. While most of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis described in the literature showed a positive sensitization to the vehicle substance propylene glycol evaluated by patch testing, reactions to the active ingredient minoxidil are rare. Here, we report a case of allergic sensitization to minoxidil, which we evaluated and differentiated from an irritative reaction by a combination of patch testing and lymphocyte transformation test. The differentiation of allergic and irritative adverse effects and the identification of the causative allergen are of major relevance for the proceeding and adjustment of the therapy. Patients with sensitizations against propylene glycol are candidates for preparations with alternative solvents but can proceed treatment with minoxidil. In contrast, patients with allergies to the active ingredient itself are no longer candidates for treatment with minoxidil and should undergo alternative therapeutic options. PMID:15982234

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde textile resins in surgical uniforms and nonwoven textile masks.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Jeff; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy

    2007-03-01

    Despite a trend for reduction in the concentration of free formaldehyde in textiles, formaldehyde textile resin (FTR) allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains an important clinical issue and is likely underdiagnosed. Patients with FTR ACD may react to formaldehyde released from the resin or to the resin itself. Screening with formaldehyde and ethyleneurea/melamine formaldehyde resin will uncover most cases. Patch testing with the suspected offending fabric most often leads to false-negative results. We present a case of a 49-year-old pediatrician who developed a severe widespread dermatitis caused by contact with FTRs from her hospital "greens" ("scrubs") and mask. PMID:17303043

  3. Sensitization to reactive textile dyes in patients with contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Manzini, B M; Motolese, A; Conti, A; Ferdani, G; Seidenari, S

    1996-03-01

    Reactive dyes are used especially for colouring natural fibres (cotton, silk and wool) that are widely used in Western countries, particularly Italy, in the production of clothes. The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization to the most commonly used reactive textile dyes in patients undergoing patch tests, and to assess the clinical relevance of contact sensitization to these dyes. 1813 consecutive patients underwent patch tests with the GIRDCA standard series and an additional textile series of 12 reactive dyes. 18 of these patients were sensitized to reactive dyes (0.99%) (4 only to reactive dyes). The dyes most frequently responsible for positive patch tests were Red Cibacron CR and Violet Remazol 5R (respectively, 8 and 5 positivities). In 5 cases only was a history of intolerance to particular garments given; of 4 patch tests performed with pieces of garment, 2 were positive. In 1 occupationally-exposed patient, airborne contact dermatitis was suspected. Owing to the lack of up-to-date patch test series, some cases of allergic contact dermatitis from textile dyes are probably misdiagnosed: new colouring agents are continuously introduced to the market, so that a close relationship with textile industry is necessary to improve our diagnostic tools. PMID:8833459

  4. Novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue) in the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    HONDA, Tetsuya; KABASHIMA, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases, which is classified as a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune response. The development of ACD is divided into two phases: sensitization and elicitation. In the sensitization phase, antigen-specific effector T cells are induced in the draining lymph nodes by antigen-captured cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) that migrate from the skin. In the elicitation phase, the effector T cells are activated in the skin by antigen-captured cutaneous DCs and produce various chemical mediators, which create antigen-specific inflammation. In this review, we discuss the recent advancements in the immunological mechanisms of ACD, focusing on the mechanisms in the elicitation phase. The observations of elicitation of CHS lead to the emerging novel concept of iSALT (inducible skin-associated lymphoid tissue). PMID:26755397

  5. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  6. Surveillance of Fungal Allergic Sensitization Using the Fluorescent Halogen Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Green, Brett J.; Tovey, Euan R.; Beezhold, Donald H.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Acosta, Luis M.; Divjan, Adnan I.; Chew, Ginger L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Conidia derived from a small number of common fungal genera are widely accepted as the etiological agents responsible for fungal allergic sensitization. The contribution of fungal conidia, spores, airborne hyphae, and subcellular fragments from other uncharacterized fungal genera remains unclear. In this proof-of-concept study, we examined the composition of mycoaerosols that atopic women were exposed and sensitized to in their own indoor environment using the fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). Patients and Methods Mycoaerosols were collected onto mixed cellulose ester protein binding membranes (PBMs) for 30 minutes with volumetric air sampling pumps. The PBMs were laminated with an adhesive cover slip and indirectly immunostained with individual patient serum IgE using the fHIA. Samples were examined using confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunostained particles were expressed as a percentage of total particles. Results All air samples contained a broad spectrum of fungal spores, conidia, hyphae, and other fungal particulates. Airborne concentrations varied between individual study participant environments. Positively immunostained conidia belonging to moniliaceous amerospores, Cladosporium, Alternaria, and many unknown species were observed in the majority of air samples. Other fungal genera including Bipolaris, Curvularia, Pithomyces, and Stachybotrys, in addition to, ascospore genera and dematiaceous hyphal fragments released detectable allergen. Twelve percent of all fHIA haloes quantified in the analysis were directed towards fungal particles. No immunostaining was detected to conidia belonging to Epicoccum, Fusarium, and Spegazzinia species. Conclusion In addition to characterized fungal aeroallergens, we observed a wider composition of fungi that bound human IgE. Field surveillance studies that utilize immunodiagnostic techniques such as the fHIA will provide further insight into the diversity of fungi that function as

  7. Patch test results in patients with allergic contact dermatitis in the Podlasie region

    PubMed Central

    Bacharewicz, Joanna; Pawłoś, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to provide current data on the incidence of allergy to various contact allergens in patients with allergic contact eczema and the analysis of selected socio-demographic data of the patients. Material and methods The study included 1532 patients (1010 women and 522 men) treated for allergic contact dermatitis at the Department of Dermatology and Venereology and at the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic in Bialystok in 2007–2011. The assessment of selected demographic data and skin lesions was based on the MOAHFLA index, while the results of patch tests were analyzed with modified Baseline European Series consisting of 31 allergens. Results In the group of patients with eczema, 34.1% were men, and 55% of all respondents were people over 40 years of age. The occupational character of skin lesions was found in 22.5%. Most frequently (38.9%) skin lesions were localized on the hands, rarely involved legs (3.98%). Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. The ten most frequent allergens were: nickel sulfate (24%), cobalt chloride (15.3%), fragrance mix (8.25%), potassium dichromate (6.8%), balsam of Peru (5.5%), neomycin (4.42%), paraphenylenediamine (3.85%), Quatermium-15 (2.1%), detreomycin (1.83%) and budesonide (1.44% of tested patients). Conclusions Frequent allergy to detreomycin indicates the need of patch testing for this allergen of all examined patients with allergic contact dermatitis. The increased frequency of the nickel allergy is a worrying problem and indicates the need for education about the risk factors for nickel allergy development and the implementation of appropriate legal regulations. PMID:24493997

  8. Nickel sensitization and dietary nickel are a substantial cause of symptoms provocation in patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Soana, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Data in literature seem to show that, in patients with contact allergic dermatitis, dietary nickel might be a cause of systemic dermatitis, but little information exists in literature about the role of nickel sensitization and dietary nickel in patients with allergic-like chronic dermatitis syndromes. The prevalence of nickel sensitization in patients with chronic allergic-like, non-IgE-mediated skin diseases, and the possible impact of dietary nickel on symptom provocation and persistence has been assessed in the present retrospective study on a case series of 1726 patients referred to our allergy unit for chronic allergic-like skin diseases. IgE-mediated pathogenesis and other differential diagnoses excluded, patients were patch tested. Nickel-positive patients underwent an elimination diet and double-blind placebo-controlled nickel challenge (DBPCNC) test. A total of 339 (20%) tested nickel-positive. Fifty-two patients (15%) recovered by avoiding sources of nickel contact and 29 (10%) dropped out. Out of the remaining nickel-sensitized patients, 277 (80%) achieved complete or near complete recovery with low-nickel content diet, and 185 of them (89%) were positive to DBPCNC. We conclude that nickel sensitization and dietary nickel seem to be the chief trigger for provocation and persistence of symptoms in an important part (∼11%) of patients with chronic allergic-like dermatitis syndromes. PMID:25747857

  9. TRPA1 controls inflammation and pruritogen responses in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyi; Escalera, Jasmine; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Fan, Lu; Caceres, Ana I; Robinson, Eve; Sui, Aiwei; McKay, M Craig; McAlexander, M Allen; Herrick, Christina A; Jordt, Sven E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease associated with inflammation and persistent pruritus. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels in skin-innervating sensory neurons mediate acute inflammatory and pruritic responses following exogenous stimulation and may contribute to allergic responses. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1, but not TRPV1, inhibited skin edema, keratinocyte hyperplasia, nerve growth, leukocyte infiltration, and antihistamine-resistant scratching behavior in mice exposed to the haptens, oxazolone and urushiol, the contact allergen of poison ivy. Hapten-challenged skin of TRPA1-deficient mice contained diminished levels of inflammatory cytokines, nerve growth factor, and endogenous pruritogens, such as substance P (SP) and serotonin. TRPA1-deficient sensory neurons were defective in SP signaling, and SP-induced scratching behavior was abolished in Trpa1(-/-) mice. SP receptor antagonists, such as aprepitant inhibited both hapten-induced cutaneous inflammation and scratching behavior. These findings support a central role for TRPA1 and SP in the integration of immune and neuronal mechanisms leading to chronic inflammatory responses and pruritus associated with contact dermatitis. PMID:23722916

  10. Risk Assessment of residual monomer migrating from acrylic polymers and causing Allergic Contact Dermatitis during normal handling and use.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, Mark A; Lohmann, Barbara S

    2014-08-01

    Acrylic, Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) based polymers are found in many industrial, professional and consumer products and are of low toxicity, but do contain very low levels of residual monomers and process chemicals that can leach out during handling and use. Methyl Methacrylate, the principle monomer is of low toxicity, but is a recognized weak skin sensitizer. The risk of induction of contact allergy in consumers was determined using a method based upon the Exposure-based Quantitative Risk Assessment approach developed for fragrance ingredients. The No Expected Sensitization Induction Level (NESIL) was based on the threshold to induction of sensitization (EC3) in the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) since no Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT) data were available. Categorical estimation of Consumer Exposure Level was substituted with a worst case assumption based upon the quantitative determination of MMA monomer migration into simulants. Application of default and Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors results in a Risk Characterization Ratio (RCR) of 10,000 and a high Margin of Safety for induction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) in consumers handling polymers under conservative exposure conditions. Although there are no data available to derive a RCR for elicitation of ACD it is likely to be lower than that for induction. PMID:24859074

  11. Allergic skin inflammation induced by chemical sensitizers is controlled by the transcription factor Nrf2.

    PubMed

    El Ali, Zeina; Gerbeix, Cédric; Hemon, Patrice; Esser, Philipp R; Martin, Stefan F; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is induced by low-molecular weight electrophilic chemicals and metal ions. Chemical contact sensitizers trigger reactive oxygen species production and provoke electrophilic stress, leading to the accumulation of the transcription factor nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in innate immune cell types. The objective of this work was to identify the role of Nrf2 in the regulation of ACD. We used the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) to study the role of Nrf2 in both the sensitization and elicitation phase in nrf2 knockout (nrf2(-/-)) and wild-type (nrf2(+/+)) mice. Five chemicals were used: two compounds known to react with cysteine residues, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA); one sensitizer known to exhibit mixed reactivity to cysteine and lysine residues, isophorone diisocyanate; and one reacting specifically with lysine residues, trimellitic anhydride and croton oil, a well-known irritant. In the MEST assay, DNCB (1 and 2%) induced a significant increase in ear thickness in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice, suggesting a role for Nrf2 in the control of the inflammatory process. When DNCB was used at 0.25 and 0.5% or when mice were treated with CinA, inflammation was found only in nrf2(-/-) mice. In the LLNA, all chemical sensitizers induced an increase of lymphocyte proliferation in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice for the same chemical concentration. These results reveal an important role for Nrf2 in controlling ACD and lymphocyte proliferation in response to sensitizers. PMID:23564646

  12. Dental allergic contact dermatitis: an interesting case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Pratt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    When patients have persistent oral complaints, it is important to consider allergic contact dermatitis to dental components. We present 3 cases seen at the Ottawa Hospital Patch Test Clinic between 2007 and 2009 with persistent oral lesions. Mercury, methacrylate, and beryllium were found to be the responsible allergens after patch testing. Of note, our case is the fourth reported dental contact dermatitis case to beryllium. Subsequently, a literature review and an examination of reported cases and management strategies were done. There is debate over the necessity of changing dental work after a positive patch-test result. We conclude that it is necessary to do your best to uncover all of the materials used in dental work. Often, material safety sheets do not include all allergens present in products. We advocate that if a positive reaction is found and deemed relevant, then appropriate replacement of the offending agent should be recommended. PMID:23010830

  13. Fiddler's Neck Accompanied by Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Nickel in a Viola Player

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Mihn Sook; Kim, Yong Seok

    2010-01-01

    "Fiddler's neck" is an irritant contact dermatitis that frequently affects violin and viola players. The etiology of the skin changes associated with this condition are probably attributable to a combination of factors--including increased pressure, friction, poor hygiene, and excessive perspiration. Clinically, the lesions generally consist of a localized area of lichenification on the left side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw. Herein, we report a case of fiddler's neck in a viola player, attended by allergic contact dermatitis to the nickel in the metal fixtures of a viola. We hope that our case report draws the attention of dermatologists toward this, and many other skin problems that affect musicians. PMID:20548892

  14. High prevalence of rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization in Estonia and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Pallasaho, Paula; Kainu, Annette; Juusela, Maria; Meren, Mari; Sovijärvi, Anssi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Allergic rhinitis and atopy are more common in urban than rural environments. Non-allergic rhinitis has not been studied to a great extent. We aimed to assess the relationship of rhinitis symptoms with different profiles of allergic sensitization, comparing this in rural and urban environments. Methods The study population consisted of population-based cohorts of adults aged 26–60 from Helsinki, Finland, and rural Saaremaa and urban Tallinn, Estonia. We compared the results of a structured interview and skin prick tests and assessed the risk factors for rhinitis. Results The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms with atopy was 32.7% in Helsinki, 20.8% in Tallinn, and 12.5% in Saaremaa (p<0.001). Rhinitis symptoms without atopy were found in 26.4%, 29.8%, and 29.3% (p=n.s.), respectively. In Helsinki, 87.3% of participants with atopy identified symptoms as allergic, compared to 57.0% in Tallinn and 47.5% in Saaremaa. Childhood in the countryside (OR 0.63), family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.89), and polysensitization (OR 15.99) were significantly associated with rhinitis symptoms with atopy in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common sensitizers were pollens and animals in Helsinki and mites in Estonia. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (OR 1.50) and family history of allergic rhinitis (OR 1.70) were associated with rhinitis symptoms without atopy. Conclusion Rhinitis symptoms without allergic sensitization were common in both Finland and Estonia and were associated with environmental tobacco smoke. Family history of allergic rhinitis predisposed to rhinitis symptoms irrespective of atopy status. PMID:26557256

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis to substitute hair dyes in a patient allergic to para-phenylenediamine: Pure henna, black tea and indigo powder.

    PubMed

    Swan, Bonnie C; Tam, Mei M; Higgins, Claire L; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2016-08-01

    We report a case of a 50-year-old lady with allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine, who in her quest to find a substitute hair dye, subsequently reacted to a number of plant-based hair dyes, including pure henna, black tea and indigo powder respectively. While these substances all contain tannins, testing to possible constituents tannic acid and gallic acid was negative. PMID:26916211

  16. SENSITIZATION AND EXACERBATION OF ALLERGIC DISEASES BY DIESEL ENGINE PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Sanchez, David

    2000-08-20

    Most studies of the health effects of diesel exhaust have focused on the controversial issue of its role in cancer. However, recently the role of combustion products such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in modulating the immune response has garnered much attention. In particular the effect of DEP on allergic and asthmatic diseases has been the focus of many studies. A link between industrialization and allergic disease has long been presumed. Indeed, only 50 years after the first recorded reported case of allergy in 1819, Charles Blackely wrote that the ''hay-fever epidemic'' was associated with the movement of people from the country into the cities. Ishizaki et al. (1987) found that people in Japan living on busy roads lined with cedar trees have more allergies to cedar than residents living on similar streets with much less traffic. Since that time other epidemiological studies have reported similar findings. Kramer, et al., showed that hay fever is greater in residential areas with heavy truck traffic, while Weiland, et al., reported that allergic symptoms correlate with the distance of residences to roads with heavy traffic.

  17. Effect of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin on dinitrochlorobenzene-induced allergic contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiaodan; Jia, Xiaoyi; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Chun; Wei, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a classical experimental model of allergic inflammatory skin disease, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction that is mediated by hapten-specific T lymphocytes. The goal of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of 6'-acetylpaeoniflorin (6-AP) and the effect of 6-AP on the ACD model. 6-AP was synthesized from paeoniflorin (Pae) via acetylation, and the structure was confirmed. There were statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters including t 1/2α , t 1/2β , AUC, MRT and C max among the animals that were orally administered Pae and 6-AP. An ACD model was induced using immunization with dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in BALB/c mice. The mice were orally administered 6-AP (35, 70 and 140 mg/kg/d), Pae (70 mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5 mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. 6-AP significantly inhibited ear swelling and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and epidermal keratinization. Additionally, 6-AP observably alleviated the hyperplasia of red pulp and germinal center appearance, decreased the spleen index and inhibited splenocyte proliferation in the ACD model compared to that of Pae. Furthermore, the study indicated that 6-AP could increase the IL-10 level, while simultaneously reducing the IL-17 level in splenocytes. In summary, these results suggest that 6-AP has a significantly higher anti-inflammatory effect than Pae and that 6-AP might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin diseases. PMID:26798038

  18. Lymphocyte responses to food antigens in food sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N; Shinoda, S; Agata, H; Nishida, T; Miwa, Y; Fujii, H; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    Scores of radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for cow's milk or buckwheat flour and proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin or buckwheat flour were measured in cow's milk or buckwheat flour sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome. In all 3 cow's milk sensitive patients with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome, RAST scores for cow's milk were negative or slightly positive, but PBMCs well responded to bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin, but not to ovalbumin. In a buckwheat flour sensitive patient with allergic tension-fatigue syndrome, RAST scores for buckwheat flour were negative, but PBMCs well responded to buckwheat flour, but not to ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Conversely, in cow's milk or buckwheat flour sensitive patients with immediate allergic symptoms, RAST scores for offending foods were positive although PBMCs did not respond to offending food antigens. These results suggest that proliferative responses of PBMCs to food antigens are very useful for detection of offending foods in allergic tension-fatigue syndrome. PMID:1290724

  19. Photomaximization test for identifying photoallergic contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Kligman, A M

    1980-04-01

    The photomaximization procedure was designed to identify topical photocontact sensitizers following the format of the maximization test for contact sensitizers. The test agent is applied for 24 hours followed by exposure to three Minimal Erythema Doses (MED) of solar simulated radiation twice weekly for 3 weeks (six exposures) in a panel of 25 white Caucasoids. The subjects are challenged 2 weeks later with 4.0 J/cm2 of long-wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-A). Photocontact sensitization was induced to 3,3'4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA); dibromosalicylanilide (DBS) but not to tribomosalicylanilide unless the latter was contaminated with DBS. Jadit and bithionol were weak photoallergens. The highest rate of sensitization was given by 6-methylcoumarin, a widely used synthetic fragrance. Hexachlorophene and trichlorocarbanilide were negative. PMID:7389322

  20. Acrylate-induced allergic contact dermatitis in a car windscreen repairer.

    PubMed

    Fremlin, G; Sansom, J

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of an allergic skin reaction to ultraviolet-cured acrylates in a windscreen repair worker. The patient presented with a 6 month history of fingertip dryness, vesicles and desquamation. He had worked as a self-employed car windscreen repairer for 19 years. Previous management with vinyl glove protection and treatment with clobetasol propionate ointment had produced little improvement. He was patch tested to the British Society for Cutaneous Allergy standard and preservatives series and to the two acrylates used in his work environment, identified using safety data sheets, methyl methacrylate 2% pet and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (2-HEMA) 2% pet. A positive reaction was seen at Day 4 to 2-HEMA, but all other patch tests were negative. An occupational allergic contact dermatitis to 2-HEMA was diagnosed. The patient was given avoidance advice and advised to use nitrile gloves. Although he was unable to give up his current work, he has continued his job using nitrile gloves with marked improvement. PMID:24994850

  1. Autoimmune thyroid disease and allergic contact dermatitis: two immune-related pathologies in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Bluvshteyn-Walker, Sasha

    2012-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl presented signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism. She had a firm goiter (II°) and she stated that she felt constant warmth, nervousness and experienced palpitations. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism was diagnosed (TSH 0.022 mIU/L↓; fT4 21.0 pmol/L; fT3 7.5 pmol/L↑; antithyroperoxidase antibodies 1148.0 U/mL↑; antithyroglobulin antibodies 41.4 U/mL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibodies 2.3 U/L↑). Thyroid ultrasound showed multiple hypoechogenic areas with increased vascular flow. During treatment with methimazole, a small hyperpigmented and moderately irritated region was found on the right side of the umbilicus. It was not an allergic skin reaction to methimazole but the classic contact allergic dermatitis, probably a result of nickel in her belt. Two years after stopping the treatment she returned to clinics. She was euthyroid but manifested a firm goiter and ultrasonographic features of autoimmune thyroid disease. The diagnostic work-up concerning antithyroid antibodies is mandatory to confirm the ongoing autoimmune process with a long-term significance. PMID:22570947

  2. CD70 and Th17 are involved in human contact sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David S.; Gulati, Nicholas; Martiniuk, Frank; Levis, William R.

    2012-01-01

    CD70 (CD27L) has been shown to be preferentially expressed on Th1, but not Th2, CD4+ lymphocytes in murine contact sensitivity. The CD70-CD27 co-stimulatory pathway as well as the Th17 subset of lymphocytes have also been identified in human contact sensitivity reactions. The authors have previously reported increased expression of CD70 and the Th17-specific transcription factor retinoid orphan receptor gamma T in the elicitation phase of allergic contact dermatitis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The manipulation of these pathways has potential for ameliorating autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Also, upregulation of the CD70-CD27 and Th17 pathways has been associated with the remarkable ability of topical sensitizers to treat warts and skin cancers including melanoma. As natural killer and natural killer T cells are also involved in contact sensitivity, future studies investigating the function of these cells are necessary to elucidate the transition between innate and acquired immune responses in the context of the Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T cell paradigm. PMID:21968671

  3. Clinical and experimental aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to para-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    McFadden, John P; Yeo, Lyndsey; White, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    The allergenicity of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is related to oxidative processes on and in the skin. Patients with stronger reactions to PPD are significantly more likely to have a clear history of reacting to normal consumer hair dye. Those with stronger reactions are much less likely to be still dyeing their hair. Individuals allergic to PPD have a significant frequency of simultaneous sensitivity to chemically related clothing dyes. A 24-hour test application of hair dye, which has been proposed as a self-screen, does not reliably predict all individuals allergic to PPD. Duration studies have proven that exposures of 5 to 30 minutes, the period used for hair dyeing, are sufficient to elicit reactions. A significant rise in the frequency of PPD allergy was observed over 7 years among our patch test population. Active sensitization from standard PPD patch testing is not common. Immunologic findings relating to PPD can correctly predict that if hair dyes are commonly used there will be a significant prevalence of allergy to PPD among the normal adult population and that some clinical reactions will be severe. To protect the public from allergy to chemicals in consumer products, immunologic and epidemiologic data should both be used by regulatory authorities. PMID:21496741

  4. [Facial allergic contact dermatitis. Data from the IVDK and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A; Szliska, C; Uter, W

    2009-01-01

    The face is exposed to many foreign substances and may thus be a site of allergic contact dermatitis. Our aim is to elucidate the spectrum of factors associated with facial dermatitis by analyzing data of patients patch tested in the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) between 1995 and 2007. In 18,572 patients the main anatomical site of dermatitis was the face. Among these, the proportion of females and of patients with past or present atopic eczema was increased, while probable occupational causation was less common than in the overall group. Cosmetic allergens, as well as nickel, were significantly more common in women than men, including fragrance mix (10.8% vs. 8.3%), p-phenylenediamine (4.0% vs. 2.8%), lanolin alcohols (3.0% vs. 2.2%), Lyral(TM) (3.1% vs. 2.0%) and bufexamac (1.8% vs. 1.1%). In comparison, only epoxy resin contact allergy was diagnosed significantly more often in men than women: In patients with airborne contact dermatitis, over-represented allergens included sesquiterpene lactone mix, compositae mix, epoxy resin, (chloro-) methylisothiazolinone and oil of turpentine. In the clinical approach to patients with facial dermatitis, occupational airborne causation should be considered in addition to non-occupational (e.g., cosmetic) allergen exposure. PMID:19099269

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to plants: an analysis of 68 patients tested at the Skin and Cancer Foundation.

    PubMed

    Cook, D K; Freeman, S

    1997-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to plant allergens is a common problem in Australia. We present the cumulative experience of the Contact Dermatitis Clinic of the Skin and Cancer Foundation (Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia) a tertiary referral clinic. Results from a series of 68 patients with positive patch tests to 88 plant allergens are reported. We found that Grevillea species, Compositae, Rhus, Alstroemeria and various timber sawdusts were the most common plant allergens. PMID:9293658

  6. Uricase Inhibits Nitrogen Dioxide-Promoted Allergic Sensitization to Inhaled Ovalbumin Independent of Uric Acid Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ather, Jennifer L; Burgess, Edward J; Hoyt, Laura R; Randall, Matthew J; Mandal, Mridul K; Matthews, Dwight E; Boyson, Jonathan E; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental air pollutant and endogenously generated oxidant that contributes to the exacerbation of respiratory disease and can function as an adjuvant to allergically sensitize to an innocuous inhaled Ag. Because uric acid has been implicated as a mediator of adjuvant activity, we sought to determine whether uric acid was elevated and participated in a mouse model of NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. We found that uric acid was increased in the airways of mice exposed to NO2 and that administration of uricase inhibited the development of OVA-driven allergic airway disease subsequent to OVA challenge, as well as the generation of OVA-specific Abs. However, uricase was itself immunogenic, inducing a uricase-specific adaptive immune response that occurred even when the enzymatic activity of uricase had been inactivated. Inhibition of the OVA-specific response was not due to the capacity of uricase to inhibit the early steps of OVA uptake or processing and presentation by dendritic cells, but occurred at a later step that blocked OVA-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Although blocking uric acid formation by allopurinol did not affect outcomes, administration of ultra-clean human serum albumin at protein concentrations equivalent to that of uricase inhibited NO2-promoted allergic airway disease. These results indicate that, although uric acid levels are elevated in the airways of NO2-exposed mice, the powerful inhibitory effect of uricase administration on allergic sensitization is mediated more through Ag-specific immune deviation than via suppression of allergic sensitization, a mechanism to be considered in the interpretation of results from other experimental systems. PMID:27465529

  7. Contact allergens in persons with leg ulcers: a Canadian study in contact sensitization.

    PubMed

    Smart, Victoria; Alavi, Afsaneh; Coutts, Pat; Fierheller, Marjorie; Coelho, Sunita; Linn Holness, D; Sibbald, R Gary

    2008-09-01

    Individuals with chronic leg ulcers often develop contact allergic reactions to topical preparations used to treat their wounds and the surrounding skin. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive patch test responses to common allergens in patients with leg ulcers or venous disease. A case series of 100 consecutive, consenting patients with chronic venous disease and other causes of leg ulcers that were available for patch testing were enrolled. The patients were tested with 38 common allergens, including those most relevant to leg ulcers. A total of 46% of the patients had at least 1 positive patch test response. Multiple reactions in the same patient were common. The most frequent groups of sensitizers were fragrances, lanolin, antibacterial agents, and rubber-related allergens. Though the prevalence of positive patch test reactions is high in this population, it is lower than commonly reported. This may be the result of clinical practice that considered the avoidance of common sensitizers in the management of patients with leg ulcers. PMID:18757387

  8. Does allergic contact dermatitis from formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes exist in the USA?

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Maibach, Howard I

    2010-03-01

    Recent US studies have presented case series of patient with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) allegedly caused by formaldehyde in clothes treated with durable-press chemical finishes (DPCF), which are known formaldehyde releasers. However, the amounts of formaldehyde released by modern DPCF are thought to be well below the levels previously estimated to be able to elicit ACD. The objectives of this review are (i) to investigate whether clothes sold in the USA may contain enough free formaldehyde to elicit ACD in previously sensitized individuals and (ii) to assess the validity of US reports on ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF treated clothes. Literature was examined using various resources. The threshold level for formaldehyde in clothes that may cause ACD in sensitized individuals is unknown; we present data suggesting that levels < 200 ppm will be safe for most patients and that textiles will rarely contain higher amounts. All US studies presenting patients with ACD from formaldehyde in clothes had some weaknesses and in no report was the diagnosis proven beyond doubt. Currently, there is no definite proof that textile ACD from formaldehyde in DPCF in the USA exists. Future research should be directed at establishing the elicitation threshold and the amounts of formaldehyde present in textiles. PMID:19807751

  9. Targeting Effector Memory T Cells with the Small Molecule Kv1.3 Blocker PAP-1 Suppresses Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Philippe; Sankaranarayanan, Ananthakrishnan; Homerick, Daniel; Griffey, Stephen; Wulff, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has been recently identified as a molecular target that allows for selective pharmacological suppression of effector memory T (TEM) cells without affecting the function of naïve and central memory T cells. We here investigated whether PAP-1, a small molecule Kv1.3 blocker (EC50 = 2nM), could suppress allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In a rat model of ACD, we first confirmed that the infiltrating cells in the elicitation phase are indeed CD8+ CD45RC− memory T cells with high Kv1.3 expression. In accordance with its selective effect on TEM cells, PAP-1 did not impair sensitization, but potently suppressed oxazolone-induced inflammation by inhibiting the infiltration of CD8+ T cells and reducing the production of the inflammatory cytokines IFN- γ, IL-2, and IL-17 when administered intraperitoneally or orally during the elicitation phase. PAP-1 was equally effective when applied topically, demonstrating that it effectively penetrates skin. We further show that PAP-1 is not a sensitizer or an irritant and exhibits no toxicity in a 28-day toxicity study. Based on these results we propose that PAP-1 could potentially be developed into a drug for the topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. PMID:17273162

  10. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days. PMID:25276110

  11. AHAPS-functionalized silica nanoparticles do not modulate allergic contact dermatitis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Anja; Nordmeyer, Daniel; Mundhenk, Lars; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Lademann, Jürgen; Graf, Christina; Rühl, Eckart; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease in people and may become a potential site of exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NP) possess a promising potential for various medical and non-medical applications, including normal and diseased skin as target organs. However, it has been shown that negatively charged SiO2-NP may act as proinflammatory adjuvant in allergic diseases. The effect of topical SiO2-NP exposure on preexisting ACD has not been studied to date although this reflects a common in vivo situation. Of particular interest are the potential effects of positively charged N-(6-aminohexyl)-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AHAPS)-functionalized SiO2-NP which are promising candidates for delivery systems, including gene delivery into the skin. Here, the effects of such AHAPS-functionalized SiO2-NP (55 ± 6 nm in diameter) were studied in an oxazolone-induced ACD model in SKH1 mice and compared to ACD mice treated with vehicle only. The clinical course of the disease was assessed by monitoring of the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the erythema. In histologic and morphometric analyses, the distribution of particles, the degree of inflammation, epidermal thickness, and the inflammatory infiltrate were characterized and quantified by standard and special histological stains as well as immunohistochemistry for CD3+ lymphocytes. To assess possible systemic effects, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Following administration of AHAPS-SiO2-NP for five consecutive days, no effects were observed in all clinical, histologic, morphometric, and molecular parameters investigated. In conclusion, positively charged AHAPS-SiO2-NP seem not to affect the course of ACD during exposure for 5 days.

  12. Neutrophils are required for both the sensitization and elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Felix C.; Németh, Tamás; Csepregi, Janka Z.; Dudeck, Anne; Roers, Axel; Ozsvári, Béla; Oswald, Eva; Puskás, László G.; Jakob, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis and its animal model, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), are T cell–mediated inflammatory skin diseases induced by contact allergens. Though numerous cellular and molecular players are known, the mechanism of chemical-induced sensitization remains poorly understood. Here, we identify neutrophils as crucial players in the sensitization phase of CHS. Genetic deficiency of neutrophils caused by myeloid-specific deletion of Mcl-1 or antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils before sensitization abrogated the CHS response. Neutrophil deficiency reduced contact allergen-induced cytokine production, gelatinase release, and reactive oxygen species production in naive mice. Mast cell deficiency inhibited neutrophil accumulation at the site of sensitization. In turn, neutrophils were required for contact allergen-induced release of further neutrophil-attracting chemokines, migration of DCs to the draining lymph nodes, and priming of allergen-specific T cells. Lymph node cells from mice sensitized in the absence of neutrophils failed to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. Furthermore, no CHS response could be induced when neutrophils were depleted before elicitation or when normally sensitized lymph node cells were transferred to neutrophil-deficient recipients, indicating an additional role for neutrophils in the elicitation phase. Collectively, our data identify neutrophils to be critically involved in both the sensitization and elicitation phase of CHS. PMID:25512469

  13. Neutrophils are required for both the sensitization and elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, Felix C; Németh, Tamás; Csepregi, Janka Z; Dudeck, Anne; Roers, Axel; Ozsvári, Béla; Oswald, Eva; Puskás, László G; Jakob, Thilo; Mócsai, Attila; Martin, Stefan F

    2015-01-12

    Allergic contact dermatitis and its animal model, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), are T cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases induced by contact allergens. Though numerous cellular and molecular players are known, the mechanism of chemical-induced sensitization remains poorly understood. Here, we identify neutrophils as crucial players in the sensitization phase of CHS. Genetic deficiency of neutrophils caused by myeloid-specific deletion of Mcl-1 or antibody-mediated depletion of neutrophils before sensitization abrogated the CHS response. Neutrophil deficiency reduced contact allergen-induced cytokine production, gelatinase release, and reactive oxygen species production in naive mice. Mast cell deficiency inhibited neutrophil accumulation at the site of sensitization. In turn, neutrophils were required for contact allergen-induced release of further neutrophil-attracting chemokines, migration of DCs to the draining lymph nodes, and priming of allergen-specific T cells. Lymph node cells from mice sensitized in the absence of neutrophils failed to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. Furthermore, no CHS response could be induced when neutrophils were depleted before elicitation or when normally sensitized lymph node cells were transferred to neutrophil-deficient recipients, indicating an additional role for neutrophils in the elicitation phase. Collectively, our data identify neutrophils to be critically involved in both the sensitization and elicitation phase of CHS. PMID:25512469

  14. Exposure to cats: update on risks for sensitization and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Dharmage, Shyamali C; Lodge, Caroline L; Matheson, Melanie C; Campbell, Brittany; Lowe, Adrian J

    2012-10-01

    Cats are the pets most commonly implicated in the etiology of asthma and allergic disease. However, systematic reviews have concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the idea that cat exposure in early life increases the risk of allergic disease. Indeed, it appears most likely that cat exposure is protective against allergic diseases. Recent large prospective studies have shown that living with a cat during childhood, especially during the first year of a child's life, could be protective. However, any advice given to the parents should also incorporate how new acquisition of cats can affect other family members, especially those who are already sensitized. Research is urgently needed to determine whether the suggested impact of acquisition of cats in adult life is modified by the person's childhood pet ownership, to help parents who seek advice on whether or not to get a cat. PMID:22878928

  15. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  16. Molecular aspects of allergic contact dermatitis to plants. Recent progress in phytodermatochemistry.

    PubMed

    Benezra, C; Ducombs, G

    1987-01-01

    A classification of plants based on the chemical structures of their skin sensitizers is presented. A whole range of chemical structures of contact sensitizers exists in plants containing sesquiterpene lactones (Compositae, Frullania, Lauraceae etc.), tulipalin (Tulipa, Alstroemeria etc.), quinones (Primula and tropical woods), long chain phenols (Anacardiaceae, Ginkgoaceae) and miscellaneous structures such as aldehydes, ketones, terpene hydrocarbons etc. Knowledge of allergens in various plants allows prediction of cross-reactivity. PMID:3569049

  17. Nitrogen Dioxide and Allergic Sensitization in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Charles H.; Yeatts, Karin B.; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Vizuete, William; Salo, Päivi M.; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; Chu, Haitao; Zeldin, Darryl C.; London, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is a risk factor for asthma and allergic diseases. The relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization is unclear. Objective To investigate the relationship between ambient air pollution and allergic sensitization in a nationally representative sample of the US population. Methods We linked annual average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 10 µm (PM10), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM25), and summer concentrations of ozone (O3), to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) data for participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition to the monitor-based air pollution estimates, we used the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to increase the representation of rural participants in our sample. Logistic regression with population-based sampling weights was used to calculate adjusted prevalence odds ratios per 10 ppb increase in O3 and NO2, per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10, and per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 adjusting for race, gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban/rural status. Results Using CMAQ data, increased levels of NO2 were associated with positive IgE to any (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04, 1.27), inhalant (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02, 1.33), and outdoor (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03, 1.31) allergens. Higher PM2.5 levels were associated with positivity to indoor allergen-specific IgE (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13, 1.36). Effect estimates were similar using monitored data. Conclusions Increased ambient NO2 was consistently associated with increased prevalence of allergic sensitization. PMID:24045117

  18. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Priscila Ferreira de Sousa; Gangl, Katharina; Vieira, Francisco de Assis Machado; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Linhart, Birgit; Flicker, Sabine; Fiebig, Helmut; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio; Valenta, Rudolf; Niederberger, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Background Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet. Objective To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules. Methods We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities. Results Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%), Phl p 5 (82%), Phl p 2 (76%) followed by Phl p 4 (64%), Phl p 6 (45%), Phl p 11 (18%) and Phl p 12 (18%). Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found. Conclusions Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population. PMID:26067084

  19. Selective depletion of Foxp3+ Treg during sensitization phase aggravates experimental allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Baru, Abdul Mannan; Hartl, Andrea; Lahl, Katharina; Krishnaswamy, Jayendra Kumar; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Yildirim, Ali O; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Behrens, Georg M N; Sparwasser, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies highlight the role of Treg in preventing unnecessary responses to allergens and maintaining functional immune tolerance in the lung. We investigated the role of Treg during the sensitization phase in a murine model of experimental allergic airway inflammation by selectively depleting the Treg population in vivo. DEpletion of REGulatory T cells (DEREG) mice were depleted of Treg by diphtheria toxin injection. Allergic airway inflammation was induced using OVA as a model allergen. Pathology was assessed by scoring for differential cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage, IgE and IgG1 levels in serum, cytokine secretion analysis of lymphocytes from lung draining lymph nodes and lung histology. Use of DEREG mice allowed us for the first time to track and specifically deplete both CD25(+) and CD25(-) Foxp3(+) Treg, and to analyze their significance in limiting pathology in allergic airway inflammation. We observed that depletion of Treg during the priming phase of an active immune response led to a dramatic exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, suggesting an essential role played by Treg in regulating immune responses against allergens as early as the sensitization phase via maintenance of functional tolerance. PMID:20544727

  20. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Takuma; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko; Wang, Linan; Murata, Mariko; Kuribayashi, Kagemasa

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants

  1. Xanthohumol inhibits IL-12 production and reduces chronic allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Chang; You, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyun Jung; Cho, Cheong-Weon; Lee, Ik-Soo; Kang, Bok Yun

    2010-05-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) and its related compounds were evaluated for their effects on modulating the production of interleukin (IL)-12, the most important factor driving T helper 1 immune responses. XN showed the strongest inhibitory effect on IL-12 production in macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS/interferon-gamma. Xanthohumol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (XNG) inhibited IL-12 production less effectively than XN. Isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin showed comparatively lower inhibitory effects on IL-12 production than XNG. (2S)-5-methoxy-8-prenylnaringenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside did not exert any effect on IL-12 production. We then tested how these compounds affected NF-kappaB binding activity to the kappaB site in the nucleus. The compounds inhibited kappaB binding in macrophages with the same potency order as IL-12 inhibition. Furthermore, we investigated whether XN, which showed the most effective reduction of IL-12 production, attenuated skin inflammation. Chronic allergic contact dermatitis, an experimental model for psoriasis, was used to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of XN in vivo. XN treatment reduced the degree of ear thickening induced by oxazolone. Taken together, XN might be effective as an anti-inflammatory agent to reduce skin inflammation by inhibiting IL-12 production. PMID:20144742

  2. Allergic sensitization modifies the pulmonary expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Vargas, Mario H; Ruiz, Víctor; Carbajal, Verónica; Campos-Bedolla, Patricia; Mercadillo-Herrera, Paulina; Arreola-Ramírez, José Luis; Segura-Medina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    There is mounting evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) plays a role in asthma. However, scarce information exists about the pulmonary expression of 5-HT receptors and its modification after allergic sensitization. In the present work, we explored the expression of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-ht5a, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors in lungs from control and sensitized guinea pigs through qPCR and Western blot. In control animals, mRNA from all receptors was detectable in lung homogenates, especially from 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors. Sensitized animals had decreased mRNA expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HT4 receptors and increased that of 5-HT7 receptor. In contrast, they had increased protein expression of 5-HT2A receptor in bronchial epithelium and of 5-HT4 receptor in lung parenchyma. The degree of airway response to the allergic challenge was inversely correlated with mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor. In summary, our results showed that major 5-HT receptor subtypes are constitutively expressed in the guinea pig lung, and that allergic sensitization modifies the expression of 5-HT2A, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors. PMID:26657047

  3. Improved detection of allergen-specific T-cell responses in allergic contact dermatitis through the addition of 'cytokine cocktails'.

    PubMed

    Moed, Helen; von Blomberg, Mary; Bruynzeel, Derk P; Scheper, Rik; Gibbs, Susan; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis of allergic hypersensitivity is skin patch testing with the suspected allergens. This diagnostic tool, however, has distinct disadvantages, and therefore the development of alternative or complementary in vitro tests is of great importance. In this study, we evaluate the applicability of an in vitro test method, as developed earlier for nickel allergy, to detect allergen-specific T cells in the blood of patients allergic to frequent sensitizers (chromate, cobalt, paraphenylenediamine, fragrances and chloromethyl-isothiazolinone). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of allergic patients and healthy controls were cultured in the absence or presence of allergen. Additionally, type 1 (IL-7 and IL-12) or type 2 (IL-7 and IL-4) stimulating cytokines were added; after 6-day proliferation, IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretions were determined. Without the addition of cytokines, consistent allergen-induced proliferation was observed in PBMCs of nickel-allergic patients only. By contrast, the addition of type 1 or type 2 stimulating cytokines resulted in a significantly enhanced allergen-specific proliferation for all allergens tested (sensitivity increased from 26 to 43% or 38%, respectively, P < 0.05). In these cultures, allergen-induced IFN-gamma and IL-5 secretion was also significantly increased, compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05, for IFN-gamma sensitivity 79%, specificity 93%; for IL-5 sensitivity 74%, specificity 81%). In conclusion, these results demonstrate an increased proliferative capacity and cytokine production by allergen-specific T cells from allergic patients, but not of healthy individuals upon stimulation with allergens in combination with type 1 or 2 skewing cytokines. The present data warrant further exploration of the application of this test to a broader set of allergens. PMID:16026586

  4. Adoptive transfer of allergic airway responses with sensitized lymphocytes in BN rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, A; Rossi, P; Renzi, P M; Xu, L J; Guttmann, R D; Martin, J G

    1995-07-01

    To evaluate the role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of allergic bronchoconstriction, we investigated whether allergic airway responses are adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in Brown Norway (BN) rats. Animals were actively sensitized to ovalbumin (OA) or sham sensitized, and 14 d later mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from intrathoracic lymph nodes, passed through a nylon wool column, and transferred to naive syngeneic rats. Recipients were challenged with aerosolized OA or bovine serum albumin (BSA) (5% wt/vol) and analyzed for changes in lung resistance (RL), airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine (MCh), and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. Recipients of MNCs from sensitized rats responded to OA inhalation and exhibited sustained increases in RL throughout the 8-h observation period, but without usual early airway responses. Recipients of sham-sensitized MNCs or BSA-challenged recipients failed to respond to antigen challenge. At 32 h after OA exposure, airway responsiveness to MCh was increased in four of seven rats that had received sensitized MNCs (p = 0.035). BAL eosinophils increased at 32 h in the recipients of both sensitized and sham-sensitized MNCs. However, eosinophil numbers in BAL were inversely correlated with airway responsiveness in the recipients of sensitized MNCs (r = -0.788, p = 0.036). OA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) was undetectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in recipient rats following adoptive transfer. In conclusion, allergic late airway responses (LAR) and cholinergic airway hyperresponsiveness, but not antigen-specific IgE and early responses, were adoptively transferred by antigen-primed lymphocytes in BN rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599864

  5. Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). Objectives: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1.0% pet). Results: 54 Fifty-four (M:F 21:33) patients showed positive patch tests from PPD. Eight of these patients also showed positive patch test reaction from fragrance mix, thiuram mix, paraben mix, or colophony. Fifty-seven (71%) patients affected were aged older than 40 years. The duration of dermatitis varied from < 1 month to > 1 year with exacerbation following hair coloring. Forty-nine patients had dermatitis of scalp and/or scalp margins and 23 patients had face and neck dermatitis. Periorbital dermatitis, chronic actinic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme-like lesions were seen in 4, 2, and 1 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Hair dyes and PPD constitute a significant cause of contact dermatitis. There is an urgent need for creating consumer awareness regarding hair-dyes contact sensitivity and the significance of performing sensitivity testing prior to actual use. PMID:26225326

  6. Mucosal production of uric acid by airway epithelial cells contributes to particulate matter-induced allergic sensitization.

    PubMed

    Gold, M J; Hiebert, P R; Park, H Y; Stefanowicz, D; Le, A; Starkey, M R; Deane, A; Brown, A C; Liu, G; Horvat, J C; Ibrahim, Z A; Sukkar, M B; Hansbro, P M; Carlsten, C; VanEeden, S; Sin, D D; McNagny, K M; Knight, D A; Hirota, J A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM), a major component of air pollution, contributes to increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. PM induces innate immune responses and contributes to allergic sensitization, although the mechanisms governing this process remain unclear. Lung mucosal uric acid has also been linked to allergic sensitization. The links among PM exposure, uric acid, and allergic sensitization remain unexplored. We therefore investigated the mechanisms behind PM-induced allergic sensitization in the context of lung mucosal uric acid. PM10 and house dust mite exposure selectively induced lung mucosal uric acid production and secretion in vivo, which did not occur with other challenges (lipopolysaccharide, virus, bacteria, or inflammatory/fibrotic stimuli). PM10-induced uric acid mediates allergic sensitization and augments antigen-specific T-cell proliferation, which is inhibited by uricase. We then demonstrate that human airway epithelial cells secrete uric acid basally and after stimulation through a previously unidentified mucosal secretion system. Our work discovers a previously unknown mechanism of air pollution-induced, uric acid-mediated, allergic sensitization that may be important in the pathogenesis of asthma. PMID:26509876

  7. Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma in Southern Croatia: Impact of Sensitization to Ambrosia elatior

    PubMed Central

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Kanceljak-Macan, Božica; Macan, Jelena; Gudelj, Ivan; Grbić, Dragica

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify pollen types in southern Croatia and investigate the impact of sensitization to Ambrosia elatior (A. elatior) on symptoms and treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Methods The study recruited 120 patients from Split-Dalmatian County with seasonal rhinitis and asthma symptoms and positive skin prick test to one or more common inhaled allergens. Patients with positive skin prick test and increased specific IgE to A. elatior (n = 56) were included in the follow-up study during the A. elatior pollen season. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms were scored and drug treatment recorded using standardized questionnaires. Also, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and eosinophil count in peripheral blood were measured. Type and pollen concentration of A. elatior in the air over the nine-week pollen season were determined on the glass slides using the gravimetric method. The results were expressed as the proportion of A. elatior pollen in the total pollen. Results Fifty-six of 120 patients (46.7%) were sensitized to A. elatior. Its proportion in total pollen peaked to 12% in the first week of September. Forty-one patients who completed the follow-up study showed a significantly higher score of symptoms during this peak period than in the beginning of the pollen season for seasonal allergic rhinitis (median±interquartile range, 50 ± 11 vs 7 ± 4; P<0.001) and for seasonal allergic asthma (median±interquartile range, 12 ± 2 vs 0 ± 0; P<0.001). Conclusion A. elatior is an important cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma and must be included in the routine diagnostic procedures in southern Croatia. PMID:17309141

  8. Oral supplementation with areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arecae semen, the dried slice of areca nuts, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat intestinal parasitosis, rectal tenesmus and diarrhea. Areca nuts contain a rich amount of polyphenols that have been shown to modulate the functionality of mast cells and T cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of polyphenol-enriched areca nut extracts (PANE) against food allergy, a T cell-mediated immune disorder. Methods BALB/c mice were left untreated or administered with PANE (0.05% and 0.1%) via drinking water throughout the entire experiment. The mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) twice by intraperitoneal injection, and then repeatedly challenged with OVA by gavage to induce food allergic responses. Results PANE administration attenuated OVA-induced allergic responses, including the occurrence of diarrhea and the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells in the duodenum. The serum level of OVA-specific IgE and the expression of interleukin-4 in the duodenum were suppressed by PANE treatment. In addition, PANE administration induced Gr-1+, IL-10+ and Gr-1+IL-10+ cells in the duodenum. Conclusion These results demonstrate that oral intake of areca-derived polyphenols attenuates food allergic responses accompanied with a decreased Th2 immunity and an enhanced induction of functional myeloid-derived suppressor cells. PMID:23816049

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  10. Biological monitoring and allergic sensitization in traffic police officers exposed to urban air pollution.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Tatò, I; Bellotta, M R; Russo, A; Martina, G; Daprile, C; Di Leo, E; Nettis, E; Assennato, G

    2006-01-01

    Urban air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the occupational exposure to urban pollution through biological monitoring of PAHs and CO airborne levels in 122 traffic wardens in Bari, Italy and to investigate sensitization to inhaled allergens in a subgroup of workers. After filling in a questionnaire on lifestyle habits and occupational history, a medical examination, spirometry were carried out and blood samples were taken; the measurement of exhaled CO and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) was performed and data on the air quality of Bari Municipality were obtained. Specific IgE dosage and skin prick tests were done on 18 workers giving altered values of spirometry or anamnestic allergic symptoms. Urinary 1-HOP showed median levels of 0.1 microMol/Mol(creat) (range 0.02-6.68) and was not influenced by smoking habits, work tasks, area of the city and environmental levels of PM10. Exhaled CO, with median value of 1 ppm (range 0-27), was significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers, while no other variable seemed to play a role in modifying the levels. Specific IgE production versus inhalant allergens was found in 6 cases. Positive skin prick test results were observed in 11 cases. Allergic rhinitis was diagnosed in 6 cases. At least one of the allergometric tests performed was positive in 61 percent of the subjects. In conclusion, our results suggest the importance of introducing allergic status evaluation in this class of workers, exposed to several urban air pollutants. PMID:17291408

  11. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  12. Evaluation of a Self-Test Device Used in Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Peter; Bjarnøe, Henriette; Aberer, Werner; Brasch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of dermatologic resources in many parts of the world, self-testing by patients is not only of interest for internal medicine but also for dermatology. In this open, nonrandomized, multicenter diagnostic trial involving subjects with suspected contact sensitization to nickel and/or a fragrance mix, we assessed the agreement of self-testing by subjects with readings made by dermatologists. The self-test product (Nixema(TM)) is based on Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test (TRUE Test®) technology. One hundred and sixty-five subjects self-tested the ready-made patch-test product. The test was applied for 48 h and then read after 3 or 4 days. It was also evaluated independently by experienced dermatologists after 3 or 4 days. In the 162 evaluable subjects, the proportion of agreement for both allergens together was 89.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 83.7-93.8], the sensitivity was 97.5 % (95% CI 86.8-99.9) and the specificity was 86.9% (95% CI 79.6-92.3). Cohen's kappa was also high at 0.749 (95% CI 0.637-0.862). Discrepancies between the subjects' readings and the dermatologists' readings were mainly due to the subjects interpreting reactions of 'irritant' or 'doubtful' as 'positive'. Apart from itching and burning sensations and tape irritation, no side effects were observed. In conclusion, this study showed a high rate of agreement between the self-reading of the upper arm and the readings made by the dermatologists. The upper arm proved to be an appropriate area for self-testing. Self-testing may improve the screening for contact sensitization for patients, particularly where dermatologic health resources are scarce. PMID:26183752

  13. IL-21R is essential for epicutaneous sensitization and allergic skin inflammation in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haoli; Oyoshi, Michiko K; Le, Yi; Bianchi, Teresa; Koduru, Suresh; Mathias, Clinton B; Kumar, Lalit; Le Bras, Séverine; Young, Deborah; Collins, Mary; Grusby, Michael J; Wenzel, Joerg; Bieber, Thomas; Boes, Marianne; Silberstein, Leslie E; Oettgen, Hans C; Geha, Raif S

    2009-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common allergic inflammatory skin disease caused by a combination of intense pruritus, scratching, and epicutaneous (e.c.) sensitization with allergens. To explore the roles of IL-21 and IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) in AD, we examined skin lesions from patients with AD and used a mouse model of allergic skin inflammation. IL-21 and IL-21R expression was upregulated in acute skin lesions of AD patients and in mouse skin subjected to tape stripping, a surrogate for scratching. The importance of this finding was highlighted by the fact that both Il21r-/- mice and WT mice treated with soluble IL-21R-IgG2aFc fusion protein failed to develop skin inflammation after e.c. sensitization of tape-stripped skin. Adoptively transferred OVA-specific WT CD4+ T cells accumulated poorly in draining LNs (DLNs) of e.c. sensitized Il21r-/- mice. This was likely caused by both DC-intrinsic and nonintrinsic effects, because trafficking of skin DCs to DLNs was defective in Il21r-/- mice and, to a lesser extent, in WT mice reconstituted with Il21r-/- BM. More insight into this defect was provided by the observation that skin DCs from tape-stripped WT mice, but not Il21r-/- mice, upregulated CCR7 and migrated toward CCR7 ligands. Treatment of epidermal and dermal cells with IL-21 activated MMP2, which has been implicated in trafficking of skin DCs. These results suggest an important role for IL-21R in the mobilization of skin DCs to DLNs and the subsequent allergic response to e.c. introduced antigen. PMID:19075398

  14. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  15. Sensitization and exposure to pet allergens in asthmatics versus non-asthmatics with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, A H; Holmen, T L; Bjermer, L

    2001-02-01

    In sensitized subjects with allergic rhinitis (AR) or asthma, allergen exposure provokes symptoms. Among non-asthmatics with AR, an association between allergen sensitization, pollen season and lower airway inflammation has been demonstrated. Our aims were to compare AR and asthma with regard to patterns of allergen sensitization, the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and levels of exhaled nitric oxide (ENO). Finally, we wanted to relate our findings to previous or current exposure to household pets. Four hundred and thirty-one adolescents with different clinical phenotypes were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey. They were investigated with allergy screening, measurements of ENO and a methacholine bronchoprovocation test. Sensitization to pet allergens (cat, dog and horse) was associated with increased AHR and ENO both in asthmatics and non-asthmatics with AR. The risk of being sensitized to cat allergens was significantly reduced in those who had kept cats vs. those who had never kept them. Keeping dogs or horses did not influence the risk of being sensitized to the respective allergens. Only in steroid-naive, non-smoking asthmatics, a trend towards increased ENO in those sensitized and exposed to cat or dog allergens was seen. Although sensitization towards pet allergens was associated with inflammation in the lower airways irrespective of clinical phenotype, keeping pets did not increase the risk of being sensitized to pet allergens. PMID:11217908

  16. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5-10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. PMID:22266348

  17. The sensitizing capacity of Compositae plants. I. Occupational contact dermatitis from Arnica longifolia Eaton.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M; Herrmann, H D; Willuhn, G

    1978-02-01

    Three patients with occupational contact dermatitis due to Arnica longifolia Eaton and Arnica montana L. are reported. During cultivation, harvesting of the flower heads, chemical investigation of the sesquiterpene lactone constituents and preparation of therapeutic tinctures, they had frequent contact with the plant materials. Patch tests with the two sesquiterpene lactones carabron and helenalin, isolated during investigation from A. longifolia Eaton, were positive in all three patients, though the second patient had never shown visible allergic reactions of the skin. Sensitization experiments with carabron in five guinea pigs were successful. The investigation results revealed that carabron, helenalin and the acetyl derivative of helenalin must be considered as the sensitizers of A. longifolia, and helenalin acetate and properly arnifolin as sensitizers of A. montana. Studies on cross reactivity in the sensitized animals with six related sesquiterpene lactones showed that only those compounds gave a positive test response which contain an alpha-methylene gamma-lactone group. Cross reactions were obtained with a crude extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L. The case reports supported by the patch test and investigation results demonstrate that persons handling a new drug from the Compositae family run a risk of developing an allergy after intensive contact with the plant and its constituents. PMID:148995

  18. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  19. Effects of ozone on the respiratory health, allergic sensitization, and cellular immune system in children

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, H.; Popp, W.; Wagner, C.; Reiser, K.; Schmoeger, J.B.; Boeck, A.H.; Herkner, K.; Radunsky, K. )

    1991-11-01

    To investigate the lasting effects of high ozone concentrations under environmental conditions, we examined the respiratory health, pulmonary function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, allergic sensitization, and lymphocyte subpopulations of 10- to 14-yr-old children. A total of 218 children recruited from an area with high ozone concentrations (Group A) were tested against 281 children coming from an area with low ozone concentrations (Group B). As to subjective complaints, categorized as 'usually cough with or without phlegm,' 'breathlessness,' and 'susceptibility to chest colds,' there was no difference between the two groups. The lung function parameters were similar, but in Group A subjects' bronchial hyperresponsiveness occurred more frequently and was found to be more severe than in Group B (29.4 versus 19.9%, p less than 0.02; PD20 2,100 {plus minus} 87 versus 2,350 {plus minus} 58 micrograms, p less than 0.05). In both groups the number of children who had been suffering from allergic diseases and sensitization to aeroallergens, found by means of the skin test, was the same. Comparison of the total IgE levels showed no difference at all between the two groups. As far as the white blood cells are concerned, the total and differential cell count was the same, whereas lymphocyte subpopulations showed readily recognizable changes.

  20. Sensitivity to Five Types of House Dust Mite in a Group of Allergic Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Shereen; Abdul-Rahman, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    Background: The published data on house dust mite (HDM) sensitization from Egypt are scanty. We sought to investigate the sensitization to five different types of HDM among a group of allergic children in a trial to outline the most frequent sensitizing strains in the Cairo Province. Methods: We consecutively enrolled 100 asthmatic patients, aged 1–7 years, of whom 22 had concomitant skin allergy. Skin prick testing was performed using allergen extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Acarus siro. Results: Twenty-four patients (24%) were sensitized to one or more strains of HDM. Sensitization to one strain was revealed in 12% of the studied sample, while sensitization to two or three strains was detected in 8% and 4% respectively. Twelve percent of the enrolled children were sensitive to D. pteronyssinus, 11% to D. farinae, 7% to L. destructor, 6% to T. putrescentiae, and 4% to A. siro. Eight out of the 12 (66%) children sensitive to one strain had mild intermittent asthma, while five out of eight (62.5%) sensitive to two strains had moderate persistent asthma. All children sensitized to three strains of HDM had persistent rather than intermittent asthma. HDM sensitization did not correlate significantly to the history of sun exposure, bed mattresses and pillows, living in farms, or exposure to stored grains. The co-existence of atopic dermatitis tended to have a higher rate of HDM sensitization. Conclusion: D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae represent the most common sensitizing strains in the studied sample. Wider-scale population-based studies are needed to assess the prevalence of HDM allergy and its clinical correlates in our country. PMID:25276487

  1. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-03-01

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS;n = 17,450; 0-17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57-0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58-0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54-0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53-0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48-0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40-0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences. PMID:26927147

  2. Patch Testing with Main Sensitizers Does Not Detect All Cases of Contact Allergy to Oxidized Lavender Oil.

    PubMed

    Hagvall, Lina; Christensson, Johanna Bråred

    2016-06-15

    Lavender oil is an essential oil obtained from lavender (Lavendula angustifolia). The main components linalool and linalyl acetate have been shown to autoxidize in contact with oxygen in the air, forming sensitizing hydroperoxides. Patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were consecutively patch-tested with oxidized lavender oil 6% pet., oxidized linalyl acetate 6% pet., and oxidized linalool 6% pet. to investigate the frequency of contact allergy to oxidized lavender oil, and the pattern of concomitant reactions to oxidized linalool and oxidized linalyl acetate. Positive reactions to oxidized lavender oil were found in 2.8% of the patients. Among those, 56% reacted to oxidized linalool and/or oxidized linalyl acetate, while 52% reacted to the fragrance markers of the baseline series. Oxidized lavender oil showed among the highest frequencies of contact allergy to studied essential oils. A well-standardized preparation of oxidized lavender oil could be a useful tool for diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances. PMID:26671837

  3. Review of Allergic and Photoallergic Contact Dermatitis from an Ingredient in a Medicament Vehicle Consisting of a Compress, Poultice, Plaster, and Tape

    PubMed Central

    Oiso, Naoki; Kawada, Akira

    2011-01-01

    The topical application of a medicament vehicle consisting of a compress, poultice, plaster, and tape containing a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or methyl salicylate is prevalent in Japan. The method is effective for conveying ingredients to the muscles via the skin for the relief of muscular pain. However, an ingredient in the occlusive vehicle can cause allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. We summarize cases reported over the past decade and discuss the current strategy for diminishing the risk of allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21603165

  4. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3–5 years: 1500 children; Age 6–12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3–5 years of age (all p < 0.05). Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3–5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite. PMID:26371014

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.

    PubMed

    Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

    2010-05-01

    A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

  6. Epicutaneous Allergic Sensitization by Cooperation between Allergen Protease Activity and Mechanical Skin Barrier Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Sakiko; Takai, Toshiro; Iida, Hideo; Maruyama, Natsuko; Ochi, Hirono; Kamijo, Seiji; Nishioka, Izumi; Hara, Mutsuko; Matsuda, Akira; Saito, Hirohisa; Nakae, Susumu; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2016-07-01

    Allergen sources such as mites, insects, fungi, and pollen contain proteases. Airway exposure to proteases induces allergic airway inflammation and IgE/IgG1 responses via IL-33-dependent mechanisms in mice. We examined the epicutaneous sensitization of mice to a model protease allergen, papain; the effects of tape stripping, which induces epidermal barrier dysfunction; and the atopic march upon a subsequent airway challenge. Papain painting on ear skin and tape stripping cooperatively promoted dermatitis, the skin gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors, up-regulation of serum total IgE, and papain-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Epicutaneous sensitization induced T helper (Th) 2 cells and Th17 differentiation in draining lymph nodes. Ovalbumin and protease inhibitor-treated papain induced no or weak responses, whereas the co-administration of ovalbumin and papain promoted ovalbumin-specific IgE/IgG1 induction. Wild-type and IL-33-deficient mice showed similar responses in the epicutaneous sensitization phase. The subsequent airway papain challenge induced airway eosinophilia and maintained high papain-specific IgE levels in an IL-33-dependent manner. These results suggest that allergen source-derived protease activity and mechanical barrier damage such as that caused by scratching cooperatively promote epicutaneous sensitization and skin inflammation and that IL-33 is dispensable for epicutaneous sensitization but is crucial in the atopic march upon a subsequent airway low-dose encounter with protease allergens. PMID:26987428

  7. Two Cases of Occupational Contact Urticaria Caused by Percutaneous Sensitization to Parvalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Akiyo; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Iwata, Yohei; Kobayashi, Tsukane; Arima, Masaru; Kondo, Yasuto; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2015-01-01

    Background In recent years, it has been proposed that the primary mechanism for the development of food allergies is percutaneous sensitization. Since 2010, in Japan, the number of immediate-type wheat allergy due to hydrolyzed wheat protein has dramatically increased among those who have been using soap containing hydrolyzed wheat. This incidence supports the hypothesis that food allergens arise through percutaneous sensitization. Clinical Summary A 25-year-old man (case 1) and an 18-year-old girl (case 2) with atopic dermatitis visited our Department because of food allergy and hand eczema. After starting their work with fish, severe itchy eczema appeared on their hands. They subsequently started to experience oral allergic symptoms, intraoral itchiness and dyspnea after eating fish. Specific IgE antibodies were detected for many fishes, and skin prick tests showed positive reactions for a variety of fishes in both cases. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensities of specific IgE antibodies against parvalbumin from various types of fish in microarray immunoassay analysis showed positive reactions. We diagnosed them as contact urticaria caused by percutaneous sensitization to parvalbumin through job-related physical contact with fish. Conclusion The patients' histories and findings indicate the possibility of percutaneous sensitization through occupational exposure to parvalbumin, leading to food allergy. PMID:26464568

  8. Allergic contact cheilitis and perioral dermatitis caused by propolis: case report.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Vice; Brailo, Vlaho; Alajbeg, Ivan; Vučićević Boras, Vanja; Budimir, Jozo

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of propolis allergy in an 18-year-old female patient. Medical history revealed self-prescribed topical use of propolis spray as a medication for gingival swelling caused by orthodontic molar bands. After 24 hours, the patient developed lip edema and erythema of the perioral skin accompanied by burning pain in her lips. Discrete erosions were present in the corners of her lips. Erythema of the right infraorbital region was also observed. The patient was prescribed betamethasone propionate cream two times daily. Complete recovery was observed after 10 days. Propolis allergy was confirmed by a patch test. We believe that the use of propolis for the treatment of oral diseases should be avoided due to sparse evidence of its efficacy and numerous cases of allergic reactions. PMID:23069305

  9. Urban Tree Canopy and Asthma, Wheeze, Rhinitis, and Allergic Sensitization to Tree Pollen in a New York City Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasi, Gina S.; O’Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P.M.; Lu, Jacqueline W.T.; Sheehan, Daniel; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; MacFaden, Sean W.; King, Kristen L.; Matte, Thomas; Miller, Rachel L.; Hoepner, Lori A.; Perera, Frederica P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urban landscape elements, particularly trees, have the potential to affect airflow, air quality, and production of aeroallergens. Several large-scale urban tree planting projects have sought to promote respiratory health, yet evidence linking tree cover to human health is limited. Objectives: We sought to investigate the association of tree canopy cover with subsequent development of childhood asthma, wheeze, rhinitis, and allergic sensitization. Methods: Birth cohort study data were linked to detailed geographic information systems data characterizing 2001 tree canopy coverage based on LiDAR (light detection and ranging) and multispectral imagery within 0.25 km of the prenatal address. A total of 549 Dominican or African-American children born in 1998–2006 had outcome data assessed by validated questionnaire or based on IgE antibody response to specific allergens, including a tree pollen mix. Results: Tree canopy coverage did not significantly predict outcomes at 5 years of age, but was positively associated with asthma and allergic sensitization at 7 years. Adjusted risk ratios (RRs) per standard deviation of tree canopy coverage were 1.17 for asthma (95% CI: 1.02, 1.33), 1.20 for any specific allergic sensitization (95% CI: 1.05, 1.37), and 1.43 for tree pollen allergic sensitization (95% CI: 1.19, 1.72). Conclusions: Results did not support the hypothesized protective association of urban tree canopy coverage with asthma or allergy-related outcomes. Tree canopy cover near the prenatal address was associated with higher prevalence of allergic sensitization to tree pollen. Information was not available on sensitization to specific tree species or individual pollen exposures, and results may not be generalizable to other populations or geographic areas. PMID:23322788

  10. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST ON PULMONARY RESPONSES DURING ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION TO AEROSOLIZED OVALBUMIN IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Diesel Exhaust on Pulmonary Responses During Allergic Sensitization to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in BALB/c Mice. P. Singh1, M.J. Daniels1, D. Andrews1, E. Boykin1, W. P. Linak2 and M.I. Gilmour1. 1USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC. 2 USEPA, ORD, NRMRL, RTP, NC.

    Inhala...

  11. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P < 0.05, Chi square test), but no difference could be found between the prevalence of other cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD. PMID:24641608

  12. Screening Active Components from Yu-Ping-Feng-San for Regulating Initiative Key Factors in Allergic Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhijie; Yu, Xi; Liu, Hailiang; Wang, Huizhu; Fan, Hongwei; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Guorong; Hong, Min

    2014-01-01

    Yu-ping-feng-san (YPFS) is a Chinese medical formula that is used clinically for allergic diseases and characterized by reducing allergy relapse. Our previous studies demonstrated that YPFS efficiently inhibited T helper 2 cytokines in allergic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms of action of YPFS and its effective components remain unclear. In this study, it was shown that YPFS significantly inhibited production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived initiative factor in allergic inflammation, in vitro and in vivo. A method of human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) binding combined with HPLC-MS (named 16HBE-HPLC-MS) was established to explore potential active components of YPFS. The following five components bound to 16HBE cells: calycosin-7-glucoside, ononin, claycosin, sec-o-glucosylhamaudol and formononetin. Serum from YPFS-treated mice was analyzed and three major components were detected claycosin, formononetin and cimifugin. Among these, claycosin and formononetin were detected by 16HBE-HPLC-MS and in the serum of YPFS-treated mice. Claycosin and formononetin decreased the level of TSLP markedly at the initial stage of allergic inflammation in vivo. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB, a key transcription factor in TSLP production, was also inhibited by claycosin and formononetin, either in terms of transcriptional activation or its nuclear translocation in vitro. Allergic inflammation was reduced by claycosin and formononetin when they are administered only at the initial stage in a murine model of atopic contact dermatitis. Thus, epithelial cell binding combined with HPLC-MS is a valid method for screening active components from complex mixtures of Chinese medicine. It was demonstrated that the compounds screened from YPFS significantly attenuated allergic inflammation probably by reducing TSLP production via regulating NF-κB activation. PMID:25198676

  13. Raised interleukin-13 levels in cord blood increases the risk of allergic sensitization at 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Nevin; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Olmez Erge, Duygu; Asilsoy, Suna; Karaman, Ozkan; Altun, Zekiye; Kumral, Abdullah; Tufekci, Ozlem; Islekel, Huray

    2013-06-01

    The identification of early markers of atopy in cord blood of newborns at delivery may offer prediction of future allergic sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cord blood interleukin-13 (IL-13) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and development of allergic diseases during the first five years of life. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery from 62 newborns. The families of these newborns were asked to complete a questionnaire about age and education of parents, number of siblings, allergic diseases in family members, cigarette exposure during pregnancy and presence of pets in their house. The same subjects were evaluated when they were five years old. Venous blood samples were drawn and epidermal skin prick tests were performed. IL-13 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels were studied from the blood samples which were taken during birth and five years later. There was no significant relationship between gender, type of delivery, educational levels of parents, exposure to cigarette smoke, atopy in parents, presence of pets in the house and IL-13 and IFN-γ levels in cord blood and at five years. Higher levels of IL-13 in newborns and five years olds, were found significantly related to skin prick test positivity (p=0.004 and p<0.0001, respectively) and presence of allergic diseases (p= 0.008 and p= 0.001, respectively). Levels of IFN-γ, both in cord blood and five years after, were not related with the future of allergic status of children. Higher levels of IL-13 in cord blood may be a predictor of future development of allergic sensitization. PMID:23754348

  14. Evaluation of efficacy of a skin lipid mixture in patients with irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis or atopic dermatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Barbareschi, M; Veraldi, S; Pimpinelli, N

    2001-11-01

    Disturbances of skin barrier function occur in several skin diseases, e.g., atopic dermatitis (AD), irritant/allergic contact dermatitis (ICD, ACD). Skin barrier damage triggers the production of cytokines that stimulate lipogenesis which may also cause inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical skin lipid mixture in the treatment of ICD, ACD and AD. 580 consecutive patients suffering from ICD, ACD or AD were treated with a skin lipid mixture containing ceramide-3 and patented nanoparticles. Patients received the lipid mixture alone or in combination with topical corticosteroids until clearance or for 8 weeks. Both treatment groups statistically improved all parameters considered at week 4 and 8 as compared to baseline. Between the 2 treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of combined therapy for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): erythema, pruritus and overall disease severity; erythema and pruritus; erythema, pruritus, fissuring and overall disease severity. No statistically significant difference was found for (ICD, ACD, AD, respectively): dryness, scaling and fissuring; scaling, fissuring and overall disease severity; dryness and scaling. Between the 2 ACD treatment groups, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of the skin lipid mixture for dryness. In conclusion, the study shows that balanced lipid mixtures are effective in improving barrier properties and the clinical condition of the skin in contact dermatitis. PMID:11722487

  15. Lower Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis and Allergic Sensitization among Children and Adolescents with a Two-Sided Migrant Background

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Schmitz, Roma; Thamm, Michael; Ellert, Ute

    2016-01-01

    In industrialized countries atopic diseases have been reported to be less likely in children and adolescents with a migrant background compared to non-migrants. This paper aimed at both examining and comparing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis and allergic sensitization to specific IgE antibodies in children and adolescents with and without a migrant background. Using data of the population-based German Health Interview and Examination Survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS; n = 17,450; 0–17 years), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of atopic diseases and point prevalence of 20 common allergic sensitizations were investigated among migrants compared to non-migrants. Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of atopic disease and allergic sensitization with migrant background. In multivariate analyses with substantial adjustment we found atopic dermatitis about one-third less often (OR 0.73, 0.57–0.93) in participants with a two-sided migrant background. Statistically significant associations between allergic sensitizations and a two-sided migrant background remained for birch (OR 0.73, 0.58–0.90), soybean (OR 0.72, 0.54–0.96), peanut (OR 0.69, 0.53–0.90), rice (OR 0.64, 0.48–0.87), potato (OR 0.64, 0.48–0.85), and horse dander (OR 0.58, 0.40–0.85). Environmental factors and living conditions might be responsible for the observed differences. PMID:26927147

  16. Preparation of a Paeonol-Containing Temperature-Sensitive In Situ Gel and Its Preliminary Efficacy on Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kedan; Chen, Lidian; Xu, Wei; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Xie, Weirong; Zheng, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal composition of a paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel composed of poloxamer 407 (P407) was determined, and a preliminary study of its effect on allergic rhinitis was performed. The optimal composition of the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel included 2% paeonol inclusion, 22% P407, 2% poloxamer 188 (P188) and 2% PEG6000, as assessed by thermodynamic and rheological studies. The toad palate model was employed to study the toxicity of the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel on the nasal mucosa. The result of this experiment showed low toxicity to cilia, which allows the gel to be used for nasal administration. The Franz diffusion cell method was used to study the in vitro release of paeonol and suggested that the in vitro release was in line with the Higuchi equation. This result suggests that the paeonol could be absorbed into the body through mucous membranes and had some characteristics of a sustained effect. Finally, the guinea pig model of ovalbumin sensitized allergic rhinitis was used to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of the gel, with the paeonol temperature-sensitive in situ gel showing a significant effect on the guinea pig model of sensitized allergic rhinitis (AR). PMID:23525047

  17. Mouse models to unravel the role of inhaled pollutants on allergic sensitization and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Air pollutant exposure has been linked to a rise in wheezing illnesses. Clinical data highlight that exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke (MS) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as well as exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) could promote allergic sensitization or aggravate symptoms of asthma, suggesting a role for these inhaled pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mouse models are a valuable tool to study the potential effects of these pollutants in the pathogenesis of asthma, with the opportunity to investigate their impact during processes leading to sensitization, acute inflammation and chronic disease. Mice allow us to perform mechanistic studies and to evaluate the importance of specific cell types in asthma pathogenesis. In this review, the major clinical effects of tobacco smoke and diesel exhaust exposure regarding to asthma development and progression are described. Clinical data are compared with findings from murine models of asthma and inhalable pollutant exposure. Moreover, the potential mechanisms by which both pollutants could aggravate asthma are discussed. PMID:20092634

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical corticosteroids: clobetasol propionate and clobetasone butyrate.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Vanhee, J; Vanderheyden, D; Gevers, D; Willems, L; Degreef, H

    1983-11-01

    2 case reports are given of patients with positive patch test reactions to clobetasol propionate. One of the patients also reacted to clobetasone butyrate. 30 other steroids that were chemically very closely related to these two 21-chloro-9-alpha-fluoro-corticosteroids, were patch test negative. The literature on contact dermatitis reactions to corticosteroids is reviewed. PMID:6653104

  19. Contact sensitivity to standard series allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akyol, Aynur; Boyvat, Ayşe; Peksari, Yavuz; Gürgey, Erbak

    2005-06-01

    We planned to determine the frequency of sensitivity to European standard patch test allergens in 1038 patients with contact dermatitis. From 1992 to 2004, 1038 patients with the diagnosis of contact dermatitis were patch tested with the European standard series. Seven hundred and five patients were female (67.9%) and 333 patients were male (32.1%). A total of 336 patients (32.3%) had one or more positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel (17.6%), cobalt chloride (5.3%), potassium dichromate (4.6%), neomycin (2.4%), fragrance mix (2.1%) and balsam of Peru (2.1%). Contact sensitivity to potassium dichromate and thiuram was significantly more frequent in male patients, whereas nickel and primin sensitivity was significantly more frequent in female patients. Higher sensitivity rates for potassium dichromate, neomycin, balsam of Peru, wool alcohol, fragrance mix and primin were noted in patients over 40 years of age. Sensitivity rates of the standard series allergens were all similar in atopic patients and in non-atopic patients. Metals, neomycin and fragrances are the leading allergens in Turkey. Although fragrances are among the most important sensitizers, sensitivity rates to fragrances and also to preservatives are much lower than the rates in Europe and the US. PMID:15932585

  20. Allergic sensitization frequency and wheezing differences in early life between black and white children.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Joseph, Christine L M; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is more common in black children than in white children. Allergic sensitization has been shown to be associated with increased likelihood of asthma. This study was designed to determine whether there are racial differences in the allergens to which children are sensitized in the Detroit metropolitan area and determine whether sensitization was associated with wheeze outcomes. Pregnant women were recruited for the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy, and Asthma Longitudinal Study birth cohort to follow the health of their children in the Detroit metropolitan area. Specific IgE (sIgE) was measured for Alternaria, cat, cockroach, dog, Dermatophagoides farinae, short ragweed, timothy grass, egg, milk, and peanut in blood samples from the children at age 2 years. A positive allergen sIgE was defined as ≥0.35 IU/mL. Mothers reported their child's race and completed interviews at age 2 years about characteristics of wheezing episodes in their child (frequency, medication, acute care, or emergency department visit). Black children (n = 384) were more likely than white children (n = 180) to have been positive for each of the allergens tested and also tended to have positive responses to a greater number of allergens (four or more allergens: 9.2% versus 3.5%). Children who had two or more positive sIgEs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.68; 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33, 5.46) or three or more positive sIgEs (aOR = 2.67, 95% CI, 1.19, 6.01) were more likely to have wheezed four or more times in the last 12 months. Racial differences in sensitization at this young age may contribute to the racial difference in asthma prevalence at later ages. PMID:23394507

  1. Anti-allergic activity of R-phycocyanin from Porphyra haitanensis in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingmei; Wang, Youzhao; Cao, Minjie; Pan, Tzuming; Yang, Yang; Mao, Haiyan; Sun, Lechang; Liu, Guangming

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in Asian countries. Marine algae have been proposed as the potential resource for anti-allergic therapeutics. The present study was aimed at isolating R-phycocyanin (RPC) from Porphyra haitanensis and determining the anti-allergy potential of RPC in antigen-sensitized mice and mast cells. In animal experiments, RPC could effectively reduce tropomyosin (TM)-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine levels, alleviate allergy symptoms and jejunum tissue inflammation in mice, and inhibit the expression and release of cytokines (interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13) in peritoneal lavage fluid. In spleen lymphocyte experiments, high purity of RPC skewed the immunological function of CD4(+) T cells towards Th1 activity. A higher expression of interferon (IFN)-γ was induced by a synergistic effect of TM and RPC. Through the Jun N-terminal kinase and Janus kinase 2 signaling pathways, IFN-γ synthesis was induced by RPC in combination with TM. Anti-allergic effect of RPC was evaluated in IgE-mediated rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. The results demonstrated that RPC inhibited allergy markers, including the release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine and ROS in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. RPC also suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α). In conclusion, RPC decreased allergic sensitization against TM by blocking Th2 cell polarization as well as suppressed the release of allergic-mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells. It may be used as a functional food component or active pharmaceutical ingredient for allergic patients. PMID:25746371

  2. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  3. Glutathione modulation during sensitization as well as challenge phase regulates airway reactivity and inflammation in mouse model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nahid; Alharbi, Naif O; Alharbi, Mohammad M; Imam, Faisal; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M

    2014-08-01

    Glutathione, being a major intracellular redox regulator has been shown to be implicated in regulation of airway reactivity and inflammation. However, no study so far has investigated the effect of glutathione depletion/repletion during sensitization and challenge phases separately, which could provide an important insight into the pathophysiology of allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of glutathione depletion/repletion during sensitization and challenge phases separately in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a thiol donor were used for depletion or repletion of glutathione levels respectively during both sensitization and challenge phases separately followed by assessment of airway reactivity, inflammation and oxidant-antioxidant balance in allergic mice. Depletion of glutathione with BSO during sensitization as well as challenge phase worsened allergen induced airway reactivity/inflammation and caused greater oxidant-antioxidant imbalance as reflected by increased NADPH oxidase expression/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation/lipid peroxides formation and decreased total antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, repletion of glutathione pool by NAC during sensitization and challenge phases counteracted allergen induced airway reactivity/inflammation and restored oxidant-antioxidant balance through a decrease in NADPH oxidase expression/ROS generation/lipid peroxides formation and increase in total antioxidant capacity. Taken together, these findings suggest that depletion or repletion of glutathione exacerbates or ameliorates allergic asthma respectively by regulation of airway oxidant-antioxidant balance. This might have implications towards increased predisposition to allergy by glutathione depleting environmental pollutants. PMID:24742380

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of the consumer open skin allergy test as a method of prediction of contact dermatitis to hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Cottin, Martin; Cristaudo, Antonio; Lainé, Gérard; Nohynek, Gerhard; Orton, David; Toutain, Hervé; Severino, Vincenzo; Wilkinson, John

    2005-01-01

    To prevent contact dermatitis to oxidative hair colouring products, a consumer test (skin allergy test, SAT) consisting of the open application of the colourant base prior to mixing with the developer is recommended 48 hours before hair colouring. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of the SAT to detect and prevent contact allergy to oxidative hair colouring products that contained a range of concentrations of para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and corresponded to different shades (light, medium and dark). Test colouring products containing increasing concentrations of PPD (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5%) were applied to 34 PPD-positive hair dye-allergic individuals and to 49 non-allergic control subjects. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects whereas none occurred in control PPD-negative subjects. For each subject the eliciting concentration of PPD in the SAT was compared with the PPD concentration range of the group of commercial shades reported as causing reactions by the consumer. In all PPD-positive subjects the eliciting concentrations of PPD in the SAT was within or lower than the range of PPD concentrations in the reported eliciting colourant base of commercial products. In conclusion, our results confirm the excellent predictive value of the SAT over the entire range of PPD concentrations used in oxidative hair colouring products and suggest that the test is a suitable tool for the secondary prevention of contact allergic reactions to hair colouring products. PMID:15701588

  5. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  6. Specific pollen allergen activates eosinophils of the patient with chronic allergic contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Małolepszy, J; Kuryszko, J; Litwa, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of eosinophils in an unique case of a young man with atopy manifested as chronic pollen contact urticaria. In order to reveal the role of eosinophils in that case, the study was performed by means of monoclonal antibodies EG2 and chemiluminescence. In addition, comparative electron microscopic study of peripheral blood and skin infiltrating eosinophils were performed for which the name ultrastructural morphometric analysis of intracytoplasmic eosinophil granules has been proposed. The results indicated, that 40% of peripheral blood eosinophils were activated spontaneously and they were more active than those in skin infiltrates. Specific pollen allergen caused activation of 100% of peripheral blood eosinophils. The study suggests presence of a systemic pattern of eosinophil activation in atopy. PMID:7487362

  7. EFFECT OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) COLLECTED IN TWO EUROPEAN CITIES ON ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION AND ALLERGIC RESPONSES IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children (5-14 years old) living in the industrial city of Hettstedt (H) in eastern Germany were reported to have a higher incidence of sensitization to common aeroallergens compared to another cohort living in the nearby city of Zerbst (Z) which has less industrial pollution (He...

  8. Roseotoxin B Improves Allergic Contact Dermatitis through a Unique Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism Involving Excessive Activation of Autophagy in Activated T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingqi; Hu, Chunhui; Wu, Xingxin; Wang, Shiyu; Zhang, Aihua; Chen, Wei; Shen, Yan; Tan, Renxiang; Wu, Xuefeng; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    An immunosuppressant agent with negligible or acceptable toxicity may provide a better therapeutic strategy for treatment of allergic contact dermatitis. We identified a natural cyclopeptide, roseotoxin B, that effectively suppressed cell proliferation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines in activated T cells but exhibited little naive T-cell toxicity at concentrations of 0.3-1 μmol/L. In addition, roseotoxin B inhibited the activation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3, suppressed cell cycle-related signaling, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, reduced ribosomal protein-S3 (RPS3)-dependent NF-κB-mediated IL-2 production, and increased autophagy in activated T cells. Furthermore, picryl chloride-induced allergic contact dermatitis was significantly ameliorated by roseotoxin B in mice. The effects of roseotoxin B were inhibited in LC3-knockout mice, indicating that roseotoxin B acts in an autophagy-dependent manner in T-cell-mediated skin diseases. Overall, this study showed a mechanism for roseotoxin B-induced autophagic cell death and provided a unique perspective on autophagy-mediated down-regulation of NF-κB signaling in activated T cells. The unique anti-inflammatory mechanism of roseotoxin B against activated T lymphocytes in allergic contact dermatitis suggests that it could be a potential target for the treatment of immune-related skin diseases. PMID:27155460

  9. Formulated extract from multiple citrus peels impairs dendritic cell functions and attenuates allergic contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Lin, Yi-Chin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lin, Ping-Yi; Suzawa, Michiko; Wang, Hsin-Chieh; Chu, Ching-Liang; Chen, Der-Yuan; Lin, Chi-Chen

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that gold lotion (GL), a formulated product made from the peels of six citrus fruits, has many pharmacological properties, such as anti-tumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of GL on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse bone marrow-derived DC maturation and function. Our experimental results have shown that GL significantly impaired the pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion, suppressed the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I/II and costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86), increased phagocytic capacity, and reduced propensity to stimulate the autologous CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation of LPS-induced DCs. Furthermore, we found that oral administration of GL attenuated the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in animal models. Subsequently, our molecular mechanism studies showed that GL interfered with LPS-induced MAPK-JNK, p38 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In an essence, these findings are the first report to provide new insight in the immunopharmacological role of GL in terms of its effects on DC. PMID:24566093

  10. Pre-exposure to sulfur dioxide attenuates most allergic reactions upon trimellitic anhydride challenge in sensitized Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Jacobs, Erik J; Kuper, C Frieke

    2010-02-01

    Irritant-induced inflammation of the airways may aggravate respiratory allergy induced by chemical respiratory allergens. Therefore, it was studied whether airway irritation by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) would enhance respiratory allergic reactions to trimellitic anhydride (TMA), using a rat model. Brown Norway (BN) rats were topically sensitized, subsequently exposed for a single time or repeatedly to 300 ppm SO(2), and challenged by inhalation to a distinctly irritating or minimally irritating concentration of TMA after the (last) SO(2) exposure. Repeated exposure to SO(2) alone reduced breathing frequency during exposure, and caused epithelial alterations including hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, and infiltration of polymorphonuclear inflammatory cells into nasal tissues, larynx, trachea, and bronchi/bronchioli. Histopathological changes were less prominent after 1 day of SO(2) exposure. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced the number of TMA-induced apnoeas, in an SO(2) exposure duration-dependent manner. This effect of SO(2) on TMA-induced functional allergic reactions (apnoeas) was distinct only when the TMA challenge concentration was not too irritating itself. Repeated pre-exposure to SO(2) reduced TMA-induced laryngeal ulceration, goblet-cell hyperplasia, and inflammation in the lungs in most animals, regardless of the TMA challenge concentration. The SO(2)-induced replacement of normal respiratory epithelium by less sensitive, squamous epithelium may offer an explanation for the, unexpected, reduced allergic manifestation. However in a few animals, SO(2) appeared to facilitate TMA-induced irritation, probably due to incomplete protection. Overall, SO(2) exposure of TMA-sensitized rats reduced TMA-related allergic respiratory responses in most animals. PMID:20067440

  11. Lack of Evidence for Contact Sensitization by Pfiesteria Extract

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Rachel M.; Noga, Edward; Germolec, Dori

    2007-01-01

    Background Members of the estuarine dinoflagellate genus Pfiesteria are reported to have been responsible for massive fish kills in the southeastern United States. Some reports suggest that exposure to waters having Pfiesteria blooms or occupation-related exposure might result in Pfiesteria-induced dermal irritation and inflammation. Although the toxin has not been isolated and purified, the original data suggested both hydrophilic and hydrophobic toxic components. Some investigators propose that dermonecrotic properties are associated with a hydrophobic fraction. Objectives A bioactive C18-bound putative toxin (CPE) extracted from Pfiesteria-laden aquarium water during active fish-killing conditions was examined in the present study to evaluate its potential to produce inflammation and dermal sensitization and to determine whether the inflammation and dermatitis reported in early human exposure studies were allergic or irritant in nature. Results This fraction was cytotoxic to mouse Neuro-2A cells and primary human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Balb/C mice exposed to 50–200% CPE by skin painting exhibited a 6–10% increase in ear swelling relative to vehicle-treated mice in a primary irritancy assay. There was no increase in lymph node cell proliferation as measured using the local lymph node assay. Exposure to CPE in culture up-regulated interleukin-8 in NHEK, whereas granulocyte macrophage–colony-stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor α were only minimally altered. Conclusions This study suggests that CPE is cytotoxic to keratinocytes in culture at high concentrations and that it induces mild, localized irritation but not dermal sensitization. PMID:17637917

  12. The true value of the TRUE Test for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Kreilgård, B; Maibach, H I

    2001-07-01

    The development of the thin layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test is a history of cooperation between scientists from academia and industry covering several disciplines: medicine, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology, and statistics. The TRUE Test is today a patch test system with documented stability and allergen content. Allergens are incorporated in a dried-in-gel vehicle, which is coated onto a polyester backing to form a patch. Applied to the skin, the allergens are released when the gel becomes moisturized by transepidermal water. This may seem to be a simple technique, but its development required laborious research and solutions to stability and dosage problems. The test has been clinically standardized with serial dilution tests on sensitized patients and validated in comparative multicenter tests. The test is a significant step towards higher reliability of patch testing. Fifteen years of experience and critical investigations are discussed in this article, as are possible improvements such as expansion of the test with new allergens. PMID:11892053

  13. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-01-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be “mild” and “natural” are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to “stronger” allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (Type IV Hypersensitivity) and Type I Hypersensitivity Following Aromatherapy with Ayurvedic Oils (Dhanwantharam Thailam, Eladi Coconut Oil) Presenting as Generalized Erythema and Pruritus with Flexural Eczema.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2014-05-01

    Herbal and Ayurvedic medications, believed to be "mild" and "natural" are usually sought as the first line of treatment before resorting to "stronger" allopathic medication. There are very few reports of adverse reactions to either topical and/or systemic Ayurvedic medications. Massage aromatherapy with ayurvedic oils plays an important role in alleviation of pain, but may cause allergic contact dermatitis. This is the second case report of allergic contact dermatitis to ayurvedic oil. PMID:24891661

  15. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis to cobalt octoate included as an accelerator in a polyester resin.

    PubMed

    Anavekar, Namrata S; Nixon, Rosemary

    2006-05-01

    A 46-year-old woman, who worked as a laminator of spa baths, presented with hand dermatitis, which was suspected to be related to her occupation. Patch testing revealed strong reactions to both cobalt chloride and a polyester resin that the patient had been using at her workplace. She also reacted to latex and had been wearing cotton gloves underneath rubber gloves at work. It was later discovered that cobalt octoate (synonym: cobalt-2-ethylhexanoate), a compound not listed on the manufacturer's material safety data sheet, was included as an accelerator in the polyester resin. She was then tested to cobalt octoate, which was also strongly positive. Her successful treatment included protection of her hands at work with cotton lined PVC gloves. This case highlights the role of cobalt salts as sensitizers and their presence as accelerators used in polyester resins, and the importance of recognizing concomitant latex allergy that may complicate occupational dermatitis. It also illustrates the difficulties in relying on material safety data sheets to identify all possible allergens. PMID:16637815

  16. Sensitivity of the Contact Chemoreceptors of the Blowfly to Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Dethier, V. G.

    1972-01-01

    Contact chemoreceptors on the mouthparts and legs of the blowfly Phormia regina that normally respond to aqueous solutions of sapid substances also respond to compounds in the gaseous state. Effective vapors include organic and inorganic acids and various unrelated nonpolar compounds. In general, the acids stimulate the salt receptor. Some nonpolar compounds stimulate the salt receptor while others inhibit it. Others stimulate the water, sugar, or “fifth” receptor. Differential action cannot be attributed to pH or solubility. Not all compounds that are irritating to mammalian mucous membranes or amphibian skin stimulate the contact chemoreceptors of the fly. Sensitivity to these vapors is a phenomenon analogous to the common chemical sense of vertebrates. Images PMID:16592005

  17. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 Alleviates Food Allergic Manifestations in Sensitized Mice by Reducing IL-13 Expression Specifically in the Ileum

    PubMed Central

    Zuercher, Adrian W.; Weiss, Marietta; Holvoet, Sébastien; Moser, Mireille; Moussu, Hélène; van Overtvelt, Laurence; Horiot, Stéphane; Moingeon, Philippe; Nutten, Sophie; Prioult, Guénolée; Singh, Anurag; Mercenier, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain. Methods. BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase). Results. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum. Conclusion/Significance. These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms. PMID:21961022

  18. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers using flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michele . E-mail: michele.goutet@inrs.fr; Pepin, Elsa; Langonne, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2005-06-15

    Identification of the chemicals responsible for respiratory and contact allergies in the industrial area is an important occupational safety issue. This study was conducted in mice to determine whether flow cytometry is an appropriate method to analyze and differentiate the specific immune responses to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and to the contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) used at concentrations with comparable immunogenic potential. Mice were exposed twice on the flanks (days 0, 5) to 10% TMA or 1% DNCB and challenged three times on the ears (days 10, 11, 12) with 2.5% TMA or 0.25% DNCB. Flow cytometry analyses were conducted on draining lymph node cells harvested on days 13 and 18. Comparing TMA and DNCB immune responses on day 13, we found obvious differences that persisted for most of them on day 18. An increased proportion of IgE+ cells correlated to total serum IgE level and an enhancement of MHC II molecule expression were observed in the lymph node B lymphocytes from TMA-treated mice. The percentage of IL-4-producing CD4+ lymphocytes and the IL-4 receptor expression were clearly higher following TMA exposure. In contrast, higher proportions of IL-2-producing cells were detected in CD4+ and CD8+ cells from DNCB-treated mice. Both chemicals induced a significant increase in the percentage of IFN-{gamma}-producing cells among CD8+ lymphocytes but to a greater proportion following TMA treatment. In conclusion, this study encourages the use of flow cytometry to discriminate between contact and respiratory sensitizers by identifying divergent expression of immune response parameters.

  19. Contact sensitizing potential of pyrogallol and 5-amino-o-cresol in female BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, T L; Germolec, D R; Zhang, Ling X; Auttachoat, W; Smith, M J; White, K L

    2013-12-15

    Hair dye components such as pyrogallol and cresol have been shown previously to promote allergic reactions such as rashes, dermal inflammation, irritation and dermatitis. The objective of this study was to determine the contact sensitization potential of pyrogallol (PYR) and 5-amino-o-cresol (AOC) when applied dermally to female BALB/c mice. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response was initially accomplished using the local lymph node assay. For PYR, significant increases in the proliferation of lymph node cells were observed at concentrations of 0.5% (w/v) and higher. For AOC, borderline increases, albeit significant, in auricular lymph node cell proliferation were observed at 5% and 10%. Results from the irritancy assay suggested that PYR, but not AOC, was an irritant. To further delineate whether PYR was primarily an irritant or a contact sensitizer, the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was conducted. A significant increase in mouse ear thickness was observed at 72h following challenge with 0.5% PYR in mice that had been sensitized with 5% PYR. In contrast, no effects were observed in the MEST in mice sensitized and challenged with the highest achievable concentration of AOC (10%). Additional studies examining lymph node subpopulations and CD86 (B7.2) expression by B cells further support the indication that PYR was a sensitizer in BALB/c mice. The results demonstrate that PYR is both a sensitizer and an irritant in female BALB/c mice. However, the contact sensitization potential of AOC is minimal in this strain of mouse. PMID:24172597

  20. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  1. Contact sensitivity to chromate: comparison at a London contact dermatitis clinic over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Olsavszky, R; Rycroft, R J; White, I R; McFadden, J P

    1998-06-01

    It has been argued that for chromate sensitivity to be reduced, then ferrous sulfate should be added to cement. This has not yet been done in the UK. To explore this further, we have looked at the comparative sensitization rates of patients attending the St. John's Institute of Dermatology Contact Dermatitis Clinic between the years 1982-3 and 1992-3. Patch-test-positive rates for females were not significantly different between the 2 populations studied (1982-3, 1.59% and 1992-3, 1.99% p NS). Similarly, there was no significantly different rate between the males (1982-3, 3.99% and 1992-3, 4.25% p NS) in the same time period. There was no difference in the distribution of eczema in chromate-positive subjects, nor of cobalt co-sensitization, a crude indicator of sensitization via cement. This work demonstrates no appreciable difference in the frequency of chromate sensitivity between the early 1980s and 1990s in London. Adding ferrous sulfate to cement may help to lower the frequency in the future. PMID:9687032

  2. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: hair dying in hair dye allergic patients?

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ashley; Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    This article describes how to identify allergic contact dermatitis resulting from hair dye, and outlines interventions and prevention principles for those who wish to continue dyeing their hair despite being allergic. Hair dye chemicals thought to be the most frequent sensitizers are discussed with instructions for health care providers on how to counsel patients about techniques to minimize exposure to allergenic substances. This framework should allow many patients to continue dyeing their hair without experiencing adverse side effects. PMID:24754409

  3. [Development of allergic reactivity to Artemesia pollen during combined sensitization to pollen and microbes].

    PubMed

    Ermekova, R K

    1978-08-01

    Some regularities of formation of hypersensitivity of the immediate type to the pollen of Artemisia absinthium were studied under conditions of combined hypersensitivity to pollen and Brucella abortus 19-BA vaccine strain; the latter was administered 3, 12, and 28 days after the pollen. The degree of specific allergic reconstruction to the pollen was studied by passive skin anaphylaxis after Ovary, indirect degranulation of mast cells of healthy rats, and by general anaphylaxis in response to intravenous injection of the Artemisia absinthium pollen water-salt extract. Early formation of allergy to the pollen was observed in the groups of animals with combined hypersensitivity to the pollen and brucellae. The degree of allergic reactivity to the pollen allergen was more expressed in the groups with combined allergy than in those with pure pollen hypersensitivity at all the stages of this experiment. PMID:99195

  4. Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: findings from recent cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship between traffic exposure and respiratory health. All surveys reported associations with at least some of the studied respiratory symptoms. The outcome varied, however, according to the age of the child. Nevertheless, the consistency in the results indicates that traffic exhaust contributes to the development of respiratory symptoms in healthy children. Potential effects of traffic exhaust on the development of allergic sensitization were only assessed in the four European birth cohorts. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants had no association with sensitization in ten-year-old schoolchildren in Norway. In contrast, German, Dutch and Swedish preschool children had an increased risk of sensitization related to traffic exhaust despite fairly similar levels of outdoor air pollution as in Norway. Traffic-related effects on sensitization could be restricted to individuals with a specific genetic polymorphism. Assessment of gene-environment interactions on sensitization has so far only been carried out in a subgroup of the Swedish birth cohort. Further genetic association studies are required and may identify individuals vulnerable to adverse effects from traffic-related pollutants. Future studies should also evaluate effects of traffic exhaust on the development and long term outcome of different phenotypes of asthma and wheezing symptoms. PMID:19371435

  5. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products. PMID:20136876

  6. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides promote oral allergic sensitization and orally induced anaphylaxis to peanut protein in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianing; Wang, Yu; Tang, Lihua; de Villiers, Willem JS; Cohen, Donald; Woodward, Jerold; Finkelman, Fred D; Eckhardt, Erik RM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peanut allergies is rising. Peanuts and many other allergen sources contain significant amounts of triglycerides, which affect absorption of antigens but have unknown effects on sensitization and anaphylaxis. We recently reported that dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which bypass mesenteric lymph and directly enter portal blood, reduce intestinal antigen absorption into blood compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flow and are absorbed in chylomicrons via mesenteric lymph. OBJECTIVE Test how dietary MCT affect food allergy. METHODS C3H/HeJ mice were fed peanut butter protein in MCT, LCT (peanut oil), or LCT plus an inhibitor of chylomicron formation (Pluronic L81; “PL81”). Peanut-specific antibodies in plasma, responses of the mice to antigen challenges, and intestinal epithelial cytokine expression were subsequently measured. RESULTS MCT suppressed antigen absorption into blood, but stimulated absorption into Peyer's patches. A single gavage of peanut protein with MCT as well as prolonged feeding in MCT-based diets caused spontaneous allergic sensitization. MCT-sensitized mice experienced IgG-dependent anaphylaxis upon systemic challenge and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis upon oral challenge. MCT feeding stimulated jejunal-epithelial TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 expression compared to LCT, and promoted Th2 cytokine responses in splenocytes. Moreover, oral challenges of sensitized mice with antigen in MCT significantly aggravated anaphylaxis compared to challenges with LCT. Importantly, effects of MCT could be mimicked by adding PL81 to LCT, and in vitro assays indicated that chylomicrons prevent basophil activation. CONCLUSION Dietary MCT promote allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis by affecting antigen absorption and availability and by stimulating Th2 responses. PMID:23182172

  7. Identification of contact and respiratory sensitizers according to IL-4 receptor α expression and IL-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Goutet, Michèle Pépin, Elsa; Langonné, Isabelle; Huguet, Nelly; Ban, Masarin

    2012-04-15

    Identification of allergenic chemicals is an important occupational safety issue. While several methods exist to identify contact sensitizers, there is currently no validated model to predict the potential of chemicals to act as respiratory sensitizers. Previously, we reported that cytometry analysis of the local immune responses induced in mice dermally exposed to the respiratory sensitizer trimellitic anhydride (TMA 10%) and contact sensitizer dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB 1%) could identify divergent expression of several immune parameters. The present study confirms, first, that IgE-positive B cells, MHC class II molecules, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-4Rα can differentiate the allergic reactions caused by high doses of strong respiratory (TMA, phthalic anhydride and toluene diisocyanate) and contact sensitizers (DNCB, dinitrofluorobenzene and oxazolone). The second part of the study was designed to test the robustness of these markers when classing the weakly immunogenic chemicals most often encountered. Six respiratory allergens, including TMA (2.5%), five contact allergens, including DNCB (0.25%), and two irritants were compared at doses of equivalent immunogenicity. The results indicated that IL-4Rα and IL-2 can be reliably used to discriminate sensitizers. Respiratory sensitizers induced markedly higher IL-4Rα levels than contact allergens, while irritants had no effect on this parameter. Inversely, contact allergens tended to induce higher percentages of IL-2{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells than respiratory allergens. In contrast, the markers MHC-II, IgE and IL-4 were not able to classify chemicals with low immunogenic potential. In conclusion, IL-4Rα and IL-2 have the potential to be used in classifying a variety of chemical allergens. -- Highlights: ► Identification of chemical allergens is an important occupational safety issue. ► There is currently no model to predict the potential of chemicals to induce asthma. ► We analyze immune responses induced

  8. Association of VDR and CYP2R1 Polymorphisms with Mite-Sensitized Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Min; Wang, Mei-Lin; Zhao, Hai-Long; Lu, Mei-Ping; Zhou, Han; Chen, Ruo-Xi; Zhang, Zheng-Dong; Shen, Chong; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As recent studies have described an association between vitamin D and allergic rhinitis, we hypothesized that vitamin D pathway-related genes may be candidate genes for susceptibility to allergic rhinitis. Thus, we sought to evaluate whether polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and CYP2R1 genes are associated with mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis (PER) in a Han Chinese population. A hospital-based case-control study consisting of 519 patients with mite-sensitized PER and 447 healthy controls was conducted. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR and CYP2R1 were selected for genotyping. The genotype and allele frequencies of rs9729, rs2228570, rs1544410, and rs731236 in VDR as well as rs2060793 in CYP2R1 were not significantly associated with susceptibility to mite-sensitized PER. After stratification analyses, however, both the CT and CT/TT genotypes of rs2228570 in VDR exhibited a significantly decreased risk (CT: adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.58, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.37-0.91; CT/TT: adjusted OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.40-0.93) of mite-sensitized PER, while the AA genotype of rs2060793 in CYP2R1 exhibited a significantly increased risk (adjusted OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.03-3.34) of PER in the age subgroup of <16 years old. Both the AG and AG/GG genotypes of rs731236 in VDR exhibited a significantly decreased risk (AG: adjusted OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.21-0.89; AG/GG: adjusted OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.23-0.94) of PER in the female subgroup. Analysis of the locus-locus interactions of VDR and CYP2R1 revealed two models that involved combined SNPs of VDR and CYP2R1 were statistically significant (P<0.05). Our data suggest that age and gender may have an impact on the association of three SNPs (rs2228570, rs731236, and rs2060793) in genes of the vitamin D pathway with the risk of mite-sensitized PER in this Chinese population. The VDR and CYP2R1 variants may be involved in genetic interactions in the pathogenesis of PER. PMID:26177022

  9. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, or pollen. Symptoms can also occur when you eat a ... article focuses on allergic rhinitis due to plant pollens. This type of allergic rhinitis is commonly called ...

  10. Pigmented contact dermatitis due to therapeutic sensitizer as complication of contact immunotherapy in alopecia areata.

    PubMed

    Inui, Shigeki; Nakajima, Takeshi; Toda, Naoyuki; Itami, Satoshi

    2010-10-01

    Pigmentary complication by contact immunotherapy (CI) for alopecia areata (AA) has been reported but its pathophysiology remains unknown. To characterize pigmentary complication by CI and its pathophysiology, we examined the incidence of hyperpigmentation in 186 consecutive patients treated with CI using diphenylcyclopropenone. From clinical data of AA totalis (AAT) or universalis (AAU) patients (n = 78), we studied the correlations between this complication and age, sex, atopic background, duration and treatment responsiveness, duration of CI, final concentration of diphenylcyclopropenone and administration of anti-histamines by χ(2)-test or Mann-Whitney U-test. Additionally, the histopathology of pigmentation was studied. As a result, 11 (5.91%) of the 186 patients had hyperpigmentation in this series. All of them had AAT or AAU, suggesting that the pigmentation is apt to occur in severe AA. When the AAT or AAU patients with (n = 11) and without hyperpigmentation (n = 67) were compared, those with pigmentation showed poorer responsiveness to CI (P < 0.05) but no significant tendency for other factors. Histopathologically, skin specimens showed lichenoid or vacuolar interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and dermal melanophages, consistent with pigmented contact dermatitis (PCD). Together, pigmentary complication by CI corresponds to PCD from therapeutic sensitizer, representing clinical indicator of poor responsiveness. PMID:20860739

  11. Sensitization to Airborne Ascospores, Basidiospores, and Fungal Fragments in Allergic Rhinitis and Asthmatic Subjects in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    Background Fungal spores are the predominant biological particulate in the atmosphere of Puerto Rico, yet their potential as allergens has not been studied in subjects with respiratory allergies. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of sensitization of subjects with respiratory allergies to these particles. Methods Serum samples were drawn from 33 subjects with asthma, allergic rhinitis, or nonallergic rhinitis and 2 controls with different skin prick test reactivity. An MK-3 sampler was used to collect air samples and the reactivity of the sera to fungal particles was detected with a halogen immunoassay. Results All subjects reacted to at least 1 fungal particle. Thirty-one subjects reacted to ascospores, 29 to basidiospores, 19 to hyphae/fungal fragments, and 12 to mitospores. The median percentage of haloes in allergic rhinitis subjects was 4.82% while asthma or nonallergic rhinitis subjects had values of 1.09 and 0.39%, respectively. Subjects with skin prick tests positive to 3, 2, 1, or no extract had 5.24, 1.09, 1.61, and, 0.57% of haloed particles, respectively. If skin prick tests were positive to basidiomycetes, pollen, animals, or deuteromycetes, the percentages of haloes were 4.72, 4.15, 3.63, and 3.31%, respectively. Of all haloed particles, 46% were unidentified, 25% ascospores, 20% basidiospores, 7% hyphae/fungal fragments, and 2% mitospores. IgE levels and the number of positive skin prick test extracts correlated with the percentage of haloes. Conclusion In tropical environments, sensitization to airborne basidiomycetes, ascomycetes, and fungal fragments seems to be more prevalent than sensitization to mitospores in subjects with active allergies, suggesting a possible role in exacerbations of respiratory allergies. PMID:21346362

  12. Breastfeeding, aeroallergen sensitization and environmental exposures during infancy are determinants of childhood allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Codispoti, Christopher D.; Levin, Levin; LeMasters, Grace K.; Ryan, Patrick; Reponen, Tiina; Villareal, Manuel; Burkle, Jeff; Lockey, James E.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Bernstein, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Infant predictors of early childhood allergic rhinitis (AR) are poorly understood. Objective Identify environmental exposures and host factors during infancy that predicts AR at age three. Methods High risk children from Greater Cincinnati were followed annually from ages one to three. Allergic rhinitis (AR) was defined as sneezing, runny or blocked nose in the prior 12 months and positive skin prick test (SPT) to one or more aeroallergens. Environmental and standardized medical questionnaires determined exposures and clinical outcomes. Primary activity area dust samples were analyzed for house dust endotoxin (HDE) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) sampled at 27 monitoring stations was used to estimate personal elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT) exposure by land use regression model. Results Of 361 children in this analysis, 116 had AR and 245 were non-atopic, non-symptomatic. Prolonged breastfeeding in African-American children (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6–0.9) and multiple children in the home during infancy was protective of AR (aOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.8). Food SPT positivity and tree SPT positivity in infancy increased the risk of AR at age three (aOR 4.4; 95% CI 2.1–9.2) and (aOR 6.8; 95% CI 2.5–18.7), respectively. HDE exposure was associated with AR; the effect was dependent on exposure level. ECAT and ETS exposure showed no effect on AR. Conclusion Prolonged breastfeeding in African-Americans and multiple children in the home during infancy reduced the risk of AR at age three. SPT positivity to food and tree allergens enhanced risk. The HDE effect on AR was related to exposure. PMID:20392478

  13. A comparison of three guinea-pig sensitization procedures for the detection of 19 reported human contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, B F; Crevel, R W; Johnson, A W

    1981-09-01

    A maximization test (after Magnusson & Kligman 1970), a single injection adjuvant test (SIAT) and a modified Draize test procedure for assessing contact sensitization potential in guinea-pigs have been compared for their ability to detect 19 known human contact sensitizers. The results show that the modified Draize procedure is a good screening test particularly for strong sensitizers. The maximization procedure is a very stringent test of sensitization potential, able to detect some marginal sensitizers. The sensitivity of the SIAT procedure is sufficiently similar to that of the maximization test to act as an alternative for routine testing, particularly in view of its practical advantages over the maximization procedure. PMID:7307480

  14. Halting the allergic march.

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P; Samuel, Sudesh T; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis, has increased exponentially. In Singapore, the prevalence of asthma at all ages exceeds 20%, and around 50% of Singaporean children show features of an underlying allergy. The exact environmental causes for the increase of allergic diseases have not yet been identified, but most researchers agree that a decreased bacterial load in young children may be one of the reasons for the increase. However, the causes of allergy are multiple, and the development of an allergic disease is the result of complex interactions between genetic constitution and environmental factors. In this review article, different aspects of allergic sensitization are covered, including prenatal and postnatal sensitization. The phenomenon of the "allergic march" (switching from one clinical expression of allergy to another) and its underlying mechanisms are discussed. The last part of this review article is on prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including the role of bacterial products (probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and the role of immunotherapy, including sublingual immunotherapy. PMID:23283392

  15. Identification of Microcystis aeruginosa Peptides Responsible for Allergic Sensitization and Characterization of Functional Interactions between Cyanobacterial Toxins and Immunogenic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Geh, Esmond N.; Ghosh, Debajyoti; McKell, Melanie; de la Cruz, Armah A.; Stelma, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Background The cyanobacterium species Microcystis aeruginosa produces microcystin and an array of diverse metabolites believed responsible for their toxicity and/or immunogenicity. Previously, chronic rhinitis patients were demonstrated to elicit a specific IgE response to nontoxic strains of M. aeruginosa by skin-prick testing, indicating that cyanobacteria allergenicity resides in a non-toxin–producing component of the organism. Objectives We sought to identify and characterize M. aeruginosa peptide(s) responsible for allergic sensitization in susceptible individuals, and we investigated the functional interactions between cyanobacterial toxins and their coexpressed immunogenic peptides. Methods Sera from patients and extracts from M. aeruginosa toxic [MC(+)] and nontoxic [MC(–)] strains were used to test IgE-specific reactivity by direct and indirect ELISAs; 2D gel electrophoresis, followed by immunoblots and mass spectrometry (MS), was performed to identify the relevant sensitizing peptides. Cytotoxicity and mediator release assays were performed using the MC(+) and MC(–) lysates. Results We found specific IgE to be increased more in response to the MC(–) strain than the MC(+) strain. This response was inhibited by preincubation of MC(–) lysate with increasing concentrations of microcystin. MS revealed that phycocyanin and the core-membrane linker peptide are the responsible allergens, and MC(–) extracts containing these proteins induced β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophil leukemia cells. Conclusions Phycobiliprotein complexes in M. aeruginosa have been identified as the relevant sensitizing proteins. Our finding that allergenicity is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by microcystin toxin suggests that further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay between immunogenicity and toxicity of cyanobacteria under diverse environmental conditions. Citation Geh EN, Ghosh D, McKell M, de la Cruz AA, Stelma G, Bernstein JA. 2015

  16. Contact sensitivity to nonoxynols as a cause of intolerance to antiseptic preparations.

    PubMed

    Dooms-Goossens, A; Deveylder, H; de Alam, A G; Lachapelle, J M; Tennstedt, D; Degreef, H

    1989-10-01

    Twelve cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by antiseptic preparations are presented. The reactions resulted not from the active principles but rather from nonoxynols used in the offending substances as nonionic surface-active agents. Nonoxynols are ethoxylated alkyl phenols or nonylphenylethers that conform in general to the formula C9H19C6H4(OCH2CH2)nOH. They have emulsifying, wetting, foaming, and solubilizing properties and are used in a large number of industrial, household, agricultural, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products. They also are used as spermicides. There are very few reports in the literature of skin problems caused by nonoxynols. PMID:2553785

  17. Contact sensitivity to hair dyes can be detected by the consumer open test.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, Maya; Cristaudo, Antonio; Hall, Barbara; Orton, David; Rudzki, Edward; Santucci, Baltassare; Toutain, Hervé; Wilkinson, John

    2002-01-01

    To avoid allergic reactions to hair dyes, an open test ("skin sensitivity test" or "dab test") is recommended 48 hours before the hair colouring procedure. We have investigated in a multicenter study, under standardized conditions and medical supervision, the validity of this test as a practical method to detect allergy to paraphenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dyes in 30 PPD patch test-positive and 30 PPD patch test-negative subjects. A defined volume of a marketed hair colouring product containing 1.8% PPD was applied in an open patch test to the retroauricular area. The grading method comprised the dermatologist's clinical evaluation and objective numerical scores. Allergic reactions were elicited in all PPD-positive subjects with a maximal intensity on Day 2; no allergic reactions were elicited in PPD-negative subjects. Increased severity of reactions by the dermatologist's clinical evaluation was correlated strongly with increasing numerical scores. The "skin sensitivity test" can be considered as an effective method to detect type IV hair dye allergy and as such, as an important factor in its secondary prevention. PMID:12095875

  18. Severe systemic allergic reaction induced by accidental skin contact with cow milk in a 16-year-old boy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; De Falco, F; Gilder, J A; D'Amato, M; D'Amato, G

    2004-01-01

    The symptoms of food allergy are rarely induced by skin contact. A 16-year-old boy was referred to our Allergology Centre after an episode of systemic symptoms triggered by accidental skin contact with a drop of cow milk (CM) dripped from a sandwich containing fresh cheese. The patient had been allergic to CM from the age of 24 months and had experienced several episodes of urticaria-angioedema after the ingestion of tiny or "hidden" amounts of CM proteins. In vivo and in vitro diagnostic procedures showed intense sensitisation to all CM proteins (1/100 dilutions of allergenic extracts produced large wheals, and class 4 specific IgE antibodies. Total IgE antibodies were elevate (770.0 UI/). A moderate degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness was found (PC20 metacholine: 3.90 milligrams). This case report suggests that patients with a high degree of sensitisation to CM proteins should be alert to the danger of skin contact and should beware of "hidden" CM allergens. PMID:15301310

  19. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  20. Immunologic principles of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Averbeck, Marco; Gebhardt, Carl; Emmrich, Frank; Treudler, Regina; Simon, Jan C

    2007-11-01

    Allergy either results from a pathological excessive immune reaction, or from the defective induction of tolerance to otherwise harmless antigens. Allergic reactions are mounted by mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity. The development of an allergic response can be divided in sensitization and elicitation phases. Immediate type allergic reactions (e.g. anaphylaxis, urticaria, rhinoconjunctivitis allergica, allergic asthma) are mediated by IgE antibodies which are produced by B cells stimulated by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE on membrane surfaces of mast cells and basophilic granulocytes leads to release of soluble mediators which may cause systemic symptoms within minutes to hours. The following infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes and Th2 cells directs chronic inflammation. Humoral cytotoxic immune reactions (e.g. drug induced cytopenia) are mediated by IgG and IgM antibodies which are directed against membrane associated antigens. IgG and IgM antibodies directed against soluble antigens elicit immune complex mediated cytotoxicity (e.g.drug induced vasculitis). Delayed type immune reactions (e.g.contact dermatitis) are based on the activation of antigen specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and need 24 h to 48 h to develop. Upon recurrent contact with identical antigens, recruitment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells cause inflammation and cytotoxic induced apoptosis in target cells as well as cytokine mediated leukocyte infiltration. Subsequent immigration of CD4(+) Th2 cells provides anti-inflammatory mechanisms leading to resolution of the inflammatory response and tissue repair. PMID:17976144

  1. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  2. Chlorination products: emerging links with allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of the human population to chlorination products has considerably increased during the 20(th) century especially after the 1960s with the development of public and leisure pools. The present article summarizes current knowledge regarding the human exposure to chlorination products and reviews studies suggesting that these chemicals might be involved in the development or exacerbation of allergic diseases. Populations regularly in contact with chlorination products such as swimmers, lifeguards or workers using chlorine as cleaning or bleaching agent show increased risks of allergic diseases or of respiratory disorders frequently associated with allergy. Experimental evidence suggests that chlorination products promote allergic sensitization by compromising the permeability or the immunoregulatory function of epithelial barriers. These findings led to the chlorine hypothesis proposing that the rise of allergic diseases could result less from the declining exposure to microbial agents (the hygiene hypothesis) than from the increasing and largely uncontrolled exposure to products of chlorination, the most widely used method to achieve hygiene in the developed world. Giving the increasing popularity of water recreational areas, there is an obvious need to assess the effects of chlorine-based oxidants on human health and their possible implication in the epidemic of allergic diseases. PMID:17627515

  3. Allergic Conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. This is called conjunctivitis, also known as “pink eye.” Causes & Risk Factors What causes allergic conjunctivitis? ... example, if you are allergic to pollen or mold, stay indoors when pollen and mold levels are ...

  4. Der p 1-pulsed myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells from house dust mite-sensitized allergic patients dysregulate the T cell response.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Gosset, Philippe; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Alkan, Sefik; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2003-01-01

    Although reports suggest that dendritic cells (DC) are involved in the allergic reaction characterized by a T helper cell type 2 (Th2) profile, the role of myeloid (M-DC) and plasmacytoid DC (P-DC), controlling the balance Th1/Th2, remains unknown. Here, we showed that in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt)-sensitized allergic patients and in healthy donors, M-DC displayed a higher capacity to capture Der p 1, a major allergen of Dpt, than did P-DC. However, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy subjects overexpressed CD80 and secreted interleukin (IL)-10, whereas M-DC from allergic patients did not. In contrast, with Der p 1-pulsed P-DC from both groups, no increase in human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD80, and CD86 and no IL-10 secretion were detected. When cocultured with allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells from healthy donors, Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from allergic patients favored a Th1 profile [interferon (IFN)-gamma(high)/IL-4(low)] and Der p 1-pulsed P-DC, a Th2 profile (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(high)). In healthy donors, no T cell polarization (IFN-gamma(low)/IL-4(low)) was induced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC or P-DC, but in response to Der p 1-pulsed M-DC, T cells secreted IL-10. The neutralization of IL-10 produced by Der p 1-pulsed M-DC from healthy donors led to an inhibition of IL-10 production by T cells and a polarization toward a type 1. Thus, IL-10 produced by M-DC might be an essential mediator controlling the balance between tolerance and allergic status. In addition, P-DC could contribute to the steady state in healthy donors or to the development of a Th2 response in allergic donors. PMID:12525566

  5. In vivo and in vitro sensitization to domestic mites in German urban and rural allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Müsken, Horst; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Marañón, Francisco; Franz, Jörg-Thomas; Masuch, Georg; Bergmann, Karl-Christian

    2002-01-01

    Sensitization to domestic mites is common in Germany. The main objectives of this study were (1) to establish the rate of skin test sensitivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 512 consecutive patients evaluated for upper and/or lower respiratory complaints; (2) to verify how many of the patients with a positive skin test to at least one of the three storage mites were also skin test positive to D. pteronyssinus; and (3) to verify how many of the patients with at least one positive skin test to one of the storage mites previously mentioned were also sensitized, in vitro, to other mite species. A total of 512 consecutive patients with rhinitis and/or asthma, living in urban or rural areas of central Germany were skin tested with extracts of D. pteronyssinus, A. siro, L. destructor, and T. putrescentiae. In addition, specific IgE determinations to Euroglyphus maynei, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia tjibodas, Blomia kulagini, and Gohieria fusca were conducted in those individuals with a positive skin test to at least one of the storage mites used in skin testing. Of the 512 patients, 103 (20.1%; 77 urban dwellers and 26 farmers) reacted to at least one of the storage mites. From this latter group, 88 individuals (85.4%) also skin tested positive to D. pteronyssinus. In vitro specific IgE determinations revealed a high rate of sensitization to the other mite species studied. We conclude that sensitization to storage mites in Germany is frequently associated with sensitivity to D. pteronyssinus. Overall, skin test sensitivity to storage mites was greater in rural than in city dwellers. In vitro sensitization to B. tjibodas was also significantly greater in rural than in city dwellers. PMID:12530116

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the blue pigment VINAMON® Blue BX FW - a phthalocyanine blue in a vinyl glove.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Stefanie; Skudlik, Christoph; John, Swen Malte

    2010-10-01

    A 44-year-old metalworker suffered from severe hand eczema in spite of treatment with corticosteroid ointments. He had been using protective cotton gloves with blue PVC anti-slip dots on the finger tips. On clinical examination, the backs of both hands were erythematous and thickened while the finger tips showed vesicles. There was a positive patch test reaction to the blue PVC dots of an unworn cotton glove at 72, 96, 120 hours. To identify the causative chemicals, we carried out further patch tests using ingredients of the glove and cupric sulfate. The patient reacted to the blue dye VYNAMON(®) Blue BX FW (PB 15) at two concentrations - 10% at 72 and 96 hours, and 50% at 48 and 72 hours. This dye is a very strong and brilliant blue with red-copper tones and resistant to fire and weathering. The cupric-phthalocyanine complexes are used as pigments in cosmetics (e. g. CI 74160, 74180, 74260). To the best of our knowledge, no allergic reactions to this dye have been described, particularly not in gloves. PMID:20163502

  7. The influence of sex, allergic rhinitis, and test system on nasal sensitivity to airborne irritants: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Shusterman, D; Murphy, M A; Balmes, J

    2001-01-01

    "Nasal irritant sensitivity" is an important construct in environmental health science; functional measures, however, lack standardization. We performed duplicate measures of nasal irritant perceptual acuity on 16 subjects (evenly divided by sex and seasonal allergy status) using two different test compounds: carbon dioxide (CO2) (detection) and n-propanol (localization). The a priori hypotheses included a) allergic rhinitics will display lower perceptual thresholds than nonrhinitics; b) females will display lower perceptual thresholds than males; and c) estimates of perceptual acuity using the two test systems will be positively correlated. We obtained CO2 detection thresholds using an ascending concentration series, presenting 3-sec pulses of CO2, paired with air in random order, by nasal cannula. We obtained localization thresholds by simultaneously presenting stimuli (ascending concentrations of n-propanol vapor in air) and blanks (saturated water vapor in air) to opposite nostrils, with laterality randomized. In terms of test-retest reliability, individual replicate measures for CO2 detection thresholds correlated more closely than did the localization thresholds of volatile organic compounds (VOC) (r = 0.65 and r = 0.60, respectively). As an intertest comparison, log-transformed individual mean CO2 and VOC measures were positively correlated with an r of 0.63 (p < 0.01). In univariate analyses, sex predicted both log-transformed CO2 and VOC thresholds (females being more "sensitive"; p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). Nasal allergies predicted sensory testing results only in the multivariate analysis, and then only for VOC localization (p < 0.05). The question of population variation in nasal irritant sensitivity (as well as the generalizability of results across test compounds) deserves further attention. PMID:11171519

  8. Effect of diesel exhaust particles on allergic reactions and airway responsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Caroline C; Yin, Xuejun J; Ma, Jane Y C; Millecchia, Lyndell; Wu, Zhong-Xin; Barger, Mark W; Roberts, Jenny R; Antonini, James M; Dey, Richard D; Ma, Joseph K H

    2005-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) prior to ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization in rats reduced OVA-induced airway inflammation. In the present study, Brown Norway rats were first sensitized to OVA (42.3 +/- 5.7 mg/m3) for 30 min on days 1, 8, and 15, then exposed to filtered air or DEP (22.7 +/- 2.5 mg/m3) for 4 h/day on days 24-28, and challenged with OVA on day 29. Airway responsiveness was examined on day 30, and animals were sacrificed on day 31. Ovalbumin sensitization and challenge resulted in a significant infiltration of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils into the lung, elevated presence of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in lung draining lymph nodes, and increased production of serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG. Diesel exhaust particles pre-exposure augmented OVA-induced production of allergen-specific IgE and IgG and pulmonary inflammation characterized by marked increases in T lymphocytes and infiltration of eosinophils after OVA challenge, whereas DEP alone did not have these effects. Although OVA-sensitized rats showed modest response to methacholine challenge, it was the combined DEP and OVA exposure that produced significant airway hyperresponsiveness in this animal model. The effect of DEP pre-exposure on OVA-induced immune responses correlated with an interactive effect of DEP with OVA on increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) by alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar type II (ATII) cells, NO levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the induction of inducible NO synthase expression in AM and ATII cells, and a depletion of total intracellular glutathione (GSH) in AM and lymphocytes. These results show that DEP pre-exposure exacerbates the allergic responses to the subsequent challenge with OVA in OVA-sensitized rats. This DEP effect may be, at least partially, attributed to the elevated generation of ROS in AM and ATII cells, a depletion of GSH in AM and

  9. Establishment of a new animal model of allergic rhinitis with biphasic sneezing by intranasal sensitization with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

    PubMed Central

    SUN, RONG; TANG, XINYE; YAO, HONGBING; HONG, SULING; YANG, YANG; KOU, WEI; WEI, PING

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a global health problem. The effectiveness of currently available medications is limited and therefore investigation for more effective drugs is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish a model of AR in guinea pigs that can be utilized for the further investigation of new drugs. Guinea pigs were intranasally sensitized with 1 µg Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) dissolved in 40 µl saline once daily for 14 days. One week after the last sensitization, the same treatment was applied intranasally once every four days for a total of 30 times. In the treatment group, terfenadine was administered orally 70 min before the 4th, 14th and 24th challenge. Sneezing and nasal scratching were evaluated following each of the 30 challenges. The quantity of antigen-specific antibodies in the serum was measured. Between the 19th and 30th challenges, the guinea pigs in the model group produced significant biphasic elevations in sneezing number, with peaks 10 min-2 h and 4–8 h after the SEB challenges. In addition, the guinea pigs produced significantly more sneezing in the first peak during the 19th to 30th challenges than during the first to 18th challenges (P<0.01). Terfenadine significantly inhibited the early- and late-phase sneezing at all challenge times. The serum levels of SEB-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IgG1 were higher in the model group in comparison with those in the control group (P<0.01). This experiment demonstrated that SEB can induce typical AR with biphasic sneezing in guinea pigs. Histamine may play an important role in the early- and the late-phase sneezing in the model of AR. This model can be potentially used for the investigation of new drugs. PMID:26622329

  10. Oral Administration of Achyranthis radix Extract Prevents TMA-induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis by Regulating Th2 Cytokine and Chemokine Production in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung Keun; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Kim, Min Jung; Seong, Ki Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) remains a major skin disease in many countries, necessitating the discovery of novel and effective anti-ACD agents. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of Achyranthis radix extract (AcRE) on trimellitic anhydride (TMA)-induced dermatitis and the potential mechanism of action involved. Oral administration of AcRE and prednisolone (PS) significantly suppressed TMA-induced increases in ear and epidermal thickness, and IgE expression. In addition, abnormal expression of IL-1β and TNF-α protein and mRNA was also significantly attenuated by oral administration of AcRE. Treatment with AcRE also significantly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines and mRNA expression in vivo. Moreover, AcRE strongly suppressed TMA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 production in draining lymph nodes, as well as OVA-induced IL-4 and IL-5 expression in primary cultured splenocytes. Interestingly, AcRE suppressed IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation in both primary cultured splenocytes and HaCaT cells, and TMA-induced GATA3 mRNA expression ex vivo. AcRE also suppressed TMA-mediated CCL11 and IL-4-induced CCL26 mRNA expression and infiltration of CCR3 positive cells. The major compounds from AcRE were identified as gentisic acid (0.64 ± 0.2 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), protocatechuic acid (2.69 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (5.59 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), caffeic acid (4.21 ± 0.1 μg/g dry weight of AcRE), and ferulic acid (14.78 ± 0.4 ± 0.3 μg/g dry weight of AcRE). Taken together, these results suggest that AcRE has potential for development as an agent to prevent and treat allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:26633349

  11. A cross-sectional analysis of pet-specific immunoglobulin E sensitization and allergic symptomatology and household pet keeping in a birth cohort population.

    PubMed

    Ezell, Jerel M; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine C; Zoratti, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether family members with detectable specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) and/or allergic symptoms to pets are more or less likely to reside in a household with pets. We cross-sectionally investigated potential relationships between family members' allergic sensitization and symptoms to dogs and cats and current household pet-keeping practices, using birth cohort data. Blood samples taken from children enrolled in a birth cohort and their biological mothers and fathers, when the children were aged 18 years, were assessed for sIgE to dog and cat allergens. Interviews assessed subjects' self-reported pet exposure symptoms, current household pet-keeping practices, and socioeconomic characteristics. Overall, household dog or cat keeping was not associated with sIgE to these animals and/or self-reported allergic symptoms in the presence of these animals, even after controlling for factors such as education and household income. In subgroup analyses, current household dog keeping among dog-symptomatic teens (n = 40) was significantly lower than among teens who were not dog symptomatic (n = 289), at 48.8 and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.036). Current household cat keeping was significantly lower among cat-symptomatic mothers (n = 27) compared with mothers who were not cat symptomatic (n = 120), at 24.3 and 37.0%, respectively (p = 0.015). However, when considering those who were both sensitized and reported symptoms, only the mother and cat-keeping associations persisted (p = 0.049). When cat-sensitized mothers report allergic symptoms to cats, these pets may be less likely to be kept in homes. Elevated dog and cat allergen sIgE does not appear to be associated with the keeping of these pets. PMID:24169057

  12. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

  13. Anti-Allergic Effect of Ulmus davidiana Cortex on Contact Dermatitis Induced by Dinitrofluoro- Benzene in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Jeonghyeon; Kim, Byung-Joo; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The root bark of Ulmus davidiana var. Japonica (Ulmi Radicis cortex, URC) is a medicinal herb used for promoting diuresis and treating dampness. In Korea, URC has long been used as an efficacious therapy for inflammation, burns, frostbite and skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis. Methods: In the present study, we used 1-fluoro-2,4- dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD) mouse model to investigate the antiallergic and the anti-inflammatory effects of URC on skin lesion, histopathological changes and specific antibody production. Results: URC treatment, 10 mg/mL, effectively inhibited skin lesions induced by repeated paintings with DNFB. In the histopathological observation, topical application of URC inhibited spongiosis. In addition, URC lowered the production levels of total immunoglobulin and IgG2a in serum. Conclusion: These data indicate that URC has an anti-inflammatory effect that produces an improvement of skin lesions in CD mice. PMID:25780667

  14. Combination treatment of low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and oral tranexamic acid for post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation due to allergic contact dermatitis to henna hair dye.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Bok; Park, Sae Mi; Kim, Jin-Wou; Yu, Dong Soo

    2016-04-01

    A 64-year-old female presented with facial hyperpigmentation. She had dyed her hair monthly with pure henna powder for the past seven months. After patch tests, the patient was diagnosed as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentastion due to allergic contact dermatitis to pure henna that has rarely been reported. The patient underwent Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment and was treated with oral tranexamic acid for 10 weeks. The hyperpigmentation on her forehead demonstrated substantial improvement. PMID:26734817

  15. Dimethyl sulfoxide in a 10% concentration has no effect on oxidation stress induced by ovalbumin-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Mikolka, P; Mokra, D; Drgova, A; Petras, M; Mokry, J

    2012-04-01

    In allergic asthma, activated cells produce various substances including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As heterogenic pathophysiology of asthma results to different response to the therapy, testing novel interventions continues. Because of water-insolubility of some potentially beneficial drugs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often used as a solvent. Based on its antioxidant properties, this study evaluated effects of DMSO on mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs, and oxidation processes induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitization in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. Guinea-pigs were divided into OVA-sensitized and naive animals. One group of OVA-sensitized animals and one group of naive animals were pretreated with 10% DMSO, the other two groups were given saline. After sacrificing animals, blood samples were taken and total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma was determined. Left lungs were saline-lavaged and differential leukocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) was made. Right lung tissue was homogenized, TAS and products of lipid and protein oxidation were determined in the lung homogenate and in isolated mitochondria. OVA-sensitization increased total number of cells and percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid; increased lipid and protein oxidation in the lung homogenate and mitochondria, and decreased TAS in the lungs and plasma compared with naive animals. However, no differences were observed in DMSO-instilled animals compared to controls. In conclusion, OVA-sensitization increased mobilization of leukocytes into the lungs and elevated production of ROS, accompanied by decrease in TAS. 10% DMSO had no effect on lipid and protein oxidation in a guinea-pig model of allergic asthma. PMID:22653905

  16. Prevalence of allergic sensitization in the U.S.: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Jaramillo, Renee; Calatroni, Agustin; Weir, Charles H.; Sever, Michelle L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Rose, Kathryn M.; Liu, Andrew H.; Gergen, Peter J.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic sensitization is an important risk factor for the development of atopic disease. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006 provides the most comprehensive information on IgE-mediated sensitization in the general US population. Objective We investigated clustering, sociodemographic and regional patterns of allergic sensitization and examined risk factors associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Methods Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from NHANES 2005–2006. Participants aged ≥1 year (N=9440) were tested for sIgEs to inhalant and food allergens; participants ≥6 years were tested for 19 sIgEs, and children aged 1–5 years for 9 sIgEs. Serum samples were analyzed using the ImmunoCAP System. Information on demographics and participant characteristics was collected by questionnaire. Results Of the study population aged 6 and older, 44.6% had detectable sIgEs, while 36.2% of children aged 1–5 years were sensitized to ≥1 allergen. Allergen-specific IgEs clustered into 7 groups that might have largely reflected biological cross-reactivity. Although sensitization to individual allergens and allergen types showed regional variation, the overall prevalence of sensitization did not differ across census regions, except in early childhood. In multivariate modeling, young age, male gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, geographic location (census region), and reported pet avoidance measures were most consistently associated with IgE-mediated sensitization. Conclusions The overall prevalence of allergic sensitization does not vary across US census regions, except in early life, although allergen-specific sensitization differs by sociodemographic and regional factors. Biological cross-reactivity may be an important, but not a sole, contributor to the clustering of allergen-specific IgEs. Clinical implications IgE-mediated sensitization shows clustering patterns and differs by sociodemographic

  17. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-06-01

    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen. PMID:21198410

  18. Severe Allergic Contact Dermatitis From Temporary "Black Henna" Coloring of the Hair During Religious Cultural Celebrations: Three Different Cases, Same History.

    PubMed

    Glatstein, Miguel M; Rimon, Ayelet; Danino, Dana; Scolnik, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Contact dermatitis after the application of temporary, paint-on, henna tattoos represents a well-known, potentially serious problem of active sensitization. We describe 3 cases involving 3 children of the same age who developed a severe contact dermatitis with massive face and neck swelling after application of black henna to their hair during "Purim" celebrations. All 3 cases had a history of having applied henna tattoos in the previous year with mild local reactions. Their reactions are presumed to be due to sensitization to para-phenylenediamine. Although reactions to henna are being increasingly reported, reactions of this severity seem to be rare and could lead to permanent skin changes. PMID:24675548

  19. The Impact of Aspergillus fumigatus Viability and Sensitization to Its Allergens on the Murine Allergic Asthma Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sumali; Hoselton, Scott A.; Schuh, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitously present respiratory pathogen. The outcome of a pulmonary disease may vary significantly with fungal viability and host immune status. Our objective in this study was (1) to assess the ability of inhaled irradiation-killed or live A. fumigatus spores to induce allergic pulmonary disease and (2) to assess the extent to which inhaled dead or live A. fumigatus spores influence pulmonary symptoms in a previously established allergic state. Our newly developed fungal delivery apparatus allowed us to recapitulate human exposure through repeated inhalation of dry fungal spores in an animal model. We found that live A. fumigatus spore inhalation led to a significantly increased humoral response, pulmonary inflammation, and airway remodeling in naïve mice and is more likely to induce allergic asthma symptoms than the dead spores. In contrast, in allergic mice, inhalation of dead and live conidia recruited neutrophils and induced goblet cell metaplasia. This data suggests that asthma symptoms might be exacerbated by the inhalation of live or dead spores in individuals with established allergy to fungal antigens, although the extent of symptoms was less with dead spores. These results are likely to be important while considering fungal exposure assessment methods and for making informed therapeutic decisions for mold-associated diseases. PMID:24063011

  20. Adelmidrol increases the endogenous concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide in canine keratinocytes and down-regulates an inflammatory reaction in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Petrosino, S; Puigdemont, A; Della Valle, M F; Fusco, M; Verde, R; Allarà, M; Aveta, T; Orlando, P; Di Marzo, V

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encoding for N-acylethanolamine-hydrolysing acid amidase (NAAA), were treated with adelmidrol or azelaic acid, and the concentrations of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and related mediators (PEA and oleoylethanolamide) were measured. The mRNA expression of PEA catabolic enzymes (NAAA and fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH), and biosynthetic enzymes (N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD) and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1, was also measured. Brain or HEK-293 cell membrane fractions were used to assess the ability of adelmidrol to inhibit FAAH and NAAA activity, respectively. HaCaT cells were stimulated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2), was measured in the presence of adelmidrol. Adelmidrol increased PEA concentrations in canine keratinocytes and in the other cellular systems studied. It did not inhibit the activity of PEA catabolic enzymes, although it reduced their mRNA expression in some cell types. Adelmidrol modulated the expression of PEA biosynthetic enzyme, NAPE-PLD, in HaCaT cells, and inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-2 from stimulated HaCaT cells. This study demonstrates for the first time an 'entourage effect' of adelmidrol on PEA concentrations in keratinocytes and suggests that this effect might mediate, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of this compound in veterinary practice. PMID:26639824

  1. Contact sensitivity to menthol and peppermint in patients with intra-oral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Morton, C A; Garioch, J; Todd, P; Lamey, P J; Forsyth, A

    1995-05-01

    We report 12 cases of contact sensitivity to the flavouring agents menthol and peppermint oil in patients presenting with intra-oral symptoms in association with burning mouth syndrome, recurrent oral ulceration or a lichenoid reaction. The patients were referred from the Glasgow Dental Hospital over a 4-year period for assessment of the possible contribution of contact sensitivity to their complaints. 5 patients with burning mouth syndrome demonstrated contact sensitivity to menthol and/or peppermint, with 1 patient sensitive to both agents, 3 positive to menthol only and 1 to peppermint only. 4 cases with recurrent intra-oral ulceration were sensitive to both menthol and peppermint. 3 patients with an oral lichenoid reaction were positive to menthol on patch testing, with 2 also sensitive to peppermint. 9 of the 12 cases demonstrated additional positive patch test results. After a mean follow-up of 32.7 months (range 9-48 months), of the 9 patients that could be contacted, 6 patients described clearance or improvement of their symptoms as a consequence of avoidance of menthol/peppermint. PMID:7634781

  2. Allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Mygind, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a very frequent disease with a prevalence of 15-20%. Symptoms are most pronounced in young people while, for some unknown reason, the elderly become clinically hyposensitized. Pollen is the cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and house dust mite and animals are the main causes of perennial allergic rhinitis. Histamine is the main cause of sneezing and hypersecretion, while other mediators probably also play a role in nasal blockage. In polyposis, a local denervation is an important cause of vascular leakage, edema and polyp formation. Antihistamines have a positive effect on sneezing and hypersecretion, but not on blockage. As they have a quick onset of action they are useful in patients with mild and occasional symptoms. A nasal steroid is preferable in patients with persistent symptoms, since it is more effective on all nasal symptoms. Short-term use of a systemic steroid can be a valuable adjunct to topical treatment, especially in nasal polyposis, when there is a temporary failure of topical treatment in a blocked nose. A nasal vasoconstrictor can be added for short-term treatment, and an ipratropium spray can be beneficial in perennial non-allergic rhinitis, when watery secretion is the dominant symptom. Immunotherapy can be added in allergic rhinitis, when pharmacotherapy is insufficient. This chapter is based on the author's personal experience with allergic rhinitis, as a patient, a doctor and a researcher. Therefore, it is not a balanced review and the references will be highly selected as they largely consist of the author's own publications. As the text is mainly based on personal research, steroids are described in detail, while, with regard to immunotherapy, the reader is referred to another chapter. In addition to allergic rhinitis, nasal polyposis will be described. It was formerly believed to be an allergic disease, but we now know that it is not. However, with regard to histopathology and drug responsiveness this disease is

  3. Allergic rhinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. If your doctor determines you ... Others cause little or no sleepiness. Antihistamine nasal sprays work well for treating allergic rhinitis. Ask your ...

  4. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune system identifies pollen as an invader or allergen. Your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called ... IgE has specific "radar" for each type of allergen. That's why some people are only allergic to ...

  5. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  6. Monitoring the Contact Stress Distribution of Gecko-Inspired Adhesives Using Mechano-Sensitive Surface Coatings.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jens W; Xue, Longjian; Erath, Johann; Drotlef, Dirk-M; Campo, Aránzazu Del; Fery, Andreas

    2016-07-20

    The contact geometry of microstructured adhesive surfaces is of high relevance for adhesion enhancement. Theoretical considerations indicate that the stress distribution in the contact zone is crucial for the detachment mechanism, but direct experimental evidence is missing so far. In this work, we propose a method that allows, for the first time, the detection of local stresses at the contact area of biomimetic adhesive microstructures during contact formation, compression and detachment. We use a mechano-sensitive polymeric layer, which turns mechanical stresses into changes of fluorescence intensity. The biomimetic surface is brought into contact with this layer in a well-defined fashion using a microcontact printer, while the contact area is monitored with fluorescence microscopy in situ. Thus, changes in stress distribution across the contact area during compression and pull-off can be visualized with a lateral resolution of 1 μm. We apply this method to study the enhanced adhesive performance of T-shaped micropillars, compared to flat punch microstructures. We find significant differences in the stress distribution of the both differing contact geometries during pull-off. In particular, we find direct evidence for the suppression of crack nucleation at the edge of T-shaped pillars, which confirms theoretical models for the superior adhesive properties of these structures. PMID:27327111

  7. Ethosome formulations of known contact allergens can increase their sensitizing capacity.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jacob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne D; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-07-01

    Vesicular systems, such as liposomes and ethosomes, are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products to encapsulate ingredients, to protect ingredients from degradation, to increase bioavailability, and to improve cosmetic performance. Some reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase their contact allergy elicitation potential in humans. However, no sensitization studies have been published. We formulated two model contact allergens (isoeugenol and dinitrochlorobenzene) in ethosomes and investigated the sensitization response using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA). The results were compared with those for the same allergens in similar concentrations and vehicles without ethosomes. Both allergens encapsulated in 200-300 nm ethosomes showed increased sensitizing potency in the murine assay compared with the allergens in solution without ethosomes. Empty ethosomes were non-sensitizing according to LLNA. The clinical implications are so far uncertain, but increased allergenicity from ethosome-encapsulated topical product ingredients cannot be excluded. PMID:20574602

  8. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research. PMID:27393774

  9. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years) were tested by open food challenge (OFC) with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens) and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia) to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off), 20% (Immulite) and 38% (ImmunoCAP) had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies. PMID:22409998

  10. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846