Science.gov

Sample records for allocations

  1. Computer Processor Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-03-01

    The Compute Processor Allocator (CPA) provides an efficient and reliable mechanism for managing and allotting processors in a massively parallel (MP) computer. It maintains information in a database on the health. configuration and allocation of each processor. This persistent information is factored in to each allocation decision. The CPA runs in a distributed fashion to avoid a single point of failure.

  2. Allocation without locking

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    In a programming environment with both concurrency and automatic garbage collection, the allocation and initialization of a new record is a sensitive matter: if it is interrupted halfway through, the allocating process may be in a state that the garbage collector can't understand. In particular, the collector won't know which words of the new record have been initialized and which are meaningless (and unsafe to transverse). For this reason, parallel implementations usually use a locking or semaphore mechanism to ensure that allocation is an atomic operation. The locking significantly adds to the cost of allocation. This paper shows that allocation can run extremely quickly even in a multi-thread environment: open-coded, without locking.

  3. The Unobtrusive Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-03-31

    This library implements a memory allocator/manager which ask its host program or library for memory refions to manage rather than requesting them from the operating system. This allocator supports multiple distinct heaps within a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The GNU mmalloc library has been modified in such a way that its allocation algorithms have been preserved, but the manner in which it obtains regions to managemore » has been changed to request memory from the host program or library. Additional modifications allow the allocator to manage each heap as either upward or downward-growing. By allowing the hosting program or library to determine what memory is managed, this package allows a greater degree of control than other memory allocation/management libraries. Additional distinguishing features include the ability to manage multiple distinct heaps with in a single executable, each of which may grow either upward or downward in memory. The most common use of this library is in conjunction with the Berkeley Unified Parallel C (UPC) Runtime Library. This package is a modified version of the LGPL-licensed "mmalloc" allocator from release 5.2 of the "gdb" debugger's source code.« less

  4. Spectrum allocations above 40 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzenstein, W. E.; Moore, R. P.; Kimball, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-79) revised the International Table of Frequency Allocations to reflect increased interest and activity in the region of the EM spectrum above 40 GHz. The total width of the spectrum allocated (235 GHz) in the region above 40 GHz indicates the extent of this new spectrum resource, made accessible by advances in the state-of-the-art of telecommunications equipment. There are some striking differences between the approach to allocation above and below 40 GHz. For example, there are not bands allocated exclusively. This reflects the characteristics of propagation and the small antenna beamwidths achievable at these frequencies. Attention is given to atmospheric window and absorption band limits, allocations to satellite services, allocations to scientific services, allocations to terrestrial services, the future refinement of the radio regulations above 40 GHz, and allocations of WARC-79 and frequency management.

  5. Economics of spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melody, W. H.

    The effective and efficient allocation and use of the spectrum can be ensured only by a set of sharing rules that will reflect the interests, values, and power of all affected parties. What is now happening is that the new interests and different values of the developing countries are pressing to change the international sharing rules established by a small group of high-technology nations. It is noted that the latter have established a massive telecommunications infrastructure on the basis of inherited sharing rules that reflect only their interests and a much simplified scarcity problem. Once long-term goals and underlying principles of allocation are established, communication technologies and markets can be directed, through a series of adjustment policies, to achieve them. A crucial first step in the creation of an international information environment in which 'free' flows will be balanced flows is the establishment of a balanced and equitable set of sharing rules for the radio spectrum.

  6. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  7. Attention allocation before antisaccades.

    PubMed

    Klapetek, Anna; Jonikaitis, Donatas; Deubel, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of attention before antisaccades. We used a dual task paradigm, in which participants made prosaccades or antisaccades and discriminated the orientation of a visual probe shown at the saccade goal, the visual cue location (antisaccade condition), or a neutral location. Moreover, participants indicated whether they had made a correct antisaccade or an erroneous prosaccade. We observed that, while spatial attention in the prosaccade task was allocated only to the saccade goal, attention in the antisaccade task was allocated both to the cued location and to the antisaccade goal. This suggests parallel attentional selection of the cued and antisaccade locations. We further observed that in error trials--in which participants made an incorrect prosaccade instead of an antisaccade--spatial attention was biased towards the prosaccade goal. These erroneous prosaccades were mostly unnoticed and were often followed by corrective antisaccades with very short latencies (<100 ms). Data from error trials therefore provide further evidence for the parallel programming of the reflexive prosaccade to the cue and the antisaccade to the intended location. Taken together, our results suggest that attention allocation and saccade goal selection in the antisaccade task are mediated by a common competitive process. PMID:26790843

  8. Synaptic Tagging During Memory Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Rogerson, Thomas; Cai, Denise; Frank, Adam; Sano, Yoshitake; Shobe, Justin; Aranda, Manuel L.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2014-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an integrated view of these processes, such that neuronal allocation, synaptic tagging and capture, spine clustering and metaplasticity reflect related aspects of memory allocation mechanisms. Importantly, the properties of these mechanisms suggest a set of rules that profoundly affect how memories are stored and recalled. PMID:24496410

  9. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting allocations... amounts that will be harvested, or a combination of the two. Estimates of the amount of Pacific...

  10. Telescope Time Allocation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.

    2005-03-01

    TaToo is ESO's new Time Allocation Tool. This software scheduler is a combination of a user-friendly graphical user interface and an intelligent constraint-programming engine fine-tuned to ESO's scheduling problem. TaToo is able to produce a high quality and reliable schedule taking into consideration all constraints of the recommended programs for all telescopes in about 15 minutes. This performance allows schedulers at ESO-VISAS to simulate and evaluate different scenarios, optimize the scheduling of engineering activities at the observatories, and in the end construct the most science efficient schedule possible.

  11. [Organ allocation. Ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Cattorini, P

    2010-01-01

    The criteria for allocating organs are one of the most debated ethical issue in the transplantation programs. The article examines some rules and principles followed by "Nord Italia Transplant program", summarized in its Principles' Charter and explained in a recent interdisciplinary book. General theories of justice and their application to individual clinical cases are commented and evaluated, in order to foster a public, democratic, transparent debate among professionals and citizens, scientific associations and customers' organizations. Some specific moral dilemmas are focused regarding the concepts of proportionate treatment, unselfish donation by living persons, promotion of local institutions efficiency. PMID:20677677

  12. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  13. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  14. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  15. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD...

  16. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  17. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  18. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  19. Report on Tribal Priority Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    As part of Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) funding, Tribal Priority Allocations (TPA) are the principal source of funds for tribal governments and agency offices at the reservation level. According to their unique needs and circumstances, tribes may prioritize funding among eight general categories: government, human services, education, public…

  20. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  1. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  2. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.107 Allocations. On October 1 of each fiscal year, the FHWA will allocate 66 percent of Public Lands...

  3. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make grants...) Allocation formula factors and weighting. Each State eligible to receive a financial assistance award...

  4. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formulas. 455.31 Section 455.31 Energy... § 455.31 Allocation formulas. (a) Financial assistance for conducting technical assistance programs for... this section. (c) The allocation factor (K) shall be determined by the formula: EC14NO91.086 where,...

  5. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocations. 574.130... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements § 574.130 Formula allocations. (a) Data sources. HUD will allocate funds based on the number of cases...

  6. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  7. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  8. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  9. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a... maintenance payments or adoption assistance payments may be made under the State plan. (b) Cost allocation...

  10. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  11. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  12. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation....

  13. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  14. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public... of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and subgrantees shall keep on file cost allocation plans or indirect cost agreements, as appropriate, that have...

  15. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 1355.57 Section 1355.57 Public... MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation. (a...) Cost allocation and distribution for the planning, design, development, installation and operation...

  16. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  17. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 400.13 Section 400.13 Public... for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must allocate... management of the State's refugee program (e.g., development of the State plan, overall program...

  18. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  19. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  20. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  1. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  2. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50 percent based on the...

  3. Latent IBP Compound Dirichlet Allocation.

    PubMed

    Archambeau, Cedric; Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Bouchard, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    We introduce the four-parameter IBP compound Dirichlet process (ICDP), a stochastic process that generates sparse non-negative vectors with potentially an unbounded number of entries. If we repeatedly sample from the ICDP we can generate sparse matrices with an infinite number of columns and power-law characteristics. We apply the four-parameter ICDP to sparse nonparametric topic modelling to account for the very large number of topics present in large text corpora and the power-law distribution of the vocabulary of natural languages. The model, which we call latent IBP compound Dirichlet allocation (LIDA), allows for power-law distributions, both, in the number of topics summarising the documents and in the number of words defining each topic. It can be interpreted as a sparse variant of the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process when applied to topic modelling. We derive an efficient and simple collapsed Gibbs sampler closely related to the collapsed Gibbs sampler of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), making the model applicable in a wide range of domains. Our nonparametric Bayesian topic model compares favourably to the widely used hierarchical Dirichlet process and its heavy tailed version, the hierarchical Pitman-Yor process, on benchmark corpora. Experiments demonstrate that accounting for the power-distribution of real data is beneficial and that sparsity provides more interpretable results. PMID:26353244

  4. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  5. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  6. Allocating Railway Platforms Using A Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, M.; Hinde, C. J.; Withall, M. S.; Jackson, T. W.; Phillips, I. W.; Brown, S.; Watson, R.

    This paper describes an approach to automating railway station platform allocation. The system uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to find how a station’s resources should be allocated. Real data is used which needs to be transformed to be suitable for the automated system. Successful or ‘fit’ allocations provide a solution that meets the needs of the station schedule including platform re-occupation and various other constraints. The system associates the train data to derive the station requirements. The Genetic Algorithm is used to derive platform allocations. Finally, the system may be extended to take into account how further parameters that are external to the station have an effect on how an allocation should be applied. The system successfully allocates around 1000 trains to platforms in around 30 seconds requiring a genome of around 1000 genes to achieve this.

  7. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  8. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  9. 40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section 74.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a)...

  10. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  11. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  12. 45 CFR 205.150 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 205.150 Cost allocation. A State plan under title I, IV-A, X, XIV, or XVI (AABD) of the Social Security Act must provide that the State agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part...

  13. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units based on information provided by: (A) The needs assessment prepared in accordance with 24 CFR 8.25... dwelling units in the project for the year preceding the date of submission of the allocation plan to HUD... available for occupancy during the two-year period following the date of submission of the allocation...

  14. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  15. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  16. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limited entry gear is open. When the fishery for a vessel's limited entry gear has closed, groundfish caught by that vessel with open access gear will be counted against the open access allocation. All... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for...

  17. Thematic Mapper data for forest resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeff, Ilene S.; Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for classifying a Landsat Thematic Mapper image was demonstrated on the Wayne National Forest of southeastern Ohio. The classified image was integrated into a geographic information system database, and prescriptive forest land use allocation models were developed using the techniques of cartographic modeling. Timber harvest sites and accompanying haul roads were allocated.

  18. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  19. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  20. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  1. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  2. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  3. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  4. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  5. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  6. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  7. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  8. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  9. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... halibut regulations) is managed under regulations at 50 CFR part 300, subpart E. Beginning with the 2011..., the OY is reduced by the Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal harvest (allocations, set-asides, and...: recreational estimates are not deducted here). (1) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribal allocations,...

  10. Acquisitions Allocations: Fairness, Equity and Bundled Pricing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of an interdisciplinary Web-based citation database with full text, the ProQuest Research Library, on the Western State University library's acquisitions allocation plan. Used list price of full-text journals to calculate increases in acquisitions funding. A list of articles discussing formula allocation is appended.…

  11. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  12. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  13. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  14. 39 CFR 3060.12 - Asset allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Asset allocation. 3060.12 Section 3060.12 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL ACCOUNTING PRACTICES AND TAX RULES FOR THE THEORETICAL COMPETITIVE PRODUCTS ENTERPRISE § 3060.12 Asset allocation. Within 6 months of January 23, 2009, and for...

  15. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  16. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  17. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must...

  18. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  19. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  20. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  1. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  2. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24... number of SBRS slots to be allocated to each participating Operating Division. (b) The SBRS Policy...

  3. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  4. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  5. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  6. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.55 Allocations. (a) General. An...

  7. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research. PMID:25649106

  8. Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation.

    PubMed

    McKneally, M F; Dickens, B M; Meslin, E M; Singer, P A

    1997-07-15

    Questions of resource allocation can pose practical and ethical dilemmas for clinicians. In the Aristotelian conception of distributive justice, the unequal allocation of a scarce resource may be justified by morally relevant factors such as need or likelihood of benefit. Even using these criteria, it can be difficult to reconcile completing claims to determine which patients should be given priority. To what extent the physician's fiduciary duty toward a patient should supersede the interests of other patients and society as a whole is also a matter of controversy. Although the courts have been reluctant to become involved in allocation decisions in health care, they expect physicians to show allegiance to their patients regardless of budgetary concerns. The allocation of resources on the basis of clinically irrelevant factors such as religion or sexual orientation is prohibited. Clear, fair and publicly acceptable institutional and professional policies can help to ensure that resource allocation decisions are transparent and defensible. PMID:9238146

  9. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  10. The allocation of the radio spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, C. L.

    1980-02-01

    The system of the radio spectrum (10 kHz-300 GHz) allocation is discussed in its technical, economic, and managerial aspects. Possible improvements to the system are considered, such as minimizing human management, establishing a single authority for the allocation of the spectrum, and stimulating a more efficient use of the spectrum with economic incentives. The 'anarchy band' concept, a system of dynamic allocation, is suggested as a means of replacing human management with electronic equipment. The growing importance of the satellite portion of the spectrum is also shown.

  11. Linear modelling of attentional resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, B.

    1978-01-01

    Eight subjects time-shared performance of two compensatory tracking tasks under conditions when both were of constant difficulty, and when the control order of one task (designated primary) was varied over time within a trial. On line performance feedback was presented on half of the trials. The data are interpreted in terms of a linear model of the operator's attention allocation system, and suggest that this allocation is strongly suboptimal. Furthermore, the limitations in reallocating attentional resources between tasks, in response to difficulty fluctuations were not reduced by augmented performance feedback. Some characteristics of the allocation system are described, and reasons for its limitations suggested.

  12. SBI allocation between heavy and singlet missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-04-01

    The optimal allocation of space-based interceptors (SBIs) between fixed, heavy missiles and mobile singlets can be derived from approximate expressions for the boost-phase penetration of each. Singlets can cluster before launch and have shorter burn times, which reduce their availability to SBIs by an order of magnitude. Singlet penetration decreased slowly with the number of SBIs allocated to them; heavy missile penetration falls rapidly. The allocation to the heavy missiles falls linearly with their number. The penetration of heavy and singlet missiles is proportional to their numbers and inversely proportional to their availability. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  13. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  14. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  15. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  16. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth...

  17. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... permit sanctions pursuant to 15 CFR part 904. If an ACE allocated to a sector is not exceeded in a given... CFR part 904, each sector, permit/vessel owner, and vessel operator participating in the sector may...

  18. The Ethics of Allocating Uterine Transplants.

    PubMed

    Bayefsky, Michelle J; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    In September 2014, a healthy male child was born in Sweden following a successful uterine transplantation (UTx). The event brought hope to many women without functional uteruses around the world. Having a child with a transplanted uterus is now possible, and as knowledge of the procedure proliferates and interest in UTx grows, it is important to begin thinking about how a scarce supply of uteruses will be allocated. This article represents a first discussion of the range of factors that must be considered in answering the allocation question. The primary issues addressed are (1) the motivation to seek treatment, (2) allocation by age, (3) child-rearing capacity, and (4) the amount of infertility treatment required. A set of eligibility and ranking criteria are presented. These criteria are not exhaustive but are intended to spark discussion about how uteruses can be allocated in a just manner. PMID:26864991

  19. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  20. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  1. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  2. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  3. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  4. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  5. 49 CFR 262.5 - Allocation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENT PROJECTS § 262.5 Allocation requirements. At least fifty percent of all grant funds awarded under this section out of funds appropriated for a fiscal year shall be provided as grant awards of not...

  6. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed. PMID:17746245

  7. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  8. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-01

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison. PMID:26061700

  9. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  10. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  11. 7 CFR 1780.18 - Allocation of program funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amounts held in reserve or distributed by base or administrative allocation times the basic State factor... available for allocation−NO reserve−total base and administrative allocations) × SF. (4) Transition formula... program section. (5) Base allocation. An amount that may be allocated to each State dependent upon...

  12. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  13. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  14. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  15. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  16. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...

  17. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  18. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Link to...

  19. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  20. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  1. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  2. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  3. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  4. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  5. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  6. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  7. 12 CFR 28.52 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 28.52 Section... ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.52 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment of allocated transfer risk reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk...

  8. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  9. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  10. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  11. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33)”; and (e) A current copy of the Transportation Priorities and Allocations System regulation (49 CFR Part 33) as of the date of the allocation... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section...

  14. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part 217), which is part of the Federal Priorities and Allocations System”; and (e) A current copy of the Energy Priorities and Allocations System regulation (10 CFR part... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section...

  15. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  16. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  17. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  18. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward. PMID:20718844

  19. Allocation of Attention by Fishing Vessel Watchkeepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, Malcolm

    2006-05-01

    This study examines the way in which attention is allocated by watchkeepers on fishing vessels and identifies differences in the approach displayed by individuals with different levels of training and experience. A method of analysing the way in which attention is allocated on a sample of UK fishing vessels is described. It was found that both skippers and mates allocated disproportionate amounts of attention to fishfinding equipment at certain stages of the fishing trip, while crewmen were heavily reliant upon the track plotter both while fishing and on passage. Those with more training and experience appeared to treat the array of navigation and control components as an integrated system, while untrained crewmen dealt with each aspect in isolation.

  20. Allocation of resources for organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Praveen; Anderson, T Anthony; Vagefi, Parsia A

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 6 decades, organ transplantation has achieved great success to become standard therapy for the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With this success has emerged candidate wait lists that greatly outnumber the current supply of deceased donor organs. The increasing number of candidates and transplants performed has resulted in an organ allocation process that occurs at a local, regional, and sometimes national level. A brief description of the history is presented as well as the methodologies involved in allocation of a donor organ to a single recipient. PMID:24287345

  1. Allocation for the SANDAC multiprocessor system

    SciTech Connect

    Ravl, T.M.; Ercegovac, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes an algorithm for the static allocation of tasks in a general Dataflow Multiprocessor and the SANDAC IV system in particular. Initially a model of execution and the underlying assumptions about the architecture are outlined. The authors then discuss a Graph Reduction algorithm for preprocessing the computation graph. The Graph Reduction algorithm reduces a fine grain graph to an optimal grain graph. The heuristic allocation algorithm is presented and is based on giving precedence to critical paths and minimizing the communication time between tasks. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed and the effect of varying parameters is studied. Subsequently an alternative variation with better characteristics is proposed.

  2. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  3. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  4. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  5. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  6. 23 CFR 660.107 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocations. 660.107 Section 660.107 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS... approved Federal Lands Coordinated Technology Implementation Program studies....

  7. Principles of allocation of health care resources.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    1978-01-01

    The methods and principles of allocating centrally provided health care resources to regions and areas are reviewed using the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party (RAWP) (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976) and the consultative document (Department of Health and Social Security, 1976a) as a basis. A range of practical problems arising from these papers (especially the report of the RAWP) is described and traced to the terms of reference. It is concluded that the RAWP misinterpreted aspects of social and administrative reality, and it failed to recognise clearly that the several principles on which it had to work conflicted with each other and demanded decisions of priority. The consequential errors led to (a) an injudicious imposition of 'objectivity' at all levels of allocation, (b) an unjustified insistence that the same method be used at each administrative level in an additive and transitive manner, (c) the exclusion of general practitioner services from their considerations, (d) a failure to delineate those decisions which are in fact political decisions, thus to concatenate them, inappropriately, with technical and professional issues. The main requirement in a revised system is for a mechanism which allocates different priorities to different principles at each appropriate administrative and distributive level, and adapts the working methods of each tier to meet separately defined objectives. PMID:262585

  8. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  9. Back to the Basics with Resource Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, John; Humphries, Frederick S.

    A resource allocation and utilization study was undertaken of Tennessee State University and the results, recommendations and policy decisions that evolved are presented. The President's Council, comprised of the President, the Vice Presidents, and the Director of Planning, Management and Evaluation, directed the study. Data from the Office of…

  10. 45 CFR 304.15 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Department in accordance with the requirements contained in Subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT (CHILD SUPPORT... FEDERAL FINANCIAL PARTICIPATION § 304.15 Cost allocation. A State agency in support of its claims...

  11. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  12. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  13. Allocation of Human Resources for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Bonita

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews personnel administration techniques that have been used to establish work-load parameters, but offer no aid in subject deployment. A model which identifies elements that must be included in a consideration of work-load measurement and subject allocation for library collection development tasks is presented. Thirty-four…

  14. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  15. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Formula allocations. 574.130 Section 574.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  16. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section 92.50 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... previous fiscal year, are metropolitan cities, urban counties, or consortia approved under § 92.101;...

  17. Issues in organ procurement, allocation, and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nierste, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation extends lives and improves health but presents complex ethical dilemmas for nurses caring for donors, recipients, and their families. This article overviews organ procurement and allocation, discusses ethical dilemmas in transplantation, and offers strategies from professional and biblical perspectives for coping with moral distress and maintaining compassionate care. PMID:23607154

  18. controlling retained insurance costs through an allocation.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C

    2015-06-01

    An insurance allocation may help a hospital or health system achieve the following goals for its professional liability and workers' compensation self-insurance or large-deductible programs: Loss-control incentive. Stability. Equity. Comprehension. Ease of administration. PMID:26665334

  19. Limits on linearity of missile allocation optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Optimizations of missile allocation based on linearized exchange equations produce accurate allocations, but the limits of validity of the linearization are not known. These limits are explored in the context of the upload of weapons by one side to initially small, equal forces of vulnerable and survivable weapons. The analysis compares analytic and numerical optimizations and stability induces based on aggregated interactions of the two missile forces, the first and second strikes they could deliver, and they resulting costs. This note discusses the costs and stability indices induced by unilateral uploading of weapons to an initially symmetrical low force configuration. These limits are quantified for forces with a few hundred missiles by comparing analytic and numerical optimizations of first strike costs. For forces of 100 vulnerable and 100 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees closely with the numerical solution. For 200 vulnerable and 200 survivable missiles on each side, the analytic optimization agrees with the induces to within about 10%, but disagrees with the allocation of the side with more weapons by about 50%. The disagreement comes from the interaction of the possession of more weapons with the shift of allocation from missiles to value that they induce.

  20. Resource Allocation in U. K. Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Information on resource allocation in United Kingdom (UK) universities, which is derived from a study by a Working Party of the Conference of University administrators, is presented. Attention is directed to: structures and constitutions; the use of norms and formulas; administration and central services; minor works, maintenance, and space; and…

  1. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled vehicle a fleet or covered person acquires that exceeds the number of alternative fueled vehicles that...

  2. RESOURCES ALLOCATION TO OPTIMIZE MINING POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive model for mine drainage simulation and optimization of resource allocation to control mine acid pollution in a watershed has been developed. The model is capable of: (a) Producing a time trace of acid load and flow from acid drainage sources as a function of clima...

  3. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  4. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS (SCHIPs) ALLOTMENTS AND GRANTS TO STATES General Administration-Reviews and Audits; Withholding for...

  5. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department in accordance with the requirements contained in subpart E of 45 CFR part 95. Subpart E also sets forth the... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  7. 2 CFR 200.405 - Allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, COST PRINCIPLES, AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Cost Principles Basic Considerations § 200.405 Allocable costs. (a) A cost...

  8. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section 945.203 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. Rural Attitudes toward Public Welfare Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Laura F.

    1988-01-01

    Examines 1984 Wyoming opinion poll. Wyoming respondents agreed welfare allocation should be based on need, but 50 percent believed welfare recipients should not receive more than minimum-wage income. Wyoming's welfare support is lower than national average. Rurality may contribute to results. Recommends ways to increase rural support for welfare…

  10. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-01-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  11. The allocation of cargo to channel missions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng; Harrison, G.

    1992-06-01

    Each month the armed services provide a forecast of tons of cargo by channel to MAC. The purpose of the Channels Allocation Algorithm is to allocate cargo requirements to specific Channel Missions. The objective of the allocation is algorithm is to minimize frequency and cargo requirements shortfall. The constraints on the allocation model include flying hours, channel frequencies, mission structure, mission operation days, and aircraft capacity. Cargo requirements shortfall is defined as the tonnage of cargo not moved from the airfields in the United States that are channel staging points to overseas locations. Channel frequencies are defined by the number of times a destination is served by an origin in one month. The mission structures are defined as sets of missions usually in the form of circuit. Mission operating days are determined by the operating day rules for the month, or they can be input by the user for an individual month. One of the assumptions in this model is that there is only one transshipment allowed between any origin and a destination if there is no mission that actually connects the stations. The transshipment stations are also restricted in that only certain stations can serve as transshipment stations. The Channels Allocation Algorithm consists of two linear programs that incorporate three objectives. The objectives are: (1) to minimize that number of frequency channels not met. (2) to minimize cargo shortfall, and (3) to minimize operating cost. The first linear program minimizes frequency channels not met, subject to the mission structure, number of times the mission operates, and total flying hours available. The second linear program minimizes the fleet operating cost cargo handling cost, and cargo shortfall, subject to frequency channels met by the first linear program, aircraft capacity, and total flying hours available. This document is comprised of viewgraphs.

  12. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such...

  13. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April 1, 2005) Each inshore pollock... annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed and final BSAI harvest...

  14. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  15. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... held in the National Office reserve and distributed by base and administrative allocation, multiplied... allocation−national reserve−base allocation−administrative allocation) × State Factor (b) To calculate the..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Allocation of Farm Loan...

  16. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  17. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  18. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  19. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Reserve Air Fleet Program of the Department of Defense. The current listing of aircraft allocations may be... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance...

  20. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  1. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  2. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  3. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  4. Reward Allocation among Chinese High School Students in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chi-Yue

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of personality and performance on reward allocation. Subjects were 89 Hong Kong senior high school students. Results showed that the subjects took into consideration the recipient's personality when they allocated reward to a relatively low performer. Personality was not a factor in allocation of reward to a high performer. (GG)

  5. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  12. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  15. Motivation and Competence as Determinants of Young Children's Reward Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Sharon A.; Dweck, Carol S.

    1977-01-01

    This study examined the effects of allocation instructions and self-interest on preschool children's use of the rule of equity in situations involving reward allocation. Results showed that when the demand for equity was explicit and self-interest was removed, all children used equity in allocating rewards. (Author/JMB)

  16. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of... facilities capacity in anticipation of the receipt of rated orders; (b) Directive: an official action...

  17. 10 CFR 470.15 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 470.15 Section 470.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.15 Allocation of funds. (a) DOE shall annually allocate fiscal year funds available for support among the 10...

  18. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  19. 24 CFR 92.60 - Allocation amounts for insular areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, or for any other reason, HUD may increase the allocation amount for one or more of the... requirements. Funds that become available but which are not used to increase the allocation amount for one or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation amounts for...

  20. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  2. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  3. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61 Section 1260.61 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of...

  4. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  5. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  6. 40 CFR 96.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 96.42... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  7. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 96.142... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat...

  8. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  9. 40 CFR 97.42 - NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX allowance allocations. 97.42... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.42 NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The heat input (in mmBtu) used for calculating...

  10. 40 CFR 97.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAIR NOX allowance allocations. 97.142... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input (in mmBtu) used...

  11. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  12. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  13. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  14. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  15. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.642(h)-4 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation. 1.642(h)-4 Section 1.642(h)-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(h)-4 Allocation. The carryovers and excess deductions to which section 642(h) applies are allocated among the beneficiaries succeeding to...

  17. 7 CFR 1466.5 - National allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National allocation and management. 1466.5 Section... PROGRAM General Provisions § 1466.5 National allocation and management. The Chief allocates EQIP funds to... adjustments to national priorities and information about resource concerns and program performance. The...

  18. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO,...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.61 - Allocation of risk/liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Allocation of risk/liability. 1260.61... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.61 Allocation of risk/liability. Allocation of Risk/Liability..., judgment, or cost arising from the injury to or death of any person, or for damage to or loss of...

  2. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section... risk reserve. (a) Establishment of Allocated Transfer Risk Reserve. A banking institution shall establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  3. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation for use of capital shall be allocated to work orders in accordance with the service company's... indirect costs of work orders for two or more associate companies shall be allocated among such companies in the same manner. Each work order should identify the methods of allocation to associate...

  4. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  5. 18 CFR 367.28 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methods of allocation... Instructions § 367.28 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs and compensation for use of capital must be allocated to projects in accordance with the service company's applicable and currently effective methods...

  6. 12 CFR 327.53 - Allocation and payment of dividends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and payment of dividends. 327.53 Section 327.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS Implementation of Dividend Requirements § 327.53 Allocation and payment of dividends. (a)(1) The allocation of any...

  7. 77 FR 2240 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ59 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense... guidance relating to the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. The temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense by corporations owning...

  8. 77 FR 2225 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545- BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense AGENCY: Internal... regulations that provide guidance regarding the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. These temporary regulations provide guidance concerning the allocation and apportionment of interest expense...

  9. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and...

  10. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  11. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and reallocation. The Secretary allocates...

  12. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    DOEpatents

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  13. The relationship between attention allocation and cheating.

    PubMed

    Pittarello, Andrea; Motro, Daphna; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Pluchino, Patrik

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the relationship between attention allocation and dishonesty. The goal of the present work was to address this issue using the eyetracking methodology. We developed a novel task in which participants could honestly report seeing a particular card and lose money, or they could falsely report not seeing the card and not lose money. When participants cheated, they allocated less attention (i.e., shorter fixation durations and fewer fixations) to the card than when they behaved honestly. Our results suggest that when dishonesty pays, shifting attention away from undesirable information can serve as a self-deception strategy that allows individuals to serve their self-interests while maintaining a positive self-concept. PMID:26340847

  14. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  15. Legal briefing: organ donation and allocation.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to organ donation and allocation. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Organ donation and allocation have also recently been the subjects of significant public policy attention. In the past several months, legislatures and regulatory agencies across the United States and across the world have changed, or considered changing, the methods for procuring and distributing human organs for transplantation. Currently, in the U.S., more than 100,000 persons are waiting for organ transplantation. In China, more than 1.5 million people are waiting. Given the chronic shortage of available organs (especially kidneys and livers) relative to demand, the primary focus of most legal developments has been on increasing the rate of donation. These and related developments are usefully divided into the following 12 topical categories: 1. Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act. 2. Presumed Consent and Opt-Out. 3. Mandated Choice. 4. Donation after Cardiac Death. 5. Payment and Compensation. 6. Donation by Prisoners. 7. Donor Registries. 8. Public Education. 9. Other Procurement Initiatives. 10. Lawsuits and Liability. 11. Trafficking and Tourism. 12. Allocation and Distribution. PMID:21089996

  16. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26835560

  17. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  18. Optimal dynamic allocation of conservation funding among priority regions.

    PubMed

    Bode, Michael; Wilson, Kerrie; McBride, Marissa; Possingham, Hugh

    2008-10-01

    The optimal allocation of conservation resources between biodiverse conservation regions has generally been calculated using stochastic dynamic programming, or using myopic heuristics. These solutions are hard to interpret and may not be optimal. To overcome these two limitations, this paper approaches the optimal conservation resource allocation problem using optimal control theory. A solution using Pontryagin's maximum principle provides novel insight into the general properties of efficient conservation resource allocation strategies, and allows more extensive testing of the performance of myopic heuristics. We confirmed that a proposed heuristic (minimize short-term loss) yields near-optimal results in complex allocation situations, and found that a qualitative allocation feature observed in previous analyses (bang-bang allocation) is a general property of the optimal allocation strategy. PMID:18712571

  19. Fair Water Allocation in Complex International River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Conflicts over water allocation in international freshwater systems are recurring phenomena, and climatic changes are likely to make existing problems worse in many parts of the world. Science-based proposals for water allocation frequently focus on allocating water to the economically most efficient purposes. In reality, allocation outcomes are often shaped by political and economic power, rather than considerations of economic efficiency. This paper develops a new approach to fair international water allocation in complex international freshwater systems. This approach covers both needs-based criteria - if acute water scarcity is present - and criteria for fair water allocation pertaining to relative gains in water-abundant situations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated with a case study on the Zambezi River Basin (ZRB). Based on a hydrological model, and scenarios for water availability and demand in the ZRB until 2050, the paper shows how the waters of the ZRB could be allocated in a way that fairly distributes costs and benefits.

  20. A dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Wu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Maode; Li, Wenming; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2008-11-01

    This paper analyses current bandwidth schemes and proposes a novel dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON. According the scheme, we define four kinds of multimedia services such as Unsolicited Request Service (URS), Realtime Service (rt-S), Non-Real-time Service (nrt-S) and Best Effort (BE). Different kinds of services have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Our scheme considers the diverse QoS request, e.g., delay for rt-S, throughput for nrt-S and fairness for BE. The simulation results show this novel scheme can ensure the quality of service (QoS) and improve bandwidth utilization.

  1. Allocations for HANDI 2000 business management system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.

    1998-08-24

    The Data Integration 2000 Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The COTS product solution set, of PassPort and People Soft software, supports finance, supply and chemical management/Material Safety Data Sheet, human resources. Allocations at Fluor Daniel Hanford are burdens added to base costs using a predetermined rate.

  2. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... published by the CDFI Fund on how an entity may apply to become certified as a CDE (66 FR 65806, December 20... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... note the Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (the CDFI Fund) will only...

  3. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  4. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding. PMID:22635187

  6. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  7. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  8. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS... allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S. commodity...

  9. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  10. Development of target allocation methods for LAMOST focal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

    2014-01-01

    We first introduce the primary target allocation requirements and restrictions for the parallel control multiple fiber system, which is used in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. The fiber positioner anti-collision model is imported. Then several target allocation methods and features are discussed in detail, including a network flow algorithm, high priority for fiber unit holding less target number, target allocation algorithm for groups, target allocation method for add-ons and target reallocation. Their virtues and weaknesses are analyzed for various kinds of scientific research situations. Furthermore an optimization concept using the Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SAA) is developed to improve the fiber utilizing efficiency.

  11. Rationality and allocating scarce medical resources.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, R P

    1995-02-01

    In an article titled, "Who Shall Live When Not All Can?", James Childress proposes a system for allocating scarce lifesaving medical resources based on random selection procedures. Childress writes of random selection procedures, [They] "cannot be dismissed as a 'non-rational' and 'non-human' ...without an inquiry into the reasons, including human values which might justify it." My thesis is that once we concentrate on determining the rationality of random selection procedures, we will see that Childress's claim that we cannot dismiss such procedures as 'non-rational' is open to question. My claim will be that while both random selection and social worth procedures are rationally defensible systems, random selection procedures easily lead to specific choices that are objectively irrational, apart from the limited perspective of the random selection process itself. PMID:7738457

  12. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  13. Adolescence, Attention Allocation, and Driving Safety

    PubMed Central

    Romer, Daniel; Lee, Yi-Ching; McDonald, Catherine C.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2014-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading source of morbidity and mortality in adolescents in the United States and the developed world. Inadequate allocation of attention to the driving task and to driving hazards are important sources of adolescent crashes. We review major explanations for these attention failures with particular focus on the roles that brain immaturity and lack of driving experience play in causing attention problems. The review suggests that the potential for overcoming inexperience and immaturity with training to improve attention to both the driving task and hazards is substantial. Nevertheless, there are large individual differences in both attentional abilities and risky driving tendencies that pose challenges to novice driver policies. Research that can provide evidence-based direction for such policies is urgently needed. PMID:24759442

  14. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. PMID:26022569

  15. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  16. An Approach for Transmission Loss and Cost Allocation by Loss Allocation Index and Co-operative Game Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Baseem; Agnihotri, Ganga; Mishra, Anuprita S.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work authors proposed a novel method for transmission loss and cost allocation to users (generators and loads). In the developed methodology transmission losses are allocated to users based on their usage of the transmission line. After usage allocation, particular loss allocation indices (PLAI) are evaluated for loads and generators. Also Cooperative game theory approach is applied for comparison of results. The proposed method is simple and easy to implement on the practical power system. Sample 6 bus and IEEE 14 bus system is used for showing the effectiveness of proposed method.

  17. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    PubMed

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives. PMID:26205280

  18. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  19. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  20. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  1. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Colorado 4,574,000 Connecticut 1,887,000 Delaware 409,000 District of Columbia 487,000 Florida...

  2. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  3. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 648.70 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  4. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  5. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 648.70 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. Link... Regional Administrator shall determine the initial allocation of surfclams and ocean quahogs for the...

  6. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  7. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 648.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an...

  8. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  9. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  10. 42 CFR 415.60 - Allocation of physician compensation costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Physician Services § 415.60 Allocation of physician compensation costs. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... or the carrier. (2) Report the information on which the physician compensation allocation is based to the intermediary or the carrier on an annual basis and promptly notify the intermediary or carrier...

  11. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... qualifying targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  12. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  13. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... qualifying targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  14. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a) Prepaid dues income for which...

  15. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  16. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  17. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation of... payment in excess of the required minimum periodic payment for a credit card account under an open-end (not home-secured) consumer credit plan, the card issuer must allocate the excess amount first to...

  18. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  19. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  20. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  1. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  2. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  3. 26 CFR 1.42-17 - Qualified allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified allocation plan. 1.42-17 Section 1.42... Credits Against Tax § 1.42-17 Qualified allocation plan. (a) Requirements—(1) In general. (2) Selection..., rent-up and marketing costs, accounting and auditing costs, working capital and operating...

  4. Allocating the Materials Funds Using Total Cost of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubberley, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the need at the University of Southern Mississippi library to review resource allocations among serials, monographs and standing orders, and to select an allocation formula. The supply and demand formula used, its implementation, and results in departmental purchasing power are described. (four references) (EA)

  5. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  6. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  7. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  8. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg...

  10. Resource Allocation Models and Accountability: A Jamaican Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) may be funded privately, by the state or by a mixture of the two. Nevertheless, any state financing of HE necessitates a mechanism to determine the level of support and the channels through which it is to be directed; that is, a resource allocation model. Public funding, through resource allocation models,…

  11. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  12. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  14. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  15. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation...-contract method described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost...

  16. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation. (a) Sections 73.21 to 73.37, inclusive,...

  17. 7 CFR 1470.4 - Allocation and management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation and management. 1470.4 Section 1470.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM General Provisions § 1470.4 Allocation and management....

  18. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 791, subpart D. There are three categories of section 213(d) funding allocations... notices of funding availability (NOFA) in the Federal Register. See 24 CFR part 12, subpart B; and 24 CFR... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding....

  19. 24 CFR 576.3 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Allocation of funding. 576.3 Section 576.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... funding. (a) Territories. HUD will set aside for allocation to the territories up to 0.2 percent, but...

  20. 34 CFR 673.4 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... institution its allocation in accordance with the payment methods described in 34 CFR 668.162. (3) Unexpended... 34 CFR 675.18 (b), (c), and (f), an institution may not use funds allocated or reallocated for an... award year. (g) Authority to expend FSEOG funds. Except as specifically provided in 34 CFR...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole...

  2. 34 CFR 673.4 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... institution its allocation in accordance with the payment methods described in 34 CFR 668.162. (3) Unexpended... 34 CFR 675.18 (b), (c), and (f), an institution may not use funds allocated or reallocated for an... award year. (g) Authority to expend FSEOG funds. Except as specifically provided in 34 CFR...

  3. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected...

  4. Higher Education Cooperation Act: Fiscal Year 1998 Grant Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report describes fiscal year 1998 grant allocations made under the Illinois Higher Education Cooperation Act (HECA) to support programs and projects involving cooperation among higher education institutions. A total of $16.59 million was allocated. Projects recommended for grant funds include 3 new and 12 continuing interinstitutional…

  5. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6971)). (1) Research by multidisciplinary... multidisciplinary teams. (2) Equipment grants. Of the amount allocated by the Director for fundamental research... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section...

  9. The Use of Student Outcomes in Resource Allocation Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfner, Eliot S.

    Resource allocation processes suitable for use in not-for-profit institutions are discussed and a conceptual model for resource allocation in institutions of higher education is presented. The objectives of higher education include the personal development and education of students, not merely the certification of students by conferring degrees.…

  10. Resource Allocation Strategies Employed in Large versus Small School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Eugene J.

    Education is faced with a declining resource base coupled with overwhelming demands for categorical programs. The current resource allocation strategy common to all systems is cutting spending. The difference between large and small districts is less important than differences in complexity. Complexity in resource allocations is more a function of…

  11. 40 CFR 35.910 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 35.910 Section 35.910 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.910 Allocation of...

  12. 7 CFR 1493.5 - Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for agricultural commodity allocations. 1493... agricultural commodity allocations. The criteria considered by CCC in reviewing proposals for specific U.S... development, expansion or maintenance of the market in the importing country for the particular...

  13. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  14. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  17. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  18. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  19. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  20. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation...

  1. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  2. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  3. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  4. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  5. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 347.303 Section 347.303 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve....

  6. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  7. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  8. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  10. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... of acres of sugarcane base being transferred and the pro rata amount reflecting the grower's contribution to allocation of the processor for the sugarcane base being transferred, will be...

  11. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  12. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  13. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2... Frequencies § 2.104 International Table of Frequency Allocations. (a) The International Table of Frequency....106), and the Region 3 Table (column 3 of § 2.106). The International Table is included...

  14. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  15. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  16. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  17. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  18. Efficiency of Fiscal Allocations in Site-Based Empowered Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jerome Jay

    2011-01-01

    This study implemented a two phase concurrent mixed-methods design to generate a greater understanding of how elementary schools with increased autonomy in fiscal decision making allocated their money, how their site-based decisions affected allocative efficiency, and how increased autonomy affected site-based decision making when compared with a…

  19. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  20. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  1. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  2. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  3. 48 CFR 408.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation process. 408.705-3 Section 408.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION... Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.705-3 Allocation process. (a) The chief of...

  4. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  5. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  6. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  7. 48 CFR 8.705-3 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation process. 8.705-3 Section 8.705-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION... Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.705-3 Allocation process. (a) When the direct order process has...

  8. 41 CFR 51-6.2 - Allocation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Allocation process. 51-6.2 Section 51-6.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public... § 51-6.2 Allocation process. (a) In those cases where a direct order authorization has not been...

  9. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  10. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  11. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that is... that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules for...

  12. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  13. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust created by a...

  14. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that... trusts that may accumulate income or that distribute corpus), section 666(a) prescribes rules...

  15. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  16. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign...

  17. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of funds. (a) For this program...

  18. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  2. Lung and heart allocation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Colvin-Adams, M; Valapour, M; Hertz, M; Heubner, B; Paulson, K; Dhungel, V; Skeans, M A; Edwards, L; Ghimire, V; Waller, C; Cherikh, W S; Kasiske, B L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K

    2012-12-01

    Lung and heart allocation in the United States has evolved over the past 20-30 years to better serve transplant candidates and improve organ utilization. The current lung allocation policy, based on the Lung Allocation Score, attempts to take into account risk of death on the waiting list and chance of survival posttransplant. This policy is flexible and can be adjusted to improve the predictive ability of the score. Similarly, in response to the changing clinical phenotype of heart transplant candidates, heart allocation policies have evolved to a multitiered algorithm that attempts to prioritize organs to the most infirm, a designation that fluctuates with trends in therapy. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and its committees have been responsive, as demonstrated by recent modifications to pediatric heart allocation and mechanical circulatory support policies and by ongoing efforts to ensure that heart allocation policies are equitable and current. Here we examine the development of US lung and heart allocation policy, evaluate the application of the current policy on clinical practice and explore future directions for lung and heart allocation. PMID:22974276

  3. On the Allocation of Resources for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal allocation of resources--in terms of school management, teachers, supporting employees and materials--in secondary schools. We use a flexible budget constrained output distance function model to estimate both technical and allocative efficiency scores for 448 Dutch secondary schools between 2002 and 2007. The results…

  4. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  5. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  6. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocated transfer risk reserve. 211.43 Section 211.43 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a) Establishment...

  7. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.456-3 - Method of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of allocation. 1.456-3 Section 1.456-3...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.456-3 Method of allocation. (a... income over the period of time during which the liability to render services or make available...

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTOR FILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to: (1) evaluate the quality and completeness of data and methods being used for temporal allocation of emissions data, (2) identify and prioritize needed improvements to current methods for developing temporal allocation factors (TAFs), and ...

  10. 77 FR 9844 - Allocation and Apportionment of Interest Expense; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Register on January 17, 2012 (77 FR 2225) that provide guidance regarding the allocation and apportionment of interest expense. DATES: This correction is effective on February 21, 2012, and is applicable on... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ84 Allocation and Apportionment of Interest...

  11. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  12. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  13. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  14. 5 CFR 319.202 - Allocation of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of positions. 319.202 Section 319.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... § 319.202 Allocation of positions. SL and ST positions may be established only under a...

  15. The Effect of Student Time Allocation on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature on the influence of institutional characteristics on student academic achievement. In contrast, relatively little research focusses on student time allocation and its effects on student performance. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of student time allocation on the average grade of…

  16. Discretionary Task Interleaving: Heuristics for Time Allocation in Cognitive Foraging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Stephen J.; Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Neth, Hansjorg

    2007-01-01

    When participants allocated time across 2 tasks (in which they generated as many words as possible from a fixed set of letters), they made frequent switches. This allowed them to allocate more time to the more productive task (i.e., the set of letters from which more words could be generated) even though times between the last word and the switch…

  17. 24 CFR 1003.101 - Area ONAP allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... funds will be allocated based upon each Area ONAP's share of the total eligible Indian population; (ii... of poverty among the eligible Indian population; and (iii) Twenty percent (20%) of the funds will be... Indian population. (b) HUD will use other criteria to determine an allocation formula for...

  18. Subcounty Allocation oF ESEA Title I Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Thomas C.; Kutner, Stephen I.

    Congress has chosen to allocate by formula the compensatory education funds in Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I down to only the county level. From the county to the local school district the state may choose any option or allocator deemed consistent with the overall objective of concentrating the funds in districts with a large number…

  19. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation...

  20. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation...

  1. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation and reallocation. 675.42 Section 675.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation...

  2. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604 ADDI allocation formula. (a) General. HUD will...

  3. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  4. Permit allocation in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Kim, Chae Un; Isard, Walter

    2012-10-01

    In emissions trading, the initial allocation of permits is an intractable issue because it needs to be essentially fair to the participating countries. There are many ways to distribute a given total amount of emissions permits among countries, but the existing distribution methods, such as auctioning and grandfathering, have been debated. In this paper we describe a new method for allocating permits in emissions trading using the Boltzmann distribution. We introduce the Boltzmann distribution to permit allocation by combining it with concepts in emissions trading. We then demonstrate through empirical data analysis how emissions permits can be allocated in practice among participating countries. The new allocation method using the Boltzmann distribution describes the most probable, natural, and unbiased distribution of emissions permits among multiple countries. Simple and versatile, this new method holds potential for many economic and environmental applications.

  5. Robust Inversion and Data Compression in Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    2000-01-01

    We present an off-line computational method for control allocation design. The control allocation function delta = F(z)tau = delta (sub 0) (z) mapping commanded body-frame torques to actuator commands is implicitly specified by trim condition delta (sub 0) (z) and by a robust pseudo-inverse problem double vertical line I - G(z) F(z) double vertical line less than epsilon (z) where G(z) is a system Jacobian evaluated at operating point z, z circumflex is an estimate of z, and epsilon (z) less than 1 is a specified error tolerance. The allocation function F(z) = sigma (sub i) psi (z) F (sub i) is computed using a heuristic technique for selecting wavelet basis functions psi and a constrained least-squares criterion for selecting the allocation matrices F (sub i). The method is applied to entry trajectory control allocation for a reusable launch vehicle (X-33).

  6. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  7. Dynamic task allocation for a man-machine symbiotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. E.; Pin, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a methodological approach to the dynamic allocation of tasks in a man-machine symbiotic system in the context of dexterous manipulation and teleoperation. This report addresses a symbiotic system containing two symbiotic partners which work toward controlling a single manipulator arm for the execution of a series of sequential manipulation tasks. It is proposed that an automated task allocator use knowledge about the constraints/criteria of the problem, the available resources, the tasks to be performed, and the environment to dynamically allocate task recommendations for the man and the machine. The presentation of the methodology includes discussions concerning the interaction of the knowledge areas, the flow of control, the necessary communication links, and the replanning of the task allocation. Examples of task allocation are presented to illustrate the results of this methodolgy.

  8. Adaptive Control Allocation in the Presence of Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Crespo, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control allocation framework is proposed. In the adaptive control allocation structure, cooperative actuators are grouped and treated as an equivalent control effector. A state feedback adaptive control signal is designed for the equivalent effector and allocated to the member actuators adaptively. Two adaptive control allocation algorithms are proposed, which guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic state tracking in the presence of uncertain loss of effectiveness and constant-magnitude actuator failures. The proposed algorithms can be shown to reduce the controller complexity with proper grouping of the actuators. The proposed adaptive control allocation schemes are applied to two linearized aircraft models, and the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  9. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Masaki, Emiko; Fraser, Nicole; Benedikt, Clemens; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1) when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2) when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8%) decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6%) reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to expand or contract

  10. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  11. The communications spectrum: Frequency allocations and auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    Demands on the communications spectrum have increased sharply because of the growth in radio communication services, the large bandwidths now required, and the rapid increases in world population. The problem will be exacerbated by the requirements of high definition television and the enormous amounts of information that will be transmitted by radio. The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite natural resource of great value used for emergency communications and military operations as well as for commercial purposes. Both government and the marketplace have proper roles in the allocation of its resources. There are no viable alternatives to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union or to agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission for the regulation of radio communication and the assignment of spectrum to essential public services. Although government auctions of spectrum are justifiable where there is no way to distinguish among commercial entities seeking to use the same bands for similar services, the practice is inherently inequitable and discourages development of new uses for the spectrum by removing investment protection. Recommended alternatives to auctions are: (1) lotteries, which keep assets and proceeds in the economy; and (2) ongoing charges for current as well as new users of the spectrum.

  12. Resource Allocation Planning Helper (RALPH): Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.

  13. Node influence identification via resource allocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Jiao; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Ye, Chun-Ming; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-07-01

    Identifying the node influence in complex networks is an important task to optimally use the network structure and ensure the more efficient spreading in information. In this paper, by taking into account the resource allocation dynamics (RAD) and the k-shell decomposition method, we present an improved method namely RAD to generate the ranking list to evaluate the node influence. First, comparing with the epidemic process results for four real networks, the RAD method could identify the node influence more accurate than the ones generated by the topology-based measures including the degree, k-shell, closeness and the betweenness. Then, a growing scale-free network model with tunable assortative coefficient is introduced to analyze the effect of the assortative coefficient on the accuracy of the RAD method. Finally, the positive correlation is found between the RAD method and the k-shell values which display an exponential form. This work would be helpful for deeply understanding the node influence of a network.

  14. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  15. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  16. Microwave Driven Actuators Power Allocation and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Timothy; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) network for microwave driven actuators is presented in this paper. Development of a circuit that would collect power from a rectenna array amplify and distribute the power to actuators was designed and fabricated for space application in an actuator array driven by a microwave. A P-SPICE model was constructed initially for data reduction purposes, and was followed by a working real-world model. A voltage up - converter (VUC) is used to amplify the voltage from the individual rectenna. The testing yielded a 26:1 voltage amplification ratio with input voltage at 9 volts and a measured output voltage 230VDC. Future work includes the miniaturization of the circuitry, the use of microwave remote control, and voltage amplification technology for each voltage source. The objective of this work is to develop a model system that will collect DC voltage from an array of rectenna and propagate the voltage to an array of actuators.

  17. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and directed links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Reliability values are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  18. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and weighted links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Weights are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  19. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  20. Patch Network for Power Allocation and Distribution in Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golembiewski, Walter T.

    2000-01-01

    The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry is capable of allocating and distributing a single or multiple sources of power over multi-elements of a power user grid system. The purpose of this invention is to allocate and distribute power that is collected by individual patch rectennas to a region of specific power-user devices, such as actuators. The patch rectenna converts microwave power into DC power. Then this DC power is used to drive actuator devices. However, the power from patch rectennas is not sufficient to drive actuators unless all the collected power is effectively used to drive another group by allocation and distribution. The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry solves the shortfall of power for devices in a large array. The PAD concept is based on the networked power control in which power collected over the whole array of rectennas is allocated to a sub domain where a group of devices is required to be activated for operation. Then the allocated power is distributed to individual element of power-devices in the sub domain according to a selected run-mode.

  1. Decentralized method for complex task allocation in massive MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Zaki; Gammoudi, M. M.

    2008-06-01

    Task allocation is still a fundamental problem in Multi-Agents System (MAS). It allows the formation a coalition of agents to cooperate together in order to carry out a complex task. Generally, the process of task allocation requires calculating the value of all the possible allocations, then determining which optimal. In the context of Massive Multi-Agent Systems (MMAS), one agent generates all the possible coalitions and then calculates the value of each, is inefficient. Moreover, the traditional approaches based on the negotiation between agents, are impractical because of the complexity of communications between agents. In this paper we propose a decentralized method, based on grouping agents using the Formal Concepts Analysis (FCA) approach for the task allocation in MMAS. In our model, agents are fully cooperative and each task is composed of several subtasks. The proposed solution is based on two steps: i) computing groups of agents having similar characteristics in the objective to distribute the task allocation process among agents and minimize the communication between agents. ii) Finding the optimal allocation by sharing the task allocation process among groups of agents.

  2. A model for analysis of TDA budget allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Buchanan, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need to achieve greater efficiency in the operation of the Deep Space Network (DSN), i.e., increased productivity at reduced cost. One of the tools used in the course of a planning workshop on this subject was a methodology for budget allocation applicable to long-range planning. This article presents a model for analysis of the TDA budget allocation. For the 1994 through 1999 period, the percentage of the total TDA budget allocated to capacity and capability is being cut in half, whereas the percentage spent on efficiency of delivery will be increasing.

  3. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    DOEpatents

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  4. Immune response from a resource allocation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is a life history trait that can be expected to trade off against other life history traits. Whether or not a trait is considered to be a life history trait has consequences for the expectation on how it responds to natural selection and evolution; in addition, it may have consequences for the outcome of artificial selection when it is included in the breeding objective. The immune system involved in pathogen resistance comprises multiple mechanisms that define a host's defensive capacity. Immune resistance involves employing mechanisms that either prevent pathogens from invading or eliminate the pathogens when they do invade. On the other hand, tolerance involves limiting the damage that is caused by the infection. Both tolerance and resistance traits require (re)allocation of resources and carry physiological costs. Examples of trade-offs between immune function and growth, reproduction and stress response are provided in this review, in addition to consequences of selection for increased production on immune function and vice versa. Reaction norms are used to deal with questions of immune resistance vs. tolerance to pathogens that relate host health to infection intensity. In essence, selection for immune tolerance in livestock is a particular case of selection for animal robustness. Since breeding goals that include robustness traits are required in the implementation of more sustainable agricultural production systems, it is of interest to investigate whether immune tolerance is a robustness trait that is positively correlated with overall animal robustness. Considerably more research is needed to estimate the shapes of the cost functions of different immune strategies, and investigate trade-offs and cross-over benefits of selection for disease resistance and/or disease tolerance in livestock production. PMID:23413205

  5. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-3 - Allocation of deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to the rents or dividends in such proportions as the trustee may elect. The fact that the governing... allocated to the taxable interest or dividends in such proportions as the fiduciary may elect. However,...

  6. 76 FR 11310 - Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Federal Transit Administration Alternatives Analysis Program Discretionary Funding Allocations AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Alternatives Analysis Program Announcement of Project...) announces the selection of projects funded with unallocated Section 5339 Alternatives Analysis Program...

  7. 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and application of spatial allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment program(NAPAP) Emissions Inventory (Version 2). The 1985 annual inventory and related modelers' inventory represent the most comprehensive and hi...

  8. Adaptive function allocation reduces performance costs of static automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, Raja; Mouloua, Mustapha; Molloy, Robert; Hilburn, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation offers the option of flexible function allocation between the pilot and on-board computer systems. One of the important claims for the superiority of adaptive over static automation is that such systems do not suffer from some of the drawbacks associated with conventional function allocation. Several experiments designed to test this claim are reported in this article. The efficacy of adaptive function allocation was examined using a laboratory flight-simulation task involving multiple functions of tracking, fuel-management, and systems monitoring. The results show that monitoring inefficiency represents one of the performance costs of static automation. Adaptive function allocation can reduce the performance cost associated with long-term static automation.

  9. 34 CFR 300.816 - Allocations to LEAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities § 300.816 Allocations to LEAs. (a) Base payments... annual child count in which the LEA reports that it is serving any children with disabilities aged...

  10. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations. PMID:26189218

  11. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  12. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  13. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  14. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  15. Sufficiency of Reward and Allocation Behavior. A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, R. C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This study reaffirmed past findings which indicated that although no single norm could adequately explain children's reward allocation behavior, the norm of equity is the most important determinant. (SDH)

  16. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417 Section 1.1417 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pole... Management and Budget....

  17. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  18. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.3 Allocation of funds. From the amounts made available under the Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program, the Secretary shall make grants to States that...

  19. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  20. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  1. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  2. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  3. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  4. Fairness in children's resource allocation depends on the recipient.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chris

    2009-08-01

    Sixty-six children between 4.5 and 6 years of age were tested in a resource-allocation game with three different recipients. When the recipient was a friend, children made equitable decisions and shared as much when there was a cost to themselves as when there was no cost. When the recipient was another familiar child who was not a friend, children were less likely to allocate resources to that child. When the recipient was a stranger, children allocated resources as much as with a friend and more than with a nonfriend when there was no cost to themselves. However, when there was a cost to themselves, children treated strangers like nonfriends. These results show that resource-allocation decisions made by young children depend on the recipient. Young children prefer equitable division of resources with friends, treat nonfriends less well, and make prosocial moves with strangers when the cost to self is not high. PMID:19515118

  5. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board of..., including the results of model-based computer simulations, as the Secretary may require to assess the...

  6. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, L.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

  7. A Distributed Cooperative Power Allocation Method for Campus Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Sun, Yannan; Carroll, Thomas E.; Somani, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    We propose a coordination algorithm for cooperative power allocation among a collection of commercial buildings within a campus. We introduced thermal and power models of a typical commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, and utilize model predictive control to characterize their power flexibility. The power allocation problem is formulated as a cooperative game using the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) concept, in which buildings collectively maximize the product of their utilities subject to their local flexibility constraints and a total power limit set by the campus coordinator. To solve the optimal allocation problem, a distributed protocol is designed using dual decomposition of the Nash bargaining problem. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed allocation method

  8. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  9. Health care allocation, public consultation and the concept of 'health'.

    PubMed

    Edgar, A

    1998-09-01

    By comparing models of market-based allocation with state-controlled national health care systems, it will be suggested that the way in which different communities deal with the allocation of health care is central to their expression of what might be called a moral self-understanding. That is to say that the provision of health care may be expected to be a focus of communal debate, not simply about morally acceptable and unacceptable actions, but also about the community's understanding of what it is that makes for a worthwhile and morally defensible human life. This moral self-understanding is seen to be entwined with the different concepts of 'health' that are implicit in different systems of allocation. In conclusion, it will be suggested that decisions concerning health care allocation must be made in response to a continuing, public and open debate about what health and health care mean to a particular community. PMID:10185170

  10. 47 CFR 76.924 - Allocation to service cost categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.924 Allocation to service cost... Premises Equipment Construction/Maintenance Facilities and Equipment Programming Production Facilities and... Production and Office Facilities, Furniture and Equipment Other Tangible Assets Accumulated...

  11. Optimal allocation of file servers in a local network environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodside, C. M.; Tripathi, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Files associated with workstations in a local area network are to be allocated among two or more file servers. Assuming statistically identical workstations and file servers and a performance model which is a closed multiclass separable queueing network, an optimal allocation is found. It is shown that all the files of each workstation should be placed on one file server, with the workstations divided as equally as possible among the file servers.

  12. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost allocation rules. 1.460-5 Section 1.460-5...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-5 Cost allocation rules. (a... described in § 1.460-4(d) (CCM), or the percentage-of-completion/capitalized-cost method described in §...

  13. Ethical considerations surrounding survival benefit-based liver allocation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Eric J; Kwo, Paul Y; Helft, Paul R

    2014-02-01

    The disparity between the demand for and supply of donor livers has continued to grow over the last 2 decades, and this has placed greater weight on the need for efficient and effective liver allocation. Although the use of extended criteria donors has shown great potential, it remains unregulated. A survival benefit-based model was recently proposed to answer calls to increase efficiency and reduce futile transplants. However, it was previously determined that the current allocation system was not in need of modification and that instead geographic disparities should be addressed. In contrast, we believe that there is a significant need to replace the current allocation system and complement efforts to improve donor liver distribution. We illustrate this need first by identifying major ethical concerns shaping liver allocation and then by using these concerns to identify strengths and shortcomings of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease/Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease system and a survival benefit-based model. The latter model is a promising means of improving liver allocation: it incorporates a greater number of ethical principles, uses a sophisticated statistical model to increase efficiency and reduce waste, minimizes bias, and parallels developments in the allocation of other organs. However, it remains limited in its posttransplant predictive accuracy and may raise potential issues regarding informed consent. In addition, the proposed model fails to include quality-of-life concerns and prioritize younger patients. We feel that it is time to take the next steps toward better liver allocation not only through reductions in geographic disparities but also through the adoption of a model better equipped to balance the many ethical concerns shaping organ allocation. Thus, we support the development of a similar model with suggested amendments. PMID:24166860

  14. Bit allocation for joint coding of multiple video programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limin; Vincent, Andre

    1997-01-01

    By dynamically distributing the channel capacity among video programs according to their respective scene complexities, joint coding has been a shown to be more efficient than independent coding for compression of multiple video programs. This paper examines the bit allocation issue for joint coding of multiple video programs and provides a bit allocation strategy that results in uniform picture quality among programs as will as within a program.

  15. Optimal allocation under partial ordering of lifetimes of components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Neweihi, Emad; Sethuraman, Jayaram

    1992-08-01

    Assembly of systems to maximize reliability when certain components of the systems can be bolstered in different ways is an important theme in reliability theory. This is done under assumptions of various stochastic orderings among the lifetimes of the components and the spares used to bolster them. The powerful techniques of Schur and AI functions are used in this paper to pinpoint optimal allocation results in different settings involving active and standby redundancy allocation, minimal repair and shock, threshold models.

  16. Important Factors For Resource Allocation In Applied Research And Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, E. U.

    1989-01-01

    Competitiveness of modern societies requires optimum allocation of capital, qualified workforce and organizational infrastructure with the connecting link determined by information technology. Human resources of the scientific and technical community can compensate limited resources of other types supported by enhanced information promotion mechanisms in applied research and development. Descriptive features of the problem dimensions are given as a frame of reference, and important factors are reviewed for possible consideration in the fields of technology policy, resource allocation methods and management practices.

  17. Paternal reproductive success drives sex allocation in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-02-01

    Parents should bias sex allocation toward offspring of the sex most likely to provide higher fitness returns. Trivers and Willard proposed that for polygynous mammals, females should adjust sex-ratio at conception or bias allocation of resources toward the most profitable sex, according to their own body condition. However, the possibility that mammalian fathers may influence sex allocation has seldom been considered. Here, we show that the probability of having a son increased from 0.31 to 0.60 with sire reproductive success in wild bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Furthermore, our results suggest that females fertilized by relatively unsuccessful sires allocated more energy during lactation to daughters than to sons, while the opposite occurred for females fertilized by successful sires. The pattern of sex-biased offspring production appears adaptive because paternal reproductive success reduced the fitness of daughters and increased the average annual weaning success of sons, independently of maternal allocation to the offspring. Our results illustrate that sex allocation can be driven by paternal phenotype, with profound influences on the strength of sexual selection and on conflicts of interest between parents. PMID:26792564

  18. Genetic association between male attractiveness and female differential allocation

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Differential allocation of reproductive effort towards offspring of attractive mates is a form of post-copulatory mate choice. Although differential allocation has been demonstrated in many taxa, its evolutionary implications have received little attention. Theory predicts that mate choice will lead to a positive genetic correlation between female preference and male attractiveness. This prediction has been upheld for pre-copulatory mate choice, but whether such a relationship between male attractiveness and female differential allocation exists has never been tested. Here, we show that both female pre-copulatory mate choice and post-copulatory differential allocation are genetically associated with male attractiveness in house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Daughters of attractive males mated sooner and laid more eggs when paired with larger males. These forms of mate choice are strongest in large females, suggesting that costs decrease with increasing female size. The genetic association between attractiveness and differential allocation suggests potential for differential allocation to become exaggerated by coevolutionary runaway processes in an analogous manner to pre-copulatory choice. Sexual selection is thus likely to be stronger than predicted by pre-copulatory choice alone. PMID:17148398

  19. Water Development, Allocation, and Institutions: A Role for Integrated Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from inadequate water infrastructure, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Each of these three challenges compounds the burdens imposed by inadequacies associated with the other two. Weak water infrastructure makes it hard to allocate water efficiently and undermines tracking of water rights and use, which blocks effective functioning of water institutions. Inefficient water allocation makes it harder to secure resources to develop new water infrastructure. Poorly developed water institutions undermine the security of water rights, which damages incentives to develop water infrastructure or use water efficiently. This paper reports on the development of a prototype basin scale economic optimization, in which existing water supplies are allocated more efficiently in the short run to provide resources for more efficient long-run water infrastructure development. Preliminary results provide the basis for designing water administrative proposals, building effective water infrastructure, increasing farm income, and meeting transboundary delivery commitments. The application is to the Kabul River Basin in Afghanistan, where food security has been compromised by a history of drought, war, damaged irrigation infrastructure, lack of reservoir storage, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Results illustrate increases in economic efficiency achievable when development programs simultaneously address interdependencies in water allocation, development, and institutions.

  20. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  1. Allocating operating room block time using historical caseload variability.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Narges; Taaffe, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Operating room (OR) allocation and planning is one of the most important strategic decisions that OR managers face. The number of ORs that a hospital opens depends on the number of blocks that are allocated to the surgical groups, services, or individual surgeons, combined with the amount of open posting time (i.e., first come, first serve posting) that the hospital wants to provide. By allocating too few ORs, a hospital may turn away surgery demand whereas opening too many ORs could prove to be a costly decision. The traditional method of determining block frequency and size considers the average historical surgery demand for each group. However, given that there are penalties to the system for having too much or too little OR time allocated to a group, demand variability should play a role in determining the real OR requirement. In this paper we present an algorithm that allocates block time based on this demand variability, specifically accounting for both over-utilized time (time used beyond the block) and under-utilized time (time unused within the block). This algorithm provides a solution to the situation in which total caseload demand can be accommodated by the total OR resource set, in other words not in a capacity-constrained situation. We have found this scenario to be common among several regional healthcare providers with large OR suites and excess capacity. This algorithm could be used to adjust existing blocks or to assign new blocks to surgeons that did not previously have a block. We also have studied the effect of turnover time on the number of ORs that needs to be allocated. Numerical experiments based on real data from a large health-care provider indicate the opportunity to achieve over 2,900 hours of OR time savings through improved block allocations. PMID:24590259

  2. Allocation of Nutrients to Somatic Tissues in Young Ovariectomized Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Evan T.; Hatle, John D.; Drewry, Michelle D.; Wessels, Frank J.; Hahn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma “relative” to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of 13C and 15N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  3. Theatre personnel's perception of operating room resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, A O; Adejumo, P O

    2009-06-01

    Operating rooms (OR) in hospitals represent big investments and must be utilized efficiently. Inaccurate scheduling of OR resources often results in delays of surgery or cancellations of procedures. These are costly to the patient, surgical team and hospital. Existing literatures in the OR management lack consensus on the method of evaluating management decisions from the perspectives of personnel or those affected by management decision-making processes. Eight key informant interviews were conducted. Also, 50 Operating Theatre Personnel (OTP), i.e., Surgeons, OR Nurses, Anaesthetists, and Executive Officers in the Nigeria's premier University Teaching Hospital were asked to complete a survey questionnaire concerning operating theatre resource allocation in the hospital. Five close-ended and 10 open-ended questions were used. (For example, how are the decisions to allocate OR resources in this hospital made?) Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were done. The theoretical framework, accountability for reasonableness was applied. Forty-eight percent of the participants were ignorant of the framework guiding OR resource allocation. 54% of the respondents admitted the current mechanism for publicizing management decisions on OR resource allocation is ineffective. Another 50% of the respondents knew little about the mode of appealing against unfavourable allocation decisions. Participants' open ended responses revealed that hospital executives and a few consultant surgeons control the allocation of OR resources, with little recourse to OR personnel's concerns. If operating theatre stake holders are excluded in the planning, allocation and evaluation of OR resources, the efficiency required in surgical services would never be realized irrespective of the dexterity of the surgical team. PMID:20175420

  4. Allocation of nutrients to somatic tissues in young ovariectomized grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Judd, Evan T; Hatle, John D; Drewry, Michelle D; Wessels, Frank J; Hahn, Daniel A

    2010-11-01

    The disposable soma hypothesis predicts that when reproduction is reduced, life span is increased because more nutrients are invested in the soma, increasing somatic repair. Rigorously testing the hypothesis requires tracking nutrients from ingestion to allocation to the soma or to reproduction. Fruit flies on life-extending dietary restriction increase allocation to the soma "relative" to reproduction, suggesting that allocation of nutrients can be associated with extension of life span. Here, we use stable isotopes to track ingested nutrients in ovariectomized grasshoppers during the first oviposition cycle. Previous work has shown that ovariectomy extends life span, but investment of protein in reproduction is not reduced until after the first clutch of eggs is laid. Because ovariectomy does not affect investment in reproduction at this age, the disposable soma hypothesis would predict that ovariectomy should also not affect investment in somatic tissues. We developed grasshopper diets with distinct signatures of ¹³C and ¹⁵N, but that produced equivalent reproductive outputs. These diets are, therefore, appropriate for the reciprocal switches in diet needed for tracking ingested nutrients. Incorporation of stable isotopes into eggs showed that grasshoppers are income breeders, especially for carbon. Allocation to the fat body of nitrogen ingested as adults was slightly increased by ovariectomy; this was our only result that was not consistent with the disposable soma hypothesis. In contrast, ovariectomy did not affect allocation of nitrogen to femoral muscles. Further, allocation of carbon to the fat body or femoral muscles did not appear to be affected by ovariectomy. Total anti-oxidant activities in the hemolymph and femoral muscles were not affected by ovariectomy. These experiments showed that allocation of nutrients was altered little by ovariectomy in young grasshoppers. Additional studies on older individuals are needed to further test the disposable

  5. 25 CFR 290.5 - Who approves tribal revenue allocation plans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who approves tribal revenue allocation plans? 290.5... REVENUE ALLOCATION PLANS § 290.5 Who approves tribal revenue allocation plans? The ABO will review and approve tribal revenue allocation plans for compliance with IGRA....

  6. Understanding Student-Weighted Allocation as a Means to Greater School Resource Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Roza, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    As attention shifts to how districts allocate resources to schools, student weighted allocation has emerged as an alternative to traditional staff-based allocation policies. Student-weighted allocation uses student need, rather than staff placement, as the building block of school budgeting. This article examines how the shift to student-weighted…

  7. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  8. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  9. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, R.; Mouloua, M.; Molloy, R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  10. Optimal Sensor Allocation for Fault Detection and Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Automatic fault diagnostic schemes rely on various types of sensors (e.g., temperature, pressure, vibration, etc) to measure the system parameters. Efficacy of a diagnostic scheme is largely dependent on the amount and quality of information available from these sensors. The reliability of sensors, as well as the weight, volume, power, and cost constraints, often makes it impractical to monitor a large number of system parameters. An optimized sensor allocation that maximizes the fault diagnosibility, subject to specified weight, volume, power, and cost constraints is required. Use of optimal sensor allocation strategies during the design phase can ensure better diagnostics at a reduced cost for a system incorporating a high degree of built-in testing. In this paper, we propose an approach that employs multiple fault diagnosis (MFD) and optimization techniques for optimal sensor placement for fault detection and isolation (FDI) in complex systems. Keywords: sensor allocation, multiple fault diagnosis, Lagrangian relaxation, approximate belief revision, multidimensional knapsack problem.

  11. Great Expectations: An Examination of Section 180c Funding Allocations

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) moves toward milestones in developing a plan to ship high-level radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain, an increasingly difficult issue is the distribution of Federal emergency management funds to mitigate costs of preparing for the shipments. DOE staff and contractors, and state transportation planning groups, have high expectations that some allocation formula based on technical factors can be used to distribute funds effectively and equitably. This paper examines the empirical results of a funding allocation formula proposed by the Western Governors Association among the eleven affected states which are members of the Western Interstate Energy Board. The amount of Federal funds allocated to Western states is also compared to the amount of revenue that would be generated by state-imposed fees on DOE shipments. (authors)

  12. Space Network Control Conference on Resource Allocation Concepts and Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, Karen L. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of the Space Network Control (SNC) Conference. In the late 1990s, when the Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System is operational, Space Network communication services will be supported and controlled by the SNC. The goals of the conference were to survey existing resource allocation concepts and approaches, to identify solutions applicable to the Space Network, and to identify avenues of study in support of the SNC development. The conference was divided into three sessions: (1) Concepts for Space Network Allocation; (2) SNC and User Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) Human-Computer Interface Concepts; and (3) Resource Allocation Tools, Technology, and Algorithms. Key recommendations addressed approaches to achieving higher levels of automation in the scheduling process.

  13. Multi-robot Task Allocation for Search and Rescue Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Ahmed; Adel, Mohamed; Bakr, Mohamed; Shehata, Omar M.; Khamis, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Many researchers from academia and industry are attracted to investigate how to design and develop robust versatile multi-robot systems by solving a number of challenging and complex problems such as task allocation, group formation, self-organization and much more. In this study, the problem of multi-robot task allocation (MRTA) is tackled. MRTA is the problem of optimally allocating a set of tasks to a group of robots to optimize the overall system performance while being subjected to a set of constraints. A generic market-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The efficacy of the proposed approach is quantitatively evaluated through simulation and real experimentation using heterogeneous Khepera-III mobile robots. The results from both simulation and experimentation indicate the high performance of the proposed algorithms and their applicability in search and rescue missions.

  14. Allocating medical resources in rural America: alternative perceptions of justice.

    PubMed

    Jecker, N S; Berg, A O

    1992-03-01

    In national debates concerning the allocation of medical resources rural America is a neglected topic, and the voices of rural health professionals are seldom heard. This paper highlights the special problems encountered in allocating medical resources within the rural setting and indicates the strategies that rural residents compose for dealing with them. Our findings are based on a study consisting of in-depth open-ended interviews with family physicians in the rural northwest United States. We contrast the approach to justice expressed by these rural physicians with the conception of justice that dominates Western philosophy and bioethics. In the course of our discussion, the diversity within Western culture becomes apparent. We discuss strategies for incorporating different perspectives into local and national allocation debates, clarify the reasons why a more encompassing approach to justice is necessary, and review the implications of our work for future research. PMID:1604352

  15. A unified framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-07-01

    MPEG-4 supports object-level video coding. It is a challenge to design an optimal bit allocation strategy which considers not only how to distribute bits among multiple video objects (MVO's) but also how to achieve optimization between the texture and shape information. In this paper, we present a uniform framework for optimal multiple video object bit allocation in MPEG-4. We combine the rate-distortion (R-D) models for the texture and shape information of arbitrarily shaped video objects to develop the joint texture-shape rate-distortion models. The dynamic programming (DP) technique is applied to optimize the bit allocation for the multiple video objects. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed joint texture-shape optimization algorithm outperforms the MPEG-4 verification model on the decoded picture quality.

  16. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  17. Ka-band (32 GHz) allocations for deep space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroot, N. F.

    1987-01-01

    At the 1979 World Administrative Conference, two new bands were allocated for deep space telecommunications: 31.8 to 32.3 GHz, space-to-Earth, and 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, Earth-to-space. These bands provide opportunity for further development of the Deep Space Network and its support of deep space research. The history of the process by which JPL/NASA developed the rationale, technical background, and statement of requirement for the bands are discussed. Based on this work, United States proposals to the conference included the bands, and subsequent U.S. and NASA participation in the conference led to successful allocations for deep space telecommunications in the 30 GHz region of the spectrum. A detailed description of the allocations is included.

  18. The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting

    PubMed Central

    Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL), where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations. PMID:24744746

  19. Using hierarchical P-median problem for public school allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Noryanti; Shariff, S. Sarifah Radiah

    2014-09-01

    Student's orientation from primary to the secondary schools is a vital process and need to be considered as yearly problem by The District Education Office of Ministry of Education Malaysia. The allocation of students to the right schools becomes complicated due to several constraints like capacity of seats in secondary schools, widespread demand areas as well as preferences by the parents. Considering all the constraints, this study proposes the application of location model to allocate students the right school. The allocation of student from primary to secondary school is based on total number of students, the availability of seats from primary and at the secondary schools, and distance from student's home to the nearest schools, both primary and secondary schools. The problem is modelled as hierarchical P-median problem as there are two hierarchical levels in this orientation. An alternative Genetic Algorithm (GA) based heuristic is applied to solve the problem and results are compared with Excel Solver.

  20. Carbon accumulation and allocation in a primary Bornean tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, A.; Komatsu, H.; Kume, T.; Ohashi, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Otsuki, K.; Kumagai, T.

    2010-12-01

    To develop our knowledge of global carbon cycling, it is important to know all components of allocated carbon in tropical rainforests because of their enormous accumulation and elimination. Our goals in this study are to estimate carbon allocation (i.e. carbon flux to aboveground biomass increment, litterfall, aboveground plant respiration and belowground) and compare GPP based on biometric and flux measurement in a primary Bornean tropical rainforest. GPP estimated by biometric method (35.39 tCha-2yr-1) was similar to that measured by flux measurement (31.56 tCha-2yr-1). Mean annual aboveground biomass increment (2.77 tCha-2yr-1) was reasonable compared to former literatures in spite of larger aboveground biomass (272 tCha-2yr-1). Ratio of TBCF to GPP (0.55) was extremely high. These results suggested that considerable carbon is allocated to belowground, causing low productivity of aboveground biomass.

  1. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  2. Decentralization in Zambia: resource allocation and district performance.

    PubMed

    Bossert, Thomas; Chitah, Mukosha Bona; Bowser, Diana

    2003-12-01

    Zambia implemented an ambitious process of health sector decentralization in the mid 1990s. This article presents an assessment of the degree of decentralization, called 'decision space', that was allowed to districts in Zambia, and an analysis of data on districts available at the national level to assess allocation choices made by local authorities and some indicators of the performance of the health systems under decentralization. The Zambian officials in health districts had a moderate range of choice over expenditures, user fees, contracting, targeting and governance. Their choices were quite limited over salaries and allowances and they did not have control over additional major sources of revenue, like local taxes. The study found that the formula for allocation of government funding which was based on population size and hospital beds resulted in relatively equal per capita expenditures among districts. Decentralization allowed the districts to make decisions on internal allocation of resources and on user fee levels and expenditures. General guidelines for the allocation of resources established a maximum and minimum percentage to be allocated to district offices, hospitals, health centres and communities. Districts tended to exceed the maximum for district offices, but the large urban districts and those without public district hospitals were not even reaching the minimum for hospital allocations. Wealthier and urban districts were more successful in raising revenue through user fees, although the proportion of total expenditures that came from user fees was low. An analysis of available indicators of performance, such as the utilization of health services, immunization coverage and family planning activities, found little variation during the period 1995-98 except for a decline in immunization coverage, which may have also been affected by changes in donor funding. These findings suggest that decentralization may not have had either a positive or

  3. Adaptation of carbon allocation under light and nutrient reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Frederik; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Whereas shifts in the allocation of photosynthates induced by reduced water availability, enhanced temperature and CO2 concentration were recently investigated in various studies, less is known about the response to light and nutrient reduction. We induced different allocation patterns in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analysed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Finally, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labelling and followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon to eight different classes of plant tissues and respiration for 13 days. The results revealed a high intraspecific variability in C distribution to tissues and in respiration. Allocation changes even varied within leaf and stem tissue classes (e.g. more C in main stems, less in lateral stems). These results show that the common separation of plant tissues in only three classes, i.e. root, shoot and leaf tissues, can result in missing information about allocation changes. The nutrient reduction enhanced the transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in terms of quantity (c. 200%) and velocity compared to control plants. Interestingly, a 57% light reduction enhanced photosynthetic capacity and caused no change in final biomass after 15 months. Therefore, our results support the recently discussed sink regulation of photosynthesis. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C loss from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates used for respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a control mechanism for C

  4. Organ Allocation for Liver Transplantation According to the Public Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Danesh, Ahmad; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asghari, Fariba; Jafarian, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2012-01-01

    Background Although liver transplantation is the last resort for treating end stage liver diseases, this medical procedure is not available for all needful patients because of inadequate organ supply. Therefore, guidelines have been developed by medical experts to regulate the process. Some professionals believe that medical criteria are inadequate for organ allocation in all situations and may not secure fairness of organ allocation. Objectives The current study has been designed to identify decision criteria about allocation of donated liver to potential recipients from public points of view. Patients and Methods This is a qualitative study that was conducted through individual interviews and Focus Group Discussions. Individual interviews were conducted among patients’ companions and nurses in one of the two liver transplant centers in Iran. Group discussions were conducted among groups of ordinary people who had not dealt previously with the subject. Data was analyzed by Thematic Analysis method. Results Most of the participants in this study believe that in equal medical conditions, some individual and societal criteria could be used to prioritize patients for receiving donated livers. The criteria include psychological acceptance, ability to pay post-operative care costs, being breadwinner of the family, family support, being socially valued, ability to be instructed, lack of mental disorders, young age of the recipient, being on waiting list for a long time, lack of patient’s role in causing the illness, first time transplant recipient, critical medical condition, high success rate of transplantation, lack of concurrent medical illnesses, not being an inmate at the time of receiving transplant, and bearing Iranian nationality. Conclusions Taking public opinion into consideration may smooth the process of organ allocation to needful patients with equal medical conditions. It seems that considering these viewpoints in drafting organ allocation guidelines

  5. On-Line Allocation Of Robot Resources To Task Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, I present an approach to representing plans that make on-line decisions about resource allocation. An on-line decision is the evaluation of a conditional expression involving sensory information as the plan is being executed. I use a plan representation called 7ZS10'1 1,12that has been especially designed for the domain of robot programming, and in particular, for the problem of on-line decisions. The resource allocation example is based on the robot assembly cell architecture outlined by Venkataraman and Lyons16. I begin by setting forth a definition of on-line decision making and some arguments as to why this form of decision making is important and useful. To set the context for the resource allocation example, I take some care in categorizing the types of on-line decision making and the approaches adopted by other workers so far. In particular, I justify a plan-based approach to the study of on-line decision making. From that, the focus shifts to one type of decision making: on-line allocation of robot resources to task plans. Robot resources are the physical manipulators (grippers, wrists, arms, feeders, etc) that are available to carry out the task. I formulate the assembly cell architecture of Venkataraman and Lyons16 as an R.S plan schema, and show how the on-line allocation specified in that architecture can be implemented. Finally, I show how considering the on-line allocation of logical resources, that is a physical resource plus some model information, can be used as a non-traditional approach to some problems in robot task planning.

  6. Resource allocation for multichannel broadcasting visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam-Tuan; Jang, Yeong Min

    2015-11-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which offers the possibility of using light sources for both illumination and data communications simultaneously, will be a promising incorporation technique with lighting applications. However, it still remains some challenges especially coverage because of field-of-view limitation. In this paper, we focus on this issue by suggesting a resource allocation scheme for VLC broadcasting system. By using frame synchronization and a network calculus QoS approximation, as well as diversity technology, the proposed VLC architecture and QoS resource allocation for the multichannel-broadcasting MAC (medium access control) protocol can solve the coverage limitation problem and the link switching problem of exhibition service.

  7. Space Station Freedom resource allocation accommodation of technology payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, Don E.; Collier, Lisa D.; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration, and Technology (OAET) Space Station Freedom Technology Payload Development Program is provided, and the OAET Station resource requirements are reviewed. The requirements are contrasted with current proposed resource allocations. A discussion of the issues and conclusions are provided. It is concluded that an overall 20 percent resource allocation is appropriate to support OAET's technology development program, that some resources are inadequate even at the 20 percent level, and that bartering resources among U.S. users and international partners and increasing the level of automation may be viable solutions to the resource constraint problem.

  8. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool in asset allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainol Abidin, Siti Nazifah; Mohd Jaffar, Maheran

    2013-04-01

    Allocation capital investment into different assets is the best way to balance the risk and reward. This can prevent from losing big amount of money. Thus, the aim of this paper is to help investors in making wise investment decision in asset allocation. This paper proposes modifying and adapting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model. The AHP model is widely used in various fields of study that are related in decision making. The results of the case studies show that the proposed model can categorize stocks and determine the portion of capital investment. Hence, it can assist investors in decision making process and reduce the risk of loss in stock market investment.

  9. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-12-01

    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2} will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200 {micro}g N g soil{sup -1}) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO{sub 2} with the highest biomass at the middle CO{sub 2} level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO{sub 2} levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO{sub 2} levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient

  10. Integration and Task Allocation: Evidence from Patient Care*

    PubMed Central

    David, Guy; Rawley, Evan; Polsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Using the universe of patient transitions from inpatient hospital care to skilled nursing facilities and home health care in 2005, we show how integration eliminates task misallocation problems between organizations. We find that vertical integration allows hospitals to shift patient recovery tasks downstream to lower-cost organizations by discharging patients earlier (and in poorer health) and increasing post-hospitalization service intensity. While integration facilitates a shift in the allocation of tasks and resources, health outcomes either improved or were unaffected by integration on average. The evidence suggests that integration solves coordination problems that arise in market exchange through improvements in the allocation of tasks across care settings. PMID:24415893

  11. Solving the optimal attention allocation problem in manual control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinman, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Within the context of the optimal control model of human response, analytic expressions for the gradients of closed-loop performance metrics with respect to human operator attention allocation are derived. These derivatives serve as the basis for a gradient algorithm that determines the optimal attention that a human should allocate among several display indicators in a steady-state manual control task. Application of the human modeling techniques are made to study the hover control task for a CH-46 VTOL flight tested by NASA.

  12. Optimizing investment fund allocation using vehicle routing problem framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-07-01

    The objective of investment is to maximize total returns or minimize total risks. To determine the optimum order of investment, vehicle routing problem method is used. The method which is widely used in the field of resource distribution shares almost similar characteristics with the problem of investment fund allocation. In this paper we describe and elucidate the concept of using vehicle routing problem framework in optimizing the allocation of investment fund. To better illustrate these similarities, sectorial data from FTSE Bursa Malaysia is used. Results show that different values of utility for risk-averse investors generate the same investment routes.

  13. Demand response compensation, net Benefits and cost allocation: comments

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, William W.

    2010-11-15

    FERC's Supplemental Notice of Public Rulemaking addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. Assuming that the Commission would proceed with the proposal ''to require tariff provisions allowing demand response resources to participate in wholesale energy markets by reducing consumption of electricity from expected levels in response to price signals, to pay those demand response resources, in all hours, the market price of energy for such reductions,'' the Commission posed questions about applying a net benefits test and rules for cost allocation. This article summarizes critical points and poses implications for the issues of net benefit tests and cost allocation. (author)

  14. Stochastic optimisation of water allocation on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Straatsma, Menno; Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2014-05-01

    Climate change, increasing population and further economic developments are expected to increase water scarcity for many regions of the world. Optimal water management strategies are required to minimise the water gap between water supply and domestic, industrial and agricultural water demand. A crucial aspect of water allocation is the spatial scale of optimisation. Blue water supply peaks at the upstream parts of large catchments, whereas demands are often largest at the industrialised downstream parts. Two extremes exist in water allocation: (i) 'First come, first serve,' which allows the upstream water demands to be fulfilled without considerations of downstream demands, and (ii) 'All for one, one for all' that satisfies water allocation over the whole catchment. In practice, water treaties govern intermediate solutions. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of these two end members on water allocation optimisation with respect to water scarcity. We conduct this study on a global scale with the year 2100 as temporal horizon. Water supply is calculated using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB, operating at a 5 arcminutes resolution and a daily time step. PCR-GLOBWB is forced with temperature and precipitation fields from the Hadgem2-ES global circulation model that participated in the latest coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP5). Water demands are calculated for representative concentration pathway 6.0 (RCP 6.0) and shared socio-economic pathway scenario 2 (SSP2). To enable the fast computation of the optimisation, we developed a hydrologically correct network of 1800 basin segments with an average size of 100 000 square kilometres. The maximum number of nodes in a network was 140 for the Amazon Basin. Water demands and supplies are aggregated to cubic kilometres per month per segment. A new open source implementation of the water allocation is developed for the stochastic optimisation of the water allocation. We apply a Genetic Algorithm

  15. 45 CFR 1340.11 - Allocation of funds available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of funds available. 1340.11 Section 1340.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT PREVENTION AND...

  16. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... on clear channels with powers no less than 10kW nor greater than 50 kW. These stations are designed... classes and power of AM broadcast stations which will be assigned to the various channels are set forth in... stations are those assigned to the channels allocated by § 73.25. The power of these stations shall be 50...

  17. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  18. Individual Differences in Faculty Research Time Allocations across 13 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Peter James; Kyvik, Svein

    2013-01-01

    In research universities, research time is often too scarce to satiate the wishes of all faculty and must be allocated according to guidelines and principles. We examine self-reported research hours for full-time faculty at research universities in 13 countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, Germany, Italy, Malaysia,…

  19. 34 CFR 303.200 - Formula for State allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formula for State allocations. 303.200 Section 303.200 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedures for Making Grants to States § 303.200 Formula for State...

  20. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 600.325 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND....325 National Standard 4—Allocations. (a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not... fishermen. (2) Reasonably calculated to promote conservation. (3) Carried out in such manner that...

  1. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 600.325 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND....325 National Standard 4—Allocations. (a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not... fishermen. (2) Reasonably calculated to promote conservation. (3) Carried out in such manner that...

  2. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 600.325 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND....325 National Standard 4—Allocations. (a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not... fishermen. (2) Reasonably calculated to promote conservation. (3) Carried out in such manner that...

  3. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 600.325 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND....325 National Standard 4—Allocations. (a) Standard 4. Conservation and management measures shall not... fishermen. (2) Reasonably calculated to promote conservation. (3) Carried out in such manner that...

  4. Using Excel's Matrix Operations to Facilitate Reciprocal Cost Allocations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leese, Wallace R.; Kizirian, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The reciprocal method of service department cost allocation requires linear equations to be solved simultaneously. These computations are often so complex as to cause the abandonment of the reciprocal method in favor of the less sophisticated direct or step-down methods. Here is a short example demonstrating how Excel's sometimes unknown matrix…

  5. Elderly Care and Intrafamily Resource Allocation when Children Migrate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the intrafamily allocation of elderly care in the context of international migration where migrant children may be able to provide financial assistance to their parents but are unable to offer physical care. To investigate sibling interaction, I estimate best response functions for individual physical and financial…

  6. Personnel Resource Allocation Strategies in a Time of Fiscal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausner, Larry Joseph, III

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze school level data related to the allocation of resources, and to determine how those resources are used to increase student achievement in the Hampton School District. The study was based on an analysis of one school district located in Los Angeles County in Southern California. All of the…

  7. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  8. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  9. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  10. 28 CFR 90.54 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of funds. 90.54 Section 90.54 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments... will take into account the applicants' varying needs in addressing violence against women....

  11. Stress interactions and mycorrhizal plant response: Understanding carbon allocation priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, C.P.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for studying responses of mycorrhizal roots to external stresses, including possible feedback effects, which are likely to occur. A conceptual model is presented to discuss how carbon may be involved in singular and multiple stress interactions of mycorrhizal seedlings. Recent literature linking carbon allocation and host/fungal response under natural and anthropogenic stresses is reviewed. Due to its integral role in metabolic processes, characterizing carbon and carbon allocation in controlled laboratory environments could be useful for understanding host/fungal responses to a variety of natural and anthropogenic stresses. Carbon allocation at the whole plant level reflects an integrated response which links photosynthesis to growth and maintenance processes. A root-mycocosm system is described which permits spatial separation of a portion of extramatrical hyphae growing in association with seedling roots. The results are presented in a fashion to illustrate the nature of information which can be obtained using this system. Current projects using the mycocosms include characterizing the dynamics of carbon allocation under ozone stress, and following the fate of organic pollutants. The authors believe that the system could be used to differentiate fungal and host mediated responses to a large number of other stresses, and to study a variety of physiological processes in mycorrhizal plants.

  12. Time Allocation at Home and Achievement in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Victor

    This paper presents an economic model of the relationship between time allocated to learning activities at home and achievement in school. The model is contrasted to four alternative models of the home-school relationship. Data from a 1975 survey of the parents of 887 elementary school children from one New York State school district are used to…

  13. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-4...

  14. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-4...

  15. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-4...

  16. 40 CFR 35.925-4 - State allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State allocation. 35.925-4 Section 35.925-4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-4...

  17. Resource Allocation Strategies in Doctoral/Research University (Extensive) Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake Gonzalez, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and understand the management of resources by library directors at 151 Public and Private Carnegie classified extensive university libraries in an environment of limited funding for higher education. This study examined the following research questions: 1. What resource allocation strategies are used by…

  18. Allocating capital systemwide. Who gets how much and why.

    PubMed

    Albertina, R M; Bakewell, T F

    1989-05-01

    The maturing of multi-institutional healthcare systems has created a need for systemwide approaches to managing investment in capital expenditures. Historically, hospitals have allocated capital using traditional capital budgeting techniques, including discounted cash flow, net present value, and internal rate of return methodologies. Now systems can use a multifactored model to allocate capital among member hospitals. This approach uses historical and projected financial and statistical information to quantify the risks member hospitals face. At the system level, capital allocation decisions should start with the strategic and financial planning processes. Catholic systems face an additional caveat: The system's mission statement drives the planning processes. Conceptually, the capital allocation plan is an attempt to value each hospital as a going, or viable, concern. From this perspective, value is understood as a function of expected return, the certainty of the return, and the return offered by similar investments in other hospital markets. Despite the many determinants of business and financial risk, much of the variance in asset market value can be explained through five assessment criteria: market demographics, position within the market, historical and projected financial performance, historical utilization, and third-party reimbursement mix. PMID:10303454

  19. Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Busiahn, Thomas R.; Jones, Michael L.; Argyle, Ray L.

    1999-01-01

    Forage base allocation, which has become an important issue because of major changes in the fish communities and fisheries of the Great Lakes since the 1950s is examined and documented in this chapter. Management initiatives that were used to address the issue, and supporting research and development that provided new or improved methods of field sampling and analysis are also highlighted.

  20. Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…