Science.gov

Sample records for alleviating urban energy

  1. Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1997-03-01

    This article examines rural-urban migration, its role in poverty alleviation in Thailand, and policy implications. The empirical research literature suggests that the poorest tend be left behind by wealthier migrants moving to urban areas. The youngest tend to migrate. The impact of remittances tends to appear more positive in international migration, but the impact of remittances among rural internal migrant families can also be substantial and be responsible for wealth differences within rural communities. Return migrants contribute to communities by bringing back new ideas and new attitudes toward family size. Migration can also produce negative impacts for sending communities, but the total analysis appears to favor positive impacts. The urban sector becomes another resource base for rural populations that can sustain rural populations during rapid change processes. The migrant population tends to be wealthier and better educated than rural populations, but poorer and less educated than urban populations. Informal sectors in urban areas may offer migrants flexible working hours, no taxes or deductions, less bureaucratic structures, and only 9% less income than the formal sector. Social networks reinforce migrant work in the informal sector and segmentation of the labor force. Social networks may be formalized into associations and help in securing migrant's housing and living. Migrants are integrated in a variety of ways into city life. Migrant communities are a source of energy, organizational skills, and talent. The incidence of poverty appears to be the greatest among women. Women migrants and women left behind by migrants must adjust to new conditions. Migration policies tend to focus on regulating the volume of migration. The author concludes that migration alleviates poverty and that policies should address city management, migrant adjustment processes, and training programs for nonmigrants. PMID:12292421

  2. An Approach to Alleviate the False Alarm in Building Change Detection from Urban Vhr Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Hou, J. L.; Deng, M.

    2016-06-01

    Building change detection from very-high-resolution (VHR) urban remote sensing image frequently encounter the challenge of serious false alarm caused by different illumination or viewing angles in bi-temporal images. An approach to alleviate the false alarm in urban building change detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, as shadows casted by urban buildings are of distinct spectral and shape feature, it adopts a supervised object-based classification technique to extract them in this paper. Secondly, on the opposite direction of sunlight illumination, a straight line is drawn along the principal orientation of building in every extracted shadow region. Starting from the straight line and moving toward the sunlight direction, a rectangular area is constructed to cover partial shadow and rooftop of each building. Thirdly, an algebra and geometry invariant based method is used to abstract the spatial topological relationship of the potential unchanged buildings from all central points of the rectangular area. Finally, based on an oriented texture curvature descriptor, an index is established to determine the actual false alarm in building change detection result. The experiment results validate that the proposed method can be used as an effective framework to alleviate the false alarm in building change detection from urban VHR image.

  3. Female labour force integration and the alleviation of urban poverty: a case study of Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Holland, J

    1995-01-01

    The author posits that female labor force integration in Jamaica accomplishes little in alleviating poverty and making maximum use of human resources. Women are forced into employment in a labor market that limits their productivity. Women have greater needs to increase their economic activity due to price inflation and cuts in government spending. During the 1980s and early 1990s the country experienced stabilization and structural adjustment resulting in raised interest rates, reduced public sector employment, and deflated public expenditures. Urban population is particularly sensitive to monetary shifts due to dependency on social welfare benefits and lack of assets. Current strategies favor low wage creation in a supply-side export-oriented economy. These strategies were a by-product of import-substitution industrialization policies during the post-war period and greater control by multilateral financial institutions in Washington, D.C. The World Bank and US President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative stressed export-oriented development. During the 1980s, Jamaican government failed to control fiscal policy, built up a huge external debt, and limited the ability of private businessmen to obtain money for investment in export-based production. Over the decade, uncompetitive production declined and light manufacturing increased. Although under 10% of new investment was in textile and apparel manufacturing, almost 50% of job creation occurred in this sector and 80% of all apparel workers were low-paid women. Devaluation occurred both in the exchange rate and in workers' job security, fringe benefits, union representation, and returns on skills. During 1977-89 women increased employment in the informal sector, which could not remain competitive under devaluation. Women's stratification in the labor market, high dependency burdens, and declining urban infrastructure create conditions of vulnerability for women in Jamaica. PMID:12291611

  4. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  5. Water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulch for alleviation of toxic metals and phosphorus from polluted urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Soleimanifar, Hanieh; Deng, Yang; Wu, Laying; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum-based water treatment residual (WTR)-coated wood mulches were synthesized and tested for removal of heavy metals and phosphorus (P) in synthetic urban stormwater. WTRs are an industrial waste produced from coagulation in water treatment facilities, primarily composed of amorphous aluminum or iron hydroxides. Batch tests showed that the composite filter media could effectively adsorb 97% lead (Pb), 76% zinc (Zn), 81% copper (Cu) and 97% P from the synthetic stormwater (Pb = 100 μg/L, Zn = 800 μg/L, Cu = 100 μg/L, P = 2.30 mg/L, and pH = 7.0) within 120 min, due to the presence of aluminum hydroxides as an active adsorbent. The adsorption was a 2(nd)-order reaction with respect toward each pollutant. Column tests demonstrated that the WTR-coated mulches considerably alleviated the select pollutants under a continuous-flow condition over the entire filtration period. The effluent Pb, Zn, Cu, and P varied at 0.5-8.9%, 33.4-46.7%, 45.8-55.8%, and 6.4-51.9% of their respective initial concentrations with the increasing bed volume from 0 to 50. Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests indicated that leached contaminants were all below the U.S. criteria, suggesting that the release of undesired chemicals under rainfall or landfilling conditions is not a concern during application. This study demonstrates that the WTR-coated mulches are a new, low-cost, and effective filter media for urban stormwater treatment. Equally important, this study provides a sustainable approach to beneficially reuse an industrial waste for environmental pollution control. PMID:27060636

  6. Recent advances in aerodynamic energy concept for flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1977-01-01

    Control laws are derived, by using realizable transfer functions, which permit relaxation of the stability requirements of the aerodynamic energy concept. The resulting aerodynamic eigenvalues indicate that both the trailing edge and the leading edge-trailing edge control systems can be made more effective. These control laws permit the introduction of aerodynamic damping and stiffness terms in accordance with the requirements of any specific system. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation problems can now be treated by either a trailing edge control system or by a leading edge-trailing edge control system by using the aerodynamic energy concept. Results are applicable to a wide class of aircraft operating at subsonic Mach numbers.

  7. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

  8. Appropriate energy technology for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixon, W. R.

    1981-05-01

    Some of the unique characteristics of high density urban areas as they affect the potential use of energy conservation measures and more efficient and renewable energy sources are addressed. Energy related problems of urban areas are presented and the inner city is characterized as an environment with limited potential for applying conservation measures and innovative energy sources of the level of individual buildings. District heating and cooling is presented as one technology, uniquely appropriate for urban areas, that can collect thermal energy from efficient cogeneration plants, municipal incinerators, industrial processes, and renewable natural energy resources and distribute that energy throughout a community to its ultimate consumers. Through district heating, the urban communities can conserve energy and scarce fuels, improve environmental quality, and participate in achieving a more harmonious interface between humanity and the natural environment.

  9. Urbanization and energy use in economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.

    1989-03-01

    This paper identifies a number of developments which are prominent during the urbanization of a country and which have particularly strong implications for energy use. Concomitant with urbanization, the industrial composition of the economy's production shifts, with reductions in agriculture and increases in the importance of primary metals, chemicals, and cement, all of which are relatively energy-intensive sectors. Evidence from India indicates that the movement of a worker from agriculture to the least energy-intensive urban activity other than services will quadruple per worker production energy requirements. Next, population concentration associated with urbanization facilitates increases in the scale of production which in turn encourages the substitution of modern energy for traditional fuels and requires energy for longer deliveries. Also, concentrated, off-farm populations require processing and delivery of food, which are not required for largely agricultural countries. Domestic activity changes send activities which were formerly conducted in the household with little or no energy use, outside, usually into firms, where fuels are used. Urban households also use considerably more transportation than do rural households. Evidence from Hong Kong indicates that pure urban density increases encourage substitutions of modern energy for traditional fuels. Finally, increased real incomes associated with urbanization increase energy consumption, with an elasticity of roughly unity. Aggregate cross-sectional data evidence from sixty developing countries was used to examine the overall magnitude of the effects of urbanization and associated developmental changes on per capita energy use. Controlling for industrial structure, per capita income (per capita gross domestic product), and several other variables, a one-percent increase in urbanization will cause a one-half percent increase in per capita energy use. 81 refs., 5 figs., 63 tabs.

  10. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Rural versus Urban Areas: Implications for Strategies to Alleviate Nursing Shortages in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skillman, Susan M.; Palazzo, Lorella; Keepnews, David; Hart, L. Gary

    2006-01-01

    Methods: This study compares characteristics of rural and urban registered nurses (RNs) in the United States using data from the 2000 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses. RNs in 3 types of rural areas are examined using the rural-urban commuting area taxonomy. Findings: Rural and urban RNs are similar in age and sex; nonwhites and…

  11. Energy costs, urban development, and housing

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, A.; Bradbury, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Six revised and edited papers from a conference held by the Brookings Institute in 1981 assess the effects of higher energy costs on various aspects of urban development and housing, including industrial location and regional development. Comments and discussion from public-agency participants follow each of the papers. Following an introductory summary of the policy findings and the conference papers, the six papers are: Home Energy Costs and the Housing of the Poor and Elderly, Energy Prices and Urban Decentralization, Energy and the Existing Stock of Housing, New Residential Construction and Energy Costs, Energy and the Location of Industry, and Energy and Regional Development. Separate abstracts were prepared for the seven chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and one was processed separately.

  12. Energy properties in urban building stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, V.; Lappalainen, M.

    Buildings in urban areas were examined for energy consumption and energy conservation potential. Oil is 75% of heating fuel. Over 30% of the overall building volume heated is served by district or regional heating. The annual consumption of heating energy in buildings fluctuates between 30 and 140 kW hr/cu m. Function, size, and maintenance patterns affect energy consumption. Interior temperature levels and ventilation account for much of the dispersion in consumption values. Older buildings consume less energy per unit volume than those erected after 1960. Buildings constructed since 1975 consume over 10% less energy than the average. It is concluded that it is possible to reduce energy consumption within cost-effective limits in urban building stock by one third during the 1980's.

  13. Energy-efficiency urban center in the Egyptian desert

    SciTech Connect

    Albis, A.H.A.

    1985-01-01

    This research effort is concerned with the identification and utilization of practical design guidelines to meet the demand for guidance in innovative planning and building design for Egyptian desert conditions. An energy-conscious design can be realized with a minimum expenditure of exhaustible energy resources and maximum utilization of the natural energies for cooling and heating. The energy design guidelines developed will be applied to an Urban Center, on a site selected to alleviate the stress on Cairo, which has been suffering for over two decades from housing shortages due to overpopulation. Design criteria to meet the challenges of this research include: neighborhood planning; orientation; building details; shading; colors of walls and roofs; materials; and massing configuration. In this research, desert construction and its aspects, use of building materials, approaches to energy conservation, and architectural principles for neighborhood planning are identified. The human requirement for thermal comfort specific to desert environments are analyzed and related to diurnal and annual patterns of outdoor conditions, and to the potential for modifying indoor thermal conditions by designs suitable to prevailing climatic conditions.

  14. Toward Quantitative Analysis of Water-Energy-Urban-Climate Nexus for Urban Adaptation Planning

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and energy are two interwoven factors affecting environmental management and urban development planning. Meanwhile, rapid urban development and a changing climate exacerbate the magnitude and effects of water-energy interactions in what nexus defines. These factors and th...

  15. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  16. Managing the urban water-energy nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Lund, Jay R.

    2016-04-01

    Water use directly causes a significant amount of energy use in cities. In this paper we assess energy and greenhouse emissions related with each part of the urban water cycle and the consequences of several changes in residential water use for customers, water and energy utilities, and the environment. First, we develop an hourly model of urban water uses by customer category including water-related energy consumption. Next, using real data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, we calibrate a model of the energy used in water supply, treatment, pumping and wastewater treatment by the utility. Then, using data from the California Independent System Operator, we obtain hourly costs of energy for the energy utility. Finally, and using emission factors reported by the energy utilities we estimate greenhouse gas emissions for the entire urban water cycle. Results of the business-as-usual scenario show that water end uses account for almost 95% of all water-related energy use, but the 5% managed by the utility is still worth over 12 million annually. Several simulations analyze the potential benefits for water demand management actions showing that moving some water end-uses from peak to off-peak hours such as outdoor use, dishwasher or clothes washer use have large benefits for water and energy utilities, especially for locations with a high proportion of electric water heaters. Other interesting result is that under the current energy rate structures with low or no fixed charges, energy utilities burden most of the cost of the conservation actions.

  17. Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge.

    PubMed

    Creutzig, Felix; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Bierkandt, Robert; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Seto, Karen C

    2015-05-19

    The aggregate potential for urban mitigation of global climate change is insufficiently understood. Our analysis, using a dataset of 274 cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use. If current trends in urban expansion continue, urban energy use will increase more than threefold, from 240 EJ in 2005 to 730 EJ in 2050. Our model shows that urban planning and transport policies can limit the future increase in urban energy use to 540 EJ in 2050 and contribute to mitigating climate change. However, effective policies for reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions differ with city type. The results show that, for affluent and mature cities, higher gasoline prices combined with compact urban form can result in savings in both residential and transport energy use. In contrast, for developing-country cities with emerging or nascent infrastructures, compact urban form, and transport planning can encourage higher population densities and subsequently avoid lock-in of high carbon emission patterns for travel. The results underscore a significant potential urbanization wedge for reducing energy use in rapidly urbanizing Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. PMID:25583508

  18. Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge

    PubMed Central

    Creutzig, Felix; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Bierkandt, Robert; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Seto, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregate potential for urban mitigation of global climate change is insufficiently understood. Our analysis, using a dataset of 274 cities representing all city sizes and regions worldwide, demonstrates that economic activity, transport costs, geographic factors, and urban form explain 37% of urban direct energy use and 88% of urban transport energy use. If current trends in urban expansion continue, urban energy use will increase more than threefold, from 240 EJ in 2005 to 730 EJ in 2050. Our model shows that urban planning and transport policies can limit the future increase in urban energy use to 540 EJ in 2050 and contribute to mitigating climate change. However, effective policies for reducing urban greenhouse gas emissions differ with city type. The results show that, for affluent and mature cities, higher gasoline prices combined with compact urban form can result in savings in both residential and transport energy use. In contrast, for developing-country cities with emerging or nascent infrastructures, compact urban form, and transport planning can encourage higher population densities and subsequently avoid lock-in of high carbon emission patterns for travel. The results underscore a significant potential urbanization wedge for reducing energy use in rapidly urbanizing Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. PMID:25583508

  19. Low-temperature conditioning alleviates chilling injury in loquat fruit and regulates glycine betaine content and energy status.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhang, Yu; Shan, Timin; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jia; Zheng, Yonghua

    2015-04-15

    The influence of low-temperature conditioning (LTC) treatment on chilling injury, glycine betaine content, and energy metabolism in loquat fruit at 1 °C storage was investigated. The results indicated that LTC treatment significantly reduced chilling injury index, ion leakage, and malondialdehyde content in loquat fruit. Betaine aldehyde hydrogenase (BADH) activity and endogenous glycine betaine (GB) content in loquats treated with LTC were significantly higher than those in control fruit. Moreover, LTC treatment induced activities of energy metabolism-associated enzymes, including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase. LTC treatment triggered obviously higher levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and energy charge in loquat fruit. These results showed that LTC possibly alleviated chilling injury and enhanced chilling tolerance of loquat fruit by enhancing endogenous GB content and energy status. PMID:25822129

  20. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  1. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  2. Modeling Urban Energy Savings Scenarios using Earth System Microclimate and Urban Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. R.; Rose, A. N.; Branstetter, M. L.; Yuan, J.; New, J. R.; Omitaomu, O.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    In anticipation of emerging global urbanization, better understanding and quantification of climate effects on energy use are needed, requiring coordinated research of microclimate impacts on and from "human systems." To this end, we analyze and quantify the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, population, land cover, and energy use so that these relationships can be used to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. The focus of this research is on the analysis of measured and modeled energy efficiency of various building types in selected urban areas and temporal variations in energy use for different morphologies under different microclimatic conditions; implications for different morphologies of future climate and urban growth scenarios; and potential energy projections and savings by morphology for selected climatically distinct US cities. This work considers population projections to inform morphological design by incorporating two new datasets in which these projections have been made for years 2030 and 2050 at 30 arc-second resolution, in order to determine potential siting and design of new urban development. The overarching objective is the integration of different approaches across three research areas: earth system modeling; impacts, adaptation and vulnerability; and urban planning in order to address three major gaps in the existing capability in these areas: i) neighborhood resolution modeling and simulation of urban micrometeorological processes and their effect on and from regional climate; ii) projections for future energy use under urbanization and climate change scenarios identifying best strategies for urban morphological development and energy savings; iii) analysis and visualization tools to help planners optimally use these projections.

  3. Urban air pollution and solar energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. B.; Huning, J. R.; Reid, M. S.; Smith, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The design and performance of solar energy systems for many potential applications (industrial/residential heat, electricity generation by solar concentration and photovoltaics) will be critically affected by local insolation conditions. The effects of urban air pollution are considered and reviewed. A study of insolation data for Alhambra, California (9 km south of Pasadena) shows that, during a recent second-stage photochemical smog alert (greater than or equal to 0.35 ppm ozone), the direct-beam insolation at solar noon was reduced by 40%, and the total global by 15%, from clean air values. Similar effects have been observed in Pasadena, and are attributable primarily to air pollution. Effects due to advecting smog have been detected 200 km away, in the Mojave Desert. Preliminary performance and economic simulations of solar thermal and photovoltaic power systems indicate increasing nonlinear sensitivity of life cycle plant cost to reductions in insolation levels due to pollution.

  4. Biofuel: an alternative to fossil fuel for alleviating world energy and economic crises.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Stalick, Wayne M; McKay, Scott; Geme, Gija; Bhattarai, Nimisha

    2011-01-01

    The time has come when it is desirable to look for alternative energy resources to confront the global energy crisis. Consideration of the increasing environmental problems and the possible crisis of fossil fuel availability at record high prices dictate that some changes will need to occur sooner rather than later. The recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is just another example of the environmental threats that fossil fuels pose. This paper is an attempt to explore various bio-resources such as corn, barley, oat, rice, wheat, sorghum, sugar, safflower, and coniferous and non-coniferous species for the production of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel). In order to assess the potential production of biofuel, in this paper, countries are organized into three groups based on: (a) geographic areas; (b) economic development; and(c) lending types, as classified by the World Bank. First, the total fossil fuel energy consumption and supply and possible carbon emission from burning fossil fuel is projected for these three groups of countries. Second, the possibility of production of biofuel from grains and vegetative product is projected. Third, a comparison of fossil fuel and biofuel is done to examine energy sustainability issues. PMID:21942396

  5. A coupled energy transport and hydrological model for urban canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Urban land-atmosphere interaction has been attracting more research efforts in order to understand the complex physics of flow and mass and heat transport in urban surfaces and the lower urban atmosphere. In this work, we developed and implemented a new physically-based single-layer urban canopy model, coupling the surface exchange of energy and the subsurface transport of water/soil moisture. The new model incorporates sub-facet heterogeneity for each urban surface (roof, wall or ground). This better simulates the energy transport in urban canopy layers, especially over low-intensity built (suburban type) terrains that include a significant fraction of vegetated surfaces. We implemented detailed urban hydrological models for both natural terrains (bare soil and vegetation) and porous engineered materials with water-holding capacity (concrete, gravel, etc). The skill of the new scheme was tested against experimental data collected through a wireless sensor network deployed over the campus of Princeton University. The model performance was found to be robust and insensitive to changes in weather conditions or seasonal variability. Predictions of the volumetric soil water content were also in good agreement with field measurements, highlighting the model capability of capturing subsurface water transport for urban lawns. The new model was also applied to a case study assessing different strategies, i.e. white versus green roofs, in the mitigation of urban heat island effect.

  6. Urban Surface Radiative Energy Budgets Determined Using Aircraft Scanner Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. The extent of these urban areas across the world can be seen in an image of city lights from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. In many areas of North America and Europe, it is difficult to separate individual cities because of the dramatic growth and sprawl of urbanized areas. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. One of the earliest recognized and measured phenomena of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI) which was reported as early as 1833 for London and 1862 for Paris. The urban heat island results from the energy that is absorbed by man-made materials during the day and is released at night resulting in the heating of the air within the urban area. The magnitude of the air temperature difference between the urban and surrounding countryside is highly dependent on the structure of the urban area, amount of solar immolation received during the day, and atmospheric conditions during the night. These night time air temperature differences can be in the range of 2 to 5 C. or greater. Although day time air temperature differences between urban areas and the countryside exists during the day, atmospheric mixing and stability reduce the magnitude. This phenomena is not limited to large urban areas, but also occurs in smaller metropolitan areas. The UHI has significant impacts on the urban air quality, meteorology, energy use, and human health. The UPI can be mitigated through increasing the amount of vegetation and modification of urban surfaces using high albedo materials for roofs and paved surfaces. To understand why the urban heat island phenomenon exists it is useful to define the surface in terms of the surface energy budget. Surface temperature and albedo is a major component of

  7. City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kammen, Daniel M; Sunter, Deborah A

    2016-05-20

    To prepare for an urban influx of 2.5 billion people by 2050, it is critical to create cities that are low-carbon, resilient, and livable. Cities not only contribute to global climate change by emitting the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gases but also are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and extreme weather. We explore options for establishing sustainable energy systems by reducing energy consumption, particularly in the buildings and transportation sectors, and providing robust, decentralized, and renewable energy sources. Through technical advancements in power density, city-integrated renewable energy will be better suited to satisfy the high-energy demands of growing urban areas. Several economic, technical, behavioral, and political challenges need to be overcome for innovation to improve urban sustainability. PMID:27199413

  8. Sub-Facet Heterogeneity of the Urban Surface Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM) and observational data are combined to understand the influence of urban sub-facet heterogeneity, and the associated influence of material properties, on the urban surface energy budget. This heterogeneity is related to the different surfaces and materials (asphalt, concrete, grass, black roofs, green roofs, etc.) that are typically found within one urban facet (roof, wall, and ground). Of particular interest is the role of water storage and evaporation from urban surfaces in modulating the energy budget. The PUCM is evaluated at sites of various urban densities. Subsequently, one densely-built site is selected for in-depth analysis and the model is applied, with sub-facet resolution, to simulate the water and energy budgets. Our analyses show that while all built surfaces convert most of the incoming energy into sensible rather than latent heat, sensible heat fluxes from asphalt and non-reflective rooftops are twice as high as those from concrete surfaces and light colored roofs. Another important and commonly observed characteristic of urban areas- the shift in peak time of sensible heat compared to rural areas, is shown to be mainly linked to concrete's high heat storage capacity. Our results also indicate that while evaporation from built surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall, these surfaces accounted for nearly 16% of latent heat fluxes (LE) at the study site during the study period. More importantly, this contribution is mainly concentrated during the 48 hours following a rain event and thus its accurate representation is critical to our understanding of the urban surface energy budget during wet periods.

  9. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-06-24

    A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

  10. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-12-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services--and a host of other vital services--must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  11. The relative influence of urban climates on outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperature II. Man in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J. E.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Terjung, W. H.

    1982-03-01

    Four typical urban neighborhoods or street canyon settings (including street parks) were simulated. These urban morphologies were exposed to typical summer and winter climatic scenarios for latitudes 10‡, 34‡, and 50‡N. The changes induced in the components of the human energy budget were examined. Resultant skin temperatures were compared with non-urban, unobstructed environments.

  12. Urban Energy Balance Measurements During CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, C. A.; Pendergrass, W.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental component to understanding air quality and air-surface exchange in urban environments is to understand the turbulent flow characteristics just above the canopy, and the local forcings which drive the exchange process. Studies have indicated UCP (urban canopy parameterization) may have significant ramifications for air-quality modeling because the dynamic characteristics of this volume into which pollutants are injected has been altered. Turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, moisture, and other scalars of interest, need to be addressed for this complex setting, as well as other quantities involved in the surface energy balance. Further, in modeling the transport of chemical species fundamental scales of turbulent flow must either be directly measured or parameterized. The CalNex 2010 study provided an opportunity to satisfy a number of requirements for obtaining urban canopy model parameter data for mesoscale models in an alternate urban environment from ATDD's urban DCNet National Capital Region program. Specifically, within the CalNex science questions, these data address concerns of potential major deficiencies in the representation of chemistry and meteorology processes in research and operational models and support model development through the collection of additional measurements as well as defining physical and chemical processes not well captured by available models. NOAA/ATDD deployed an energy-balance flux system at the CalNex 2010 Pasadena , CA urban supersite. The e-balance system was roof-top mounted on the California Institute of Technology Keck Building in association with the CalNex urban particulate sampling effort. Observation of energy budgets were obtained between May 16 and June 16, 2010. Initial analysis has focused on evaluating sensible heat flux and determining an estimate for thermal roughness . Coupling of sampled rooftop skin temperatures, ambient temperatures, sensible heat flux, and friction coefficient provides an

  13. Impact of urban sprawl on United States residential energy use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Fang

    Improving energy efficiency through technological advances has been the focus of U.S. energy policy for decades. However, there is evidence that technology alone will be neither sufficient nor timely enough to solve looming crises associated with fossil fuel dependence and resulting greenhouse gas accumulation. Hence attention is shifting to demand-side measures. While the impact of urban sprawl on transportation energy use has been studied to a degree, the impact of sprawl on non-transport residential energy use represents a new area of inquiry. This dissertation is the first study linking sprawl to residential energy use and provides empirical support for compact land-use developments, which, as a demand-side measure, might play an important role in achieving sustainable residential energy consumption. This dissertation develops an original conceptual framework linking urban sprawl to residential energy use through electricity transmission and distribution losses and two mediators, housing stock and formation of urban heat islands. These two mediators are the focuses of this dissertation. By tapping multiple databases and performing statistical and geographical spatial analyses, this dissertation finds that (1) big houses consume more energy than small ones and single-family detached housing consumes more energy than multifamily or single-family attached housing; (2) residents of sprawling metro areas are more likely to live in single-family detached rather than attached or multifamily housing and are also expected to live in big houses; (3) a compact metro area is expected to have stronger urban heat island effects; (4) nationwide, urban heat island phenomena bring about a small energy reward, due to less energy demand on space heating, while they impose an energy penalty in States with a hot climate like Texas, due to higher energy demand for cooling; and taken all these together, (5) residents of sprawling metro areas are expected to consume more energy at

  14. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  15. Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnfield, A. John

    2003-01-01

    Progress in urban climatology over the two decades since the first publication of the International Journal of Climatology is reviewed. It is emphasized that urban climatology during this period has benefited from conceptual advances made in microclimatology and boundary-layer climatology in general. The role of scale, heterogeneity, dynamic source areas for turbulent fluxes and the complexity introduced by the roughness sublayer over the tall, rigid roughness elements of cities is described. The diversity of urban heat islands, depending on the medium sensed and the sensing technique, is explained. The review focuses on two areas within urban climatology. First, it assesses advances in the study of selected urban climatic processes relating to urban atmospheric turbulence (including surface roughness) and exchange processes for energy and water, at scales of consideration ranging from individual facets of the urban environment, through streets and city blocks to neighbourhoods. Second, it explores the literature on the urban temperature field. The state of knowledge about urban heat islands around 1980 is described and work since then is assessed in terms of similarities to and contrasts with that situation. Finally, the main advances are summarized and recommendations for urban climate work in the future are made.

  16. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  18. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  19. A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Hideharu; Tomioka, Hajime; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban energy system planning, two competitive evaluations are performed. One is the break-even cost analysis for introducing more efficient, but more expensive energy equipment, such as photovoltaic system and fuel cell system. The other is that we evaluate the competitiveness of a certain energy system from a viewpoint of whole urban area because there are multiple alternatives for attaining same target of reducing CO2 emission or energy consumption.

  20. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  1. Development of the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and evaluation of urban greening effects on energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, H.; Nakayama, T.; Fujita, T.; Hori, H.; Tagami, H.

    2009-12-01

    It is necessary to reduce Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions drastically to stabilize climate change, and Japan is also required to assess its long-term global warming policy. In achieving the low carbon society and sustainable cities, the numerical evaluation of environmental impacts of the application of different technologies and policies was preliminarily examined by utilizing integrative urban environmental model. This research aims to develop the multi-scale model for urban climate analysis and to evaluate the urban greening effects on energy consumption from household and business sectors. It developed the multi-scale model combined the process-based NIES integrated catchment-based eco-hydrology (NICE) model with the meso-scale meteorological model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System : RAMS) and urban canopy model to estimate the urban climate mitigation effects by introduction of urban heat environmental mitigation technology and scenario. The numerical simulation conducted with the multi-scale level horizontally consisting regional scale (260×260km with 2km grid) and urban area scale (36×26km with 0.2km grid) against the objective area, Kawasaki city of Japan. The urban canopy model predicts the three dimensional atmospheric conditions including anthropogenic heat effect from household, business and factory sectors. Furthermore the tile method applied into the urban canopy model for the improvement of numerical accuracy and detailed land use information in each grid. The validation of this model was conducted by comparison with the observed air temperature of 29 points in entire Kawasaki area from 1st to 31th of August, 2006. From the quantitative validation of model performance, the coefficient of correlation was 0.72 and the root mean square error was 2.99C. The introduction of patch method into urban canopy model made it possible to calculate the each land use effect, and the accuracy of predicted results was improved against the land use area

  2. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears

    PubMed Central

    Gormezano, Linda J.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28–48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  3. The Energetic Value of Land-Based Foods in Western Hudson Bay and Their Potential to Alleviate Energy Deficits of Starving Adult Male Polar Bears.

    PubMed

    Gormezano, Linda J; Rockwell, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to expand the ice-free season in western Hudson Bay and when it grows to 180 days, 28-48% of adult male polar bears are projected to starve unless nutritional deficits can be offset by foods consumed on land. We updated a dynamic energy budget model developed by Molnar et al. to allow influx of additional energy from novel terrestrial foods (lesser snow geese, eggs, caribou) that polar bears currently consume as part of a mixed diet while on land. We calculated the units of each prey, alone and in combination, needed to alleviate these lethal energy deficits under conditions of resting or limited movement (2 km d-1) prior to starvation. We further considered the total energy available from each sex and age class of each animal prey over the period they would overlap land-bound polar bears and calculated the maximum number of starving adult males that could be sustained on each food during the ice-free season. Our results suggest that the net energy from land-based food, after subtracting costs of limited movement to obtain it, could eliminate all projected nutritional deficits of starving adult male polar bears and likely other demographic groups as well. The hunting tactics employed, success rates as well as behavior and abundance of each prey will determine the realized energetic values for individual polar bears. Although climate change may cause a phenological mismatch between polar bears and their historical ice-based prey, it may simultaneously yield a new match with certain land-based foods. If polar bears can transition their foraging behavior to effectively exploit these resources, predictions for starvation-related mortality may be overestimated for western Hudson Bay. We also discuss potential complications with stable-carbon isotope studies to evaluate utilization of land-based foods by polar bears including metabolic effects of capture-related stress and consuming a mixed diet. PMID:26061693

  4. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in mango fruit by modulating proline metabolism and energy status under chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Yuyan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of oxalic acid on chilling injury, proline metabolism and energy status in mango fruit were investigated after mango fruit (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zill) were dipped in 5mM oxalic acid solution for 10min at 25°C and then stored at low temperature (10±0.5°C) for 49days thereafter transferred to 25°C for 4days. Pre-storage application of oxalic acid apparently inhibited the development of chilling injury, notably elevated proline accumulation actually associated with increase in Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and decrease in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in the peel and the flesh, without activation of ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) activity, and maintained high ATP level and energy charge in the flesh during storage. It was suggested that these effects of oxalic acid might collectively contribute to improving chilling tolerance, thereby alleviating chilling injury and maintaining quality of mango fruit in long term cold storage. PMID:24001814

  5. Energy efficient urban wastewater treatment using Galdieria sulphuraria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaratnam, Thinesh

    This dissertation research was undertaken to develop and validate the fundamentals of a photosynthetically oxygenated waste to energy recovery (POWER) system that can potentially render urban wastewater treatment energy-positive and sustainable. Experiments conducted in the first phase of the studies demonstrated that, Galdieria sulphuraria can be cultivated in primary-settled urban wastewater, achieving high nutrient removal efficiencies at removal rates comparable to other strains. In the lab scale reactors, the strain achieved ammoniacal-nitrogen removals greater than 95%; and phosphate removals greater than 96% in 7 days. Biomass yield in these experiments averaged 27.42 g biomass per g nitrogen removed while similar data reported in the literature averaged 25.75 g biomass per g nitrogen. The high biomass yield recorded under laboratory conditions as well as the high areal productivity achieved under outdoor conditions in closed photobioreactors, hold promise for Galdieria sulphuraria as a preferred strain for use in the POWER system. Growth studies conducted in the second phase of the research with the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction of algal biomass confirmed that Galdieria sulphuraria could be grown at rates comparable to that in the baseline artificial medium. This study confirmed another premise of the POWER system that recycling of the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction could increase biomass productivity and net energy yield: biomass productivity recorded with initial N-NH3 level of 80 mg L-1 and 20 mg L-1 of phosphate was 0.241 g L-1 d -1 whereas, that with initial N-NH3 level of 40 mg L -1 and 10 mg L-1 of phosphate typical of primary settled wastewater was 0.201 g L-1 d-1. Heterotrophic growth of Galdieria sulphuraria cultivated in the aqueous product of hydrothermal liquefaction conducted over a range of temperatures (180 to 300°C) and dilutions showed that biomass productivity recorded with recycled AP was greater than that

  6. Coal and the Present Energy Situation: Abundant coal reserves can be used to alleviate the oil and gas shortage.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E F

    1974-02-01

    To summarize, we must make greater use of coal, an energy resource that the nation has in great abundance, if we are to approach our former position of self-sufficiency in energy production. The first step is to move immediately to replace the oil and gas used in electric generating plants with coal and to require that coal be used in fossil fuel electric plants planned or under construction in the next few years. The technology to remove sulfur and particulates from the stack gases is at hand, and therefore environmental regulations can be met. Producing and transporting the required increased tonnages of coal are problems that can be met with appropriate incentives to the coal and transportation industries. Improved mining technology would be helpful but is not a requiremlent. Oil and gas from coal should be in significant commercial production in about a decade. Underground, or in situ, gasification of coal, now in field tests, looks promising as a practical process for recovering the energy from coal, especially in deep or thick beds that cannot be mined efficiently. Recoverable methane occurs in coal beds in the United States in an amount approximately equal to the total reserves of natural gas-about 260 trillion cubic feet. This large reserve of natural gas should be exploited as quickly as possible. Only minor investments in exploration and modest advances in technology are required. Finally, as coal production is expanded. adequate planning and the most modern technology should be used to ensure that coal is extracted with maximum recovery and with minimum damage to the environment. PMID:17773028

  7. Flutter suppression and gust alleviation using active controls - Review of developments and applications based on the aerodynamic energy concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.

    1978-01-01

    The state of the art of the aerodynamic energy concept, involving the use of active controls for flutter suppression, is reviewed. Applications of the concept include the suppression of external-store flutter of three different configurations of the YF-17 flutter model using a single trailing edge control surface activated by a single fixed-gain control law. Consideration is also given to some initial results concerning the flutter suppression of the 1/20 scale low speed wind-tunnel model of the Boeing 2707-300 supersonic transport using an activated trailing edge control surface.

  8. Alleviation of neuronal energy deficiency by mTOR inhibition as a treatment for mitochondria-related neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinde; Boyer, Leah; Jin, Mingji; Kim, Yongsung; Fan, Weiwei; Bardy, Cedric; Berggren, Travis; Evans, Ronald M; Gage, Fred H; Hunter, Tony

    2016-01-01

    mTOR inhibition is beneficial in neurodegenerative disease models and its effects are often attributable to the modulation of autophagy and anti-apoptosis. Here, we report a neglected but important bioenergetic effect of mTOR inhibition in neurons. mTOR inhibition by rapamycin significantly preserves neuronal ATP levels, particularly when oxidative phosphorylation is impaired, such as in neurons treated with mitochondrial inhibitors, or in neurons derived from maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (MILS) patient iPS cells with ATP synthase deficiency. Rapamycin treatment significantly improves the resistance of MILS neurons to glutamate toxicity. Surprisingly, in mitochondrially defective neurons, but not neuroprogenitor cells, ribosomal S6 and S6 kinase phosphorylation increased over time, despite activation of AMPK, which is often linked to mTOR inhibition. A rapamycin-induced decrease in protein synthesis, a major energy-consuming process, may account for its ATP-saving effect. We propose that a mild reduction in protein synthesis may have the potential to treat mitochondria-related neurodegeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13378.001 PMID:27008180

  9. Mitigation of urban heat islands: meteorology, energy, and airquality impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Meier, Alan; Gao, Weijun; Ojima, Toshio

    1999-09-30

    This paper presents results from energy, meteorological andphotochemical (air quality) modeling for the Los Angeles Basin, one ofthe largest and smoggiest urban regions in the U.S. and the world. Oursimulations suggest that by mitigating urban heat islands, savings of 5to 10 percent peak utility load may be possible. In addition, heat islandmitigation can reduce smog formation by 10-20 percent. in summer, whichis as effective as controlling emissions from all mobile sources in theregion. For a typical late-August episode, our simulations suggest thatimplementing cool cities in the Los Angeles Basin would have a net effectof reducing ozone concentrations. Peak concentrations at 3 pm decrease byup to 7 percent (from 220 down to 205 ppb) while the total ozone mass inthe mixed layer decreases by up to 640 metric tons (a decrease of 4.7percent). Largest reductions in concentrations at 3 pm are on the orderof 50 ppb whereas the largest increases are on the order of 20 ppb. Withrespect to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard, domain widepopulation weighted exceedance exposure to ozone decreases by up to 20percent during peak afternoon hours and by up to 10 percent during thedaytime.

  10. Towards a 3d Spatial Urban Energy Modelling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahu, J.-M.; Koch, A.; Kremers, E.; Murshed, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    conceptually and practically integrate urban spatial and energy planning approaches. The combined modelling approach that will be developed based on the described sectorial models holds the potential to represent hybrid energy systems coupling distributed generation of electricity with thermal conversion systems.

  11. Evapotranspiration and surface energy balance across an agricultural-urban landscape gradient in Southern California, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiflett, S. A.; Anderson, R. G.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization substantially affects energy, surface and air temperature, and hydrology due to extensive modifications in land surface properties such as vegetation, albedo, thermal capacity and soil moisture. The magnitude and direction of these alterations depends heavily on the type of urbanization that occurs. We investigated energy balance variation in a local network of agricultural and urban ecosystems using the eddy covariance method to better understand how vegetation fraction and degree of urbanization affects energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. We deployed eddy flux systems within a well-irrigated, agricultural citrus orchard, a moderately developed urban zone with a substantial amount of local vegetative cover, and an intensely developed urban zone with minimal vegetative cover and increased impervious surfaces relative to the other two sites. Latent energy (LE) fluxes in the agricultural area ranged from 7.9 ± 1.4 W m-2 (nighttime) to 168.7 ± 6.2 W m-2 (daytime) compared to 10.2 ± 3.5 W m-2 and 40.6 ± 4.1 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban area. Sensible energy (H) fluxes ranged from -9.1 ± 1.0 W m-2 (nighttime) to 119 ± 7.0 W m-2 (daytime) in the agricultural area compared to 9.6 ± 2.6 W m-2 and 134 ± 6.0 W m-2, respectively, for the moderately developed urban zone. Daytime LE is reduced with increasing urbanization; however, daily cycles of LE are less recognizable in urban areas compared to distinct daily cycles obtained above a mature citrus crop. In contrast, both daytime and nighttime H increases with increasing degree of urbanization. Reduction in vegetation and increases in impervious surfaces along an urbanization gradient leads to alterations in energy balance, which are associated with microclimate and water use changes.

  12. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  13. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  14. Urban energy management today: Ten year compendium of UCETF programs. Products and expertise of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, 1979--1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The reports listed in this Overview summarize projects conducted through the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force by local government staff who have defined and implemented many of the energy strategies described above. Reports from their projects illustrate effective approaches to plan and implement these strategies, as well as software tools, surveys, and technical instruments valuable to other local government officials conducting similar projects.

  15. A numerical study of the effect of urban geometry upon the surface energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Yasushi

    This numerical study investigates the effect of urban canyon geometry upon the thermal environment using a parking lot model and an urban canyon model in identical meteorological conditions. The urban canyon model assumes two buildings on opposite sides of a street, no windows or interior anthropogenic heat source, an infinitely long east-west oriented canyon, and waterproof surfaces. The simulated surface temperatures agree well with those obtained by field measurement. The energy balance of the urban canyon is represented by that of the canyon top, which is an imaginary surface. The urban canyon, whose top surface is a plane above the canyon at the same level as the roof surface of the building, absorbs more heat in the daytime and releases more at night than the parking lot. The urban thermal environment depends on an urban geometry which particular to the urban canyon model produces reduced small sky view factors and complicated daytime shadow patterns. The results show that this urban geometry contributes to urban heat island formation.

  16. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies.

  17. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  18. Buffet Load Alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Hopkins, M. A.; Henderson, D.; Zimcik, D. G.; Nitzsche, F.

    2004-01-01

    High performance aircraft are, by their very nature, often required to undergo maneuvers involving high angles of attack. Under these conditions unsteady vortices emanating from the wing and the fuselage will impinge on the twin fins (required for directional stability) causing excessive buffet loads, in some circumstances, to be applied to the aircraft. These loads result in oscillatory stresses, which may cause significant amounts of fatigue damage. Active control is a possible solution to this important problem. A full-scale test was carried out on an F/A-18 fuselage and fins using piezoceramic actuators to control the vibrations. Buffet loads were simulated using very powerful electromagnetic shakers. The first phase of this test was concerned with the open loop system identification whereas the second stage involved implementing linear time invariant control laws. This paper looks at some of the problems encountered as well as the corresponding solutions and some results. It is expected that flight trials of a similar control system to alleviate buffet will occur as early as 2001.

  19. Evaluation of the impact of the surrounding urban morphology on building energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Nyuk Hien; Chen, Yixing; Hajadi, Norwin; Sathyanarayanan, Haripriya; Manickavasagam, Yamini Vidya; Jusuf, Steve Kardinal; Syafii, Nedyomukti Imam

    2011-01-15

    Empirical models of minimum (T{sub min}), average (T{sub avg}) and maximum (T{sub max}) air temperature for Singapore estate have been developed and validated based on a long-tem field measurement. There are three major urban elements, which influence the urban temperature at the local scale. Essentially, they are buildings, greenery and pavement. Other related parameters identified for the study, such as green plot ratio (GnPR), sky view factor (SVF), surrounding building density, the wall surface area, pavement area, albedo are also evaluated to give a better understanding on the likely impact of the modified urban morphology on energy consumption. The objective of this research is to assess and to compare how the air temperature variation of urban condition can affect the building energy consumption in tropical climate of Singapore. In order to achieve this goal, a series of numerical calculation and building simulation are utilized. A total of 32 cases, considering different urban morphologies, are identified and evaluated to give better a understanding on the implication of urban forms, with the reference to the effect of varying density, height and greenery density. The results show that GnPR, which related to the present of greenery, have the most significant impact on the energy consumption by reducing the temperature by up to 2 C. The results also strongly indicate an energy saving of 4.5% if the urban elements are addressed effectively. (author)

  20. Fine-resolution Modeling of Urban-Energy Systems' Water Footprint in River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManamay, R.; Surendran Nair, S.; Morton, A.; DeRolph, C.; Stewart, R.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the interplay between urbanization, energy production, and water resources is essential for ensuring sustainable population growth. In order to balance limited water supplies, competing users must account for their realized and virtual water footprint, i.e. the total direct and indirect amount of water used, respectively. Unfortunately, publicly reported US water use estimates are spatially coarse, temporally static, and completely ignore returns of water to rivers after use. These estimates are insufficient to account for the high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of water budgets in urbanizing systems. Likewise, urbanizing areas are supported by competing sources of energy production, which also have heterogeneous water footprints. Hence, a fundamental challenge of planning for sustainable urban growth and decision-making across disparate policy sectors lies in characterizing inter-dependencies among urban systems, energy producers, and water resources. A modeling framework is presented that provides a novel approach to integrate urban-energy infrastructure into a spatial accounting network that accurately measures water footprints as changes in the quantity and quality of river flows. River networks (RNs), i.e. networks of branching tributaries nested within larger rivers, provide a spatial structure to measure water budgets by modeling hydrology and accounting for use and returns from urbanizing areas and energy producers. We quantify urban-energy water footprints for Atlanta, GA and Knoxville, TN (USA) based on changes in hydrology in RNs. Although water intakes providing supply to metropolitan areas were proximate to metropolitan areas, power plants contributing to energy demand in Knoxville and Atlanta, occurred 30 and 90km outside the metropolitan boundary, respectively. Direct water footprints from urban landcover primarily comprised smaller streams whereas indirect footprints from water supply reservoirs and energy producers included

  1. Combining a Detailed Building Energy Model with a Physically-Based Urban Canopy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Bruno; Norford, Leslie; Pigeon, Grégoire; Britter, Rex

    2011-09-01

    A scheme that couples a detailed building energy model, EnergyPlus, and an urban canopy model, the Town Energy Balance (TEB), is presented. Both models are well accepted and evaluated within their individual scientific communities. The coupled scheme proposes a more realistic representation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which allows a broader analysis of the two-way interactions between the energy performance of buildings and the urban climate around the buildings. The scheme can be used to evaluate the building energy models that are being developed within the urban climate community. In this study, the coupled scheme is evaluated using measurements conducted over the dense urban centre of Toulouse, France. The comparison includes electricity and natural gas energy consumption of buildings, building façade temperatures, and urban canyon air temperatures. The coupled scheme is then used to analyze the effect of different building and HVAC system configurations on building energy consumption, waste heat released from HVAC systems, and outdoor air temperatures for the case study of Toulouse. Three different energy efficiency strategies are analyzed: shading devices, economizers, and heat recovery.

  2. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force applied research units and projects, 1992 program. Summary and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1991-10-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of projects involved in the urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF). The Consortium is a special network which helps to define urban problems, and commercialize technologies which could help solve those problems. Research and Development priorities within the program are transportation, energy, environment, and economic development and energy efficient facilities. The Consortium has established partnerships with US DOE on energy utilities, alternative vehicle fuels, waste management, and electricity management. A technology transfer committee was established to build a marketing program.

  3. Development of a Three-Dimensional Urban Energy Model for Predicting and Understanding Surface Temperature Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinyan; Li, Yuguo

    2013-11-01

    The Model for Urban Surface Temperature, a three-dimensional approach, is developed for a realistically complex city with considerations of the energy exchange processes at the urban surface. The discrete transfer method and Gebhart absorption factor method are used for the shape factor estimation and multiple reflection calculation, respectively. The surface energy balance model is evaluated against existing field measurements that pertain to idealized urban geometry. It performs well in terms of predicting surface temperature and heat fluxes by allowing for detailed urban surface properties and meteorological conditions. The compressed row storage scheme is applied to calculate the transfer of surface thermal radiation, which dramatically reduces the computational requirements. This strategy permits the rigorous consideration of multiple reflections in a realistic urban area with hundreds of buildings. The result illustrates that considering only the first reflection is a good approach when the urban area is comprised of typical urban materials, e.g. materials with high emissivity and low albedo, because relatively accurate computational results can be obtained rapidly by avoiding the multiple reflection calculation.

  4. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures. PMID:26177388

  5. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  6. Building Analysis for Urban Energy Planning Using Key Indicators on Virtual 3d City Models - the Energy Atlas of Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, A.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of increasing greenhouse gas emission and global demographic change with the simultaneous trend to urbanization, it is a big challenge for cities around the world to perform modifications in energy supply chain and building characteristics resulting in reduced energy consumption and carbon dioxide mitigation. Sound knowledge of energy resource demand and supply including its spatial distribution within urban areas is of great importance for planning strategies addressing greater energy efficiency. The understanding of the city as a complex energy system affects several areas of the urban living, e.g. energy supply, urban texture, human lifestyle, and climate protection. With the growing availability of 3D city models around the world based on the standard language and format CityGML, energy system modelling, analysis and simulation can be incorporated into these models. Both domains will profit from that interaction by bringing together official and accurate building models including building geometries, semantics and locations forming a realistic image of the urban structure with systemic energy simulation models. A holistic view on the impacts of energy planning scenarios can be modelled and analyzed including side effects on urban texture and human lifestyle. This paper focuses on the identification, classification, and integration of energy-related key indicators of buildings and neighbourhoods within 3D building models. Consequent application of 3D city models conforming to CityGML serves the purpose of deriving indicators for this topic. These will be set into the context of urban energy planning within the Energy Atlas Berlin. The generation of indicator objects covering the indicator values and related processing information will be presented on the sample scenario estimation of heating energy consumption in buildings and neighbourhoods. In their entirety the key indicators will form an adequate image of the local energy situation for

  7. Urban Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazel, Anthony J.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This section on Urban Climates provides a basic understanding of what comprises the urban climate and what factors control the overall development of the urban climate. We also discuss in this section, methods for evaluating urban climate characteristics and forcing functions as well as how the urban heat island effect comes into play as a dynamic influence on urban climatology. Additionally, we examine and discuss the major radiation and energy balance of city (i.e., shortwave and longwave radiation, albedo, net all-wave radiation, total energy balance, and sensible latent, and storage heat) and the interactions of these energy balances with the lower atmosphere. The use of remote sensing to measure urban surface temperatures as a driving force in the development of the urban heat island effect is presented. We also discuss how the overall moisture, precipitation, humidity, and air movement in cities (i,e,, wind speeds and wind direction) and wind environment of the city affects urban climatology.

  8. Direct Energy Consumption Associated Emissions by Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ru, Muye; Tao, Shu; Smith, Kirk; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Chen, Yilin; Chen, Xi; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; He, Canfei

    2015-11-17

    Hundreds of millions of rural residents have migrated to cities in China in recent years. Different lifestyles and living conditions lead to substantial changes in their household energy. Here, we present the result of a survey on direct household energy use of low-skilled rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing. The migrants moved up the energy ladder immediately after arriving in the city by replacing biomass fuels with coal, electricity, and liquefied petroleum gas. After the original shift, pattern of household energy use by the migrants has not changed much over decades, likely due to the long-existing household registration system (Hukou). As a result, the mix of energy types used by the rural-to-urban migrants were different from those by long-term urban residents, although total quantities were similar. Shifting from biomass fuels to coal, the migrants emitted 2.4 times more non-neutral CO2 than rural residents and 14% more than urban residents. The migration also resulted in significant increase in emissions of SO2 and mercury but dramatic decreases in some incomplete combustion products including particulate matter. All these changes have significant implication on air quality, health, and climate considering the scale of urbanization in China. PMID:26501564

  9. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  10. Gust Alleviation Using Direct Gust Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Sven Marco

    2000-01-01

    The increasing competition in the market of civil aircraft leads to operating efficiency and passenger comfort being very important sales arguments. Continuous developments in jet propulsion technology helped to reduce energy consumption, as well as noise and vibrations due to the engines. The main problem with respect to ride comfort is, however, the transmittance of accelerations and jerkiness imposed by atmospheric turbulence from the wings to the fuselage. This 'gust' is also a design constraint: Light airplane structures help to save, energy, but are more critical to resist the loads imposed by turbulence. For both reasons, efficient gust alleviation is necessary to improve the performance of modern aircraft. Gust can be seen as a change in the angle of attack or as an additional varying vertical component of the headwind. The effect of gust can be very strong, since the same aerodynamic forces that keep the airplane flying are involved. Event though the frequency range of those changes is quite low, it is impossible for the pilot to alleviate gust manually. Besides, most of the time during the flight, the, autopilot maintains course and the attitude of flight. Certainly, most autopilots should be capable of damping the roughest parts of turbulence, but they are unable to provide satisfactory results in that field. A promising extension should be the application of subsidiary, control, where the inner (faster) control loop alleviates turbulence and the outer (slower) loop controls the attitude of flight. Besides the mentioned ride comfort, another reason for gust alleviation with respect to the fuselage is the sensibility of electrical devices to vibration and high values of acceleration. Many modern airplane designs--especially inherently instable military aircraft--are highly dependent on avionics. The lifetime and the reliability of these systems is thus essential.

  11. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  12. The Urban Water Cycle and how it Modulates the Microclimate and the Energy Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bou-Zeid, E.; Wang, Z.; Ramamurthy, P.; Li, D.; Sun, T.; Smith, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is the land-use modification with the largest and most manifest impacts on hydrologic storage and fluxes. This perturbation of the water cycle also has considerable ramifications on the surface energy budget and the microclimatology in built terrain: reducing the potential for water storage and subsequent evaporation reduces the fraction of incoming radiative energy dissipated through surface evaporation, and consequently increases the sensible heating of the urban atmosphere and solid surfaces (buildings, roads, …). However, the complexity of the involved physical processes and their interactions have so far been oversimplified, leading to considerable biases in model output when compared to observations. Using novel sensing techniques that include wireless sensor networks, this study seeks to build a better understanding of the Urban Water Cycle. Our findings indicate that "impervious surfaces" in urban area are not really impervious and not always dry. The role of evaporation from gravel-covered roofs and from concrete, brick, stone and asphalt surfaces can be considerable, leading to lower sensible heating. In addition, the different thermal properties of the various urban materials lead to extreme spatial heterogeneity in surface conditions that is much higher than over natural terrain. Building on this understanding, an improved urban canopy model is developed that includes much better representation of surface heterogeneity and of hydrological and thermal storage and transport processes, including analytical solutions of the heat equation and numerical solutions of the Richards equation in the urban surface. The model development will be detailed and applications focusing on the role of evaporation in mitigating summer building cooling needs and urban heat island effects will be presented.

  13. Flux measurements of energy and trace gases in urban Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedeker, I.; Schade, G. W.; Adams, S.; Park, C.

    2008-12-01

    We describe the setup and some first year results of a new flux measurements tower in an urban area. An existing radio communications tower 4 km north of downtown Houston was equipped with micrometeorological instrumentation and trace gas sampling lines in spring 2007. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity are recorded at five levels between 12 and 60 m above ground; 3-D wind speed measurements, solar and net radiances, and trace gas sampling are established from the 60 m level. A closed path IRGA is used for CO2 and water vapor fluxes, and independent instrumentation for criteria pollutant and VOC fluxes. Two CSI data loggers and software control the measurements, and EdiRe software is used to analyze turbulence data and compute fluxes. A project description is provided at http://atmo.tamu.edu/yellowcabtower. Surface properties as calculated from the gradient measurements show the site to be surprisingly uniform, with displacement heights between 5 and 9 m and roughness lengths between 0.4 and 0.7 m, despite urban heterogeneity. The latter is investigated through visible/near IR orthoimagery and LIDAR data, which are incorporated into a local GIS. Net radiation was also only marginally affected by surface heterogeneity. At this urban location it is balanced by roughly equal amounts of sensible heat, latent heat, and storage fluxes. Latent heat flux, however, is smaller outside the growing season, with an equivalent increase in winter storage fluxes, as expected. Significant differences are also observed with direction during summer, showing decreased Bowen ratios and lower CO2 emissions from sectors with a larger urban tree canopy cover in the footprint. The largely mature, dominantly oak urban canopy cover alleviates approximately 100 W m- 2 during typical summer days. On the other hand, anthropogenic CO2 emissions dominate over photosynthetic uptake all year round. Measured carbon fluxes peak during morning rush-hour traffic, especially when increasing

  14. Flood hazard energy in urban areas: a new integrated method for flood risk analysis in synthesizing interactions with urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban physical characteristics (such as morphology and land-use/land-cover) are different from those of nature, altered interactions between the surface and atmosphere (especially urban boundary layer, UBL) or surface and subsurface can affect the hydrologic behavior and hence the flood hazards. In this research we focus on three main aspects of the urban surface/atmosphere interactions that affect flood hazard: urban heat island (UHI) effect, increased surface roughness, and accumulated aerosols. These factors, along with the uncertainties in quantifying these components make risk analysis intractable. In order to perform a risk analysis, the impact of these components needs to be mapped to a variable that can be mathematically described in a risk-analysis framework. We propose defining hazard energy as a surrogate for the combined effect of these three components. Perturbations that can change the hazard energy come from diverse sources in the urban areas and these somewhat disconnected things can be combined by the energy concept to characterize the impacts of urban areas in risk assessment. This approach synthesizes across hydrological and hydraulic processes in UBL, land surface, subsurface, and sewer network with scrutinizing energy exchange across places. We can extend our understanding about not only the influence of cities on local climate in rural areas or larger scales but also the interaction of cities and nature affecting each other.

  15. Alleviating Stress for Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ten Elshof, Annette; Tomlinson, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help women administrators assess individual stress levels. Stress can be alleviated through exercise, support groups or networking, sleep and diet, relaxation, guided fantasy, and planned activity. The long-term implications include preventing illness and making women more effective within the administrative…

  16. 3D modeling of satellite spectral images, radiation budget and energy budget of urban landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    DART EB is a model that is being developed for simulating the 3D (3 dimensional) energy budget of urban and natural scenes, possibly with topography and atmosphere. It simulates all non radiative energy mechanisms (heat conduction, turbulent momentum and heat fluxes, water reservoir evolution, etc.). It uses DART model (Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer) for simulating radiative mechanisms: 3D radiative budget of 3D scenes and their remote sensing images expressed in terms of reflectance or brightness temperature values, for any atmosphere, wavelength, sun/view direction, altitude and spatial resolution. It uses an innovative multispectral approach (ray tracing, exact kernel, discrete ordinate techniques) over the whole optical domain. This paper presents two major and recent improvements of DART for adapting it to urban canopies. (1) Simulation of the geometry and optical characteristics of urban elements (houses, etc.). (2) Modeling of thermal infrared emission by vegetation and urban elements. The new DART version was used in the context of the CAPITOUL project. For that, districts of the Toulouse urban data base (Autocad format) were translated into DART scenes. This allowed us to simulate visible, near infrared and thermal infrared satellite images of Toulouse districts. Moreover, the 3D radiation budget was used by DARTEB for simulating the time evolution of a number of geophysical quantities of various surface elements (roads, walls, roofs). Results were successfully compared with ground measurements of the CAPITOUL project.

  17. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  18. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  19. Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2005-08-23

    Urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures than their rural surroundings as a result of gradual surface modifications that include replacing the natural vegetation with buildings and roads. The term ''Urban Heat Island'' describes this phenomenon. The surfaces of buildings and pavements absorb solar radiation and become extremely hot, which in turn warm the surrounding air. Cities that have been ''paved over'' do not receive the benefit of the natural cooling effect of vegetation. As the air temperature rises, so does the demand for air-conditioning (a/c). This leads to higher emissions from power plants, as well as increased smog formation as a result of warmer temperatures. In the United States, we have found that this increase in air temperature is responsible for 5-10% of urban peak electric demand for a/c use, and as much as 20% of population-weighted smog concentrations in urban areas. Simple ways to cool the cities are the use of reflective surfaces (rooftops and pavements) and planting of urban vegetation. On a large scale, the evapotranspiration from vegetation and increased reflection of incoming solar radiation by reflective surfaces will cool a community a few degrees in the summer. As an example, computer simulations for Los Angeles, CA show that resurfacing about two-third of the pavements and rooftops with reflective surfaces and planting three trees per house can cool down LA by an average of 2-3K. This reduction in air temperature will reduce urban smog exposure in the LA basin by roughly the same amount as removing the basin entire onroad vehicle exhaust. Heat island mitigation is an effective air pollution control strategy, more than paying for itself in cooling energy cost savings. We estimate that the cooling energy savings in U.S. from cool surfaces and shade trees, when fully implemented, is about $5 billion per year (about $100 per air-conditioned house).

  20. A new building energy model coupled with an urban canopy parameterization for urban climate simulations—part I. formulation, verification, and sensitivity analysis of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanca, Francisco; Krpo, Andrea; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain

    2009-05-01

    The generation of heat in buildings, and the way this heat is exchanged with the exterior, plays an important role in urban climate. To analyze the impact on urban climate of a change in the urban structure, it is necessary to build and use a model capable of accounting for all the urban heat fluxes. In this contribution, a new building energy model (BEM) is developed and implemented in an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for mesoscale models. The new model accounts for: the diffusion of heat through walls, roofs, and floors; natural ventilation; the radiation exchanged between indoor surfaces; the generation of heat due to occupants and equipments; and the consumption of energy due to air conditioning systems. The behavior of BEM is compared to other models used in the thermal analysis of buildings (CBS-MASS, BLAST, and TARP) and with another box-building model. Eventually, a sensitivity analysis of different parameters, as well as a study of the impact of BEM on the UCP is carried out. The validations indicate that BEM provides good estimates of the physical behavior of buildings and it is a step towards a modeling tool that can be an important support to urban planners.

  1. Optimal urban water conservation strategies considering embedded energy: coupling end-use and utility water-energy models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Spang, E. S.; Loge, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    Although most freshwater resources are used in agriculture, a greater amount of energy is consumed per unit of water supply for urban areas. Therefore, efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of water in cities, including the energy embedded within household uses, can be an order of magnitude larger than for other water uses. This characteristic of urban water systems creates a promising opportunity to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, particularly given rapidly growing urbanization worldwide. Based on a previous Water-Energy-CO2 emissions model for household water end uses, this research introduces a probabilistic two-stage optimization model considering technical and behavioral decision variables to obtain the most economical strategies to minimize household water and water-related energy bills given both water and energy price shocks. Results show that adoption rates to reduce energy intensive appliances increase significantly, resulting in an overall 20% growth in indoor water conservation if household dwellers include the energy cost of their water use. To analyze the consequences on a utility-scale, we develop an hourly water-energy model based on data from East Bay Municipal Utility District in California, including the residential consumption, obtaining that water end uses accounts for roughly 90% of total water-related energy, but the 10% that is managed by the utility is worth over 12 million annually. Once the entire end-use + utility model is completed, several demand-side management conservation strategies were simulated for the city of San Ramon. In this smaller water district, roughly 5% of total EBMUD water use, we found that the optimal household strategies can reduce total GHG emissions by 4% and utility's energy cost over 70,000/yr. Especially interesting from the utility perspective could be the "smoothing" of water use peaks by avoiding daytime irrigation that among other benefits might reduce utility energy costs by 0.5% according to our

  2. The Urban Fabric of the City as Its Affects Thermal Energy Responses Derived from Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The physical geography of the city affects numerous aspects of its interlinked biophysical, social, and land-atmosphere characteristics - those attributes that come together to form the total urban environment. One approach to studying the multitude of interactions that occur as a result of urbanization is to view the city from a systems ecology perspective, where energy and material cycle into and out of the urban milieu. Thus, the urban ecosystem is synergistic in linking land, air, water, and living organisms in a vast network of interrelated physical, human, and biological process. Given the number and the shear complexity of the exchanges and, ultimately, their effects, that occur within the urban environment, we are focusing our research on looking at how the morphology or urban fabric of the city, drives thermal energy exchanges across the urban landscape. The study of thermal energy attributes for different cities provides insight into how thermal fluxes and characteristics are partitioned across the city landscape in response to each city's morphology. We are using thermal infrared remote sensing data obtained at a high spatial resolution from aircraft, along with satellite data, to identify and quantify thermal energy characteristics for 4 U.S. cities: Atlanta, GA, Baton Rouge, LA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Sacramento, CA. Analysis of how thermal energy is spatially distributed across the urban landscapes for these cities provides a unique perspective for understanding how the differing morphology of cities forces land-atmosphere exchanges, such as the urban heat island effect, as well as related meteorological and air quality interactions. Keyword: urban ecosystems, remote sensing, urban heat island

  3. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan Byrne, Owen Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  4. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  5. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  6. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-01

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities. PMID:26359859

  7. A microscale three-dimensional urban energy balance model for studying surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Voogt, James A.

    2007-06-01

    A microscale three-dimensional (3-D) urban energy balance model, Temperatures of Urban Facets in 3-D (TUF-3D), is developed to predict urban surface temperatures for a variety of surface geometries and properties, weather conditions, and solar angles. The surface is composed of plane-parallel facets: roofs, walls, and streets, which are further sub-divided into identical square patches, resulting in a 3-D raster-type model geometry. The model code is structured into radiation, conduction and convection sub-models. The radiation sub-model uses the radiosity approach and accounts for multiple reflections and shading of direct solar radiation. Conduction is solved by finite differencing of the heat conduction equation, and convection is modelled by empirically relating patch heat transfer coefficients to the momentum forcing and the building morphology. The radiation and conduction sub-models are tested individually against measurements, and the complete model is tested against full-scale urban surface temperature and energy balance observations. Modelled surface temperatures perform well at both the facet-average and the sub-facet scales given the precision of the observations and the uncertainties in the model inputs. The model has several potential applications, such as the calculation of radiative loads, and the investigation of effective thermal anisotropy (when combined with a sensor-view model).

  8. The Energy General Store, sunscreen production and sales: A business plan for Tucson Urban League

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.; Goldberg, A.; Johnson, C.; Robinson, M.

    1987-06-01

    The Tucson Urban League, in an effort to reduce its dependence on federal grants for the operation of community programs, proposes to establish a profit-making component of the agency which has been named Park Avenue Enterprises. Initially, Park Avenue Enterprises will consist of three divisions: Wood Unlimited, Weatherization-Home Repair, and The Energy General Store. Wood Unlimited will market, fabricate, and install wood products including cabinets, pallets, crates, and other custom items. The Weatherization-Home Repair division of PAE will be labor intensive and designed to provide unique energy-saving services. Finally, The Energy General Store division of PAE will provide goods and services conducive to principles of energy conservation: sunscreens, low-flow showerheads, energy-efficient light bulbs, toilet tank insert, and other conservation items. The Energy General Store is also planned to be a resource for information and ideas in energy and water conservation. This plan will use sunscreen production and marketing as its focus.

  9. DEVELOPING AN INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR URBAN AND ENERGY PLANNING TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON CITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Hideto; Nakakubo, Toyohiko; Tokai, Akihiro

    In this study, we developed an integrated management model that supports local government to make a promising energy saving measure on a block-scale combined with urban planning. We applied the model to Osaka city and estimated CO2 emissions from the residential and commercial buildings to 2050. The urban renewal cases selected in this study included advanced multipole accumulation case, normal multipole accumulation case, and actual trend continuation case. The energy saving options introduced in each case included all-electric HP system, micro grid system, and we also set the option where the greater CO2 reduction one is selected in each block. The results showed that CO2 emission in 2050 would be reduced by 54.8-57.6% relative to the actual condition by introducing the new energy system in all cases. In addition, the amount of CO2 reduction in actual trend continuation case was highest. The major factor was that the effect of CO2 emission reductions by installing the solar power generation panel was higher than the effect by utilizing heated water mutually on the high-density blocks in terms of total urban buildings' energy consumption.

  10. Evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle based on lifecycle assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-03-01

    Energy resources have environmental impact through their entire lifecycle. The evaluation of the environmental impacts of the energy lifecycle can contribute to decision making regarding energy management. In this paper, the lifecycle assessment (LCA) method is introduced to calculate the environmental impact loads of different types of energy resources (including coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity) used in urban regions. The scope of LCA includes the production, transportation, and consumption processes. The pollutant emission inventory is listed, and the environmental impact loads are acquired through the calculation of environmental impact potentials, normalization, and weighted assessment. The evaluation method is applied to Beijing, China, revealing that photochemical oxidant formation and acidification are the primary impact factors in the lifecycle of all energy resources and that the total environmental impact load increased steadily from 132.69 million person equivalents (PE) in 1996 to 208.97 million PE in 2010. Among the energy types, coal contributes most to the environmental impact, while the impacts caused by oil, natural gas, and electricity have been growing. The evaluation of the environmental impact of the urban energy lifecycle is useful for regulating energy structures and reducing pollution, which could help achieve sustainable energetic and environmental development.

  11. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on

  12. The relative influence of urban climates on outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperature I. Modeling considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burt, J. E.; O'Rourke, P. A.; Terjung, W. H.

    1982-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a tool for systematically analyzing variations of outdoor human energy budgets and skin temperatures as a result of different urban street canyon geometries and vegetative properties. To this end, three previously developed numerical models were combined. The interaction of the models and the derivation of the necessary human-urban view-factors is discussed. Some sample results are given for non-urban macadam and park plains, to be used later as standards in the comparison of the impact of urban morphology on human comfort.

  13. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  14. First results from the International Urban Energy Balance Model Comparison: Model Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackett, M.; Grimmond, S.; Best, M.

    2009-04-01

    A great variety of urban energy balance models has been developed. These vary in complexity from simple schemes that represent the city as a slab, through those which model various facets (i.e. road, walls and roof) to more complex urban forms (including street canyons with intersections) and features (such as vegetation cover and anthropogenic heat fluxes). Some schemes also incorporate detailed representations of momentum and energy fluxes distributed throughout various layers of the urban canopy layer. The models each differ in the parameters they require to describe the site and the in demands they make on computational processing power. Many of these models have been evaluated using observational datasets but to date, no controlled comparisons have been conducted. Urban surface energy balance models provide a means to predict the energy exchange processes which influence factors such as urban temperature, humidity, atmospheric stability and winds. These all need to be modelled accurately to capture features such as the urban heat island effect and to provide key information for dispersion and air quality modelling. A comparison of the various models available will assist in improving current and future models and will assist in formulating research priorities for future observational campaigns within urban areas. In this presentation we will summarise the initial results of this international urban energy balance model comparison. In particular, the relative performance of the models involved will be compared based on their degree of complexity. These results will inform us on ways in which we can improve the modelling of air quality within, and climate impacts of, global megacities. The methodology employed in conducting this comparison followed that used in PILPS (the Project for Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes) which is also endorsed by the GEWEX Global Land Atmosphere System Study (GLASS) panel. In all cases, models were run

  15. Urban sustainable energy development: A case study of the city of Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyriou, Iraklis

    This study explores the role of cities in sustainable energy development through a governance-informed analysis. Despite the leading position of municipalities in energy sustainability, cities have been mostly conceptualized as sites where energy development is shaped by external policy scales, i.e. the national level. A growing body of research, however, critiques this analytical perspective, and seeks to better understand the type of factors and dynamics that influence energy sustainability within a multi-level policy context for urban energy. Given that particular circumstances are applicable across cities, a context-specific analysis can provide insight regarding how sustainable energy development takes place in urban areas. In applying such an analytical perspective on urban energy sustainability, this study undertakes a qualitative case study analysis for the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by looking at four key local policy initiatives relevant to building energy efficiency and solar electricity development at the municipal government and city-wide level. The evaluation of the initiatives suggests that renewable electricity use has increased substantially in the city over the last years but the installed capacity of local renewable electricity systems, including solar photovoltaics, is low. On the other hand, although the city has made little progress in meeting its building energy efficiency targets, more comprehensive action is taken in this area. The study finds that the above outcomes have been shaped mainly by four factors. The first is the city government's incremental policy approach aiming to develop a facilitative context for local action. The second is the role that a diverse set of stakeholders have in local sustainable energy development. The third is the constraints that systemic policy barriers create for solar power development. The fourth is the ways through which the relevant multi-level policy environment structures the city

  16. Water-Energy Correlations: Analysis of Water Technologies, Processes and Systems in Rural and Urban India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murumkar, A. R.; Gupta, S.; Kaurwar, A.; Satankar, R. K.; Mounish, N. K.; Pitta, D. S.; Virat, J.; Kumar, G.; Hatte, S.; Tripathi, R. S.; Shedekar, V.; George, K. J.; Plappally, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    In India, the present value of water, both potable and not potable, bears no relation to the energy of water production. However, electrical energy spent on ground water extraction alone is equivalent to the nation's hydroelectric capacity of 40.1 GWh. Likewise, desalinating 1m3 water of the Bay of Bengal would save three times the energy for potable ground water extraction along the coast of the Bay. It is estimated that every second woman in rural India expends 0.98 kWhe/m3/d for bringing water for household needs. Yet, the water-energy nexus remains to be a topic which is gravely ignored. This is largely caused by factors such as lack of awareness, defective public policies, and intrusive cultural practices. Furthermore, there are instances of unceasing dereliction towards water management and maintenance of the sparsely distributed water and waste water treatment plants across the country. This pollutes the local water across India apart from other geogenic impurities. Additionally, product aesthetics and deceptive advertisements take advantage of the abulia generated by users' ignorance of technical specifications of water technologies and processes in mismanagement of water use. Accordingly, urban residents are tempted to expend on energy intensive water technologies at end use. This worsens the water-energy equation at urban households. Cooking procedures play a significant role in determining the energy expended on water at households. The paper also evaluates total energy expense involved in cultivating some major Kharif and Rabi crops. Manual and traditional agricultural practices are more prominent than mechanized and novel agricultural techniques. The specific energy consumption estimate for different water technologies will help optimize energy expended on water in its life cycles. The implication of the present study of water-energy correlation will help plan and extend water management infrastructure at different locations across India.

  17. The political economy of energy-corporate-urban integration in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economy of South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material progress actually leaves the country in a state of dependent development with environmental degradation and social inequality as necessary, even functional, characteristics of this progress. The central thesis of this study is that the rise to power of what I term a centralized, technicized regime (or CTR) has placed the civil society of South Korea in fundamental conflict with the prevailing institutional conditions of national political and economic order. The interconnected network of energy, corporate and urban systems that have formed since the late 19th century serves as the institutional foundation for South Korea's political economy. This network arranges the society and its resources in a definite political-economic structure that at once gives rise to certain social problems such as inequality, environmental degradation and alienation, the society's search for answers to these problems. Building new energy, industrial and spatial structures compatible with political and economic democracy, cannot be driven by technocratic considerations and the rationalizing norms of conformity and compliance, but by the politically creative energies of a people who place social ends before instrumental means in deciding the shape and structure of the society. A crucial failure of mainstream social thought and practice has been the diversion of creative energies from the development of a critical evaluation of the society's energy-corporate-urban integration. Political conflict will continue because the aims of the CTR and civic society are opposed.

  18. Energy consumption due to local travel by urban households under three alternative policies: 1980 to 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M K

    1981-11-01

    An evaluation was made of total energy consumption, by fuel type, resulting from local travel (by urban households) in 1980, 1990, and 2000, in two scenarios and three alternative policies. Energy consumed in vehicle operation, fuel production, vehicle production, and infrastructure construction was projected; and the relative impact of each policy was also evaluated. The results indicate that the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies in both scenarios save on total energy use and total petroleum use relative to the In-Place Travel Policy in both scenarios. However, the results also indicate that some of the savings achieved in direct energy consumed by vehicle operation under the Group Travel and Individual Travel Policies are offset by the increased energy required to manufacture the vehicles and to build the infrastructure associated with these policies.

  19. Relative influence of vegetation on urban energy budgets and surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terjung, Werner H.; O'Rourke, Patricia A.

    1981-09-01

    Two deterministic models were combined: one for canopy leaf energy budgets and one for street canyon energy budgets. The effects of street parks and roof gardens in contrast to non-vegetated city blocks were examined by the use of four typical urban morphologies, which were exposed latitudinally to summer and winter simulations. A variety of increases and decreases in shortwave radiation, net radiation, sensible heat flux, and system reradiation resulted. These changes appear to represent the generalized limits of the possible responses to the addition of vegetation to non-vegetated city blocks.

  20. Developing HEAT Scores with H-Res Thermal Imagery to Support Urban Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemachandran, Bharanidharan

    As part of The Calgary Community GHG Reduction Plan (2009) The City is seeking an implementation strategy to reduce GHGs and promote low-carbon living, with a focus on improving urban energy efficiency. The most cited obstacle to energy efficiency improvements is the lack of interest from consumers (CUI, 2008). However, Darby (2006) has shown that effective feedback significantly reduces energy consumption. To exploit these findings, the HEAT (Heat Energy Assessment Technologies) Geoweb project integrates high-resolution (H-Res) airborne thermal imagery (TABI 1800) to provide unique energy efficiency feedback to Calgary homeowners in the form of interactive HEAT Maps and Hot Spots (Hay et al., 2011). As a part of the HEAT Phase II program, the goal of this research is to provide enhanced feedback support for urban energy efficiency by meeting two key objectives: (i) develop an appropriate method to define HEAT Scores using TABI 1800 imagery that allows for the comparison of waste heat of one or more houses with all other mapped houses in the community and city, and (ii) develop a multi-scale interactive Geoweb interface that displays the HEAT Scores at City, Community and Residential scales. To achieve these goals, we describe the evolution of three novel HEAT Score techniques based on: (i) a Standardized Score, (ii) the WUFIRTM model and Logistic Regression and (iii ) a novel criteria weighted method that considers: (a) heat transfer through different roofing materials, (b) local climatic conditions and (c) house age and living area attributes. Furthermore, (d) removing or adding houses to analysis based on this 3rd technique, does not affect the HEAT Score of other houses and (e) HEAT Scores can be compared within and across different cities. We also describe how HEAT Scores are incorporated within the HEAT Geoweb architecture. It is envisioned that HEAT Scores will promote energy efficiency among homeowners and urban city planners, as they will quantify and

  1. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  2. Carbon Sequestration and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and Adjacent Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienelt, T.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth and are expected to continually expand. They represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Between March and October of 2011 and 2012, eddy covariance measurements of net carbon dioxide exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for an irrigated, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the partitioning of sensible and latent heat. Data for the 2011 season showed that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 600 mm for the urban lawn and 305 mm for the tallgrass prairie; cumulative carbon sequestration was calculated to be 172 and 85 g C/m2, respectively. Also, patterns of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. In 2011, both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. Preliminary data for the 2012 season (up to early July) indicated an earlier start of net carbon uptake and higher cumulative evapotranspiration for both locations, likely due to a warm spring. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

  3. Energy consumption based on heating/cooling degree days within the urban environment of Athens, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustris, K. P.; Nastos, P. T.; Bartzokas, A.; Larissi, I. K.; Zacharia, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The degree-day method is considered to be a fundamental and a rather simple method to estimate heating and cooling energy demand. This study aims in a detailed and accurate assessment of cooling and heating degree days in different locations within the Greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. To achieve this goal, hourly values of air temperature from eight different locations within the GAA, covering the period 2001-2005, were used. Thus, the monthly and the annual number of cooling and heating degree days for each one of the examined locations could be estimated separately. Furthermore, an effort is made to evaluate the energy consumption for a specific building, based on the degree-day method, to indicate the impact of the canopy layer urban heat island on neighboring regions within the GAA. Results reveal that there is great spatial variability of energy demand and energy consumption along with significant differences in expenses for heating and cooling among neighboring regions within the GAA. Finally, regarding the energy demands of buildings, it is important to take into account intra-urban variability of canopy layer climates against an ensemble mean throughout the city, because the latter can result in inaccurate estimations and conclusions.

  4. Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium. 1994 UCETF Program: Summary and abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The Urban Consortium (UC) is a network of the nation`s largest cities and urban counties by population, brought together by PTI to find solutions to their common concerns. The Consortium provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc. (PTI) is the nonprofit, research, development, and commercialization arm of the National League of Cities, National Association of Counties and the International City and County Management Association, and an association of local governments. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its three task forces: Energy, Environment, and Telecommunications and Information. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop and test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation`s most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Developed to meet both the defined needs of cities and counties as well as national priorities, major topics within the 1993/94 program are (1) Transportation; (2) Utility and Commercial/Government Buildings; and (3) Energy Efficient Buildings and Communities. This summary contains short descriptions of the projects and participants in the 1993/94 UCETF program.

  5. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output. PMID:26351068

  6. Input-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PMID:24595199

  7. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  8. Life-cycle Energy Consumption of Urban Water System in Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within rapid urbanization and industrialization, Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in China, has been facing serious water shortage. More than 80% of water demand in Shenzhen, i.e., about 1.6 billion m3/yr, is satisfied by water diversion projects. A lot of energy has been used to extract, clean, store and transmit these water. In this paper, energy consumption of urban water system in Shenzhen, China was investigated from a life cycle perspective, and the water system can be divided into five subsystems, i.e., water diversion, water production & supply, household water use, sewage treatment and water reuse. Industrial water use was not considered here, because industrial production processes were so varied. The results showed that water diversion subsystem in Shenzhen consumed electricity of about 0.839 billion kWh/yr (0.53 kWh/m3), water production & supply subsystem about 1.241 billion kWh/yr (0.64 kWh/m3), household water use subsystem about 6.57 billion kWh/yr (9.65 kWh/m3) sewage treatment subsystem about 0.449 billion kWh/yr (0.29 kWh/m3) and water reuse treatment subsystem about 0.013 billion kWh/yr (0.33kWh/m3). So the human-related water system in Shenzhen consumes electricity of about 9.113 billion kWh/yr in total, accounting for about 11.0% of all the electricity use in Shenzhen. Among this, household water use subsystem consumed up to 72.1% of all electricity used in urban water system, followed by water production & supply subsystem (13.6%), water diversion subsystem (9.2%) and sewage treatment and reuse subsystem (5.1%). Unit energy consumption of sewage treatment and reuse subsystem was much less than that of water diversion subsystem, indicating local sewage resource development was advantageous on saving energy to water diversion from a long distance. Further, it implied that the best way to save energy in urban water system is to save portable water, since both water production and household use require to consume much energy.

  9. Measurement and Analysis of Thermal Energy Responses from Discrete Urban Surfaces Using Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Ridd, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    This study employs data from the airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) to measure thermal (i.e., longwave) energy responses, emitted or upwelling, from discrete surfaces that are typical of the city landscape within Salt Lake City, Utah, over a single diurnal time period (i.e., a single day, night-time sequence). These data are used to quantify the disposition of thermal energy for selected urban surfaces during the daytime and night-time, and the amount of change in thermal response or flux recorded between day and night. An analysis is presented on the thermal interrelationships observed for common urban materials for day, night, and flux, as identified from the TIMS data through the delineation of discrete surface type polygons. The results from the study illustrate that such factors as heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and the amount of soil moisture available have a profound impact on the magnitude of thermal energy emanating from a specific surface and on the dynamics of longwave energy response between day and night.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Environmental Flow over Urban Landscape for Applications to Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xiaoyan

    Development of renewable energy solutions has become a major interest among environmental organizations and governments around the world due to an increase in energy consumption and global warming. One fast growing renewable energy solution is the application of wind energy in cities. To qualitative and quantitative predict wind turbine performance in urban areas, CFD simulation is performed on real-life urban geometry and wind velocity profiles are evaluated. Two geometries in Arizona is selected in this thesis to demonstrate the influence of building heights; one of the simulation models, ASU campus, is relatively low rise and without significant tall buildings; the other model, the downtown phoenix model, are high-rise and with greater building height difference. The content of this thesis focuses on using RANS computational fluid dynamics approach to simulate wind acceleration phenomenon in two complex geometries, ASU campus and Phoenix downtown model. Additionally, acceleration ratio and locations are predicted, the results are then used to calculate the best location for small wind turbine installments.

  11. Young Children's Ideas about the Nature, Causes, Justification, and Alleviation of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A.; Neitzel, Carin

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-four 8-year-old boys and girls from urban and rural settings and representing different races and socioeconomic status backgrounds responded to questions about the nature, causes, justification, and alleviation of poverty. Much of what the children said indicated that they had not yet internalized prevailing adult norms and values about the…

  12. Urban energy management: a course on the administration of public energy programs. An instructor's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelbaum, Dr., Len; Olsen, Dr., Marvin; Hyman, Dr., Barry; Sheridan, Mimi; Dahlberg, Judy; O'Brien, Jeremy

    1980-12-01

    The course provides local government administrators, staff, and students with the background knowledge to deal with a broad range of energy management concerns and is not to train technical energy conservation specialists. Section II contains the Instructor's Guide and Section III provides the Student Outlines and Handouts on the following subjects: The Energy Problem; National Energy Politics and Programs; State and Local Energy Programs; Techniques of Energy Planning; Techniques of Energy Conservation; Techniques of Renewable Energy Production; Strategies for Voluntary Energy Management; Strategies for Finan. Energy Management; and Strategies for Mandatory Energy Management. (MCW)

  13. Poverty alleviation programmes in India: a social audit.

    PubMed

    K Yesudian, C A

    2007-10-01

    The review highlights the poverty alleviation programmes of the government in the post-economic reform era to evaluate the contribution of these programmes towards reducing poverty in the country. The poverty alleviation programmes are classified into (i) self-employment programmes; (ii) wage employment programmes; (iii) food security programmes; (iv) social security programmes; and (v) urban poverty alleviation programmes. The parameter used for evaluation included utilization of allocated funds, change in poverty level, employment generation and number or proportion of beneficiaries. The paper attempts to go beyond the economic benefit of the programmes and analyzes the social impact of these programmes on the communities where the poor live, and concludes that too much of government involvement is actually an impediment. On the other hand, involvement of the community, especially the poor has led to better achievement of the goals of the programmes. Such endeavours not only reduced poverty but also empowered the poor to find their own solutions to their economic problems. There is a need for decentralization of the programmes by strengthening the panchayat raj institutions as poverty is not merely economic deprivation but also social marginalization that affects the poor most. PMID:18032811

  14. Dietary Energy Density Is Positively Associated with Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Urban Shanghai Chinese12

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Lu; Yu, Herbert; Ni, Quan-Xing; Risch, Harvey A.; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2013-01-01

    Regular consumption of energy-dense foods predisposes to obesity and type 2 diabetes, both of which are suggested risk factors for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether energy density of foods is an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer. In this population-based case-control study in urban Shanghai, 908 patients with pancreatic cancer and 1067 normal controls, aged 35–79 y, were recruited. The energy density for overall diet was calculated from food-frequency questionnaire data. Energy density (adjusted for age, sex, and total energy intake) was significantly higher in cases (6.08 ± 0.04 kJ/g) than in controls (5.91 ± 0.04 kJ/g) (P = 0.003). Energy density was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk (OR: 1.16 per unit increase; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27; P < 0.001). In adjusted analysis, the risk of pancreatic cancer was 72% greater (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.25, 2.35; P = 0.001) in the highest quintile of energy density compared with the lowest quintile. In this case-control study, dietary energy density is positively associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. This association should be further investigated in prospective studies. PMID:23902959

  15. Development of economic house types based upon passive solar energy utilization and energy conservation for high density urban planning

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    The project develops house types and their corresponding nesting patterns for high density, low-rise urban neighborhoods having the following characteristics: utilizing the sun for warming in winter, self-cooling in summer, energy conserving, low building cost and ingracture costs, and efficiently using land. Implementing these criteria will produce a range of about 25 designs and proposals for neighborhoods using them. Designs included are one-story, two-story, and split level. Basic houses forms have been determined. A precision model of one complete 800 unit neighborhood proposal has been finished. Samples of work in progress in the form of photographs are presented. (MCW)

  16. Bending and Torsion Load Alleviator With Automatic Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    delaFuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Eubanks, Michael C. (Inventor); Dao, Anthony X. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A force transmitting load alleviator apparatus and method are provided for rotatably and pivotally driving a member to be protected against overload torsional and bending (moment) forces. The load alleviator includes at least one bias spring to resiliently bias cam followers and cam surfaces together and to maintain them in locked engagement unless a predetermined load is exceeded whereupon a center housing is pivotal or rotational with respect to a crown assembly. This pivotal and rotational movement results in frictional dissipation of the overload force by an energy dissipator. The energy dissipator can be provided to dissipate substantially more energy from the overload force than from the bias force that automatically resets the center housing and crown assembly to the normally fixed centered alignment. The torsional and bending (moment) overload levels can designed independently of each other.

  17. Power lines: Urban space, energy development and the making of the modern Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Todd Andrew

    "Power Lines: Urban Space, Energy Development, and the Making of the Modern Southwest" explores the social and environmental transformation of the postwar Southwest and the resulting disputes between urban boosters, federal officials, Native Americans, and environmental activists. The dissertation focuses on the infrastructure built to provide the burgeoning populations of Phoenix, Los Angeles, and other Southwestern cities with electricity. This infrastructure allowed metropolitan boosters in the Southwest to attract Cold War defense manufacturing and to build a new suburban landscape even as industrialization on Indian lands provided electricity for those landscapes. Tracing the transition of electrical generation from a dispersed geography relying on local resources to a centralized geography utilizing primarily coal from Navajo land, "Power Lines" demonstrates the increasing centrality of Indian lands and labor to the metropolitan Southwest. Paying close attention to these networks reveals the far-reaching changes caused by postwar metropolitan growth. "Power Lines" challenges understandings of urban space that neglect the material resources that allow cities to "live." As the nation's cities and suburbs became increasingly energy-intensive, electrical utilities reached deep into the metropolitan periphery, transforming landscapes hundreds of miles from city centers into urban space. The construction of the new "geography of power" in the Southwest also reflects the impact of growth liberalism on postwar growth, as federal money funded suburban, manufacturing, and infrastructure developments. This pursuit of growth produced new political struggles, both as the development of energy resources conflicted with emerging environmentalist sensibilities and as American Indians increasingly resented the industrialization of their land for the benefit of others. By the 1970s, the simultaneous pursuit and criticism of growth came to define the modern Southwest. The

  18. Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Taka, M.; Nordbo, A.; Setälä, H.; Strachan, I. B.

    2014-01-01

    The Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) is developed to include snow. The processes addressed include accumulation of snow on the different urban surface types; snow albedo and density aging; snow melting and re-freezing of melt water. Individual model parameters are assessed and independently evaluated using long-term observations in two cold climate cities, Helsinki and Montreal. Eddy covariance sensible and latent heat fluxes and snow depth observations are available for two sites in Montreal and one in Helsinki. Surface runoff from two catchments (24 and 45 ha) in Helsinki and snow properties (albedo and density) from two sites in Montreal are also analysed. As multiple observation sites with different land-cover characteristics are available in both cities, model development is conducted independently of evaluation. The developed model simulates snowmelt related runoff well (within 10% and 6% for the two catchments in Helsinki when there is snow on the ground), with the springtime peak estimated correctly. However, the observed runoff peaks tend to be smoother than the simulated ones, likely due to the water holding capacity of the catchments and the missing time lag between the catchment and the observation point in the model. At all three sites the model simulates snow accumulation and melt events well, but underestimates snow depth by 18-20% in Helsinki and 29-33% in Montreal. The model is able to reproduce the diurnal pattern of net radiation and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat during cold snow, melting snow and snow free periods. Largest model uncertainties are related to the melting period. The results show that the enhanced model can correctly simulate the exchange of energy and water in cold climate cities, and is appropriate to be nested in a larger scale atmospheric model or used independently for urban planning.

  19. Conceptual framework for describing selected urban and community impacts of federal energy policies

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A,; Marcus, A.A.; Keller, D.

    1980-06-01

    A conceptual framework is presented for describing selected urban and community impacts of Federal energy policies. The framework depends on a simple causal model. The outputs of the model are impacts, changes in the state of the world of particular interest to policymakers. At any given time, a set of determinants account for the state of the world with respect to an impact category. Application of the model to a particular impact category requires: establishing a definition and measure for the impact category and identifying the determinants of these impacts. Analysis of the impact of a particular policy requires the following: identifying the policy and its effects (as estimated by others), isolating any effects that themselves constitute an urban and community impact, identifying any effects that change the value of determinants, and describing the impact with reference to the new values of determinants. This report provides a framework for these steps. Three impacts addressed are: neighborhood stability, housing availability, and quality and availability of public services. In each chapter, a definition and measure for the impact are specified; its principal determinants are identified; how the causal model can be used to estimate impacts by applying it to three illustrative Federal policies (domestic oil price decontrol, building energy performance standards, and increased Federal aid for mass transit) is demonstrated. (MCW)

  20. Parameter Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of an Urban Surface Energy Balance Parameterization at a Tropical Suburban Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harshan, S.; Roth, M.; Velasco, E.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting of the urban weather and climate is of great importance as our cities become more populated and considering the combined effects of global warming and local land use changes which make urban inhabitants more vulnerable to e.g. heat waves and flash floods. In meso/global scale models, urban parameterization schemes are used to represent the urban effects. However, these schemes require a large set of input parameters related to urban morphological and thermal properties. Obtaining all these parameters through direct measurements are usually not feasible. A number of studies have reported on parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis to adjust and determine the most influential parameters for land surface schemes in non-urban areas. Similar work for urban areas is scarce, in particular studies on urban parameterization schemes in tropical cities have so far not been reported. In order to address above issues, the town energy balance (TEB) urban parameterization scheme (part of the SURFEX land surface modeling system) was subjected to a sensitivity and optimization/parameter estimation experiment at a suburban site in, tropical Singapore. The sensitivity analysis was carried out as a screening test to identify the most sensitive or influential parameters. Thereafter, an optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed to calibrate the input parameter. The sensitivity experiment was based on the "improved Sobol's global variance decomposition method" . The analysis showed that parameters related to road, roof and soil moisture have significant influence on the performance of the model. The optimization/parameter estimation experiment was performed using the AMALGM (a multi-algorithm genetically adaptive multi-objective method) evolutionary algorithm. The experiment showed a remarkable improvement compared to the simulations using the default parameter set. The calibrated parameters from this optimization experiment can be used for further model

  1. Urban heat islands in the subsurface as sustainable source for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, Kathrin; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2014-05-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is not a phenomenon that solely occurs in the atmosphere with increased air temperatures. We also observe it in the subsurface, and groundwater temperatures in shallow aquifers are strongly influenced by anthropogenic land surface alterations. Widespread thermal anomalies, which are triggered by various processes, such as increased ground surface temperatures (GST) and heat loss from buildings, can be found under many urban areas. With groundwater temperatures elevated by several degrees these aquifers represent large amounts of stored thermal energy. However, to exploit these attractive geothermal reservoirs efficiently and sustainably, the processes, which lead to the profound subsurface urban warming, need to be identified and quantified. In the current study, the spatial extension of the heat anomalies beneath several German cities, such as Berlin, Munich, Karlsruhe and Cologne, is scrutinized by mapping groundwater temperatures in a dense network of observation wells. With the high-resolved spatial distribution of groundwater temperatures, the dominant heat sources and important driving factors can be identified and incorporated into an analytical heat flux model. The annual anthropogenic heat input into the aquifer originating from several heat sources, such as increased GST, basements, sewage networks, district heating networks and reinjections of thermal waste water, is estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation for the cities of Cologne and Karlsruhe. All studied cities exhibit aquifers with significantly elevated temperatures, with the highest temperatures of up to 18°C prevailing in the densely built-up city centers. But also in suburban and industrial areas groundwater temperatures are several degrees above the rural background. The accumulated heat content in the urban aquifers can be estimated based on the thermal ground properties. This content is compared to the annual space heating demand in order to analyze the space

  2. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  3. The Urban Social and Energy Use Data Embedded in Suomi-NPP VIIRS Nighttime Lights: Algorithm Overview and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, E. C.; Roman, M. O.; Seto, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Although urban areas contribute between 67-75% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, there is very little understanding of what drives anthropogenic emissions both locally and globally. Part of this gap in knowledge is due to a lack of reliable measurements across a range of urban scales. Where, when, and how much urban areas use energy is also a function of human activity patterns and social practices deeply embedded in culture. One apparent manifestation of energy use patterns in human settlements is in the celebration of holidays - when human activity patterns change, this affects short-term patterns in energy consumption. Using satellite-based retrievals of nighttime lighting (NTL) during three major holiday periods, (1) Christmas and New Year's, (2) the Holy Month of Ramadan, and (3) the Chinese Spring Festival, we demonstrate that cultural variations within and between urban areas contextualize and shape the magnitude and timing of energy use. We derived NTL signatures from the Suomi-NPP satellite's (VIIRS) Day/Night Band for two years and over 1200 cities. The high-quality NTL retrievals are based on the latest science reprocessing (Collection V1.1, c. 8/2014) produced by the Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element (Land PEATE) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. After correcting for cloud and snow cover, as well as atmospheric-, terrain-, lunar BRDF-, fire-, and straylight effects, the high-resolution NTL time series were decomposed into seasonal, trend, and remainder signals—revealing strong, consistent patterns of activity changes during holiday periods. We demonstrate that patterns of holiday luminosity reveal changes in human activities important for understanding urban demographics and urban dynamics, and are strong examples of the socio-cultural and energy demand signatures embedded in satellite remote sensing imagery.

  4. Towards an urban CLEWs framework - a first iteration assessing water-energy interactions in the City of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segerström, Rebecka; Howells, Mark; Destouni, Georgia; Bhatt, Vatsal; Bazilian, Morgan; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2016-04-01

    Water and energy systems provide many key services in cities, and although the systems themselves are tightly interlinked they are often planned and operated in silos. This paper presents a prototype urban water-energy-nexus analysis framework. In it, a set of 'resource efficiency' and 'sustainability' interventions in the residential sector are evaluated from a water and energy perspective simultaneously. Results from this first application show that water-energy interactions from seemingly very different interventions can be graphically represented, quantified and compared. It further shows how interventions commonly motivated by primarily water sector needs could also be cost-competitive from an energy efficiency perspective. A novel graphical reference resource-to-service system is developed, that connects not only urban energy and water systems but also couples this to the urban services they provide. This design enable analysis of multi-functional urban interventions, whose total cost or benefit could not be fully accounted for in either a separate water or a separate energy system assessment. A framework that centres on urban service provision thereby opens up for fair comparison between, to their nature, very different infrastructure solutions for providing those services. In an indicative quantitative assessment, comparison of a set of plausible water-energy-system-related interventions in NYC - a shift to water conserving household-appliances and an ambitious installation of extensive green roof - reveals that resource efficiency gains, costs and payback times vary greatly between the compared interventions. Only two out of the four investigated interventions yield results comparable to those of direct energy-efficiency measures. A general recommendation to always seek nexus - or multi-resource - efficiency would therefore be blunt guidance for policy makers trying to make the most of their (likely limited) budget. To consider these urban resource

  5. The potential for reducing urban air temperatures and energy consumption through vegetative cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurn, D.M.; Bretz, S.E.; Huang, B.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-01

    A network of 23 weather stations was used to detect existing oases in Southern California. Four stations, separated from one another by 15--25 miles (24--40 km), were closely examined. Data were strongly affected by the distance of the stations from the Pacific Ocean. This and other city-scale effects made the network inadequate for detection of urban oases. We also conducted traverse measurements of temperature and humidity in the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area in Los Angeles County on September 8--10, 1993. Near-surface air temperatures over vegetated areas were 1--2{degrees}C lower than background air temperatures. We estimate that vegetation may lower urban temperatures by 1{degrees}C, while the establishment of vegetative canopies may lower local temperatures by an additional 2{degrees}C. An increase in vegetation in residential neighborhoods may reduce peak loads in the Los Angeles area by 0.3 GW, and reduce energy consumption by 0.2 BkWh/year, saving $20 million annually. Large additional savings would result from regional cooling.

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the energy recovery from the aerobic bioconversion of solid urban waste organic fraction.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Benavoli, Manuel; Zoppitelli, Mirco

    2008-01-01

    Waste management is of the utmost importance for many countries and especially for highly developed ones due to its implications on society. In particular, proper treatment before disposal of the solid urban waste organic fraction is one of the main issues that is addressed in waste management. In fact, the organic fraction is particularly reactive and if disposed in sanitary landfills without previous adequate treatment, a large amount of dangerous and polluting gaseous, liquid and solid substances can be produced. Some waste treatment processes can also present an opportunity to produce other by-products like energy, recycled materials and other products with both economic and environmental benefits. In this paper, the aerobic treatment of the organic fraction of solid urban waste, performed in a biocell plant with the possibility of recovering heat for civil or industrial needs, was examined from the thermodynamic point of view. A theoretical model was proposed both for the biological process of the organic fraction, as well as for the heat recovery system. The most significant results are represented and discussed. PMID:17512716

  7. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively. PMID:23786706

  8. The Role of End-Use in Integrated Urban Energy and Water System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Stercke, Simon; Mijic, Ana; Buytaert, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    The global trend of urbanisation is concentrating an increasing demand for services in cities, augmenting the global demand for resources such as freshwater and energy. At the same time, those resources are posing limits due to their availability or because their use is made prohibitive because of environmental pressures through e.g. global warming. Whereas planning for the provision of water and energy systems in cities has historically generally been separate, in the face of the present environmental challenges with important and intensifying socio-economic impacts, and because of their important interlinkages, both need to be integrated. The work presented introduces a combined urban energy/water model developed using system dynamics as a method, with an explicit and partially endogenous representation of the end-use demand. The model is used to illustrate how energy-related policies can affect the water sector and vice versa, the implications for planning of both systems which follow from that, and the important role demand side management plays. Data requirements are examined and the utility of the model to decisionmakers is discussed. The context of this work is the United Kingdom and London in particular, but changes to the model are suggested in order for it to apply to cities in other countries as well.

  9. The energy-water-food nexus: strategic analysis of technologies for transforming the urban metabolism.

    PubMed

    Villarroel Walker, R; Beck, M B; Hall, J W; Dawson, R J; Heidrich, O

    2014-08-01

    Urban areas are considered net consumers of materials and energy, attracting these from the surrounding hinterland and other parts of the planet. The way these flows are transformed and returned to the environment by the city is important for addressing questions of sustainability and the effect of human behavior on the metabolism of the city. The present work explores these questions with the use of systems analysis, specifically in the form of a Multi-sectoral Systems Analysis (MSA), a tool for research and for supporting decision-making for policy and investment. The application of MSA is illustrated in the context of Greater London, with these three objectives: (a) estimating resource fluxes (nutrients, water and energy) entering, leaving and circulating within the city-watershed system; (b) revealing the synergies and antagonisms resulting from various combinations of water-sector innovations; and (c) estimating the economic benefits associated with implementing these technologies, from the point of view of production of fertilizer and energy, and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Results show that the selection of the best technological innovation depends on which resource is the focus for improvement. Urine separation can potentially recover 47% of the nitrogen in the food consumed in London, with revenue of $33 M per annum from fertilizer production. Collecting food waste in sewers together with growing algae in wastewater treatment plants could beneficially increase the amount of carbon release from renewable energy by 66%, with potential annual revenues of $58 M from fuel production. PMID:24768840

  10. Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odarno, Lily Ameley

    Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub--Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub--Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re--evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri--urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re--evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri--urban energy poverty as a paradigm--scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy--development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty, the study proposes strategies for an alternative paradigm in which energy--development relations are fundamentally redefined; one which enlists appropriate knowledge, technologies, and institutions in addressing the needs of the energy poor in ways which promote environmental values, social equity and sustainable livelihoods.

  11. Regional scale prioritisation for key ecosystem services, renewable energy production and urban development.

    PubMed

    Casalegno, Stefano; Bennie, Jonathan J; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services

  12. Regional Scale Prioritisation for Key Ecosystem Services, Renewable Energy Production and Urban Development

    PubMed Central

    Casalegno, Stefano; Bennie, Jonathan J.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services

  13. Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvi, L.; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Taka, M.; Nordbo, A.; Setälä, H.; Strachan, I. B.

    2014-08-01

    The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) is developed to include snow. The processes addressed include accumulation of snow on the different urban surface types: snow albedo and density aging, snow melting and re-freezing of meltwater. Individual model parameters are assessed and independently evaluated using long-term observations in the two cold climate cities of Helsinki and Montreal. Eddy covariance sensible and latent heat fluxes and snow depth observations are available for two sites in Montreal and one in Helsinki. Surface runoff from two catchments (24 and 45 ha) in Helsinki and snow properties (albedo and density) from two sites in Montreal are also analysed. As multiple observation sites with different land-cover characteristics are available in both cities, model development is conducted independent of evaluation. The developed model simulates snowmelt related runoff well (within 19% and 3% for the two catchments in Helsinki when there is snow on the ground), with the springtime peak estimated correctly. However, the observed runoff peaks tend to be smoother than the simulated ones, likely due to the water holding capacity of the catchments and the missing time lag between the catchment and the observation point in the model. For all three sites the model simulates the timing of the snow accumulation and melt events well, but underestimates the total snow depth by 18-20% in Helsinki and 29-33% in Montreal. The model is able to reproduce the diurnal pattern of net radiation and turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat during cold snow, melting snow and snow-free periods. The largest model uncertainties are related to the timing of the melting period and the parameterization of the snowmelt. The results show that the enhanced model can simulate correctly the exchange of energy and water in cold climate cities at sites with varying surface cover.

  14. Flux Measurements of Trace Gases, Aerosols and Energy from the Urban Core of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, E.; Molina, L.; Lamb, B.; Pressley, S.; Grivicke, R.; Westberg, H.; Jobson, T.; Allwine, E.; Coons, T.; Jimenez, J.; Nemitz, E.; Alexander, L. M.; Worsnop, D.; Ramos, R.

    2007-05-01

    As part of the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 we deployed a flux system in a busy district of Mexico City surrounded by congested avenues. The flux system consisted of a tall tower instrumented with fast-response sensors coupled with eddy covariance (EC) techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, aerosols and energy. The measured fluxes represent direct measurements of emissions that include all major and minor emission sources from a typical residential and commercial district. In a previous study we demonstrated that the EC techniques are valuable tools to evaluate emissions inventories in urban areas, and understand better the atmospheric chemistry and the role that megacities play in global change. We measured fluxes of olefins using a Fast Olefin Sensor (FOS) and the EC technique, fluxes of aromatic and oxygenated VOCs by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectroscopy (PTR-MS) and the disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) technique, fluxes of CO2 and H2O with an open path Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) and the EC technique, fluxes of CO using a modified gradient method and a commercial CO instrument, and fluxes of aerosols (organics, nitrates and sulfates) using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and the EC technique. In addition we used a disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA) system to extend the number of VOCs. This system collected whole air samples as function of the direction of the vertical wind component, and the samples were analyzed on site using gas chromatography / flame ionization detection (GC-FID). We also measured fluxes of sensible and latent heat by EC and the radiation components with a net radiometer. Overall, these flux measurements confirm the results of our previous flux measurements in Mexico City in terms of the magnitude, composition, and distribution. We found that the urban surface is a net source of CO2 and VOCs. The diurnal patterns show clear anthropogenic signatures, with important contributions from

  15. Methods for Analysis of Urban Energy Systems: A New York City Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Bianca

    This dissertation describes methods developed for analysis of the New York City energy system. The analysis specifically aims to consider the built environment and its' impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Several contributions to the urban energy systems literature were made. First, estimates of annual energy intensities of the New York building stock were derived using a statistical analysis that leveraged energy consumption and tax assessor data collected by the Office of the Mayor. These estimates provided the basis for an assessment of the spatial distribution of building energy consumption. The energy consumption estimates were then leveraged to estimate the potential for combined heat and power (CHP) systems in New York City at both the building and microgrid scales. In aggregate, given the 2009 non-baseload GHG emissions factors for electricity production, these systems could reduce citywide GHG emissions by 10%. The operational characteristics of CHP systems were explored further considering different prime movers, climates, and GHG emissions factors. A combination of mixed integer linear programing and controlled random search algorithms were the methods used to determine the optimal capacity and operating strategies for the CHP systems under the various scenarios. Lastly a multi-regional unit commitment model of electricity and GHG emissions production for New York State was developed using data collected from several publicly available sources. The model was used to estimate average and marginal GHG emissions factors for New York State and New York City. The analysis found that marginal GHG emissions factors could reduce by 30% to 370 g CO2e/kWh in the next 10 years.

  16. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment. PMID:26983914

  17. Impact of future urbanization on a hot summer: a case study of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Shai; Georgescu, Matei; Alfasi, Nurit; Kloog, Itai

    2015-12-01

    Israel's population is projected to increase significantly through the middle of the current century, requiring further expansion of the built environment to accommodate additional inhabitants and accompanying urban infrastructure. This study examines the climatic impacts of future urban expansion through simulated near-surface temperature and energy flux components associated with built environment growth. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate present day extreme summertime conditions, at 1-km resolution, utilizing contemporary urban representation. To determine impacts associated with the physical growth of the urban environment, sensitivity simulations, also at 1-km resolution, incorporating projected changes in urban areas for Israel-based national development plans, were performed. Spatially and diurnally averaged at the national scale, projected urbanization is shown to increase summertime temperatures 0.4-0.8 °C, with greater temperature rise in northern compared to southern parts of the country. Across the diurnal cycle, urban impacts on near-surface warming are minimal during daytime hours, but exceed 3 °C across many urban locales during nighttime hours. The results presented here demonstrate the spatio-temporal impact of future urban expansion in Israel on temperature. The magnitude of these changes highlight the need for strategically designed regional and national planning to alleviate potentially deleterious climatic impacts associated with the physical growth of the built environment.

  18. Urban biomass - not an urban legend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. There is an estimated 16.4 million hectares of land in urban areas cultivated with turfgrass and associated vegetation. Vegetation in urban areas is intensely managed which lead to regula...

  19. Conservation Activities Related to Energy: Energy Activities for Urban Elementary Students, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Joan S.; And Others

    Presented are simple activities, experiments, and demonstrations relating to energy conservation in the home. Activities are divided into four areas: (1) kitchen, (2) house, (3) transportation, and (4) heating and cooling. The material has been designed to require a minimum of preparation. Activity and game masters are provided. Activities may be…

  20. Influence of urban tree canopy on single-family residential structure energy consumption at the community scale in Hutchinson, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyondy, Philip John

    Community forests are vulnerable to invasive pests and a changing climate. Urban forests provide a host of environmental, social, and economic benefits to communities. Cold, long, and windy winters dominate the energy budget of upper Midwest communities. Hot and humid summers are becoming increasingly constant. Quantifying the relationship between energy use and trees has been simulated and estimated in a variety of ways. Few studies have successfully measured this interaction across the landscape, especially in heating dominated climates. Digitized urban tree canopy data at multiple scales has been correlated with weather adjusted normalized energy consumption data while controlling for a variety of housing characteristics. A significant relationship between increased tree canopy and reduced winter heating energy consumption is found at 500-1100 feet (p<0.01), and also from 400-1500 feet (p<0.05) from parcels. Summer cooling energy reduction from increased tree canopy at the parcel (p<0.05) and distances beyond 900 feet (p<0.10) was also found significant. Saving energy with urban forest canopy is a community scale opportunity and obligation.

  1. Impacts of Urban Water Conservation Strategies on Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Health: Southern California as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Sharona; Godwin, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine how urban water conservation strategies in California cities can affect water and energy conservation efforts, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and benefit public health. Methods. We expanded upon our 2014 health impact assessment of California's urban water conservation strategies by comparing the status quo to 2 options with the greatest potential impact on the interrelated issues of water and energy in California: (1) banning landscape irrigation and (2) expanding alternative water sources (e.g., desalination, recycled water). Results. Among the water conservation strategies evaluated, expanded use of recycled water stood out as the water conservation strategy with potential to reduce water use, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions, with relatively small negative impacts for the public’s health. Conclusions. Although the suitability of recycled water for urban uses depends on local climate, geography, current infrastructure, and finances, analyses similar to that presented here can help guide water policy decisions in cities across the globe facing challenges of supplying clean, sustainable water to urban populations. PMID:26985606

  2. Grand Forks - East Grand Forks Urban Water Resources Study. Energy conservation and recreation appendix, public involvement appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The goal of the Corps of Engineers Urban Study Program is to provide planning assistance to local interests in a variety of water resource areas. The St. Paul District conducted the Grand Forks-East Grand Forks (GF/EGF) Urban Water Resources Study which was a cooperative effort among local, state and federal agencies. Primary attention was given to flood control, water supply and wastewater management; supporting investigations addressed recreation and energy conservation. The recreation investigation consists of the leisure time analysis conducted in stage 2 of the urban study by the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service, Department of the Interior. The leisure time analysis compared the study area's recreational needs to the available and planned facilities and identified unsatisfied needs. The thermography investigation was conducted in spring 1978 in response to the public's growing awareness of energy conservation and the Corps' desire to make the public aware of the urban study in a meaningful, useful fashion. The investigation consisted of aerial infrared photography, public displays of photographs, and distribution of information on energy saving practices. This investigation was a one-time effort with no plans for follow-up.

  3. Momentum and Turbulent Kinetic Energy Budgets Within the Park Avenue Street Canyon During the Joint Urban 2003 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Matthew A.; Pardyjak, Eric R.; Klein, Petra

    2011-07-01

    Very few attempts have so far been made to quantify the momentum and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budgets within real urban canopies. In this study, sonic anemometer data obtained during the Joint Urban 2003 field campaign in Oklahoma City, U.S.A. were used for calculating the momentum and TKE budgets within a real-world urban street canyon. Sonic anemometers were deployed on multiple towers in the lower half of the canyon. Gradients in all three principal directions were included in the analyses. The storage and buoyancy terms were found to have negligible contributions to both the momentum and TKE budgets. The momentum budgets were generally found to be more complex than a simple balance of two physical processes. The horizontal terms were found to have significant and sometimes dominant contributions to the momentum and TKE budgets.

  4. Energy flux parametrization as an opportunity to get Urban Heat Island insights: The case of Athens, Greece (Thermopolis 2009 Campaign).

    PubMed

    Loupa, G; Rapsomanikis, S; Trepekli, A; Kourtidis, K

    2016-01-15

    Energy flux parameterization was effected for the city of Athens, Greece, by utilizing two approaches, the Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) and the Bulk Approach (BA). In situ acquired data are used to validate the algorithms of these schemes and derive coefficients applicable to the study area. Model results from these corrected algorithms are compared with literature results for coefficients applicable to other cities and their varying construction materials. Asphalt and concrete surfaces, canyons and anthropogenic heat releases were found to be the key characteristics of the city center that sustain the elevated surface and air temperatures, under hot, sunny and dry weather, during the Mediterranean summer. A relationship between storage heat flux plus anthropogenic energy flux and temperatures (surface and lower atmosphere) is presented, that results in understanding of the interplay between temperatures, anthropogenic energy releases and the city characteristics under the Urban Heat Island conditions. PMID:26520258

  5. How Many Facets are Needed to Represent the Surface Energy Balance of an Urban Area?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porson, Aurore; Harman, Ian N.; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia I.; Belcher, Stephen E.

    2009-07-01

    We investigate the question of how many facets are needed to represent the energy balance of an urban area by developing simplified 3-, 2- and 1-facet versions of a 4-facet energy balance model of two-dimensional streets and buildings. The 3-facet model simplifies the 4-facet model by averaging over the canyon orientation, which results in similar net shortwave and longwave balances for both wall facets, but maintains the asymmetry in the heat fluxes within the street canyon. For the 2-facet model, on the assumption that the wall and road temperatures are equal, the road and wall facets can be combined mathematically into a single street-canyon facet with effective values of the heat transfer coefficient, albedo, emissivity and thermodynamic properties, without further approximation. The 1-facet model requires the additional assumption that the roof temperature is also equal to the road and wall temperatures. Idealised simulations show that the geometry and material properties of the walls and road lead to a large heat capacity of the combined street canyon, whereas the roof behaves like a flat surface with low heat capacity. This means that the magnitude of the diurnal temperature variation of the street-canyon facets are broadly similar and much smaller than the diurnal temperature variation of the roof facets. Consequently, the approximation that the street-canyon facets have similar temperatures is sound, and the road and walls can be combined into a single facet. The roof behaves very differently and a separate roof facet is required. Consequently, the 2-facet model performs similarly to the 4-facet model, while the 1-facet model does not. The models are compared with previously published observations collected in Mexico City. Although the 3- and 2-facet models perform better than the 1-facet model, the present models are unable to represent the phase of the sensible heat flux. This result is consistent with previous model comparisons, and we argue that this

  6. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat

  7. Increasing Geothermal Energy Demand: The Need for Urbanization of the Drilling Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodoriu, Catalin; Falcone, Gioia

    2008-01-01

    Drilling wells in urban spaces requires special types of rigs that do not conflict with the surrounding environment. For this, a mutation of the current drilling equipment is necessary into what can be defined as an "urbanized drilling rig." Noise reduction, small footprint, and "good looking" rigs all help persuade the general public to accept…

  8. Thermal Energy Balance Analysis of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using a Mesoscale Meteorological Model Incorporating an Urban Canopy Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooka, Ryozo; Sato, Taiki; Harayama, Kazuya; Murakami, Shuzo; Kawamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The summer climate around the Tokyo metropolitan area has been analysed on an urban scale, and the regional characteristics of the thermal energy balance of a bayside business district in the centre of Tokyo (Otemachi) have been compared with an inland residential district (Nerima), using a mesoscale meteorological model incorporating an urban canopy model. From the results of the analysis, the mechanism of diurnal change in air temperature and absolute humidity in these areas is quantitatively demonstrated, with a focus on the thermal energy balance. Moreover, effective countermeasures against urban heat-islands are considered from the viewpoint of each region's thermal energy balance characteristics. In addition to thermal energy outflux by turbulent diffusion, advection by sea-breezes from Tokyo Bay discharges sensible heat in Otemachi. This mitigates temperature increases during the day. On the other hand, because all sea-breezes must first cross the centre of Tokyo, it has less of a cooling effect in Nerima. As a result, the air temperature during the day in Nerima is higher than that in Otemachi.

  9. Gust alleviation - Criteria and control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between criteria specified for aircraft gust alleviation and the form of the control laws that result from the criteria are considered. Open-loop gust alleviation based on the linearized, small perturbation equations of aircraft motion is discussed, and an approximate solution of the open-loop control law is presented for the case in which the number of degrees of freedom of the aircraft exceeds the rank of the control effectiveness matrix. Excessive actuator lag is compensated for by taking into account actuator dynamics in the equations of motion, resulting in the specification of a general load network. Criteria for gust alleviation when output motions are gust alleviated and the closed-loop control law derived from them are examined and linear optimal control law is derived. Comparisons of the control laws reveal that the effectiveness of an open-loop control law is greatest at low aircraft frequencies but deteriorates as the natural frequency of the actuators is approached, while closed-loop methods are found to be more effective at higher frequencies.

  10. Lightweight, Economical Device Alleviates Drop Foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deis, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Corrective apparatus alleviates difficulties in walking for victims of drop foot. Elastic line attached to legband provides flexible support to toe of shoe. Device used with flat (heelless) shoes, sneakers, crepe-soled shoes, canvas shoes, and many other types of shoes not usable with short leg brace.

  11. Element concentrations in urban grass cuttings from roadside verges in the face of energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Piepenschneider, Meike; De Moor, Sofie; Hensgen, Frank; Meers, Erik; Wachendorf, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Grass from municipal roadside verges is a potential yet largely unused resource for bioenergy recovery, which is mainly due to its unknown elemental composition. Therefore, we measured the concentration of 16 elements (Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, S, Al, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Si and Zn) in a material from the city of Kassel harvested in different management intensities. The element concentrations were mainly close to reference values of agricultural or nature conservation grassland and usually within the range of literature data. Concentrations of most elements, including heavy metals, were below limiting values. Only N and Cl concentrations in the raw material exceeded the limiting values for combustion, but washing and dewatering of the biomass with the "integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass" technique resulted in concentrations in the press cake well below the limiting values. Considering the element concentrations of grass from urban roadside verges, utilisation for energy recovery may be possible, provided an appropriate technology is applied. PMID:25801367

  12. Combating protein-energy-malnutrition in a rural/peri-urban southern African black population.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, U E; Bac, M; Kuzwayo, P M; Glatthaar, I I; Ingle, R F; Walker, A R

    1991-10-01

    PROTEIN-ENERGY-malnutrition (PEM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Africa. In South Africa, in 1987, to help combating and preventing PEM in the rural black population, the Gold Fields Nutrition Unit was inaugurated at the Medical University of Southern Africa. In 1987-9, 442 patients (rural/peri-urban) plus their mothers or child carers were admitted, and 406 attended as outpatients. Average age was 15.4 +/- 7.6 months, weight 7.0 +/- 1.6kg, stay in hospital, 12 +/- 10.8 days, and daily weight gain during treatment was 31 +/- 48g. Mothers mainly were young and unmarried. Primary causative factors were infections, ignorance, and insufficiency of food. Since results from rehabilitation are usually poor, mothers and carers were taught how best to prepare meals using local foodstuffs. The interventions included teaching and demonstrations of how to grow vegetables, maintain an orchard, a fowl-run, and improve kitchen and laundry facilities. In 1990, in a follow-up of 73 patients, no deaths had occurred within a 12 month period. This far better than usual outcome is being furthered by setting up satellite nutrition clinics. PMID:1795353

  13. Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Rates and Energy Balance of Turf in the Denver Urban Ecosystem and an Adjacent Native Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thienelt, T. S.; Anderson, D. E.; Powell, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    Urban ecosystems are currently characterized by rapid growth, are expected to continually expand and, thus, represent an important driver of land use change. A significant component of urban ecosystems is lawns, potentially the single largest irrigated "crop" in the U.S. Beginning in March of 2011 (ahead of the growing season), eddy covariance measurements of net carbon exchange and evapotranspiration along with energy balance fluxes were conducted for a well-watered, fertilized lawn (rye-bluegrass-mix) in metropolitan Denver and for a nearby tallgrass prairie (big bluestem, switchgrass, cheatgrass, blue grama). Due to the semi-arid climate conditions of the Denver region, differences in management (i.e., irrigation and fertilization) are expected to have a discernible impact on ecosystem productivity and thus on carbon sequestration rates, evapotranspiration, and the sensible and latent heat partitioning of the energy balance. By mid-July, preliminary data indicated that cumulative evapotranspiration was approximately 270 mm and 170 mm for urban and native grasslands, respectively, although cumulative carbon sequestration at that time was similar for both (approximately 40 mg/m2). However, the pattern of carbon exchange differed between the grasslands. Both sites showed daily net uptake of carbon starting in late May, but the urban lawn displayed greater diurnal variability as well as greater uptake rates in general, especially following fertilization in mid-June. In contrast, the trend of carbon uptake at the prairie site was occasionally reversed following strong convective precipitation events, resulting in a temporary net release of carbon. The continuing acquisition of data and investigation of these relations will help us assess the potential impact of urban growth on regional carbon sequestration.

  14. Fugitive methane emissions from natural, urban, agricultural, and energy-production landscapes of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Iverach, Charlotte P.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2015-04-01

    , with a peak reading of 2.11 ppm. The ambient air methane concentration was always higher in urban environments compared to the surrounding countryside. Along one major road in Sydney we mapped an interval that extended for 6 km where the concentration was greater than 1.80 ppm. The median concentration in this interval was 1.90 ppm, with a peak reading of 1.97 ppm. This high reading in an urban setting is most likely due to leaks from the domestic gas distribution system. Methane leaks were detected in all country towns. Our measurements show that at the point of resource extraction the methane emission footprint of CSG is smaller than that of open-cut coal mining. However, leaking gas from urban centers must be added to the fugitive emissions of CSG to calculate the total fugitive emission footprint of CSG, which may therefore not be as low as claimed in the national greenhouse gas accounts. Our results highlight the need for additional continuous monitoring of methane emissions from all sectors, and for the full life-cycle of energy resources to be considered.

  15. Hydromorphological adjustments and re-adjustments of low energy rivers in a sub-urban catchment following historical engineering and recent urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugie, Marion; Gob, Frédéric; Slawson, Deborah; Le-Coeur, Charles

    2014-05-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, October 2000) mandated that the Member States of the European Union achieve the general objective of protection of aquatic ecology by 2015. European rivers and streams have to attain "good ecological status" through the preservation and restoration of aquatic environments. Member will have to ensure environmental continuity through "the adequate distribution of fish species and transport of sediments". In France, more than 61,000 transverse structures - mill dams, weirs, diversion gates - have been identified on rivers as being obstacles to ecological and sedimentary continuity. Because of their historical occupation by societies, rivers flowing in the Paris area have long been anthropized and artificialized. River courses, channel shape, sediment transport and hydrological regime modifications have tremendously transformed the hydrosystems surrounding the city of Paris. The Merantaise's catchment is one of this low energy river watershed, near Paris, that have been modified by historical engineering, especially during medieval-modern times and by the building of the Versailles Castle (XVIIth century). The hydraulic infrastructures are still there and impact the hydromorphogical conditions of the river (incision, lateral erosion, …). In addition to these ancient pressures a rapid and massive urbanization of the suburban areas has applied a new type of constraint to the hydrosystems in recent decades. This undermines the balance that was established following ancient engineering and disturbs the current functioning of the valley. These new types of land occupation have significantly altered the ecological circumstances and transformed the hydrological responses of rivers. In this study, we therefore seek to understand these processes of successive adjustments (ancient and recent) of a small river from the urban margins of the Orge watershed (to the south of Paris). We use a multi-scalar spatial and temporal approach to

  16. Public engagement with information on renewable energy developments: The case of single, semi-urban wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Parks, J M; Theobald, K S

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores perceptions of public engagement with information on renewable energy developments. It draws on a case study of proposals by a major supermarket chain to construct single wind turbines in two semi-urban locations in the UK, analysing data from interviews with key actors in the planning process and focus groups with local residents. The paper concludes that key actors often had high expectations of how local people should engage with information, and sometimes implied that members of the public who were incapable of filtering or processing information in an organised or targeted fashion had no productive role to play in the planning process. It shows how the specific nature of the proposals (single wind turbines in semi-urban locations proposed by a commercial private sector developer) shaped local residents' information needs and concerns in a way that challenged key actors' expectations of how the public should engage with information. PMID:23832884

  17. Energy, economic and urban impacts of United States postindustrial development: A critique of the postindustrial paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wykoff, Rebecca J.

    Postindustrial theory has become the mainstream model of social progress in the Western world during the latter half of the twentieth century. It is a technoeconomic vision of change which argues that society is transforming from the industrial order to new social forms and functions that are anchored in services and information rather than materials and manufacturing. Observable shifts cited as evidence of postindustrialization include the movement from blue-collar to white-collar occupations, the increasing scale of economic activities, and the widespread adoption of electricity-based technology. This dissertation identifies three primary principles which define postindustrial theory: abundance, or expanding wealth and productivity; technological and economic efficiency; and adaptation to technological and economic forces. In the United States, postindustrialism has been challenged by the national urban crisis of the 1960s and the energy crises of the 1970s. The apparent contradictions to social well-being prompted a theoretical reconceptualization which defined the "crises" as "transition costs." Empirical implications are defined and appropriate indicators identified to assess the validity of postindustrialism as an explanation of current phenomena and a guide for future development. The time frame for the analysis is 1967--1997, which encompasses the culmination of post-World War II growth, the periods of crisis, and present manifestations. It is concluded that postindustrial theory is less an explanation of contemporary social change than a presumption that change is progressive. The period of "transition" is critically examined as one in which rapid increases in inequality, decreases in social health and growth in trends of unsustainable resource use occur. The future orientation of postindustrialism, and its appeal to aggregate trends as evidence of progress, ignores the existence of problems experienced by a majority of Americans and mounting threats to

  18. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  19. Neural predictive control for active buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pado, Lawrence E.; Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Liguore, Salvatore L.; Drouin, Donald

    1998-06-01

    The adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response (ANCAR) and the affordable loads and dynamics independent research and development (IRAD) programs at the Boeing Company jointly examined using neural network based active control technology for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response in a scale model aircraft vertical tail. The potential benefits of adaptive control includes reducing aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, increasing flutter margins, and reducing response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and thus loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Wind tunnel tests were undertaken on a rigid 15% scale aircraft in Boeing's mini-speed wind tunnel, which is used for testing at very low air speeds up to 80 mph. The model included a dynamically scaled flexible fail consisting of an aluminum spar with balsa wood cross sections with a hydraulically powered rudder. Neural predictive control was used to actuate the vertical tail rudder in response to strain gauge feedback to alleviate buffeting effects. First mode RMS strain reduction of 50% was achieved. The neural predictive control system was developed and implemented by the Boeing Company to provide an intelligent, adaptive control architecture for smart structures applications with automated synthesis, self-optimization, real-time adaptation, nonlinear control, and fault tolerance capabilities. It is designed to solve complex control problems though a process of automated synthesis, eliminating costly control design and surpassing it in many instances by accounting for real world non-linearities.

  20. Rolling maneuver load alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) was demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the LaRC Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of .33, .38, and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  1. Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation using active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    1992-01-01

    Rolling Maneuver Load Alleviation (RMLA) has been demonstrated on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The design objective was to develop a systematic approach for developing active control laws to alleviate wing incremental loads during roll maneuvers. Using linear load models for the AFW wind-tunnel model which were based on experimental measurements, two RMLA control laws were developed based on a single-degree-of-freedom roll model. The RMLA control laws utilized actuation of outboard control surface pairs to counteract incremental loads generated during rolling maneuvers and actuation of the trailing edge inboard control surface pairs to maintain roll performance. To evaluate the RMLA control laws, roll maneuvers were performed in the wind tunnel at dynamic pressures of 150, 200, and 250 psf and Mach numbers of 0.33, .38 and .44, respectively. Loads obtained during these maneuvers were compared to baseline maneuver loads. For both RMLA controllers, the incremental torsion moments were reduced by up to 60 percent at all dynamic pressures and performance times. Results for bending moment load reductions during roll maneuvers varied. In addition, in a multiple function test, RMLA and flutter suppression system control laws were operated simultaneously during roll maneuvers at dynamic pressures 11 percent above the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure.

  2. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental

  3. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. PMID:27208014

  4. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  5. Influence of urban resilience measures in the magnitude and behaviour of energy fluxes in the city of Porto (Portugal) under a climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rafael, S; Martins, H; Sá, E; Carvalho, D; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2016-10-01

    Different urban resilience measures, such as the increase of urban green areas and the application of white roofs, were evaluated with the WRF-SUEWS modelling system. The case study consists of five heat waves occurring in Porto (Portugal) urban area in a future climate scenario. Meteorological forcing and boundary data were downscaled for Porto urban area from the CMIP5 earth system model MPI-ESM, for the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8.5 scenario. The influence of different resilience measures on the energy balance components was quantified and compared between each other. Results show that the inclusion of green urban areas increases the evaporation and the availability of surface moisture, redirecting the energy to the form of latent heat flux (maximum increase of +200Wm(-2)) rather than to sensible heat. The application of white roofs increases the solar radiation reflection, due to the higher albedo of such surfaces, reducing both sensible and storage heat flux (maximum reductions of -62.8 and -35Wm(-2), respectively). The conjugations of the individual benefits related to each resilience measure shows that this measure is the most effective one in terms of improving the thermal comfort of the urban population, particularly due to the reduction of both sensible and storage heat flux. The obtained results contribute to the knowledge of the surface-atmosphere exchanges and can be of great importance for stakeholders and decision-makers. PMID:27317136

  6. Behavioral interventions for alleviating psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Storzbach, D M

    1993-04-01

    Behavioral interventions can augment the effects of antipsychotic medication in alleviating hallucinations, delusions, and conceptual disorganization. Such interventions may be based on operant conditioning and reinforcement strategies and on training in coping skills. Reinforcement strategies have been used to decrease the rate of confused speech, delusional talk, and other psychotic behaviors, but they appear to have little effect on the subjective distress patients experience as a result of such symptoms. Strategies that teach patients skills for coping with psychotic symptoms include cognitive reframing methods, nonconfrontational methods that help patients find alternative explanations for delusions, and use of humming to interfere with subvocal movements of the larynx muscles, which may be related to auditory hallucinations. The authors review studies of the effectiveness of these interventions and suggest an approach integrating reinforcement and training in coping skills that may help reduce psychotic symptoms. PMID:8096490

  7. Comparing large eddy simulations and measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy budget in an urban canopy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Meneveau, C. V.; Fang, J.; Christen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) is highly dependent on the actual configuration of obstacles relative to mean wind and stability. For many applications, building-resolving information is neither required nor feasible, and simply beyond the numerical capabilities of operational systems. Common urban canopy parameterizations (UCP) used in dispersion and mesoscale forecasting models hence rely on a horizontally averaged approach, where the UCL is represented as a 1D column, often for simplified geometries such as infinite street canyons. We use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the airflow over and within a realistic urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland to determine all terms of the TKE budget in order to guide and validate current approaches used in UCPs. A series of high-resolution LES runs of the fully developed flow are performed in order to characterize the TKE budget terms in a horizontally averaged frame of view for various directions of the approaching flow under neutral conditions. Equations are solved on a regular domain with a horizontal resolution of 2 m. A Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid-scale stresses and buildings are taken into account adopting an immersed boundary approach with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. The modeled (periodic) domain is centered on the location of a 32 m tall tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed, during the BUBBLE program in 2001/02 (Rotach et al., Theor. Appl. Clim., 82, 231-261, 2005). Selected terms of the TKE budget were inferred from six levels of ultrasonic anemometer measurements operated over nearly a full year between ground level and two times the mean building height. This contribution answers the questions: (1) How well do TKE budget terms calculated by the LES at the exact tower location match the single point measurements on the tower under comparable conditions? (2) How

  8. Calorie supply does not alleviate running-based taste aversion learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Sadahiko

    2011-12-01

    Voluntary running establishes aversion to the paired taste in rats. A proposed mechanism underlying this taste aversion learning is energy expenditure caused by the running. The energy expenditure hypothesis predicts that running-based taste aversion should be alleviated by a calorie supply since this would compensate for the energy expended by running. Accordingly, running-based taste aversion would be less readily established to a caloric substance (20% sucrose solution) than to a noncaloric substance (0.2% sodium saccharin solution). Because the sucrose and saccharin aversions were equivalent in Experiment 1, the validity of the energy expenditure hypothesis was questioned. Experiments 2 and 3 also pose a problem for this hypothesis, as post-session calorie supply by glucose tablets failed to alleviate running-based aversion to salty water. PMID:21843567

  9. Theme: Urban Mechanization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen; And Others, Eds.

    1991-01-01

    Six theme articles discuss agricultural mechanics and its image problem, its importance, and its relevance to urban mechanization. They stress the need for agricultural mechanics and science in the urban environment for preparation for a variety of careers including landscape technology, environmental technology, energy systems management, and…

  10. Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

  11. Energy benchmarking of commercial buildings: a low-cost pathway toward urban sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Matt; Brown, Marilyn A.; Sun, Xiaojing

    2013-09-01

    US cities are beginning to experiment with a regulatory approach to address information failures in the real estate market by mandating the energy benchmarking of commercial buildings. Understanding how a commercial building uses energy has many benefits; for example, it helps building owners and tenants identify poor-performing buildings and subsystems and it enables high-performing buildings to achieve greater occupancy rates, rents, and property values. This paper estimates the possible impacts of a national energy benchmarking mandate through analysis chiefly utilizing the Georgia Tech version of the National Energy Modeling System (GT-NEMS). Correcting input discount rates results in a 4.0% reduction in projected energy consumption for seven major classes of equipment relative to the reference case forecast in 2020, rising to 8.7% in 2035. Thus, the official US energy forecasts appear to overestimate future energy consumption by underestimating investments in energy-efficient equipment. Further discount rate reductions spurred by benchmarking policies yield another 1.3-1.4% in energy savings in 2020, increasing to 2.2-2.4% in 2035. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy-efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO2 emissions, and conventional air pollution. Achieving comparable CO2 savings would require more than tripling existing US solar capacity. Our analysis suggests that nearly 90% of the energy saved by a national benchmarking policy would benefit metropolitan areas, and the policy’s benefits would outweigh its costs, both to the private sector and society broadly.

  12. Geography and the costs of urban energy infrastructure: The case of electricity and natural gas capital investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyel, Muzeyyen Anil

    Investments in the urban energy infrastructure for distributing electricity and natural gas are analyzed using (1) property data measuring distribution plant value at the local/tax district level, and (2) system outputs such as sectoral numbers of customers and energy sales, input prices, company-specific characteristics such as average wages and load factor. Socio-economic and site-specific urban and geographic variables, however, often been neglected in past studies. The purpose of this research is to incorporate these site-specific characteristics of electricity and natural gas distribution into investment cost model estimations. These local characteristics include (1) socio-economic variables, such as income and wealth; (2) urban-related variables, such as density, land-use, street pattern, housing pattern; (3) geographic and environmental variables, such as soil, topography, and weather, and (4) company-specific characteristics such as average wages, and load factor. The classical output variables include residential and commercial-industrial customers and sales. In contrast to most previous research, only capital investments at the local level are considered. In addition to aggregate cost modeling, the analysis focuses on the investment costs for the system components: overhead conductors, underground conductors, conduits, poles, transformers, services, street lighting, and station equipment for electricity distribution; and mains, services, regular and industrial measurement and regulation stations for natural gas distribution. The Box-Cox, log-log and additive models are compared to determine the best fitting cost functions. The Box-Cox form turns out to be superior to the other forms at the aggregate level and for network components. However, a linear additive form provides a better fit for end-user related components. The results show that, in addition to output variables and company-specific variables, various site-specific variables are statistically

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity. PMID:26610803

  14. An Advanced Buffet Load Alleviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, Jay K.; Pitt, Dale M.; White, Edward V.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced buffet load alleviation (BLA) system that utilizes distributed piezoelectric actuators in conjunction with an active rudder to reduce the structural dynamic response of the F/A-18 aircraft vertical tails to buffet loads. The BLA system was defined analytically with a detailed finite-element-model of the tail structure and piezoelectric actuators. Oscillatory aerodynamics were included along with a buffet forcing function to complete the aeroservoelastic model of the tail with rudder control surface. Two single-input-single-output (SISO) controllers were designed, one for the active rudder and one for the active piezoelectric actuators. The results from the analytical open and closed loop simulations were used to predict the system performance. The objective of this BLA system is to extend the life of vertical tail structures and decrease their life-cycle costs. This system can be applied to other aircraft designs to address suppression of structural vibrations on military and commercial aircraft.

  15. Alleviating spatial conflict between people and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Luck, Gary W; Ricketts, Taylor H; Daily, Gretchen C; Imhoff, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Human settlements are expanding in species-rich regions and pose a serious threat to biodiversity conservation. We quantify the degree to which this threat manifests itself in two contrasting continents, Australia and North America, and suggest how it can be substantially alleviated. Human population density has a strong positive correlation with species richness in Australia for birds, mammals, amphibians, and butterflies (but not reptiles) and in North America for all five taxa. Nevertheless, conservation investments could secure locations that harbor almost all species while greatly reducing overlap with densely populated regions. We compared two conservation-planning scenarios that each aimed to represent all species at least once in a minimum set of sampling sites. The first scenario assigned equal cost to each site (ignoring differences in human population density); the second assigned a cost proportional to the site's human population density. Under the equal-cost scenario, 13-40% of selected sites occurred where population density values were highest (in the top decile). However, this overlap was reduced to as low as 0%, and in almost all cases to <10%, under the population-cost scenario, when sites of high population density were avoided where possible. Moreover, this reduction of overlap was achieved with only small increases in the total amount of area requiring protection. As densely populated regions continue to expand rapidly and drive up land values, the strategic conservation investments of the kind highlighted in our analysis are best made now. PMID:14681554

  16. Evaluating Water and Energy Fluxes across Three Land Cover Types in a Desert Urban Environment through a Mobile Eddy Covariance Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, N.; Vivoni, E. R.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Lopez-Castrillo, I.

    2015-12-01

    The urbanization process transforms a natural landscape into a built environment with many engineered surfaces, leading to significant impacts on surface energy and water fluxes across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Nevertheless, the effects of different urban land covers on energy and water fluxes has been rarely quantified across the large varieties of construction materials, landscaping and vegetation types, and industrial, commercial and residential areas in cities. In this study, we deployed a mobile eddy covariance tower at three different locations in the Phoenix, Arizona, metropolitan area to capture a variety of urban land covers. The three locations each represent a common urban class in Phoenix: 1) a dense, xeric landscape (gravel cover and native plants with drip-irrigation systems near tall buildings); 2) a high-density urban site (asphalt-paved parking lot near a high-traffic intersection); and 3) a suburban mesic landscape (sprinkler-irrigated turf grass in a suburban neighborhood). At each site, we measured meteorological variables, including air temperature and relative humidity at three heights, precipitation and pressure, surface temperature, and soil moisture and temperature (where applicable), to complement the eddy covariance measurements of radiation, energy, carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes. We evaluated the tower footprint at each site to characterize the contributing surface area to the flux measurements, including engineered and landscaping elements, as a function of time for each deployment. The different sites allowed us to compare how turbulent fluxes of water vapor and carbon dioxide vary for these representative urban land covers, in particular with respect to the role of precipitation events and irrigation. While the deployments covered different seasons, from winter to summer in 2015, the variety of daily conditions allowed quantification of the differential response to precipitation events during the winter, pre

  17. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  18. Exogenous Calcium Alleviates Low Night Temperature Stress on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Tomato Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yang; Meng, Zhaojuan; Lu, Tao; Li, Tianlai

    2014-01-01

    The effect of exogenous CaCl2 on photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII) activities, cyclic electron flow (CEF), and proton motive force of tomato leaves under low night temperature (LNT) was investigated. LNT stress decreased the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), effective quantum yield of PSII [Y(II)], and photochemical quenching (qP), whereas CaCl2 pretreatment improved Pn, Y(II), and qP under LNT stress. LNT stress significantly increased the non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation [Y(NO)], whereas CaCl2 alleviated this increase. Exogenous Ca2+ enhanced stimulation of CEF by LNT stress. Inhibition of oxidized PQ pools caused by LNT stress was alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. LNT stress reduced zeaxanthin formation and ATPase activity, but CaCl2 pretreatment reversed both of these effects. LNT stress caused excess formation of a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane, whereas CaCl2 pretreatment decreased the said factor under LNT. Thus, our results showed that photoinhibition of LNT-stressed plants could be alleviated by CaCl2 pretreatment. Our findings further revealed that this alleviation was mediated in part by improvements in carbon fixation capacity, PQ pools, linear and cyclic electron transports, xanthophyll cycles, and ATPase activity. PMID:24828275

  19. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed. PMID:23750633

  20. Engineering for Sustainable Energy Education within Suburban, Urban and Developing Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaikai, Moijue; Baker, Erin

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial that the younger generation be included in the conversation of sustainable development, given the urgent need of a global transition to cleaner energy solutions. Sustainable energy engineering (SEE) taught as early as secondary school can not only increase the number of students that will potentially study engineering to solve global…

  1. Changing Urban Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagano, Helen P.

    1974-01-01

    In an urbanized society, work and leisure include an orientation toward control, achievement, and the mobilization of energy to specific ends. Workers' attitudes, both white and blue collar, are becoming increasingly permissive and exploratory. (Author)

  2. Agent Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Traffic congestion problems provide a unique environment to study how multi-agent systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among agents lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, agents need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other agents, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an agent selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The agent rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to provide the agents with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how agents learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how agents learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. agents using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas agents using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and agents using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.

  3. Arctigenin alleviates ER stress via activating AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yuan; Sun, Xiao-xiao; Ye, Ji-ming; He, Li; Yan, Shou-sheng; Zhang, Hao-hao; Hu, Li-hong; Yuan, Jun-ying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effects of arctigenin (ATG), a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan from Arctium lappa L (Compositae), against ER stress in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A cell-based screening assay for ER stress regulators was established. Cell viability was measured using MTT assay. PCR and Western blotting were used to analyze gene and protein expression. Silencing of the CaMKKβ, LKB1, and AMPKα1 genes was achieved by RNA interference (RNAi). An ATP bioluminescent assay kit was employed to measure the intracellular ATP levels. Results: ATG (2.5, 5 and 10 μmol/L) inhibited cell death and unfolded protein response (UPR) in a concentration-dependent manner in cells treated with the ER stress inducer brefeldin A (100 nmol/L). ATG (1, 5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly attenuated protein synthesis in cells through inhibiting mTOR-p70S6K signaling and eEF2 activity, which were partially reversed by silencing AMPKα1 with RNAi. ATG (1-50 μmol/L) reduced intracellular ATP level and activated AMPK through inhibiting complex I-mediated respiration. Pretreatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C (25 μmol/L) rescued the inhibitory effects of ATG on ER stress. Furthermore, ATG (2.5 and 5 μmol/L) efficiently activated AMPK and reduced the ER stress and cell death induced by palmitate (2 mmol/L) in INS-1 β cells. Conclusion: ATG is an effective ER stress alleviator, which protects cells against ER stress through activating AMPK, thus attenuating protein translation and reducing ER load. PMID:22705729

  4. Why may allopregnanolone help alleviate loneliness?

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, S; Cacioppo, J T

    2015-12-01

    Impaired biosynthesis of Allopregnanolone (ALLO), a brain endogenous neurosteroid, has been associated with numerous behavioral dysfunctions, which range from anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors to aggressive behavior and changes in responses to contextual fear conditioning in rodent models of emotional dysfunction. Recent animal research also demonstrates a critical role of ALLO in social isolation. Although there are likely aspects of perceived social isolation that are uniquely human, there is also continuity across species. Both human and animal research show that perceived social isolation (which can be defined behaviorally in animals and humans) has detrimental effects on physical health, such as increased hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and increased depressive behavior. The similarities between animal and human research suggest that perceived social isolation (loneliness) may also be associated with a reduction in the synthesis of ALLO, potentially by reducing BDNF regulation and increasing HPA activity through the hippocampus, amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), especially during social threat processing. Accordingly, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursor, such as pregnenolone), in humans may help alleviate loneliness. Congruent with our hypothesis, exogenous administration of ALLO (or ALLO precursors) in humans has been shown to improve various stress-related disorders that show similarities between animals and humans i.e., post-traumatic stress disorders, traumatic brain injuries. Because a growing body of evidence demonstrates the benefits of ALLO in socially isolated animals, we believe our ALLO hypothesis can be applied to loneliness in humans, as well. PMID:26365247

  5. Identifying solar energy potentials and intensifying the climate-friendly use of photovoltaics within urban areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, N.

    2016-04-01

    Limited non-renewable fossil energy reserves and the essential ideas of sustainability have caused an increase in the demand for solar energy. The intensified use of renewable energy in Germany is primarily encouraged by the German renewable-energy-law. Solar panels mounted on roofs generate electricity using the energy radiated from the sun by taking advantage of the photovoltaic effect. However, not every roof is usable for power generation through solar energy. Therefore, web-based solar energy registers for multiple regions in Germany have been developed that provide detailed information on roofs suitable for carrying solar panels. The analyses are based on a digital object model derived from airborne laser scanning data of high accuracy and a fully automated technology to classify the points. First, roof points are separated according to their single roof sides and are converted into polygons. Then, exposure, slope, size of the roof, and particularly shading effects are computed to calculate the solar potential of each roof side. The web-GIS provides detailed information about the roof's suitability, such as the installable capacity and the expected generation of electricity. Thus, it helps house owners to calculate their investment and later revenues.

  6. Passive load alleviation bi-stable morphing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, A. F.; Bilgen, O.; Friswell, M. I.; Hagedorn, P.

    2012-09-01

    In wind turbines, large loads caused by fluid structure interaction leading to fatigue failure and added robustness to withstand high bending stresses on the root of blades constitute important design bottlenecks. Implementation of morphing offers a potential solution for such challenges in wind turbine blades. In this letter, a passive load alleviating bi-stable morphing concept is proposed. A bi-stable specimen designed to have different stiffness and dynamic response characteristics on each stable state is devised as a compliant structure. Passive alleviation mechanisms require no active components to achieve the load alleviation objective, resulting in lighter and simpler designs in comparison to actively morphed solutions.

  7. A passive gust alleviation system for a light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roesch, P.; Harlan, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A passive aeromechanical gust alleviation system was examined for application to a Cessna 172. The system employs small auxiliary wings to sense changes in angle of attack and to drive the wing flaps to compensate the resulting incremental lift. The flaps also can be spring loaded to neutralize the effects of variations in dynamic pressure. Conditions for gust alleviation are developed and shown to introduce marginal stability if both vertical and horizontal gusts are compensated. Satisfactory behavior is realized if only vertical gusts are absorbed; however, elevator control is effectively negated by the system. Techniques to couple the elevator and flaps are demonstrated to restore full controllability without sacrifice of gust alleviation.

  8. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with TEB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2015-06-01

    A forecast of the snowfall helps winter coordination operating services, reducing the cost of the maintenance actions, and the environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icing. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavement, the forecast of the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Physical numerical models provide such forecast, and do need an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with all the energy interactions, with two approaches to evaluate the traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the traffic effect on RST increase with respect to non circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  9. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    essential and could hold the key to making gains toward alleviating the burden of global poverty.

  10. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  11. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling

  12. How to alleviate perineal pain following an episiotomy.

    PubMed

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-03-30

    Rationale and key points An episiotomy increases maternal morbidity in the postnatal period. Alleviating perineal pain is an important aspect of maternal health care. ▶ A combination of pain relief methods, systemic and localised, may be required to alleviate perineal pain associated with an episiotomy. ▶ It is important that midwives and doctors advise women on how to alleviate perineal pain, prevent infection and promote healing following an episiotomy. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The advice you would give to a woman who has recently given birth to alleviate perineal pain. 2. The short and long-term problems associated with perineal pain. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:27027195

  13. Urban History, Urban Health

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Over the course of the 20th century, the United States became an urban nation: 80% of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Supplying basic sanitary services—drinking water, sewers, and garbage removal—to these cities is a gargantuan task, yet most people have little understanding of urban infrastructure systems and their enormous regional ecologic impacts. Municipalization of sanitary services, especially since 1880, distanced people from their wastes and gave city dwellers a simplistic experience of one-way material flow through cities, without knowledge of the environmental costs. Most sanitary infrastructures were built primarily for durability and lack the elasticity to meet changing needs. The challenge now is to adapt sanitary systems for flexibility and simultaneously move from unchecked material consumption toward resource-based thinking. PMID:11726370

  14. Microbial Fuel Cells for Direct Electrical Energy Recovery from Urban Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Capodaglio, A. G.; Molognoni, D.; Dallago, E.; Liberale, A.; Cella, R.; Longoni, P.; Pantaleoni, L.

    2013-01-01

    Application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to wastewater treatment for direct recovery of electric energy appears to provide a potentially attractive alternative to traditional treatment processes, in an optic of costs reduction, and tapping of sustainable energy sources that characterizes current trends in technology. This work focuses on a laboratory-scale, air-cathode, and single-chamber MFC, with internal volume of 6.9 L, operating in batch mode. The MFC was fed with different types of substrates. This study evaluates the MFC behaviour, in terms of organic matter removal efficiency, which reached 86% (on average) with a hydraulic retention time of 150 hours. The MFC produced an average power density of 13.2 mW/m3, with a Coulombic efficiency ranging from 0.8 to 1.9%. The amount of data collected allowed an accurate analysis of the repeatability of MFC electrochemical behaviour, with regards to both COD removal kinetics and electric energy production. PMID:24453885

  15. Microbial fuel cells for direct electrical energy recovery from urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, A G; Molognoni, D; Dallago, E; Liberale, A; Cella, R; Longoni, P; Pantaleoni, L

    2013-01-01

    Application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to wastewater treatment for direct recovery of electric energy appears to provide a potentially attractive alternative to traditional treatment processes, in an optic of costs reduction, and tapping of sustainable energy sources that characterizes current trends in technology. This work focuses on a laboratory-scale, air-cathode, and single-chamber MFC, with internal volume of 6.9 L, operating in batch mode. The MFC was fed with different types of substrates. This study evaluates the MFC behaviour, in terms of organic matter removal efficiency, which reached 86% (on average) with a hydraulic retention time of 150 hours. The MFC produced an average power density of 13.2 mW/m(3), with a Coulombic efficiency ranging from 0.8 to 1.9%. The amount of data collected allowed an accurate analysis of the repeatability of MFC electrochemical behaviour, with regards to both COD removal kinetics and electric energy production. PMID:24453885

  16. Accounting for anthropic energy flux of traffic in winter urban road surface temperature simulations with the TEB model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, A.; Marchetti, M.; Bouilloud, L.; Martin, E.; Bues, M.; Chancibaut, K.

    2016-02-01

    Snowfall forecasts help winter maintenance of road networks, ensure better coordination between services, cost control, and a reduction in environmental impacts caused by an inappropriate use of de-icers. In order to determine the possible accumulation of snow on pavements, forecasting the road surface temperature (RST) is mandatory. Weather outstations are used along these networks to identify changes in pavement status, and to make forecasts by analyzing the data they provide. Physical numerical models provide such forecasts, and require an accurate description of the infrastructure along with meteorological parameters. The objective of this study was to build a reliable urban RST forecast with a detailed integration of traffic in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) numerical model for winter maintenance. The study first consisted in generating a physical and consistent description of traffic in the model with two approaches to evaluate traffic incidence on RST. Experiments were then conducted to measure the effect of traffic on RST increase with respect to non-circulated areas. These field data were then used for comparison with the forecast provided by this traffic-implemented TEB version.

  17. Making a technological choice for disaster management and poverty alleviation in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2009-03-01

    The right mix of policy, institutional arrangements and use of technology provides the framework for a country's approach to disaster mitigation. Worldwide, there has been a shift away from a strictly 'top-down' approach relying on government alone, to a combination of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approaches. The aim is to enhance the indigenous coping mechanisms of vulnerable communities; draw on their cooperative spirit and energy; and empower them through appropriate information and contextual knowledge to mitigate natural disasters. In light of this, the paper examines India's use of space technology in its disaster management efforts. Poverty alleviation and disaster management are almost inseparable in many parts of the country, as vulnerability to natural disasters is closely aligned with poverty. Addressing these issues together requires integrated knowledge systems. The paper examines how knowledge inputs from space technology have strengthened the national resolve to combat natural disasters in conjunction with alleviating rural poverty. PMID:18498370

  18. Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W.

    2003-01-01

    The research literature on urban education has tended to focus on the problems of low-status minority groups, the complexity of urban school systems, and the financing and governance of such systems. Given this focus, the deeper problems and the significant opportunities associated with the condition of urbanicity have not yet been properly…

  19. Innovative Power-Augmentation-Guide-Vane Design of Wind-Solar Hybrid Renewable Energy Harvester for Urban High Rise Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Chong Wen; Zainon, M. Z.; Chew, Poh Sin; Kui, Soo Chun; Keong, Wee Seng; Chen, Pan Kok

    2010-06-01

    To generate greater quantities of energy from wind, the most efficient solution would be by increasing the wind speed. Also, due to the decreasing number of economic wind energy sites, there are plans to place wind turbines closer to populated areas. To site wind turbines out from rural areas, the current problems of wind turbines need to be resolved, especially visual impact, poor starting behaviour in low wind speeds, noise and danger caused by blade failure. In this paper, a patented wind-solar hybrid renewable energy harvester is introduced. It is a compact system that integrates and optimizes several green elements and can be built on the top (or between upper levels) of high rise buildings or structures. This system can be used in remote and urban areas, particularly at locations where the wind speed is lower and more turbulent. It overcomes the inferior aspect on the low wind speed by guiding and increasing the speed of the high altitude free-stream wind through fixed or yaw-able power-augmentation-guide-vane (PAGV) before entering the wind turbine (straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine, VAWT in this project) at center portion. PAGV is a new and innovative design where its appearance or outer design can be blended into the building architecture without negative visual impact. From the studies, it is shown that the wind speed increment in the PAGV can be produced according to the Bernoulli's principle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is used to optimize the geometry of the PAGV and the simulation results demonstrated the technical possibility of this innovative concept. The PAGV replaces the free air-stream from wind by multiple channels of speed-increased and directional-controlled air-stream. With the PAGV, this lift-type VAWT can be self-started and its size can be reduced for a given power output. The design is also safer since the VAWT is enclosed by the PAGV. By integrating the PAGV with the VAWT (the diameter and height of PAGV are 2

  20. Elemental concentration analysis in soil contaminated with recyclable urban garbage by tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.; Jesus, E. F. O.; Assis, J. T.; Cesareo, R.; Barroso, R. C.; Barradas, C. A. A.

    2002-11-01

    Soil and radish (Raphanus Sp) samples from areas treated with organic compost of recyclable urban garbage were quantitatively analyzed by using tube-excited energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Soils treated with 10, 20 and 30 t/ha of recyclable urban garbage and control soil were analyzed. The layer soils were collected at 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm depth. It was possible simultaneously to determine the elemental concentration of various elements: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb in recyclable urban garbage, soil treated with organic compost of recyclable urban garbage and radish plants cultivated in these soils. The elemental concentration of K, Ca, Ti and Fe were determined at percent level (macro-elements) and the other elements at ppm level (micro-elements). It was also possible to observe a significant increase in the contents of K, Ca, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb in the soil treated in comparison with the control soil and it was also verified whether the transport of these elements to radish plants cultivated in these soils occurred.

  1. Predicting ice accretion and alleviating galloping on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Mingliang

    2002-04-01

    Both the static and dynamic effects of an ice storm on an overhead power line are investigated fairly comprehensively in this thesis. To determine the static, extreme ice load as well as the combined ice and wind load, a systematic procedure is established based on extensive freezing rain experiments and a Monte Carlo simulation. On the other hand, a dynamic effect---galloping---is examined quite extensively with the objective of better understanding its behavior. A novel add-on device---the hybrid nutation damper (HND)---is proposed to control galloping. Its effectiveness is assessed numerically by using a modified, 3DOF based, galloping software. The present investigations lead to the following findings. (i) Goodwin's simple theoretical model surprisingly predicts, quite accurately, the temporally changing weight of not only a dry ice growth but also a wet ice growth for a fixed, unheated conductor sample. (ii) The maximum ice loading may vary significantly over a power line's planned lifetime because of the randomness of an ice storm and its characteristics as well as the uncertainty involved in identifying the extreme probability distribution of the ice loading. Consequently, backup protection is presently essential for a power line in an ice prone area. (iii) A conductor's torsional flexibility does not appear to affect the growth of the accreted ice weight but it modifies the ice shape significantly. (iv) Three representative ice shapes (a crescent, D-like and icicle pendant) can initiate galloping so that galloping may occur in any icing condition. (v) A noticeable swingback or twist appears to develop only when their respective natural frequencies coincide with the plunge's natural frequency. (vi) A hydraulic jump is the major source of energy dissipation in a nutation damper. A properly induced rotation can significantly enhance a nutation damper's performance. (vii) A hybrid nutation damper has been demonstrated to be a promising means of alleviating

  2. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuwang; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract θ, α, and β subbands of drivers' electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms (θ + α)/(α + β) and θ/β are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. PMID:25254242

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of Chromium in Alleviating Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Clark, Suzanne; Ren, Jun; Sreejayan, Nair

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular anomalies and is a major health problem approaching global epidemic proportions. Insulin resistance, a prediabetic condition, precedes the onset of frank type 2 diabetes and offers potential avenues for early intervention to treat the disease. Although lifestyle modifications and exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, compliance has proved to be difficult, warranting pharmacological interventions. However, most of the currently available drugs that improve insulin sensitivity have adverse effects. Therefore, attractive strategies to alleviate insulin resistance include dietary supplements. One such supplement is chromium, which has been shown reduce insulin resistance in some, but not all, studies. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance remain elusive. This review examines emerging reports on the effect of chromium, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms by which chromium may provide beneficial effects in alleviating insulin resistance. PMID:22423897

  4. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  5. Experimental investigations on wake vortices and their alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaş, Ömer

    2005-05-01

    Recent wake vortex research in the laboratory has benefited considerably from concurrent analytical and numerical research on the instability of vortex systems. Tow tank, with dye flow visualization and particle image velocimetry is the most effective combination for laboratory research. Passive and active wake alleviation schemes have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory. The passive alleviation systems exploit the natural evolution of vortex instabilities while the active systems rely on hastening selected instabilities by forcing the vortices individually or as a system. Their practical applicability, however, will have to meet further criteria beyond those dictated by fluid dynamics. To cite this article: Ö. Savaş, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

  6. Climatology of urban regional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The combining of remote sensing technologies to urban-regional energy climatology is studied. It was found to be three dimensional with a mosaic urban surface, each smaller surface with its own radiant and thermal properties. Urban patterns of radiant exchange were found to be constantly changing during diurnal and annual cycles. Results were derived from Barbados data using remote methods for monitoring and mapping radiation. Isoline maps of terrestrial radiation patterns were made generalizing the minute patterns of the scan image.

  7. Genotoxicity, inflammation and physico-chemical properties of fine particle samples from an incineration energy plant and urban air.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Rank, Jette; White, Paul A; Lundstedt, Staffan; Gagne, Remi; Jacobsen, Nicklas R; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2007-10-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) was sampled by use of an electrostatic sampler in an oven hall and a receiving hall in a waste-incineration energy plant, and from urban air in a heavy-traffic street and from background air in Copenhagen. PM was sampled for 1-2 weeks, four samples at each site. The samples were extracted and examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, YG1041 and YG5161, for content of inorganic elements and for the presence of eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The induction of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and the presence of DNA damage - tested by the comet assay - were determined after 24-h incubations with human A549 lung epithelial cells. The PM(2.5) concentration was about twofold greater in the oven hall than in the receiving hall. The particle size distribution in the receiving hall was similar to that in street air (maximum mode at about 25nm), but the distribution was completely different in the oven hall (maximum mode at about 150nm). Also chemically, the samples from the oven hall were highly different from the other samples. PM extracts from the receiving hall, street and background air were more mutagenic than the PM extracts from the oven hall. PM from all four sites caused similar levels of DNA damage in A549 cells; only the oven hall samples gave results that were statistically significantly different from those obtained with street-air samples. The receiving hall and the urban air samples were similarly inflammatory (relative IL-8 mRNA expression), whereas the oven hall did not cause a statistically significant increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. A principal component analysis separated the oven hall and the receiving hall by the first principal component. These two sites were separated from street and background air with the second principal component. Several clusters of constituents were identified. One cluster consisted of all the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), several groups of metals and one

  8. Gust alleviation system to improve ride comfort of light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Phillips, W. H.; Hewes, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    System consists of movable auxiliary aerodynamic sensors mounted on fuselage and connected to trailing-edge flaps by rigid mechanical linkages. System achieves alleviation by reducing lift-curve slope of airplane to such a small value that gust-induced angles of attack will result in small changes in lift.

  9. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-01-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in…

  10. Training Teachers as Key Players in Poverty Alleviation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Ana; Ralambomanana, Stangeline; Mbanze, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    This article presents several questions, reflections and suggestions on pre-service and in-service teacher training that arose during the project "Curricular innovation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa". While recognizing that the situation in the nine countries taking part in the project, and in many other countries in the southern…

  11. Alleviating Stress in Parents of High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Possible sources of stress for parents of preterm high-risk infants are reviewed from a research perspective. Stages of parental attachment to their premature baby are spelled out. Strategies for special education teachers to use in alleviating parental stress are described. (JDD)

  12. Elder Abuse and Neglect Risk Alleviation in Protective Services.

    PubMed

    Burnes, David P R; Rizzo, Victoria M; Courtney, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about conditions associated with favorable elder mistreatment (EM) case outcomes. The fundamental goal of EM protective service programs is to alleviate risk associated with substantiated cases of elder abuse and neglect. Using the EM socio-cultural model, this study examined victim, perpetrator, victim-perpetrator relationship, social embeddedness, and socio-cultural factors predicting risk alleviation of EM cases. Data from a random sample of EM protective social service cases (n = 250) at a large community agency in New York City were collected and coded by multiple, independent raters. Multinomial and binary logistic regression were used to examine undifferentiated risk alleviation for the entire sample of EM cases as well as differentiated financial, emotional, and physical abuse sub-types. Undifferentiated EM risk alleviation was associated with male victim gender, older victim age, previous community help-seeking, and victim-perpetrator dyads characterized by a separate living arrangement and shorter term abuse longevity. Financial abuse cases with younger perpetrators were less likely to have risk reduction. Physical abuse risk reduction was less likely when the perpetrator was male and the victim-perpetrator dyad included different genders. Distinct findings across EM sub-types suggest a need to develop targeted practice strategies with clients experiencing different forms of EM. Findings highlight a need to develop EM protective service infrastructure around perpetrator rehabilitation. PMID:24407144

  13. Urban Renewal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the court-ordered, multibillion-dollar infusion of funds to New Jersey cities for improving their school facilities and whether these additional funds will cause an urban renaissance. Some examples of New Jersey urban school facility needs are highlighted. (GR)

  14. Urban Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Kathy

    Designed as a resource for urban adult basic education (ABE) program planners, this guidebook describes model linkage strategies between ABE and job placement as well as ABE and job training services that are targeted to urban Americans. The following topics are covered in the guide: linkage strategies (the meaning of the term linkages, community…

  15. 1999-2002 Public Housing Partnership: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ternes, M.P.

    2003-06-18

    In December 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) entered into an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its Rebuild America Program to promote conservation and reduce utility costs in public housing through forums, research, demonstration, and evaluation. The IAA was effectively implemented from November 2000 to December 2002. Under the IAA, Rebuild America established 31 new partnerships with public housing authorities, started 6 new partnerships with organizations that focus on public housing, and initiated new projects with 6 existing Rebuild America public housing partnerships. These 43 partnerships directly involved 51 public housing authorities in 77 energy-related projects (several of the 43 partnerships involved multiple housing authorities and projects). Rebuild America assistance on these projects encompassed a wide range of activities, including planning assistance on energy management and capital investment, reviews of utility consumption and metering options, assistance in implementing HUD's energy incentives, design reviews and energy analyses, and assistance in the development of energy projects and resident programs. In addition, Rebuild America made presentations to housing authorities on energy efficiency opportunities and solutions and provided energy training on selected topics at 23 conferences and workshops that impacted many more housing authorities. This report provides an overview of the accomplishments achieved under the IAA; describes the 77 projects that have been completed, are under way, or are planned; and summarizes the presentations and training provided.

  16. Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Although satellite data are very useful for analysis of the urban heat island effect at a coarse scale, they do not lend themselves to developing a better understanding of which surfaces across the city contribute or drive the development of the urban heat island effect. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., less than 15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace the benefits of the urban forest. These benefits include mitigating the urban heat island effect, making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and aid in overall cooling of the community. High spatial resolution thermal data are required to quantify how artificial surfaces within the city contribute to an increase in urban heating and the benefit of cool surfaces (e.g., surface coatings that reflect much of the incoming solar radiation as opposed to absorbing it thereby lowering urban temperatures). The TRN (thermal response number) is a technique using aircraft remotely sensed surface temperatures to quantify the thermal response of urban surfaces. The TRN was used to quantify the thermal response of various urban surface types ranging from completely vegetated surfaces to asphalt and concrete parking lots for Huntsville, AL.

  17. The Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandercock, Ted

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the nature of energy, the ways in which it is used in our society, non-polluting sources of energy, and means by which energy can be conserved to alleviate the shortage and minimize environmental degradation. (JR)

  18. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  19. Urban Age and Urban Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaile, Gary L.; Yardley, Susan A.

    While there exists considerable sentiment about the older urban areas of the United States, little empirical work dealing explicitly with the problems of these areas has been done. This study is a preliminary investigation into the use of urban age as an independent variable. Preliminary results indicate that: (1) racial transition is not related…

  20. Summaries of urban consortium energy task force projects for 1994. Final report, February 1, 1994--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Summaries of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in residential buildings and community units are described. Projects were concerned with energy efficient appliances, energy efficient mortgages, a neighborhood conservation power program, a utility and industrial/commercial governments energy efficiency unit, photovoltaics for municipal uses, integration of demand side management incentives, energy efficient motors, and the transportation sector.

  1. Climatic effects of urban expansion over the three largest urban agglomerations of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qian; Yu, Deyong; Georgescu, Matei; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has long been known to affect local, regional, and global climate. China is urbanizing at an unprecedented rate, and modification of land surface to urban areas has raised climate concerns for its citizens. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we examine how urbanization under different intensities and climate regimes affects regional climate of the three largest urban agglomerations across China - the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). We simulated three urban expansion scenarios corresponding to 1988, 2000, and 2010 conditions into the WRF model, with each scenario simulated by three separate summers (i.e., 2001, 2003, and 2005). Urban extent of the three regions indicates stable growth during 1988 - 2000, followed by a phase of rapid expansion during 2000 - 2010. Our simulations show that urban environment-induced near-surface warming, mainly rising temperatures during nighttime, is greatest over the BTH with local maximum warming approaching 1.5 °C, followed by the YRD with peak warming reaching 1 °C and the PRD 0.8 °C. Due to the initial moisture conditions, the YRD and the PRD suffer more humidity deficit, particularly during daytime, with maximum reductions in water vapor mixing ratio reaching 0.8 g/kg. Our findings demonstrate that urban expansion has warmed and dried the urbanized regions in eastern China. The spatial pattern and magnitude of temperature and humidity differences quantified by our simulations provide useful information for understanding the impacts of urbanization on regional climate and for developing mitigation and adaptation strategies that can alleviate the deleterious impacts induced by urban expansion.

  2. A beginners guide for video production. [Prepared by the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The Seattle-King County Hazardous Waste Management Plan provides the framework for an intensive effort to keep Household Hazardous Waste (HHW) and Small Quantity Generator (SQG) wastes from entering the municipal solid and liquid waste streams. Many innovative programs for managing small sources of hazardous waste have been developed in response to the Plan. With the assistance of Urban Consortium grants, the City of Seattle has researched and developed a series of reports describing the planning, operation and evaluation of the plan's HHW collection programs. Three of the Plan's programs of particular interest to other jurisdictions are the fixed site and mobile HHW Collection Facilities, and the Business Waste Consultations provided to SQG's. In 1991, Seattle received an Urban Consortium grant to produce two videos showing how the HHW Collection Facilities and Business Consultations programs work. This report provides an overviews of the video development and production process and a discussion of the lessons learned by the staff directing the production.

  3. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  4. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  5. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  6. Active control landing gear for ground loads alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An active landing gear has been created by connecting the hydraulic piston in an oleo strut to a hydraulic supply. A controller modulates the pressure in the oleo to achieve the desired dynamic characteristics. Tests on ground rigs (documented by a film) have demonstrated the successful alleviation of induced structural ground loads and the next step will be a flight test using a fighter aircraft.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 alleviates alcoholic liver steatosis: histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Palipoch, Sarawoot; Koomhin, Phanit; Punsawad, Chuchard; Na-Ek, Prasit; Sattayakhom, Apsorn; Suwannalert, Prasit

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most important causes of hepatic steatosis, which involves oxidative stress. In particular, increased oxidative stress has been strongly linked to stimulation of the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study aimed to investigate whether HO-1 could alleviates alcoholic steatosis in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) the control group, 2) the EtOH group, 3) the EtOH + ZnPP-IX group and 4) the EtOH + Hemin group. Liver histopathology was investigated in weeks 1 and 4 after the start of the treatment period. Alcohol treatment significantly increased the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, an oxidative stress marker. In addition, it increased the triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in both weeks. Gross examination demonstrated a yellowish and slightly enlarged liver in the alcohol-treated rats. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Oil Red O staining indicated hepatic steatosis, which was characterized by diffuse, extensive fatty accumulation and discrete lipid droplets of variable size in hepatocytes of the alcohol-treated rats. Administration of the HO-1 inducer hemin resulted in upregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression, reduced the MDA, triglyceride, ALT and AST levels and alleviated alcoholic hepatic steatosis, whereas administration of the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX) resulted in downregulation of hepatic HO-1 gene expression and could not alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis either week. In conclusion, HO-1 could alleviate alcoholic hepatic steatosis in male Wistar rats and may be useful in development of a new therapeutic approach. PMID:26989297

  8. Vortex wake alleviation studies with a variable twist wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holbrook, G. T.; Dunham, D. M.; Greene, G. C.

    1985-01-01

    Vortex wake alleviation studies were conducted in a wind tunnel and a water towing tank using a multisegmented wing model which provided controlled and measured variations in span load. Fourteen model configurations are tested at a Reynolds number of one million and a lift coefficient of 0.6 in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel and the Hydronautics Ship Model Basin water tank at Hydronautics, Inc., Laurel, Md. Detailed measurements of span load and wake velocities at one semispan downstream correlate well with each other, with inviscid predictions of span load and wake roll up, and with peak trailing-wing rolling moments measured in the far wake. Average trailing-wing rolling moments are found to be an unreliable indicator of vortex wake intensity because vortex meander does not scale between test facilities and free-air conditions. A tapered-span-load configuration, which exhibits little or no drag penalty, is shown to offer significant downstream wake alleviation to a small trailing wing. The greater downstream wake alleviation achieved with the addition of spoilers to a flapped-wing configuration is shown to result directly from the high incremental drag and turbulence associated with the spoilers and not from the span load alteration they cause.

  9. A study of helicopter gust response alleviation by automatic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saito, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two control schemes designed to alleviate gust-induced vibration are analytically investigated for a helicopter with four articulated blades. One is an individual blade pitch control scheme. The other is an adaptive blade pitch control algorithm based on linear optimal control theory. In both controllers, control inputs to alleviate gust response are superimposed on the conventional control inputs required to maintain the trim condition. A sinusoidal vertical gust model and a step gust model are used. The individual blade pitch control, in this research, is composed of sensors and a pitch control actuator for each blade. Each sensor can detect flapwise (or lead-lag or torsionwise) deflection of the respective blade. The acturator controls the blade pitch angle for gust alleviation. Theoretical calculations to predict the performance of this feedback system have been conducted by means of the harmonic method. The adaptive blade pitch control system is composed of a set of measurements (oscillatory hub forces and moments), an identification system using a Kalman filter, and a control system based on the minimization of the quadratic performance function.

  10. Coronatine alleviates water deficiency stress on winter wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwen; Shen, Xuefeng; Li, Jianmin; Eneji, Anthony Egrinya; Li, Zhaohu; Tian, Xiaoli; Duan, Liusheng

    2010-07-01

    With the aim to determine whether coronatine (COR) alleviates drought stress on wheat, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ChangWu134 (drought-tolerant) and Shan253 (drought-sensitive) were studied under hydroponic conditions. Seedlings at the three-leaf stage were cultured in a Hoagland solution containing COR at 0.1 microM for 24 h, and then exposed to 20% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG-6000). Under simulated drought (SD), COR increased the dry weight of shoots and roots of the two cultivars significantly; the root/shoot ratio also increased by 30% for Shan253 and 40% for ChangWu134. Both cultivars treated with COR under SD (0.1COR+PEG) maintained significantly higher relative water content, photosynthesis, transpiration, intercellular concentration of CO(2) and stomatal conductance in leaves than those not treated with PEG. Under drought, COR significantly decreased the relative conductivity and malondialdehyde production, and the loss of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity in leaves was significantly alleviated in COR-treated plants. The activity of peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were adversely affected by drought. Leaves of plants treated with COR under drought produced less abscisic acid (ABA) than those not treated. Thus, COR might alleviate drought effects on wheat by reducing active oxygen species production, activating antioxidant enzymes and changing the ABA level. PMID:20590992

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

    PubMed Central

    Evelin, Heikham; Kapoor, Rupam; Giri, Bhoopander

    2009-01-01

    Background Salt stress has become a major threat to plant growth and productivity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant root systems and modulate plant growth in various ways. Scope This review addresses the significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. It also focuses on recent progress in unravelling biochemical, physiological and molecular mechanisms in mycorrhizal plants to alleviate salt stress. Conclusions The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviating salt stress is well documented. This paper reviews the mechanisms arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi employ to enhance the salt tolerance of host plants such as enhanced nutrient acquisition (P, N, Mg and Ca), maintenance of the K+ : Na+ ratio, biochemical changes (accumulation of proline, betaines, polyamines, carbohydrates and antioxidants), physiological changes (photosynthetic efficiency, relative permeability, water status, abscissic acid accumulation, nodulation and nitrogen fixation), molecular changes (the expression of genes: PIP, Na+/H+ antiporters, Lsnced, Lslea and LsP5CS) and ultra-structural changes. Theis review identifies certain lesser explored areas such as molecular and ultra-structural changes where further research is needed for better understanding of symbiosis with reference to salt stress for optimum usage of this technology in the field on a large scale. This review paper gives useful benchmark information for the development and prioritization of future research programmes. PMID:19815570

  12. Urban Heat Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. Research studies from many cities have documented these effects range from decreases in air quality, increased energy consumption and alteration of regional climate to direct effects on human health.

  13. Helicopter gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, and vibration alleviation using individual-blade-control through a conventional swash plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    The novel active control system presented for helicopter rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems involves the individual control of each blade in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies (up to the sixth harmonic of rotor speed). This Individual Blade Control (IBC) system controls blade pitch by means of broadband electrohydraulic actuators attached to the swash plate (in the case of three blades) or individually to each blade, using acceleratometer signals to furnish control commands to the actuators. Attention is given to IBC's application to blade lag, flapping, and bending dynamics. It is shown that gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, and air/ground resonance suppression, are all achievable with a conventional helicopter swash plate.

  14. Urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Jes

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  15. Feeding and fueling the cities of the 21st century: Implications of declining energy quality and availability on the future growth and development of urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Stephen B.

    This dissertation comprises an introduction and four manuscripts and is organized into two main sections: agriculture and energy. Three of the four manuscripts have been published, and the fourth has been accepted for publication pending minor revisions. The agriculture section contains the first two manuscripts: The first manuscript is an analysis of the edible energy efficiency of US and Canadian agriculture. The main conclusion of this study was that the efficiency of US agriculture increased three-fold from its low in 1970 to 2000. Yet agricultural efficiency has returned to the level of only the 1940s and has increased much more slowly over the past two decades. In the second manuscript, I quantify the food demand, production, and footprint for Onondaga County and Syracuse, NY over the past 100 years. I find that the county could meet only 15% of its food demand from current farmland. The energy equivalent to approximately 2.8 million barrels of oil is required each year to grow and ship the food demanded by county residents. The energy section contains manuscripts three and four. The third manuscript contains a quantification of the transitions in the energy metabolism over the growth and maturation of a US city, by comparing the urban respiration of fuels to the annual net primary production of the land in and immediately surrounding the city. The fourth manuscript examines the net energy and greenhouse gas balance for willow energy-crop systems, a potential source of local energy production. We estimate that an EROI of 18:1 to 43:1 is possible at the farm-gate. Finally, I assess the opportunities for improving the energy metabolism of the City of Syracuse, using both supply and demand-based interventions. After considering many of the interventions available to improve the energy metabolism of the city, no one technology or policy or combination thereof appears to have the potential to replace fossil fuel consumption or reduce energy demand to the level

  16. Comparative estimates of anthropogenic heat emission in relation to surface energy balance of a subtropical urban neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Changhyoun; Schade, Gunnar W.; Werner, Nicholas D.; Sailor, David J.; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Long-term eddy covariance measurements have been conducted in a subtropical urban area, an older neighborhood north of downtown Houston. The measured net radiation (Q*), sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE) showed typical seasonal diurnal variations in urban areas: highest in summer; lowest in winter. From an analysis of a subset of the first two years of measurements, we find that approximately 42% of Q* is converted into H, and 22% into LE during daytime. The local anthropogenic heat emissions were estimated conventionally using the long-term residual method and the heat emission inventory approach. We also developed a footprint-weighted inventory approach, which combines the inventory approach with flux footprint calculations. The results show a range of annual anthropogenic heat fluxes from 20 W m-2 to 30 W m-2 within the study domain. Possibly as a result of local radiation versus heat flux footprint mismatches, the mean value of surface heat storage (ΔQs) was relatively large, approximately 43% and 34% of Q* in summer and winter, respectively, during daytime.

  17. Parallel Mitogenome Sequencing Alleviates Random Rooting Effect in Phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Shotaro; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Reliably rooted phylogenetic trees play irreplaceable roles in clarifying diversification in the patterns of species and populations. However, such trees are often unavailable in phylogeographic studies, particularly when the focus is on rapidly expanded populations that exhibit star-like trees. A fundamental bottleneck is known as the random rooting effect, where a distant outgroup tends to root an unrooted tree “randomly.” We investigated whether parallel mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing alleviates this effect in phylogeography using a case study on the Sea of Japan lineage of the intertidal goby Chaenogobius annularis. Eighty-three C. annularis individuals were collected and their mitogenomes were determined by high-throughput and low-cost parallel sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these mitogenome sequences was conducted to root the Sea of Japan lineage, which has a star-like phylogeny and had not been reliably rooted. The topologies of the bootstrap trees were investigated to determine whether the use of mitogenomes alleviated the random rooting effect. The mitogenome data successfully rooted the Sea of Japan lineage by alleviating the effect, which hindered phylogenetic analysis that used specific gene sequences. The reliable rooting of the lineage led to the discovery of a novel, northern lineage that expanded during an interglacial period with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the finding of this lineage suggested the existence of additional glacial refugia and provided a new recent calibration point that revised the divergence time estimation between the Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean lineages. This study illustrates the effectiveness of parallel mitogenome sequencing for solving the random rooting problem in phylogeographic studies. PMID:27016485

  18. ANTIANGIOGENESIS STRATEGIES REVISITED: FROM STARVING TUMORS TO ALLEVIATING HYPOXIA

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Ten antiangiogenic drugs targeting VEGF or its receptors are approved for cancer treatment. However, these agents, intended to block tumors’ blood supply, may cause hypoxia, which may fuel tumor progression and treatment resistance. Emerging clinical data suggest that patients whose tumor perfusion or oxygenation increases in response to these agents may actually survive longer. Hence, strategies aimed at alleviating tumor hypoxia while improving perfusion may enhance the outcome of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. Here, I summarize lessons learned from pre-clinical and clinical studies over the past decade and propose strategies for improving antiangiogenic therapy outcomes for malignant and nonmalignant diseases. PMID:25517747

  19. Ganokendra: An Innovative Model for Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Kazi Rafiqul

    2006-05-01

    Ganokendras (people's learning centers) employ a literacy-based approach to alleviating poverty in Bangladesh. They give special attention to empowering rural women, among whom poverty is widespread. The present study reviews the Ganokendra-approach to facilitating increased political and economic awareness and improving community conditions in line with government initiatives for poverty reduction. Many Ganokendras implement programmes geared towards income-generating activities and establish linkages with other service providers, both governmental and non-governmental. As is shown, one particularly successful strategy for facilitating women's economic empowerment involves co-ordinating micro-credit available through other agencies.

  20. A Comprehensive Robust Adaptive Controller for Gust Load Alleviation

    PubMed Central

    Quagliotti, Fulvia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the implementation and validation of an adaptive controller for aircraft gust load alleviation. The contribution of this paper is the design of a robust controller that guarantees the reduction of the gust loads, even when the nominal conditions change. Some preliminary results are presented, considering the symmetric aileron deflection as control device. The proposed approach is validated on subsonic transport aircraft for different mass and flight conditions. Moreover, if the controller parameters are tuned for a specific gust model, even if the gust frequency changes, no parameter retuning is required. PMID:24688411

  1. Urban hopper.

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Patrick Gordon; Feddema, John Todd; Little, Charles Quentin; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Fischer, Gary John; Weagle, Christian A.; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Marron, Lisa Carol; Malchano, Matthew D.; Giarrantana, John; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2010-03-01

    Hopping robots provide the possibility of breaking the link between the size of a ground vehicle and the largest obstacle that it can overcome. For more than a decade, DARPA and Sandia National Laboratories have been developing small-scale hopping robot technology, first as part of purely hopping platforms and, more recently, as part of platforms that are capable of both wheeled and hopping locomotion. In this paper we introduce the Urban Hopper robot and summarize its capabilities. The advantages of hopping for overcoming certain obstacles are discussed. Several configurations of the Urban Hopper are described, as are intelligent capabilities of the system. Key challenges are discussed.

  2. Resource Assessment for Afghanistan and Alleviation of Terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2002-05-01

    Mineral and water resources in Afghanistan may be the best means by which redevelopment of the country can be used to alleviate future terrorism. Remote-sensing analysis of snow, ice, resources, and topography in Afghanistan, and development of digital elevation models with ASTER imagery and previously classified, large scale topographic maps from the Department of Defense enable better assessment and forecasting resources in the country. Adequate resource assessment and planning is viewed as critical to alleviation of one cause of the problems associated with the fertilization of terrorism in Afghanistan. Long-term diminution of meltwater resources in Afghanistan is exemplified by the disastrous and famine-inducing droughts of the present time and three decades prior, as well as by the early Landsat assessment of glacier resources sponsored by USGS and now brought up-to-date with current imagery. Extensive cold-war projects undertaken by both the USSR and USA generated plentiful essential mineral, hydrocarbon, hydrogeological, and hydrological data, including an extensive stream gauging and vital irrigation network now adversly affected or destroyed entirely by decades of war. Analysis, measurement, prediction, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of critical resource projects are regarded as most critical elements in the war on terrorism in this portion of the world. The GLIMS (Global Land Ice Measurements from Space) Project, initially sponsored by USGS, has established our group as the Regional Center for Afghanistan and Pakistan, in which the above concepts serve as guiding research precepts.

  3. Alleviating rural poverty in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    El Sherbini, A A

    1986-02-01

    This analysis of rural poverty and hunger in Africa discusses the intertemporal and cross-sectional dimensions of poverty as an aid to policies and programs to alleviate hunger. Since nutritional adequacy of diets varies according to season, seasonality is an important cause of poverty especially in countries with 1 major harvest. In agricultural communities the wet season brings on food shortages and high prices, requiring assistance programs to concentrate on alleviating hunger at this time of year. Drought places a similar demand on resources. People may be poorer in 1 section of a country than another if they have no access to the existing power system, depriving them of services and assistance. There are forgotten regions of Africa where people are poor due to physical isolation, increasing the risk of drought and impeding emergency relief. Production in these areas may be low because there are no consumer goods to buy with surplus. It is important to identify target groups for financial assistance which will change with time and environmental conditions. PMID:12340567

  4. Inhibition of BET bromodomains alleviates inflammation in human RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Hytti, M; Tokarz, P; Määttä, E; Piippo, N; Korhonen, E; Suuronen, T; Honkakoski, P; Kaarniranta, K; Lahtela-Kakkonen, M; Kauppinen, A

    2016-06-15

    Bromodomain-containing proteins are vital for controlling the expression of many pro-inflammatory genes. Consequently, compounds capable of inhibiting specific bromodomain-facilitated protein-protein interactions would be predicted to alleviate inflammation, making them valuable agents in the treatment of diseases caused by dysregulated inflammation, such as age-related macular degeneration. Here, we assessed the ability of known inhibitors JQ-1, PFI-1, and IBET-151 to protect from the inflammation and cell death caused by etoposide exposure in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. The potential anti-inflammatory effects of the bromodomain inhibitors were assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) profiling. The involvement of NF-κB and SIRT1 in inflammatory signaling was monitored by ELISA and western blotting. Furthermore, SIRT1 was knocked down using a specific siRNA or inhibited by EX-527 to elucidate its role in the inflammatory reaction. The bromodomain inhibitors effectively decreased etoposide-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8. This anti-inflammatory effect was not related to SIRT1 activity, although all bromodomain inhibitors decreased the extent of acetylation of p53 at the SIRT1 deacetylation site. Overall, since bromodomain inhibitors display anti-inflammatory properties in human retinal pigment epithelial cells, these compounds may represent a new way of alleviating the inflammation underlying the onset of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:27106081

  5. Active smart material control system for buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2006-05-01

    Vertical tail buffeting is a serious multidisciplinary problem that limits the performance and maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. The buffet problem occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced loads on the tails leading to their premature fatigue failure. An active smart material control system, using distributed piezoelectric (PZT) actuators, is developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with PZT actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the PZT actuators are modeled using a finite-element model. A single-input/single-output controller is designed to drive the active PZT actuators. High-fidelity analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, electrodynamics of the PZT actuators, control law, fluid-structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. The results of this study indicate that the actively controlled PZT actuators are an effective tool for buffet alleviation over wide range of angels of attack. Peak values of power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The root mean square values of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%.

  6. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27423629

  7. Arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; El-Fawal, Rania; Fahmy, Ahmed; Watson, Malcolm L

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have previously shown that arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension associated with in a diabetic animal model. Here, we investigated the protective effect of arginase inhibition on hypertension in metabolic syndrome. Experimental Approach Metabolic syndrome was induced in rats by administration of fructose (10% in drinking water) for 12 weeks to induce vascular dysfunction. Three arginase inhibitors (citrulline, norvaline and ornithine) were administered daily in the last 6 weeks of study before and tail BP was recorded in conscious animals. Concentration response curves for phenylephrine (PE), KCl and ACh in addition to ACh-induced NO generation were obtained in thoracic aorta rings. Serum glucose, insulin, uric acid and lipid profile were determined as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase activity. Key Results Arginase activity was elevated in metabolic syndrome while significantly inhibited by citrulline, norvaline or ornithine treatment. Metabolic syndrome was associated with elevations in systolic and diastolic BP, while arginase inhibition significantly reduced elevations in diastolic and systolic BP. Metabolic syndrome increased vasoconstriction responses of aorta to PE and KCl and decreased vasorelaxation to ACh, while arginase inhibition completely prevented impaired responses to ACh. In addition, arginase inhibition prevented impaired NO generation and exaggerated ROS formation in metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, arginase inhibition significantly reduced hyperinsulinaemia and hypertriglyceridaemia without affecting hyperuricaemia or hypercholesterolaemia associated with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions and Implications Arginase inhibition alleviates hypertension in metabolic syndrome directly through endothelial-dependent relaxation/NO signalling protection and indirectly through inhibition of insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridaemia. PMID:23441715

  8. Recognizing and Alleviating Moral Distress Among Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents

    PubMed Central

    Aultman, Julie; Wurzel, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstetrics and gynecology residents face difficult clinical situations and decisions that challenge their moral concepts. Objective We examined how moral and nonmoral judgments about patients are formulated, confirmed, or modified and how moral distress may be alleviated among obstetrics-gynecology residents. Methods Three focus groups, guided by open-ended interview questions, were conducted with 31 obstetrics-gynecology residents from 3 academic medical institutions in northeast Ohio. Each focus group contained 7 to 14 participants and was recorded. Two investigators independently coded and thematically analyzed the transcribed data. Results Our participants struggled with 3 types of patients perceived as difficult: (1) patients with chronic pain, including patients who abuse narcotics; (2) demanding and entitled patients; and (3) irresponsible patients. Difficult clinical encounters with such patients contribute to unalleviated moral distress for residents and negative, and often inaccurate, judgment made about patients. The residents reported that they were able to prevent stigmatizing judgments about patients by keeping an open mind or recognizing the particular needs of patients, but they still felt unresolved moral distress. Conclusions Moral distress that is not addressed in residency education may contribute to career dissatisfaction and ineffective patient care. We recommend education and research on pedagogical approaches in residency education in a model that emphasizes ethics and professional identity development as well as the recognition and alleviation of moral distress. PMID:26279769

  9. Virtual Urbanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirc, Geoffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers how visual literacy implies a poetics of technology, one rooted in basic human passion. Notes that most academic forms sanctioned for students to inhabit are as monumentally dull as the urban forms in which they pass an extra-academic portion of their lives. Concludes that technology is most useful when it allows the poetic spirit to…

  10. Urban Agrarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kerry A.

    1996-01-01

    Chicago's High School for Agricultural Sciences is a popular and successful urban school devoted to agriculture. This agriculturally focused high school features a tough academic curriculum and hands-on learning designed to prepare the predominantly Black and Hispanic student body for college and careers in agriculture. (SM)

  11. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  12. An integrated methodology to assess the benefits of urban green space.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, K; Adamec, V; Bañuelos, A; Bruse, M; Bürger, M; Damsgaard, O; Dufek, J; Hirsch, J; Lefebre, F; Pérez-Lacorzana, J M; Thierry, A; Weber, C

    2004-12-01

    The interrelated issues of urban sprawl, traffic congestion, noise, and air pollution are major socioeconomic problems faced by most European cities. A methodology is currently being developed for evaluating the role of green space and urban form in alleviating the adverse effects of urbanisation, mainly focusing on the environment but also accounting for socioeconomic aspects. The objectives and structure of the methodology are briefly outlined and illustrated with preliminary results obtained from case studies performed on several European cities. PMID:15504535

  13. Butyrate alleviates metabolic impairments and protects pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua-Ping; Chen, Xuan; Li, Ming-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The relative or absolute deficiency of pancreatic β-cell mass function underlies the pathogenesis of diabetes. It is necessary to alleviate the metabolic stress and reduce the demand for insulin to decrease the effects of mutations affecting β-cell expansion. Butyrate is a natural nutrient existed in food and can also be produced physiologically through the intestinal fermentation of fiber. Pregnancy and obesity model would be helpful for understanding how β-cell adapt to insulin resistance and how butyrate alleviate the metabolic impairment and protect pancreatic β cell function in pregnant mice with obesity. C57BL/6J female mice were divided into three groups and fed with high fat food (HF group, 40% energy from fat), high fat with sodium butyrate food (HSF group, 95% HF with 5% butyrate), or control food (CF group, 14% energy from fat), respectively. The feeding would last for 14 weeks before mating and throughout the gestation period. A subset of dams were sacrificed at gestational day (GD) 14.5 to evaluate the changes of metabolism and β-cell function, mass, proliferation and apoptosis, inflammatory reaction of islet from different diet. Pancreases were double immuno-labeled to assess the islet morphology, insulin expression, expression of proliferation gene PCNA and anti-apoptosis gene bcl-2. Moreover, we detected the expression of NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (pNF-κB) to evaluate the islet inflammatory response with immunohistochemistry. Mice fed with HSF showed obviously changes including the decreased values of weight gain, glucose, insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol level of blood compared with high fat diet group, and the reduced circulating maternal pro-inflammation factors at GD14.5. Mice fed with HF displayed β-cell hyperplasia with a greater β-cell size and β-cell area in pancreas. Furthermore, the higher ratio of apoptosis and inflammatory response were found in HF group compared with HSF and CF group, while the proliferation

  14. The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

    2012-10-01

    Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K↑: shortwave outgoing, L↑ longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K↓ shortwave incoming, L↓: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K↓ - K↑ + L↓ - L↑. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

  15. SNR Wall Effect Alleviation by Generalized Detector Employed in Cognitive Radio Networks.

    PubMed

    Shbat, Modar Safir; Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio (CR) networks, such as the energy detector (ED), matched filter (MF), and others, suffer from the noise uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall phenomenon. These detectors cannot achieve the required signal detection performance regardless of the sensing time. In this paper, we explore a signal processing scheme, namely, the generalized detector (GD) constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise, in spectrum sensing of CR network based on antenna array with the purpose to alleviate the SNR wall problem and improve the signal detection robustness under the low SNR. The simulation results confirm our theoretical issues and effectiveness of GD implementation in CR networks based on antenna array. PMID:26151216

  16. Active controls for flutter suppression and gust alleviation in supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissim, E.; Lottati, I.

    1980-01-01

    Application is made in the present paper of the recently developed relaxed aerodynamic energy concept and synthesis techniques to the definition of appropriate active control systems for the low-speed flutter model of the B-2707-300 supersonic cruise airplane. The effectiveness of the resulting activated systems is analytically tested for flutter suppression, wing root bending moment alleviation, and ride control (fuselage accelerations). The results obtained indicate that considerable increase in flutter speeds can be obtained by the various control systems, using a single trailing-edge control. In all cases, the flutter suppression control system led to a substantial reduction in both wing root bending moments and in fuselage and wing accelerations.

  17. SNR Wall Effect Alleviation by Generalized Detector Employed in Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shbat, Modar Safir; Tuzlukov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used spectrum sensing techniques in cognitive radio (CR) networks, such as the energy detector (ED), matched filter (MF), and others, suffer from the noise uncertainty and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) wall phenomenon. These detectors cannot achieve the required signal detection performance regardless of the sensing time. In this paper, we explore a signal processing scheme, namely, the generalized detector (GD) constructed based on the generalized approach to signal processing (GASP) in noise, in spectrum sensing of CR network based on antenna array with the purpose to alleviate the SNR wall problem and improve the signal detection robustness under the low SNR. The simulation results confirm our theoretical issues and effectiveness of GD implementation in CR networks based on antenna array. PMID:26151216

  18. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  19. The study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C; Pincetl, S; Bunje, P

    2011-01-01

    Following formative work in the 1970s, disappearance in the 1980s, and reemergence in the 1990s, a chronological review shows that the past decade has witnessed increasing interest in the study of urban metabolism. The review finds that there are two related, non-conflicting, schools of urban metabolism: one following Odum describes metabolism in terms of energy equivalents; while the second more broadly expresses a city's flows of water, materials and nutrients in terms of mass fluxes. Four example applications of urban metabolism studies are discussed: urban sustainability indicators; inputs to urban greenhouse gas emissions calculation; mathematical models of urban metabolism for policy analysis; and as a basis for sustainable urban design. Future directions include fuller integration of social, health and economic indicators into the urban metabolism framework, while tackling the great sustainability challenge of reconstructing cities. PMID:21084139

  20. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  1. Urban Hitchhiking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Marco; Peserico, Enoch

    You are an urban hitchhiker. All drivers are willing to give you a ride, as long as they do not have to alter their trajectories to accommodate your needs. How (and how quickly) can you get to your destination? We analyze two scenarios, depending on whether hitchhikers have a global picture of who is going where through some information infrastructure, or only a local picture - i.e. they can only ask cars passing by where they are going.

  2. Research on the Effect of Puerarin on Alleviating Sports Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focus on the effects of puerarin remit sports fatigue by observeing the effects of puerarinon blood components and exercise ability of mice in swimming trained. Comparing with the time of exhaustive swimming in the swim trained group, swim trained group with puerarin significantly increase (p<0.05). The puerarin may reduce the increase of hemoglobin, red blood cell and platelets caused by endurance exercise, reduce the blood viscosity, prolong the time of exhaustive swimming and improve exercise ability of mice in swim trained. Through the rat swimming experiment, we can further know the effects of puerarin on alleviating sports fatigue are obviously, which plays a role in the research field of the physiological effect of puerarin. PMID:26998174

  3. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731

  4. Teething in children and the alleviation of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Teething is a normal process by which an infant begins to cut the first teeth (primary dentition). On average, infants begin teething at six months and by the age of three years all the first teeth have erupted. A variety of symptoms can accompany teething including sensitive and painful gums, mouth ulceration, drooling, feeding difficulties, lack of sleep and crying, all of which result in a distressed child and anxious parent. Some teething symptoms can be alleviated effectively at home with teething aids such as cold teething rings. In addition, over-the-counter treatments are available which provide pain relief and are mainly in the form of analgesic and anaesthetic gels, some of which also possess antiseptic properties. Gels such as those containing choline salicylate can be applied direct to the gums specifically to relieve pain and inflammation. PMID:12415773

  5. Music-reading training alleviates crowding with musical notation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2016-06-01

    Crowding refers to the disrupted recognition of an object by nearby distractors. Prior work has shown that real-world music-reading experts experience reduced crowding specifically for musical stimuli. However, it is unclear whether music-reading training reduced the magnitude of crowding or whether individuals showing less crowding are more likely to learn and excel in music reading later. To examine the first possibility, we tested whether crowding can be alleviated by music-reading training in the laboratory. Intermediate-level music readers completed 8 hr of music-reading training within 2 weeks. Their threshold duration for reading musical notes dropped by 44.1% after training to a level comparable with that of extant expert music readers. Importantly, crowding was reduced with musical stimuli but not with the nonmusical stimuli Landolt Cs. In sum, the reduced crowding for musical stimuli in expert music readers can be explained by music-reading training. PMID:27322085

  6. Flight investigation of insect contamination and its alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Fisher, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of leading edge contamination by insects was conducted with a JetStar airplane instrumented to detect transition on the outboard leading edge flap and equipped with a system to spray the leading edge in flight. The results of airline type flights with the JetStar indicated that insects can contaminate the leading edge during takeoff and climbout. The results also showed that the insects collected on the leading edges at 180 knots did not erode at cruise conditions for a laminar flow control airplane and caused premature transition of the laminar boundary layer. None of the superslick and hydrophobic surfaces tested showed any significant advantages in alleviating the insect contamination problem. While there may be other solutions to the insect contamination problem, the results of these tests with a spray system showed that a continouous water spray while encountering the insects is effective in preventing insect contamination of the leading edges.

  7. Fluvoxamine alleviates ER stress via induction of Sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Omi, T; Tanimukai, H; Kanayama, D; Sakagami, Y; Tagami, S; Okochi, M; Morihara, T; Sato, M; Yanagida, K; Kitasyoji, A; Hara, H; Imaizumi, K; Maurice, T; Chevallier, N; Marchal, S; Takeda, M; Kudo, T

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) expression through the PERK pathway, which is one of the cell's responses to ER stress. In addition, it has been demonstrated that induction of Sig-1R can repress cell death signaling. Fluvoxamine (Flv) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with a high affinity for Sig-1R. In the present study, we show that treatment of neuroblastoma cells with Flv induces Sig-1R expression by increasing ATF4 translation directly, through its own activation, without involvement of the PERK pathway. The Flv-mediated induction of Sig-1R prevents neuronal cell death resulting from ER stress. Moreover, Flv-induced ER stress resistance reduces the infarct area in mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, Flv, which is used frequently in clinical practice, can alleviate ER stress. This suggests that Flv could be a feasible therapy for cerebral diseases caused by ER stress. PMID:25032855

  8. Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731

  9. Verbascoside Alleviates Pneumococcal Pneumonia by Reducing Pneumolysin Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoran; Li, Hongen; Wang, Jianfeng; Guo, Yan; Liu, Bowen; Deng, Xuming; Niu, Xiaodi

    2016-03-01

    Pneumolysin (PLY), an essential virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), can penetrate the physical defenses of the host and possesses inflammatory properties. The vital role PLY plays in pneumococcus pathogenesis makes this virulence factor one of the most promising targets for the treatment of pneumococcal infection. Verbascoside (VBS) is an agent that does not exhibit bacteriostatic activity but has been shown to inhibit PLY-mediated cytotoxicity. The results from molecular dynamics simulations and mutational analysis indicated that VBS binds to the cleft between domains 3 and 4 of PLY, thereby blocking PLY's oligomerization and counteracting its hemolytic activity. Moreover, VBS can effectively alleviate PLY-mediated human alveolar epithelial (A549) cell injury, and treatment with VBS provides significant protection against lung damage and reduces mortality in a pneumococcal pneumonia murine model. Our results demonstrate that VBS is a strong candidate as a novel therapeutic in the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. PMID:26700563

  10. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  11. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature. PMID:26602678

  12. Potential sensitivity of warm season precipitation to urbanization extents: Modeling study in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Feng, Jinming; Yan, Zhongwei

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how different degrees of urbanization affect local and regional rainfall using high-resolution simulations based on the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. The extreme rainfall event of 21 July 2012 in Beijing was simulated for three representative urban land use distributions (no urbanization, early urbanization level of 1980, and recent urbanization level of 2009). Results suggest that urban modification of rainfall is potentially sensitive to urban land use condition. Rainfall was increased significantly over the downwind Beijing metropolis because of the effects of early urbanization; however, recent conditions of high urban development caused no significant increase. Further comparative analysis revealed that positive urban thermodynamical effects (i.e., urban warming, increased sensible heat transportation, and enhanced convergence and vertical motions) play major roles in urban modification of rainfall during the early urbanization stage. However, after cities expand to a certain extent (i.e., urban agglomeration), the regional moisture depression induced by the prevalence of impervious urban land has an effect on atmospheric instability energy, which might negate the city's positive impact on regional rainfall. Additional results from regional climate simulations for 10 Julys confirm this supposition. Given the explosive urban population growth and increasing demand for freshwater in cities, the potential negative effects of the urban environment on precipitation are worth investigation, particularly in rapidly developing countries and regions.

  13. Impact of regenerative braking on battery performance and energy cost in electric vehicles in urban driving patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Hornstra, F.; Christianson, C.; Cannon, P.; Fredrickson, D.; Swoboda, C.; Webster, C.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the effects of regenerative braking on battery performance indicate that an electric vehicle designed to return an important fraction of its kinetic energy to the battery during deceleration and braking can significantly extend the range of the electric vehicle. Achieving the equivalent range in a vehicle without regenerative braking would require a battery having a higher energy density. The battery itself exhibits an effective energy recovery capability. This capability provides that energy, which would otherwise be irreversibly lost to heat and wear of the vehicle brakes, can be efficiently recovered by the battery, stored, and made available for subsequent use. Consequently, the net energy required from the battery per mile of vehicle travel is reduced, as is the energy required at the wall plug to charge the battery. Therefore, for a given vehicle range, the actual depth-of-discharge to which the battery is subjected is less with regenerative braking, and an increase in battery cycle life should result. Data are presented to support these observations on improved lead-acid, nickel/iron and nickel/zinc batteries being developed by private industry under DOE contracts managed by Argonne National Laboratory.

  14. Pattern of dietary carbohydrate intake among urbanized adult Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    AKAROLO-ANTHONY, SALLY N.; ODUBORE, FOLAKE O.; YILME, SUSAN; ARAGBADA, OMOLOLA; ODONYE, GEORGE; HU, FRANK; WILLETT, WALTER; SPIEGELMAN, DONNA; ADEBAMOWO, CLEMENT A.

    2013-01-01

    As the nutrition transition continues in Africa, it is crucial to identify population-specific dietary patterns. Healthy diets may then be promoted for prevention and alleviation of the chronic disease burden associated with nutrition. Using a semi-quantitate food frequency questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study and computed the proportions of foods commonly consumed, and collected data on anthropometric characteristics. The median total energy intake per day from these carbohydrate sources was 1034 kcal (interquartile range (IOR) 621.5–1738.6 kcal). The main carbohydrate food eaten was rice (48.6%) followed by fufu (30.5%) and bread (13.1%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 63%, and 73% of the women in the study were either overweight or obese compared to 56% of men. Our study showed that parboiled long grain white rice is now the most commonly consumed carbohydrate by urbanized Nigerians. Other traditional carbohydrate foods are still consumed frequently and remain quite popular. PMID:23198770

  15. The Urban Food-Water Nexus: Modeling Water Footprints of Urban Agriculture using CityCrop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooke, T. R.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Coops, N. C.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban agriculture provides a potential contribution towards more sustainable food production and mitigating some of the human impacts that accompany volatility in regional and global food supply. When considering the capacity of urban landscapes to produce food products, the impact of urban water demand required for food production in cities is often neglected. Urban agricultural studies also tend to be undertaken at broad spatial scales, overlooking the heterogeneity of urban form that exerts an extreme influence on the urban energy balance. As a result, urban planning and management practitioners require, but often do not have, spatially explicit and detailed information to support informed urban agricultural policy, especially as it relates to potential conflicts with sustainability goals targeting water-use. In this research we introduce a new model, CityCrop, a hybrid evapotranspiration-plant growth model that incorporates detailed digital representations of the urban surface and biophysical impacts of the built environment and urban trees to account for the daily variations in net surface radiation. The model enables very fine-scale (sub-meter) estimates of water footprints of potential urban agricultural production. Results of the model are demonstrated for an area in the City of Vancouver, Canada and compared to aspatial model estimates, demonstrating the unique considerations and sensitivities for current and future water footprints of urban agriculture and the implications for urban water planning and policy.

  16. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption. PMID:18230413

  17. Life cycle assessment of urban waste management: Energy performances and environmental impacts. The case of Rome, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, Francesco Bargigli, Silvia; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    Landfilling is nowadays the most common practice of waste management in Italy in spite of enforced regulations aimed at increasing waste pre-sorting as well as energy and material recovery. In this work we analyse selected alternative scenarios aimed at minimizing the unused material fraction to be delivered to the landfill. The methodological framework of the analysis is the life cycle assessment, in a multi-method form developed by our research team. The approach was applied to the case of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Rome, with a special focus on energy and material balance, including global and local scale airborne emissions. Results, provided in the form of indices and indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and environmental impacts, point out landfill activities as the worst waste management strategy at a global scale. On the other hand, the investigated waste treatments with energy and material recovery allow important benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction (among others) but are still affected by non-negligible local emissions. Furthermore, waste treatments leading to energy recovery provide an energy output that, in the best case, is able to meet 15% of the Rome electricity consumption.

  18. Climatic impacts of urbanization on the Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao

    2015-04-01

    WRF coupled UCM is used to simulate the climatic impacts from 2008 to 2012 of urbanization on the Beijing. The results show that simulation is generally well compared to the observation. The urbanization caused a strongest UHI in the night in urban areas. The precipitation is reduced slightly. The relative humidity has a more direct response to the urbanization process than precipitation. The effect of urbanization can heat the temperature up to 1.2 kilometers inside the urban boundary layer in the daytime. While for the nighttime, the UHI development height is less than 400 meters. The relative humidity is reduced below 800 meters in daytime in Beijing but is hardly changed in nighttime. Three different urban land use datasets include year 1990, 2000 and 2010 are used to set up three sensitive tests to find out that the real urbanization process has changed the surface energy balance with the sensible heat flux increase, latent heat flux decrease and ground heat flux increase, causing the increase of temperature which forms the UHI. Both the changes of sensible heat flux and latent heat flux is more pronounced in the time period of 2000 to 2010 than that of 1990 to 2000. Twenty years from1990 to 2010 urbanization can enhance the UHI about 3.5˚C, among which the 2000-2010 period urbanization has attributed over 68%. The latest ten years urbanization process has a much pronounced impact on the UHI.

  19. The integrated urban land model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chunlei

    2015-06-01

    An integrated urban land model (IUM) was developed based on the Common Land Model (CoLM). A whole layer soil evaporation parameterization scheme was developed to improve soil evaporation simulation especially in arid areas. For the urban underlying surface, the energy and water balance model were modified; urban land parameters such as the anthropogenic heat (AH), albedo, surface roughness length, imperious surface evaporation etc. were also reparameterized. IUM was validated and compared with CoLM and the urbanized high-resolution land data assimilation system (u-HRLDAS) in single and regional scale. The validation results indicate that IUM can improve the simulation of land surface parameters and land-atmosphere interaction fluxes.

  20. Urban net-zero water treatment and mineralization: experiments, modeling and design.

    PubMed

    Englehardt, James D; Wu, Tingting; Tchobanoglous, George

    2013-09-01

    Water and wastewater treatment and conveyance account for approximately 4% of US electric consumption, with 80% used for conveyance. Net zero water (NZW) buildings would alleviate demands for a portion of this energy, for water, and for the treatment of drinking water for pesticides and toxic chemical releases in source water. However, domestic wastewater contains nitrogen loads much greater than urban/suburban ecosystems can typically absorb. The purpose of this work was to identify a first design of a denitrifying urban NZW treatment process, operating at ambient temperature and pressure and circum-neutral pH, and providing mineralization of pharmaceuticals (not easily regulated in terms of environmental half-life), based on laboratory tests and mass balance and kinetic modeling. The proposed treatment process is comprised of membrane bioreactor, iron-mediated aeration (IMA, reported previously), vacuum ultrafiltration, and peroxone advanced oxidation, with minor rainwater make-up and H2O2 disinfection residual. Similar to biological systems, minerals accumulate subject to precipitative removal by IMA, salt-free treatment, and minor dilution. Based on laboratory and modeling results, the system can produce potable water with moderate mineral content from commingled domestic wastewater and 10-20% rainwater make-up, under ambient conditions at individual buildings, while denitrifying and reducing chemical oxygen demand to below detection (<3 mg/L). While economics appear competitive, further development and study of steady-state concentrations and sludge management options are needed. PMID:23770482

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviates detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water in lettuce plants.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Sánchez, J; Nicolás, E; Pedrero, F; Alarcón, J J; Maestre-Valero, J F; Fernández, F

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum sp. nova) on the physiological performance and production of lettuce plants grown under greenhouse conditions and supplied with reclaimed water (RW; urban-treated wastewater with high electrical conductivity; 4.19 dS m(-1)). Four treatments, fresh water, fresh water plus AMF inoculation, RW and RW plus AMF inoculation, were applied and their effects, over time, analyzed. Root mycorrhizal colonization, plant biomass, leaf-ion content, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were assessed. Overall, our results highlight the significance of the AMF in alleviation of salt stress and their beneficial effects on plant growth and productivity. Inoculated plants increased the ability to acquire N, Ca, and K from both non-saline and saline media. Moreover, mycorrhization significantly reduced Na plant uptake. Under RW conditions, inoculated plants also showed a better performance of physiological parameters such as net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency than non-mycorrhizal plants. Additionally, the high concentration of nutrients already dissolved in reclaimed water suggested that adjustments in the calculation of the fertigation should be conducted by farmers. Finally, this experiment has proved that mycorrhization could be a suitable way to induce salt stress resistance in iceberg lettuce crops as plants supplied with reclaimed water satisfied minimum legal commercial size thresholds. Moreover, the maximum values of Escherichia coli in the reclaimed water were close to but never exceeded the international thresholds established (Spanish Royal Decree 1620/2007; Italian Decree, 2003) and hence lettuces were apt for sale. PMID:24287607

  2. Urban Stream Ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban watersheds characteristically have high impervious surface cover, resulting in high surface runoff and low infiltration following storms. In response, urban streams experience “flashy” stormflows, reduced baseflows, bank erosion, channel widening, and sedimentation. Urban ...

  3. 13 CFR 310.2 - Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or underemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL IMPACT AREAS § 310.2 Pressing need; alleviation of unemployment or... patterns (e.g., the Region is certified as eligible by the North American Development Bank Program or the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressing need; alleviation...

  4. China's urban planning: toward development without urbanization.

    PubMed

    Koshizawa, A

    1978-03-01

    The questions of what is urbanization like in contemporary China and have urban problems arisen are the issue. Focus in this discussion is on the movement from consumer cities to producer cities, the rise of urban problems (development of inland industrial cities, high speed urbanization, the influx of rural population to the cities, housing problems, summary of urban planning, food supply), revision of urban policies, urban people's communities, designing revolution, and urban policy in the 1970s. Since 1970 China has stressed environmental preservation and comprehensive utilization of natural resources. Urban remodeling was identified as necessary for radical solution of pollution problems. It has been 25 years since China carried out its urban planning for modern cities and during that time urban policy has changed frequently, which means that there were always changes in rural policy. The following problems are identified concerning the future of China's city planning: 1) the concretization of past theory and practice of urban planning; 2) the question of how to proceed with the redevelopment of the old town areas of big cities; 3) how to reconstruct Tangshan City, which was completely destroyed by a great earthquake in 1976; 4) how to recover and remodel Hong Kong and Macao which are developed as capitalist cities; and 5) to what degree should existing cities be allowed to develop. Currently, China is aspiring to high speed economic development. Whether economic growth can be achieved without further urbanization is the problem confronting China. PMID:12277977

  5. Sustainability and Resilience in the Urban Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban systems are formed by a diversity of actors and activities, and consist of complex interactions involving financial, information, energy, ecological, and material stocks and flows that operate on different spatial and temporal scales. The urban systems that emerge from thes...

  6. The Megafauna: People of the Urban Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Jack; Gangloff, Deborah

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the need to make urban forestry information and resources available and understandable to everyone in an effort to organize and educate communities. The seemingly hidden aspects of the urban ecosystem are examined; and a sidebar looks at the air, carbon, and energy cycles and sustaining quality of life, in particular. (LZ)

  7. Urban Water '88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidena, Floris C.; Hoogart, Hans

    The Symposium on Hydrological Processes and Water Management in Urban Areas (Urban Water '88) was held in Duisburg, West Germany, and The Netherlands, April 24-29, 1988. Six themes were discussed during the 3-day conference and 2-day study tour: urban hydrological cycle, functions and uses of water, concepts of urban drainage and flood protection, effects of urbanization on surface and groundwater, and the role of water in city planning and integrated water management in urban areas.

  8. Finding urban waste management solutions and policies: Waste-to-energy development and livelihood support system in Payatas, Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Serrona, Kevin Roy; Yu, Jeong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    One of the potential solutions in social and environmental sustainability in municipal solid waste management (MSW) in Metro Manila is to combine community-based recycling and sound landfill management strategies. The marriage of the two puts importance on recycling as a source of livelihood while proper landfill management aims to improve the aesthetic and environmental quality of disposal facilities in urban areas. To do this, a social mapping of wastepickers, junkshops and local recycling practices needs to be undertaken and at the same time assess strategies of the national and local governments vis-à-vis existing laws on municipal solid waste. The case of Payatas controlled disposal facility was taken as a pilot study because it represents the general condition of disposal sites in Metro Manila and the social landscape that it currently has. In addition, a waste-to-energy (WTE) project has been established in Payatas to produce electricity from methane gas. Preliminary interviews with wastepickers show that development interventions in disposal sites such as WTE pose no opposition from host communities for as long as alternative livelihood opportunities are provided. Regulating the flow of wastepickers into the landfill has advantages like improved income and security. Felt needs were also articulated like provision of financial support or capital for junkshop operation and skills training. Overall, a smooth relationship between the local government and community associations pays well in a transitioning landfill management scheme such as Payatas. PMID:25084429

  9. Chemical mass balance modeling for air quality analysis near a waste-to-energy facility in a complex urban area: Program design

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.; Watson, J.; Woy, J. van

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an ambient monitoring and receptor modeling study to evaluate air quality impacts from a state-of-the-art municipal waste management facility in a major urban area. The Robbins Resource Recovery Facility (RRRF), located in the Chicago metropolitan area, processes municipal solid waste (MSW) to recover recyclables, process the residual waste to create refuse-derived fuel (RDF), and burns the RDF to reduce the residual waste volume and recover energy. The RRRF is cooperating with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) and the Illinois Office of the Attorney General (OAG) to analyze air quality and facility impacts in the plant vicinity. An ambient monitoring program began one year before plant operation and will continue for five years after startup. Because the impacts of the RRRF are projected to be very low, and because the Chicago area includes a complex mix of existing industrial, commercial, and residential activity, the ambient data will be analyzed using Version 7.0 of the USEPA s Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model to estimate the extent of the RRRF`s impact on air quality in the area. The first year of pre-operational ambient data is currently under analysis. This paper describes the study design considerations, ambient monitoring program, emission data acquisition, background source data needs, and data analysis procedures developed to conduct CMB modeling in a complex industrialized area.

  10. Natural hydrocarbons, urbanization, and urban ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, C. A.; Chameides, W. L.

    1990-01-01

    The combined effects of emission control and urbanization, with its concomitant intensification of the urban heat island, on urban ozone concentrations are studied. The effect of temperature on ozone is considered, and attention is given to the temperature effect on ozone photochemistry. Model calculations suggest that ozone concentration enhancements are caused by the effect of temperature on the atmospheric chemistry of peroxyacetyl nitrate, as well as the temperature dependence of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions. It is pointed out that, because of the sensitivity of urban ozone to local climatic conditions and the ability of trees to moderate summertime temperatures, the inadvertent removal of trees from urbanization can have an adverse effect on urban ozone concentration, while a temperature increase in the urban heat island caused by urbanization can essentially cancel out the ozone-reducing benefits obtained from a 50-percent reduction in anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions.

  11. Synthesis of individual rotor blade control system for gust alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ji C.; Chu, Alphonse Y.; Talbot, Peter D.

    1990-01-01

    The utilization of rotor flapping in synthesizing an Individual Blade Control (IBC) system for gust alleviation is demonstrated. The objective is to illustrate and seek to improve Ham's IBC method. A sensor arrangement with two accelerometers mounted on the root and tip of a blade is proposed for estimating of flapping states for feedback control. Equivalent swash plate implementation of IBC is also deliberated. The study concludes by addressing the concept of general rotor states feedback, of which the IBC method is a special case. The blade flapping equation of motion is derived. Ham's original IBC method and a modified IBC scheme called Model Reference (MRIBC) are examined, followed by simulation study with ideal measurements and relative performances of the two methods. The practical aspects of IBC implementation are presented. Different configuration of sensors and their merits are considered. The realization of IBC using equivalent swash plate instead of direct actuator motion is discussed. It is shown that IBC is a particular case of rotor states feedback. The idea of general rotor states feedback is further elaborated. Finally, major conclusions are given.

  12. Methylene blue alleviates nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities in progeria.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Zheng-Mei; Choi, Ji Young; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Haoyue; Tariq, Zeshan; Wu, Di; Ko, Eunae; LaDana, Christina; Sesaki, Hiromi; Cao, Kan

    2016-04-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), a fatal premature aging disease, is caused by a single-nucleotide mutation in the LMNA gene. Previous reports have focused on nuclear phenotypes in HGPS cells, yet the potential contribution of the mitochondria, a key player in normal aging, remains unclear. Using high-resolution microscopy analysis, we demonstrated a significantly increased fraction of swollen and fragmented mitochondria and a marked reduction in mitochondrial mobility in HGPS fibroblast cells. Notably, the expression of PGC-1α, a central regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, was inhibited by progerin. To rescue mitochondrial defects, we treated HGPS cells with a mitochondrial-targeting antioxidant methylene blue (MB). Our analysis indicated that MB treatment not only alleviated the mitochondrial defects but also rescued the hallmark nuclear abnormalities in HGPS cells. Additional analysis suggested that MB treatment released progerin from the nuclear membrane, rescued perinuclear heterochromatin loss and corrected misregulated gene expression in HGPS cells. Together, these results demonstrate a role of mitochondrial dysfunction in developing the premature aging phenotypes in HGPS cells and suggest MB as a promising therapeutic approach for HGPS. PMID:26663466

  13. Cathepsin K knockout alleviates aging-induced cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yinan; Robinson, Timothy J; Cao, Yongtao; Shi, Guo-Ping; Ren, Jun; Nair, Sreejayan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It has previously been shown that protein levels of cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, are elevated in the failing heart and that genetic ablation of cathepsin K protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Here we test the hypothesis that cathepsin K knockout alleviates age-dependent decline in cardiac function. Cardiac geometry, contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ properties, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were evaluated using echocardiography, fura-2 technique, immunohistochemistry, Western blot and TUNEL staining, respectively. Aged (24-month-old) mice exhibited significant cardiac remodeling (enlarged chamber size, wall thickness, myocyte cross-sectional area, and fibrosis), decreased cardiac contractility, prolonged relengthening along with compromised intracellular Ca2+ release compared to young (6-month-old) mice, which were attenuated in the cathepsin K knockout mice. Cellular markers of senescence, including cardiac lipofuscin, p21 and p16, were lower in the aged-cathepsin K knockout mice compared to their wild-type counterpart. Mechanistically, cathepsin K knockout mice attenuated an age-induced increase in cardiomyocyte apoptosis and nuclear translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). In cultured H9c2 cells, doxorubicin stimulated premature senescence and apoptosis. Silencing of cathepsin K blocked the doxorubicin-induced translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the nuclei. Collectively, these results suggest that cathepsin K knockout attenuates age-related decline in cardiac function via suppressing caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. PMID:25692548

  14. Alleviating bias leads to accurate and personalized recommendation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Recommendation bias towards objects has been found to have an impact on personalized recommendation, since objects present heterogeneous characteristics in some network-based recommender systems. In this article, based on a biased heat conduction recommendation algorithm (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target objects, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the heterogeneity of the source objects into account. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present better recommendation in both the accuracy and diversity than two benchmark algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC algorithm also elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold-start problem. Eigenvalue analyses show that, the HHC algorithm effectively alleviates the recommendation bias towards objects with different level of popularity, which is beneficial to solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma.

  15. Rhodiola crenulata Extract Alleviates Hypoxic Pulmonary Edema in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min-Hui; Shi, Li-Shian; Ho, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Sudden exposure of nonacclimatized individuals to high altitude can easily lead to high altitude illnesses. High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is the most lethal form of high altitude illness. The present study was designed to investigate the ability of Rhodiola crenulata extract (RCE), an herbal medicine traditionally used as an antiacute mountain sickness remedy, to attenuate hypoxia-induced pulmonary injury. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in pathological indicators for pulmonary edema, including the lung water content, disruption of the alveolar-capillary barrier, and protein-rich fluid in the lungs. In addition, hypobaric hypoxia also increased oxidative stress markers, including (ROS) production, (MDA) level, and (MPO) activity. Furthermore, overexpression of plasma (ET-1), (VEGF) in (BALF), and (HIF-1α) in lung tissue was also found. However, pretreatment with RCE relieved the HAPE findings by curtailing all of the hypoxia-induced lung injury parameters. These findings suggest that RCE confers effective protection for maintaining the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier by alleviating the elevated ET-1 and VEGF levels; it does so by reducing hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. Our results offer substantial evidence to support arguments in favor of traditional applications of Rhodiola crenulata for antihigh altitude illness. PMID:23710233

  16. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. PMID:26852952

  17. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  18. Crosstalk between exercise and galanin system alleviates insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2015-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise can enhance insulin sensitivity, however, the precise mechanism for this outcome is not entirely identified. Emerging evidences point out that exercise can upregulate galanin protein and mRNA expression, resulting in improvement of insulin sensitivity via an increase in translocation of glucose transporter 4 and subsequent glucose uptake in myocytes and adipocytes of healthy and type 2 diabetic rats, which may be blocked by galanin antagonist. In return, galanin can exert the exercise-protective roles to prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscle and to accelerate exercise trauma repair in exercise-relative tissues. Studies also implicated that combination of aerobic exercise and activation of galanin system may make more significant improvement in insulin sensitivity than that of either one did. These suggest that galanin system is essential for physical activity to alleviate insulin resistance, namely, the beneficial effect of physical activity on glucose uptake is at least partly mediated by galanin system. Besides, co-treatment with galanin and exercise is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance. PMID:26542124

  19. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  20. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H Abou; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  1. Down-regulation of survivin alleviates experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K M E; Svensson, M N D; Erlandsson, M C; Jonsson, I-M; Bokarewa, M I

    2015-01-01

    Survivin is a proto-oncogene that regulates cell division and apoptosis. It is a molecular marker of cancer. Recently, survivin has emerged as a feature of RA, associated with severe joint damage and poor treatment response. The present study examined if inhibition of survivin affects experimental arthritis, which was induced in mBSA-immunized mice by an injection of mBSA in the knee joint or developed spontaneously in collagen type II-immunized mice. The inhibition of survivin transcription by a lentivirus shRNA construct alleviated joint inflammation and reduced bone damage. The inhibition of survivin reduced the levels of metalloproteinases, β-catenin, and vimentin, limiting the invasive capacity of synovia, while no inhibition of osteoclastogenesis could be found. The inhibition of survivin led to a p53-independent reduction of T cell proliferation and favored the transcription and activity of Blimp-1, which limited IL-2 production and facilitated formation of regulatory Foxp3(+)CD4(+) and effector CD8(+) T cells. The study shows that the inhibition of survivin is sufficient to reduce joint inflammation and bone damage in preclinical models of arthritis. Antiarthritic effects of survivin inhibition are related to p53-independent control of lymphocyte proliferation. PMID:25381389

  2. Sodium butyrate alleviates adipocyte inflammation by inhibiting NLRP3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xukai; He, Gang; Peng, Yan; Zhong, Weitian; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a common feature of Type II diabetes, metabolic disorders, hypertension and other vascular diseases. Recent studies showed that obesity-induced inflammation may be critical for IR. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) on obesity-induced inflammation, the db/db mice were intraperitoneally injected with NaB for 6 weeks. Glucose control was evaluated by glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT). Adipose tissue was harvested for gene expression analysis. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with Tnf-α to mimic the inflammatory state and gene expression was detected by realtime PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that NaB treatment improved glucose control in db/db mice as determined by GTT and ITT tests. Gene expression analysis showed that NaB inhibited cytokines and immunological markers including CD68, Interferon-γ and Mcp in adipose tissues in db/db mice. Moreover, NaB inhibited cytokine releasing in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α. Further analysis of inflammation pathway showed that NLRP3 was activated in db/db mice, which was efficiently inhibited by NaB treatment. Our data suggest that inhibition of obesity-induced inflammation alleviates IR, and NaB might be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for obesity. PMID:26234821

  3. Ergosterol Alleviates Kidney Injury in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li; Yuguang, Liu; Liying, Wang; Shuying, Zhang; Liting, Xu; Shumin, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Ergosterol (ERG) has been widely used in the development of novel drugs due to its unique physiological function. However, little is known about the protective effects of ERG on diabetes. Hence, the current study was designed to evaluate the positive role of ergosterol on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetes in mice. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out to assess blood glucose level. Biochemical parameters such as uric acid, creatinine, serum insulin, triglycerides (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) were also measured. Pathological condition of kidney was examined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κBp65, p-NF-κBp65, IκBα, and p-IκBα were analyzed by western blot. ERG significantly reduced the concentrations of blood glucose, uric acid, creatinine, TG, and TC. Serum insulin was elevated with ERG treatment. In addition, renal pathologic changes of diabetes mice were also alleviated by ERG. Obtained data revealed that ERG restored the levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling-related proteins in comparison with diabetes mice. Above all, it could be assumed that ERG might play a positive role in regulating STZ-induced diabetes through suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26664454

  4. Fasudil alleviates traumatic optic neuropathy by inhibiting Rho signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianglong; Lan, Shiying; Wang, Ruijia; Maier, Aba; Luan, Xinping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study is to investigate the pathological changes in rabbits with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON), as well as the effect of fasudil on the lesions. Methods: A total of 144 New Zealand rabbits were successfully established as TON models. Twelve hours after surgery, the rabbits in control, dexamethasone, and fasudil groups were administrated with saline, dexamethasone, and fasudil via ear veins, respectively. Then, retinas of the rabbits were obtained at 72 h and on days 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. The pathological changes in retina and optic nerves were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of Rho-associated genes were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: In control group, the axons were swelling, and mitochondria showed vacuolation after optic nerve crush. Mitochondria were swelled slightly in dexamethasone group. By contrast, nerves in fasudil group were repaired. Retinal ganglion cells in control group were reduced significantly due to optic nerve crush. The loss of retinal ganglion cells was alleviated in fasudil group. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of Rho-associated genes were down-regulated. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that fasudil inhibits the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and ameliorates damages of optic nerves in traumatic optic neuropathy. PMID:26550269

  5. Gust alleviation of highly flexible UAVs with artificial hair sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weihua; Reich, Gregory W.

    2015-04-01

    Artificial hair sensors (AHS) have been recently developed in Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) using carbon nanotube (CNT). The deformation of CNT in air flow causes voltage and current changes in the circuit, which can be used to quantify the dynamic pressure and aerodynamic load along the wing surface. AFRL has done a lot of essential work in design, manufacturing, and measurement of AHSs. The work in this paper is to bridge the current AFRL's work on AHSs and their feasible applications in flight dynamics and control (e.g., the gust alleviation) of highly flexible aircraft. A highly flexible vehicle is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with finite-state inflow aerodynamics. A feedback control algorithm for the rejection of gust perturbations will be developed. A simplified Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller will be implemented based on the state-space representation of the linearized system. All AHS measurements will be used as the control input, i.e., wing sectional aerodynamic loads will be defined as the control output for designing the feedback gain. Once the controller is designed, closed-loop aeroelastic simulations will be performed to evaluate the performance of different controllers with the force feedback and be compared to traditional controller designs with the state feedback. From the study, the feasibility of AHSs in flight control will be assessed. The whole study will facilitate in building a fly-by-feel simulation environment for autonomous vehicles.

  6. Topical Apigenin Alleviates Cutaneous Inflammation in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mao-Qiang; Hupe, Melanie; Sun, Richard; Man, George; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in preventing and treating skin disorders for centuries. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration of chrysanthemum extract exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether topical applications of apigenin, a constituent of chrysanthemum extract, influence cutaneous inflammation is still unclear. In the present study, we first tested whether topical applications of apigenin alleviate cutaneous inflammation in murine models of acute dermatitis. The murine models of acute allergic contact dermatitis and acute irritant contact dermatitis were established by topical application of oxazolone and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), respectively. Inflammation was assessed in both dermatitis models by measuring ear thickness. Additionally, the effect of apigenin on stratum corneum function in a murine subacute allergic contact dermatitis model was assessed with an MPA5 physiology monitor. Our results demonstrate that topical applications of apigenin exhibit therapeutic effects in both acute irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis models. Moreover, in comparison with the vehicle treatment, topical apigenin treatment significantly reduced transepidermal water loss, lowered skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration in a subacute murine allergic contact dermatitis model. Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of dermatitis. PMID:23304222

  7. Flavaglines Alleviate Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity: Implication of Hsp27

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Yohann; Ribeiro, Nigel; Thuaud, Frédéric; Türkeri, Gülen; Dirr, Ronan; Boulberdaa, Mounia; Nebigil, Canan G.; Désaubry, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its effectiveness in the treatment of various cancers, the use of doxorubicin is limited by a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy. Prevention of this cardiotoxicity remains a critical issue in clinical oncology. We hypothesized that flavaglines, a family of natural compounds that display potent neuroprotective effects, may also alleviate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our in vitro data established that a pretreatment with flavaglines significantly increased viability of doxorubicin-injured H9c2 cardiomyocytes as demonstrated by annexin V, TUNEL and active caspase-3 assays. We demonstrated also that phosphorylation of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 is involved in the mechanism by which flavaglines display their cardioprotective effect. Furthermore, knocking-down Hsp27 in H9c2 cardiomyocytes completely reversed this cardioprotection. Administration of our lead compound (FL3) to mice attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac fibrosis, as reflected by a 50% decrease of mortality. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest a prophylactic potential of flavaglines to prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:22065986

  8. Visually induced motion sickness can be alleviated by pleasant odors.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Stelzmann, Daniela; Paillard, Aurore; Hecht, Heiko

    2015-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common side effect in virtual environments and simulators. Several countermeasures against VIMS exist, but a reliable method to prevent or ease VIMS is unfortunately still missing. In the present study, we tested whether olfactory cues can alleviate VIMS. Sixty-two participants were exposed to a 15-min-long video showing a first-person-view bicycle ride that had successfully induced VIMS in previous studies. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups; the first group was exposed to a pleasant odor (rose) while watching the video, the second group was exposed to an unpleasant odor (leather), and the third group was not exposed to any odor. VIMS was measured using a verbal rating scale (0-20) and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed that only half of the participants who were exposed to the odor did notice it (n = 21), whereas the other half failed to detect the odor. However, among those participants who did notice the odor, the rose scent significantly reduced the severity of VIMS compared to the group that did not notice the odor. A moderate positive correlation between odor sensitivity and VIMS showed that participants with higher odor sensitivity also reported stronger VIMS. Our results demonstrate that olfaction can modulate VIMS and that a pleasant odor can potentially reduce VIMS. The relationship between olfactory perception, olfactory sensibility, and VIMS is discussed. PMID:25633319

  9. Outcomes Following Low-Energy Civilian Gunshot Wound Trauma to the Lower Extremities: Results of a Standard Protocol at an Urban Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Abghari, Michelle; Monroy, Alexa; Schubl, Sebastian; Davidovitch, Roy; Egol, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower extremity injuries secondary to low-energy gunshot wounds are frequently seen in the civilian populations of urban areas. Although these wounds have fewer complications than high-energy gunshot injuries, the functional and psychological damage is still significant making appropriate timely orthopaedic treatment and follow-up imperative. Purpose The purpose of this study is to present our outcomes in the treatment of low-energy gunshot wounds in a civilian population at an urban, level one trauma center in patients treated by a standard protocol. Methods One hundred and thirty three patients who sustained 148 gunshot wound injuries were treated at our level one trauma center between January 1st, 2009 and October 1st, 2011. Following IRB approval, we extracted information from medical records regarding hospital course, length of stay and type of operative or non-operative treatment. If available, injury and post-operative radiographs were also reviewed. Patients were contacted by telephone to obtain Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) surveys, pain on a scale of 0–10 and for the determination of any adverse events related to their shooting. Results There were 125 men (94.0%) and 8 women (6.0%) with an average age of 27.1 years (range 15.2–56.3). Seventy-six patients (57.1%) did not have any health insurance upon admission. The average length of stay in the hospital was 4.5 days (range 0.0–88.0). Fifty-one gun shots (34.5%) resulted in fractures of the lower extremities. Patients underwent a total of 95 lower extremity-related procedures during their hospitalization. Twenty-two patients (16.5%) experienced a complication related to their gunshot wounds. 38% of the cohort was available for long-term functional assessment At a mean 23.5 months (range 8–48) of follow up, patients reported mean Functional and Bothersome SMFA scores of 19.6 (SD 15.9) and 10.9 (SD 15.6) suggesting that these patients have poorer function scores than the

  10. Autophagy Alleviates Neurodegeneration Caused by Mild Impairment of Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ya; Yong, Yue; Yang, Guang; Ding, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqin; Tang, Yifen; Luo, Jia; Ke, Zun-Ji

    2013-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the brain, which may be mediated by neuronal oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and neuroinflammation. TD-induced brain damage is used to model neurodegenerative disorders, and the mechanism for the neuronal death is still unclear. We hypothesized that autophagy might be activated in the TD brain and play a protective role in TD induced neuronal death. Our results demonstrated that TD induced the accumulation of autophagosomes in neurons of the thalamus measured by transmission electron microscopy, and the upregulation of autophagic markers: LC3-II, Atg5 and Beclin1 as measured with western blotting. TD also increased the expression of autophagic markers and induced LC3 puncta in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TD-induced expression of autophagic markers was reversed once thiamine was re-administered. Both inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin and Beclin1 siRNA potentiated TD-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, activation of autophagy by rapamycin alleviated cell death induced by TD. Intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin stimulated neuronal autophagy and attenuated TD-induced neuronal death and microglia activation in the submedial thalamus nucleus (SmTN). TD inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, suggesting mTOR/p70S6 kinase pathway was involved the TD-induced autophagy. These results suggest that autophagy is neuroprotective in response to TD-induced neuronal death in the central nervous system. This opens a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegenerative diseases caused by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. PMID:23586593

  11. Alleviation of Podophyllotoxin Toxicity Using Coexisting Flavonoids from Dysosma versipellis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Sun, Hua; Jin, Lu; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Chong-Yi; Ding, Ke; Luo, Cheng; Ye, Wen-Cai; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2013-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin (POD) is a lignan-type toxin existing in many herbs used in folk medicine. Until now, no effective strategy is available for the management of POD intoxication. This study aims to determine the protective effects of flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) on POD-induced toxicity. In Vero cells, both flavonoids protected POD-induced cytotoxicity by recovering alleviating G2/M arrest, decreasing ROS generation and changes of membrane potential, and recovering microtubule structure. In Swiss mice, the group given both POD and flavonoids group had significantly lower mortality rate and showed less damages in the liver and kidney than the group given POD alone. As compared to the POD group, the POD plus flavonoids group exhibited decreases in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, plasma urea, creatinine and malondialdehyde levels, and increases in superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels. Histological examination of the liver and kidney showed less pathological changes in the treatment of POD plus flavonoids group. The protective mechanisms were due to the antioxidant activity of flavonoids against the oxidative stress induced by POD and the competitive binding of flavonoids against POD for the same colchicines-binding sites. The latter binding was confirmed by the tubulin assembly assay in combination with molecular docking analyses. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that the coexisting flavonoids have great protective effects against the POD toxicity, and results of this study highlighted the great potential of searching for effective antidotes against toxins based on the pharmacological clues. PMID:23991049

  12. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination.

    PubMed

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant's photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  13. Towards a virtual observatory for ecosystem services and poverty alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, W.; Baez, S.; Cuesta, F.; Veliz Rosas, C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the last decades, near real-time environmental observation, technical advances in computer power and cyber-infrastructure, and the development of environmental software algorithms have increased dramatically. The integration of these evolutions, which is commonly referred to as the establishment of a virtual observatory, is one of the major challenges of the next decade for environmental sciences. Worldwide, many coordinated activities are ongoing to make this integration a reality. However, far less attention is paid to the question of how these developments can benefit environmental services management in a poverty alleviation context. Such projects are typically faced with issues of large predictive uncertainties, limited resources, limited local scientific capacity. At the same time, the complexity of the socio-economic contexts requires a very strong bottom-up oriented and interdisciplinary approach to environmental data collection and processing. In this study, we present three natural resources management cases in the Andes and the Amazon basin, and investigate how "virtual observatory" technology can improve ecosystem management. Each of these case studies present scientific challenges in terms of model coupling, real-time data assimilation and visualisation for management purposes. The first project deals with water resources management in the Peruvian Andes. Using a rainfall-runoff model, novel visualisations are used to give farmers insight in the water production and regulation capacity of their catchments, which can then be linked to land management practices such as conservation agriculture, wetland protection and grazing density control. In a project in the Amazonian floodplains, optimal allocation of the nesting availability and quality of the giant freshwater turtle are determined using a combined hydraulic model and weather forecasts. Finally, in the rainforest of the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, biodiversity models are used to

  14. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2003-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 μm Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

  15. Stratification requirements for seed dormancy alleviation in a wetland weed.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Louis G; Bradford, Kent J; Fischer, Albert J

    2013-01-01

    Echinochloaoryzicola(syn.E. phyllopogon) is an exotic weed of California rice paddies that has evolved resistance to multiple herbicides. Elimination of seedlingsthroughcertain weed control methods can limit the spread of this weed, but is contingent on accurate predictions of germination and emergence timing, which are influenced by seed dormancy levels.In summer annuals, dormancy can often be relieved through stratification, a period of prolonged exposure to cold and moist conditions.We used population-based threshold models to quantify the effects of stratification on seed germination of four E. Oryzicola populations at a range of water potential (Ψ) and oxygen levels. We also determined how stratification temperatures, moisture levels and durations contributed to dormancy release. Stratification released dormancy by decreasing base Ψ and hydrotimerequired for germination and by eliminating any germination sensitivity to oxygen. Stratification also increased average germination rates (GR), which were used as a proxy for relative dormancy levels. Alternating temperatures nearly doubled GR in all populations, indicating that seeds could be partially dormant despite achieving high final germination percentages. Stratification at Ψ = 0 MPa increased GR compared to stratification at lower water potentials, demonstrating that Ψ contributed to regulating dormancy release. Maximum GR occurred after 2-4 weeks of stratification at 0 MPa; GR were often more rapid for herbicide-resistant than for herbicide-susceptible seeds, implying greater dormancy in the latter. Manipulation of field conditions to promote dormancy alleviation of E. oryzicola seeds might improve the rate and uniformity of germination for seed bank depletion through seedling weed control. Our results suggest field soil saturation in winter would contribute towards E. oryzicola dormancy release and decrease the time to seedling emergence. PMID:24039714

  16. Fostering Informed Choice: Alleviating the Trauma of Genetic Abortions.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Bret D

    2015-01-01

    Each year, thousands of pregnant women learn of fetal abnormalities through prenatal genetic analysis. This discovery--made after a woman has initially declined to exercise her right to abort an unwanted pregnancy—raises the difficult and heart-wrenching question of whether to terminate on genetic grounds. Women considering a genetic abortion rely on information and support from health care providers to assist them in making their choice. Though intended to be objective and nondirective, the support women receive frequently provides them within complete and incomprehensible information having the effect of encouraging them to abort genetically anomalous fetuses. As a result, genetic terminations--which cause severe and long-standing psychological impacts such as pathological grief, depression and post-traumatic stress—are often the result of something other than a fully informed choice.Congress and eleven states have recognized the importance of better informing choice by passing legislation aimed at providing clearer and more balanced information to expectant mothers learning of fetal genetic abnormalities. But existing legislative remedies do not adequately address this problem, and this inadequacy will become more pronounced in future years as increases in access to prenatal genetic analysis further stretch the capabilities of the available support services.This Article describes the unique characteristics of terminations for a fetal abnormality, their troubling and persistent psychological impacts,and the reasons why they will become more common in future years. It then offers proposals for how to reconfigure the prenatal genetic counseling landscape in order to reduce the incidence of genetic terminations based on incomplete or misleading information, thereby alleviating their distinct psychological costs. Its overall objective is to ensure that women learning of prenatal genetic abnormalities have access to complete and comprehensible information prior to

  17. Losartan alleviates hyperuricemia-induced atherosclerosis in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hongchao; Li, Ning; Ding, Yueyou; Miao, Peizhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of losartan on hyperuricemia-induced aortic atherosclerosis, in an experimental rabbit model. Methods: Male rabbits (n = 48) were divided into control, hyperuricemia (HU), hypercholesterolemia + hyperuricemia (HC + HU) and high-purine with 30-mg/kg/d losartan (HU + losartan) groups. Serum uric acid (UA) and plasma renin and angiotensin II activities were determined. Aortic tissue specimens were analyzed for histological changes and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Liver tissues were sampled for quantitative analyses of liver low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Results: After 12 weeks, serum UA and plasma renin and plasma angiotensin II activities were enhanced in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001) compared to the control, whereas in the HU + losartan group plasma renin activity was not different and serum UA concentrations as well as plasma angiotensin II activity were moderately enhanced (P < 0.05). Smooth muscle cell (SMC) PCNA expression increased strongly in the HU and HU + HC groups (P < 0.001), but was less pronounced in the HU + losartan group. In contrast, transcription and expression of LDLR mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the control and HU + losartan groups compared to the HU and HU + HC groups. Both the HU and HU + HC groups had elevated intima thickness and intima areas compared to the control and HU + losartan groups. Conclusions: Losartan can alleviate experimental atherosclerosis induced by hyperuricemia. PMID:26617751

  18. Cellular Recycling of Proteins in Seed Dormancy Alleviation and Germination

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; Stawska, Marlena

    2016-01-01

    Each step of the seed-to-seed cycle of plant development including seed germination is characterized by a specific set of proteins. The continual renewal and/or replacement of these biomolecules are crucial for optimal plant adaptation. As proteins are the main effectors inside the cells, their levels need to be tightly regulated. This is partially achieved by specific proteolytic pathways via multicatalytic protease complexes defined as 20S and 26S proteasomes. In plants, the 20S proteasome is responsible for degradation of carbonylated proteins, while the 26S being a part of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is known to be involved in proteolysis of phytohormone signaling regulators. On the other hand, the role of translational control of plant development is also well-documented, especially in the context of pollen tube growth and light signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in seed biology, the sequence of cellular events that determine if the seed can germinate or not are still far from complete understanding. The role and mechanisms of regulation of proteome composition during processes occurring in the plant’s photosynthetic tissues have been well-characterized since many years, but in non-photosynthetic seeds it has emerged as a tempting research task only since the last decade. This review discusses the recent discoveries providing insights into the role of protein turnover in seed dormancy alleviation, and germination, with a focus on the control of translation and proteasomal proteolysis. The presented novel data of translatome profiling in seeds highlighted that post-transcriptional regulation of germination results from a timely regulated initiation of translation. In addition, the importance of 26S proteasome in the degradation of regulatory elements of cellular signaling and that of the 20S complex in proteolysis of specific carbonylated proteins in hormonal- and light-dependent processes occurring in seeds is discussed. Based on the

  19. Absence of functional alternative complement pathway alleviates lupus cerebritis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Jacob, Alexander; Vezina, Paul; Sekine, Hideharu; Gilkeson, Gary S; Quigg, Richard J

    2007-06-01

    The complement inhibitor, Crry, which blocks both the classical and alternative pathways, alleviates CNS disease in the lupus model, MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) mice. To understand the role of the alternative pathway, we studied mice deficient in a key alternative pathway protein, complement factor B (fB). Immune deposits (IgG and C3) were reduced in the brains of MRL/lpr fB-deficient (fB-/-MRL/lpr) compared to fB-sufficient (MRL/lpr) mice, indicating reduced complement activation. Reduced neutrophil infiltration (22% of MRL/lpr mice) and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity was reduced to 33% of MRL/lpr mice) in these mice indicates that the absence of the alternative pathway was neuroprotective. Furthermore, expression of phospho (p)-Akt (0.16+/-0.02 vs. 0.35+/-0.13, p<0.03) was increased, while expression of p-PTEN (0.40+/-0.06 vs. 0.11+/-0.07, p<0.05) was decreased in fB-/-MRL/lpr mice compared to their MRL/lpr counterparts. The expression of fibronectin, laminin and collagen IV was significantly decreased in fB-/-MRL/lpr mice compared to MRL/lpr mice, indicating that in the lupus setting, tissue integrity was maintained in the absence of the alternative pathway. Absence of fB reduced behavioral alterations in MRL/lpr mice. Our results suggest that in lupus, the alternative pathway may be the key mechanism through which complement activation occurs in brain, and therefore it might serve as a therapeutic target for lupus cerebritis. PMID:17523212

  20. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. PMID:21330022

  1. Modeling the Urban Boundary and Canopy Layers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Today, we are confronted with increasingly more sophisticated application requirements for urban modeling. These include those that address emergency response to acute exposures from toxic releases, health exposure assessments from adverse air quality, energy usage, and character...

  2. Urban Indian Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greymountain, Gus; And Others

    The second of a 2 phase study, this project provided information for the non-Indian population about problems and needs of urban American Indians. Phase I (1971) discussed urban Indian experiences and trends; compared differences and highlighted issues of Indian urbanization. Phase II focused entirely on the urban Indian community. The thrust was…

  3. Hydro-meteorological and micro-climatic impacts of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Baeck, M. L.; Jessup, S.; Smith, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the important drivers of micro and regional climate change. However, urban modeling still faces significant challenges mainly due to difficulties in representing small-scale physical processes occurring in urban canopies and in parameterizing the highly heterogeneous urban surfaces at regional scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model can be a powerful tool in overcoming these challenges due to its nesting and large-eddy simulation capabilities. In this study, we use the WRF model to study the impact of urbanization on urban hydrology (particularly rainfall) and the urban microclimate (i.e., the urban heat island) along the Baltimore-Washington Corridor. Two periods are simulated using WRF, one includes a heavy rainfall event and the other includes a heat wave event. The simulation results are compared to a variety of measurements, including radar rainfall estimates; vertical profiles of wind, water vapor and potential temperature; surface meteorological observations; and remotely-observed land surface temperature. The findings indicate that changing urban surface representations in the WRF model leads to significant changes in the rainfall pattern and amount, due to the modification of the surface energy budgets and the canopy effect. The sensitivity of urban rainfall modeling to urban surface models is comparable to the sensitivity to the microphysics schemes. The urban canopy model (UCM) is critical for capturing the surface energy partitioning and the land surface temperature. We also observe that the default single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) in WRF overestimates the surface temperatures along Washington-Baltimore Corridor when compared to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations. To improve the model performance, a new urban canopy model, calibrated using field observations, with two surface types for the roofs (conventional roof and green roof) and three for the ground (asphalt

  4. Urantide alleviates monocrotaline induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yifang; Jin, Hong; Tian, Wei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Han; Zhao, Yanping; Zhang, Zhiyi; Meng, Fanchao

    2011-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious disorder with poor prognosis. Urotensin II (UII) has been confirmed to be powerful vasoconstrictor than endothelin-1, which may play an important role in PAH development. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of urantide, a UII receptor antagonist, on monocrotaline (MCT) induced PAH in rats. 60 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. For early treatment experiment, rats were divided into normal control group, MCT(4w) model group (MCT + saline × 3 wks from the 8th day of MCT injection) and urantide early treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 μg/kg/d × 3 wks, 1 week after MCT injection once). For late treatment experiment, rats were divided as controls, MCT(6w) model group (MCT + saline × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once) and urantide late treatment group (MCT + urantide 10 μg/kg/d × 2 wks, 4 weeks after MCT injection once). At the end of experiments, mean pulmonary arterial pressures (mPAP) and mean blood pressure (MBP) of rats in each group were measured by catheterization. Right ventricular weight ratio was also weighed. Relaxation effects of urantide on intralobar pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats were investigated. Pulmonary artery remodeling was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry analysis. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in all six groups were assayed by ELISA kits. Urantide markedly reduced the mPAP levels of MCT induced PAH in both early and late treatment groups. It didn't change the MBP. Urantide dose-dependently relaxed the pulmonary arterial rings of normal control and MCT(4w) model rats. Moreover, N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine Methyl Ester (l-NAME) blocked the dilation response induced by urantide. In addition, urantide inhibited the pulmonary vascular remodeling remarkably. Serum NO level elevated in both early and late treatment rats with urantide infusion. These results suggest that urantide effectively alleviated

  5. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  6. Alleviation of high light-induced photoinhibition in cyanobacteria by artificially conferred biosilica shells.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Yang, Zhou; Zhai, Hailei; Wang, Guangchuan; Xu, Xurong; Ma, Weimin; Tang, Ruikang

    2013-09-01

    Bioinspired by diatoms, biomimetic silicification confers an artificial shell on cyanobacteria to alleviate photoinhibition; thus, the photosynthesis of the resulting cyanobacteria@SiO2 becomes more efficient under high light conditions. PMID:23863928

  7. Urban Evolution: The Role of Water and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    The structure, function, and services of urban ecosystems evolve over time scales from seconds to centuries as Earth's population grows, infrastructure ages, and management decisions alter them. The concept of "urban evolution" was proposed in order to study changes in urban ecosystems over time. Urban evolution has exerted a major influence on Earth's water and elemental cycles from local to global scales over human history. A current understanding of urban evolution allows urban planning, management, and restoration to move beyond reactive management to predictive management. We explore two key mechanisms of urban evolution, urban selective pressure and adaptation, and their relationship to the evolution of modern water and biogeochemical cycles. Urban selective pressure is an environmental or societal driver contributing to urban adaptation. Urban adaptation is the sequential process by which an urban structure, function, or services becomes more fitted to its changing environment or human choices. We show how hydrological and biogeochemical traits evolve across successive generations of urban ecosystems via shifts in selective pressures and adaptations. We also discuss how urban evolution can be divided into distinct stages and transition periods of growth and expansion and decay and repair during the Anthropocene epoch. We explore multiple examples and drivers of urban evolution and adaptations including the role of unintended consequences and societal drivers. We also present a conceptual model for the evolution of urban waters from the Industrial Revolution to the present day emphasizing the role of urban adaptations in response to selective pressures. Finally, we conclude by proposing new concepts and questions for future research related to the urban evolution of water, material, and energy cycles.

  8. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  9. Alleviation of chilling injury in tomato fruit by exogenous application of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyan; Yin, Fei; Song, Lijun; Zheng, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The effects of oxalic acid on the development of chilling injury (CI), energy metabolism and lycopene metabolism in tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were investigated. Mature green tomatoes were dipped in 10mmoll(-1) oxalic acid (OA) solution for 10min at 25°C. Tomatoes were subsequently stored at 4±0.5°C for 20days before being transferred to 25°C for 12days. Oxalic acid treatment apparently alleviated CI development and membrane damage; maintained higher levels of ATP and ADP; increased activities of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) and H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (H(+)-ATPase); and elevated lycopene accumulation associated with the upregulation of PSY1 and ZDS expression in tomatoes during a period at room temperature following exposure to chilling stress. Thus, oxalic acid treatment benefited the control of CI and the maintenance of fruit quality in tomatoes stored for long periods (approximately 32days). PMID:26920276

  10. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-01-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents. PMID:26364756

  11. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-01-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents. PMID:26364756

  12. Alleviating Pressure on Water Resources: A new approach could be attempted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shikun; Wang, Yubao; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Jing; Luan, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaolei; Zhou, Tianwa; Wu, Pute

    2015-09-01

    Water and food safety are two major challenges which the world faces today. Traditional water management focuses on the reduction of water use through improvements in water saving technologies. However, quantitative research is needed to evaluate the effects of changing food consumption patterns on water resources. Here we report the water saving effects of changing diet pattern of the major crops and animal products in mainland China. By using the concepts of water footprint (WF) per weight unit and per calorie unit, provided by 13 primary crop and animal products, the WFs of the 13 agricultural products in each province are compared, and their water/energy conversion efficiencies are analyzed. Then, impacts of different scenarios of changing diet pattern on water consumption were explored. Results show that there are obvious differences between the WF per weight and calorie unit provided by crop and animal products due to the nutritional properties of the agricultural products. Promoting water savings from the food consumption side could give a positive feedback on water consumption. Scenario analysis of adjustments to the diet pattern proves that it is potentially feasible to reach the objective of alleviating stress on water resources while guaranteeing nutritional value of the residents.

  13. Analytical study of the performance of a gust alleviation system for a STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehman, W. I.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical study has shown that a gust alleviation system for a STOL airplane in a cruise condition could reduce the root mean square of the normal acceleration of the airplane flying in random turbulence by as much as 50 percent. This alleviation is obtained by driving the flaps in response to normal acceleration and by moving the elevator in proportion to the commanded flap deflection angle and to a pitch-rate signal.

  14. What is an urban heat island?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kaicun; Jiang, Shaojing; Zhou, Chunlüe; Wang, Jiankai; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lee, Xuhui

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) have been extensively studied in cities of different sizes and climates. However, defining and quantifying the magnitude of a UHI and the primary mechanism responsible for this type of phenomenon are still debated. This study investigated a UHI using hourly air temperature (Ta) collected at 263 stations and land surface temperature (Ts) collected four times daily in Beijing in 2013. Five typical urban area types were studied: parking lots, building roofs, warning towers (on streets), city grasslands, and city parks. The daytime UHI quantified by Ta was substantially less than that at night, and the highest UHI quantified by Ta was during nighttime in winter. The dominating factor of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the nighttime UHI by Ta is the storage of energy by urban materials in the morning and the release of this energy later, dependent on urban structure and solar elevation. The amplitude and seasonal cycle of the nighttime UHI by Ts were similar to that quantified by Ta, and the largest values were in winter. The daytime UHI by Ts had a significantly different seasonal cycle, with the largest values in summer. The urban-rural contrast in evapotranspiration resulted in greater energy being absorbed by urban floors, the dictating factor for the daytime UHI by Ts and its seasonal cycle. These results have important implications for the impact of UHIs on the homogeneity of Ta observations and mitigating the impact of UHIs on extremely hot events in urban areas.

  15. Ecosystem services and urban heat riskscape moderation: water, green spaces, and social inequality in Phoenix, USA.

    PubMed

    Jenerette, G Darrel; Harlan, Sharon L; Stefanov, William L; Martin, Chris A

    2011-10-01

    Urban ecosystems are subjected to high temperatures--extreme heat events, chronically hot weather, or both-through interactions between local and global climate processes. Urban vegetation may provide a cooling ecosystem service, although many knowledge gaps exist in the biophysical and social dynamics of using this service to reduce climate extremes. To better understand patterns of urban vegetated cooling, the potential water requirements to supply these services, and differential access to these services between residential neighborhoods, we evaluated three decades (1970-2000) of land surface characteristics and residential segregation by income in the Phoenix, Arizona, USA metropolitan region. We developed an ecosystem service trade-offs approach to assess the urban heat riskscape, defined as the spatial variation in risk exposure and potential human vulnerability to extreme heat. In this region, vegetation provided nearly a 25 degrees C surface cooling compared to bare soil on low-humidity summer days; the magnitude of this service was strongly coupled to air temperature and vapor pressure deficits. To estimate the water loss associated with land-surface cooling, we applied a surface energy balance model. Our initial estimates suggest 2.7 mm/d of water may be used in supplying cooling ecosystem services in the Phoenix region on a summer day. The availability and corresponding resource use requirements of these ecosystem services had a strongly positive relationship with neighborhood income in the year 2000. However, economic stratification in access to services is a recent development: no vegetation-income relationship was observed in 1970, and a clear trend of increasing correlation was evident through 2000. To alleviate neighborhood inequality in risks from extreme heat through increased vegetation and evaporative cooling, large increases in regional water use would be required. Together, these results suggest the need for a systems evaluation of the

  16. Urban ecosystem modeling and global change: potential for rational urban management and emissions mitigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Fath, Brian D

    2014-07-01

    Urbanization is a strong and extensive driver that causes environmental pollution and climate change from local to global scale. Modeling cities as ecosystems has been initiated by a wide range of scientists as a key to addressing challenging problems concomitant with urbanization. In this paper, 'urban ecosystem modeling (UEM)' is defined in an inter-disciplinary context to acquire a broad perception of urban ecological properties and their interactions with global change. Furthermore, state-of-the-art models of urban ecosystems are reviewed, categorized as top-down models (including materials/energy-oriented models and structure-oriented models), bottom-up models (including land use-oriented models and infrastructure-oriented models), or hybrid models thereof. Based on the review of UEM studies, a future framework for explicit UEM is proposed based the integration of UEM approaches of different scales, guiding more rational urban management and efficient emissions mitigation. PMID:24747346

  17. AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates the hepatocyte model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via inactivating p38MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Ai; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Yan-Feng

    2016-05-27

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a wide spectrum of liver damage with a worldwide prevalence of almost 20%. AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) is an energy sensor that plays a key role in regulating lipid metabolism of the liver. This study explores the role of AMPKα1 overexpression in a steatotic hepatocyte model. The results displayed that the AMPKα1 overexpression suppressed lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm, decreased triglyceride levels, maintained the survival of steatotic hepatocyte model with decreased cell apoptosis and increased survival rate. Besides, AMPKα1 overexpression promoted the expression of lipid catabolism-related genes, reduced the level of anabolism-related genes, alleviated the inflammatory response by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, AMPKα1 overexpression could inhibit the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK). Finally, Anisomycin, a frequently-used activator of p38MAPK, reversed the inhibitory effect of pc-AMPKα1 on the expression of p-p38MAPK, suggesting that AMPKα1 overexpression alleviates inflammatory response through the inactivation of p38MAPK. These results indicated that AMPKα1 may serve as a novel target for treatment of NAFLD. PMID:27109475

  18. Modulation of fatty acid metabolism is involved in the alleviation of isoproterenol-induced rat heart failure by fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Luo, Shike; Pan, Chunji; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure is a disease predominantly caused by an energy metabolic disorder in cardiomyocytes. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of fenofibrate (FF) on isoproterenol (ISO)‑induced hear failure in rats, and examined the underlying mechanisms. The rats were divided into CON, ISO (HF model), FF and FF+ISO (HF animals pretreated with FF) groups. The cardiac structure and function of the rats were assessed, and contents of free fatty acids and glucose metabolic products were determined. In addition, myocardial cells were isolated from neonatal rats and used in vitro to investigate the mechanisms by which FF relieves heart failure. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR)α and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). FF effectively alleviated the ISO‑induced cardiac structural damage, functional decline, and fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolic abnormalities. Compared with the ISO group, the serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), free fatty acids, lactic acid and pyruvic acid were decreased in the FF animals. In the cultured myocardial cells, lactic acid and pyruvic acid contents were lower in the supernatants obtained from the FF animals, with lower levels of mitochondrial ROS production and cell necrosis, compared with the ISO group, whereas PPARα upregulation and UCP2 downregulation occurred in the FF+ISO group. The results demonstrated that FF efficiently alleviated heart failure in the ISO‑induced rat model, possibly via promoting fatty acid oxidation. PMID:26497978

  19. Urban behavioural adaptation.

    PubMed

    Garroway, Colin J; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    A large and growing proportion of the world is impacted directly by human activities; among the most extreme of these is the spread of urban environments. Environmental change associated with urbanization represents a potentially potent source of selection. While urban environments generally have lowered biodiversity, some clades seem to thrive in urban settings. For example, many members of the bird family Turdidae, known as the ‘truethrushes’ and the blackbird Turdus merula (Fig. 1) in particular, are familiar urban species. Indeed, the colonization of urban environments by blackbirds has become a textbook case study for our understanding of the many ways a wild species can deal with urbanization. In this issue, Mueller et al. (Molecular Ecology, 00, 2013, 00) add to that story by beginning to address the genetic nature of behavioural adaptation of blackbirds colonizing urban areas. They do this by testing for divergence between paired urban and rural samples at a suite of candidate genes with hypothesized effects on behaviours thought to be important for the colonization of urban environments.They find evidence for consistent patterns of divergence at an exonic microsatellite associated with the SERT gene. SERT has a number of hypothesized behavioural effects, including harm avoidance, which may be associated with tolerating the hustle and bustle of urban environments. This is among the first evidence that behavioural differences between urban and rural environments have a genetic basis and this work suggests that urban environments can in some cases exert homogeneous selection pressures. PMID:23967452

  20. Complex Urban Simulations and Sustainable Urban Planning with Spatial and Social Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T.; Boschert, S.; Hempel, L.; Höffken, S.; Obst, B.

    2013-09-01

    Cities can be seen as complex systems of heterogeneous processes with a high variety of different influences (e.g. social, infrastructural, economic, and political impacts). This especially applies for tasks concerning urban development of existing assets. The optimization of traffic flows, reduction of emissions, improvement of energy efficiency, but also urban climate and landscape planning issues require the involvement of many different actors, balancing different perspectives, and divergent claims. The increasing complexities of planning and decision processes make high demands on professionals of various disciplines, government departments, and municipal decision-makers. In the long term, topics like urban resilience, energy management, risk and resource management have to be taken into account and reflected in future projects, but always related to socio-spatial and governmental aspects. Accordingly, it is important to develop models to be able to understand and analyze the outcomes and effects of governmental measures and planning to the urban environment. Thus, a more systematic approach is needed - going away from welldefined city models to city system models. The purpose is to describe urban processes not only quantitatively, but to grasp their qualitative complexity and interdependencies, by modeling and simulating existing urban systems. This contribution will present the City System Model (CSM) concept closely related to an Urban Energy Planning use case, will highlight the methodology, and focus on first results and findings from an ongoing interdisciplinary research project and use case to improve the basis of information for decision-makers and politicians about urban planning decisions.

  1. Interdisciplinary Pathways for Urban Metabolism Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    With its rapid rise as a metaphor to express coupled natural-human systems in cities, the concept of urban metabolism is evolving into a series of relatively distinct research frameworks amongst various disciplines, with varying definitions, theories, models, and emphases. In industrial ecology, housed primarily within the disciplinary domain of engineering, urban metabolism research has focused on quantifying material and energy flows into, within, and out of cities, using methodologies such as material flow analysis and life cycle assessment. In the field of urban ecology, which is strongly influenced by ecology and urban planning, research focus has been placed on understanding and modeling the complex patterns and processes of human-ecological systems within urban areas. Finally, in political ecology, closely aligned with human geography and anthropology, scholars theorize about the interwoven knots of social and natural processes, material flows, and spatial structures that form the urban metabolism. This paper offers three potential interdisciplinary urban metabolism research tracks that might integrate elements of these three "ecologies," thereby bridging engineering and the social and physical sciences. First, it presents the idea of infrastructure ecology, which explores the complex, emergent interdependencies between gray (water and wastewater, transportation, etc) and green (e.g. parks, greenways) infrastructure systems, as nested within a broader socio-economic context. For cities to be sustainable and resilient over time-space, the theory follows, these is a need to understand and redesign these infrastructure linkages. Second, there is the concept of an urban-scale carbon metabolism model which integrates consumption-based material flow analysis (including goods, water, and materials), with the carbon sink and source dynamics of the built environment (e.g. buildings, etc) and urban ecosystems. Finally, there is the political ecology of the material

  2. Global urbanization and impact on health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melinda; Gould, Philip; Keary, Barbara S

    2003-08-01

    Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health statistics are largely unavailable throughout the world. Disaggregated intra-urban health data, i.e., for different areas within a city, are even more rare. Data that are available indicate a range of urban health hazards and associated health risks: substandard housing, crowding, air pollution, insufficient or contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and solid waste disposal services, vector-borne diseases, industrial waste, increased motor vehicle traffic, stress associated with poverty and unemployment, among others. Local and national governments and multilateral organizations are all grappling with the challenges of urbanization. Urban health risks and concerns involve many different sectors, including health, environment, housing, energy, transportation, urban planning, and others. Two main policy implications are highlighted: the need for systematic and useful urban health statistics on a disaggregated, i.e., intra-urban, basis, and the need for more effective partnering across sectors. The humanitarian and economic imperative to create livable and sustainable cities must drive us to seek and successfully overcome challenges and capitalize on opportunities. Good urban planning and governance, exchange of best practice models and the determination and leadership of stakeholders across disciplines, sectors, communities and countries will be critical elements of success. PMID:12971682

  3. Urban/rural interface: Governing the chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Cities have become recently the home for more than half of the world's population. Cities are often seen as ecological systems just a short step away from collapse [Newman 2006]. Being a human construction, cities disrupt the natural cycles and the patterns of temporal and spatial distribution of environmental and ecological processes. Urbanization produces ruptures in biota, water, energy and nutrients connectivity that can lead to an enhanced exposure to disruptive events that hamper the wellbeing and the resilience of urban communities in a global change context. An important issue in what concerns urban sprawl is the interface between the urban and the rural territories. Being an extremely dynamic landscape, and assuring some quality of life and buffering some of the pervasive negative impacts of urban areas in terms of disrupting the function of the natural ecosystems, in limit situations this interface can act as a conveyor belt of catastrophic events originated in the rural world, into the urban space. The Coimbra 2005 wildfire is a fine example of how a poorly managed urban/rural interface can put populations in danger, by allowing the fire to spread towards the urban green infrastructure, burning houses in the process. Major river flows that flood urban areas are also good examples of the lack of management and planning can result in the loss of assets and even put in danger human lives. This presentation reviews the impact of extreme events and the transmission from the urban to the rural worlds, but also from the rural to the urban territories, and establishes the need to govern risk at various levels and using the full range of governance tools.

  4. Education for Urban Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstut, Stanton

    1978-01-01

    Presents 39 questions concerning urban design educational programs to be discussed at a workshop. The questions represent five groups: schools with programs, schools wanting to establish programs, practitioners, students, and the AIA committee on urban planning and design. (MA)

  5. Urban Schools in Urban Systems, Selected Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gappert, Gary, Ed.

    This volume contains papers which were presented at a conference focusing on the themes of partnership and progress in urban education. The following papers are included: (1) an introduction to the volume, by Gary Gappert; (2) "Urban Education: Past, Present and Future," by Bernard G. Watson; (3) "Variables Affecting the Learning of Inner City…

  6. Urban runoff quality management

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This new manual of practice, jointly produced by the Water Environment Federation and American Society of Civil Engineers, focuses on the protection and enhancement of urban water resources by controlling the transport of constituents into urban waterways by urban stormwater runoff. The manual emphasizes control of constituent discharges, reflecting the fact that chemical and particulate constituents in urban stormwater runoff play a key role in determining the negative effects of that runoff.

  7. Urbanization in China.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the growth and structure of urbanization in major cities and in rural areas in China. The definition of urban area in China is complex and unique in distinguishing between cities with and without an urban status. The designation of "urban" to a city has important implications for social welfare of the urban population. Urban cities grant registration to citizens, which entitles them to food, an occupation, and housing. Since 1949, "city" changed definition in 1955, 1963, and 1984. Urban and rural districts are thus separated administratively. Government statistics are based on five designations of urban population: officially designated cities and towns, areas under municipal jurisdiction, urban population, urban population with an urban registry, and city district population. There are city-administered counties also in a three-tiered structure of government: provincial government, city administration, and county administration. Population statistics are based on population censuses or city registries and do not account for migration. Commune populations are people who have quit agriculture but are counted as rural population, unless they are registered in officially designated towns. Commune populations are people working in village and township enterprises. World Bank statistics indicate an increase in urbanization rates from 1965 to 1989, from 18% to 53%, but most of the growth occurred during the 1980s. It is argued that China's population statistics must not be accepted uncritically. The author offers a reconstructed set of Chinese urbanization figures that would be compatible with other countries. Urbanization was estimated to be 21% in 1961, 16% in 1971, 18.7% in 1981, and 29.7% in 1991. Seven major conclusions are drawn. For instance, it is concluded that urban population growth was 5% or more during the 1980s in nine provinces having populations of 380 million or more. Three provinces had rates of 4-5%. The 1990s are expected to show

  8. An Urban Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    New Jersey's urban initiative has two components. The first is a broad-based program that addresses critical issues common to most urban districts Statewide. The second is a comprehensive program (Operation School Renewal) that concentrates the State's resources in three urban districts. The concentrated initiative, Operation School Renewal, will…

  9. URBAN AIRSHED MODEL (UAM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Urban Airshed Model (UAM) is an urban scale, three-dimensional, grid type, numerical simulation model. The model incorporates a condensed photochemical kinetics mechanism for urban atmospheres. The UAM is designed for computing ozone (O3) concentrations under short-term, epis...

  10. Feed First, Ask Questions Later: Alleviating and Understanding Caregiver Food Insecurity in an Urban Children’s Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Thorngren, Daniel; Lindau, Stacy Tessler

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the prevalence of caregiver hospital food insecurity (defined as not getting enough to eat during a child’s hospitalization), examined associations between food insecurity and barriers to food access, and propose a conceptual framework to inform remedies to this problem. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 200 caregivers of hospitalized children in Chicago, Illinois (June through December 2011). A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic characteristics, barriers to food, and caregiver hospital food insecurity. Results. Caregiver hospital food insecurity was prevalent (32%). Caregivers who were aged 18 to 34 years, Black or African American, unpartnered, and with less education were more likely to experience hospital food insecurity. Not having enough money to buy food at the hospital, lack of reliable transportation, and lack of knowledge of where to get food at the hospital were associated with hospital food insecurity. The proposed conceptual framework posits a bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and health, emphasizing the interdependencies between caregiver food insecurity and patient outcomes. Conclusions. Strategies are needed to identify and feed caregivers and to eradicate food insecurity in homes of children with serious illness. PMID:26066937

  11. IMPROVING RESOURCE RECOVERY OF ORGANIC WASTE TO ALLEVIATE ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN A DEPRESSED URBAN ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Orleans East is a unique area that is both ecologically and economically critical to the rest of the city due to the presence of valuable wetlands and dense industries. Several of these industries generate large amounts of organic waste, which create multiple problems. The...

  12. Effect of hilly urban morphology on dispersion in the urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottrott, A.; Sun, L.; Kleissl, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    Air flow and dispersion in the atmospheric surface layer are strongly affected by terrain and buildings. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with a three-dimensional immersed boundary method (IBM) was employed to investigate atmospheric boundary layer flow in a hilly urban area, to study turbulence and dispersion properties in and above the urban canopy. Five different domains were designed to simulate flow over an infinite sequence of hills (defined by the Witch of Agnesi and having a maximum slope of 0.26), buildings on flat terrain and buildings on the Witch of Agnesi hills (hill height to building height ratios 3/2 and 9/4). Shear stress and velocity variance above the urban canopy were smaller for the small hill with buildings compared to building array on flat terrain. Shear stress increased with the hill height for hills with buildings. For hills with buildings turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) in the urban canopy increased dramatically upwind of the hill crest and fell below the canopy level TKE for the flat urban case in the lee of the hill. Canyon ventilation at the sub-canopy level was two to three times larger for the hilly urban compared to the flat case but air exchange through the top of urban canyons was not greatly affected by the hill. Our study demonstrates that urban dispersion models with the ability to handle terrain and bluff obstacles in the domain are necessary to simulate important flow features and dispersion in hilly urban environments.

  13. The Impact of Surface Heterogeneity on Urban-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Li, D.; Sun, T.; Ni, G.

    2015-12-01

    Investigating heat and water transfer in urban areas is essential for understanding the influence of urbanization on the local and regional climate as well as the hydrological cycle. The present study investigates the impacts of surface heterogeneity on water and heat transfer in the atmospheric boundary layer. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model is modified so that a more realistic urban representation is used with Large Eddy Simulations (LES). Numerical experiments are then conducted to investigate heat and water vapor transfer in urban areas under different large-scale synoptic conditions. Preliminary results have found that the urban-rural contrast results in an urban heat inland circulation, which enhances the kinetic energy and accelerates the heat and water vapor transfer in the horizontal direction. The urban-rural contrast in terms of surface temperature and momentum roughness length are shown to have significant but different effect on the urban boundary layer. Within urban areas, the small-scale heterogeneity effect is also studied. When the patch size that characterizes the urban heterogeneity scale is comparable to the size of urban area, the simulated results are strongly dependent on the heterogeneity conditions. As the patch size decreases, the simulated results become more similar to those over a homogeneous urban surface.

  14. Cocaine-induced anxiety: alleviation by diazepam, but not buspirone, dimenhydrinate or diphenhydramine.

    PubMed

    Paine, T A; Jackman, S L; Olmstead, M C

    2002-11-01

    Clinical reports and animal experiments indicate that both cocaine administration and cocaine withdrawal increase anxiety. We investigated the ability of a number of putative anxiolytic agents to alleviate these anxiety states using the elevated plus-maze. Rats in the cocaine condition received either saline or cocaine (20 mg/kg) 40 min prior to testing; those in the withdrawal condition were tested 48 h following a chronic treatment regime (saline or cocaine 20 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Prior to testing, animals received a benzodiazepine (1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diazepam), a serotonergic agonist (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg buspirone), an antihistamine (50 mg/kg dimenhydrinate or 27 mg/kg diphenhydramine) or a saline injection. All drugs were administered intraperitoneally. Cocaine administration and cocaine withdrawal reduced the percentage time spent on and the number of entries into the open arms. Diazepam dose-dependently alleviated cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety and non-significantly attenuated cocaine-induced anxiety. Buspirone, dimenhydrinate and diphenhydramine did not consistently alleviate the anxiety caused by either cocaine pre-treatment regime; in the saline conditions, however, each of these treatments was anxiogenic. In summary, benzodiazepines alleviated cocaine-induced anxiety, while future research on the ability of serotonergic and antihistaminergic drugs to alleviate these anxiety states is warranted. PMID:12409990

  15. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    ScienceCinema

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-11-18

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  16. Lakeside: Merging Urban Design with Scientific Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, Leah; Catlett, Charlie; Woodbury, Ed

    2014-10-08

    Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago are developing tools that merge urban design with scientific analysis to improve the decision-making process associated with large-scale urban developments. One such tool, called LakeSim, has been prototyped with an initial focus on consumer-driven energy and transportation demand, through a partnership with the Chicago-based architectural and engineering design firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Clean Energy Trust and developer McCaffery Interests. LakeSim began with the need to answer practical questions about urban design and planning, requiring a better understanding about the long-term impact of design decisions on energy and transportation demand for a 600-acre development project on Chicago's South Side - the Chicago Lakeside Development project.

  17. Urbanization decreases attentional engagement.

    PubMed

    Linnell, Karina J; Caparos, Serge; de Fockert, Jan W; Davidoff, Jules

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to the urban environment has been shown dramatically to increase the tendency to process contextual information. To further our understanding of this effect of urbanization, we compared performance on a local-selection task of a remote people, the Himba, living traditionally or relocated to town. We showed that (a) spatial attention was defocused in urbanized Himba but focused in traditional Himba (Experiment 1), despite urbanized Himba performing better on a working memory task (Experiment 3); (b) imposing a cognitive load made attention as defocused in traditional as in urbanized Himba (Experiment 2); and (c) using engaging stimuli/tasks made attention as focused in urbanized Himba, and British, as in traditional Himba (Experiments 4 and 5). We propose that urban environments prioritize exploration at the expense of attentional engagement and cognitive control of attentional selection. PMID:23339348

  18. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  19. Urban-Rural and Provincial Disparities in Child Malnutrition in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yichao; Qi, Di

    2016-10-01

    This article investigates how the nutritional deprivation and inequality among children in China by provinces and urban/rural areas has changed over time from 1991 to 2009 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. The children who were undernourished in stunting and underweight have declined over years, but provincial disparities were significant and urban children performed better than the rural peers. The nutritional deprivation of children has been alleviated in China over time, but more efforts should be made by the government to improve the nutritional condition in less developed provinces and for those children who are severely undernourished. PMID:27315054

  20. The role of forestry development in China in alleviating greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hong

    1996-12-31

    Forestry development in China has gained great achievements and made great progress in realizing sustainable forest management and alleviating global climate change. The main measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development include afforestation to increase the forested area, fuel wood forest development, management improvement, wise utilization, international cooperation, investment increase, forest related scientific research, strengthening the forest law enforcement system. Climate change as well as how to alleviate the greenhouse effects is a hot topic at present. This paper describes the achievements of China`s forestry development and its role to alleviate the greenhouse effects, and puts forward the measures to mitigate greenhouse effects through the means of forestry development.

  1. Measuring Thermal Characteristics of Urban Landscapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.

    1999-01-01

    The additional heating of the air over the city is the result of the replacement of naturally vegetated surfaces with those composed of asphalt, concrete, rooftops and other man-made materials. The temperatures of these artificial surfaces can be 20 to 40 C higher than vegetated surfaces. Materials such as asphalt store much of the sun's energy and remains hot long after sunset. This produces a dome of elevated air temperatures 5 to 8 C greater over the city, compared to the air temperatures over adjacent rural areas. This effect is called the "urban heat island". Urban landscapes are a complex mixture of vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. It is difficult to take enough temperature measurements over a large city area to characterize the complexity of urban radiant surface temperature variability. However, the use of remotely sensed thermal data from airborne scanners are ideal for the task. In a study funded by NASA, a series of flights over Huntsville, Alabama were performed in September 1994 and over Atlanta, Georgia in May 1997. Analysis of thermal energy responses for specific or discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape (e.g., asphalt, building rooftops, vegetation) requires measurements at a very fine spatial scale (i.e., <15 m) to adequately resolve these surfaces and their attendant thermal energy regimes. Additionally, very fine scale spatial resolution thermal infrared data, such as that obtained from aircraft, are very useful for demonstrating to planning officials, policy makers, and the general populace, what the benefits are of the urban forest in both mitigating the urban heat island effect, in making cities more aesthetically pleasing and more habitable environments, and in overall cooling of the community. In this presentation we will examine the techniques of analyzing remotely sensed data for measuring the effect of various urban surfaces on their contribution to the urban heat island effect.

  2. Further Evaluation of an Urban Canopy Parameterization using VTMX and Urban 2000 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H S; Leach, M J

    2004-06-04

    Almost two-thirds of the U.S. population live in urbanized areas occupying less than 2% of the landmass. Similar statistics of urbanization exists in other parts of the world. With the rapid growth of the world population, urbanization appears to be an important issue on environmental and health aspects. As a result, the interaction between the urban region and atmospheric processes becomes a very complex problem. Further understanding of this interaction via the surface and/or atmosphere is of importance to improve the weather forecast, and to minimize the loss caused by the weather-related events, or even by the chemical-biological threat. To this end, Brown and Willaims, (1998) first developed an urban canopy scheme to parameterize the urban infrastructure effect. This parameterization accounts for the effects of drag, turbulent production, radiation balance, and anthropogenic and rooftop heating. Further modification was made and tested in our recent sensitivity study for an idealized case using a mesoscale model. Results indicated that the addition of the rooftop surface energy equation enables this parameterization to more realistically simulate the urban infrastructure impact (Chin et al., 2000). To further improve the representation of the urban effect in the mesoscale model, the USGS land-use data with different resolutions (200 and 30 meters) are adopted to derive the urban parameters via a look-up table approach (Leone et al., 2002; Chin et al., 2004). This approach can provide us the key parameters for urban infrastructure and urban surface characteristics to drive the urban canopy parameterization with geographic and temporal dependence. These urban characteristics include urban fraction, roof fraction, building height, anthropogenic heating, surface albedo, surface wetness, and surface roughness. The objective of this study is to evaluate the modified urban canopy parameterization (UCP) with the observed measurements. Another objective is to

  3. Fatigue-alleviating effect on mice of an ethanolic extract from Rubus coreanus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Somi; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Kyungmi; Park, Jeongjin; Kim, Sunoh; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Lee, Jeongmin; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2011-01-01

    The fatigue-alleviating effects on mice of Rubus coreanus were investigated by using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, and those administered with the 80% ethanol extract (RCE) of R. coreanus displayed a lower reduction (20%) in swimming time on day 2 than the control group (41% reduction). RCE significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic antioxidants during exercise-induced fatigue. These results suggest that RCE alleviated fatigue by elevating the antioxidative potential. PMID:21307576

  4. Nutritional interventions to alleviate the negative consequences of heat stress.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Suagee, Jessica K; Sanders, Sara R

    2013-05-01

    Energy metabolism is a highly coordinated process, and preferred fuel(s) differ among tissues. The hierarchy of substrate use can be affected by physiological status and environmental factors including high ambient temperature. Unabated heat eventually overwhelms homeothermic mechanisms resulting in heat stress, which compromises animal health, farm animal production, and human performance. Various aspects of heat stress physiology have been extensively studied, yet a clear understanding of the metabolic changes occurring at the cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels in response to an environmental heat load remains ill-defined. For reasons not yet clarified, circulating nonesterified fatty acid levels are reduced during heat stress, even in the presence of elevated stress hormones (epinephrine, glucagon, and cortisol), and heat-stressed animals often have a blunted lipolytic response to catabolic signals. Either directly because of or in coordination with this, animals experiencing environmental hyperthermia exhibit a shift toward carbohydrate use. These metabolic alterations occur coincident with increased circulating basal and stimulated plasma insulin concentrations. Limited data indicate that proper insulin action is necessary to effectively mount a response to heat stress and minimize heat-induced damage. Consistent with this idea, nutritional interventions targeting increased insulin action may improve tolerance and productivity during heat stress. Further research is warranted to uncover the effects of heat on parameters associated with energy metabolism so that more appropriate and effective treatment methodologies can be designed. PMID:23674792

  5. Natural hydrocarbons, urbanization, and urban ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cardelino, C.A.; Chameides, W.L. )

    1990-08-20

    Using the Atlanta metropolitan area as a case study, the authors examine the effects of urbanization and its associated heat island on urban ozone concentrations. Air quality data from Atlanta suggest that urban ozone concentrations are enhanced by increases in ambient temperature. Model calculations suggest that this enhancement is caused by the effect of temperature on the atmospheric chemistry of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), as well as the temperature dependence of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions. A comparison of summertime temperatures in Atlanta and a nearby rural station, suggests that Atlanta's temperature over the past 15 years has increased by about 2{degree}C due to urbanization and its concomitant intensification of the urban heat island. Numerical simulations using conditions of a typical summertime day in Atlanta suggest that this rise in temperature could have, (1) resulted in a significant increase in the net emissions of natural hydrocarbons in the area in spite of the loss of about 20% of the areas forests over the same period, and (2) negated the beneficial effects on summertime ozone concentrations that would have been obtained from a 50% reduction in anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Because a NO{sub x}-based ozone abatement strategy appears to be less sensitive to temperature increases than does a hydrocarbon-based strategy, a NO{sub x} strategy may prove to be more effective in the future if temperatures continue to rise as a result of urbanization and the greenhouse effect.

  6. Can Aerosol Offset Urban Heat Island Effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M. S.; Shepherd, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Urban Heat Island effect (UHI) refers to urban skin or air temperature exceeding the temperatures in surrounding non-urban regions. In a warming climate, the UHI may intensify extreme heat waves and consequently cause significant health and energy problems. Aerosols reduce surface insolation via the direct effect, namely, scattering and absorbing sunlight in the atmosphere. Combining the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations over large cities together with Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) simulations, we find that the aerosol direct reduction of surface insolation range from 40-100 Wm-2, depending on seasonality and aerosol loads. As a result, surface skin temperature can be reduced by 1-2C while 2-m surface air temperature by 0.5-1C. This study suggests that the aerosol direct effect is a competing mechanism for the urban heat island effect (UHI). More importantly, both aerosol and urban land cover effects must be adequately represented in meteorological and climate modeling systems in order to properly characterize urban surface energy budgets and UHI.

  7. Effect of heat waves on VOC emissions from vegetation and urban air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, G.; Kuik, F.; Lauer, A.; Bonn, B.; Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of VOC from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the 2006 heat wave. VOC emissions from vegetation are simulated with MEGAN 2.0 coupled with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during the heat wave period. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  8. Modeling Global Urbanization Supported by Nighttime Light Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization, a major driver of global change, profoundly impacts our physical and social world, for example, altering carbon cycling and climate. Understanding these consequences for better scientific insights and effective decision-making unarguably requires accurate information on urban extent and its spatial distributions. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the nighttime light remote sensing data, extended this method to the global domain by developing a computational method (parameterization) to estimate the key parameters in the cluster-based method, and built a consistent 20-year global urban map series to evaluate the time-reactive nature of global urbanization (e.g. 2000 in Fig. 1). Supported by urban maps derived from nightlights remote sensing data and socio-economic drivers, we developed an integrated modeling framework to project future urban expansion by integrating a top-down macro-scale statistical model with a bottom-up urban growth model. With the models calibrated and validated using historical data, we explored urban growth at the grid level (1-km) over the next two decades under a number of socio-economic scenarios. The derived spatiotemporal information of historical and potential future urbanization will be of great value with practical implications for developing adaptation and risk management measures for urban infrastructure, transportation, energy, and water systems when considered together with other factors such as climate variability and change, and high impact weather events.

  9. Urbanization and Income Inequality in Post-Reform China: A Causal Analysis Based on Time Series Data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Glasmeier, Amy K; Zhang, Min; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential causal relationship(s) between China's urbanization and income inequality since the start of the economic reform. Based on the economic theory of urbanization and income distribution, we analyze the annual time series of China's urbanization rate and Gini index from 1978 to 2014. The results show that urbanization has an immediate alleviating effect on income inequality, as indicated by the negative relationship between the two time series at the same year (lag = 0). However, urbanization also seems to have a lagged aggravating effect on income inequality, as indicated by positive relationship between urbanization and the Gini index series at lag 1. Although the link between urbanization and income inequality is not surprising, the lagged aggravating effect of urbanization on the Gini index challenges the popular belief that urbanization in post-reform China generally helps reduce income inequality. At deeper levels, our results suggest an urgent need to focus on the social dimension of urbanization as China transitions to the next stage of modernization. Comprehensive social reforms must be prioritized to avoid a long-term economic dichotomy and permanent social segregation. PMID:27433966

  10. Urbanization and Income Inequality in Post-Reform China: A Causal Analysis Based on Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; Glasmeier, Amy K.; Zhang, Min; Shao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential causal relationship(s) between China’s urbanization and income inequality since the start of the economic reform. Based on the economic theory of urbanization and income distribution, we analyze the annual time series of China’s urbanization rate and Gini index from 1978 to 2014. The results show that urbanization has an immediate alleviating effect on income inequality, as indicated by the negative relationship between the two time series at the same year (lag = 0). However, urbanization also seems to have a lagged aggravating effect on income inequality, as indicated by positive relationship between urbanization and the Gini index series at lag 1. Although the link between urbanization and income inequality is not surprising, the lagged aggravating effect of urbanization on the Gini index challenges the popular belief that urbanization in post-reform China generally helps reduce income inequality. At deeper levels, our results suggest an urgent need to focus on the social dimension of urbanization as China transitions to the next stage of modernization. Comprehensive social reforms must be prioritized to avoid a long-term economic dichotomy and permanent social segregation. PMID:27433966

  11. A multimodal Darwinian strategy for alleviating the atherosclerosis pandemic.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Geetha; Thambi, Magith; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2014-02-01

    The conflict between our 'primitive' genes and 'modern' lifestyle probably lies at the root of several disorders that afflict modern man. Atherosclerosis, which is relatively unknown among contemporary hunter-gatherer populations, has reached pandemic proportions in recent times. Being an evolutionary problem with several inter-related pathologies, current therapeutic strategy for treating atherosclerosis has inherent limitations. Reviewing evolution-linked risk factors suggests that there are four aspects to the etiology of atherosclerosis namely, decreased intestinal parasitism, oversensitivity of evolutionarily redundant mast cells, chronic underactivation of AMPK (cellular energy sensor) and a deficiency of vitamin D. A combination of these four causes appear to have precipitated the atherosclerosis pandemic in modern times. Man and worms co-existed symbiotically in the past. Massive de-worming campaigns could have disrupted this symbiosis, increasing nutritional availability to man (pro-obesity) at the cost of decreased immunotolerance (pro-atherogenicity). A reduction in helminth-induced chronic TH2 activation could also have enhanced TH1 polarization, eventually disrupting the reciprocal regulation of TH1/TH2 balance and resulting in atherosclerosis. The riddance of helminth infestations may have rendered mast cells immunologically redundant, making them oversensitive to inflammatory stimuli, thereby playing a pro-atherogenic role. AMPK activation exerts pleiotropic anti-atherogenic effects, such as suppression of fatty acid, cholesterol, protein synthesis, reduction of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, etc. As energy deficit is the chief stimulus for AMPK activation, the over-nourished modern man appears to be suffering from chronic underactivation of AMPK, legitimising the unrivalled supremacy of metformin, the oldest prescribed antidiabetic drug. The fact that humans evolved in the sunny tropics suggests that humans are selected for high vitamin D

  12. Active smart material system for buffet load alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.; Saarmaa, Erik; Agnes, Gregory S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper addressed the feasibility of using an active piezoelectric buffet suppression system to reduce buffet vibrations in vertical tail aircraft. During the assessment, functional requirements were defined, models were developed, and full-scale piezoelectric buffet suppression systems were designed and evaluated. A variety of actuator distributions, sensor locations and controller architectures were examined and it was found that significant performance improvements could be achieved (greater than 70 percent) with minimal weight penalties (less than 8 percent). This work enabled the evaluation of issues such as system performance versus added weight and piezoelectric actuator control authority and power requirements. The study showed that the added performance benefit (in terms of vibration reduction and fatigue life) are far greater than the weight penalty, and that piezoelectric actuators have the control authority required to suppress high energy buffet forces within aircraft geometry, weight, and power constraints. Further, the high performance achieved (much greater than that defined in the functional requirements) suggests that systems can be designed with a much lower weight penalty (1/2 to 1/4) than that assumed in this study.

  13. Alleviating product inhibition in cellulase enzyme Cel7A.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Meera E; Strobel, Kathryn L; Clark, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Enzymes that degrade cellulose into glucose are one of the most expensive components of processes for converting cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Cellulase enzyme Cel7A is the most abundant enzyme naturally employed by fungi to depolymerize cellulose, and like other cellulases is inhibited by its product, cellobiose. There is thus great economic incentive for minimizing the detrimental effects of product inhibition on Cel7A. In this work, we experimentally generated 10 previously proposed site-directed mutant Cel7A enzymes expected to have reduced cellobiose binding energies (the majority of mutations were to alanine). We then tested their resilience to cellobiose as well as their hydrolytic activities on microcrystalline cellulose. Although every mutation tested conferred reduced product inhibition (and abolished it for some), our results confirm a trade-off between Cel7A tolerance to cellobiose and enzymatic activity: Reduced product inhibition was accompanied by lower overall enzymatic activity on crystalline cellulose for the mutants tested. The tempering effect of mutations on inhibition was nearly constant despite relatively large differences in activities of the mutants. Our work identifies an amino acid in the Cel7A product binding site of interest for further mutational studies, and highlights both the challenge and the opportunity of enzyme engineering toward improving product tolerance in Cel7A. PMID:26302366

  14. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  15. Finite element code-based modeling of a multi-feature isolation system and passive alleviation of possible inner pounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohammed; López-Almansa, Francesc; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Pujades-Beneit, Luis G.

    2014-09-01

    The existing seismic isolation systems are based on well-known and accepted physical principles, but they are still having some functional drawbacks. As an attempt of improvement, the Roll-N-Cage (RNC) isolator has been recently proposed. It is designed to achieve a balance in controlling isolator displacement demands and structural accelerations. It provides in a single unit all the necessary functions of vertical rigid support, horizontal flexibility with enhanced stability, resistance to low service loads and minor vibration, and hysteretic energy dissipation characteristics. It is characterized by two unique features that are a self-braking (buffer) and a self-recentering mechanism. This paper presents an advanced representation of the main and unique features of the RNC isolator using an available finite element code called SAP2000. The validity of the obtained SAP2000 model is then checked using experimental, numerical and analytical results. Then, the paper investigates the merits and demerits of activating the built-in buffer mechanism on both structural pounding mitigation and isolation efficiency. The paper addresses the problem of passive alleviation of possible inner pounding within the RNC isolator, which may arise due to the activation of its self-braking mechanism under sever excitations such as near-fault earthquakes. The results show that the obtained finite element code-based model can closely match and accurately predict the overall behavior of the RNC isolator with effectively small errors. Moreover, the inherent buffer mechanism of the RNC isolator could mitigate or even eliminate direct structure-to-structure pounding under severe excitation considering limited septation gaps between adjacent structures. In addition, the increase of inherent hysteretic damping of the RNC isolator can efficiently limit its peak displacement together with the severity of the possibly developed inner pounding and, therefore, alleviate or even eliminate the

  16. Design by Nature in a Confined Flood Alleviation Scheme: Analysis of Form-Process Feedbacks and Morphological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, D.; German, S.

    2015-12-01

    AbstractMany conventional hard flood risk alleviation schemes have been detrimental to natural geomorphic processes and have damaged fluvial habitats. This is primarily due to the over-riding focus on managing flood risk by dictating channel capacity and hydraulics, which is not always conducive to the promotion of geomorphologically-healthy and diverse conditions that allow and promote natural processes. This paper explains how the principles of fluvial geomorphology had a large influence on the design, construction and post project monitoring of a flood alleviation scheme in Wales within a heavily confined river corridor that is designated as having special ecological status; without adversely impacting on flood risk. The challenge was to ensure that the physical habitat required by the important species (including Atlantic Salmon and Ranunculus) were retained and that the surrounding infrastructure and properties were not at risk of being undercut as a result of scour in the confined high energy channel. A geomorphologically-guided soft engineering approach was taken to promote local morphological diversity and flow diversity, utilising information from up and downstream natural river reaches, and general geomorphological principles. The proposed layout was modelled in 1D to understand the effects of the reprofiling on flows, allowing for a basic assessment of coarse sediment transport to be undertaken. A combination of terrestrial laser scanning and contact GPS surveys were used to monitor morphological evolution post construction, and to determine how morphological form adjusted post-construction within the confined channel. This paper will introduce the guiding principles of process restoration that influenced scheme design, and then report on the morphological evolution of the river channel that occurred as river processes produced and maintained a dynamic, diverse and healthy physical habitat. Keywords: Process Restoration; Form Process Feedbacks; Fluvial

  17. Natural Products for the Prevention and Alleviation of Risk Factors for Diabetes: Chromium and Cinnamon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products are widespread for the alleviation and prevention of the risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We have shown that glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin A1c levels are all improved in people with type 2 diabetes following chromium supplementation in a double-b...

  18. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-01-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil. PMID:27385598

  19. Comparison of piezoelectric systems and aerodynamic systems for aircraft vibration alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Luber, Wolfgang G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of active smart structure - piezoelectric control system and aerodynamic active systems for vibration alleviation and elastic mode damping of a military aircraft structure is presented. The vibration alleviation systems which are operative at flight in turbulence or during maneuvers at high incidence corresponding to severe buffeting conditions are under investigation by DASA as a part of research study on advanced aircraft structures. The active systems for elastic mode damping are designed as digital systems to provide vibration alleviation and have an interface to the flight control system (FCS) or are directly part of the FCS. The sensor concept of all different systems is the same as the sensor concept used for the FCS with the corresponding benefits of redundancy and safety. The design of systems and the comparisons of system properties are based on open and closed loop response calculations, performed with the dynamic model of the total aircraft including coupling of flight mechanics, structural dynamics, FCS dynamics and hydraulic actuator or piezo-actuator dynamics. Aerodynamic systems, like active foreplane and flap concepts, rudder and auxiliary rudder concepts, and piezoelectric systems, like piezo interface at the interconnection fin to rear fuselage and integrated piezo concepts are compared. Besides the essential effects on flexible aircraft mode stability and vibration alleviation factors system complexity and safety aspects are described.

  20. A Purposeful MOOC to Alleviate Insufficient CS Education in Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurhila, Jaakko; Vihavainen, Arto

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in…

  1. Simulation study of gust alleviation in a tilt rotor aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, A. K.; Alexander, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The response to vertical turbulence in cruise of the HTR XV-15 design is studied using simulation techniques. This design is a modified version of the XV-15 with a hingeless fiberglass soft-in-plane rotor system. The parameters of a gust alleviation system are determined and the performance of the system is evaluated over a range of cruise velocities and altitudes.

  2. Food Stamp and School Lunch Programs Alleviate Food Insecurity in Rural America. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristin; Savage, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The Food Stamp and the National School Lunch Programs play a vital role in helping poor, rural Americans obtain a more nutritious diet and alleviate food insecurity and hunger. This fact sheet looks at the extent to which rural America depends on these programs and describes characteristics of beneficiaries of these federal nutrition assistance…

  3. Symptom monitoring, alleviation, and self-care among Mexican Americans during cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Lantican, Leticia S; Bader, Julia O; Lerma, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Monitoring the occurrence and severity of symptoms among Mexican American adults undergoing cancer treatments, along with their self-care to alleviate symptoms, are understudied; the current study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. A total of 67 Mexican Americans receiving outpatient oncology treatments in the southwestern United States participated. Instruments included a patient-report checklist, the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC), the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods tool, and a demographic and health information form. At least 40% of participants reported the occurrence of 12 symptoms: hair loss, feeling sluggish, nausea, taste change, loss of appetite, depression, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, difficulty concentrating, constipation, skin changes, and numb fingers and toes. More than a third also reported pain, vomiting, decreased interest in sexual activity, cough, and sore throat. The helpful self-care strategies reported included diet and nutrition changes; lifestyle changes; and mind, body control, and spiritual activities. Patient report of symptoms during cancer treatments was facilitated by the use of the TRSC. Patients use symptom alleviation strategies to help relieve symptoms during their cancer treatment. The ability to perform appropriate, effective self-care methods to alleviate the symptoms may influence adherence to the treatment regimen. PMID:25253108

  4. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-01-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil. PMID:27385598

  5. Novel Alleviation Mechanisms of Aluminum Phytotoxicity via Released Biosilicon from Rice Straw-Derived Biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Linbo; Chen, Baoliang; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-07-01

    Replacing biosilicon and biocarbon in soil via biochar amendment is a novel approach for soil amelioration and pollution remediation. The unique roles of silicon (Si)-rich biochar in aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity alleviation have not been discovered. In this study, the alleviation of Al phytotoxicity to wheat plants (root tips cell death) by biochars fabricated from rice straw pyrolyzed at 400 and 700 °C (RS400 and RS700) and the feedstock (RS100) were studied using a slurry system containing typical acidic soils for a 15-day exposure experiment. The distributions of Al and Si in the slurry solution, soil and plant root tissue were monitored by staining methods, chemical extractions and SEM-EDS observations. We found that the biological sourced silicon in biochars served dual roles in Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry. On one hand, the Si particles reduced the amount of soil exchangeable Al and prevented the migration of Al to the plant. More importantly, the Si released from biochars synchronously absorbed by the plants and coordinated with Al to form Al-Si compounds in the epidermis of wheat roots, which is a new mechanism for Al phytotoxicity alleviation in acidic soil slurry by biochar amendment. In addition, the steady release of Si from the rice straw-derived biochars was a sustainable Si source for aluminosilicate reconstruction in acidic soil.

  6. Substitutive Competition: Virtual Pets as Competitive Buffers to Alleviate Possible Negative Influence on Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Biswas, Gautam; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Although competition is regarded as a powerful motivator in game-based learning, it might have a negative influence, such as damage to confidence, on students who lose the competition. In this paper, we propose an indirect approach, substitutive competition, to alleviate such negative influences. The approach is used to develop a My-Pet v3 system,…

  7. The Use of the Ombudsman's Services for Alleviating International Students' Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsara, Ourania

    2015-01-01

    This article offers some suggestions regarding the development of a support strategy by ombudsmen in order to alleviate international students' difficulties when studying in host universities. It is also shown how the Organisational Justice Theory can be used as a framework for understanding the role of ombudsman in higher education settings and…

  8. A Combination of Doxycycline and Ribavirin Alleviated Chikungunya Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Shankar, Esaki M.; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Lack of vaccine and effective antiviral drugs against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to significant impact on health care in the developing world. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of tetracycline (TETRA) derivatives and other common antiviral agents against CHIKV. Our results showed that within the TETRA derivatives group, Doxycycline (DOXY) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against CHIKV replication in Vero cells. On the other hand, in the antiviral group Ribavirin (RIBA) showed higher inhibitory effects against CHIKV replication compared to Aciclovir (ACIC). Interestingly, RIBA inhibitory effects were also higher than all but DOXY within the TETRA derivatives group. Docking studies of DOXY to viral cysteine protease and E2 envelope protein showed non-competitive interaction with docking energy of -6.6±0.1 and -6.4±0.1 kcal/mol respectively. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of DOXY and RIBA was determined to be 10.95±2.12 μM and 15.51±1.62 μM respectively, while DOXY+RIBA (1:1 combination) showed an EC50 of 4.52±1.42 μM. When compared, DOXY showed higher inhibition of viral infectivity and entry than RIBA. In contrast however, RIBA showed higher inhibition against viral replication in target cells compared to DOXY. Assays using mice as animal models revealed that DOXY+RIBA effectively inhibited CHIKV replication and attenuated its infectivity in vivo. Further experimental and clinical studies are warranted to investigate their potential application for clinical intervention of CHIKV disease. PMID:25970853

  9. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    PubMed

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation. PMID:15253900

  10. A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: Case-study of London

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokotroni, Maria; Bhuiyan, Saiful; Davies, Michael; Croxford, Ben; Mavrogianni, Anna

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method for predicting air temperatures within the Urban Heat Island at discreet locations based on input data from one meteorological station for the time the prediction is required and historic measured air temperatures within the city. It uses London as a case-study to describe the method and its applications. The prediction model is based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modelling and it is termed the London Site Specific Air Temperature (LSSAT) predictor. The temporal and spatial validity of the model was tested using data measured 8 years later from the original dataset; it was found that site specific hourly air temperature prediction provides acceptable accuracy and improves considerably for average monthly values. It thus is a very reliable tool for use as part of the process of predicting heating and cooling loads for urban buildings. This is illustrated by the computation of Heating Degree Days (HDD) and Cooling Degree Hours (CDH) for a West-East Transect within London. The described method could be used for any city for which historic hourly air temperatures are available for a number of locations; for example air pollution measuring sites, common in many cities, typically measure air temperature on an hourly basis. (author)

  11. Improvement of modelling capabilities for assessing urban contamination : The EMRAS Urban Remediation Working Group.

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, K. M.; Batandjieva, B.; Andersson, K. G.; Arkhipov, A.; Charnock, T. W.; Gallay, F.; Gaschak, S.; Golikov, V.; Hwang, W. T.; Kaiser, J. C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.; Ziemer, R. L.; Zlobenko, B.; Environmental Science Division; SENES Oak Ridge; IAEA; Riso National Lab.; Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety; Health Protection Agency; IRSN; Inst. of Radiation Hygene of the Ministry of Public Health, Russian Federation; KAERI, Republic of Korea; GSF, Germany; BfS, Germany; CPHR, Cuba; State Office for Radiation Protection, Croatia; AECL, Canada; National Academy of Science, Ukraine

    2008-01-01

    The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS) programme was established to improve modeling and assessment capabilities for radioactively contaminated urban situations, including the effects of countermeasures. An example of the Working Group's activities is an exercise based on Chernobyl fallout data in Ukraine, which has provided an opportunity to compare predictions among several models and with available measurements, to discuss reasons for discrepancies, and to identify areas where additional information would be helpful.

  12. Determinants of urban resource use and resilience: a comprehensive framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Bourgeron, P.; Gochis, D. J.; Rothman, D. S.; Wilhelmi, O.

    2015-12-01

    During the past decades urbanization has proceeded at unprecedented - yet varied - rates across urban areas globally. The social and environmental transformations implied by urban development have put many regions at risk of transforming the very characteristics that make them attractive and healthy. Meanwhile, climate change is adding new sources of risk and an array of uncertainties to the mix. These changes create risks that vary according to the characteristics of the demographic, economic, ecological, built-environment (technological) and governance dimensions of urbanization and urban areas as socioecological systems. However, few studies have explored the variation in these dimensions across urban areas. I will present a comprehensive analytical framework that explores, in urban areas, patterns of interplay, synergy and tradeoff between socio-demographic, economic, technological, ecological, and governance (SETEG) factors as they shape two issues, traditionally analyzed by separate disciplinary domains: resource use and resilience to climate hazards. Three questions guide this effort: 1) What indicators can be used to socio-demographic, economic, technological, ecological, and governance (SETEG) determinants of urban populations' resource use and resilience to climate hazards? 2) What indicators are important? 3) What combinations (i.e., tradeoffs, synergies) of causal factors better explain urban populations' resource use and resilience to hazards? The interplay between these factors as they shape a population's resource use and resilience is not exempted from synergies and tradeoffs that require careful analysis. Consider population density, a key indicator of urban form. Scholars have found that while more compact cities are more energy efficient and emit less GHG, heat stress is much worse in more compact cities. This begs the question of which combination of urban form factors need to be considered by urban planners when designing effective urban

  13. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regulations without a permit; (2) The severity of the economic hardship that likely would result should the... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of...

  14. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... regulations without a permit; (2) The severity of the economic hardship that likely would result should the... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of...

  15. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations without a permit; (2) The severity of the economic hardship that likely would result should the... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of...

  16. 50 CFR 14.33 - Permits to import or export wildlife at nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... regulations without a permit; (2) The severity of the economic hardship that likely would result should the... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. 14.33 Section 14.33 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... nondesignated port to alleviate undue economic hardship. (a) General. The Director may, upon receipt of...

  17. Urban Heat Island Characteristics Of Istanbul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgen, S. I.; Unal, Y. S.; Yürük, C.; Göktepe, N.; Diren, D. H.; Topçu, S.; Güney, C.; Doğru, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is defined as the temperature difference between the urbanized areas and their surroundings due to local surface energy balance since urban materials and build up structures modify the heating and cooling rates of the ambient air. Istanbul is the largest city of Turkey with the population over 14 million inhabitants and the urbanization is drastically expanded since 1965 due to the population increase from 2 million to 14 million. In this study we investigate impacts of urban expansion on meteorological variables in relation to the UHI effect in Istanbul. To estimate the strength of UHI, temperature differences between urban and suburban stations are calculated by using temperature observations from 6 stations for 1960-2012 years, and 34 stations for 2007-2012. The results show that, the UHI intensity is stronger during summer season and Kartal experiences intensified UHI effect more than the others. The daytime(nighttime) UHI intensity defined with respect to Şile (suburban) varies between 0.41 and 3.01oC (1.02 and 2.18oC). The atmospheric UHI usually reaches its highest intensity on summer nights, and under calm air and a cloudless sky. Therefore, the total of 127 dry days which have cloudiness less than 2/8 and wind speed less than 2 m/s are selected to estimate the strength of UHI in Istanbul. The hourly temperature differences between a selected urban station (Pendik) and a rural station (Terkos), are calculated as 5oC for daytime and 8oC for the nighttime. The relationship between urbanization and long-term modification of the urban climate of Istanbul is investigated by modeling the present-day spatial distribution of the urban heat load. Geographical data of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality and CORINE Land Cover Raster Data are used to generate the land use distribution. Furthermore, the new urban land use types are defined by considering the spatial coverage and the average height of the buildings. Effects of change in land

  18. Urban water transactions: the search of a comprehensive framework for interactions between water and urban systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angarita, Hector; Domínguez, Efraín

    2013-04-01

    United Nations global demographic prospects show that from 1950 to 2050, the number of people living in cities will increase from 0.7 to 6.3 billion, which represents a 9 times fold in 100 years. In contrast, human population as a whole doesn't show the same trends of the urban subset. For instance, rural population is in some regions almost stalled or reducing at small rates, with an average growth rate 50% less than the urban population. This progressive change in global population structure, with more people living mostly in urban areas, already places urban settlements as the main node driving the interaction of human population and other earth systems, at local, regional and global scales. This population dynamics is a major source of concern, mainly because the need to comprehensively understand the two apparent contradictory faces of the urbanization phenomena: Despite cities tend to perform more efficiently in terms of mass and energy requirements as function of population size, the agglomeration process in cities typically implies an increase of overall throughput of mass and energy over time. Thus, a central question is to understand how the apparent per capita energy and material flows minimization occurring in cities can propagate its effects towards other geosystems in future population scenarios. The magnitude of scaled (temporal and spatial) effects is crucial to determine if limits of supporting systems capacity is or will be exceeded for a system of cities, or if otherwise is within steady limits. The Urban Water Transaction (UWT) framework aims for the study of the above question from the perspective of water. Typically between 50 and 70% of mass throughput in urban areas is water, however, that figure doesn't account for other teleconnected flows, such as energy production (hydropower facilities) and food production (virtual water), etc. Therefore, a comprehensive view of actual dependence of urban areas and water faces - in the view of the

  19. Rural-Urban Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; LaGreca, Anthony J.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    This publication combines three papers on rural and urban youth issues. "Key Issues Facing Rural Youth" (Daniel F. Perkins) notes that rural adolescents share the same concerns and exhibit the same problem behaviors as their urban counterparts. But in addition, geographic isolation presents problems unique to rural areas. A framework is proposed…

  20. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  1. Urban Expansion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Under an Egyptian government contract, PADCO studies urban growth in the Nile Area. They were assisted by LANDSAT survey maps and measurements provided by TAC. TAC had classified the raw LANDSAT data and processed it into various categories to detail urban expansion. PADCO crews spot checked the results, and correlations were established.

  2. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  3. MICROORGANISMS IN URBAN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiological quantitative assays of Baltimore City urban runoff were conducted throughout a 12 month period to show the relationships to several factors such as separate or combined sewer flow, urban characteristics of drainage area, rainfall, and quantity of flow during and b...

  4. Urban Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling Green State Univ., OH. Coll. of Education.

    A brief description of the Urban Education Project of the Bowling Green State University is presented. Designed to prepare students for teaching urban area youths, the program results in triple certification for the teaching of mildly retarded children (K-12, with or without behavior disorders), learning disabled and/or behaviorally disordered…

  5. Defining Urban Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Christopher B.; Lyons, W. Berry; Long, David T.

    2014-12-01

    From 1950 to 2014, the proportion of the world's population living in urban centers has increased from 30% to 54%, and the United Nations' World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision estimates this number will reach 66%, or 6.3 billion, by 2050. Nearly 90% of this growth is projected to occur in Africa and Asia, which today remain mostly rural.

  6. THE URBAN NEGRO FAMILY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.

    IN TRACING THE MOVEMENT OF THE NEGRO FAMILY TOWARD A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND TOWARD URBANIZATION, THIS ARTICLE NOTES THAT THE PATTERN IS BECOMING SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN FAMILY. NEGROES HAVE LEFT THEIR SOUTHERN RURAL FARMS FOR BOTH SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN URBAN AREAS AND HAVE TENDED TO SETTLE IN THE INNER CORE OF THE LARGEST…

  7. URBAN STUDIES CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEBOUT, JOHN E.

    THE CENTER WORKS WITH RUTGERS UNIVERSITY TO MAKE USE OF URBAN STUDIES IN APPROPRIATE RESEARCH AND TEACHING PROGRAMS AND IN OTHER INTELLECTUAL SERVICES TO THE COMMUNITY. THE FIVE MAIN RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CENTER - EXTENSION, RESEARCH AND EDUCATION, LIBRARY SERVICES, OPPORTUNITIES EXPANSION PROJECT, AND THE URBAN FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM - ARE…

  8. Urbanization: A Worldwide Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Barbara

    1972-01-01

    Neighborhood construction, new towns, and urban counterpulls are promising concepts to control haphazard urban growth, in its Phase III since the Industrial Revolution. Developing nations are facing all three phases simultaneously. Concern for the environment may lead us away from the historically conditioned separation of social costs from…

  9. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  10. Urban Rat Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littig, K. S.; And Others

    This guide is for use in the classroom and field training of inspection and operational personnel who serve in planned community rodent-control programs. The urban rat survey may be used as the primary means of obtaining information on rat infestations and the conditions favoring rat populations in urban communities. It provides the data necessary…

  11. A critical knowledge pathway to low-carbon, sustainable futures: Integrated understanding of urbanization, urban areas, and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Seto, Karen C.; Chester, Mikhail; Duren, Riley M.; Hughes, Sara; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Marcotullio, Peter; Baker, Lawrence; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kennedy, Christopher; Larson, Elisabeth; Pincetl, Stephanie; Runfola, Dan; Sanchez, Landy; Shrestha, Gyami; Feddema, Johannes; Sarzynski, Andrea; Sperling, Joshua; Stokes, Eleanor

    2014-10-01

    Independent lines of research on urbanization, urban areas, and carbon have advanced our understanding of some of the processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This synthesis integrates some of these diverse viewpoints as a first step toward a coproduced, integrated framework for understanding urbanization, urban areas, and their relationships to carbon. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas, affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas, based not only on demographics or income but also on other interconnected features of urban development pathways such as urban form, economic function, economic-growth policies, and other governance arrangements. It points to a wide array of uncertainties around the urbanization processes, their interactions with urban socio-institutional and built environment systems, and how these impact the exchange of carbon flows within and outside urban areas. We must also understand in turn how carbon feedbacks, including carbon impacts and potential impacts of climate change, can affect urbanization processes. Finally, the paper explores options, barriers, and limits to transitioning cities to low-carbon trajectories, and suggests the development of an end-to-end, coproduced and integrated scientific understanding that can more effectively inform the navigation of transitional journeys and the avoidance of obstacles along the way.

  12. Conservation in the energy industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic energy supply and utilization problems faced by the United States were described. Actions which might alleviate the domestic shortfall of petroleum and natural gas are described, analyzed and overall impacts are assessed. Specific actions included are coal gasification, in situ shale oil production, improved oil and gas recovery, importation of liquid natural gas and deregulation of natural gas prices. These actions are weighed against each other as alternate techniques of alleviating or overcoming existing shortfalls.

  13. A blueprint for strategic urban research: the urban piazza

    PubMed Central

    Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter; Franklin, Rachel S.; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Urban research in many countries has failed to keep up with the pace of rapidly and constantly evolving urban change. The growth of cities, the increasing complexity of their functions and the complex intra- and inter-urban linkages in this ‘urban century’ demand new approaches to urban analysis, which, from a systemic perspective, supersede the existing fragmentation in urban studies. In this paper we propose the concept of the urban piazza as a framework in order to address some of the inefficiencies associated with current urban analysis. By combining wealth-creating potential with smart urban mobility, ecological resilience and social buzz in this integrated and systemic framework, the aim is to set the basis for a ‘New Urban World’ research blueprint, which lays the foundation for a broader and more integrated research programme for strategic urban issues. PMID:25339782

  14. A blueprint for strategic urban research: the urban piazza.

    PubMed

    Kourtit, Karima; Nijkamp, Peter; Franklin, Rachel S; Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Urban research in many countries has failed to keep up with the pace of rapidly and constantly evolving urban change. The growth of cities, the increasing complexity of their functions and the complex intra- and inter-urban linkages in this 'urban century' demand new approaches to urban analysis, which, from a systemic perspective, supersede the existing fragmentation in urban studies. In this paper we propose the concept of the urban piazza as a framework in order to address some of the inefficiencies associated with current urban analysis. By combining wealth-creating potential with smart urban mobility, ecological resilience and social buzz in this integrated and systemic framework, the aim is to set the basis for a 'New Urban World' research blueprint, which lays the foundation for a broader and more integrated research programme for strategic urban issues. PMID:25339782

  15. UrbanScape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, Brian; Nichols, Richard E.; Gragg, Casey

    2007-04-01

    UrbanScape is a cutting edge 3D collection and processing system directed at the lowest echelon of war-fighters and command elements that deal with urban environments. The goal of the program is to provide war-fighters, patrolling in an urban environment, with near real-time, up-to-date, high-resolution, fully textured 3D models of the urban terrain that can be viewed, analyzed and manipulated in an immersive environment, making target areas inherently familiar to the war-fighter. Through revolutionary model generation and facade reconstruction algorithms the UrbanScape system cuts the gap between data collections and fully processed 3D model databases from days to hours. In half the time it takes for a collection mission, soldiers are provided a fully immersive 3D model database making a foreign city as "familiar as the soldier's backyard".

  16. The study of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Hawley, A H

    1967-06-01

    Seven years' work of the Committee on Urbanization of the Social Science Research Council has produced The Study of Urbanization. Although the book is an excellent series of documentations of trends in specific fields, it lacks any attempt to unify the contributions to a concise definition of urbanization.Most contributors view urbanization as a process of aggregation, but this is no more than a rough indicator of the fundamental processes at work, and each discipline explores only the matter confined to its assigned segment of the process. Thus, for example, the city is viewed as a sub-division of localized space; as a complex of markets for land, labor, housing, and goods and services; or as a set of market-social units. From what is offered in this volume, then, one is led to think that sociology cannot find a comprehensive approach to fashioning a general model of urbanization.While three papers come close to defining urbanization as substance and process and are an orderly account of at least the salient features of urbanization through early, transitional, and late phases, urbanization as a process in different areas and cultures is a subject which is treated casually. While the very concept of urbanization implies the recurrence of common features, a set of criteria for avoiding preoccupation with the exotic and inconsequential in different cultures is still needed. We need to study the significance of the fact that peoples of various parts of the world have entered urbanization at different points in industrial, institutional, and administrative technology. Here, organization, the most commonly agreed upon variable in this book, is not a sufficient explanation.In sum, the subject is too broad for close agreement, but the failure of the book to achieve its objective is counterbalanced by the individual quality of the contributions. PMID:21318701

  17. Coal and the Present Energy Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Elburt F.

    1974-01-01

    Advocates an increase in the use of coal to alleviate the oil and gas shortage. Outlines present deterrents which limit the exploitation of coal, and discusses ways in which this energy source might be more effectively utilized. (JR)

  18. Urban landscapes and the western drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pataki, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into

  19. Parasitic diseases and urban development.

    PubMed Central

    Mott, K. E.; Desjeux, P.; Moncayo, A.; Ranque, P.; de Raadt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented. PMID:2127380

  20. Private Urban Renewal: A Neglected Urban Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitz, Eileen

    This is a report on the process of private urban renewal of three areas in Washington, D.C. The areas are Georgetown, Capitol Hill and Adams-Morgan. The paper presents an analysis of general population trends and of the change in composition of the population in these three areas. Two general questions are raised: To what extent does the process…

  1. Crossing Urban Boundaries: The Mission of Urban Affairs Quarterly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Albert

    1985-01-01

    Presents brief overview of the development of urban studies, from its origins in the "urban crisis" of the 1960's to the present trend toward study of the terrapolis, the world system of interdependent metropolitan areas. Focuses on the role of "Urban Affairs Quarterly," changing definitions of the "city," and the contributions of urban studies to…

  2. Urban Environment Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Urban Environment Initiative (UEI), has been established as part of a Cooperative Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The UEI is part of NASA's overall High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) and the Information Infrastructure Technology Applications (IITA) programs. The goal of the UEI is to provide public access to Earth Science information and promote its use with a focus on the environment of urban areas. This goal will be accomplished through collaborative efforts of the UEI team with both community-based and local/regional governmental organizations. The UEI team is comprised of four organizations representing private industry, NASA, and universities: Prime Technologies Service Corporation, NASA's Minority University Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) California State University, at Los Angeles, and Central State University (Wilberforce, OH). "Urban Environment" refers to the web of environmental, economic, and social factors that combine to create the urban world in which we live. Examples of these factors are population distribution, neighborhood demographic profiles, economic resources, business activities, location and concentration of environmental hazards and various pollutants, proximity and level of urban services, which form the basis of the urban environment and ultimately affect our lives and experiences. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing allows data to be visualized in the forms of maps and spatial images. The use of these tools allow analysis of information about urban environments. Also included are descriptions of the four query types which will assist in understanding the maps.

  3. Biomass yield from an urban landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass production from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, Oklahoma and to estimate the potential...

  4. Communicating Urban Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, S.; Crowley, K.; Horton, R.; Bader, D.; Hoffstadt, R.; Labriole, M.; Shugart, E.; Steiner, M.; Climate; Urban Systems Partnership

    2011-12-01

    While cities cover only 2% of the Earth's surface, over 50% of the world's people live in urban environments. Precisely because of their population density, cities can play a large role in reducing or exacerbating the global impact of climate change. The actions of cities could hold the key to slowing down climate change. Urban dwellers are becoming more aware of the need to reduce their carbon usage and to implement adaptation strategies. However, messaging around these strategies has not been comprehensive and adaptation to climate change requires local knowledge, capacity and a high level of coordination. Unless urban populations understand climate change and its impacts it is unlikely that cities will be able to successfully implement policies that reduce anthropogenic climate change. Informal and formal educational institutions in urban environments can serve as catalysts when partnering with climate scientists, educational research groups, and public policy makers to disseminate information about climate change and its impacts on urban audiences. The Climate and Urban Systems Partnership (CUSP) is an interdisciplinary network designed to assess and meet the needs and challenges of educating urban audiences about climate change. CUSP brings together organizations in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Queens, NY and Washington, DC to forge links with informal and formal education partners, city government, and policy makers. Together this network will create and disseminate learner-focused climate education programs and resources for urban audiences that, while distinct, are thematically and temporally coordinated, resulting in the communication of clear and consistent information and learning experiences about climate science to a wide public audience. Working at a community level CUSP will bring coordinated programming directly into neighborhoods presenting the issues of global climate change in a highly local context. The project is currently exploring a number of

  5. Spinal cord stimulation alleviates motor deficits in a primate model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Santana, Maxwell B; Halje, Pär; Simplício, Hougelle; Richter, Ulrike; Freire, Marco Aurelio M; Petersson, Per; Fuentes, Romulo; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2014-11-19

    Although deep brain electrical stimulation can alleviate the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), just a small fraction of patients with PD can take advantage of this procedure due to its invasive nature. A significantly less invasive method--epidural spinal cord stimulation (SCS)--has been suggested as an alternative approach for symptomatic treatment of PD. However, the mechanisms underlying motor improvements through SCS are unknown. Here, we show that SCS reproducibly alleviates motor deficits in a primate model of PD. Simultaneous neuronal recordings from multiple structures of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop in parkinsonian monkeys revealed abnormal highly synchronized neuronal activity within each of these structures and excessive functional coupling among them. SCS disrupted this pathological circuit behavior in a manner that mimics the effects caused by pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy or deep brain stimulation. These results suggest that SCS should be considered as an additional treatment option for patients with PD. PMID:25447740

  6. Hydrogen sulfide alleviates 2,4-dichlorophenol toxicity and promotes its degradation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Zhang, Chang; Yan, Ming; Shang, Cui; Hu, Xinjiang; Lu, Lunhui; Chen, Ming; Guo, Zhi; Zuo, Yanan

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) was used to pretreat Phanerochaete chrysosporium in order to improve its ability to degrade 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). When pretreated with 100μM NaHS, P. chrysosporium was able to degrade 2,4-DCP completely in 24h, whereas the degradation efficiency of the untreated control was only 57%. The 2,4-DCP-induced oxidative stress was alleviated by NaHS, and the percentage of surviving cells increased by 32%. H2S or HS(-), rather than other compounds derived from NaHS, were responsible for promoting 2,4-DCP degradation by P. chrysosporium. The results of this study suggest that H2S treatment is a potential strategy to alleviate environmental stress and improve the efficiency of the biological removal of pollutants from wastewater. PMID:24530160

  7. Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 alleviates salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Woong; Lee, Kui-Jae; Chae, Jong-Chan

    2016-05-01

    Mutual interactions between plant and rhizosphere bacteria facilitate plant growth and reduce risks of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study demonstrates alleviation of salt stress in Brassica rapa L. ssp. perkinensis (Chinese cabbage) by Herbaspirillum sp. strain GW103 isolated from rhizosphere soil of Phragmites australis. The strain was capable of producing plant beneficial factors, such as auxin, siderophore, and 1-aminocylopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. Treatment of strain GW103 on Chinese cabbage under salt stress increased K(+)/Na(+) ratio in roots generating balance in the ratio of ion homeostasis and consequently contributed to the increase of biomass. In addition, root colonization potential of the strain was observed by green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagging approach. These results strongly suggest the beneficial impact of strain GW103 by inducing the alleviation of salt stress and development of stress tolerance in Chinese cabbage via plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26358119

  8. Quantifying the urban environment: a scale measure of urbanicity outperforms the urban-rural dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Adair, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    The rapid urbanization of the developing world has important consequences for human health. Although several authorities have called for better research on the relationships between urbanicity and health, most researchers still use a poor measurement of urbanicity, the urban-rural dichotomy. Our goal was to construct a scale of urbanicity using community level data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We used established scale development methods to validate the new measure and tested its performance against the dichotomy. The new scale illustrated misclassification by the urban-rural dichotomy, and was able to detect differences in urbanicity, both between communities and across time, that were not apparent before. Furthermore, using a continuous measure of urbanicity allowed for better illustrations of the relationships between urbanicity and health. The new scale is a better measure of urbanicity than the traditionally used urban-rural dichotomy. PMID:17196724

  9. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  10. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  11. Factors influencing nurses' use of nonpharmacological pain alleviation methods in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Tarja; Laukkala, Helena; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors promoting and hindering nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods in children's surgical pain relief, and demographic variables related to this. The data were collected by a Likert-type questionnaire, which was completed by nurses (n = 162) who were working in one of the paediatric surgical wards located in university hospitals in Finland. The response rate was 99%. Factor analysis was used to analyse the data. According to the results, five promoting factors (nurse's competence, versatile use of pain alleviation methods, workload/time, child's age/ability to cooperate, and parental participation), as well as five hindering factors (nurse's insecurity, beliefs regarding parental roles/child's ability to express pain, heavy workload/lack of time, limited use of pain alleviation methods, and work organizational model/patient turnover rate) were found to influence the nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods. Almost all of the nurses (98%) hoped to make progress in their career and to learn different pain alleviation methods, but less than half of them (47%) agreed that they had obtained sufficient education regarding these methods. Demographic variables such as the nurse's age, education, and work experience were significantly related to certain factors influencing the use of nonpharmacological methods. In conclusion, paediatric patients' surgical pain relief in the hospital was affected more by the nurses' personal characteristics, than by work-related factors or characteristics of the child or the child's parents. The nurses had positive attitudes towards learning different pain alleviation methods, which constitute the basis for the development of pain management in paediatric patients. PMID:14629640

  12. Betaine Alleviates Hypertriglycemia and Tau Hyperphosphorylation in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ga-young; Won, Sae-Bom; Kim, Juhae; Jeon, Sookyoung; Han, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Betaine supplementation has been shown to alleviate altered glucose and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-sucrose diet. We investigated the beneficial effects of betaine in diabetic db/db mice. Alleviation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress was also examined in the livers and brains of db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet. Male C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice were fed with or without 1% betaine for 5 wk (referred to as the db/db-betaine group and the db/db group, respectively). Lean non-diabetic db/db+ mice were used as the control group. Betaine supplementation significantly alleviated hyperinsulinemia in db/db mice. Betaine reduced hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, a major transcription factor involved in gluconeogenesis. Lower serum triglyceride concentrations were also observed in the db/db-betaine group compared to the db/db group. Betaine supplementation induced hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a mRNA levels, and reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. Mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet had increased total glutathione concentrations and catalase activity, and reduced lipid peroxidation levels in the liver. Furthermore, betaine also reduced ER stress in liver and brain. c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity and tau hyperphosphorylation levels were lower in db/db mice fed a betaine-supplemented diet, compared to db/db mice. Our findings suggest that betaine improves hyperlipidemia and tau hyperphosphorylation in db/db mice with insulin resistance by alleviating ER and oxidative stress. PMID:24278623

  13. Role of snow cover on urban heat island intensity investigated by urban canopy model with snow effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Mori, K.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands have been investigated around the world including snowy regions. However, the relationship between urban heat island and snow cover remains unclear. This study examined the effect of snow cover in urban canopy on energy budget in urban areas of Sapporo, north Japan by 1km mesh WRF experiments. The modified urban canopy model permits snow cover in urban canopy by the modification of surface albedo, surface emissivity, and thermal conductivity for roof and road according to snow depth and snow water equivalent. The experiments revealed that snow cover in urban canopy decreases urban air temperature more strongly for daily maximum temperature (0.4-0.6 K) than for daily minimum temperature (0.1-0.3 K). The high snow albedo reduces the net radiation at building roof, leading to decrease in sensible heat flux. Interestingly, the cooling effect of snow cover compensates the warming effect by anthropogenic heat release in Sapporo, suggesting the importance of snow cover treatment in urban canopy model as well as estimating accurate anthropogenic heat distributions. In addition, the effect of road snow clearance tends to increase nocturnal surface air temperature in urban areas. A possible role of snow cover on urban heat island intensity was evaluated by two experiments with snow cover (i.e., realistic condition) and without snow cover in entire numerical domain. The snow cover decreases surface air temperature more in rural areas than in urban areas, which was commonly seen throughout a day, with stronger magnitude during nighttime than daytime, resulting in intensifying urban heat island by 4.0 K for daily minimum temperature.

  14. Water and Carbon Footprints for Sustainability Analysis of Urban Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and transportation infrastructures define spatial distribution of urban population and economic activities. In this context, energy and water consumed per capita are tangible measures of how efficient water and transportation systems are constructed and operated. At a hig...

  15. Assessing the Benefits of Urban Forestry in Mojave Desert Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the climate and environment change due to human activity, an understanding of the existing natural resources becomes paramount. Urban forests of Mojave Desert communities have the potential to reduce air pollution, heat island effects, and energy consumption. Regions throughou...

  16. A Mechanical Drag Coefficient Formulation and Urban Canopy Parameter Assimilation Technique for Complex Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, E.; Martilli, A.; Santiago, J. L.; González, J. E.

    2015-11-01

    A mechanical drag coefficient formulation was implemented into the Building Effect Parameterization + Building Energy Model system coupled with the mesoscale Weather Research Forecasting model to improve the representation of the wind speed in complex urban environments. Previously, this formulation had been assessed only against spatially-averaged results from computational fluid dynamical simulations in idealized urban configurations. The main objective is to evaluate its performance over a real city. The introduction of a drag coefficient that varies with the building plan-area fraction increases the accuracy of the mesoscale model in predicting surface wind speed in complex urban environments (i.e. New York City) particularly in areas with tall buildings. Additionally, a methodology to implement local building information and a new land-cover land-use distribution is proposed that improves the representation of the urban morphology.

  17. The efficacy of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hot flashes are the most common symptoms experienced by women around the time of menopause. Many women are interested in herbal medicines because of fear of side effects of hormone therapy. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to January 2015), Scopus (1996 to January 2015), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, issue 1, 2015) were searched along with, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran, Medlib and Irandoc. Nineteen randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria. Results: Overall, studies showed that Anise (Pimpinella anisum), licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra), Soy, Black cohosh, Red clover, Evening primrose, Flaxseed, Salvia officinalis, Passiflora، itex Agnus Castus, Piascledine (Avacado plus soybean oil), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), and valerian can alleviate the side effects of hot flashes. Conclusion: This research demonstrated the efficacy of herbal medicines in alleviating hot flashes, which are embraced both with people and health providers of Iran Therefore, herbal medicine can be seen as an alternative treatment for women experiencing hot flashes. PMID:27294213

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services with Dual Goals of Environment and Poverty Alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvin, Crystal; Uchida, Emi; Rozelle, Scott; Xu, Jintao; Zhan, Jinyan

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this article is to understand strategies by which both the environmental and poverty alleviation objectives of PES programs can be achieved cost effectively. To meet this goal, we first create a conceptual framework to understand the implications of alternative targeting when policy makers have both environmental and poverty alleviation goals. We then use the Grain for Green program in China, the largest PES program in the developing world, as a case study. We also use a data set from a survey that we designed and implemented to evaluate the program. Using the data set we first evaluate what factors determined selection of program areas for the Grain for Green program. We then demonstrate the heterogeneity of parcels and households and examine the correlations across households and their parcels in terms of their potential environmental benefits, opportunity costs of participating, and the asset levels of households as an indicator of poverty. Finally, we compare five alternative targeting criteria and simulate their performance in terms of cost effectiveness in meeting both the environmental and poverty alleviation goals when given a fixed budget. Based on our simulations, we find that there is a substantial gain in the cost effectiveness of the program by targeting parcels based on the “gold standard,” i.e., targeting parcels with low opportunity cost and high environmental benefit managed by poorer households.

  19. Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Alleviates Diabetic Retinopathy by Preventing Retinal Inflammation and Tight Junction Protein Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zengyang; Gong, Chenyuan; Lu, Bin; Yang, Li; Sheng, Yuchen; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to observe the alleviation of the ethanol extract of Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. (DC), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on DR and its engaged mechanism. After DC (30 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated, the breakdown of blood retinal barrier (BRB) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats was attenuated by DC. Decreased retinal mRNA expression of tight junction proteins (including occludin and claudin-1) in diabetic rats was also reversed by DC. Western blot analysis and retinal immunofluorescence staining results further confirmed that DC reversed the decreased expression of occludin and claudin-1 proteins in diabetic rats. DC reduced the increased retinal mRNA expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin- (IL-) 6, and IL-1β in diabetic rats. In addition, DC alleviated the increased 1 and phosphorylated p65, IκB, and IκB kinase (IKK) in diabetic rats. DC also reduced the increased serum levels of TNFα, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-12, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-10 in diabetic rats. Therefore, DC can alleviate DR by inhibiting retinal inflammation and preventing the decrease of tight junction proteins, such as occludin and claudin-1. PMID:25685822

  20. Early treatment of minocycline alleviates white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Wei Wei; Wu, Xiao Hua; Liao, Ru Jia; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Xiang Nan; Zhang, Li San; Zhou, Yu Dong; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei Wei

    2015-01-01

    Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion develops with progressive white matter and cognitive impairments, yet no effective therapy is available. We investigated the temporal effects of minocycline on an experimental SIVD exerted by right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO). Minocycline treated at the early stage (day 0–3), but not the late stage after rUCCAO (day 4–32) alleviated the white matter and cognitive impairments, and promoted remyelination. The actions of minocycline may not involve the inhibition of microglia activation, based on the effects after the application of a microglial activation inhibitor, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and co-treatment with lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, minocycline treatment at the early stage promoted the proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in subventricular zone, increased OPC number and alleviated apoptosis of mature oligodendrocytes in white matter. In vitro, minocycline promoted OPC proliferation and increased the percentage of OPCs in S and G2/M phases. We provided direct evidence that early treatment is critical for minocycline to alleviate white matter and cognitive impairments after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which may be due to its robust effects on OPC proliferation and mature oligodendrocyte loss. So, early therapeutic time window may be crucial for its application in SIVD. PMID:26174710

  1. Combined Effect of Opioids and Corticosteroids for Alleviating Dyspnea in Terminal Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Review.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Dyspnea is a prognostic factor that affects the quality of life of terminal cancer patients, and many reports have described opioid treatment for dyspnea alleviation. Here, we retrospectively evaluated differences in the effects of various opioids administered concomitantly with corticosteroids on dyspnea in 20 terminal-stage cancer patients (13 men, 7 women; mean age [range]: 71 [49-94] years) who received opioids concomitantly with corticosteroids. Effectiveness was assessed throughout administration using the Support Team Assessment Schedule, Japanese version (STAS-J), particularly the subscale indicating how strongly a patient is affected by symptoms. The effectiveness of combined opioid and corticosteroid therapy against dyspnea and the opioid dose comprised the primary and secondary foci, respectively. Among concomitantly treated patients, STAS-J scores at initiation (mean ± SD: 3.1 ± 0.24) and lowest recorded STAS-J scores (1.4 ± 0.22) differed significantly (P = .0034) among those receiving morphine, but not among those receiving oxycodone (P = .068) or fentanyl (P = .18). Concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment was associated with a ≥2-point STAS-J score improvement in 14/20 patients (effectiveness: 70%). The opioid dose did not significantly affect dyspnea alleviation. We conclude that concomitant opioid and corticosteroid treatment can effectively alleviate dyspnea in terminal cancer patients. PMID:27093633

  2. The Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeff; Morris, Lynn; Stewart, Fran; Thretheway, Ray; Gartland, Lisa; Russell, Camille; Reddish, Merrill; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively "cool" the metropolitan landscape. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three U.S. cities. As part of the pilot, NASA is using remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. To pursue these efforts, more information is needed about specific characteristics of several different cities. NASA used the Advanced Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS) to obtain high spatial resolution (10 m pixel resolution) over each of the three pilot cities (Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City). The goal of the UHIPP is to use the results from the NASA/LBNL analysis, combined with knowledge gained through working with various organizations within each pilot city to identify the most effective means of implementing strategies designed to mitigate the urban heat island, These "lessons learned" will be made available and used by cities across the U.S. to assist policy makers and others within various communities to analyze their own urban heat islands and determine which, if any, measures can be taken to help save energy and money, and to prevent pollution. The object of this session is for representatives from each of the pilot cities to present their results of the study and share the experience of working with these data in managing their urban landscape.

  3. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  4. Enhancing Hydrologic Modelling in the Coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Urban Modelling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiachuan; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Voogt, James A.; Myint, Soe

    2015-04-01

    Urbanization modifies surface energy and water budgets, and has significant impacts on local and regional hydroclimate. In recent decades, a number of urban canopy models have been developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to capture urban land-surface processes. Most of these models are inadequate due to the lack of realistic representation of urban hydrological processes. Here, we implement physically-based parametrizations of urban hydrological processes into the single layer urban canopy model in the WRF model. The new single-layer urban canopy model features the integration of, (1) anthropogenic latent heat, (2) urban irrigation, (3) evaporation from paved surfaces, and (4) the urban oasis effect. The new WRF-urban modelling system is evaluated against field measurements for four different cities; results show that the model performance is substantially improved as compared to the current schemes, especially for latent heat flux. In particular, to evaluate the performance of green roofs as an urban heat island mitigation strategy, we integrate in the urban canopy model a multilayer green roof system, enabled by the physical urban hydrological schemes. Simulations show that green roofs are capable of reducing surface temperature and sensible heat flux as well as enhancing building energy efficiency.

  5. Energy Justice in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Kathleen B.

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest rates of electrification and some of the worst education statistics worldwide. In the absence of strong infrastructure for a reliable grid system and quality universal primary schooling, the poor suffer significantly. Though substantial research has been done on both issues separately, the relationship between the two has yet to be explored. This thesis uses social justice theories to introduce the connections between energy poverty and an individual's education capabilities through a case study in Zambia. Case study research was carried out in the urban low-resource settlements of Lusaka, Zambia over a period of two months with Lifeline Energy, using methods of participant observation. Drawing on trends discovered in survey responses, interviews and feedback from a distribution of renewable technologies, this study demonstrates that a lack of modern forms of energy detracts from education. By synthesizing the data with Martha Nussbaum's capabilities approach and Sendhil Mullainathan and Eldar Shafir's scarcity theory, the research reveals that energy poverty hinders an individual's ability to study and gain a quality education and diminishes their available cognitive capacity to learn by tunneling attention to the resource deficit. Furthermore, it supports the claim that energy poverty is not gender neutral. The research concludes that the scarcity caused by energy poverty can be lessened by the investment in and use of small-scale renewable technologies which alleviates some of the daily stress and grind of poverty. This thesis lays the groundwork to recognize energy poverty as an injustice. Keywords: Energy Poverty, Education, Gender, Sub-Saharan Africa, Scarcity, Capabilities Approach..

  6. The future is urban.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Urban centers are growing due to natural increase and the movement of people from rural areas. Urban areas are the traditional centers of trade, science, and culture, but growth over a threshold results in crime, congestion, and pollution. Sustainability is threatened in modern towns that are dependent on other sources for food, fuel, or water. Housing, water, food supplies, and sanitation, communication, and transportation services are threatened in rapidly growing cities. In 1990 45/100 people lived in towns or cities. Hyper-cities have grown in number to 20, of which 14 are in developing countries. 83% of world population increase is expected to occur in cities. In 48 countries with faster population growth cities had growth rates averaging about 6.1% per year, and the urban share of total population averaged 2.8%. In 49 countries with slower population growth, urban growth rates averaged only 3.6% per year, and the urban share of total population averaged about 1.8%. Squatter settlements are endemic to urban areas that are congested and without basic services, limited housing particularly for the poor, and few job opportunities. The number of street children in urban areas has risen. This child population is subjected to low wages, overwork, auto accidents, poor health, and lack of social services. Malnutrition is a more serious issue in urban areas. In the Philippines malnutrition is 3% nationally and 9% in Metro Manila. Rural land reform in the Philippines is no longer a viable solution. In Metro Manila squatters are expected to increase in number to 4 million people by the year 2000, which would be almost 50% of total population. The squatter areas are areas of neglect, decay, and poverty. Cities are viewed as development's "blind alleys." PMID:12179235

  7. Towards sustainable urban communities

    SciTech Connect

    Haapio, Appu

    2012-01-15

    Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.

  8. Urban scaling in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  9. Urban scaling in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades, in disciplines as diverse as economics, geography and complex systems, a perspective has arisen proposing that many properties of cities are quantitatively predictable due to agglomeration or scaling effects. Using new harmonized definitions for functional urban areas, we examine to what extent these ideas apply to European cities. We show that while most large urban systems in Western Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK) approximately agree with theoretical expectations, the small number of cities in each nation and their natural variability preclude drawing strong conclusions. We demonstrate how this problem can be overcome so that cities from different urban systems can be pooled together to construct larger datasets. This leads to a simple statistical procedure to identify urban scaling relations, which then clearly emerge as a property of European cities. We compare the predictions of urban scaling to Zipf's law for the size distribution of cities and show that while the former holds well the latter is a poor descriptor of European cities. We conclude with scenarios for the size and properties of future pan-European megacities and their implications for the economic productivity, technological sophistication and regional inequalities of an integrated European urban system. PMID:26984190

  10. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  11. Urbanization and its implications for food and farming

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, David; McGranahan, Gordon; Tacoli, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy-, land-, water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive. But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty. To this are added the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to build resilience in agriculture and urban development to climate change impacts. The paper gives particular attention to low- and middle-income nations since these have more than three-quarters of the world's urban population and most of its largest cities and these include nations where issues of food security are most pressing. PMID:20713386

  12. Urbanization and its implications for food and farming.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, David; McGranahan, Gordon; Tacoli, Cecilia

    2010-09-27

    This paper discusses the influences on food and farming of an increasingly urbanized world and a declining ratio of food producers to food consumers. Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy-, land-, water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive. But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty. To this are added the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to build resilience in agriculture and urban development to climate change impacts. The paper gives particular attention to low- and middle-income nations since these have more than three-quarters of the world's urban population and most of its largest cities and these include nations where issues of food security are most pressing. PMID:20713386

  13. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  14. Urbanization effects on the microclimate of Manaus: A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Diego Oliveira de; Alvalá, Regina Célia dos Santos; Nascimento, Marília Guedes do

    2016-01-01

    Activities associated with land use and land cover changes and urbanization induce local impacts, such as changes in atmospheric composition in water and energy balances and changes in the ecosystem. Therefore, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible relationship between urban growth and local and regional changes. In the last 30 years, the population of Manaus grew by over 500%, with approximately 1.9 million inhabitants in 2010. Trying to understand the effects of the urban growth of the city of Manaus on its microclimate and atmospheric processes, the present study aims to evaluate the possible physical mechanisms related to the urbanization process observed through a study of atmospheric modeling. The results allowed to assess that the presence of the urban area significantly modifies the surface energy balance (SEB), generating a thermal gradient between the city and the surrounding regions, favoring the formation and intensification of local atmospheric circulations. The results indicated that with urban growth there is an increase in temperature, decrease in the atmospheric water content and significant changes in the flow at low levels, mainly in the breeze circulations, with significant changes observed in the structure and characteristic of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) over the study area. A positive correlation between the increase of the urban area and increased rainfall was also observed. From the results, it was possible to observe that there is a direct relationship between urban growth and changes in the local microclimate in Manaus.

  15. Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

  16. Modeling the effect of urban infrastructure on hydrologic processes within i-Tree Hydro, a statistically and spatially distributed model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taggart, T. P.; Endreny, T. A.; Nowak, D.

    2014-12-01

    Gray and green infrastructure in urban environments alters many natural hydrologic processes, creating an urban water balance unique to the developed environment. A common way to assess the consequences of impervious cover and grey infrastructure is by measuring runoff hydrographs. This focus on the watershed outlet masks the spatial variation of hydrologic process alterations across the urban environment in response to localized landscape characteristics. We attempt to represent this spatial variation in the urban environment using the statistically and spatially distributed i-Tree Hydro model, a scoping level urban forest effects water balance model. i-Tree Hydro has undergone expansion and modification to include the effect of green infrastructure processes, road network attributes, and urban pipe system leakages. These additions to the model are intended to increase the understanding of the altered urban hydrologic cycle by examining the effects of the location of these structures on the water balance. Specifically, the effect of these additional structures and functions on the spatially varying properties of interception, soil moisture and runoff generation. Differences in predicted properties and optimized parameter sets between the two models are examined and related to the recent landscape modifications. Datasets used in this study consist of watersheds and sewersheds within the Syracuse, NY metropolitan area, an urban area that has integrated green and gray infrastructure practices to alleviate stormwater problems.

  17. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  18. Corynebacterium glutamicum harbours a molybdenum cofactor-dependent formate dehydrogenase which alleviates growth inhibition in the presence of formate.

    PubMed

    Witthoff, Sabrina; Eggeling, Lothar; Bott, Michael; Polen, Tino

    2012-09-01

    Here, we show that Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 co-metabolizes formate when it is grown with glucose as the carbon and energy source. CO(2) measurements during bioreactor cultivation and use of (13)C-labelled formate demonstrated that formate is almost completely oxidized to CO(2). The deletion of fdhF (cg0618), annotated as formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and located in a cluster of genes conserved in the family Corynebacteriaceae, prevented formate utilization. Similarly, deletion of fdhD (cg0616) resulted in the inability to metabolize formate and deletion of cg0617 markedly reduced formate utilization. These results illustrated that all three gene products are required for FDH activity. Growth studies with molybdate and tungstate indicated that the FDH from C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 is a molybdenum-dependent enzyme. The presence of 100 mM formate caused a 25 % lowered growth rate during cultivation of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 wild-type in glucose minimal medium. This inhibitory effect was increased in the strains lacking FDH activity. Our data demonstrate that C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 possesses an FDH with a currently unknown electron acceptor. The presence of the FDH might help the soil bacterium C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 to alleviate growth retardation caused by formate, which is ubiquitously present in the environment. PMID:22767548

  19. Diets enriched in trans-11 vaccenic acid alleviate ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacome-Sosa, M Miriam; Borthwick, Faye; Mangat, Rabban; Uwiera, Richard; Reaney, Martin J; Shen, Jianheng; Quiroga, Ariel D; Jacobs, René L; Lehner, Richard; Proctor, Spencer D; Nelson, Randal C

    2014-07-01

    Trans11-18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA) is one of the most predominant naturally occurring trans fats in our food chain and has recently been shown to exert hypolipidemic effects in animal models. In this study, we reveal new mechanism(s) by which VA can alter body fat distribution, energy utilization and dysfunctional lipid metabolism in an animal model of obesity displaying features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Obese JCR:LA-cp rats were assigned to a control diet that included dairy-derived fat or the control diet supplemented with 1% VA. VA reduced total body fat (-6%), stimulated adipose tissue redistribution [reduced mesenteric fat (-17%) while increasing inguinal fat mass (29%)] and decreased adipocyte size (-44%) versus control rats. VA supplementation also increased metabolic rate (7%) concomitantly with an increased preference for whole-body glucose utilization for oxidation and increased insulin sensitivity [lower HOMA-IR (-59%)]. Further, VA decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores (-34%) and reduced hepatic (-27%) and intestinal (-39%) triglyceride secretion relative to control diet, while exerting differential transcriptional regulation of SREBP1 and FAS amongst other key genes in the liver and the intestine. Adding VA to dairy fat alleviates features of MetS potentially by remodeling adipose tissue and attenuating ectopic lipid accumulation in a rat model of obesity and MetS. Increasing VA content in the diet (naturally or by fortification) may be a useful approach to maximize the health value of dairy-derived fats. PMID:24775093

  20. Nitrogen Accumulation, Transformations, And Export In Urban Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.

    2006-05-01

    Global N biogeochemical cycle, like the global C cycle, has been fundamentally altered by human activities. Unlike C cycling, N inputs are regionally concentrated in human-dominated ecosystems such as large cities. The fate of elevated N input has important ecological and environmental consequences. In the arid Southwest, large quantities of N inputs can be accumulated in soils, due to the primary constraints of water on N usages and transfers. In a probability-based field sampling conducted in year 2000 in Central Arizona-Phoenix (a 6400- km2 study area), we found that farming and urbanization on average had caused an accumulative storage of 72.3 kg N/ha, mostly in the form of nitrate, in the surface 30 cm of soils. Hydrologic flowpaths over the arid urban landscapes could affect the fate of N. Our measured denitrification in urban retention basins had rates that were comparable to the highest reported in literature and constituted an important mechanism for N removal. In mesic Northeast, elevated atmospheric N deposition could alleviate natural N limitation to the ecosystem. Studies in remnant forests along an urban-to-rural gradient in the New York City metropolitan area showed higher soil N mineralization in urban sites than in rural sites. N transformations were found shifting from soluble organic N and NH4+ dominance to NO3- and nitrification, in agreement with the N saturation hypothesis. Changes in N biogeochemistry, however, are likely due to the combination of exotic earthworm invasion and the increase of N input, with both closely tied to human activities. Increases in ecosystem N availability and the shifting of N biogeochemical pathways lead to elevated N export. Using a small watershed approach, we studied Upper Susquehanna River drainage basin, the headwater area of the Chesapeake Bay. Our results showed significantly higher nitrate concentrations in urban streams than those watersheds with considerable agricultural land-use and rural watersheds

  1. Effect of VOC emissions from vegetation on urban air quality during hot periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Ruediger; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase of carbon storage, storm water control, and recreational space, as well as at poverty alleviation. These urban greening programs, however, do not take into account how closely human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Compared with the surroundings of cities, elevated temperatures together with high anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants are quite typical in urban systems. Urban and sub-urban vegetation respond to changes in meteorology and air quality and can react to pollutants. Neglecting this coupling may lead to unforeseen negative effects on air quality resulting from urban greening programs. The potential of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants to produce ozone has long been recognized. This ozone formation potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how emissions of VOC from urban vegetation affect corresponding ground-level ozone and PM10 concentrations in summer and especially during heat wave periods. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in the Berlin-Brandenburg region, Germany during the two summers of 2006 (heat wave) and 2014 (reference period). VOC emissions from vegetation are calculated by MEGAN 2.0 coupled online with WRF-CHEM. Our preliminary results indicate that the contribution of VOCs from vegetation to ozone formation may increase by more than twofold during heat wave periods. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas in the context of a changing climate and discuss potential tradeoffs of urban greening programs.

  2. Rural development and urban migration: can we keep them down on the farm?

    PubMed

    Rhoda, R

    1983-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that rural development projects and programs reduce rural-urban migration. The author presents various factors in the social theories of migration, including those relating to origin and destination, intervening obstacles such as distance, and personal factors. 3 economic models of migration are the human capital or cost-benefit approach, the expected income model, and the intersectoral linkage model. Empirical studies of migration indicate that: 1) rural areas with high rates of out-migration tend to have high population densities or high ratios of labor to arable land, 2) distance inhibits migration, 3) rural-urban migration is positively correlated with family income level, and 4) selectivity differences in socioeconomic status between migrants and nonmigrants often are grouped into development packages which might include irrigation, new varieties of seed, subsidized credit, increased extension, and improved marketing arrangements. The migration impacts of some of these efforts are described: 1) land reform usually is expected to slow rural out-migration because it normally increases labor utilization in rural areas, but this is a limited effect, 2) migration effects of the Green Revolution technology are mainly in rural-rural migration, and 3) agricultural mechanization may stimulate rural-urban migration in the long run. Development of rural social services migh have various effects on rural-urban migration. Better rural education, which improves the chances of urban employment, will stimulate rural-urban migration, while successful rural family planning programs will have a negative effect in the long run as there will be reduced population pressure on arable land. Better rural health services might reduce the incentive for rural-urban migration as well. It is suggested that governments reconsider policies which rely on rural development to curb rural-urban migration and alleviate problems of urban poverty and underemployment

  3. Feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) for onsite sanitation and resource recovery (nutrients, energy and water) in urban slums.

    PubMed

    Bair, Robert A; Ozcan, Onur Y; Ozcan, Onur O; Calabria, Jorge L; Dick, George H; Yeh, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Slums are challenging locations for sanitation technologies. High population densities, a lack of water and electricity infrastructure, and space constraints combine to ensure that many traditional waste treatment technologies fail when implemented in this context. This paper proposes the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for slum sanitation. AnMBRs allow for localized water reuse, high quality treatment, and energy production at the point of treatment. A water, energy, nutrient, and mass balance was conducted on a theoretical AnMBR directly coupled to a public toilet. The combined system would be capable of recycling its water for use in toilet flushing and would be capable of providing enough energy to power both the toilet and AnMBR operation. The addition of food waste to the feed would help to ensure process stability and energy production by the AnMBR. Ammonia accumulation within the system would have to be managed through struvite precipitation, ion exchange, oxidation, plant uptake or other means. Generated biogas can be converted into heat and/or electricity using small scale gas generators. AnMBR technology has high potential for success in slum settings, if considerations for maintenance and supplies are made as part of the design and system delivery. PMID:26524445

  4. Micronutrient deficiency in urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Schultink, W

    1997-06-01

    The economic situation of Indonesia is characterized by a large increase in the gross national product which has been on average 7% annually during the last ten years. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization. With the economic improvement, "First World" and "Third World" health and nutrition problems are coexisting in Indonesia. In 1992, the most common of death cause was cardiovascular disease whereas tuberculosis was the second ranking. About 40% of the preschool children are stunted. The main stable food and energy source is rice, although the urban population has a more diverse food pattern than the rural population. In Jakarta, many children receive too late colostrum feeding and mothers are not aware about the importance of correct breastfeeding practices after delivery. Three studies had shown that about one fifth of preschool children and one fourth of elderly take micronutrient supplements. Nevertheless, micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Jakarta. About one third of women suffer from moderate vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol < 0.70 mmol/L) and 50% of pregnant women are anemic. More information is necessary on other micronutrient deficiencies. For example, a small study revealed that nearly two thirds of non-institutionalized elderly living in Jakarta experience thiamine deficiency. Appropriate interventions to reduce micronutrient deficiencies should sensitize the urban population to the fact that the government should restrict itself to use its resources to assist only the poorest individuals and groups, whereas it must be expected from the middle class to spend more time and money to solve their own problems. PMID:9659420

  5. Nitric oxide (NO) in alleviation of heavy metal induced phytotoxicity and its role in protein nitration.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ina; Shekhawat, G S

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is recognized as a biological messenger in various tissues to regulate diverse range of physiological process including growth, development and response to abiotic and biotic factors. The NO emission from plants is known since the 1970s, and there is copious information on the multiple effects of exogenously applied NO on different physiological and biochemical processes of plants. Heavy metal toxicity is one of the major abiotic stresses leading to hazardous effects in plants and its toxicity is based on chemical and physical property. A common consequence of heavy metal toxicity is the uncontrolled and excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which leads to peroxidation of lipids, oxidation of protein, inactivation of enzymes, DNA damage and/or interact with other vital constituents of plant cells. Recently, an increasing number of articles have reported the effects of exogenous NO on alleviating heavy metal toxicity in plants but knowledge of physiological mechanisms of NO in alleviating heavy metal toxicity is quite limited, and some results contradict one another. Therefore, to help clarify the roles of NO in heavy metal tolerance, it is important to review and discuss the recent advances on this area of research. NO can provoke both beneficial and harmful effects, which depend on the concentration and location of NO in the plant cells. NO alleviates the harmfulness of the ROS, and reacts with other target molecules, and regulates the expression of stress responsive genes under various stress conditions. This manuscript includes, the latest advances in understanding the effects of endogenous NO on heavy metal toxicity and the mechanisms and role of NO as an antioxidant as well as in protein nitration are highlighted. PMID:23545403

  6. He-Ne laser influenced actin filaments alleviate the damage of UV-B in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huize; Han, Rong

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated the use of a He-Ne laser in alleviating the damaging effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on wheat seedlings by influenced actin filaments. Triticum aestivum seedlings were irradiated with either enhanced UV-B (10.08 KJ m-2 d-1) or a combination of UV-B light and the He-Ne laser. Plants were also exposed to the He-Ne laser alone. In order to compare the effect of the He-Ne laser, red light (same power and wavelength as the He-Ne laser) treatment and the combined UV-B and red light treatment were added. Moreover, wheat seedlings were treated with actin special drugs, including cytochalasin B (CB) and jasplakinolide (JAS). We analyzed the growth of the seedlings, the distribution of actin filaments (AFs), DNA laddering and ACTIN expression in the different groups. The results showed that enhanced UV-B produced negative effects on the growth of wheat seedlings while implementing the He-Ne laser partially alleviated the injury. With the red light treatment, there are no positive effects. The ACTIN expression stayed the same in the different treatments, while the distribution and the protein content are different. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopic results further established significant changes in the chemical composition of the wall material. These results suggested that the He-Ne laser alleviated the damaging effects of UV-B radiation in wheat seedlings by changing the characteristics of the AFs.

  7. Oral methylphenidate alleviates the fine motor dysfunction caused by chronic postnatal manganese exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stéphane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Lasley, Stephen M; Fornal, Casimir A; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-04-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  8. Ginsenoside Rh2 alleviates tumor-associated depression in a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Yueming; Dai, Chunxiao; Shang, Yushan; Xie, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported remarkable high incidence of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide and has been found to be one of the malignancies with the highest incidence of patient depression. Thus, strategies that may alleviate CRC-associated depression may significantly improve the patients' life quality and outcome of the therapy. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has been reported to have therapeutic effects on various diseases. However, whether it may also play a potential role in alleviating tumor-associated depression in CRC patients is unknown. Here, we studied the role of GRh2 in the control of depression in CRC using a mouse model. CRC was induced in mice through orthotopic implantation. GRh2 or control vehicle was then given to the mice twice per week for 4 weeks, after which the mice were subjected to a forced swim test (FST), a tail suspension test (TST) and a sucrose intake test (SIT). We found that the mice that received GRh2 treatment significantly improved their behaviors in all FST, TST and SIT tests, seemingly through decreases in the depression-associated cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Moreover, GRh2 significantly increased survival time of the CRC-mice. Together, our data suggest that GRh2 may alleviate tumor-associated depression in mice carrying CRC and highlight GRh2 treatment as a potential beneficial therapy for CRC-associated depression in patients. PMID:27347326

  9. Rapamycin-mediated CD36 translational suppression contributes to alleviation of hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Yan, Yong; Hu, Lin; Zhao, Lei; Yang, Ping; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Chen, Yaxi; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2014-04-25

    Rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-specific inhibitor, has the effect of anti-lipid deposition on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanisms with which rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis are not fully disclosed. CD36 is known to facilitate long-chain fatty acid uptake and contribute to NAFLD progression. Hepatic CD36 expression is closely associated with hepatic steatosis, while mTOR pathway is involved in CD36 translational control. This study was undertaken to investigate whether rapamycin alleviates hepatic steatosis via the inhibition of mTOR pathway-dependent CD36 translation. Human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate and C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) to induce hepatic steatosis. Hepatic CD36 protein expression was significantly increased with lipid accumulation in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells or HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Rapamycin reduced hepatic steatosis and CD36 protein expression, but it had no influence on CD36 mRNA expression. Rapamycin had no effect on CD36 protein stability, but it significantly decreased CD36 translational efficiency. We further confirmed that rapamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream translational regulators including p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). This study demonstrates that rapamycin inhibits hepatic CD36 translational efficiency through the mTOR pathway, resulting in reduction of CD36 protein expression and alleviation of hepatic steatosis. PMID:24685479

  10. Ginsenoside Rh2 alleviates tumor-associated depression in a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Yueming; Dai, Chunxiao; Shang, Yushan; Xie, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported remarkable high incidence of depression in cancer patients compared with the general population. Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide and has been found to be one of the malignancies with the highest incidence of patient depression. Thus, strategies that may alleviate CRC-associated depression may significantly improve the patients’ life quality and outcome of the therapy. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) has been reported to have therapeutic effects on various diseases. However, whether it may also play a potential role in alleviating tumor-associated depression in CRC patients is unknown. Here, we studied the role of GRh2 in the control of depression in CRC using a mouse model. CRC was induced in mice through orthotopic implantation. GRh2 or control vehicle was then given to the mice twice per week for 4 weeks, after which the mice were subjected to a forced swim test (FST), a tail suspension test (TST) and a sucrose intake test (SIT). We found that the mice that received GRh2 treatment significantly improved their behaviors in all FST, TST and SIT tests, seemingly through decreases in the depression-associated cytokines, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Moreover, GRh2 significantly increased survival time of the CRC-mice. Together, our data suggest that GRh2 may alleviate tumor-associated depression in mice carrying CRC and highlight GRh2 treatment as a potential beneficial therapy for CRC-associated depression in patients. PMID:27347326

  11. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  12. Thyroid hormone alleviates demyelination induced by cuprizone through its role in remyelination during the remission period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mao; Zhan, Xiao L; Ma, Zi Y; Chen, Xing S; Cai, Qi Y; Yao, Zhong X

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease induced by demyelination in the central nervous system, and the remission period of MS is crucial for remyelination. In addition, abnormal levels of thyroid hormone (TH) have been identified in MS. However, in the clinic, insufficient attention has been paid to the role of TH in the remission period. Indeed, TH not only functions in the development of the brain but also affects myelination. Therefore, it is necessary to observe the effect of TH on remyelination during this period. A model of demyelination induced by cuprizone (CPZ) was used to observe the function of TH in remyelination during the remission period of MS. Through weighing and behavioral tests, we found that TH improved the physical symptoms of mice impaired by CPZ. Supplementation of TH led to the repair of myelin as detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. In addition, a sufficient TH supply resulted in an increase in myelinated axons without affecting myelin thickness and g ratio in the corpus callosum, as detected by electron microscopy. Double immunostaining with myelin basic protein and neurofilament 200 (NF200) showed that the CPZ-induced impairment of axons was alleviated by TH. Conversely, insufficient TH induced by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil resulted in the enlargement of mitochondria. Furthermore, we found that an adequate supply of TH promoted the proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte lineage cells by immunofluorescence, which was beneficial to remyelination. Further, we found that TH reduced the number of astrocytes without affecting microglia. Conclusively, it was shown that TH alleviated demyelination induced by CPZ by promoting the development of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and remyelination. The critical time for remyelination is the remission period of MS. TH plays a significant role in alleviating demyelination during the remission period in the clinical treatment of MS. PMID:25577802

  13. SUSTAINABLE URBAN TECHNOLOGIES TEAM (URBAN WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRANCH - WSWRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Urban Watershed Management Branch researches, develops and evaluates technologies, practices, and systems to manage risks to human health and ecosystems from Wet Weather Flow (WWF) sources in urban watersheds. The focus is on the...

  14. Fin-buffet alleviation via distributed piezoelectric actuators: materials qualification program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaglauer, Helmut W.; Duerr, Johannes K.; Floeth, Erik; Ihler, Elmar; Herold-Schmidt, Ursula; Dittrich, Kay W.; Simpson, John; Becker, Juergen

    1999-07-01

    One of the most innovative concepts for active fin-buffet alleviation in vertical tail aircraft is the use of piezoelectric patch actuators distributed across the tail surface to actively induce a counter-strain into the structure. This concept involves the development of a novel material compound structure consisting of a fiber-composite aircraft skin, a ceramic patch actuator and the bonding layer between both components. This actively controllable structure has to provide enough authority to dampen the fin- buffet vibrations. It also has to function reliably during long-term aircraft operation under severe mechanical and environmental load conditions.

  15. Residual stress alleviation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods to eliminate or reduce residual stresses in aircraft metal structures reinforced by filamentary composites are discussed. Residual stress level reductions were achieved by modifying the manufacturing procedures used during adhesive bonding. The residual stress alleviation techniques involved various forms of mechanical constraint which were applied to the components during bonding. Nine methods were evaluated, covering a wide range in complexity. All methods investigated during the program affected the residual stress level. In general, residual stresses were reduced by 70 percent or more from the stress level produced by conventional adhesive bonding procedures.

  16. Evaluation of flight spoilers for vortex alleviation. [on wide-bodied jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the facilities and test procedures used in a series of wind-tunnel and full-scale flight investigations of the effectiveness of flight spoilers currently existing on wide-bodied transport jet aircraft when used as trailing vortex hazard alleviation devices. Examples of the results of such studies include the variation of trailing wing rolling-moment coefficient with downstream distance behind a B-747 airplane model with various segments of its flight spoilers deflected 45 deg, and comparisons with models without spoilers deflected. It is concluded that the existing flight spoilers on the B-747 are effective as trailing vortex attenuators.

  17. Side-force alleviation on slender, pointed forebodies at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    A new device was proposed for alleviating high angle-of-attack side force on slender, pointed forebodies. A symmetrical pair of separation strips in the form of helical ridges are applied to the forebody to disrupt the primary lee-side vortices and thereby avoid the instability that produces vortex asymmetry. Preliminary wind tunnel tests at Mach 0.3 and Reynolds no. 5,250,000 on a variety of forebody configurations and on a wing-body combination at angles of attack up to 56 degrees, demonstrated the effectiveness of the device.

  18. Method for alleviating thermal stress damage in laminates. [metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C. A.; Weeton, J. W.; Orth, N. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method is provided for alleviating the stress damage in metallic matrix composites, such as laminated sheet or foil composites. Discontinuities are positively introduced into the interface between the layers so as to reduce the thermal stress produced by unequal expansion of the materials making up the composite. Although a number of discrete elements could be used to form one of the layers and thus carry out this purpose, the discontinuities are preferably produced by simply drilling holes in the metallic matrix layer or by forming grooves in a grid pattern in this layer.

  19. Sensitivity of mesoscale model urban boundary layer meteorology to urban morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, D. D.; Taylor, P. A.

    2010-11-01

    Mesoscale modeling of the urban boundary layer requires careful parameterization of the surface due to its heterogeneous morphology. Model estimated meteorological quantities, including the surface energy budget and canopy layer variables, will respond accordingly to the scale of representation. This study examines the sensitivity of the surface energy balance, canopy layer and boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban surface representation in a real urban area (Detroit-Windsor (USA-Canada)) during several dry, cloud-free summer periods. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its coupled single-layer urban canopy model. Some model verification is presented using measurements from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) 2007 field campaign and additional sources. Case studies span from "neighborhood" (10 s ~ 30 m) to very coarse (120 s ~ 3.7 km) resolution. Small changes in scale can affect the classification of the surface, affecting both the local and grid-average meteorology. Results indicate high sensitivity in turbulent latent heat flux from the natural surface and sensible heat flux from the urban canopy. Small scale change is also shown to delay timing of a lake-breeze front passage and can affect the timing of local transition in static stability.

  20. Sensitivity of mesoscale model urban boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, D. D.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-03-01

    Mesoscale modeling of the urban boundary layer requires careful parameterization of the surface due to its heterogeneous morphology. Model estimated meteorological quantities, including the surface energy budget and canopy layer variables, will respond accordingly to the scale of representation. This study examines the sensitivity of the surface energy balance, canopy layer and boundary layer meteorology to the scale of urban surface representation in a real urban area (Detroit-Windsor (USA-Canada)) during several dry, cloud-free summer periods. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with its coupled single-layer urban canopy model. Some model verification is presented using measurements from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study (BAQS-Met) 2007 field campaign and additional sources. Case studies span from "neighborhood" (10 s ~308 m) to very coarse (120 s ~3.7 km) resolution. Small changes in scale can affect the classification of the surface, affecting both the local and grid-average meteorology. Results indicate high sensitivity in turbulent latent heat flux from the natural surface and sensible heat flux from the urban canopy. Small scale change is also shown to delay timing of a lake-breeze front passage and can affect the timing of local transition in static stability.

  1. Urban compaction or dispersion? An air quality modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Helena

    2012-07-01

    Urban sprawl is altering the landscape, with current trends pointing to further changes in land use that will, in turn, lead to changes in population, energy consumption, atmospheric emissions and air quality. Urban planners have debated on the most sustainable urban structure, with arguments in favour and against urban compaction and dispersion. However, it is clear that other areas of expertise have to be involved. Urban air quality and human exposure to atmospheric pollutants as indicators of urban sustainability can contribute to the discussion, namely through the study of the relation between urban structure and air quality. This paper addresses the issue by analysing the impacts of alternative urban growth patterns on the air quality of Porto urban region in Portugal, through a 1-year simulation with the MM5-CAMx modelling system. This region has been experiencing one of the highest European rates of urban sprawl, and at the same time presents a poor air quality. As part of the modelling system setup, a sensitivity study was conducted regarding different land use datasets and spatial distribution of emissions. Two urban development scenarios were defined, SPRAWL and COMPACT, together with their new land use and emission datasets; then meteorological and air quality simulations were performed. Results reveal that SPRAWL land use changes resulted in an average temperature increase of 0.4 °C, with local increases reaching as high as 1.5 °C. SPRAWL results also show an aggravation of PM10 annual average values and an increase in the exceedances to the daily limit value. For ozone, differences between scenarios were smaller, with SPRAWL presenting larger concentration differences than COMPACT. Finally, despite the higher concentrations found in SPRAWL, population exposure to the pollutants is higher for COMPACT because more inhabitants are found in areas of highest concentration levels.

  2. Impacts of urbanization on the carbon cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, L.; Raciti, S. M.; Dunn, A. L.; Gately, C.; Sue Wing, I.; Woodcock, C.; Olofsson, P.; Friedl, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Urban areas are expanding rapidly in population and land area. The impact of urban areas on carbon budgets is especially profound. Cities consume nearly 80% of total global energy use and produce approximately 70% of CO2 emissions. Expansion of urban areas in the coming decades is expected to outpace urban population growth, making urban land use change and associated impacts on regional C dynamics a critical element of the global C cycle. Despite the rapid urban expansion, the trajectories of carbon losses and gains following urban development remain poorly quantified, particularly at the urban-rural interface. This is the zone where land use change and C stocks are most dynamic, but least well quantified. While a growing body of research has allowed us to better quantify biomass in forested areas and within the boundaries of major cities, comparatively little work has addressed C stocks and dynamics in the 'middle ground' where the majority of land use change is occurring. Existing spatially-explicit regional and continental scale biomass estimates exclude urban developed areas or presume that they contain little or no biomass. Data on urban C fluxes to and from the atmosphere are likewise very sparse. Our existing network of surface CO2 observation sites intentionally avoids cities. We describe a multidisciplinary study across the greater Boston metropolitan region to characterize the sources and sinks of CO2 across urban-to-rural gradients including the development of new emissions inventories, assessment of land cover change, and process-level studies of variations in ecosystem productivity.

  3. Urbanism and Racial Attitudes: A Test of Some Urban Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    1984-01-01

    National survey data are used to test the relationship between urbanism and racial attitudes among Whites, and a liberalizing effect of urbanism is found. It appears that urbanism liberalizes racial attitudes by increasing equal-status, cooperative, and relatively personal contact between members of racial subcultures. (Author/RDN)

  4. Method development for analysis of urban dust using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to detect the possible presence of World Trade Center dust constituents.

    PubMed

    Bern, Amy M; Lowers, Heather A; Meeker, Gregory P; Rosati, Jacky A

    2009-03-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 microL aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results. PMID:19350918

  5. Method development for analysis of urban dust using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry to detect the possible presence of world trade center dust constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, A.M.; Lowers, H.A.; Meeker, G.P.; Rosati, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust. From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/ isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 ??L aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  6. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  7. Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Pretreatment Ameliorates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced AKI by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Allevi-ating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Huang, XuDong; Zhang, LiXia; Yang, XinJun; Wang, LiHui; Chen, YunShuang; Wang, JingHua; Wu, GuangLi

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most severe complications of rhabdomyolysis (RM). The underlying mechanisms and potential preventions need to be investigated. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) was reported to ameliorate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, but the effect of PHC on RM-reduced AKI is unknown. In this study, we established a rat model of RM-induced AKI using an intramuscular glycerol injection in the hind limbs. Rats were pretreated with PHC before the glycerol injection, and the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnPP was introduced to evaluate the effect of HO-1 on RM-induced AKI. PHC pretreatment ameliorated the pathological renal injury and renal dysfunction, and decreased the renal apoptosis rate in RM-induced AKI. PHC significantly up-regulated HO-1 expression, increased HO-1 enzymatic activity and decreased the accumulation of myoglobin in renal tissues. This effect was partly inhibited by ZnPP. PHC pretreatment also effectively up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 at both the gene and protein levels. These results suggest that the protective effects of PHC pretreatment on RM-induced AKI occur at least in part through activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in rat renal tissues. PMID:26987113

  8. Radiation fog and urban climate

    SciTech Connect

    Sachweh, M.; Koepke, P.

    1995-05-01

    Fog data of Southern Germany from the period 1949-1990 indicate a significant urban influence on fog frequency. An increase of the urban building density is connected with a reduction in the average number of fog days, which is interpreted as an effect of the urban heat island and moisture deficit. Feedback mechanisms which intensify the urban-rural contrast are discussed. The results are transferable to large cities with relatively good air quality.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhi-Jing; Hu, Kang-Di; Song, Chang-Bing; Ma, Run-Hui; Li, Zhi-Rong; Zheng, Ji-Lian; Fu, Liu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and superoxide anion (O2∙−) in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation. PMID:27594971

  10. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bin Lan; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  11. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  12. JAK inhibition alleviates the cellular senescence-associated secretory phenotype and frailty in old age

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Tchkonia, Tamara; Ding, Husheng; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; White, Thomas A.; Johnson, Kurt O.; Stout, Michael B.; Mezera, Vojtech; Giorgadze, Nino; Jensen, Michael D.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Kirkland, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, low grade, sterile inflammation frequently accompanies aging and age-related diseases. Cellular senescence is associated with the production of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling proteases, which comprise the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We found a higher burden of senescent cells in adipose tissue with aging. Senescent human primary preadipocytes as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) developed a SASP that could be suppressed by targeting the JAK pathway using RNAi or JAK inhibitors. Conditioned medium (CM) from senescent human preadipocytes induced macrophage migration in vitro and inflammation in healthy adipose tissue and preadipocytes. When the senescent cells from which CM was derived had been treated with JAK inhibitors, the resulting CM was much less proinflammatory. The administration of JAK inhibitor to aged mice for 10 wk alleviated both adipose tissue and systemic inflammation and enhanced physical function. Our findings are consistent with a possible contribution of senescent cells and the SASP to age-related inflammation and frailty. We speculate that SASP inhibition by JAK inhibitors may contribute to alleviating frailty. Targeting the JAK pathway holds promise for treating age-related dysfunction. PMID:26578790

  13. Alleviation of side force on tangent-ogive forebodies using passive porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Steven X. S.; Hemsch, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation to determine the effectiveness of porosity for alleviating side forces on forebodies was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 7 x 10 ft High-Speed Wind Tunnel. The study consisted of a comparison of experimental force, moment, and surface pressure results obtained on a fineness ratio 5.0 tangent-ogive porous forebody with 0.020 in. hole diameter and 22 percent porosity with results obtained on a solid forebody. The forebodies were tested with cylindrical afterbodies. The solid forebody was tested with transition grit to simulate fully turbulent conditions and without transition grit to simulate free transition conditions. The extent of porosity on the forebody was varied to determine the extent of porosity needed to alleviate side forces. Static longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and surface pressure data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8. The angle of attack range was from 5 to 45 deg and roll angles from -90 to 180 deg. The solid forebody exhibited large asymmetries at moderate to high angles of attack causing large side forces and yawing moments. The porous forebody exhibited no significant side forces or yawing moments at any angle of attack tested.

  14. A Probiotic Preparation Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jin-Eung; Yoon, Yeo-Sang; Seo, Jae-Gu; Chung, Myung-Jun; Yum, Do-Young

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology that encompasses immunologic responses. AD is frequently associated with elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and common environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Several recent studies have documented the role of specific lactic acid bacteria in the treatment and prevention of AD in humans and mice. In this study, the efficacy of Duolac ATP, a probiotic preparation, was determined in a mouse model with AD-like skin lesions. Alterations in the cytokine levels and histological staining suggested the alleviation of AD. The in vivo test showed that T helper (Th)2 cytokines, IgE, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-5, were significantly downregulated, whereas Th1 cytokines, IL-12p40 and interferon (IFN)-γ, were upregulated in all groups of mice treated with Duolac ATP compared to that observed in the group of mice treated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) alone. Moreover, the scratch score decreased in all mice treated with Duolac ATP. Staining of the dorsal area of the mice in each group with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue further confirmed the alleviation of AD in mice orally treated with Duolac ATP. These results suggest that Duolac ATP inhibits the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the Th2 cell response and increasing the Th1 cell response. Thus, Duolac ATP is beneficial and effective for the treatment of AD-like skin lesions. PMID:27123166

  15. Mechanisms of body weight reduction and metabolic syndrome alleviation by tea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was three to four cups (600-900 mg t