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Sample records for allergy current research

  1. Respiratory sensitization and allergy: Current research approaches and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Boverhof, Darrell R. Billington, Richard; Gollapudi, B. Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, John A.; Krieger, Shannon M.; Poole, Alan; Wiescinski, Connie M.; Woolhiser, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    There are currently no accepted regulatory models for assessing the potential of a substance to cause respiratory sensitization and allergy. In contrast, a number of models exist for the assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Research indicates that respiratory sensitizers may be identified through contact sensitization assays such as the local lymph node assay, although only a small subset of the compounds that yield positive results in these assays are actually respiratory sensitizers. Due to the increasing health concerns associated with occupational asthma and the impending directives on the regulation of respiratory sensitizers and allergens, an approach which can identify these compounds and distinguish them from contact sensitizers is required. This report discusses some of the important contrasts between respiratory allergy and ACD, and highlights several prominent in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches that are being applied or could be further developed to identify compounds capable of causing respiratory allergy. Although a number of animal models have been used for researching respiratory sensitization and allergy, protocols and endpoints for these approaches are often inconsistent, costly and difficult to reproduce, thereby limiting meaningful comparisons of data between laboratories and development of a consensus approach. A number of emerging in vitro and in silico models show promise for use in the characterization of contact sensitization potential and should be further explored for their ability to identify and differentiate contact and respiratory sensitizers. Ultimately, the development of a consistent, accurate and cost-effective model will likely incorporate a number of these approaches and will require effective communication, collaboration and consensus among all stakeholders.

  2. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  3. Current understanding of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, Wesley

    2002-05-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions account for the majority of well-documented food allergy reactions, but non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms do cause some hypersensitivity disorders. A variety of gastrointestinal, cutaneous, respiratory, and generalized symptoms and syndromes have been associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. The diagnostic approach to adverse food reactions begins with a careful medical history and physical examination. Laboratory studies may then be used appropriately in the evaluation. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is established, the only proven therapy is the strict elimination of the food from the patient's diet. Studies in both children and adults indicate that symptomatic reactivity to food allergens is often lost over time, except possibly reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood. PMID:12023192

  4. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  5. Artemisia Allergy Research in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Sun, Jin-Lu; Yin, Jia; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia is the most important outdoor allergen throughout China. It can cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or both of them. Since it was verified as an allergenic pollen in 1960, it was identified two times in the Chinese National Pollen Survey (1984, 2009). The first oral immunotherapy double-blinded trial for Artemisia pollen asthma research was conducted in China in 1989 and published in 1990. 40 years since that study, there have been many published research reports on Chinese Artemisia allergy. This review summarizes the information regarding the discovery of Artemisia as an allergenic pollen, pollen account, epidemiology, allergen components, immunological changes in hay fever patients, natural course from rhinitis to asthma, diagnosis, and immunotherapies in China. PMID:26000282

  6. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children. PMID:26969248

  7. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental Protection Agency ... Resources for You Allergy Relief for Your Child Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks Allergy Meds Could Affect Your ...

  8. Helicobacter pylori and allergy: Update of research

    PubMed Central

    Daugule, Ilva; Zavoronkova, Jelizaveta; Santare, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association. Although data from cohort studies point to a possible association of H. pylori with some of the allergic diseases, no definite proof for causal relationship has been clearly demonstrated yet. A biological mechanism proposed to explain the preventive action of H. pylori to allergy is reduced exposure to a major stimulus for the generation of Treg cells in individuals without H. pylori infection. In addition, H. pylori could be an indicator for changes in gut microbiome, reflecting the complex interaction between microbes and immune system. PMID:26713280

  9. Viewpoint: the future of research in pediatric allergy: what should the focus be?

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Shek, Lynette

    2012-02-01

    Allergic diseases have been increasing during the last three decades, and exact reasons for this are still debated. Despite intense ongoing research, a lot of aspects of allergic diseases are still poorly understood, resulting in limitations in current therapeutic approach to allergies. In this viewpoint, important unanswered research questions are raised mainly on novel therapeutic approaches to allergic children, and suggestions for future research are raised. Three aspects of pediatric allergy are distinguished: the prevention, control, and cure. PMID:22283402

  10. CURRENT STATE OF PREDICTING THE RESPIRATORY ALLERGY POTENTIAL OF CHEMICALS: WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current State of Predicting the Respiratory Allergy Potential of Chemicals: What Are the Issues? M I. Gilmour1 and S. E. Loveless2, 1USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC and 2DuPont Haskell Laboratory, Newark, DE.

    Many chemicals are clearly capable of eliciting immune respon...

  11. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  12. Current advances of murine models for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiange; Navarro, Severine; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy affects an increasing population in Western world but also developing countries. Researchers have been taking great efforts in identifying and characterising food allergens using molecular tools. However, there are still many mechanistic hypotheses that need to be tested using an appropriate in vivo experimental platform. To date, a number of mouse models for food allergy have been established and provided valuable insights into food allergenicity, development of therapies and allergic inflammation mechanisms. Nevertheless, a large diversity of protocols have been developed for the establishment of relevant mouse models. As a result, comparisons of outcomes between different models are very difficult to be conducted. The phenotypes of mouse models are greatly influenced by genetic background, gender, route of allergen exposure, the nature and concentration of food allergens, as well as the usage of adjuvants. This review focuses on IgE-mediated food allergy, compares the differential approaches in developing appropriate murine models for food allergy and details specific findings for three major food allergens, peanut, milk and shellfish. PMID:26759987

  13. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hayfever.html National ...

  14. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/allergy.html MedlinePlus: Hay Fever www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hayfever.html National ...

  15. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Save Lives Donate Today Join the Teal Pumpkin Project Raise awareness of food allergies and promote ... Easy Steps to Taking Part in the Teal Pumpkin Project Thursday, September 15, 2016 4:31:56 ...

  16. Fighting Allergies with Research and Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... of treatment compared to standard allergen immunotherapy. The feasibility of developing comparable approaches against other seasonal allergies ... approach, and the NIAID-sponsored Inner City Asthma Study of children demonstrated that environmental interventions reduced wheezing ...

  17. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people. Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny ...

  18. Allergies

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast ... to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and runny nose, sneezing and watery eyes ...

  19. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... make certain medical conditions, such as sinus problems, eczema , and asthma , worse. ... by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medications that can be ...

  20. Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect ...

  1. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lanser, Bruce J.; Wright, Benjamin L.; Orgel, Kelly A.; Vickery, Brian P.; Fleischer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26456449

  2. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Bruce J; Wright, Benjamin L; Orgel, Kelly A; Vickery, Brian P; Fleischer, David M

    2015-12-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26456449

  3. Current developments for improving efficacy of allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2015-01-01

    Allergic diseases are prevalent worldwide. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a current treatment for allergy, leading to modification of the natural course of disease. Mechanisms of efficacy include Treg through release of IL-10 and TGF-β and specific IgG4 blocking antibodies. Subcutaneous and sublingual routes are popular, but uptake is limited by inconvenience and safety concerns. Inclusion criteria limit application to a small proportion of allergic patients. New forms of immunotherapy are being investigated for more efficacious, convenient and safer options with promising advances in recent years. The rationale of reducing vaccine allergenicity to increase safety while improving immunogenicity led to investigation of T-cell epitope-based peptides and recombinant allergen derivatives. Additionally, different routes of administration and adjuvants and adjunct therapies are being explored. This review discusses the current status of AIT and recent advances to improve clinical efficacy, safety and long-term immune tolerance. PMID:26013124

  4. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ludman, Sian W; Boyle, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR) can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.28), but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers) or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment. PMID:26229493

  5. Stinging insect allergy: current perspectives on venom immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Sian W; Boyle, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to insect stings affect up to 5% of the population during their lifetime, and up to 32% of beekeepers. Such reactions can be fatal, albeit very rarely, and fear of a further systemic reaction (SR) can lead to significant anxiety and quality of life impairment. A recent Cochrane systematic review confirmed that venom immunotherapy (VIT) is an effective treatment for people who have had a systemic allergic reaction to an insect sting. VIT reduces risk of a further SR (relative risk 0.10, 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.28), but VIT also reduces risk of a future large local reaction, and significantly improves disease-specific quality of life. However, health economic analysis showed that VIT is generally not cost effective for preventing future SRs; most people are stung infrequently, most SRs resolve without long-term consequences, and a fatal outcome is extremely rare. VIT only becomes cost effective if one is stung frequently (eg, beekeepers) or if quality of life improvement is considered. Thus, for most people with insect sting allergy, anxiety and quality of life impairment should be the overriding consideration when making treatment decisions, highlighting the importance of a patient-centered approach. Areas which need to be explored in future research include efforts to improve the safety and convenience of VIT such as the use of sublingual immunotherapy; quality of life effects of venom allergy in children and adolescents as well as their parents; and the optimal duration of treatment. PMID:26229493

  6. Tree nut allergy: risk factors for development, mitigation of reaction risk and current efforts in desensitization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mona; Burks, A Wesley; Green, Todd D

    2015-05-01

    Allergy to tree nuts has grown widespread among patients, specifically in the pediatric population, in recent years. In this review, we evaluate and summarize the literature specific to development and treatment of tree nut allergy. The cause of tree nut allergy, such as most food allergies, is unknown; there are theories regarding maternal dietary factors as well as sensitization related to cross-reactivity to peanut allergens. The gold standard for the diagnosis of tree nut allergy is the double-blind, placebo-controlled, oral food challenge; however, simpler and more cost-effective diagnostic methods, such as the skin prick test and serum-specific IgE are often used as a supplement for diagnosis. Management of tree nut allergy consists of dietary avoidance and using epinephrine to manage serious allergic reactions. Alternative therapeutic methods, such as oral and sublingual immunotherapy and modification of allergenic proteins are being explored to develop safer, more effective and long-lasting management of tree nut allergy. We comment on the current studies involving risk factors for sensitization, diagnosis and management of tree nut allergy. PMID:25824522

  7. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  8. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools. PMID:23059601

  9. Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein. PMID:23121771

  10. Current and Emerging Therapies for IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Robbie D; Jones, Stacie M

    2016-04-01

    Food allergies are a growing clinical problem leading to increased health care utilization and decreases in patient quality of life. Current treatment recommendations include strict dietary avoidance of the offending food as well as use of self-injectable epinephrine in case of accidental exposure with allergic reaction. Although many individuals will eventually outgrow their food allergies, a substantial number will not. Significant effort has been made to find novel treatments that protect patients from food-triggered reactions as well as to develop immune-modulating therapies that could lead to tolerance. In this review, three therapies that have shown the most promise for the treatment of food allergies are highlighted: oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy. PMID:26942731

  11. [Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergies in childhood. Current options and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, Valérie; Blümchen, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    During recent years increasing research has been conducted on casual treatment options for food allergy, with focus on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut allergy. Several studies could show that OIT leads to desensitization or an increase of threshold. However, severe adverse events during this treatment are not uncommon. Whether OIT leads to a sustained, 'robust' development of tolerance in patients has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Besides OIT, some studies on sublingual (SLIT) and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) were performed, aiming to improve the safety profile. Furthermore, there are some pilot studies investigating a combined treatment of SLIT and OIT or a combined use of anti-IgE treatment or probiotic supplementation with OIT. Further placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed in order to develop standardized protocols before immunotherapy may be used as a therapeutic option for food allergy outside of clinical trials. PMID:27324376

  12. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  13. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies AAFA Research Grants Research Grant Awardees Research News Get Involved ...

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Food Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  15. Latest developments in allergic rhinitis in Allergy for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Ng, C L; Wang, D Y

    2015-12-01

    Research efforts in allergic rhinitis have always been intense. Over the past 3 years, numerous breakthroughs in basic science and clinical research have been made, augmenting our understanding of this condition that afflicts a significant proportion of the global population. New epidemiological findings, novel insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of allergy, enhancement of current developmental theories, new concepts of the goals and endpoints of management, and latest therapeutic modalities that includes the harnessing of information technology and big data are some areas where important advances were made. We attempt to bring you a summary of the key research advances made in the field of allergic rhinitis from 2013 to 2015. PMID:26443244

  16. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  17. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  18. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs ... or basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very ...

  19. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores ...

  20. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  1. Current and emerging immunotherapeutic approaches to treat and prevent peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren S; Brown, Michael P; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D

    2012-12-01

    Peanut-allergen hypersensitivity reactions, which can result in anaphylactic episodes and death, affect approximately 1% of the general population. Currently, strict avoidance of allergenic food is the only available treatment for this food-induced allergic reaction; however, the innocuous presence of trace amounts of peanut protein contaminating food products makes avoidance extremely difficult, especially in children. Therefore, safe and inexpensive therapeutic strategies aimed at prevention and treatment of peanut allergies is urgently required. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge of adaptive immune recognition and responsiveness to peanut allergens and how this can be integrated and subverted into new therapeutic treatment regimens for these dangerous allergic responses. The potential for new strategic vaccination-based interventions to either moderate or prevent these types of responses from occurring is also discussed. PMID:23252390

  2. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  3. Allergy--current insights into prevention and diagnostic workup of immediate-type allergy and treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Brehler, Randolf; Stöcker, Benedikt; Grundmann, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the incidence of allergic diseases has dramatically increased, by now affecting a large percentage of the population. For a long time, allergen avoidance was considered the most crucial measure in primary allergy prevention. However, studies have increasingly shown that exposure to allergens is an essential prerequisite for the development of immunological tolerance. Diagnostic workup is based on patient history, skin tests, and measurement of specific IgE antibodies. The introduction of component-based diagnostic workup offer an option to differentiate between primary sensitization and cross-reactivity caused by sensitization to panallergens or sensitization to cross-reactive carbohydrate epitopes. Symptomatic treatment only leads to temporary relief of allergic symptoms. By contrast, specific immunotherapy (SIT) may have long-lasting therapeutic effects and potentially even result in a complete cure. The selection of allergens for SIT is guided by the principle of major allergens. It is recommended to use those preparations that have been proven safe and effective in controlled clinical studies. With respect to subcutaneous immunotherapy, a host of tested and approved extracts are available for a wide range of different allergens. Large clinical trials have also confirmed the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with grass and also birch pollen extracts, which has led to the official approval of some preparations containing these allergens. PMID:26213811

  4. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  5. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  6. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  7. [Research advances in the relationship between cow's milk allergy and gastroesoph-ageal reflux in infants].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Fang; Jiang, Mi-Zu

    2016-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and cow's milk allergy (CMA) are common disorders in infants. In recent years, more and more research has investigated the relationship between these two diseases. Some studies reported that about half of the cases of GER in infants younger than 1 year may be an association with CMA. Therefore, overall understanding the role of CMA on the pathogenesis of GER has a great importance on improving clinical level of diagnosis and therapy. This review article tried to elaborate advances in research on the relationship between CMA and GER in infants, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27412554

  8. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653

  9. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  10. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  11. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  12. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  13. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue. PMID:26262047

  14. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  15. Oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    Current management of food allergy involves strict avoidance, education on recognizing and managing allergic reactions, and carrying an adrenaline autoinjector. This approach is burdensome and associated with reduced quality of life. Patients with food allergy would benefit greatly from a treatment that could achieve desensitization or long-term tolerance. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses; however, it remains uncertain whether OIT can induce long-term tolerance. Nevertheless, successful desensitization provides a major advance in management by reducing the risk of reaction to low amounts of allergen. Allergic reactions during OIT are common, although severe reactions are less common. Therefore, OIT should be performed in specialist centers under close medical supervision and would ideally be conducted as part of ongoing research studies. OIT holds promise as a novel approach to managing food allergy. PMID:19063824

  16. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

  17. The role of epigenetic mediation and the future of food allergy research.

    PubMed

    Quake, Christine; Nadeau, Kari C

    2015-07-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a developing global health problem with prevalence rising at alarmingly fast rates. In this review, we discuss the interplay between genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of food allergies. We aim to highlight the most recent evidence that suggests how epigenetic control may mediate genetic susceptibility of food allergies. We also examine how epigenetic modifications may be the key in explaining how environmental factors modulate and modify gene expression, leading to the dysregulation of immune tolerance and consequently, the development of food allergies. The emerging epigenetic paradigm in food allergies is likely to provide new mechanistic insight into food allergy risk and development as well as shape our therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:26150170

  18. [The NTP in allergy research : open questions regarding nasal provocation tests using allergens].

    PubMed

    Förster, U; Sperl, A; Klimek, L

    2013-10-01

    The nasal provocation test (NPT) is a simple procedure with high specificity and sensitivity that is used in the investigation of allergic and nonallergic diseases. Uniform standards are of particular importance in the clinical setting and for the comparability of clinical and basic allergy research. These standards should cover the composition, dosage and pharmacological formulation of provocative substances (e.g. allergen extracts), the necessity of titration, allergen application methods and the evaluation criteria for a positive NPT reaction. Detection of various mediators and cytokines in nasal discharge can be very useful in the late phase reactions. NPT finds specific applications in studies of local IgE secretion in the nasal mucosa, the diagnosis of analgesic intolerance and in assessments of the efficacy of specific immunotherapies. Additional parameters warranting further evaluation include provocation with cold dry air in nasal hyperreactivity patients and nasal nitric oxide formation. Determination of nasal blood flow during NPT provides an additional clinical parameter. PMID:24127046

  19. Quality of life measures for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Dubois, A E J

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy has become an emerging health problem in Western societies. Although food allergy is characterized by a relatively low mortality and an almost continual absence of physical symptoms, food allergic patients are continually confronted with the possibility of potentially severe reactions and the necessity of dietary vigilance. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be the only meaningful outcome measure available for food allergy measuring this continuous burden. HRQL may be measured with generic or disease-specific instruments. Generic instruments may be relatively unresponsive to differences or changes in health status, whereas disease-specific instruments are generally more sensitive for relatively subtle problems related to a particular illness. Recently, a number of disease-specific questionnaires have become available to measure the HRQL of food allergic patients. An important area for further research is the interpretation of the outcome of HRQL measures. In this respect, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is of special interest. In combination with the numbers needed to treat (NNT), this may give an ultimate insight into the clinical relevance of an intervention. Since there is still no cure for food allergy, the only available treatment is strict avoidance of the culprit food and provision of emergency treatment. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. A number of studies have investigated the perceptions of parents whose children underwent a DBPCFC. In contrast to the parental perception, there is much currently still unknown about the effects of undergoing a DBPCFC in the perceptions of patients. In addition to the research on MCID and NNT of food allergy HRQL questionnaires, further research should focus on deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from food allergy HRQL questionnaires and the application of food allergy HRQL

  20. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  1. Current Research in Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, Janet

    1985-01-01

    Current research concerning affective development in infants and children is selectively reviewed. The focus of findings and discussion is on three general and related topics: (1) expression of emotion and affective interaction in infancy; (2) socialization and regulation of emotion; (3) comprehension of emotions and empathy with others by…

  2. Current Physics Research. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are two current physics research areas. Solar cell efficiencies are discussed relating to present and future conversion efficiencies. Topics discussed in Astrophysics include the observation of astronomical bodies at different wavelengths, in terms of electromagnetic spectrum, tools of astronomy, compact stars, pulsars X-ray binaries,…

  3. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing: The prick test involves placing ... Chiriac AM, Bousquet J, Demoly P. In vivo methods for the study and diagnosis of allergy. In: ...

  4. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  5. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  6. Current issues with research support

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  7. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... inducing therapies in such disorders as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Inner-City Asthma Consortium: Since 1991, the NIAID ... NIAID program is to identify the portions of allergy-inducing molecules that immune system cells and IgE ...

  8. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Joshua A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Wood, Robert A.; Plaut, Marshall; Cooper, Susan F.; Fenton, Matthew J.; Arshad, S. Hasan; Bahna, Sami L.; Beck, Lisa A.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Camargo, Carlos A.; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Furuta, Glenn T.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Jones, Carol; Kraft, Monica; Levy, Bruce D.; Lieberman, Phil; Luccioli, Stefano; McCall, Kathleen M.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Simon, Ronald A.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Teach, Stephen J.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Schwaninger, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy also may vary from one clinical practice setting to another. Finally, because patients frequently confuse nonallergic food reactions, such as food intolerance, with food allergies, there is an unfounded belief among the public that food allergy prevalence is higher than it truly is. In response to these concerns, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with 34 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, led the development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. These Guidelines are intended for use by a wide variety of health care professionals, including family practice physicians, clinical specialists, and nurse practitioners. The Guidelines include a consensus definition for food allergy, discuss comorbid conditions often associated with food allergy, and focus on both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions to food. Topics addressed include the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, as well as the management of severe symptoms and anaphylaxis. These Guidelines provide 43 concise clinical recommendations and additional guidance on points of current controversy in patient management. They also identify gaps in the current scientific knowledge to be addressed through future research. PMID:21134576

  9. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masako; Arakaki, Rieko; Yamada, Akiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Kudo, Yasusei; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact hypersensitivity to metals is a delayed-type allergy. Although various metals are known to produce an allergic reaction, nickel is the most frequent cause of metal allergy. Researchers have attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of metal allergy using animal models and human patients. Here, the immunological and molecular mechanisms of metal allergy are described based on the findings of previous studies, including those that were recently published. In addition, the adsorption and excretion of various metals, in particular nickel, is discussed to further understand the pathogenesis of metal allergy. PMID:26848658

  10. Current trends in oxysterol research.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, William J; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Hearn, Thomas; Yutuc, Eylan; Morgan, Alwena H; Wang, Yuqin

    2016-04-15

    In this short review we provide a synopsis of recent developments in oxysterol research highlighting topics of current interest to the community. These include the involvement of oxysterols in neuronal development and survival, their participation in the immune system, particularly with respect to bacterial and viral infection and to Th17-cell development, and the role of oxysterols in breast cancer. We also discuss the value of oxysterol analysis in the diagnosis of disease. PMID:27068984

  11. Current trends in oxysterol research

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, William J.; Abdel-Khalik, Jonas; Hearn, Thomas; Yutuc, Eylan; Morgan, Alwena H.; Wang, Yuqin

    2016-01-01

    In this short review we provide a synopsis of recent developments in oxysterol research highlighting topics of current interest to the community. These include the involvement of oxysterols in neuronal development and survival, their participation in the immune system, particularly with respect to bacterial and viral infection and to Th17-cell development, and the role of oxysterols in breast cancer. We also discuss the value of oxysterol analysis in the diagnosis of disease. PMID:27068984

  12. Food Allergy: Epidemiology and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy is persistent into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:25459576

  13. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  14. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  15. Fungal allergy in asthma–state of the art and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sensitization to fungi and long term or uncontrolled fungal infection are associated with poor control of asthma, the likelihood of more severe disease and complications such as bronchiectasis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Modelling suggests that >6.5 million people have severe asthma with fungal sensitizations (SAFS), up to 50% of adult asthmatics attending secondary care have fungal sensitization, and an estimated 4.8 million adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). There is much uncertainty about which fungi and fungal allergens are relevant to asthma, the natural history of sensitisation to fungi, if there is an exposure response relationship for fungal allergy, and the pathogenesis and frequency of exacerbations and complications. Genetic associations have been described but only weakly linked to phenotypes. The evidence base for most management strategies in ABPA, SAFS and related conditions is weak. Yet straightforward clinical practice guidelines for management are required. The role of environmental monitoring and optimal means of controlling disease to prevent disability and complications are not yet clear. In this paper we set out the key evidence supporting the role of fungal exposure, sensitisation and infection in asthmatics, what is understood about pathogenesis and natural history and identify the numerous areas for research studies. PMID:24735832

  16. An overview of fruit allergy and the causative allergens.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A K G; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-11-01

    Plant allergens, being one of the most widespread allergenic substances, are hard to avoid. Hence, their identification and characterization are of prime importance for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy. The reported allergies to fruits mainly evoke oral allergy syndrome caused by the presence of cross-reactive IgE to certain pollens and thus, allergy to fruits has also been linked to particular pollens. Many fruit allergies are being studied for their causative allergens, and are being characterized. Some tropical or exotic fruits are responsible for region-specific allergies for which only limited information is available, and generally lack allergen characterization. From a survey of the literature on fruit allergy, it is clear that some common fruits (apple, peach, musk melon, kiwi fruit, cherry, grape, strawberry, banana, custard apple, mango and pomegranate) and their allergens appear to be at the center of current research on food allergy. The present review focuses on common fruits reported as allergenic and their identified allergens; a brief description of allergens from six rare/tropical fruits is also covered. PMID:26549334

  17. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations. PMID:26755097

  18. The Spanish standard patch test series: 2016 update by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC).

    PubMed

    Hervella-Garcés, M; García-Gavín, J; Silvestre-Salvador, J F

    2016-09-01

    The Spanish standard patch test series, as recommended by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis and Skin Allergy Research Group (GEIDAC), has been updated for 2016. The new series replaces the 2012 version and contains the minimum set of allergens recommended for routine investigation of contact allergy in Spain from 2016 onwards. Four haptens -clioquinol, thimerosal, mercury, and primin- have been eliminated owing to a low frequency of relevant allergic reactions, while 3 new allergens -methylisothiazolinone, diazolidinyl urea, and imidazolidinyl urea- have been added. GEIDAC has also modified the recommended aqueous solution concentrations for the 2 classic, major haptens methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone, which are now to be tested at 200ppm in aqueous solution, and formaldehyde, which is now to be tested in a 2% aqueous solution. Updating the Spanish standard series is one of the functions of GEIDAC, which is responsible for ensuring that the standard series is suited to the country's epidemiological profile and pattern of contact sensitization. PMID:27262363

  19. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  20. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  1. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  2. Current research on fatigue cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Jono, M.; Komai, K.

    1987-01-01

    This first volume of CJMR (Current Japanese Materials Research), contains thirteen chapters concerning the above three themes of fatigue cracks. Each chapter is not a single paper as appearing in many academic journals and transactions, but a systematic review of the current achievement by each author with the emphasis on important points. The common feature is that the elaborated experimental techniques and theoretical approaches, some of which are quite unique, are introduced by respective authors to make clear the difficulty arising in the observation of small cracks and analysis of data. Theoretical models are proposed from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics to link the two thresholds of fatigue limit and crack growth, and intensive discussions are made for further development of the theory. Threshold stress intensity factors and the growth rate of medium and long sized cracks are also discussed, together with their opening behavior. The influencing factors are plastic zone size, the stress ratio and residual stress distribution occurring in welded joints. Mode II crack growth is of great significance since the initial fatigue cracks propagate mainly in shear mode. The problems of fatigue crack growth in corrosive environment is highly important since its retardation and enhancement take place in structural steels affected by the variety of factors. Life prediction in such environments poses another important problem. These are systematically discussed in this book.

  3. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  4. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  5. Hope for Beating Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management of Food Allergy in the United States Frightened of Food: Living with Food Allergies Reference: N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):233-43. PMID: 22808958 Search NIH Research Matters Search NIH Research Matters' stories In this Edition ...

  6. Allergy, Rhinitis and Migraine Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... play no role in provoking attacks of migraine headache. Recent research suggests this may not be correct. Confirming allergy - ... might lead to sleep apnea that could cause headache. Third, allergy worsens symptoms ... Research shows that patients with depression compared to those ...

  7. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  8. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  9. Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  10. Allergy Testing.

    PubMed

    Tourlas, Konstantinos; Burman, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity or patch-type skin tests are used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. PMID:27545728

  11. The Current Status of STEM Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the current Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education research base through an analysis of articles from eight journals focused on the STEM disciplines. Analyzed are both practitioner and research publications to determine the current scope of STEM education research, where current STEM education…

  12. Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

  13. Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Railey, Mary Dell; Burks, A Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Food allergy is a life-changing and potentially life-threatening diagnosis, affecting approximately 6% of children and 4% of adults in the United States. A small number of foods account for the vast majority of food allergies, and the reactions after ingestion of a food to which a person is allergic are varied. At present, the standard of care for food-allergic patients is strict avoidance along with immediate access to self-injectable epinephrine and antihistamines. New treatment options are on the horizon. This review discusses the current research in the field of food allergy. Remarkable progress in the field of food allergy treatment demonstrates promise for disease-modifying therapies to be available clinically in the near future. PMID:20345335

  14. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  15. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Soy” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  16. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Wheat” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  17. Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Peanut” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  18. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  19. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care provider gives you the ... that allergies make worse Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis Insect bite sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a ...

  20. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. ...

  1. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two different types of shellfish allergy are: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) mollusks (like clams, ... of the top eight most common allergens, including crustacean shellfish. The label should list "shellfish" in the ...

  2. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish allergy. Shellfish fall into two different groups: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) and mollusks (like ... shellfish on food labels, they are referring to crustacean shellfish. If you are allergic to mollusks, then ...

  3. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1990-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Topics include children's reading, nonstandard spoken Indonesian, English speech act performance, classroom verbal interaction, journal writing, and listening comprehension. (LB)

  4. Current Physics Research: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1980-01-01

    This article is a preview of the book, "Physics News in 1980." Five research areas are reviewed: high energy particle accelerators, fusion reactors, solar cells, astrophysics, and gauge theories. (Author/DS)

  5. Current research in necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Simon; Rees, Clare M; Hall, Nigel J

    2016-06-01

    Despite decades of research on necrotizing enterocolitis, we still do not fully understand the pathogenesis of the disease, how to prevent or how to treat the disease. However, as a result of recent significant advances in the microbiology, molecular biology, and cell biology of the intestine of premature infants and infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, there is some hope that research into this devastating disease will yield some important translation into improved outcomes. PMID:26923373

  6. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Pollart, Susan M; Warniment, Christa; Mori, Takahiro

    2009-12-15

    The prevalence of latex allergy in the general population is low; however, the risk of developing latex allergy is higher in persons with increased latex exposure, such as health care workers or persons who work in the rubber industry. Children with spina bifida and others who undergo multiple surgeries or procedures, particularly within the first year of life, are also at greater risk of latex allergy. Reactions to latex allergy can range from type IV delayed hypersensitivity (e.g., contact dermatitis) to type I immediate hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis). Latex allergy can be diagnosed with clinical history, skin prick testing, latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E testing, and glove provocation testing. The main goals of latex allergy management are avoidance of exposure to latex allergens and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions. The use of nonlatex products from birth may prevent potentially serious allergic reactions. Widespread adoption of nonlatex or low-latex gloves has decreased the incidence of latex sensitization in health care workers. PMID:20000303

  7. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  9. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1989-01-01

    Summaries of six language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbook evaluation, translatability of Filipino texts, group discussions in Thai junior colleges, bilingual language, and children's reading development. (LB)

  10. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1991-01-01

    Summaries of seven language-related research projects are presented from Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a lexicon of Kelabit, cognitive theory for second-language acquisition, academic writing in Filipino, cultural politics of English instruction, use of conjunctions, and communicative grammar. (LB)

  11. Current Research in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beh, Yolanda

    1992-01-01

    Summaries of eight language-related research projects are presented from Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Topics include a sociolinguistic profile, teacher and learner views of language lessons, Malay-accented English and employability, reading difficulties, language culture disjunction, placement interviews, and…

  12. Current Research on Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Lucy W., Comp.

    Focusing on women, this annotated bibliography reviews recent research-oriented literature that investigates sex roles. The main concern is the role and place of women in present-day United States society. The literature areas which the bibliography covers are bibliographies and sources, action organizations, media, women's movement, affirmative…

  13. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic Diseases, Host Responses, Cancer, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses. There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  14. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  15. Allergy to Uncommon Pets: New Allergies but the Same Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Perales, Araceli; González-de-Olano, David; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of exotic pet allergies has been increasing over the last decade. Years ago, the main allergy-causing domestic animals were dogs and cats, although nowadays there is an increasing number of allergic diseases related to insects, rodents, amphibians, fish, and birds, among others. The current socio-economic situation, in which more and more people have to live in small apartments, might be related to this tendency. The main allergic symptoms related to exotic pets are the same as those described for dog and cat allergy: respiratory symptoms. Animal allergens are therefore, important sensitizing agents and an important risk factor for asthma. There are three main protein families implicated in these allergies, which are the lipocalin superfamily, serum albumin family, and secretoglobin superfamily. Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of allergens is crucial to improvement treatment of uncommon-pet allergies. PMID:24416032

  16. 76 FR 27069 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Panel, ``NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  17. 77 FR 61009 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology & Transplantation. Date..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  18. 76 FR 31618 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  19. 75 FR 29770 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  20. Laser ultrasonics: Current research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.W. . Center for Nondestructive Evaluation)

    1990-09-26

    Laser-ultrasonics refers to a range of technologies involving the use of laser electrooptical systems both to generate and to detect ultrasonic signals in and on materials and structures. Such systems have been developed to permit classical ultrasonic measurements for materials characterization and defect identification and measurement. From the point of view of one concerned with practical applications of ultrasonic inspection and measurement methods, laser-ultrasonic systems offer the flexibility which, in principle, should permit remote ultrasonic measurements to be performed on objects at elevated temperatures or in hostile environments. Laser-ultrasonic systems can be designed and constructed with extremely wide and flat detection bandwidth so that ultrasonic vibrational displacements can be recorded with high fidelity. In addition, there is no mechanical loading of the surface to damp, absorb, or otherwise distort the propagating acoustic energy. This feature has been used to great advantage in performing ultrasonic measurements in thin plates and films. In spite of the great advantages offered by laser-ultrasonics, there are severe limitations which restrict its application. In fact, based upon the performance of current state-of-the-art laser-ultrasonic systems, it is almost always more advantageous to use conventional ultrasonic transduction methods, if possible for a given application, than it is to apply laser-ultrasonics. In short, the main reason leading to this conclusion is the poor system detection sensitivity of laser-ultrasonic systems compared with piezoelectric transducer systems. The ramifications of this limited sensitivity are many.

  1. [Implant allergies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of patients receive and benefit from osteosynthesis materials or artificial joint replacement. The most common complications are mechanical problems or infection. Metals like nickel, chromium and cobalt as well as bone cement components like acrylates and gentamicin are potential contact allergens which can cause intolerance reactions to implants. Eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusions, pain and implant loosening all have been described as manifestation of implant allergy. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal allergy, allergies associated with implants are rare. Diagnosis of metal implant allergy is still difficult. Thus differential diagnoses--in particular infection--have to be excluded and a combined approach of allergologic diagnostics by patch test and histopathology of peri-implant tissue is recommended. It is still unknown which conditions induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger peri-implant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy. Despite the risk of developing complications being unclear, titanium based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients and the use of metal-metal couplings in arthroplasty is not recommended for such patients. If the regular CoCr-polyethylene articulation is employed, the patient should give informed written consent. PMID:20204719

  2. Current COIL research in Samara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, Valeri D.

    1996-02-01

    Development of the high pressure singlet oxygen generator (SOG) is a very important aspect for chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Increasing of oxygen pressure up to 30 torr and more at conserving high O2(1(Delta) ) yield and maintaining BHP temperature at minus (10 divided by 20) degrees Celsius permits us to decrease ration [H2O]/[O2] to 5% and less. In this case COIL can operate successfully without a water vapor trap. With raising the total pressure Reynolds number increases too, diminishing boundary layers in supersonic nozzles and improving pressure recovery. The weight and dimensions of the SOG and laser become reduced for the same gas flow rate. For solving these problems the jet SOG has been suggested and developed in Lebedev Physical Institute, Samara Branch. The advantages of the jet SOG consist of the following: (1) Large and controlled specific surface of contact liquid-gas provides for high mass transfer efficiency. (2) High jets velocity guarantees fast basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) surface renovation. (3) High gas velocity in the reaction zone diminishes O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (4) Efficient gas-liquid heat exchange eliminates the gas heating and generation water vapor due O2(1(Delta) ) quenching. (5) Counterflowing design of the jet SOG produces the best conditions for self-cleaning gas flow of droplets in the reaction zone and gives the possibility of COIL operation without droplets separator. High pressure jet SOG has some features connected with intrachannel jet formation, free space jets reconstruction, interaction jets ensemble with counter moving gas flow and drag part of gas by jets, disintegrating jets, generation and separation of droplets, heat effects, surface renovation, impoverishment BHP surface by HO2- ions, moving solution film on the reaction zone walls, etc. In this communication our current understanding of the major processes in the jet SOG is set forth. The complex gas and hydrodynamic processes with heat and mass transfer

  3. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future. PMID:23329212

  4. Pollen Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen count, which is often reported by local weather broadcasts or allergy websites, is a measure of how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts tend to be highest early in the morning on warm, dry, breezy days and lowest during chilly, wet periods. ...

  5. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  6. Current trends in feminist nursing research.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2010-01-01

    Despite an increasing number of feminist studies in nursing, few reviews on current trends in feminist nursing research have been published. This article aims to explore the current trends in feminist nursing research and provide recommendations for future feminist studies in nursing. In multiple database searches, 207 articles were retrieved. These were reviewed based on 5 criteria: (1) epistemological background, (2) research questions, (3) research participants, (4) research methods, and (5) implications for changes. The review indicated that feminist nurse researchers with diverse epistemological backgrounds adopted new research methods to ask new questions; expanded their focus to include differences in ethnicity, class, sexual preference, and disability; and incorporated these diversities among women in a global context in their research. Based on these findings, recommendations for future feminist research in nursing are outlined. PMID:20362777

  7. Recent, Current, and Projected Research at Gallaudet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Directions, 1980

    1980-01-01

    The document contains summaries of recently completed, current, or projected research from Gallaudet College on the social and cultural aspects of deafness, language and communication, and educational research. Among the issues addressed by the research are the following: deafness in media, relationship between deaf students and their parents in…

  8. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  9. 77 FR 16247 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Allergy and Infectious Diseases, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and... of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Building 31,...

  10. 77 FR 21789 - National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  11. 78 FR 21960 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  12. 78 FR 16516 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  13. 77 FR 6810 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  14. 76 FR 13649 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  15. 78 FR 18355 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  16. 76 FR 13195 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  17. 77 FR 12604 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Emphasis Panel, NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and...

  18. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Panel; NIAID Resource Related Research Projects for AIDS, Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation (R24....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  19. 76 FR 56207 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date..., zhuqing.li@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy,...

  20. 75 FR 58410 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  1. 78 FR 4423 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date...@nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology,...

  2. 75 FR 4091 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research Committee. Date..., keichelberg@niaid.nih.gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy,...

  3. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:16455349

  4. The Role of Skin Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Neema; Luu, Minnelly; Ong, Peck Y.; Tam, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious public health problem with an increasing prevalence. Current management is limited to food avoidance and emergency treatment. Research into the pathogenesis of food allergy has helped to shape our understanding of how patients become sensitized to an allergen. Classically, food sensitization was thought to occur through the gastrointestinal tract, but alternative routes of sensitization are being explored, specifically through the skin. Damaged skin barrier may play a crucial role in the development of food sensitization. Better understanding of how patients initially become sensitized may help lead to the development of a safe and effective treatment for food allergies or better prevention strategies. PMID:27417371

  5. Advances in pediatrics in 2014: current practices and challenges in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Cesari, Silvia; Sciorio, Elisa; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in the conduct of pediatric practice have been reported in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2014. This review highlights developments in allergy, gastroenterology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nutrition, oncology and respiratory tract illnesses. Investigations endorse a need to better educate guardians and improve nutritional management in food allergy. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in neonates and of bronchiolitis have been improved by position statements of scientific societies. Novel treatments for infant colic and inflammatory bowel diseases have emerged. Studies suggest the diagnostic utility of ultrasonography in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia. Progress in infectious diseases should include the universal varicella vaccination of children. Recommendations on asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome have been highlighted in neonatology. Studies have evidenced that malnutrition remains a common underestimated problem in developing countries, while exposure to cancer risk factors in children is not negligible in Western countries. Advances in our understanding of less common diseases such as cystic fibrosis, plastic bronchitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis facilitate diagnosis and management. Researches have led to new therapeutic approaches in patent ductus arteriosus and pediatric malignancies. PMID:26518317

  6. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  7. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  9. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - mold ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are said to have a mold allergy. ...

  10. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Bayrou, Olivier

    2006-02-15

    Immediate hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex has increased since the early 1980s. High prevalence of latex sensitization and allergy are observed among healthcare workers, atopic individuals and children who had undergone multiple surgical operations (spina bifida, congenital anomalies). Presenting symptoms are polymorphous: contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Corn-starch-latex particles released in the air after powdered gloves manipulation may be inhaled and lead to occupational asthma. The diagnosis may be made by a focused clinical history, prick-test, detection of specific IgE antibody and challenge test. Almost half of patients allergic to natural rubber latex show an associated fruit allergy: avocado, banana, kiwi, chestnut. Most of cutaneous delayed reactions (eczema) to rubber are caused by rubber additives (accelerators of vulcanization, anti-oxidants). PMID:16583955

  11. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated ...

  12. Managing latex allergies at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated ...

  13. Physical allergies.

    PubMed

    Horan, R F; Sheffer, A L; Briner, W W

    1992-08-01

    Allergic responses that occur as a result of exposure to physical stimuli are discussed. Most of these conditions are mediated by vasoactive substances, resulting in urticaria and/or angioedema. Susceptible individuals who engage in athletic activities may place themselves at particular risk for these problems. The physical allergies include cholinergic urticaria, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, cold urticaria, dermatographism, solar urticaria, and aquagenic urticaria. Management of these conditions includes patient education, selective avoidance, antihistamines, and, in some cases, induction of tolerance. PMID:1406166

  14. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Susický, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793

  15. Environmental Pollution, A Guide to Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Science Information Exchange.

    Compiled from data gathered in fiscal years 1969 and 1970 by the Science Information Exchange, Smithsonian Institution, this inventory of more than 4200 federally and non-federally supported environmental research projects represents an attempt to provide a meaningful look at the shape, complexity, and direction of current and recent research.…

  16. Bullying Behavior: Current Issues, Research, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert A., Ed.; Loring, Marti, Ed.; Young, Corinna, Ed.

    Although there has been great concern about the incidence of bullying in American schools, there has only recently been research conducted in American schools on this problem. This volume considers the difficulties involved in various definitions of bullying, theoretical perspectives on bullying, current clinical research findings on the dynamics…

  17. Egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  18. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  19. Molecular diagnosis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Susan M H; Dumitru, Catalina; Turcanu, Victor

    2012-11-01

    Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers. PMID:23249205

  20. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Stiefel, Gary; Brough, Helen; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon; Fox, Adam T

    2015-04-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. A more active approach to management is being adopted, which includes early introduction of potentially allergenic foods, anticipatory testing, active monitoring, desensitisation to food allergens and active risk management. This review will discuss these areas in turn. PMID:25378378

  1. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography), 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The titles, managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, investigators and objectives of 127 current research projects in advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning, visibility, low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, and turbulence are tabulated and cross-referenced. A list of pertinent reference material produced through the above tabulated research activities is given. The acquired information is assembled in bibliography form to provide a readily available source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  2. History of the World Allergy Organization: The World Allergy Organization Congress - XVIII ICACI, Vancouver 2003

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    History of the World Allergy Organization: In 1951, the leaders in allergy from all over the world came together to form the International Association of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (IAACI). For the next 60 years, the allergy world converged at the IAACI triennial meetings, which became biennial in 2003. The international meetings, originally named the International Congress of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (ICACI), are now the World Allergy Congress (WAC) hosted by the World Allergy Organization (WAO). Everyone who has aspired to have worldwide recognition has played a part in IAACI-WAO. The History of the World Allergy Organization traces the global arc of the allergy field over the past 60 years. The current officers of WAO elected to focus on this rich history, inviting prominent leaders who are interested in being part of this history project to write about their time with IAACI-WAO. This series will be presented in Cancún, México as part of the XXII World Allergy Congress (December 4-8, 2011). Leading up to the Congress in Cancún, the World Allergy Organization Journal is presenting segments of the History as part of the "Notes of Allergy Watchers Series." Please enjoy. --Michael A. Kaliner, MD Historian, and Past-President (2006-2007) World Allergy Organization PMID:23282543

  3. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:12592300

  4. Allergy to furry animals: New insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Jon R; Fujisawa, Takao; van Hage, Marianne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Hilger, Christiane; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Roberts, Graham; Rönmark, Eva; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components. PMID:25282018

  5. Current Research of Family Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon; Wuelser, Ann

    This paper investigates existing research about the strengths and weakness of current family literacy programs and presents a 98-item list of family literacy activities across the curricula for adult educators to promote intergenerational literacy. Educational experts feel that family literacy programs need more evaluation, and that the…

  6. CURRENT DIRECTIONS IN CATTLE GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is provided of the current state of the art for tools available to geneticists to impact genetic improvement in cattle. Important areas of future research are also highlighted, with emphasis given to functional genomics and tools derived from single-nucleotide polymorphism markers....

  7. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. PMID:24734868

  8. Structural biological materials: Overview of current research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-Y.; Lin, A. Y.-M.; Stokes, A. G.; Seki, Y.; Bodde, S. G.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Through specific biological examples this article illustrates the complex designs that have evolved in nature to address strength, toughness, and weight optimization. Current research is reviewed, and the structure of some shells, bones, antlers, crab exoskeletons, and avian feathers and beaks is described using the principles of materials science and engineering by correlating the structure with mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed.

  9. Allergies and Learning Disabilities: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Sharon E.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes and evaluates the research on the relationship between allergies and learning disabilities. The paper considers definitional and conceptual issues, anecdotal reports, experimental studies, and the Feingold hypothesis. It concludes that the role that allergies play in learning disability is complex and interrelated with other…

  10. Future therapeutic options in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, P A

    2003-12-01

    Up to 5% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. Several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, by the oral route or by systemic injections shows promising preliminary results, but current interpretation of these therapeutic options are mostly handicapped by studies with insufficient scientific support, or by severe side-effects. Currently, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. Finally, most promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, or various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure of food allergy in the near future. PMID:14616094

  11. Severe Food Allergy Reactions in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Information OppNet NIDB NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Institutes at NIH List of Institutes, Centers & ... Search NIH Research Matters' stories In this Edition Learning What H5N1 Needs to Spread Severe Food Allergy ...

  12. The impact of allergies and allergy treatment on worker productivity.

    PubMed

    Burton, W N; Conti, D J; Chen, C Y; Schultz, A B; Edington, D W

    2001-01-01

    Allergic disorders are a chronic and highly prevalent condition in the general population and the workforce. Their effect on workers and corporate costs go beyond the direct cost of treatment, as the condition can lower a worker's productivity. Previous research includes estimates of the decrease in productivity associated with allergic disorders. None of these studies, however, offered an objective measure of how worker productivity is affected by allergic disorders. In the present study, the productivity of telephone customer service representatives suffering from allergic disorders is examined before, during, and after the ragweed pollen season. In addition, these workers were surveyed as to the type of medication they used in response to their condition. A significant correlation was observed between an increase in pollen counts and a decrease in productivity for workers with allergies. Compared with workers without allergies, employees with allergies who reported using no medication showed a 10% decrease in productivity. No differences were observed among workers with allergies using different types of medications, although the medication groups had significantly higher productivity than the no-medication group. The expected lowered productivity of those workers with allergies who used sedating antihistamines may have been offset by their relatively lower level of symptom severity and by the nature of the job and the productivity measures used. PMID:11201771

  13. [Diagnosis of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Juda, Maciej; Dyczek, Łukasz; Czarnobilska, Maria; Leśniak, Magdalena; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is most often linked to the type I allergic reaction, while IgE-dependent mechanism causes symptoms in only about 50% of patients. If symptoms are coming from other types of allergic reactions we do not have enough standardized diagnostic methods. The purpose of our review is to discuss the possibilities of diagnosis of food allergies. Regardless of the causal mechanism the interview has the most important role in the diagnosis, and the gold standard is a double blind placebo controlled food challenge. Additional tests that can be performed in suspected IgE-mediated reactions include: skin prick tests, specific IgE measurement, component-resolved diagnostics and in doubtful cases basophil activation test (BAT). Due to the fact that the spectrum of the symptoms of the type I food hypersensitivity can include potentially life-threatening reactions, diagnosis is often limited to in vitro assays. In these cases BAT may play an important role--in a recent publication, for the first time BAT reactivity reflected the allergy severity and BAT sensitivity reflected the threshold of response to allergen in an oral food challenge. Atopy patch tests are valuable diagnostic tool in suspected type IV food hypersensitivity, but due to the lack of standardization they are not used routinely. The cytotoxic test has been developed on the basis of the observations that leucopenia developing in the type II hypersensitivity reaction mechanism may be one of the symptoms of food allergy. Unfortunately its use is not justified in any method fulfill the criteria of controlled clinical trial. Food allergy can also develop in the type III hypersensitivity reaction, but there is lack of research supporting the role of IgG measurement in the detection of allergens responsible for symptoms. Each result of additional diagnostic tests before the introduction of food elimination should be confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled or open food challenge, because non proper diet is

  14. [Headache. Current status of research and treatment].

    PubMed

    Straube, A; Gaul, C

    2015-10-01

    The starting point for German headache research and clinical education was the engagement of D. Soyka in the 1970s, which enabled the foundation of the German Headache Society (DMKG) on 28 June 1979 and, some years later, the founding congress of the International Headache Society (IHS) in Munich 1982. As a result of these activities, in 1988 the first international classification of headache disorders was published. This classification was one of the major milestones in the development of basic as well as clinical headache research. In the following years, epidemiological studies all over the world showed a 1-year prevalence for headache of approximately 60%, making headaches one of the most frequent medical complaints. Basic research showed an involvement of serotonergic mechanisms in migraine pain and triptans were one of the first drugs designed to influence these mechanisms. Functional brain imaging studies in migraine patients further showed a cyclic modulation of the activity of brainstem areas independent of the current pain state. Various research groups were involved in the clarification of the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine and cluster headache. A specific development in the German headache scene is the establishment of integrated headache centers and reflects the primarily multimodal treatment approach in Germany which contrasts with the settings in other countries. These successful developments are increasingly being undermined by the fact that the low financial support of headache research, for example, by the German science council is causing a decreasing interest in headache research, with the consequence that the clinical education of students as well as young medical doctors shows increasing deficits. The consequence for the future will be a deficit in the clinical care of the population. PMID:26264901

  15. Peanut Allergy: New Developments and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kim, Edwin H; Orgel, Kelly; Kulis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-two major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:27039393

  16. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child's Allergies For starters, pay attention to pollen levels, FDA advises To use the sharing features ... be caused by outdoor allergens such as plant pollens (seasonal allergies) or indoor allergens such as mold, ...

  17. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  18. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  19. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  20. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad may have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: al -ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  1. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  2. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your lawn. If you mow, wear a mask. Tree Pollen Trees produce pollen earliest, as soon as January in ... distributed miles away. Fewer than 100 kinds of trees cause allergies. The most common tree allergy is ...

  3. Allergies and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... vasoactive or neuroactive amino acids such as tyramine , dopamine, phenylethylamine or monosodium glutamate that can trigger a ... Headache Fact Sheets Tags: allergy , allergy and headache , dopamine , headache , migraine , sinus headache , tyramine More Posts ← Tension- ...

  4. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Public Relations Committee. "In addition to moving to ... in the journal Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology . The first step, he said, is to meet ...

  5. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  6. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  7. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-04-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy. PMID:26252073

  8. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  9. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  10. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  11. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  12. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816

  13. Current research in cavitating fluid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewe, D. E. (Editor); Ball, J. H. (Editor); Khonsari, M. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

  14. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  15. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  16. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; et al

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  17. Chapter 30: Drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    Drug allergy describes clinical adverse reactions that are proved or presumed to be immunologically based. Allergic drug reactions do not resemble pharmacologic actions of the incriminated drug and may occur at fractions of what would be the therapeutic dosage. Allergic drug reactions are unpredictable; nevertheless, there is increased risk of drug hypersensitivity in (1) patients with cystic fibrosis who receive antibiotics; (2) patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) who receive trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole of if HLA-B*5701(+) and receive the antiretroviral agent, abacavir; (3) other genetically susceptible populations such as Han-Chinese who are HLA-B*1502(+) who develop Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis from carbamazepine or if HLA-B*5801(+) are at increased risk for such reactions from allopurinol; and (4) patients with a history of previous compatible allergic reaction to the same medication, similar class, or potentially unrelated medication. Specific patient groups at higher risk for drug allergy include those with Ebstein-Barr virus infection, chronic lymphatic leukemia, HIV/AIDS, cystic fibrosis, patients with seizures being treated with antiepileptic medications, and patients with asthma (especially severe asthma) who are at increased risk of anaphylaxis from any cause including drugs compared with patients without asthma. In patients with a history of penicillin allergy, skin testing helps clarify the current level of risk for anaphylaxis by using the major (penicilloyl-polylysine) and minor penicillin determinants where sensitivity is 99%. If penicilloyl-polylysine and penicillin G are used for skin testing, the sensitivity is ∼85%. When skin tests are negative, graded challenges are performed to administer optimal or truly essential antibiotics. PMID:22794703

  18. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

  19. CURRENT ANSTO RESEARCH ON WASTEFORM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Perera, D.S.; Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Carter, M.L.; Day, R.A.; Moricca, S.; Smith, K.L.; Lumpkin, G.R.; Hanna, J.V.

    2003-02-27

    Current ANSTO scientific research on wasteform development for mainly high-level radioactive waste is directed towards practical applications. Titanate wasteform products we have developed or are developing are aimed at immobilization of: (a) tank wastes and sludges; (b) U-rich wastes from radioisotope production from reactor irradiation of UO2 targets; (c) Al-rich wastes arising from reprocessing of Al-clad fuels; (d) 99Tc; (e) high- Mo wastes arising from reprocessing of U-Mo fuels and (f) partitioned Cs-rich wastes. Other wasteforms include encapsulated zeolites or silica/alumina beads for immobilization of 129I. Wasteform production techniques cover hot isostatic and uniaxial pressing, sintering, and cold-crucible melting. In addition, building on previous work on speciation and leach resistance of Cs in cementitious products, we are studying geopolymers. Although we have a strong focus on candidate wasteforms for actual wastes, we have a considerable program directed at basic understanding of the wasteforms in regard to crystal chemistry, their dissolution behavior in aqueous media, radiation damage effects and processing techniques.

  20. 78 FR 34110 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis..., and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  1. 77 FR 2736 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  2. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  3. Allergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... substance that you are allergic to (called the allergen). Common allergens include mold and pollen from grasses, ragweed and ... shot. Allergy shots help your body fight the allergen. When you get shots that contain the allergen, ...

  4. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  5. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, D. E.; Frost, W.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography of 326 readily usable references of basic and applied research programs related to the various areas of aviation meteorology was assembled. A literature search was conducted which surveyed the major abstract publications such as the International Aerospace Abstracts, the Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts, and the Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports. In addition, NASA and DOT computer literature searches were run; and NASA, NOAA, and FAA research project managers were requested to provide writeups on their ongoing research.

  6. Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, Rebecca Sharon; Tupa, Dana; Prince, Benjamin T; Block, Whitney Morgan; Rosa, Jaime Sou; Singh, Anne Marie; Nadeau, Kari

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergies has been on the increase over the last 2 decades. Diagnosing food allergies can be complicated, as there are multiple types that have distinct clinical and immunologic features. Food allergies are broadly classified into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, or mixed food allergic reactions. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations of the different categories of food allergies and the different tests available to guide the clinician toward an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26456439

  7. Natural rubber latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Deval, Ravi; Ramesh, V; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Arun Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) is a ubiquitous allergen as it is a component of > 40,000 products in everyday life. Latex allergy might be attributed to skin contact or inhalation of latex particles. Latex allergy is an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to NRL, presenting a wide range of clinical symptoms such as angioedema, swelling, cough, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. Until 1979, latex allergy appeared only as type IV delayed hypersensitivity; subsequently, the proportion of different allergy types drifted towards type IV contact allergy reactions. Several risk factors for sensitization to NRL are already known and well documented. Some authors have established a positive correlation between a history of multiple surgical interventions, atopy, spina bifida malformation, and latex allergy incidence. We suspect an increase in latex allergy incidence in association with increased atopy and sensitivity to environmental allergens in the industrial population. It is often postulated in literature that the groups of workers at risk for this allergy are essentially workers in the latex industry and healthcare professionals. In this population, direct internal and mucosal contact with NRL medical devices may be the route of sensitization as factors such as the number of procedures and use of NRL materials (catheters and tubes) were associated with increased risk of latex sensitization and allergy. PMID:18797048

  8. Current Research on Sleep and Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This monograph summarizes an extensive body of sleep and dream research in order to indicate the major trends of work in this area. Although a mosaic of disciplines are represented, a spirit of cooperation has made it possible to knit together data which might have remained unrelated. The research reported here provides knowledge about: (1) the…

  9. Current Problems of Historical-Pedagogical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravkin, Z. I.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that contemporary Russian historical research, particularly educational history research, faces complex problems. Asserts that this is a result of the transition from one dominant methodology and world view to pluralistic approaches. Argues that the methodological potential of Marxist teachings is far from exhausted. (CFR)

  10. Current Educational Technology Research Trends in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Minoru; Ueno, Maomi

    2009-01-01

    To examine trends in educational practice research, this article conducted a survey and analysis of factors affecting the review of research papers in the field of the educational technology in Japan. Two factors, namely, practical orientation and theoretical orientation, were extracted from 63 survey responses, and scores from members of a…

  11. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  12. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies. Joint statement by the Implant Allergy Working Group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German Association of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery), DKG (German Contact Dermatitis Research Group) and DGAKI (German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology)].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-03-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent. PMID:18210000

  13. [Orthopedic surgical implants and allergies: joint statement by the implant allergy working group (AK 20) of the DGOOC (German association of orthopedics and orthopedic surgery), DKG (German contact dermatitis research group) and dgaki (German society for allergology and clinical immunology)].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Ring, J; Thomsen, M

    2008-01-01

    Materials used in osteosynthesis or artificial joint replacement are usually well tolerated. Complaints after such operations are mostly related to infection or mechanical problems but may also be caused by allergic reactions. The latter encompass skin changes, e.g., eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusion, pain, or implant loosening. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal contact allergy, allergies associated with implants are a rare condition. However, epidemiological data on the incidence of implant-related allergic reactions are still missing. Typical elicitors are nickel, chromium, cobalt, and constituents of bone cement (acrylates und additives such as gentamicin or benzoyl peroxide). After exclusion of the most common differential diagnoses, allergy diagnostic procedures are primarily based on patch tests including a metal and bone cement component series. Additional analysis of periimplant tissue is recommended. However, further studies are necessary to show the significance of the histologic findings and the role of the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Which combinations of factors will induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger periimplant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy is still unknown. Titanium-based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients. In elective hip replacements, a ceramic/polyethylene (PE) articulation should be used, and in knee replacements "alternative materials". If a regular, potentially applicable CoCr/PE articulation is preferred, the patient must be well informed and must give his/her written consent. PMID:18210082

  14. Neuroimaging for psychotherapy research: Current trends

    PubMed Central

    WEINGARTEN, CAROL P.; STRAUMAN, TIMOTHY J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This article reviews neuroimaging studies that inform psychotherapy research. An introduction to neuroimaging methods is provided as background for the increasingly sophisticated breadth of methods and findings appearing in psychotherapy research. Method We compiled and assessed a comprehensive list of neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, along with selected examples of other types of studies that also are relevant to psychotherapy research. We emphasized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) since it is the dominant neuroimaging modality in psychological research. Results We summarize findings from neuroimaging studies of psychotherapy outcome, including treatment for depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia. Conclusions The increasing use of neuroimaging methods in the study of psychotherapy continues to refine our understanding of both outcome and process. We suggest possible directions for future neuroimaging studies in psychotherapy research. PMID:24527694

  15. Latex Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  16. [Food allergy and asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Micheau, P; Marchac, V; Scheinmann, P

    2003-04-01

    The links between food allergy and asthma are becoming more clear. The association of food allergy and asthma in the same child is unusual (less than 10% in atopic subjects). This association is however a sign of gravity leading to more severe manifestations of food allergy in asthmatic children. Compared with the non-asthmatic child, the asthmatic child has a 14-fold higher risk of developing a severe allergic reaction to the ingestion of food. The most commonly cited foods are fruits with a rind, cow's milk and, of course, nuts. Epidemiological data established from methodologically sound studies should enable a definition of the current allergic environment. Formal diagnosis is established with standardized tests. Treatment is oriented towards prevention associating a restricted diet, asthma control, patient education, and prescription of an emergency first aid kit with epinephrine. Supplementary inquiries are needed to determine the outcome in children with food allergy and respiratory symptoms. PMID:12843996

  17. Food allergy diagnosis and therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Aleena; Kohli, Arunima; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing worldwide epidemic that adversely effects up to 10% of the population. Causes and risk factors remain unclear and diagnostic methods are imprecise. There is currently no accepted treatment for food allergy. Therefore, there is an imminent need for greater understanding of food allergies, revised diagnostics and development of safe, effective therapies. Oral immunotherapy provides a particularly promising avenue, but is still highly experimental and not ready for clinical use. PMID:23998729

  18. Current developments in toxicological research on arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Hermann M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of recent publications on all aspects relevant to the toxicology of arsenic (As). Over centuries exposures to arsenic continue to be a major public health problem in many countries. In particular, the occurrence of high As concentrations in groundwater of Southeast Asia receives now much attention. Therefore, arsenic is a high-priority matter for toxicological research. Key exposure to As are (traditional) medicines, combustion of As-rich coal, presence of As in groundwater, and pollution due to mining activities. As-induced cardiovascular disorders and carcinogenesis present themselves as a major research focus. The high priority of this issue is now recognized politically in a number of countries, research funds have been made available. Also experimental research on toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and on modes of toxic action is moving very rapidly. The matter is of high regulatory concern, and effective preventive measures are required in a number of countries. PMID:27092031

  19. Current Psychotherapy Research Methodology Applied to Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    VAUGHAN, SUSAN C.; MARSHALL, RANDALL D.; MACKINNON, ROGER A.; ROOSE, STEVEN P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a study to assess the feasibility of applying the methodology and instruments used in brief-term psychotherapy outcome research to long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. PMID:22700201

  20. Current Trends in Preservation Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, George Martin

    1990-01-01

    Overview of current trends in the preservation of library materials discusses collections conservation and management; climate control; insect and mold control; fire control; the effects of compact shelving; freezing and freeze-drying; space drying; alkaline paper; recycled paper; mass deacidification; and paper strengthening. (27 notes and…

  1. A criterion-referenced measure of latex allergy knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kleinbeck, S V; English, N L; Sherley, M A; Howes, J

    1998-09-01

    The exponential use of latex products has increased patients' and health care workers' sensitization to natural rubber latex. The purpose of this research study was to develop and test a set of items designed to measure professional nurses' knowledge about natural rubber latex reactions and interventions appropriate for latex precautions. The items were developed from research reports in the literature and changed to reflect the suggestions offered by experienced perioperative nurses (pilot = 8) and three nationally known experts in latex allergy responses. The revised form was mailed to the home or distributed at the workplace of perioperative nurses (n = 158). Criteria for item retention were < .90 difficulty index and clinical relevance. Certified nurses (i.e., CNORs) scored significantly higher than other nurses who took the test at the same time (t-test = 2.00, P = .05). A pretest and posttest evaluation of the revised 20 items was conducted before and after a latex allergy continuing education program during the spring of 1998. The current knowledge test (i.e., version 1.1) has reliability (alpha = .80); content validity (CVI = .92); and accumulated evidence of construct validity (preinstruction mean = 14.16, postinstruction mean = 17.15, t-paired = 10.54, df = 70, P = < .001). An empirically developed professional nurse latex allergy competency test suitable for clinical use was the outcome of this research study. PMID:9752568

  2. Current status of photovoltaic research at SERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, S. K.

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the Solar Energy Research Institute's photovoltaic cell development program is to conduct high risk, potentially high-payoff R&D leading to a more substantial knowledge base for exploitation by private concerns interested in the electrical energy market. Attention is presently given to the status of research and development for crystalline and amorphous silicon, polycrystalline CuInSe2 and CdTe thin-film, and high efficiency III-V compound solar cells. Comparative efficiencies and economies are presented in tabular form, together with schematics of promising solar cell layer structures.

  3. Current Research on the Concerns of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Frances F.; Parsons, Jane S.

    This paper familiarizes the educational community with the research on teacher concerns that has taken place since the publication of Fuller's 1969 article "Concerns of Teachers: A Developmental Conceptualization" (SP 003 919). Two studies are described concerning reliability of information for the Teacher Concerns Statement and the establishment…

  4. Current Research Techniques in Military Personnel Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannen, Howard A., Ed.; Willing, Richard C., Ed.

    Twenty-eight papers were presented covering numerous aspects and ramifications of personnel evaluation research methodology in military training. Attention was focused on such concerns as job analysis, testing of knowledge and performance, predictive ability of biographical inventories and psychiatric interviews, course evaluation techniques,…

  5. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  6. Current Issues in Research on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Alberta E.

    Research on early development is moving apace. Developmental psychology is again giving serious attention to ages and stages. This attention is due, in great part, to the formulations about cognitive development by Piaget. Earlier in the century, the experimental approach to child study came to reflect psychology's generally heavy commitment to…

  7. Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research.

    PubMed

    Schäberle, Till F; Hack, Ingrid M

    2014-04-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward. PMID:24698433

  8. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  9. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  10. Makeup of Germs in Newborn's Gut May Triple Allergy, Asthma Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Germs in Newborn's Gut May Triple Allergy, Asthma Risk Study finds abnormality present in 10 percent ... gut may triple the risk for allergies and asthma in childhood, new research warns. Millions of bacteria ...

  11. 77 FR 10541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: February 14, 2012. Jennifer S....

  12. 78 FR 9404 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis...; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  13. 76 FR 75887 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  14. 77 FR 2986 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., Bethdesda, MD 20892-7616, (301) 451-2584, bburgess@niaid.nih.gov . Name of Committee: Allergy, Immunology..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. Current emotion research in cultural neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Classical theories of emotion have long debated the extent to which human emotion is a universal or culturally-constructed experience. Recent advances in emotion research in cultural neuroscience highlight several aspects of emotional generation and experience that are both phylogenetically conserved as well as constructed within human cultural contexts. This review highlights theories and methods from cultural neuroscience that examine how cultural and biological processes shape emotional generation, experience and regulation across multiple time scales. Recent advances in the neurobiological basis of culture-bound syndromes, such as Hwa-Byung (fire illness), provide further novel insights into emotion and mental health across cultures. Implications of emotion research in cultural neuroscience for population health disparities in psychopathology and global mental health will be discussed. PMID:26346827

  16. Current research on public perceptions of nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Besley, J

    2010-01-01

    This review explores research on public perceptions of nanotechnology. It highlights a recurring emphasis on some researchers’ expectations that there will be a meaningful relationship between awareness of nanotechnology and positive views about nanotechnology. The review, however, also notes that this emphasis is tacitly and explicitly rejected by a range of multivariate studies that emphasize the key roles of non-awareness variables, such as, trust, general views about science, and overall worldview. The review concludes with a discussion of likely future research directions, including the expectation that social scientists will continue to focus on nanotechnology as a unique opportunity to study how individuals assess risk in the context of relatively low levels of knowledge. PMID:22460398

  17. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  18. Clinical Management of Psychosocial Concerns Related to Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda; Shemesh, Eyal; Bender, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 4% to 8% of children in the United States are diagnosed with food allergy, and more than 40% of US children with food allergy experience severe allergic reactions. Families trying to avoid foods that may trigger an allergic reaction and ensure adequate treatment of allergic reactions that do occur face numerous challenges. The rise in the number of children diagnosed with food allergies underscores the importance of food allergy-related interventions to address elevated psychosocial concerns, such as parenting stress, anxiety, and worries about bullying. This review provides an overview of common psychosocial concerns among children with food allergy and their families across the developmental spectrum, and offers guidance to medical providers regarding the identification and treatment of food allergy-related psychosocial challenges. PMID:26968959

  19. Current clinical research in orthodontics: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, Sheldon

    2006-10-01

    This essay explores briefly the approach of the Craniofacial Research Instrumentation Laboratory to the systematic and rigorous investigation of the usual outcome of orthodontic treatment in the practices of experienced clinicians. CRIL's goal is to produce a shareable electronic database of reliable, valid, and representative data on clinical practice as an aid in the production of an improved environment for truly evidence-based orthodontic treatment. PMID:17087398

  20. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  1. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  2. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  3. Overcoming Current Limitations in Humanized Mouse Research

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Michael A.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Luban, Jeremy; Greiner, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells and tissues have provided an exciting alternative to in vitro studies with human tissues and nonhuman primates for the study of human immunobiology. A major breakthrough in the early 2000s was the introduction of a targeted mutation in the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor common gamma chain (IL2rgnull) into mice that were already deficient in T and B cells. Among other immune defects, natural killer (NK) cells are disrupted in these mice, permitting efficient engraftment with human hematopoietic cells that generate a functional human immune system. These humanized mouse models are becoming increasingly important for preclinical studies of human immunity, hematopoiesis, tissue regeneration, cancer, and infectious diseases. In particular, humanized mice have enabled studies of the pathogenesis of human-specific pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, Epstein Barr virus, and Salmonella typhi. However, there are a number of limitations in the currently available humanized mouse models. Investigators are continuing to identify molecular mechanisms underlying the remaining defects in the engrafted human immune system and are generating “next generation” models to overcome these final deficiencies. This article provides an overview of some of the emerging models of humanized mice, their use in the study of infectious diseases, and some of the remaining limitations that are currently being addressed. PMID:24151318

  4. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  5. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851

  6. Treatments for food allergy: how close are we?

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy continues to be a challenging health problem, with prevalence continuing to increase and anaphylaxis still an unpredictable possibility. While improvements in diagnosis are more accurately identifying affected individuals, treatment options remain limited. The cornerstone of treatment relies on strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding management of allergic reactions. Despite vigilance in avoidance, accidental ingestions and reactions continue to occur. With recent advances in the understanding of humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy and mechanisms of tolerance, several therapeutic strategies for food allergies are currently being investigated with the hopes of providing a cure or long-term remission from food allergy. PMID:22434517

  7. Current research in composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of composite structures at NASA's Langley Research Center is discussed. The advantages and limitations of special purpose and general purpose analysis tools used in research are reviewed. Future directions in computational structural mechanics are described to address analysis short-comings. Research results on the buckling and postbuckling of unstiffened and stiffened composite structures are presented. Recent investigations of the mechanics of failure in compression and shear are reviewed. Preliminary studies of the dynamic response of composite structures due to impacts encountered during crash-landings are presented. Needs for future research are discussed.

  8. The psychosocial impact of food allergy and food hypersensitivity in children, adolescents and their families: a review.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A J; Knibb, R C; King, R M; Lucas, J S

    2010-08-01

    Food allergy affects 6% of children but there is no cure, and strict avoidance of index allergens along with immediate access to rescue medication is the current best management. With specialist care, morbidity from food allergy in children is generally low, and mortality is very rare. However, there is strong evidence that food allergy and food hypersensitivity has an impact on psychological distress and on the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents, as well as their families. Until recently, the measurement of QoL in allergic children has proved difficult because of the lack of investigative tools available. New instruments for assessing QoL in food allergic children have recently been developed and validated, which should provide further insights into the problems these children encounter and will enable us to measure the effects of interventions in patients. This review examines the published impact of food allergy on affected children, adolescents and their families. It considers influences such as gender, age, disease severity, co-existing allergies and external influences, and examines how these may impact on allergy-related QoL and psychological distress including anxiety and depression. Implications of the impact are considered alongside avenues for future research. PMID:20180792

  9. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past ... gov . What's New Community-wide treatment of ... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The study was conducted in a rural ...

  10. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  11. Wheat Allergy and Intolerence; Recent Updates and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Batool, Rizwana; Aziz, Mahwash; Ahmed, Waqas

    2016-01-01

    The current review paper highlights the complicacies associated with communities relying on wheat as their dietary staple. Although, wheat is an important source of nutrients but is also linked with allergenic responses in genetically susceptible subjects. The wheat proteins especially α-amylase inhibitors, ω-5 gliadins, prolamins, nonprolamin, glucoprotein, and profilins are of significance importance. The allergenic responses are further categorized into IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions. Conjugation and degranulation of the IgEs with the allergens results in release of several mediators. In contrary, non-IgE-mediated wheat allergy depends on immune complexes formed by food and food antibodies and cell-mediated immunity. As results, different diseases tend to occur on the completion of these reactions, i.e., celiac disease, baker's asthma, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, and urticaria. This instant paper highlighted the concept of food allergy with special reference to wheat. The models are developed that are included in this paper showing the wheat allergen, their possible routes, impact on human health, and indeed possible remedies. The paper would provide the basic information for the researchers, common man, and allied stakeholders to cater the issue in details. However, the issue needs the attention of the researchers as there is a need to clarify the issues of wheat allergy and wheat intolerance. PMID:24915366

  12. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  13. Recent advancements in the therapeutics of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Kriti; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is a health complication induced by certain food in the susceptible individuals. Due to lack of permanent cure and the global prevalence, the preventive approach is highly required for food allergy. Recently published patents have shown significant improvements in the food allergy research. In this review, an attempt has been done to highlight the recently developed patents related to the detection of allergens in food mixture. Also, patents regarding treatment options like use of herbal therapy, antihistamines, pre-, pro and synbiotics, nanocarriers, hypoallergens and several immune molecules towards amelioration of food allergy have been reviewed in this article. PMID:24032435

  14. PANDAS: current status and directions for research.

    PubMed

    Snider, L A; Swedo, S E

    2004-10-01

    The recognition of the five criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) by Swedo et al established a homogenous subgroup of children with childhood onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders. The five clinical characteristics that define the PANDAS subgroup are the presence of OCD and/or tic disorder, prepubertal age of onset, abrupt onset and relapsing-remitting symptom course, association with neurological abnormalities during exacerbations (adventitious movements or motoric hyperactivity), and a temporal association between symptom exacerbations and a Group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) infection. These five criteria have been used for the purpose of systematic research on the phenomenology and unique therapies for the PANDAS subgroup as well as studies of the pathophysiology of post-streptococcal OCD and tic disorders. The etiology of OCD and tics in the PANDAS subgroup is unknown, but is theorized to occur as a result of post-streptococcal autoimmunity in a manner similar to that of Sydenham's chorea. The working hypothesis for the pathophysiology begins with a GAS infection in a susceptible host that incites the production of antibodies to GAS that crossreact with the cellular components of the basal ganglia, particularly in the caudate nucleus and putamen. The obsessions, compulsions, tics, and other neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in these children are postulated to arise from an interaction of these antibodies with neurons of the basal ganglia. PMID:15241433

  15. Current status of liquid sheet radiator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.

    1993-01-01

    Initial research on the external flow, low mass liquid sheet radiator (LSR), has been concentrated on understanding its fluid mechanics. The surface tension forces acting at the edges of the sheet produce a triangular planform for the radiating surface of width, W, and length, L. It has been experimentally verified that (exp L)/W agrees with the theoretical result, L/W = (We/8)exp 1/2, where We is the Weber number. Instability can cause holes to form in regions of large curvature such as where the edge cylinders join the sheet of thickness, tau. The W/tau limit that will cause hole formation with subsequent destruction of the sheet has yet to be reached experimentally. Although experimental measurements of sheet emissivity have not yet been performed because of limited program scope, calculations of the emissivity and sheet lifetime is determined by evaporation losses were made for two silicon based oils; Dow Corning 705 and Me(sub 2). Emissivities greater than 0.75 are calculated for tau greater than or equal to 200 microns for both oils. Lifetimes for Me(sub 2) are much longer than lifetimes for 705. Therefore, Me(sub 2) is the more attractive working fluid for higher temperatures (T greater than or equal to 400 K).

  16. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years. PMID:15811025

  17. Immunological approaches for tolerance induction in allergy.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Melanie L; Renz, Harald; Blaser, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Allergy is the consequence of an inappropriate inflammatory immune response generated against harmless environmental antigens. In allergic disorders such as asthma and rhinitis, the Th2 mediated phenotype is a result of loss of peripheral tolerance mechanisms. In cases such as these, approaches such as immunotherapy attempt to treat the underlying cause of allergic disease by restoring tolerance. Immunotherapy initiates many complex mechanisms within the immune system that result in initiation of innate immunity, activation of both cellular and humoral B cell immunity, as well as triggering T regulatory subsets which are major players in the establishment of peripheral tolerance. Though studies clearly demonstrate immunotherapy to be efficacious, research to improve this treatment is ongoing. Investigation of allergenicity versus immunogenicity, native versus modified allergens, and the use of adjuvant and modality of dosing are all current strategies for immunotherapy advancement that will be reviewed in this article. PMID:21598104

  18. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  19. Current Issues in LPP Research and Their Impact on Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darquennes, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    After a very broad description of what language policy and planning is about this paper presents an overview of some of the current preoccupations of researchers focusing on language policy and planning as one of the blooming fields of applied linguistics. The current issues in language policy and planning research that are dealt with include…

  20. 76 FR 11799 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  1. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  2. 76 FR 58522 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  3. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  4. 77 FR 38848 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  5. 75 FR 17416 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  6. 78 FR 737 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  7. 77 FR 29678 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  8. 77 FR 67385 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  9. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... The smell of food attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  10. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  12. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  13. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... them is your first step toward feeling better. Pollen is a trigger for many people who have allergies and asthma. The types of pollens that are triggers vary from person to person ...

  14. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child has seasonal allergies, pay attention to pollen counts and try to keep him or her inside ... in the fall, the FDA said. Besides monitoring pollen counts, it often helps to keep windows closed in ...

  15. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  16. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... help treat mild allergy symptoms. Use antihistamines in addition to — not as a replacement for — the epinephrine shot in life-threatening reactions, and always use the epinephrine shot as the ...

  17. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  18. Allergy Shots (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shots Help Allergy shots help the body build immunity to specific allergens, thus eventually preventing or lessening ... the immune system to safely adjust and build immunity to the allergens. This is called the buildup ...

  19. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  20. The Impact of Bisphenol A and Phthalates on Allergy, Asthma, and Immune Function: a Review of Latest Findings.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lacey; Miller, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the impact of environmental exposure to chemicals and their immunological effects, including the development of allergy, has been a topic of great interest. Epidemiologic studies indicate that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals produced in high volumes, including bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, is ubiquitous. The links between their exposure and the development of allergy, asthma, and immune dysfunction have been studied in vitro, in vivo, and through human cohort studies. The purpose of this review is to examine the current body of research and to highlight deficits and strengths of current findings. Emerging science indicates that deleterious immunologic changes, including increased propensity to develop wheeze, allergy, and asthma after dietary and inhalation exposure to these chemicals, may be occurring. PMID:26337065

  1. 75 FR 11896 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  2. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  3. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies. PMID:27276868

  4. Diagnosis, Management, and Investigational Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods—2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:25633563

  5. INVENTORY OF CURRENT INDOOR AIR QUALITY-RELATED RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inventory lists a total of 171 current or recently completed projects relating to indoor air quality. It covers six specific areas of research: monitoring, instrumentation, health effects, control technology, risk assessment and pollutant characterization. It is cross-referen...

  6. An Overview Of Current Research At The Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of the current research at the Environmental Protection Agency. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT ROGER B. YEARDLEY, JR., LAND REMEDIATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL DIVISION, 513-569-7548.

  7. American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the AAOA Basic and Advanced Courses in Allergy & Immunology build on each other to help give the ... CA REGISTER TODAY! 2016 Advanced Course in Allergy & Immunology | December 8-10 | New Orleans, LA SAVE THE ...

  8. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  9. Lettuce contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. PMID:26289653

  10. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  11. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  12. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy. Spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that seasonal spring peaks in aeroallergens are associated with seasonal spring peaks in suicide. Our research in Brown Norway rats demonstrates that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens induces anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors as well as allergy-related helper T-cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, it is possible that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens, which peak in spring, may be conducive to seasonal exacerbation of suicide risk factors such as anxiety, depression, hostility/ aggression, and sleep disturbance. Connecting allergy with suicide and suicide risk factors adds to previous neurologic literature connecting allergy with migraines and seizure disorders. Our recent report of Th2 (allergy-mediating) cytokine expression in the orbito-frontal cortex of suicide victims should lead to future studies to test the hypothesis that mediators of allergic inflammation in the nasal cavities may result in Th2 cytokine expression in the brain, influencing affect and behavioral modulation. Certain medications used to treat allergy can exacerbate suicide risk factors, potentially worsening suicide risk and even triggering suicide. Systemic (but not topical) corticosteroids have been associated with manic and depressive episodes and mixed mood states. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration started investigating the

  13. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  14. Educational Research in Mainland China: Current Situation and Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Miantao

    2011-01-01

    The influence of Confucian culture in Chinese Mainland China is reflected in the current situation and contextual trends of educational research content of educational thought of Confucianism, educational issues grounded on theoretical views of Confucianism, and the influence of the inclusiveness of Confucianism. In terms of research method, the…

  15. Food allergy training event for restaurant staff; a pilot evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samuel; Billmeier Kindratt, Tiffany; Smith, Helen; Reading, David

    2014-01-01

    A previous cross-sectional survey highlighted that restaurant staff in Brighton had gaps in their knowledge of food allergy, which could lead to the provision of unsafe meals to food-allergic customers. A food allergy training event was developed by a multi-disciplinary team (health service researcher, clinician, teacher and patient group representative) to equip restaurant staff with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely serve food-allergic customers. This evaluation summarises the training event's impact on participants' knowledge of food allergy and their satisfaction with the event. No attendee had previously attended any formal training on food allergy. The percentage of participants who answered all true-false questions correctly increased from 82% before the training event to 91% afterwards. The percentage of participants who were able to name at least three common allergens increased from 9% to 64%. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback was positive. Restaurant staff require a good understanding of food allergy to ensure that food-allergic customers are kept safe, and their restaurants operate within the law. This food allergy training event improved participants' absolute knowledge of food allergy, and attendees changed practice. Recommendations are made which could improve the impact and uptake of future food allergy training events. PMID:25225607

  16. Clinical Use of Probiotics in Pediatric Allergy (cuppa): A World Allergy Organization Position Paper

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Probiotic administration has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of specific allergic manifestations such as eczema, rhinitis, gastrointestinal allergy, food allergy, and asthma. However, published statements and scientific opinions disagree about the clinical usefulness. Objective A World Allergy Organization Special Committee on Food Allergy and Nutrition review of the evidence regarding the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of allergy. Methods A qualitative and narrative review of the literature on probiotic treatment of allergic disease was carried out to address the diversity and variable quality of relevant studies. This variability precluded systematization, and an expert panel group discussion method was used to evaluate the literature. In the absence of systematic reviews of treatment, meta-analyses of prevention studies were used to provide data in support of probiotic applications. Results Despite the plethora of literature, probiotic research is still in its infancy. There is a need for basic microbiology research on the resident human microbiota. Mechanistic studies from biology, immunology, and genetics are needed before we can claim to harness the potential of immune modulatory effects of microbiota. Meanwhile, clinicians must take a step back and try to link disease state with alterations of the microbiota through well-controlled long-term studies to identify clinical indications. Conclusions Probiotics do not have an established role in the prevention or treatment of allergy. No single probiotic supplement or class of supplements has been demonstrated to efficiently influence the course of any allergic manifestation or long-term disease or to be sufficient to do so. Further epidemiologic, immunologic, microbiologic, genetic, and clinical studies are necessary to determine whether probiotic supplements will be useful in preventing allergy. Until then, supplementation with probiotics remains empirical in allergy

  17. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  18. Compound allergy. An overview.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S J; Maibach, H I

    1997-04-01

    This review defines the term "compound allergy" in the context of new findings, and discusses evidence that allergenic reaction products have been identified. Material was gathered by searching Index Medicus and the Science Citation Index, and reviewing several standard texts. Issues regarding the validity of patch test results are addressed and we introduce the term "pseudocompound allergy" to cover cases of false-negative patch tests. We present new theories regarding the mechanisms by which new allergens are formed and a means of classification. PMID:9165199

  19. Diagnosis of animal allergy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R

    1987-01-01

    The aims of the diagnostic evaluation are to establish the presence and severity of disease and the importance of animal exposure as the etiology of the disease. The evaluation of the importance of animals may be part of a general allergy evaluation or specifically directed toward an animal in certain cases, such as occupational exposure. The diagnostic techniques are medical history, physical examination, allergy skin tests or in vitro tests for IgE antibody and correlation of improvement in symptoms with animal avoidance. PMID:3477684

  20. Indoor and Outdoor Allergies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhavi; Hays, Amy

    2016-09-01

    In last 30 to 40 years there has been a significant increase in the incidence of allergy. This increase cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Increasing air pollution and its interaction with biological allergens along with changing lifestyles are contributing factors. Dust mites, molds, and animal allergens contribute to most of the sensitization in the indoor setting. Tree and grass pollens are the leading allergens in the outdoor setting. Worsening air pollution and increasing particulate matter worsen allergy symptoms and associated morbidity. Cross-sensitization of allergens is common. Treatment involves avoidance of allergens, modifying lifestyle, medical treatment, and immunotherapy. PMID:27545734

  1. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  2. Shellfish and House Dust Mite Allergies: Is the Link Tropomyosin?

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2016-03-01

    Crustacean shellfish allergy is an important cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis in Asia. The major allergen in shellfish allergy is tropomyosin, a pan-allergen that is also found in house dust mites and cockroaches. Tropomyosins from house dust mites (HDMs) have a high sequence homology to shellfish tropomyosins, and cross-reactivity between HDM and shrimp tropomyosins has been demonstrated. Exposure to inhaled tropomyosins from house dust mites has been postulated to be the primary sensitizer for shellfish allergy, in a reaction analogous to the oral allergy (inhalant-food) syndrome. This notion is supported by indirect data from the effects of HDM immunotherapy on shellfish allergy, and strong correlations of shellfish and HDM sensitization. HDM immunotherapy has been reported to induce both shrimp allergy in non-allergic patients and shrimp tolerance in shrimp-allergic patients. Epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated a strong correlation between shellfish and HDM sensitization in both hospital-based and community-based studies. Unexposed populations have also been shown to develop sensitization-shellfish sensitization in orthodox Jews with no history of shellfish consumption was associated with HDM sensitization. Reciprocally, HDM sensitization in an Icelandic population living in a HDM-free environment was associated with shrimp sensitization. In vitro IgE inhibition studies on sera in shrimp-allergic Spanish patients indicate that mites are the primary sensitizer in shrimp-allergic patients living in humid and warm climates. Current data supports the hypothesis that tropomyosin is the link between HDM and shellfish allergies. The role of tropomyosin in HDM and shellfish allergies is a fertile field for investigation as it may provide novel immunotherapeutic strategies for shellfish allergy. PMID:26739402

  3. Fire Ant Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... In extreme cases, a rapid fall in blood pressure may result in shock and loss of consciousness. Symptoms of anaphylaxis require emergency medical treatment. Given the severity of a potential reaction, an accurate diagnosis for fire ant allergy is key to being prepared for ...

  4. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... A version of the guidelines for the general public is also available on the NIAID Web site. 25 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Glossary allergen —a substance that causes an allergic reaction. allergenic —describes a substance that produces an allergic ...

  5. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  6. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    studies to better characterise this risk. More detailed characterisation of specific protein antigens in aerosols and associated establishment of dose-response relations for acute and chronic exposure to seafood; the respective roles of skin contact and inhalational exposure in allergic sensitisation and cross reactivity; and the contribution of host associated factors in the development of occupational seafood allergies are important areas for future research.


Keywords: occupational seafood allergy; occupational asthma; protein contact dermatitis PMID:11511741

  7. Developing therapies for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-01-01

    Peanut allergy is an IgE-mediated, persisting immune disorder that is of major concern worldwide. Currently, no routine immunotherapy is available to treat this often severe and sometimes fatal food allergy. Traditional subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with crude peanut extracts has proven not feasible due to the high risk of severe systemic side effects. The allergen-specific approaches under preclinical and clinical investigation comprise subcutaneous, oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy with whole-peanut extracts as well as applications of hypoallergenic peanut allergens or T cell epitope peptides. Allergen-nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, TCM herbal formulations and Toll-like receptor 9-based immunotherapy. The potential of genetically engineered plants with reduced allergen levels is being explored as well as the beneficial influence of lactic acid bacteria and soybean isoflavones on peanut allergen-induced symptoms. Although the underlying mechanisms still need to be elucidated, several of these strategies hold great promise. It can be estimated that individual strategies or a combination thereof will result in a successful immunotherapy regime for peanut-allergic individuals within the next decade. PMID:25531161

  8. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    PubMed

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies. PMID:21574299

  9. The impact of food allergies on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bacal, Liane R

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize and appreciate the impact of food allergies on psychosocial health. 2. List the factors that have been shown to negatively affect health-related quality of life. 3. Understand how physicians can directly help to improve a child's quality of life while living with food allergies. Food allergy is a serious problem affecting a growing number of children worldwide. There is a large body of evidence supporting the detrimental effects that food allergy can have on a child's quality of life. With validated tools, we can identify these children and focus on how to protect, guide, and help them to live a safe life. Recent research articulates how food allergies impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). There are studies reported from the child's perspective, as well as studies reported from the parent's perspective. With the development of validated disease and age-specific questionnaires, researchers can reliably gather data on the psychological aspect of children with food allergies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature examining the psycho-social impact of food allergies on children. This article was designed to outline suggestions to help physicians care for the whole child - both mind and body. PMID:23805962

  10. NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Testing very young babies ... according to recent research funded by the National Institute of Allergy and ...

  11. 78 FR 27976 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... . Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group; Microbiology and... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  12. 77 FR 36563 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  13. 76 FR 65204 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  14. 76 FR 35224 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  15. 77 FR 64816 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group... Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  16. 78 FR 7793 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Spring, MD 20910. Contact Person: Maryam Feili-Hariri, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Immunology....855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious...

  17. 78 FR 36203 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Mehrotra, Ph.D., Chief, Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program, National Institutes of Health..., Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases...

  18. 77 FR 12605 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... Review Officer, Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program, DHHS/ NIH/NIAID, 6700B Rockledge... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  19. 78 FR 23572 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    .... Contact Person: Priti Mehrotra, Ph.D., Chief, Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  20. 76 FR 38405 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ..., Scientific Review Officer, Immunology Review Branch, Scientific Review Program, DHHS/ NIH/NIAID, 6700B... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research;...

  1. Food allergy: recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are adverse immune reactions to food proteins that affect up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults. A wide range of symptoms can occur depending on whether IgE or non-IgE mediated mechanism are involved. Many factors influence the development of oral tolerance, including route of exposure, genetics, age of the host, and allergen factors. Advances have been made in the understanding of how these factors interact in the pathophysiology of food allergy. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for food allergies is avoidance and ready access to emergency medications. However, with the improved understanding of tolerance and advances in characterization of food allergens, several therapeutic strategies have been developed and are currently being investigated as potential treatments and/or cures for food allergy. PMID:20224666

  2. Evaluation of a novel automated allergy microarray platform compared with three other allergy test methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, P; Önell, A; Baldracchini, F; Hui, V; Jolles, S; El-Shanawany, T

    2016-04-01

    Microarray platforms, enabling simultaneous measurement of many allergens with a small serum sample, are potentially powerful tools in allergy diagnostics. We report here the first study comparing a fully automated microarray system, the Microtest allergy system, with a manual microarray platform, Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC), and two well-established singleplex allergy tests, skin prick test (SPT) and ImmunoCAP, all tested on the same patients. One hundred and three adult allergic patients attending the allergy clinic were included into the study. All patients were tested with four allergy test methods (SPT, ImmunoCAP, Microtest and ISAC 112) and a total of 3485 pairwise test results were analysed and compared. The four methods showed comparable results with a positive/negative agreement of 81-88% for any pair of test methods compared, which is in line with data in the literature. The most prevalent allergens (cat, dog, mite, timothy, birch and peanut) and their individual allergen components revealed an agreement between methods with correlation coefficients between 0·73 and 0·95. All four methods revealed deviating individual patient results for a minority of patients. These results indicate that microarray platforms are efficient and useful tools to characterize the specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E profile of allergic patients using a small volume of serum sample. The results produced by the Microtest system were in agreement with diagnostic tests in current use. Further data collection and evaluation are needed for other populations, geographical regions and allergens. PMID:26437695

  3. A Synthesis of Current Research in Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnur, James O.

    Purposes of this document are to present a broad view of migrant education which would inform educators of the current practices and procedures being employed and to provide impetus for more and better migrant education programs. The scope of this research synthesis encompasses the age range of the migrant (and his education) from cradle to…

  4. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  5. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  6. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  7. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  8. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  9. An Alternative to the Current Research Model of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craige, Betty Jean

    1984-01-01

    Criticizes current practices of seeking and preserving knowledge which neither contribute to nor support the fields of "humanistic" interest. By confining specialized research to the scientists, it is suggested that a more generalized approach be taken towards literary studies, as a means of broadening and interrelating all the issues that affect…

  10. (Un)Awareness of Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kalkan, Ilkay Koca; Akcay, Ahmet; Reisli, Ismail; Can, Demet; Uzuner, Nevin; Yuksel, Hasan; Kirmaz, Cengiz; Gulen, Figen; Ediger, Dane

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergy is associated with considerable morbidity. Objective The aim of this multicenter study was to provide insight into allergy knowledge and perceptions among the population. Methods During the World Allergy Day, several allergy clinics conducted public meetings to encourage the awareness of and education in allergy. At the beginning, participants filled out a questionnaire to assess their knowledge about what is allergy and to determine by whom those symptoms are cared. Results A total of 256 participants (187 women/69 men, mean age, 31.2 ± 12.5 years) completed the survey. Of the 202 participants with symptoms, 58.9% had physician-diagnosed allergic disease. Among the 19 symptoms evaluated, 56.5% of the symptoms were recognized as related with allergy, and this increased in compliance with education level (r = +0.427; P < 0.001) but not with diagnosed allergy (P = 0.34). Sneezing was the most common symptom thought to be related with allergy-related symptom (77.5%), whereas loss of smell was the least one (37.9%). Participants were more likely to be cared by an allergologist (72.9%) followed by other specialties, when experiencing allergy. Conclusions Increasing the awareness for allergic symptoms is the key not only for the diagnosis but also for the optimal treatment. Therefore, education is an important component of prevention and control of allergic diseases. PMID:23268435

  11. Prevalence of Allergies among University Students: A Study from Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    John, Lisha Jenny; Ahmed, Sharfaa; Anjum, Fiza; Kebab, Mohieddin; Mohammed, Naik; Darwich, Haitham; Ibraheem, Nusaibah; Arifulla, Mohamed; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Urbanization and globalization in the Middle East have resulted in drastic environmental changes and increased allergens present in the environment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of allergies among undergraduate students from a university. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional survey was carried out among undergraduate students of a University at Ajman, UAE. A self-administered questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection. The demographic data and the allergy characteristics were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results. A total of 255 students (33.3% males; 66.7% females) were included. Commonest allergies among the students were allergic conjunctivitis (104 (40.8%)), allergic dermatitis (89 (34.9%)), and eczema (38 (14.9%)). Family history of allergies was strongly associated with occurrence of allergic conjunctivitis and allergic dermatitis. In about 58 (22%) of the students, dust was the most common triggering factor for allergies. Allergies associated with pollen, food, and drugs were less frequent. The distribution of allergies based on gender revealed female preponderance in all types of allergies. Students with allergies reported interference with their daily activities, and academic, social, and extracurricular activities. Conclusions. Allergic conjunctivitis and allergic dermatitis were the frequent allergies reported. Adequate preventive strategies can crumb the prevalence of allergies. PMID:24701360

  12. Prevalence of Allergies among University Students: A Study from Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharfaa; Anjum, Fiza; Mohammed, Naik; Darwich, Haitham; Ibraheem, Nusaibah; Arifulla, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Urbanization and globalization in the Middle East have resulted in drastic environmental changes and increased allergens present in the environment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of allergies among undergraduate students from a university. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional survey was carried out among undergraduate students of a University at Ajman, UAE. A self-administered questionnaire was used as research instrument for data collection. The demographic data and the allergy characteristics were collected and analyzed using SPSS version 19. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results. A total of 255 students (33.3% males; 66.7% females) were included. Commonest allergies among the students were allergic conjunctivitis (104 (40.8%)), allergic dermatitis (89 (34.9%)), and eczema (38 (14.9%)). Family history of allergies was strongly associated with occurrence of allergic conjunctivitis and allergic dermatitis. In about 58 (22%) of the students, dust was the most common triggering factor for allergies. Allergies associated with pollen, food, and drugs were less frequent. The distribution of allergies based on gender revealed female preponderance in all types of allergies. Students with allergies reported interference with their daily activities, and academic, social, and extracurricular activities. Conclusions. Allergic conjunctivitis and allergic dermatitis were the frequent allergies reported. Adequate preventive strategies can crumb the prevalence of allergies. PMID:24701360

  13. Current research outcomes from the spinal cord injury model systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuying; Deutsch, Anne; DeVivo, Michael J; Johnson, Kurt; Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Tulsky, David

    2011-03-01

    This article serves as an introduction to this issue of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation that is devoted to current research findings of the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems (SCIMS) program. The SCIMS program began in 1970, with funding from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research in the U.S. Department of Education, to demonstrate a comprehensive care system for spinal cord injury (SCI) and also to conduct research to improve the health and quality of life of persons with SCI. Over the last 20 years, similar collaborative efforts for the dissemination of SCIMS research outcomes have produced conference proceedings in 1990, a book in 1995, and dedicated journal issues in 1999 and 2004. The collection of 24 articles in this issue shows the depth and breadth of work being carried out by the SCIMS investigators, from descriptive epidemiology to a randomized controlled trial, from neurologic recovery to community reintegration, and from health services utilization to assistive technology for mobility. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the SCIMS program, highlight the research initiatives currently underway, and describe the important findings of the original research articles contained in this issue. PMID:21353816

  14. The human microbiome, asthma, and allergy.

    PubMed

    Riiser, Amund

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can be defined as the microorganisms that reside within and on our bodies and how they interact with the environment. Recent research suggests that numerous mutually beneficial interactions occur between a human and their microbiome, including those that are essential for good health. Modern microbiological detection techniques have contributed to new knowledge about microorganisms in their human environment. These findings reveal that the microbiomes of the lung and gut contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and allergy. For example, evidence indicates that the microbiome of the gut regulates the activities of helper T cell subsets (Th1 and Th2) that affect the development of immune tolerance. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate differences between the lung microbiomes of healthy and asthmatic subjects. The hygiene and biodiversity hypotheses explain how exposure to microorganisms is associated with asthma and allergy. Although those living in developed countries are exposed to fewer and less diverse microorganisms compared with the inhabitants of developing countries, they are experiencing an increase in the incidence of asthma and allergies. Detailed analyses of the human microbiome, as are being conducted under the auspices of the Human Microbiome Project initiated in 2007, promise to contribute insights into the mechanisms and factors that cause asthma and allergy that may lead to the development of strategies to prevent and treat these diseases. PMID:26664362

  15. Allergy to lanolin.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, T

    1979-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the frequency of lanolin allergy during two periods and to assess the adequacy of testing with one standard allergen. Among 1230 consecutive patients with eczema who were standard patch tested, 33 (2.7%), 21 females and 12 males, gave a positive reaction to wool alcohols. Among 899 consecutive patients with eczema standard patch testd and also tested with the lanolin derivatives hydrogenated lanolin 30% in soft yellow paraffin, Amerchol L 101, and a mixture of lanolin derivatives, 60 patients (6.6%), 48 females and 12 males, gave a positive reaction to lanolin and/or its derivatives. The results show that testing with one standard lanolin allergen is inadequate for detecting lanolin allergy. PMID:455960

  16. Perioperative allergy: risk factors.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, C; Stringari, G; Pajno, G B; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Dello Iacono, I; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Perioperative anaphylactic as well as anaphylactoid reactions can be elicited by drugs, diagnostic agents, antiseptics, disinfectants and latex. In some individuals, allergic reactions occur in the absence of any evident risk factor. Previous history of specific safe exposure to a product does not permit to exclude the risk of having a reaction. We have systematically reviewed characteristics in the patient's history or clinical parameters that affect the risk of developing reactions during anesthesia. Evidence shows that patients with previous unexplained reaction during anesthesia are at risk for perioperative allergic reactions. An allergic reaction to an agent is associated with previous reaction to a product that is related with the culprit agent. Multiple surgery procedures, professional exposure to latex and allergy to fruit are associated with an increased frequency of latex allergy. It has been shown that in some instances, allergic perioperative reactions may be more common in atopic patients and in females. PMID:22014923

  17. Nickel allergy and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Rahilly, G; Price, N

    2003-06-01

    Nickel is the most common metal to cause contact dermatitis in orthodontics. Nickel-containing metal alloys, such as nickel-titanium and stainless steel, are widely used in orthodontic appliances. Nickel-titanium alloys may have nickel content in excess of 50 per cent and can thus potentially release enough nickel in the oral environment to elicit manifestations of an allergic reaction. Stainless steel has a lower nickel content (8 per cent). However, because the nickel is bound in a crystal lattice it is not available to react. Stainless steel orthodontic components are therefore very unlikely to cause nickel hypersensitivity. This article discusses the diagnosis of nickel allergy in orthodontics and describes alternative products that are nickel free or have a very low nickel content, which would be appropriate to use in patients diagnosed with a nickel allergy. PMID:12835436

  18. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of asthma and allergic diseases. Immune Tolerance Network (ITN): The ITN is a consortium ... the problem is set off primarily by an immune response to one or more specific ... and Infectious Diseases www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/allergicdiseases/Pages/default. ...

  19. Low-carbohydrate diets: an update on current research.

    PubMed

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Davis, Nichola J

    2009-10-01

    The diabetes and obesity epidemics have stimulated research to assess the benefits and potential risks of low-carbohydrate diets. Carbohydrate comprises less than 45% of calories in carbohydrate-restricted diets, but very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets may restrict carbohydrate to 20 g initially with variability in the carbohydrate level subsequently. Some research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets may achieve better early weight loss than comparison diets higher in carbohydrate. Studies of up to 1 year suggest that weight loss on low-carbohydrate diet is comparable with fat-restricted diets with higher carbohydrate content. Limited research has been conducted to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets in managing type 2 diabetes. Although science continues to advance in this field, current research suggests that low-carbohydrate diets can be a viable option for achieving weight loss and may have beneficial effects on glycemic control, triglyceride levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in some patients. PMID:19793510

  20. Complex systems thinking and current impasses in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Diez Roux, Ana V

    2011-09-01

    Complex systems approaches have received increasing attention in public health because reductionist approaches yield limited insights in the context of dynamic systems. Most discussions have been highly abstract. There is a need to consider the application of complex systems approaches to specific research questions. I review the features of population health problems for which complex systems approaches are most likely to yield new insights, and discuss possible applications of complex systems to health disparities research. I provide illustrative examples of how complex systems approaches may help address unanswered and persistent questions regarding genetic factors, life course processes, place effects, and the impact of upstream policies. The concepts and methods of complex systems may help researchers move beyond current impasse points in health disparities research. PMID:21778505

  1. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877

  2. House-Dust Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    House-dust allergy is a common cause of perennial allergic rhinitis and extrinsic asthma. Symptoms tend to be worse when the patient is in bed. A positive skin test properly performed and interpreted confirms the diagnosis. The house-dust mite is the most important antigenic component of house-dust. Treatment consists of environmental control directed at reducing the mite content of bedroom dust, plus control of symptoms with drugs. Immunotherapy is controversial. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:21286201

  3. Metal allergy--a review on exposures, penetration, genetics, prevalence, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Menné, Torkil

    2010-02-15

    The prevalence of metal allergy is high in the general population, and it is estimated that up to 17% of women and 3% of men are allergic to nickel and that 1-3% are allergic to cobalt and chromium. Among dermatitis patients, the prevalence of metal allergy is even higher. Metal allergy is mainly an environmental disorder although null mutations in the filaggrin gene complex were recently found to be associated with nickel allergy and dermatitis. Environmental metal exposures include jewelry, buttons, clothing fasteners, dental restorations, mobile phones, and leather. Although consumer exposure is responsible for most cases of metal allergy, the importance of occupational metal exposure remains present and should always be taken into consideration when one interprets allergic patch test reactions to metals. Traditionally, nickel, cobalt, and chromium have been the most important contact allergens. However, recently, gold and palladium have drawn much attention as the prevalence of contact allergy to these metals is high. Palladium allergy is mainly a result of cross-sensitization to nickel, whereas gold allergy is rarely clinically relevant when one takes its high prevalence into account. The epidemiology of metal allergy has recently changed in Europe as nickel allergy among ear-pierced Danish women has decreased following regulatory intervention on nickel release from consumer products. In the United States, the prevalence of nickel allergy is still increasing, which may be explained by the absence of regulation. The prevalence of chromium allergy is increasing in the United States, Singapore, and Denmark among dermatitis patients. This increase is significantly associated with leather exposure in Denmark. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and systemic allergic (contact) dermatitis. Furthermore, metal allergy has been associated with device failure following insertion of intracoronary stents, hip and knee prostheses, as well as other

  4. [Allergy to macadamia nut].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yasuko; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2007-07-01

    The patient was a 23-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis. In her fourth year of primary school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral discomfort and generalized uticaria. In her second year of junior high school, she ate macadamia nuts and developed oral and pharyngeal discomfort, followed by generalized uticaria and dyspnea. At the age of 20 years, she also developed oral discomfort after eating vegetables in a Chinese dish containing macadamia nuts and visited our department for close examination. A scratch test of extract oil (concentration, as is) was positive, and a diagnosis of immediate allergy due to macadamia nuts was made. Thereafter, she avoided macadamia nuts completely and had no further recurrence. This patient developed oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating macadamia nuts. However, she was negative for Bet v1 and Bet v2 as allergens in white birch pollinosis, in which OAS has been most frequently reported. She had Japanese cedar pollinosis, but its onset was when she was in her second year of high school. Therefore, it is unlikely that Japanese cedar pollen is a sensitization antigen for macadamia nut allergy. PMID:17671413

  5. Overview of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher; Mahmood, Mubashar M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2012-08-01

    Allergy to penicillin is the most commonly reported antibiotic allergy. However, most patients who report a positive history of a prior reaction to penicillin are not found to be allergic to penicillin upon skin testing. Often, this history is vague or based on a parent's recollection of an event that occurred in the distant past. Avoidance of penicillin based on self-reported allergic history alone often leads to the use of an alternate antibiotic with greater cost or side effect profile. Patients with a negative skin test to both major and minor determinants may generally be given penicillin, with a statistical risk of developing an allergic reaction similar to that observed in the general population. A more cautious approach in these cases where the degree of suspicion is low, an allergic etiology is unproven, or there is a negative skin test, is to do a graded challenge. If the skin test is positive, an alternate antibiotic should be used. If, however, an alternate antibiotic is not available, then desensitization may be performed, but there are limitations to desensitization as well, and tolerance is not permanent. Avoidance of cephalosporins may be recommended in cases of penicillin allergy, but newer generation cephalosporins have demonstrate less cross-reactivity to penicillin than earlier generation ones. Desensitization protocols for cephalosporins are available but not standardized. The mechanisms of antibiotic sensitization are not clearly understood. PMID:21789743

  6. Symptoms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  7. Occupational allergies and asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review aspects of occupational allergies and asthma for primary care physicians recognizing, diagnosing, and managing patients with these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Studies in the medical literature mainly provide level 2 evidence, that is, from at least one well-designed clinical trial without randomization, from cohort or case-control analytical studies, from multiple time series, or from dramatic results in uncontrolled experiments. MAIN MESSAGE: Occupational allergies and asthma have the best prognosis with an early, accurate diagnosis and subsequent avoidance of exposure to the relevant sensitizer. These diagnoses can normally be suspected from the clinical history. Primary care physicians can also initiate investigations to make an objective diagnosis, can assess workplace exposure agents from the history, and can review appropriate data sheets on material safety. Specialist evaluation is likely to be needed for skin tests, however, and for other specialized tests (such as pulmonary function assessments at work and off work or specific challenges with the suspected workplace agent). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis need appropriate medical management of their allergic manifestations or asthma, but also often require psychosocial support during the period of investigation and management, especially in relation to required changes in their work and to compensation or insurance claims. CONCLUSIONS: Consider workplace exposure as a source of patients' allergies or asthma and aim to make an early, accurate diagnosis. PMID:10386216

  8. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  9. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  10. Interfacing computers and the internet with your allergy practice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2004-10-01

    Computers and the internet have begun to play a prominent role in the medical profession and, in particular, the allergy specialty. Computer technology is being used more frequently for patient and physician education, asthma management in children and adults, including environmental control, generating patient databases for research and clinical practice and in marketing and e-commerce. This article will review how computers and the internet have begun to interface with the allergy subspecialty practice in these various areas. PMID:15576895

  11. Profilins: mimickers of allergy or relevant allergens?

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra; Van Ree, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Profilins are ubiquitous proteins, present in all eukaryotic cells and identified as allergens in pollen, latex and plant foods. The highly conserved structure justifies the cross-reactive nature of IgE antibodies against plant profilins and their designation as pan-allergens. Primary sensitization to profilin seems to arise from pollen sensitization with later development of cross-reactive IgE antibodies against plant food (and possibly latex) profilins. The role of profilin in inducing allergic symptoms needs to be evaluated and raises important issues in allergy diagnosis due to cross-reactivity. IgE cross-reactivity among profilins is associated with multiple pollen sensitization and with various pollen-food syndromes. In respiratory allergy, sensitization to pollen to which the patient has virtually no environmental exposure has been identified as a manifestation of profilin sensitization. As a food allergen, profilin usually elicits mild reactions, such as oral allergy syndrome, is not modified by processing and is especially important in allergy to some fruits, such as melon, watermelon, banana, tomato, citrus fruit and persimmon. Purified natural and recombinant profilins for in vitro and in vivo allergy tests are helpful in the diagnostic work-up. Herein we review the current state of knowledge about the allergen profilin and its implications in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. We conclude that, although its role in triggering allergic symptoms is still controversial, profilin is undoubtedly a relevant allergen. As a pan-allergen, profilin is associated with multiple pollen sensitization and pollen-food-latex syndromes that the allergist has to be aware of in order to accomplish an accurate diagnosis and successful treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:21293140

  12. Conversion of research and test reactors : status and current plans.

    SciTech Connect

    Roglans, J.; Staples, P.; Butler, N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    The Office of Global Threat Reduction's (GTRI) Conversion Program develops technology necessary to enable the conversion of civilian facilities using high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and targets. The Conversion program mission supports the minimization and, to the extent possible, elimination of the use of HEU in civil nuclear applications by working to convert research reactors and radioisotope production processes to the use of LEU fuel and targets throughout the world. During the Program's 27 years of existence, 46 research reactors have been converted from HEU to LEU fuels and processes have been developed for producing the medical isotope Mo-99 with LEU targets. Under GTRI the Conversion Program has accelerated the schedules and plans for conversion of additional research reactors operating with HEU. Also the Program emphasizes the development of advanced high-density LEU fuels to enable further conversions. The Conversion program coordinates with the other program functions of GTRI, most notably the Removal function, which removes fresh and spent HEU fuel from countries around the world. This paper summarizes the current status and plans for conversion of research reactors, in the U.S. and abroad, the supporting fuel development activities, and the development of processes for medical isotope production with LEU targets. Nuclear research and test reactors worldwide have been in operation for over 60 years, supporting nuclear science and technology development, as well as providing an important role as a research tool in scientific fields including medicine, agriculture, industry, and basic research. Over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. Starting in 1954, many research reactors outside the United States were provided under the Atoms for Peace initiative. Initial research reactors were fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU) with a content of U235 of less than 20%. More advanced research

  13. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  14. NASA Airframe Icing Research Overview Past and Current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the past and current research that NASA has done in the area of airframe icing. Both the history experimental efforts and model development to understand the process and problem of ice formation are reviewed. This has resulted in the development of new experimental methods, advanced icing simulation software, flight dynamics and experimental databases that have an impact on design, testing, construction and certification and qualification of the aircraft and its sub-systems.

  15. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  16. Current research on pharmacologic and regenerative therapies for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Ouyang, Hongwei; Dass, Crispin R; Xu, Jiake

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder commonly encountered in clinical practice, and is the leading cause of disability in elderly people. Due to the poor self-healing capacity of articular cartilage and lack of specific diagnostic biomarkers, OA is a challenging disease with limited treatment options. Traditional pharmacologic therapies such as acetaminophen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids are effective in relieving pain but are incapable of reversing cartilage damage and are frequently associated with adverse events. Current research focuses on the development of new OA drugs (such as sprifermin/recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-18, tanezumab/monoclonal antibody against β-nerve growth factor), which aims for more effectiveness and less incidence of adverse effects than the traditional ones. Furthermore, regenerative therapies (such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), new generation of matrix-induced ACI, cell-free scaffolds, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells or iPSCs), and endogenous cell homing) are also emerging as promising alternatives as they have potential to enhance cartilage repair, and ultimately restore healthy tissue. However, despite currently available therapies and research advances, there remain unmet medical needs in the treatment of OA. This review highlights current research progress on pharmacologic and regenerative therapies for OA including key advances and potential limitations. PMID:26962464

  17. The efficiency of peptide immunotherapy for respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Montagni, Marcello; Ridolo, Erminia

    2016-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was introduced more than a century ago and is yet the only disease-modifying treatment for allergy. AIT is currently conducted with whole allergen extracts and several studies clearly support its efficacy in the treatment of respiratory allergies, however the need for a long treatment - that affects costs and patients compliance - and possible IgE-mediated adverse events are still unresolved issues. Peptide immunotherapy is based on the use of short synthetic peptides which represent major T-cell epitopes of the allergen with markedly reduced ability to cross-link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils. Data from clinical trials confirmed the efficacy and tolerability of peptide immunotherapy in patients with cat allergy, with a sustained clinical effect after a short course treatment. Peptide therapy is a promising safe and effective new specific treatment for allergy to be developed for the most important allergens causing rhinitis or asthma. PMID:26901667

  18. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research. PMID:27026638

  19. Workaholism: An overview and current status of the research

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This article addresses the stable tendency of excessive and compulsive working (i.e., workaholism). The main aim is to provide an updated oversight of the research area related to definition, prevalence, assessment, causes, outcomes, intervention as well as proposed future research directions. The target-population is both researchers and clinicians. Methods: The findings are identified by narratively reviewing the literature. Results: Research into workaholism has expanded over the last two decades. Several screening instruments to identify workaholics have been developed. The vast majority of these are based on seemingly atheoretical foundations, lacking convergent validity with each other and with related constructs. Research generally shows that workaholism is related to impaired health and well-being as well as to conflicts between work and family life. Workaholism is probably caused and maintained by a range of factors, although solid empirical underpinnings for suggested antecedents are currently sparse. So far no well-evaluated interventions for workaholism exist. Conclusions: At present, workaholism as a construct lacks conceptual and empirical clarity. Future research efforts should prioritize longitudinal studies as well as studies incorporating unbiased, firm parameters of both health and behavior. PMID:25215209

  20. IgE-mediated food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Longo, Giorgio; Berti, Irene; Burks, A Wesley; Krauss, Baruch; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-11-16

    Food allergy is a serious health issue affecting roughly 4% of children, with a substantial effect on quality of life. Prognosis is good for the most frequent allergens with almost all children outgrowing their allergy. However, the long-term implications for disease burden are substantial for children with persistent allergies (eg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish) and for those with high concentrations of milk, egg, and wheat IgE. Antigen avoidance has been the time-honoured approach both for prevention and treatment. However, findings from studies done in the past 5 years show that early contact with food can induce tolerance and desensitisation to foods. We review the epidemiology, natural history, and management of food allergy, and discuss the areas of controversy and future directions in research and clinical practice. PMID:23845860

  1. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a) as emergent findings; and b) as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women) are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health. PMID:22151578

  2. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  3. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  4. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  5. [Allergy diagnostics in implant intolerance].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2008-02-01

    To clarify a suspected implant allergy, a patch test with implant metals and bone cement components can be used. The (immuno)histology of periimplant tissue may also indicate T-lymphocyte-dominant inflammation. Identification of histological allergy characteristics and evaluation of the lymphocyte transformation test beyond indications of sensitization will be possible only when larger studies are available. PMID:18227997

  6. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  7. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

  8. 77 FR 5035 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  9. 78 FR 18996 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  10. 77 FR 45644 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  11. 78 FR 21961 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases.... 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013. David Clary, Program...

  12. Food Allergy: Our Evolving Understanding of Its Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Iweala, Onyinye I; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is defined as an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response to ingested food with allergic symptoms ranging from urticaria to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Food allergy is thought to develop because of (1) failed induction of tolerance upon initial exposure to food antigen or (2) breakdown of established tolerance to food antigen. We review current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and natural history of food allergy, including the unconventional IgE-mediated food allergy to mammalian meat known as alpha-gal food allergy. We highlight emerging data on food allergy treatment and prevention, emphasizing the growing appeal of manipulating the gut microenvironment using probiotics and helminth products to blunt systemic allergic responses to food. PMID:27041704

  13. Current research on pediatric patients with bronchiolitis obliterans in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Silvia Onoda; Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a rare but severe disease, characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the terminal bronchioles. BO in children usually occurs after a severe lung viral infection. Diagnosis is based on clinical history of acute bronchiolitis followed by persistent obstruction of the airways and characteristic findings in HRCT. There is no consensus on treatment beyond supportive measures, but bronchodilators and corticosteroids are often used. This review describes the clinical and radiological characteristics and outcomes of BO in pediatric patients, with an emphasis on current research in Brazil. PMID:25674382

  14. Faulty Injection Technique: A Preventable But Often Overlooked Factor in Insulin Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Biswas, Sugata Narayan; Patra, Shinjan

    2016-03-01

    Insulin hypersensitivity-a rare occurrence with currently available insulin preparations-may have varied manifestations, ranging from a local injection site allergy to severe generalized anaphylactic reactions. While various additives included in commercial insulin preparations and insulin peptides themselves remain the primary allergens responsible, faulty injection technique may at times potentiate the development of insulin allergy. Management of insulin allergy is complex, potentially dangerous at times, and can be challenging for the treating physician. We report a case of insulin allergy due to intradermal insulin injections which was cured by adopting a proper injection technique. PMID:26843018

  15. Antiviral Drug Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Milpied-Homsi, Brigitte; Moran, Ellen M.; Phillips, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral drugs used to treat HIV and hepatitis C are common causes of delayed drug hypersensitivities for which many of the more severe reactions have been recently shown to be immunogenetically mediated such as abacavir hypersensitivity where HLA-B*57:01 is now used routinely as a screening test to exclude patients carrying this allele from abacavir prescription. Most antiviral drug allergies consist of mild to moderate delayed rash without other serious features (e.g. fever, mucosal involvement, blistering rash, organ impairment. In these cases treatment can be continued with careful observation and symptomatic management and the discontinuation rate is low. PMID:25017682

  16. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?" PMID:26171700

  17. Allergy to coitus.

    PubMed

    Jones, W R

    1991-05-01

    Acute systemic hypersensitivity reactions to semen are rare but may be life-threatening. Chronic or recurrent local reactions are more common and may be misdiagnosed as infective or nonspecific vaginitis. The antigen(s) involved in these reactions reside in a glycoprotein fraction of seminal plasma. Allergic vulvovaginitis may also occur in sensitized women when they are exposed to exogenous allergens such as drugs, food and infective agents during sexual activity. Skin testing and other relevant investigations are indicated when these disorders are suspected. Condom usage will prevent symptoms of coital allergy. Desensitization has had variable success in acute systemic hypersensitivity. Precoital antihistamines may modify local reactions. PMID:1681800

  18. On Unsaturated Soil Mechanics - Personal Views on Current Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, G. N.; Pietruszczak, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the authors' personal views on current research being conducted by various research groups around the world in the broad area of mechanics of unsaturated geomaterials in general and soils in particular. The topic is of interest to a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers working in diverse areas such as geology and geophysics, powder technology, agricultural, petroleum, chemical, geotechnical, civil, environmental and nuclear engineering. Even if we restrict ourselves to civil, geotechnical and environmental engineering, it is noted that a plethora of hypotheses as well as a number of empirical and semi-empirical relations have been introduced for describing the mechanics of unsaturated porous media. However, many of these proposed advances as well as methods of testing may lack sound theoretical basis.

  19. A review of current imaging methods used in stroke research

    PubMed Central

    Wey, Hsiao-Ying; Desai, Virendra R.; Duong, Timothy Q.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a serious healthcare problem with high mortality and long-term disability. However, to date, our ability to prevent and cure stroke remains limited. One important goal in stroke research is to identify the extent and location of lesion for treatment. In addition, accurately differentiating salvageable tissue from infarct and evaluating therapeutic efficacies are indispensible. These objectives could potentially be met with the assistance of modern neuroimaging techniques. This paper reviews current imaging methods commonly used in ischemic stroke research. These methods include positron emission tomography, computed tomography, T1 MRI, T2 MRI, diffusion and perfusion MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, blood–brain barrier permeability MRI, pH-weighted MRI, and functional MRI. PMID:24070268

  20. Current research status, databases and application of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Javed, R; Mukesh

    2010-07-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequent form of DNA variation in the genome. SNPs are genetic markers which are bi-allelic in nature and grow at a very fast rate. Current genomic databases contain information on several million SNPs. More than 6 million SNPs have been identified and the information is publicly available through the efforts of the SNP Consortium and others data bases. The NCBI plays a major role in facillating the identification and cataloging of SNPs through creation and maintenance of the public SNP database (dbSNP) by the biomedical community worldwide and stimulate many areas of biological research including the identification of the genetic components of disease. In this review article, we are compiling the existing SNP databases, research status and their application. PMID:21717869

  1. The International Permafrost Association: current initiatives for cryospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollaen, Karina; Lewkowicz, Antoni G.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Lantuit, Hugues; Schrott, Lothar; Sergeev, Dimitry; Wei, Ma

    2015-04-01

    The International Permafrost Association (IPA), founded in 1983, has as its objectives to foster the dissemination of knowledge concerning permafrost and to promote cooperation among persons and national or international organizations engaged in scientific investigation and engineering work on permafrost. The IPA's primary responsibilities are convening International Permafrost Conferences, undertaking special projects such as preparing databases, maps, bibliographies, and glossaries, and coordinating international field programs and networks. Membership is through adhering national or multinational organizations or as individuals in countries where no Adhering Body exists. The IPA is governed by its Executive Committee and a Council consisting of representatives from 26 Adhering Bodies having interests in some aspect of theoretical, basic and applied frozen ground research, including permafrost, seasonal frost, artificial freezing and periglacial phenomena. This presentation details the IPA core products, achievements and activities as well as current projects in cryospheric research. One of the most important core products is the circumpolar permafrost map. The IPA also fosters and supports the activities of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) sponsored by the Global Terrestrial Observing System, GTOS, and the Global Climate Observing System, GCOS, whose long-term goal is to obtain a comprehensive view of the spatial structure, trends, and variability of changes in the active layer thickness and permafrost temperature. A further important initiative of the IPA are the biannually competitively-funded Action Groups which work towards the production of well-defined products over a period of two years. Current IPA Action Groups are working on highly topical and interdisciplinary issues, such as the development of a regional Palaeo-map of Permafrost in Eurasia, the integration of multidisciplinary knowledge about the use of thermokarst and permafrost

  2. Food allergy: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, E; Tack, J

    2012-01-01

    Adverse food reactions, an adverse health effect arising from an immune or nonimmune response that occurs reproducibly on the exposure to a given food, can be divided into toxic and hypersensitivity reactions. When an immunologic mechanism has been shown, hypersensitivity food reactions should be referred to as food allergy that may be IgE- or non-IgE-mediated. Food allergy diagnosis is mainly guided by a correct and accurate history and physical examination, thus leading to prick test and elimination diets. The treatment gold standard is still represented by an elimination diet together with antihistamines and corticosteroid usage in order to reduce the gastrointestinal and potentially life-threatening systemic symptoms. Other treatments are currently under investigation with promising results. PMID:22722444

  3. Penicillin allergy: a practical approach to management.

    PubMed

    Sussman, G L; Davis, K; Kohler, P F

    1986-06-15

    Although penicillin is nontoxic, it is highly immunogenic and is the most common drug that causes allergic reactions. A previous reaction to penicillin has been shown to be unreliable in predicting sensitivity in 75% to 90% of patients. To more accurately test for penicillin allergy, diagnostic skin test reagents have been developed; these include the major determinant (benzylpenicilloyl-polylysine) and the minor determinant mixture (penicillin G potassium, benzylpenicilloate sodium and benzylpenicilloyl-N-propylamine). Penicillin skin testing has been shown to be safe and useful in predicting immediate IgE-mediated reactions (overall predictive value 99%). Reactions that occur when patients are challenged with penicillin are mild or accelerated urticarial reactions. We outline a practical and rational therapeutic approach based on the current understanding of penicillin allergy. PMID:3518897

  4. Alcohol Consumption among Youth: Current Trends and Research Findings. Prevention Research Update. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Gregory; Roizen, Ron

    This update offers current knowledge about the scope and nature of adolescent drinking. Its goal is to bridge the communications gap between the researcher, the practitioner, and the general population by disseminating research findings in an accessible manner and by providing an introductory review of the significance of these findings. Abstracts…

  5. U.S. EPA OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OVERVIEW OF CURRENT RADON RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives as overview of current radon research being conducted by EPA. n 1984, EPA began a research program to develop and demonstrate radon mitigation alternatives. ince then, the program has evolved from an initial focus on houses with severely elevated radon levels in B...

  6. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  7. Food Allergies: Novel Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Di Costanzo, Margherita; Paparo, Lorella; Cosenza, Linda; Di Scala, Carmen; Nocerino, Rita; Aitoro, Rosita; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-01-01

    Childhood food allergy (FA) rates have rapidly increased with significant direct medical costs for the health care system and even larger costs for the families with a food-allergic child. The possible causes of food allergy become the target of intense scrutiny in recent years. Increasing evidence underline the importance in early life of gut microbiome in the development of allergic diseases. There are a range of factors in the modern environment that may be associated with changes to both the gut microbiome and risk of FA, such as mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, infant feeding practices, farming environment, and country of origin. Knowledge of the relationship between early life gut microbiome and allergic diseases may facilitate development of novel preventive and treatment strategies. Based on our current knowledge, there are no currently available approved therapies for food allergy. More studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allergen-specific and allergen-nonspecific approaches, as well as combination approaches. PMID:26530804

  8. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  9. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  10. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763

  11. Position document: IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Martorell-Aragonés, A; Echeverría-Zudaire, L; Alonso-Lebrero, E; Boné-Calvo, J; Martín-Muñoz, M F; Nevot-Falcó, S; Piquer-Gibert, M; Valdesoiro-Navarrete, L

    2015-01-01

    The present document offers an update on the recommendations for managing patients with cow's milk allergy - a disorder that manifests in the first year of life, with an estimated prevalence of 1.6-3% in this paediatric age group. The main causal allergens are the caseins and proteins in lactoserum (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactoalbumin), and the clinical manifestations are highly variable in terms of their presentation and severity. Most allergic reactions affect the skin, followed by the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, and severe anaphylaxis may occur. The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is based on the existence of a suggestive clinical history, a positive allergy study and the subsequent application of controlled exposure testing, which constitutes the gold standard for confirming the diagnosis. The most efficient treatment for cow's milk allergy is an elimination diet and the use of adequate substitution formulas. The elimination diet must include milk from other mammals (e.g., sheep, goat, etc.) due to the risk of cross-reactivity with the proteins of cow's milk. Most infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy become tolerant in the first few years of life. In those cases where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral immunotherapy, although most authors do not currently recommend this technique in routine clinical practice. Enough evidence is not there to confirm the efficacy of elimination diets in the mother and infant for preventing the appearance of cow's milk allergy. Likewise, no benefits have been observed with prebiotic and probiotic dietetic supplements in infants for preventing food allergy. PMID:25800671

  12. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873

  13. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  14. Allergies and Learning/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoughlin, James A.; Nall, Michael

    1994-01-01

    This article describes various types of allergies, how they are diagnosed medically, and the different forms of medical treatment. It also considers how allergies may affect school learning and behavior, the connection between allergies and learning and behavioral disorders, the impact of allergy medications upon classroom performance, and various…

  15. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". PMID:26306020

  16. Current status of Barrett's esophagus research in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Yang; Cook, Michael B; Lee, Yi-Chia; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ando, Takafumi; Bhatia, Shobna; Chow, Wong-Ho; El-Omar, Emad M; Goto, Hidemi; Li, Yang-Qing; McColl, Kenneth; Reddy, Nageshwar; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sharma, Prateek; Sung, Joseph J-Y; Ghoshal, Uday; Wong, Jennie Y-Y; Wu, Justin C-Y; Zhang, Jun; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2011-02-01

    In Western countries, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer has changed considerably over the past decades with a rise in the ratio of adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. Although the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux is increasing in Asia, the prevalences of Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) have remained low in most Asian countries. The Asian Barrett's Consortium recently conducted a review of published studies on BE from Asia to assess the current status of BE research in Asia, and to recommend potential areas for future BE research in the region. Differences in study design, enrolled population, and endoscopic biopsy protocols used have led to substantial variability in the reported BE prevalence (0.06% to 19.9%) across Asia. In particular, some Japanese studies used diagnostic criteria that differed considerably from what was used in most Asian studies. As in Western countries, increased age, male sex, tobacco smoking, reflux symptoms, and erosive esophagitis have been found to be risk factors for BE in several case-control studies from Asia. The Prague C and M criteria, developed to provide better interobserver reliability in diagnosis and grading of BE, are currently under extensive evaluation in the Asian population. There is a need for standardized protocols for endoscopic and histopathologic diagnosis before initiating collaborative projects to identify etiologic determinants of BE and its ensuing malignant transformation. At present, data regarding the management and long-term outcome of BE are extremely limited in Asia. More studies of BE in this geographic area are warranted. PMID:21155883

  17. [Transcranial direct current stimulation: new clinical roadmaps for psychiatric research].

    PubMed

    Heeren, Alexandre; Coussement, Charlotte; Colon, Élisabeth

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that has undergone intensive research over the past decade with promising results. tDCS is based on the application of weak, direct current over the scalp, leading to cortical hypo- or hyperpolarization according to the specified parameters. Recent studies have shown that tDCS is able to induce potent changes in cortical excitability as well as to elicit long-lasting modifications in brain activity. Over the last decade, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated. This research has given support for the investigation of tDCS applications in a wide range of clinical populations, including patients with post-stroke motor and language deficits, chronic pain, and tinnitus. Recently, its efficacy to treat psychiatric conditions has been explored increasingly. In this review, we will gather clinical studies involving tDCS to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms and discuss reasonable next steps in this direction. PMID:27615184

  18. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  19. Hydrolyzed Proteins in Allergy.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Silvia; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzed proteins are used worldwide in the therapeutic management of infants with allergic manifestations and have long been proposed as a dietetic measure to prevent allergy in at risk infants. The degree and method of hydrolysis, protein source and non-nitrogen components characterize different hydrolyzed formulas (HFs) and may determine clinical efficacy, tolerance and nutritional effects. Cow's milk (CM)-based HFs are classified as extensively (eHF) or partially HF (pHF) based on the percentage of small peptides. One whey pHF has been shown to reduce atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants who are not exclusively breastfed. More studies are needed to determine the benefit of these formulas in the prevention of CM allergy (CMA) and in the general population. eHFs represent up to now the treatment of choice for most infants with CMA. However, new developments, such as an extensively hydrolyzed rice protein-based formula, could become alternative options if safety and nutritional and therapeutic efficacy are confirmed as this type of formula is less expensive. In some countries, an extensive soy hydrolysate is available. PMID:27336625

  20. Optimizing the Diagnosis of Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Making an accurate diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a possible food allergy is particularly important both to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions and to prevent life threatening reactions. The testing modalities used routinely in clinical practice, including skin prick testing and food specific IgE levels, have limited accuracy, and a physician-supervised oral food challenge is often required to make a definitive diagnosis. Given the labor-intensive nature of this test and the risk of inducing an allergic reaction, researchers have investigated a number of alternative diagnostic modalities to improve the accuracy of food allergy testing. Testing for IgE antibodies to particular protein components in foods has already shown promise to improve diagnostics and has entered clinical practice. Additional modalities are under study that show potential including epitope binding, T cell studies, basophil activation and others. PMID:25459577

  1. Respiratory Allergies: A General Overview of Remedies, Delivery Systems, and the Need to Progress

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giselda; Celenza, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    The spread of respiratory allergies is increasing in parallel with the alarm of the scientific community. Evidently, our knowledge of the onset mechanisms of these diseases and, as a consequence, of the available remedies is inadequate. This review provides a brief, general description of current therapeutic resources and the state of research with regard to both drugs and medical devices in order to highlight their limits and the urgent need for progress. Increasing the amount of basic biochemical research will improve our knowledge of such onset mechanisms and the potential efficacy of therapeutic preparations. PMID:25006500

  2. Presence of potential allergy-related linear epitopes in novel proteins from conventional crops and the implication for the safety assessment of these crops with respect to the current testing of genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M

    2003-09-01

    Mitochondria of cytoplasmic male sterile crop plants contain novel, chimeric open reading frames. In addition, a number of crops carry endogenous double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA). In this study, the novel proteins encoded by these genetic components were screened for the presence of potential binding sites (epitopes) of allergy-associated IgE antibodies, as was previously done with transgenic proteins from genetically modified crops. The procedure entails the identification of stretches of at least six contiguous amino acids that are shared by novel proteins and known allergenic proteins. These stretches are further checked for potential linear IgE-binding epitopes. Of the 16 novel protein sequences screened in this study, nine contained stretches of six or seven amino acids that were also present in allergenic proteins. Four cases of similarity are of special interest, given the predicted antigenicity of the identical stretch within the allergenic and novel protein, the IgE-binding by a peptide containing an identical stretch reported in literature, or the multiple incidence of identical stretches of the same allergen within a novel protein. These selected stretches are present in novel proteins derived from oilseed rape and radish (ORF138), rice (dsRNA), and fava bean (dsRNA), and warrant further clinical testing. The frequency of positive outcomes and the sizes of the identical stretches were comparable to those previously found for transgenic proteins in genetically modified crops. It is discussed whether novel proteins from conventional crops should be subject to an assessment of potential allergenicity, a procedure which is currently mandatory for transgenic proteins from genetically modified crops. PMID:17166136

  3. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT. PMID:26162571

  4. Collaborative Research: Dynamics of Electrostatic Solitary Waves on Current Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Jolene S.

    2012-10-31

    The research carried out under the subject grant has provided insight into the generation of Electrostatic Solitary Waves (ESWs), which are nonlinear structures observed in space plasma data. These ESWs, appearing as pulses in the electric field time series data, represent the presence of several hundred meters to kilometer size positive potential structures, similar to champagne bubbles, where the electrons have been depleted, and which travel along Earth's magnetic field lines. The laboratory experiments carried out at the UCLA LAPD under the grant allowed us the opportunity to change various plasma and field conditions within the plasma device, and experiment with injection of suprathermal electron beams, in order to create ESWs. This then allowed us to determine the most likely method of generation of the ESWs. By comparing the properties of the ESWs observed in the LAPD to those observed in space and the plasma and field conditions under which those ESWs were observed in both locations, we were able to evaluate various ESW generation mechanisms. The findings of the laboratory experiments are that ESWs are generated through a lower hybrid instability. The ESWs observed in Earth's auroral current regions have similar characteristics to those generated by the laboratory when referenced to basic plasma and field characteristics, leading us to the conclusion that the lower hybrid drift instability is certainly a possibility for generation of the ESWs, at least in the auroral (northern/southern lights) regions. Due to space instrumentation insufficiencies and the limitations on telemetry, and thus poor time resolution, it is not possible to determine absolutely what generates these bubbles in space, but the laboratory experiments and supporting simulations have helped us to further our understanding of the processes under which they are generated. The public benefits from the findings of this research because the research is focused on current layers around Earth

  5. International Consensus on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Demoly, P; Adkinson, N F; Brockow, K; Castells, M; Chiriac, A M; Greenberger, P A; Khan, D A; Lang, D M; Park, H-S; Pichler, W; Sanchez-Borges, M; Shiohara, T; Thong, B Y- H

    2014-04-01

    When drug reactions resembling allergy occur, they are called drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) before showing the evidence of either drug-specific antibodies or T cells. DHRs may be allergic or nonallergic in nature, with drug allergies being immunologically mediated DHRs. These reactions are typically unpredictable. They can be life-threatening, may require or prolong hospitalization, and may necessitate changes in subsequent therapy. Both underdiagnosis (due to under-reporting) and overdiagnosis (due to an overuse of the term ‘allergy’) are common. A definitive diagnosis of such reactions is required in order to institute adequate treatment options and proper preventive measures. Misclassification based solely on the DHR history without further testing may affect treatment options, result in adverse consequences, and lead to the use of more-expensive or less-effective drugs, in contrast to patients who had undergone a complete drug allergy workup. Several guidelines and/or consensus documents on general or specific drug class-induced DHRs are available to support the medical decision process. The use of standardized systematic approaches for the diagnosis and management of DHRs carries the potential to improve outcomes and should thus be disseminated and implemented. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has decided to issue an International CONsensus (ICON) on drug allergy. The purpose of this document is to highlight the key messages that are common to many of the existing guidelines, while critically reviewing and commenting on any differences and deficiencies of evidence, thus providing a comprehensive reference document for the diagnosis and management of

  6. [Vacuum-assisted closure therapy. Current status and basic research].

    PubMed

    Holle, G; Riedel, K; von Gregory, H; Gazyakan, E; Raab, N; Germann, G

    2007-06-01

    The gap between the broad clinical use of vacuum-assisted closure therapy (VT) and knowledge of the physiological mechanisms leading to its effectiveness is great. The value of the technique and its future development are dependent on research into these mechanisms. A meta-analysis evaluating the results of basic research on the effectiveness of VT was carried out based on peer reviewed publications. This is considered in relation to other therapeutic approaches of basic research to wound healing (growth factors etc.). Our study includes a concise description of the scientific background to the mechanisms of cell stimulation using basic work on tissue expansion, bone, vessel and nerve distraction as well as in vitro cell stimulation. Evaluation of the scientific data on all known effects of VT was made based on the results from experimental animal studies, the results of randomized clinical studies, observations on clinical applications and case reports. Assessment of the studies was based on design and significance as well as the appraisal of our own clinical experience. Data involving cellular effects (proliferation, synthesis, wound healing), systemic effects (mediators, systemic inflammatory disease), extracellular effects (perfusion, edema, local wound environment, stabilization, barriers) and complex effects of VT (inflammation, matrix function, blood supply) were examined. Systematic analysis of the data allows scientifically interested surgeons rapid access to the theme, the first, to this extent, extensive overview of the current scientific situation as well as a comprehensive bibliography for all areas involving the theme of mechanical cell stimulation. The authors list major areas for future research and encourage the development of multicenter studies. PMID:17546436

  7. Translational research in infectious disease: current paradigms and challenges ahead

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Judith M.; Alexander, Elizabeth; Salvatore, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the biomedical community has witnessed a rapid scientific and technological evolution following the development and refinement of high-throughput methodologies. Concurrently and consequentially, the scientific perspective has changed from the reductionist approach of meticulously analyzing the fine details of a single component of biology, to the “holistic” approach of broadmindedly examining the globally interacting elements of biological systems. The emergence of this new way of thinking has brought about a scientific revolution in which genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” have become the predominant tools by which large amounts of data are amassed, analyzed and applied to complex questions of biology that were previously unsolvable. This enormous transformation of basic science research and the ensuing plethora of promising data, especially in the realm of human health and disease, have unfortunately not been followed by a parallel increase in the clinical application of this information. On the contrary, the number of new potential drugs in development has been steadily decreasing, suggesting the existence of roadblocks that prevent the translation of promising research into medically relevant therapeutic or diagnostic application. In this paper we will review, in a non-inclusive fashion, several recent scientific advancements in the field of translational research, with a specific focus on how they relate to infectious disease. We will also present a current picture of the limitations and challenges that exist for translational research, as well as ways that have been proposed by the National Institutes of Health to improve the state of this field. PMID:22633095

  8. [Allergy to bone cement components].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Eben, R; Thomsen, M

    2008-02-01

    Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses may lead to allergological diagnostics, which focus mainly on metal allergy. However, bone cement may also contain potential allergens, e.g. acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide (BPO), N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, and antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). In the Munich implant allergy clinic, we found that 28 of 113 patients (24.8%) with cemented prostheses had contact allergies to bone cement components, mostly to gentamicin (16.8%) and BPO (8.0%). The clinical significance of test results cannot always be shown, but we still recommend including bone cement components in the allergological diagnostics of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty. PMID:18227996

  9. Current status of silicon materials research for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1985-04-01

    The desire for high solar cell efficiencies has been a strong factor in determining the course of recent silicon crystal growth research efforts for photovoltaics. This review, therefore, focuses on single-crystal, dislocation-free ingot growth methods (Czochralski growth, float zoning, and cold crucible growth) and on sheet growth technologies, generally multicrystalline, that have achieved moderately high (>13.5%) laboratory-scale efficiencies. These include dendritic web growth, growth from capillary dies, edge-supported pulling, ribbon-against-drop growth, and a recent technique termed crucible-free horizontal growth. Silicon ribbon crystals provide a favorable geometry and require no wafering, but they contain defects that limit solar cell performance. Growth processes, their current status, and cell efficiencies are discussed. Silicon material process steps before and after crystal growth are described, and the advantages of silicon are presented.

  10. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities. PMID:22874227

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  12. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  13. Current methods and research strategies for modeling atmospheric mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, O.R.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury cycle is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. While much effort has been made to quantify the total mass flux of mercury to the atmosphere from various natural and anthropogenic sources, discrimination of the chemical and physical forms of these emissions is just beginning in response to early modeling exercises showing this discrimination to be critical for accurate modeling estimates of the sources responsible for observed mercury deposition. In this paper, current atmospheric mercury modeling techniques and the information obtained from them are described. A strategy for future field research and numerical model development is proposed which is designed to confidently identify the sources of atmospheric mercury responsible for observed contamination of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi

    2007-01-01

    The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.

  15. Is Current Hydrogeologic Research Addressing Long-TermPredictions?

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2004-09-10

    Hydrogeology is a field closely related to the needs of society. Many problems of current national and local interest require predictions of hydrogeological system behavior, and, in a number of important cases, the period of prediction is tens to hundreds of thousands of years. It is argued that the demand for such long-term hydrogeological predictions casts a new light on the future needs of hydrogeological research. Key scientific issues are no longer concerned only with simple processes or narrowly focused modeling or testing methods, but also with assessment of prediction uncertainties and confidence, couplings among multiple physico-chemical processes occurring simultaneously at a site, and the interplay between site characterization and predictive modeling. These considerations also have significant implications for hydrogeological education. With this view, it is asserted that hydrogeological directions and education need to be reexamined and possibly refocused to address specific needs for long-term predictions.

  16. Current Lewis Turbomachinery Research: Building on our Legacy of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    1997-01-01

    This Wu Chang-Hua lecture is concerned with the development of analysis and computational capability for turbomachinery flows which is based on detailed flow field physics. A brief review of the work of Professor Wu is presented as well as a summary of the current NASA aeropropulsion programs. Two major areas of research are described in order to determine our predictive capabilities using modern day computational tools evolved from the work of Professor Wu. In one of these areas, namely transonic rotor flow, it is demonstrated that a high level of accuracy is obtainable provided sufficient geometric detail is simulated. In the second case, namely turbine heat transfer, our capability is lacking for rotating blade rows and experimental correlations will provide needed information in the near term. It is believed that continuing progress will allow us to realize the full computational potential and its impact on design time and cost.

  17. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

  18. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta Agnieszka; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2013-04-01

    Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I - 48%, type II - 6%, type III - 10%, and type IV - 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

  19. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  20. Current Status of Gyroklystron Research at the University of Maryland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, E. S.; Lawson, W.; Hogan, B.; Bharathan, K.; Granatstein, V. L.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Maryland, we have been developing high-power coaxial gyroklystrons. Our present work is focused on the development of a 17.136 GHz four-cavity frequency-doubling gyroklystron amplifier. This device will then be used to drive a high gradient linear accelerator structure recently developed by the Haimson Corporation. Our work has been afflicted by many technical challenges, most arising from thermal imperfections in the custom-made high current emitter of our electron gun. In our latest experimental run, instabilities were detected in the input cavity of our amplifier tube. These instabilities appear when the beam pitch ratio (α) is approximately 1, thus impeding our search of domains with higher α values (note that the circuit was designed to operate at α=1.4). In order to remedy this problem, we have radically redesigned the input cavity, changing both its geometry and Q factor. The new input cavity has been fabricated and cold-tested. It will soon undergo hot-test in the next run of experimental studies of the circuit, which will commence after an upgrade of our vacuum system. Here we present the current status of this research.

  1. Sunflower seed allergy.

    PubMed

    Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew; Sokołowski, Łukasz

    2016-09-01

    Sunflower seeds are a rare source of allergy, but several cases of occupational allergies to sunflowers have been described. Sunflower allergens on the whole, however, still await precise and systematic description. We present an interesting case of a 40-year-old male patient, admitted to hospital due to shortness of breath and urticaria, both of which appeared shortly after the patient ingested sunflower seeds. Our laryngological examination revealed swelling of the pharynx with retention of saliva and swelling of the mouth and tongue. During diagnostics, 2 months later, we found that skin prick tests were positive to mugwort pollen (12/9 mm), oranges (6/6 mm), egg protein (3/3 mm), and hazelnuts (3/3 mm). A native prick by prick test with sunflower seeds was strongly positive (8/5 mm). Elevated concentrations of specific IgE against weed mix (inc. lenscale, mugwort, ragweed) allergens (1.04 IU/mL), Artemisia vulgaris (1.36 IU/mL), and Artemisia absinthium (0.49 IU/mL) were found. An ImmunoCap ISAC test found an average level of specific IgE against mugwort pollen allergen component Art v 1 - 5,7 ISU-E, indicating an allergy to mugwort pollen and low to medium levels of specific IgE against lipid transfer proteins (LTP) found in walnuts, peanuts, mugwort pollen, and hazelnuts. Through the ISAC inhibition test we proved that sunflower seed allergen extracts contain proteins cross-reactive with patients' IgE specific to Art v 1, Art v 3, and Jug r 3. Based on our results and the clinical pattern of the disease we confirmed that the patient is allergic to mugwort pollen and that he had an anaphylactic reaction as a result of ingesting sunflower seeds. We suspected that hypersensitivity to sunflower LTP and defensin-like proteins, both cross-reactive with mugwort pollen allergens, were the main cause of the patient's anaphylactic reaction. PMID:27222528

  2. BSACI guideline for the diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Luyt, D; Ball, H; Makwana, N; Green, M R; Bravin, K; Nasser, S M; Clark, A T

    2014-01-01

    This guideline advises on the management of patients with cow's milk allergy. Cow's milk allergy presents in the first year of life with estimated population prevalence between 2% and 3%. The clinical manifestations of cow's milk allergy are very variable in type and severity making it the most difficult food allergy to diagnose. A careful age- and disease-specific history with relevant allergy tests including detection of milk-specific IgE (by skin prick test or serum assay), diagnostic elimination diet, and oral challenge will aid in diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is advice on cow's milk avoidance and suitable substitute milks. Cow's milk allergy often resolves. Reintroduction can be achieved by the graded exposure, either at home or supervised in hospital depending on severity, using a milk ladder. Where cow's milk allergy persists, novel treatment options may include oral tolerance induction, although most authors do not currently recommend it for routine clinical practice. Cow's milk allergy must be distinguished from primary lactose intolerance. This guideline was prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) and is intended for clinicians in secondary and tertiary care. The recommendations are evidence based, but where evidence is lacking the panel of experts in the committee reached consensus. Grades of recommendation are shown throughout. The document encompasses epidemiology, natural history, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24588904

  3. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  4. Angel of human health: current research updates in toad medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Bi, Linlin; Miao, Shan; Cao, Wei; Xie, Yanhua; Sun, Jiyuan; Tang, Haifeng; Li, Ying; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 34 genera and 410 species of toads in the world. The medicinal parts of toads mainly include their venom, skin, and clothing. The toad’s venom and skin possess the same chemical components, mainly the toad venom lactone class, and their pharmacological effects primarily include the maintenance of strong heart, antitumor, antivirus, anti-infection, and analgesic effects. So far, the produces from the medicinal raw materials of the toad are widely used clinically around the world, especially in China, Japan, and South Korea. About 50 varieties of medicines are used in the clinical treatment of various complicated diseases in China, such as “Liushen pills” which was popular in the whole world. Toads are mainly used in treating malignant tumors (e.g., liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, among others), and some major diseases such as hepatitis B. Despite the therapeutic effects of toad-derived medicines on human health, there is insufficient research and development of toad-derived medicines by leading drug companies. In order to harness the beneficial effects of the resources of the toad species, it is the responsibility of global pharmaceutical researchers to develop and generate economically feasible toad-derived therapeutic products, while promoting maximum protection to the resources of the toad species. PMID:25755824

  5. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship. PMID:26304891

  6. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research. PMID:23023275

  7. [Allergy towards bone cement].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Summer, B; Mazoochian, F; Thomsen, M

    2006-09-01

    Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate are typically used for fixation of artificial joints. Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses not explained by infection or mechanical failure may lead to allergological diagnostics, which mostly focuses on metal allergy. However, also bone cement components may provoke hypersensitivity reactions leading to eczema, implant loosening, or fistula formation. Elicitors of such reactions encompass acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, or antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). Upon repeated contact with bone cement components, e.g., acrylate monomers, also in medical personnel occasionally hand eczema or even asthma may develop. Therefore, in the case of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty, the allergological diagnostics should include bone cement components. PMID:16865384

  8. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671

  9. 77 FR 28396 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Special Emphasis... Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: May 8, 2012. Anna P. Snouffer,...

  10. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... giving these products to children. back to top Immune System Reaction An allergy is the body’s reaction to a specific substance, or allergen. Our immune system responds to the invading allergen by releasing histamine ...

  11. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... chemicals added to latex during harvesting, processing, or manufacturing. These chemicals can cause a skin rash similar ... allergy. However, they may reduce reactions to chemical additives in the latex (allergic contact dermatitis). Use appropriate ...

  12. All about Allergies (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... people know pollen allergy as hay fever or rose fever). Trees, weeds, and grasses release these tiny ... mites. For kids allergic to pollen, keep the windows closed when the pollen season is at its ...

  13. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  14. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  15. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    Contact Us Home > Healthy Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living ...

  16. Clinical presentations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Darlene K; Sharma, Hemant P

    2011-04-01

    Food allergies are immune-mediated responses to food proteins. Because of differences in the underlying immunologic mechanisms, there are varying clinical presentations of food allergy. This article discusses the manifestations of IgE-mediated disorders, including urticaria and angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gastrointestinal anaphylaxis, generalized anaphylaxis, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and oral allergy syndrome. It also reviews the presentations of mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, including atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, the manifestations of cell-mediated food allergies are discussed, including dietary protein-induced proctitis and proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, celiac disease, and food-induced pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21453804

  17. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may contain latex include: Surgical and exam gloves Catheters and other tubing Sticky tape or electrode ... with latex. Breathing in the powder on latex gloves can also cause reactions. Symptoms of latex allergy ...

  18. Psychological aspects of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Food allergies may impact the emotions of patients through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanisms include the effects on the central nervous system from biologic mediators released during an allergic reaction to food. Indirect mechanisms include the stress of coping with a food allergy--for example, food preparation and avoidance--as well as managing the fear of the potential consequences of ingesting the food. Indirect effects may also be mediated through family members--for example, the impact of a parent's stress on the child. These relationships are difficult to study, in part because many patients who report food allergy symptoms do not have objective symptoms when challenged with the offending food. Symptoms may be misinterpreted as food allergy more often by patients with certain psychological profiles. In this paper, relevant literature is reviewed, and clinical treatment designed to minimize the emotional suffering of patients and their families is presented through the description of a case vignette. PMID:12542993

  19. Introduction to allergy treatment (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... first course of action is to avoid the allergen if possible. Medications such as antihistamines are then usually prescribed to relieve the allergic symptoms. Immunotherapy, or "allergy shots", is occasionally recommended if the ...

  20. Allergy and asthma: Effects of the exposure to particulate matter and biological allergens.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Cerrai, S; Sarno, G; Baïz, N; Simoni, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Viegi, G

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergies including atopy has increased during the past decades, particularly in westernized countries. The rapid rise in the prevalence of such diseases cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Rapid urbanization and industrialization throughout the world have increased air pollution and population exposures, so that most epidemiologic studies are focusing on possible links between air pollution and respiratory diseases. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that chemical air pollution may interact with airborne allergens enhancing the risk of atopic sensitization and exacerbation of symptoms in sensitized subjects. These phenomena are supported by current in vitro and animal studies showing that the combined exposure to air pollutants and allergens may have a synergistic or additive effect on asthma and allergies, although there is an insufficient evidence about this link at the population level. Further research is needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which pollutants and biological allergens induce damage in exposed subjects. The abatement of the main risk factors for asthma and allergic diseases may achieve huge health benefits. Thus, it is important to raise awareness of respiratory allergies as serious chronic diseases which place a heavy burden on patients and on society as a whole. PMID:26073963

  1. Recent advances in immunotherapy and vaccine development for peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peanut allergy is a common problem and can be the cause of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions. It rarely resolves, with the majority of patients carrying the disease onto adulthood. Peanut allergy poses a significant burden on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, which results mainly from the fear of accidental peanut ingestion, but is also due to dietary and social restrictions. Current standard management involves avoidance, patient education and provision of emergency medication, for use in allergic reactions, when they occur. Efforts have been made to develop a vaccine for peanut allergy. Recent developments have also highlighted the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment and may present a disease-modifying therapy for peanut allergy. So far, results, especially from oral immunotherapy studies, have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitization to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the capacity to induce long-term tolerance has not been demonstrated conclusively yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy of this intervention. Peanut immunotherapy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use or outside specialist allergy units. PMID:26288733

  2. Recent advances in immunotherapy and vaccine development for peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Peanut allergy is a common problem and can be the cause of severe, life-threatening allergic reactions. It rarely resolves, with the majority of patients carrying the disease onto adulthood. Peanut allergy poses a significant burden on the quality of life of sufferers and their families, which results mainly from the fear of accidental peanut ingestion, but is also due to dietary and social restrictions. Current standard management involves avoidance, patient education and provision of emergency medication, for use in allergic reactions, when they occur. Efforts have been made to develop a vaccine for peanut allergy. Recent developments have also highlighted the use of immunotherapy, which has shown promise as an active form of treatment and may present a disease-modifying therapy for peanut allergy. So far, results, especially from oral immunotherapy studies, have shown good efficacy in achieving desensitization to peanut with a good safety profile. However, the capacity to induce long-term tolerance has not been demonstrated conclusively yet and larger, phase III studies are required to further investigate safety and efficacy of this intervention. Peanut immunotherapy is not currently recommended for routine clinical use or outside specialist allergy units. PMID:26288733

  3. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ganaha, Yurika; Kobayashi, Minoru; Asikin, Yonathan; Gushiken, Taichi; Shinjo, Sumie

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis), requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis), and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis). Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis). This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions.

  4. Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Myer, Landon; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Zena; Ramjee, Gita; Morar, Neetha S; Harrison, Polly F

    2005-01-01

    With growing recognition of the potential value of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention, the importance of the acceptability of this brand-new technology has been widely acknowledged. We review the current body of microbicide acceptability research, characterize the limitations in assessment approaches, and suggest strategies for improvement. Electronic databases and abstracts of recent meetings were searched for acceptability data regarding vaginal and rectal products that may be used for HIV prevention. Of the 61 studies reviewed, more than half assessed acceptability based primarily on the description of a hypothetical microbicide, or with the demonstration of a spermicide or lubricant. Physical characteristics of microbicidal products, their effects after insertion, and their effects on sensation during intercourse (for both partners) were the dimensions most frequently assessed (measured in 77%, 49% and 49% of studies, respectively). Attention to the social context of use was inadequate. As acceptability is likely to be a key determinant in the use-effectiveness of microbicides, in-depth understanding of the social processes that shape microbicide acceptability across diverse populations will become increasingly valuable. This includes exploring the effects that sexual partners, health care providers, and key opinion leaders have on the acceptability of microbicides among women and men, including youth and people living with HIV. Future research will benefit from studies of the acceptability of other contraceptive-barrier methods (especially the female condom), use of an agreed-upon operationalization of acceptability, use of acceptability assessments within clinical trials, expansion of measurement domains, and assessment of changes in perceptions of acceptability and use over time. Failure to understand the key factors associated with microbicide acceptability is likely to hinder the adoption and continued use of products that are effective in preventing HIV

  5. The State of Mentoring Research: A Qualitative Review of Current Research Methods and Future Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding mentoring relationships has flourished during the past 20 years. This article reviews the methodology and content of 200 published mentoring articles. Some of the major concerns raised in this review include over reliance on cross-sectional designs and self-report data, a failure to differentiate between different forms of…

  6. House dust allergy and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Wayne R.

    2012-01-01

    HDM allergy is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In many countries childhood asthma is predominantly found in HDM-allergic children with their probability of developing disease being proportional to their IgE antibody titers and the early development of Th2 responses. While the pathogenesis is complex and increasingly linked to infection the immunologically-based allergen immunotherapy and anti-IgE antibody therapy are highly beneficial. Immunotherapy could be a short-term treatment providing lifelong relief but the current regimens depend on repeated administration of allergen over years. Immunological investigations point to a contribution of responses outside the Th2 pathway and multiple potential but unproven control mechanisms. Over half of the IgE antibodies are directed to the group 1 and 2 allergens with most of remainder to the group 4, 5, 7 and 21 allergens. This hierarchy found in high and low responders provides a platform for introducing defined allergens into immunotherapy and defined reagents for investigation. PMID:22894952

  7. Sleep disturbance due to noise: current issues and future research.

    PubMed

    Hume, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe) has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies. PMID:20472952

  8. Selenium bioavailability: current knowledge and future research requirements.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Collings, Rachel; Hurst, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Information on selenium bioavailability is required to derive dietary recommendations and to evaluate and improve the quality of food products. The need for robust data is particularly important in light of recent suggestions of potential health benefits associated with different intakes of selenium. The issue is not straightforward, however, because of large variations in the selenium content of foods (determined by a combination of geologic/environmental factors and selenium supplementation of fertilizers and animal feedstuffs) and the chemical forms of the element, which are absorbed and metabolized differently. Although most dietary selenium is absorbed efficiently, the retention of organic forms is higher than that of inorganic forms. There are also complications in the assessment and quantification of selenium species within foodstuffs. Often, extraction is only partial, and the process can alter the form or forms present in the food. Efforts to improve, standardize, and make more widely available techniques for species quantification are required. Similarly, reliable and sensitive functional biomarkers of selenium status are required, together with improvements in current biomarker methods. This requirement is particularly important for the assessment of bioavailability, because some functional biomarkers respond differently to the various selenium species. The effect of genotype adds a potential further dimension to the process of deriving bioavailability estimates and underlines the need for further research to facilitate the process of deriving dietary recommendations in the future. PMID:20200264

  9. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  10. Current pathways for epidemiological research in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Factor-Litvak, Pam; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Ascherio, Alberto; Bradley, Walter; Chío, Adriano; Garruto, Ralph; Hardiman, Orla; Kamel, Freya; Kasarskis, Edward; McKee, Ann; Nakano, Imaharu; Nelson, Lorene M; Eisen, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. The current status of the epidemiology, challenges to its study, and novel study design options are discussed in this paper. We focus on recent results from large-scale population based prospective studies, case-control studies and population based registries, risk factors, and neuropathologic findings in chronic traumatic encephalomyelopathy. We identify areas of interest for future research, including time-trends in the incidence and prevalence of ALS; the meaning of lifetime risk; the phenotypic description of ALS; the definition of familial versus sporadic ALS, syndromic aspects of ALS; specific risk factors such as military service, life style factors such as smoking, the use of statins, and the presence of β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), an excitotoxic amino acid derivative possibly produced by cyanobacteria found in almost every terrestrial and aquatic habitat; the emergence and disappearance of an endemic ALS in areas of the Pacific; and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of ALS. To move the epidemiology forward, we suggest using well-characterized cohorts of newly diagnosed ALS patients to identify risk and prognostic factors; storing biological material for future studies; building on the National ALS Registry as a resource of future studies; working in multidisciplinary consortia; and addressing the possible early life etiology of ALS. PMID:23678878

  11. Current research in coitus-induced ovulation: a review.

    PubMed

    Jöchle, W

    1975-04-01

    Against the background of renewed interest in the existence of reflex ovulation in many animal species and the possibility of its existence in man, this review on current research efforts embraces the multitude of nervous influences and stimuli accompanying cohabitation. Species showing reflex ovulation are not restricted to those using this as the sole ovulatory mechanism, but include also so-called facultative ovulators, which seem to use this mechanism as a last resort to assure reproductive capacity under adverse situations (rat); and species which for the length of the standing heat period become temporarily induced ovulators for the optimal coordination of all necessary steps to assure fertility (cattle, pig, sheep); and species in which frequent cohabitation (rat) or a single coitus after artificial insemination (sheep) assures either optimal ovulation or conception rates. Copulation might not always be essential; some of the cohabitation-related reflexes might be transmitted by olfactory, ocular, tactile and acoustic stimuli; emotions may play a role. These stimuli are transmitted to the CNS from the periphery by afferent nervous pathways, and are translated in the thalamic-hypothalamic-pituitary complex into neurohormonal phenomena, causing ovulation; or may cause, mainly by LH and/or oxytocin discharge, an acceleration or augmentation of processes involved in spontaneous ovulation. Intensive biochemical and pharmacological studies have unveiled some of the neurohormonal mechanisms involved in the hypothalamus and how these stimuli are transmitted to the pituitary or received at the ovarian level, as hormonal or neurohormonal phenomena. PMID:810583

  12. Current Research Therapeutic Strategies for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Folch, Jaume; Petrov, Dmitry; Ettcheto, Miren; Abad, Sonia; Sánchez-López, Elena; García, M. Luisa; Olloquequi, Jordi; Beas-Zarate, Carlos; Auladell, Carme; Camins, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently presents one of the biggest healthcare issues in the developed countries. There is no effective treatment capable of slowing down disease progression. In recent years the main focus of research on novel pharmacotherapies was based on the amyloidogenic hypothesis of AD, which posits that the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide is chiefly responsible for cognitive impairment and neuronal death. The goal of such treatments is (a) to reduce Aβ production through the inhibition of β and γ secretase enzymes and (b) to promote dissolution of existing cerebral Aβ plaques. However, this approach has proven to be only modestly effective. Recent studies suggest an alternative strategy centred on the inhibition of the downstream Aβ signalling, particularly at the synapse. Aβ oligomers may cause aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation postsynaptically by forming complexes with the cell-surface prion protein (PrPC). PrPC is enriched at the neuronal postsynaptic density, where it interacts with Fyn tyrosine kinase. Fyn activation occurs when Aβ is bound to PrPC-Fyn complex. Fyn causes tyrosine phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Fyn kinase blockers masitinib and saracatinib have proven to be efficacious in treating AD symptoms in experimental mouse models of the disease. PMID:26881137

  13. 75 FR 49942 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  14. 75 FR 76478 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  15. 75 FR 1068 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases..., Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research,...

  16. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases... Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of...

  17. A molecular insight of CTLA-4 in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is an immune provocation induced by certain food in susceptible individuals. Most of the food allergic manifestations are evident in the individual having impaired oral tolerance. In spite of worldwide prevalence, there is no permanent cure of food allergy. Food allergic reactions are complex immunological events that comprises of several immune molecules like IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and T-cells, therefore, researchers are trying to pick the correct molecule to find out pivotal therapeutic solutions. Being a key regulatory molecule in suppressing T-cells functional activities, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or cluster of differentiation-152 (CD-152) has contributed a novel and revolutionary dimension toward therapeutic research of several diseases. This review focuses on different immunological and mechanistic perspectives of CTLA-4 in correlation with food allergy. PMID:23254121

  18. Overview of recent and current research on the TCV tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. Codathe TCV Team

    2013-10-01

    Through a diverse research programme, the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) addresses physics issues and develops tools for ITER and for the longer term goals of nuclear fusion, relying especially on its extreme plasma shaping and electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launching flexibility and preparing for an ECRH and NBI power upgrade. Localized edge heating was unexpectedly found to decrease the period and relative energy loss of edge localized modes (ELMs). Successful ELM pacing has been demonstrated by following individual ELM detection with an ECRH power cut before turning the power back up to trigger the next ELM, the duration of the cut determining the ELM period. Negative triangularity was also seen to reduce the ELM energy release. H-mode studies have focused on the L-H threshold dependence on the main ion species and on the divertor leg length. Both L- and H-modes have been explored in the snowflake configuration with emphasis on edge measurements, revealing that the heat flux to the strike points on the secondary separatrix increases as the X-points approach each other, well before they coalesce. In L-mode, a systematic scan of the auxiliary power deposition profile, with no effect on confinement, has ruled it out as the cause of confinement degradation. An ECRH power absorption observer based on transmitted stray radiation was validated for eventual polarization control. A new profile control methodology was introduced, relying on real-time modelling to supplement diagnostic information; the RAPTOR current transport code in particular has been employed for joint control of the internal inductance and central temperature. An internal inductance controller using the ohmic transformer has also been demonstrated. Fundamental investigations of neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) seed island formation by sawtooth crashes and of NTM destabilization in the absence of a sawtooth trigger were carried out. Both stabilizing and destabilizing agents

  19. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Parmar, J S; Nasser, S

    2005-06-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30-50%). There is a low risk of cross reactions between penicillins and other non-beta-lactam classes of antibiotics in penicillin skin prick positive patients. Carbapenems should only be used with extreme caution in patients with positive skin prick tests to penicillin. However, aztreonam can be used safely in patients who are penicillin allergic with positive skin prick reactions. The aminoglycosides are a relatively uncommon cause of allergic reactions, but patients who react to one member of the family may cross react with other aminoglycosides. Desensitisation relies on the incremental introduction of small quantities of the allergen and has been used for penicillins, ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and must be repeated before each course. Personalized cards should be regularly updated for patients who develop allergic reactions. Written instructions on the emergency treatment of allergic reactions should be provided to patients self-administering intravenous antibiotics at home. Further research is required to identify risk factors and predictors for antibiotic allergy. PMID:15923254

  20. Current projects of the Application Technology Research Unit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Application Technology Research Unit is the largest multidisciplinary research team in the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, conducting on-farm research studies on floricultural and nursery crops. Part of ATRU Mission is to conduct fundamental and developme...

  1. Environmental pollution and allergy: historical aspects.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Heidrun; Alessandrini, Francesca; Buters, Jeroen; Krämer, Ursula; Koren, Hillel; Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    It may be a coincidence, but it is a fact that the first clear characterization of hay fever began in England where modern industrialization started in Europe. Only at the end of the 20th century were associations of the increasing prevalence of allergy with outdoor air pollution discussed. The seminal study came from Japan from the group of T. Miyamoto linking the increase in Japanese cedar pollinosis to an increased prevalence of Diesel cars and probably exposure to Diesel exhaust in epidemiological, animal experimental and in vitro studies. In Germany first epidemiological studies were done in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria in 1987 and 1988 showing a striking prevalence of allergic disease of up to 10-20% in preschool children. After German reunification the most surprising observation was a lower prevalence of hay fever in East German children compared to the West, although there was a much higher air pollution with SO2 and large particulate matter. Modern smog as found over West German cities most likely originating from traffic exhaust and consisting of fine and ultrafine particles was shown to be associated with higher incidence rates of allergy and allergic sensitization. In the 10 years after reunification there was a steep increase of allergy prevalence in East German children reaching almost the same level as in West Germany. Obviously, a multitude of lifestyle factors - beyond air pollution - may be involved in the explanation of this phenomenon. Surprisingly the skin manifestation of atopy, namely atopic eczema, was more frequent in East German children compared to the West, thus differing from airway allergy. Meanwhile in vitro studies and animal experiments have shown that a variety of air pollutants mostly from environmental tobacco smoke (indoors) and from traffic exhaust (outdoors) can stimulate immune cells inducing a Th2-dominated response besides their irritative effects. While 50 years ago in allergy textbooks a clear distinction was made

  2. Cow's milk allergy in children, from avoidance to tolerance.

    PubMed

    Calligaris, Lorenzo; Longo, Giorgio; Badina, Laura; Berti, Irene; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-03-01

    Food allergy is the primary cause of anaphylaxis in paediatric age affecting roughly 4% of children and their families worldwide, and requiring changes in dietary habits. The prognosis for food allergy in children has traditionally been regarded as good for the most frequent allergens, however the prognosis for cow's milk allergy in the pediatric age is currently considered to be worse than previously believed. There is now enough evidence that measures of avoidance for children at risk did not have any preventive effect whatsoever, but they still came to be counterproductive by avoiding the physiological interaction between food allergens and gastrointestinal mucosal immune system. Programs of specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) have obtained interesting results in the treatment of food allergy supporting the idea that antigen exposure through gastrointestinal section is important to allow the development of tolerance. Nevertheless this approach is not yet considered "ready" for community recommendations. In this paper we describe our experience in the field of SOTI in children with cow's milk allergy. PMID:24450451

  3. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  4. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    du Toit, George; Tsakok, Teresa; Lack, Simon; Lack, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). For prevention strategies to be effective, we need to understand the causative factors underpinning this rise. Genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, but given the dramatic increase in prevalence over a short period of human evolution, it is unlikely that FA arises through germline genetic changes alone. A plausible hypothesis is that 1 or more environmental exposures, or lack thereof, induce epigenetic changes that result in interruption of the default immunologic state of tolerance. Strategies for the prevention of FA might include primary prevention, which seeks to prevent the onset of IgE sensitization; secondary prevention, which seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitized children; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the expression of end-organ allergic disease in children with established FA. This review emphasizes the prevention of IgE-mediated FA through dietary manipulation, among other strategies; in particular, we focus on recent interventional studies in this field. PMID:27059727

  5. [Contact allergies in musicians].

    PubMed

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2012-12-01

    During the last years, the problem of allergic diseases has increased. Allergies are errant immune responses to a normally harmless substance. In musicians the allergic contact dermatitis to exotic woods is a special problem. Exotic rosewood contains new flavonoids, which trigger an allergic reaction after permanent contact with the instrument. High quality woodwind instruments such as baroque flute or clarinets are made in ebony or palisander because of its great sound. Today instruments for non-professional players are also made in these exotic materials and non-professionals may have the risk to develop contact dermatitis, too. Brass-player has the risk of an allergic reaction to the different metals contained in the metal sheets of modern flutes and brass instruments. Specially nickel and brass alloys are used to product flute tubes or brass instruments. Special problem arises in children: patients who are allergic to plants or foods have a high risk to develop contact dermatitis. Parents don't know the materials of low-priced instruments for beginners. Often unknown cheap woods from exotic areas are used. Low-priced brass instruments contain high amount of brass and other cheap metals. Physicians should advice musician-patients or parents about the risks of the different materials and look for the reason of eczema on mouth, face, or hands. PMID:23233303

  6. Eosinophilic Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; Khan, David A

    2016-04-01

    While peripheral or tissue eosinophilia may certainly characterize drug eruptions, this feature is hardly pathognomonic for a medication-induced etiology. While delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions with prominent eosinophilic recruitment have been typically classified as type IVb reactions, their pathophysiology is now known to be more complex. Eosinophilic drug reactions have a diversity of presentations and may be benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. The extent of clinical involvement is also heterogeneous, ranging from isolated peripheral eosinophilia or single organ involvement (most often the skin and lung) to systemic disease affecting multiple organs, classically exemplified by drug-reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The spectrum of implicated medications in the causation of DRESS is ever expanding, and multiple factors including drug metabolites, specific HLA alleles, herpes viruses, and immune system activation have been implicated in pathogenesis. Due to this complex interplay of various factors, diagnostic workup in terms of skin and laboratory testing has not been validated. Similarly, the lack of controlled trials limits treatment options. This review also describes other localized as well as systemic manifestations of eosinophilic disease induced by various medication classes, including their individual pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Given the multitude of clinical patterns associated with eosinophilic drug allergy, the diagnosis can be challenging. Considerable deficits in our knowledge of these presentations remain, but the potential for severe reactions should be borne in mind in order to facilitate diagnosis and institute appropriate management. PMID:26006718

  7. Allergy and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Barron, Earle P

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationships of allergic reactions to substances and emotions. It deals with spiritual sensitivity as well. Resistance is a key to allergic reactions: Allergic reactions involve the body's resistance to substances, emotions, and their energies. A major problem in spiritual formation is resistance to giving up the prideful and self-centered position and moving into loving relationships. It is sometimes possible from an alternative approach to promote spirituality by treating allergy. In spiritual formation, one may sometimes decrease allergic tendencies by giving up pride and other negative emotions. I propose that the alternative method I advocate not only reduces symptoms but deals with causes on an energetic level. It works with physical, emotional and spiritual factors. It provides new ways for counselors and spiritual directors to quickly get to basic issues and clear negative emotions and beliefs. This may be accomplished within or in connection with the therapists' or directors' particular religions, practices and/or therapeutic approaches. PMID:21404759

  8. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from low-income households more ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with asthma or food allergies who are poor have worse treatment outcomes, two ...

  9. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    MedlinePlus

    ... an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Seeking Relief? Find an Allergist ACAAI Members Members ... Find an Allergist American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology © 2014 Contact US

  10. Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Allergy URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/allergy.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. International Inventory of Current Mexico-Related Research. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Ricardo Anzaldua, Ed.; And Others

    The fourth annual research inventory describes 728 Mexican-related research projects being conducted in 1984 or to begin in 1985 in 14 countries. Data come from questionnaires sent during 1984 to more than 1,800 individual researchers and 650 institutions around the world. Each project description provides names and addresses of principal and…

  12. Special Education Teacher Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Brownell, Mary T.; Billingsley, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an agenda for special education teacher education researchers, with particular attention to policy work and studies of innovations in pre-service preparation, induction and mentoring, and professional development. Because previous research is limited and unfocused, the foundation for future research is weak,…

  13. Lanolin allergy: crisis or comedy.

    PubMed

    Kligman, A M

    1983-03-01

    Lanolin has been applied to human skin from at least Egyptian times. Its virtues as an emollient and vehicle for cosmetics and drugs have been extolled for centuries. 50 years ago, a fly was found in the ointment--the first case of lanolin allergy was reported (1). Since then lanolin has achieved considerable notoriety as a contact sensitizer. Dozens of articles in the dermatologic literature emphasize the high frequency of lanolin allergy. European dermatologists seem to have become especially sensitized to lanolin allergy. Medical students learn early on, that medicaments in lanolin bases are hazardous. Every novice knows that lanolin is a sensitizer! The nadir of lanolin's fall from grace has been reached in advertisements of topical drugs which emphasize the absence of lanolin in the vehicle. These denouncements by dermatologists have not slowed down the demand for lanolin. About 2 billion pounds of finished cosmetics contain lanolin or its derivatives. It is impossible to reconcile this expanding market with the apprehensions of skin doctors. It is my intention to review the history of lanolin allergy, to present experimental data on its contact sensitizing potential and to put the risk of lanolin allergy in perspective. PMID:6851544

  14. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  15. T regulatory cells in allergy.

    PubMed

    Braga, M; Quecchia, C; Cavallucci, E; Di Giampaolo, L; Schiavone, C; Petrarca, C; Di Gioacchino, M

    2011-01-01

    The progressive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of T regulatory (Treg) cells in the last decade has changed the concept of immune tolerance, that is no longer considered as a mere lack of immune reactivity but as a finely regulated process that requires specific activity of cells, adhesion and secreted molecules. Tregs play a key role in maintenance of self-tolerance and induction of tolerance against ubiquitous innocuous non-self antigens, so preventing the onset of autoimmune diseases and allergies. This review will focus on the Treg response in allergy that is characterized by a down-regulation of allergen specific T cell proliferation and inhibition of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines production. Hence, Treg cells suppress allergen-specific Th1 and Th2 cell responses playing an important role in the physiological immune response to allergens. Further, Treg cells are able to suppress IgE production by B lymphocytes and directly or indirectly inhibit the activity of allergic inflammation effector cells, namely eosinophils, basophils and mastcells. Finally, increasing evidence suggests that Treg cells are also implicated in chronicity development of inflammatory diseases. This appears to happen through a fine interaction they entertain with resident tissue cells and has been particularly highlighted in the study of airways remodeling in asthma. The understanding of the mechanisms underlying allergen tolerance has brought new interest in the development of new allergy treatment, able to target Treg cells, both in allergy prevention and in the therapy of established allergy. PMID:21329567

  16. Food allergy: riding the second wave of the allergy epidemic.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan; Allen, Katrina J

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is a substantial and evolving public health issue, recently emerging over the last 10-15 yr as a 'second wave' of the allergy epidemic. It remains unclear why this new phenomenon has lagged decades behind the 'first wave' of asthma, allergic rhinitis and inhalant sensitization. In regions like Australia, which lead the respiratory epidemic, challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy now affects up to 10% of infants. Although their parents were among the first generation to experience the large-scale rise in allergic diseases, disorders of oral tolerance were previously uncommon. Of further concern, this new generation appears less likely to outgrow food allergy than their predecessors with long-term implications for disease burden. Allergic disease has been linked to the modern lifestyle including changing dietary patterns, changing intestinal commensal bacteria and vehicular pollution. It is not yet known whether the rise in food allergy is a harbinger of earlier and more severe effects of these progressive environmental changes or whether additional or unrelated lifestyle factors are implicated. New studies suggest environmental factors can produce epigenetic changes in gene expression and disease risk that may be potentially heritable across generations. The rising rates of maternal allergy, a strong direct determinant of allergic risk, could also be amplifying the effect of environmental changes. Preliminary evidence that non-Caucasian populations may be even more susceptible to the adverse effects of 'westernisation' has substantial global implications with progressive urbanization of the more populous regions in the developing world. Unravelling the environmental drivers is critical to curtail a potential tsunami of allergic disease. PMID:21332796

  17. Assessment of Cardiac Functions in Infants with Cow’s Milk Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ece, İbrahim; Demirören, Kaan; Demir, Nihat; Uner, Abdurrahman; Balli, Sevket

    2014-01-01

    Background Cow’s milk allergy is the most common food allergy in children, with rates estimated at 1.9% to 4.9%. Clinical phenotypes of cow’s milk allergy are varied and involve 1 or more target organs, with the main targets being the skin, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal tract. To date, no studies have investigated detailed cardiac function in children with cow’s milk allergy. The current study aimed to investigate cardiac function in infants with cow’s milk allergy. Material/Methods We studied 42 infants with cow’s milk allergy and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Cardiac functions were evaluated by M-mode, pulsed-wave, and tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results There were no significant differences in ejection fraction or mitral and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion between the 2 groups. Pulsed-wave Doppler-derived E/A ratios in mitral and tricuspid valves were similar in both groups. Ea/Aa ratios in the left ventricle posterior wall and right ventricle free wall were lower in patients with cow’s milk allergy than in the control group. The E/Ea ratio in the left ventricle, isovolumic relaxation time, deceleration time, and right and left ventricular myocardial performance indices were higher in patients in the study group. Conclusions Our study identified reduced early diastolic tissue Doppler velocities in infants with cow’s milk allergy. PMID:25098395

  18. NIAID-Sponsored 2010 Guidelines for Managing Food Allergy: Applications in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stacie M.; Boyce, Joshua A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from many studies have suggested a rise in the prevalence of food allergies during the past 10 to 20 years. Currently, no curative treatments for food allergy exist, and there are no effective means of preventing the disease. Management of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the allergen in the patient's diet and treatment of symptoms as they arise. Because diagnosis and management of the disease can vary between clinical practice settings, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) sponsored development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. The guidelines establish consensus and consistency in definitions, diagnostic criteria, and management practices. They also provide concise recommendations on how to diagnose and manage food allergy and treat acute food allergy reactions. The original guidelines encompass practices relevant to patients of all ages, but food allergy presents unique and specific concerns for infants, children, and teenagers. To focus on those concerns, we describe here the guidelines most pertinent to the pediatric population. PMID:21987705

  19. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  20. Food allergy therapy: is a cure within reach?

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella

    2011-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for an effective food allergy therapy; thus, development of therapeutic interventions for food allergy is a top research priority. The food allergen-nonspecific therapies for food-induced anaphylaxis include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies and Chinese herbs. The food allergen-specific therapies include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation. Oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. PMID:21453816

  1. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  2. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  3. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  4. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  5. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  6. Critical current versus strain research at the University of Twente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, H. J. N.; van der Laan, D. C.; Dhallé, M.; ten Haken, B.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2003-09-01

    At the University of Twente a U-shaped spring has been used to investigate the mechanical properties of a large variety of superconducting tapes and wires. Several mechanisms are responsible for the degradation of critical current as a function of applied strain. A change in its intrinsic parameters causes a reversible critical current dependence in Nb3Sn. The critical current reaches a maximum at a wire-dependent tensile strain level, and decreases when this tensile strain is either released or further increased. In Bi-based tapes the critical current is virtually insensitive to tensile strain up to a sample-dependent irreversible strain limit. When this limit is exceeded, the critical current decreases steeply and irreversibly. This behaviour is attributed to microstructural damage to the filaments. This cracking of the filaments is verified by a magneto-optical strain experiment. Recent experiments suggest that in MgB2 the degradation of critical current is caused by a change in intrinsic properties and damage to the microstructure. Magneto-optical imaging can be used to investigate the influence of applied strain on the microstructure of MgB2, as is done successfully with Bi-based tapes. In all these conductors the thermal precompression of the filaments plays an important role. In Nb3Sn it determines the position of the maximum and in Bi-based and MgB2 conductors it is closely related to the irreversible strain limit.

  7. Postgraduate Research Supervision: A Critical Review of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallin, Antoinette; Nayar, Shoba

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the funding and delivery of research programmes at the university level have, in recent years, resulted in significant changes to research supervision. This paper critically reviews key influences effecting postgraduate supervision. Analysis draws on literature spanning 2000-2010 to determine the appropriateness of traditional models of…

  8. CURRENT CORROSION BY-PRODUCTS AND CORROSION CONTROL RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA research in the area of corrosion control consists of a combination of in-house research and extramural projects. he extramural projects have recently addressed the corrosion of solder in some Long Island water supplies, impacts of municipal ion-exchange softening on corros...

  9. By the Numbers: Current Research in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights various literature covering a broad range of topics that are of interest to public services librarians, from collections and user services to one's own research and professional development. Although addressing many topics, these authors have all used or advocate for solid research methods and data analysis in their works,…

  10. Philosophical Foundations and Current Theoretical Perspectives in Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broido, Ellen M.; Manning, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between the philosophy, theory, and methods of different research paradigms is explored in this article. Specific theoretical perspectives, critical theory, postmodernism, critical race theory, queer theory, and feminist theory are explored in the context of their political values and implications for qualitative research.…

  11. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

  12. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  13. Blueberries and Human Health: A Review of Current Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewed interest in the health functionality of blueberry (i.e., Vaccinium species with blue surface color) has led to research in several areas including neuroscience, cardiovascular health, cancer chemoprevention and aging. This article reviews these new directions in blueberry research, with emph...

  14. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    PubMed

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  15. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  16. [Dietetic treatment of cow's milk protein allergy].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C; Chouraqui, J-P; de Boissieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Darmaun, D; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Rigo, J; Vidailhet, M; Turck, D

    2011-01-01

    New data on food allergy has recently changed the management of children with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). The diagnosis of CMPA first requires the elimination of cow's milk proteins and then an oral provocation test following a standard diagnostic procedure for food allergy, without which the elimination diet is unjustified and sometimes harmful. Once the diagnosis is made, the elimination diet is strict, at least until the age of 9-12 months. If the child is not breastfed or the mother cannot or no longer wishes to breastfeed, the first choice is a formula based on extensive hydrolyzate of cow's milk (eHF), provided that its effectiveness has been demonstrated. When eHF fails, a formula based on amino acids is warranted. eHF based on rice protein hydrolysates is an alternative to cow's milk eHF. Infant formulas based on soy protein can be used after the age of 6 months, after verification of good clinical tolerance to soy. Most commonly, CMPA disappears within 2 or 3 years of life. However, the age of recovery varies depending on the child and the type of CMPA, and whether or not it is IgE-mediated, the first being more sustainable. When the child grows, a hospital oral provocation test evaluates the development of tolerance and, if possible, authorizes continuing the reintroduction of milk proteins at home. Some children with CMPA will tolerate only a limited daily amount of cow's milk proteins. The current therapeutic options are designed to accelerate the acquisition of tolerance, which seems facilitated by regular exposure to cow's milk proteins. PMID:21115329

  17. Special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Lundstedt, Henrik; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Much of what Hannes Alfvén envisaged some 70 years ago has now penetrated virtually all branches of astrophysical research. Indeed, magnetic fields can display similar properties over a large range of scales. We have therefore been able to take advantage of the transparency of galaxies and the interstellar medium to obtain measurements inside them. On the other hand, the Sun is much closer, allowing us to obtain a detailed picture of the interaction of flows and magnetic fields at the surface, and more recently in the interior by helioseismology. Moreover, the solar timescales are generally much shorter, making studies of dynamical processes more direct. This special issue on current research in astrophysical magnetism is based on work discussed during a one month Nordita program Dynamo, Dynamical Systems and Topology and comprises papers that fall into four different categories (A)-(D). (A) Papers on small-scale magnetic fields and flows in astrophysics 1. E M de Gouveia Dal Pino, M R M Leão, R Santos-Lima, G Guerrero, G Kowal and A Lazarian Magnetic flux transport by turbulent reconnection in astrophysical flows 2. Philip R Goode, Valentyna Abramenko and Vasyl Yurchyshyn New solar telescope in Big Bear: evidence for super-diffusivity and small-scale solar dynamos? 3. I N Kitiashvili, A G Kosovichev, N N Mansour, S K Lele and A A Wray Vortex tubes of turbulent solar convection The above collection of papers begins with a review of astrophysical reconnection and introduces the concept of dynamos necessary to explain the existence of contemporary magnetic fields both on galactic and solar scales (paper 1). This is complemented by observations with the new Big Bear Solar Observatory telescope, allowing us to see magnetic field amplification on small scales (paper 2). This in turn is complemented by realistic simulations of subsurface and surface flow patterns (paper 3). (B) Papers on theoretical approaches to turbulent fluctuations 4. Nathan Kleeorin and Igor

  18. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  19. MicroRNA Detection: Current Technology and Research Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Eric A.; Broyles, David; Head, Trajen; Deo, Sapna K.

    2015-07-01

    The relatively new field of microRNA (miR) has experienced rapid growth in methodology associated with its detection and bioanalysis as well as with its role in -omics research, clinical diagnostics, and new therapeutic strategies. The breadth of this area of research and the seemingly exponential increase in number of publications on the subject can present scientists new to the field with a daunting amount of information to evaluate. This review aims to provide a collective overview of miR detection methods by relating conventional, established techniques [such as quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), microarray, and Northern blotting (NB)] and relatively recent advancements [such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), highly sensitive biosensors, and computational prediction of microRNA/targets] to common miR research strategies. This should guide interested readers toward a more focused study of miR research and the surrounding technology.

  20. Current status of quantitative rotational spectroscopy for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drouin, Brian J.; Wlodarczak, Georges; Colmont, Jean-Marcel; Rohart, Francois

    2004-01-01

    Remote sensing of rotational transitions in the Earth's atmosphere has become an important method for the retrieval of geophysical temperatures, pressures and chemical composition profiles that requires accurate spectral information. This paper highlights the current status of rotational data that are useful for atmospheric measurements, with a discussion of the types the rotational lineshape measurements that are not generally available in either online repository.