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Sample records for allograft survival rates

  1. Survival and Reoperation Rate Following Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Levy, David; Scalise, Pamela Nina; Smith, Margaret Elizabeth; Cole, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify survival for osteochondral allograft transplantation (OAT) and report findings at reoperation. Methods: A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patients who underwent OAT by a single surgeon with a minimum follow-up duration of 2-years was conducted. The reoperation rate, timing of reoperation, procedure performed at reoperation, and findings at surgery were reviewed. Failure was defined by revision OAT, conversion to knee arthroplasty, or gross appearance of graft failure at 2ndlook arthroscopy. Descriptive statistics, log-rank testing, cross-tabulation, and chi-square testing were performed, with P<0.05 set as significant. Results: 100 patients (average age 32.7±10.2 years; 53 males, 47 females) who underwent OAT at an average follow-up of 4.9±2.5 years (range, 2.0 to 11.3) were included. Ninety-five patients (95%) underwent an average of 2.7±1.7 prior surgical procedures on the ipsilateral knee prior to OAT. The average defect size was 452.7±181.6 mm2 and was located on the medial femoral condyle in 63 patients (63%). Fifty-one percent of OATs were isolated, while 49% were performed with concomitant procedures including meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) in 27 (27%). Fifty-three patients (53%) returned to the operating room at an average 2.8±2.7 years, with 26% of these patients (14/53) undergoing additional reoperations (range, 1-3 additional reoperations). Arthroscopic debridement was performed in 91% of the initial reoperations (48/53); 55% of reoperations (29/53) were performed within 2 years of the index OAT. Twenty patients (20%) were considered failures at an average 4.0±2.7 years following index OAT either due to revision OAT (N=6), conversion to arthroplasty (N=10), or appearance of poorly incorporated allograft at arthroscopy (N=4). Patients requiring multiple reoperations had an odds ratio of 7.25 (95% CI, 1.85 to 28.37) of OAT failure (P=0.004), while patients

  2. The Impact of Infection on Chronic Allograft Dysfunction and Allograft Survival After Solid Organ Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gandul, C; Mueller, N J; Pascual, M; Manuel, O

    2015-12-01

    Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT) are a significant cause of morbidity and reduced allograft and patient survival; however, the influence of infection on the development of chronic allograft dysfunction has not been completely delineated. Some viral infections appear to affect allograft function by both inducing direct tissue damage and immunologically related injury, including acute rejection. In particular, this has been observed for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in all SOT recipients and for BK virus infection in kidney transplant recipients, for community-acquired respiratory viruses in lung transplant recipients, and for hepatitis C virus in liver transplant recipients. The impact of bacterial and fungal infections is less clear, but bacterial urinary tract infections and respiratory tract colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus spp appear to be correlated with higher rates of chronic allograft dysfunction in kidney and lung transplant recipients, respectively. Evidence supports the beneficial effects of the use of antiviral prophylaxis for CMV in improving allograft function and survival in SOT recipients. Nevertheless, there is still a need for prospective interventional trials assessing the potential effects of preventive and therapeutic strategies against bacterial and fungal infection for reducing or delaying the development of chronic allograft dysfunction. PMID:26474168

  3. Targeting Sirtuin-1 prolongs murine renal allograft survival and function.

    PubMed

    Levine, Matthew H; Wang, Zhonglin; Xiao, Haiyan; Jiao, Jing; Wang, Liqing; Bhatti, Tricia R; Hancock, Wayne W; Beier, Ulf H

    2016-05-01

    Current immunosuppressive medications used after transplantation have significant toxicities. Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cells can prevent allograft rejection without compromising protective host immunity. Interestingly, inhibiting the class III histone/protein deacetylase Sirtuin-1 can augment Foxp3(+) T-regulatory suppressive function through increasing Foxp3 acetylation. Here we determined whether Sirtuin-1 targeting can stabilize biological allograft function. BALB/c kidney allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients with a CD4-conditional deletion of Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre)) or mice treated with a Sirtuin-1-specific inhibitor (EX-527), and the native kidneys removed. Blood chemistries and hematocrit were followed weekly. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients showed markedly longer survival and improved kidney function. Sirt1(fl/fl)CD4(cre) recipients exhibited donor-specific tolerance, accepted BALB/c, but rejected third-party C3H cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c renal allografts that were treated with EX-527 showed improved survival and renal function at 1, but not 10 mg/kg/day. Pharmacologic inhibition of Sirtuin-1 also improved renal allograft survival and function with dosing effects having relevance to outcome. Thus, inhibiting Sirtuin-1 can be a useful asset in controlling T-cell-mediated rejection. However, effects on non-T cells that could adversely affect allograft survival and function merit consideration. PMID:27083279

  4. Significant prolongation of segmental pancreatic allograft survival in two species

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the suppression of segmental pancreatic allograft rejection by cyclosporine (CSA) alone in baboons and dogs, and subtotal marrow irradiation (TL1) alone and TL 1 in combination with CSA in baboons. Total pancreatectomy in the dog and primate provided a reliable diabetic model, induced an absolute deficiency of insulin and was uniformly lethal if not treated. Continuous administration of CSA in baboons resulted in modest allograft survival. As in baboons, dogs receiving CSA 25 mg/kg/d rendered moderate graft prolongation but a dose of 40 mg/kg/d resulted in significant graft survival (greater than 100 days) in 5 of 8 allograft recipients. Irradiation alone resulted in minimal baboon pancreatic allograft survival of 20 baboons receiving TL1 1,000 rad and CSA, 3 had graft survival greater than of 100 days. Of 15 baboons receiving TL1 800 rad and CSA, 6 had graft survival of greater than 100 days. In conclusion, CSA administration in dogs and TL1 in combination with CSA in baboons resulted in highly significant segmental pancreatic allograft survival.

  5. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. PMID:25179581

  6. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-04-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

  7. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-04-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted.

  8. Two Different Regulatory T Cell Populations That Promote Corneal Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Cunnusamy, Khrishen; Paunicka, Kathryn; Reyes, Nancy; Yang, Wanhua; Chen, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To compare and contrast the T regulatory cells (Tregs) induced by anterior chamber (AC) injection of antigen with those induced by orthotopic corneal allografts. Methods. Anterior chamber–associated immune deviation (ACAID) Tregs were induced by injecting C57BL/6 spleen cells into the AC of BALB/c mice. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to C57BL/6 alloantigens were evaluated by a conventional ear swelling assay. Corneal allograft Tregs were induced by applying orthotopic C57BL/6 corneal allografts onto BALB/c hosts. The effects of anti-CD25, anti-CD8, anti-interferon-γ (IFN-γ), anti-IL-17A, or cyclophosphamide treatments on corneal allograft survival and ACAID were evaluated. Results. Administration of either anti-CD25 or anti-IFN-γ antibodies prevented the expression of ACAID and abolished the immune privilege of corneal allografts. By contrast, in vivo treatment with anti-CD8 antibody abrogated ACAID but had no effect on corneal allograft survival. Further discordance between ACAID and corneal allograft survival emerged in experiments in which the induction of allergic conjunctivitis or the administration of anti-IL-17A abolished the immune privilege of corneal allografts but had no effect on the induction or expression of ACAID. Conclusions. Although orthotopic corneal allografts are strategically located for the induction of ACAID by the sloughing of corneal cells into the AC, the results reported here indicate that the Tregs induced by orthotopic corneal allografts are remarkably different from the Tregs that are induced by AC injection of alloantigen. Although both of these Treg populations promote corneal allograft survival, they display distinctly different phenotypes. PMID:20702818

  9. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 agonist SEW2871 prolongs heterotopic heart allograft survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qian; Yuan, Baohong; Liu, Tao; Lan, Fang; Luo, Xiaochun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Huang, Ping; Dai, Liangcheng; Jin, Xiaobao; Yin, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active metabolite of plasma-membrane sphingolipids that is essential for immune cell trafficking. Recent studies have revealed immunomodulatory functions of S1P and its receptors (S1PR1-S1PR5) in many inflammatory conditions, such as asthma and autoimmunity. Here, we explore the efficacy of SEW2871, a selective S1PR1 agonist, in the prevention of acute allograft rejection in a murine cardiac transplantation model. Treatment of recipient mice with SEW2871 significantly prolongs cardiac allograft survival as compared to those recipients treated with control vehicle. The enhanced graft survival is associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and allograft inflammatory cell infiltration. The cytokine analysis showed decreased allograft expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 in the SEW2871-treated mice. Moreover, administration of SEW2871 increases the percentage of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and FoxP3 expression in spleen of allograft recipients. Therefore, SEW2871 plays a critical role in regulation of lymphocyte trafficking and development, which directly contributes to prolongation of the allograft survival. PMID:25776899

  10. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  11. Hair Follicle Dermal Sheath Derived Cells Improve Islet Allograft Survival without Systemic Immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojie; Hao, Jianqiang; Leung, Gigi; Breitkopf, Trisia; Wang, Eddy; Kwong, Nicole; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Warnock, Garth L.; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs successfully prevent rejection of islet allografts in the treatment of type I diabetes. However, the drugs also suppress systemic immunity increasing the risk of opportunistic infection and cancer development in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated a new treatment for autoimmune diabetes using naturally immune privileged, hair follicle derived, autologous cells to provide localized immune protection of islet allotransplants. Islets from Balb/c mouse donors were cotransplanted with syngeneic hair follicle dermal sheath cup cells (DSCC, group 1) or fibroblasts (FB, group 2) under the kidney capsule of immune-competent, streptozotocin induced, diabetic C57BL/6 recipients. Group 1 allografts survived significantly longer than group 2 (32.2 ± 12.2 versus 14.1 ± 3.3 days, P < 0.001) without administration of any systemic immunosuppressive agents. DSCC reduced T cell activation in the renal lymph node, prevented graft infiltrates, modulated inflammatory chemokine and cytokine profiles, and preserved better beta cell function in the islet allografts, but no systemic immunosuppression was observed. In summary, DSCC prolong islet allograft survival without systemic immunosuppression by local modulation of alloimmune responses, enhancing of beta cell survival, and promoting of graft revascularization. This novel finding demonstrates the capacity of easily accessible hair follicle cells to be used as local immunosuppression agents in islet transplantation. PMID:26000314

  12. Music exposure induced prolongation of cardiac allograft survival and generated regulatory CD4⁺ cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M; Jin, X; Zhang, Q; Amano, A; Watanabe, T; Niimi, M

    2012-05-01

    In clinical practice, music has been used to decrease stress, heart rate, and blood pressure and to provide a distraction from disease symptoms. We investigated sound effects on alloimmune responses in murine heart transplantation. Naïve and eardrum-ruptured CBA/N (CBA, H2(K)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (B6, H2(b)) heart and were exposed to 1 of 3 types of music-opera (La Traviata), classical (Mozart), and New Age (Enya)-or 1 of 6 different single sound frequencies for 7 days. An adoptive transfer study was performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated in allograft recipients. Cell-proliferation, cytokine, and flow cytometry assessments were also performed. CBA recipients of a B6 graft exposed to opera and classical music had significantly prolonged allograft survival (median survival times [MSTs], 26.5 and 20 days, respectively), whereas those exposed to 6 single sound frequencies and New Age did not (MSTs, 7, 8, 9, 8, 8, 8, and 11 days, respectively). Untreated and eardrum-ruptured CBA rejected B6 grafts acutely (MSTs, 7 and 8.5 days, respectively). Adoptive transfer of whole splenocytes, CD4(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from opera-exposed primary recipients resulted in significantly prolonged allograft survival in naive secondary recipients (MSTs, 36, 68, and >50 days, respectively). Cell-proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon-γ were suppressed in opera-exposed mice, whereas IL-4 and IL-10 from opera-exposed recipients were up-regulated. Flow cytometry studies showed an increased CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cell population in splenocytes from opera-exposed mice. In conclusion, exposure to some types of music may induce prolonged survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts and generate CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory cells. PMID:22564629

  13. Cellular senescence limits regenerative capacity and allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Braun, Heidi; Schmidt, Bernhard M W; Raiss, Mirja; Baisantry, Arpita; Mircea-Constantin, Dan; Wang, Shijun; Gross, Marie-Luise; Serrano, Manuel; Schmitt, Roland; Melk, Anette

    2012-09-01

    Long-term graft survival after kidney transplantation remains unsatisfactory and unpredictable. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy are major contributors to late graft loss; features of tubular cell senescence, such as increased p16(INK4a) expression, associate with these tubulointerstitial changes, but it is unknown whether the relationship is causal. Here, loss of the INK4a locus in mice, which allows escape from p16(INK4a)-dependent senescence, significantly reduced interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and associated with improved renal function, conservation of nephron mass, and transplant survival. Compared with wild-type controls, kidneys from INK4a(-/-) mice developed significantly less interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Consistently, mice that received kidney transplants from INK4a/ARF(-/-) donors had significantly better survival 21 days after life-supporting kidney transplantation and developed less tubulointerstitial changes. This correlated with higher proliferative rates of tubular cells and significantly fewer senescent cells. Taken together, these data suggest a pathogenic role of renal cellular senescence in the development of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and kidney graft deterioration by preventing the recovery from injury. Inhibiting premature senescence could have therapeutic benefit in kidney transplantation but has to be balanced against the risks of suspending antitumor defenses. PMID:22797186

  14. The essential role of annexin A1 mimetic peptide in the skin allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rodrigo Antonio Parra; Mimura, Kallyne Kioko Oliveira; Araujo, Leandro Pires; Greco, Karin Vicente; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs have a critical role in inhibiting tissue damage and allograft rejection. Studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of the annexin A1 (AnxA1) in the regulation of transmigration and apoptosis of leucocytes. In the present study, an experimental skin allograft model was used to evaluate a potential protective effect of AnxA1 in transplantation survival. Mice were used for the skin allograft model and pharmacological treatments were carried out using either the AnxA1 mimetic peptide Ac2-26, with or without cyclosporine A (CsA), starting 3 days before surgery until rejection. Graft survival, skin histopathology, leucocyte transmigration and expression of AnxA1 and AnxA5 post-transplantation were analysed. Pharmacological treatment with Ac2-26 increased skin allograft survival related with inhibition of neutrophil transmigration and induction of apoptosis, thereby reducing the tissue damage compared with control animals. Moreover, AnxA1 and AnxA5 expression increased after Ac2-26 treatment in neutrophils. Interestingly, the combination of Ac2-26 and cyclosporine A showed similar survival of transplants when compared with the cyclosporine A group, which could be attributed to a synergistic effect of both drugs. Investigations in vitro revealed that cyclosporine A inhibited extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation induced by Ac2-26 in neutrophils. Overall, the results suggest that AnxA1 has an essential role in augmenting the survival of skin allograft, mainly owing to inhibition of neutrophil transmigration and enhancement of apoptosis. This effect may lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches relevant to transplant rejection. PMID:23897745

  15. Commercial kidney transplantation is an important risk factor in long-term kidney allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Ananth, Sailesh; Palepu, Sneha; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Transplant tourism, a form of transplant commercialization, has resulted in serious short-term adverse outcomes that explain reduced short-term kidney allograft survival. However, the nature of longer-term outcomes in commercial kidney transplant recipients is less clear. To study this further, we identified 69 Canadian commercial transplant recipients of 72 kidney allografts transplanted during 1998 to 2013 who reported to our transplant center for follow-up care. Their outcomes to 8 years post-transplant were compared with 702 domestic living donor and 827 deceased donor transplant recipients during this period using Kaplan-Meier survival plots and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Among many complications, notable specific events included hepatitis B or C seroconversion (7 patients), active hepatitis and/or fulminant hepatic failure (4 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (2 patients), and a type A dissecting aortic aneurysm. Commercial transplantation was independently associated with significantly reduced death-censored kidney allograft survival (hazard ratio 3.69, 95% confidence interval 1.88-7.25) along with significantly delayed graft function and eGFR 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or less at 3 months post-transplant. Thus, commercial transplantation represents an important risk factor for long-term kidney allograft loss. Concerted arguments and efforts using adverse recipient outcomes among the main premises are still required in order to eradicate transplant commercialization. PMID:27083285

  16. PD-L1 Deficiency within Islets Reduces Allograft Survival in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dongxia; Duan, Wu; Li, Yakun; Wang, Zhimin; Li, Shanglin; Gong, Nianqiao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhishui; Wan, Chidan; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation may potentially cure type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, immune rejection, especially that induced by the alloreactive T-cell response, remains a restraining factor for the long-term survival of grafted islets. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a negative costimulatory molecule. PD-L1 deficiency within the donor heart accelerates allograft rejection. Here, we investigate whether PD-L1 deficiency in donor islets reduces allograft survival time. Methods Glucose Stimulation Assays were performed to evaluate whether PD-L1 deficiency has detrimental effects on islet function. Islets isolated from PDL1-deficient mice or wild- type (WT) mice (C57BL/6j) were implanted beneath the renal capsule of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Blood glucose levels and graft survival time after transplantation were monitored. Moreover, we analyzed the residual islets, infiltrating immune cells and alloreactive cells from the recipients. Results PD-L1 deficiency within islets does not affect islet function. However, islet PD-L1 deficiency increased allograft rejection and was associated with enhanced inflammatory cell infiltration and recipient T-cell alloreactivity. Conclusions This is the first report to demonstrate that PD-L1 deficiency accelerated islet allograft rejection and regulated recipient alloimmune responses. PMID:26990974

  17. Effects of Adoptive Transfer of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells on Allograft Survival in Organ Transplantation Models: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Juan; Guo, Yingjia; Li, Shengfu; Long, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To dissect the efficacy of Tol-DC therapy with or without IS in multiple animal models of transplantation. Methods and Results. PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for reviews published up to April 2015. Six systematic reviews and a total of 61 articles were finally included. Data were grouped by organ transplantation models and applied to meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that Tol-DC therapy successfully prolonged allograft survival to varying extents in all except the islet transplantation models and with IS drugs further prolonged the survival of heart, skin, and islet allografts in mice, but not of heart allografts in rats. Compared with IS drugs alone, Tol-DC therapy with IS extended islet allograft survival in rats but failed to influence the survival of skin, small intestine, and heart allografts in rats or of heart and skin allografts in mice. Conclusion. Tol-DC therapy significantly prolonged multiple allograft survival and further prolonged survival with IS. However, standardized protocols for modification of Tol-DC should be established before its application in clinic. PMID:27547767

  18. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Next Topic How is thymus cancer treated? Survival rates for thymus cancer Survival rates are often ... into account. Stage of thymoma 5-year observed survival rate I 74% II 73% III 64% IV ...

  19. Segmental pancreatic allograft survival in baboons treated with combined irradiation and cyclosporine: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; van der Merwe, E.A.

    1985-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of cyclosporine (CS) alone, total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, and CS in combination with total body irradiation (TBI) in suppressing segmental pancreatic allograft rejection in totally pancreatectomized outbred chacma baboons. The administration of CS 25 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/ kg/day resulted in mean graft survival of 21.5 days and 24.5 days, respectively. CS 85 mg/kg/day resulted in median graft survival of 9 days. There was a wide daily fluctuation of CS serum trough levels exhibited between primates receiving the same oral dose. TBI in excess of 300 rads resulted in irreversible bone marrow suppression. Modest results were achieved in recipients of TBI-76 rads (38 x 2 rads), with median graft survival of 21 days, results not different from recipients treated with CS. TLI recipients of 600 rads (150 x 4 rads) resulted in median pancreatic graft survival of 16 days. TBI together with oral CS administration exhibited no synergistic or additive effect and a single peroperative donor-specific blood transfusion did not enhance pancreatic allograft survival in this model. However, of 10 primates receiving TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) and CS 25 mg/kg/day administered orally indefinitely, four remained normoglycemic for more than 60 days. TBI 100 rads (50 x 2 rads) together with oral and parenteral CS resulted in necrotizing enterocolitis in four of six recipients.

  20. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts.

    PubMed

    Brown, K; Nowocin, A K; Meader, L; Edwards, L A; Smith, R A; Wong, W

    2016-04-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II(+) cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab')2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I-A(k) conjugated with the plant-derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti-I-A(k) gelonin immunotoxin depletes I-A(k) expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3(+) cells within donor grafts, diminished donor-specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor-type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient-orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  1. Immunotoxin Against a Donor MHC Class II Molecule Induces Indefinite Survival of Murine Kidney Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K.; Nowocin, A. K.; Meader, L.; Edwards, L. A.; Smith, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Rejection of donor organs depends on the trafficking of donor passenger leukocytes to the secondary lymphoid organs of the recipient to elicit an immune response via the direct antigen presentation pathway. Therefore, the depletion of passenger leukocytes may be clinically applicable as a strategy to improve graft survival. Because major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ cells are most efficient at inducing immune responses, selective depletion of this population from donor grafts may dampen the alloimmune response and prolong graft survival. In a fully MHC mismatched mouse kidney allograft model, we describe the synthesis of an immunotoxin, consisting of the F(ab′)2 fragment of a monoclonal antibody against the donor MHC class II molecule I‐Ak conjugated with the plant‐derived ribosomal inactivating protein gelonin. This anti–I‐Ak gelonin immunotoxin depletes I‐Ak expressing cells specifically in vitro and in vivo. When given to recipients of kidney allografts, it resulted in indefinite graft survival with normal graft function, presence of Foxp3+ cells within donor grafts, diminished donor‐specific antibody formation, and delayed rejection of subsequent donor‐type skin grafts. Strategies aimed at the donor arm of the immune system using agents such as immunotoxins may be a useful adjuvant to existing recipient‐orientated immunosuppression. PMID:26799449

  2. Influence of human leukocyte antigen matching on liver allograft survival and rejection: "the dualistic effect".

    PubMed

    Donaldson, P; Underhill, J; Doherty, D; Hayllar, K; Calne, R; Tan, K C; O'Grady, J; Wight, D; Portmann, B; Williams, R

    1993-06-01

    To date only one published large series of human leukocyte antigen matching and liver allograft survival exists, and considerable confusion has arisen about the advantage or disadvantage of human leukocyte antigen matching. In the present study we have reinvestigated the relationship between human leukocyte antigen mismatch and graft survival in 466 first liver allografts, seeking to clarify the relationship between human leukocyte antigen and both acute rejection and the vanishing bile duct syndrome. In view of current criticism regarding the accuracy of serological tissue typing for human leukocyte antigen-DR, we have used both classic serology and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to ensure the accurate assignment of recipient DR types. In addition, we have used polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele-specific and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes to retest the hypothesis that human leukocyte antigen class II matching may increase susceptibility to the vanishing bile duct syndrome. One-year graft survival was significantly lower in patients with zero or two human leukocyte antigen-A mismatches (52% and 63%, respectively) than in those with one human leukocyte antigen--A mismatch (69%) (p = 0.016 and p = 0.018). A similar effect of B mismatching was observed, with a 1-yr graft survival of 73% for those with one compared with 60% for those with two human leukocyte antigen-B mismatches. In contrast no correlation was found between DR mismatch and graft survival. Human leukocyte antigen class I matching appears to influence graft survival largely through the occurrence of acute rejection and the development of the vanishing bile duct syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8514248

  3. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation and pretransplant blood transfusion on pancreatic islet allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez-Picon, G.; McGeorge, M.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been shown to have a strong immunosuppressive effect both experimentally and clinically. Pretransplant blood transfusions have also been shown to have a strong beneficial effect in the outcome of organ transplantation. A study was made of the effect of TLI and pretransplant blood transfusions, alone and in combination, as an immunosuppressive modality in the isolated pancreatic islet transplant in the rat model. Donor rats (Fischer RT1v1) were kept on a 50% DL-ethionine supplemented diet for 4-6 weeks prior to pancreas removal. Recipient rats (Lewis RT1) were made diabetics prior to transplantation by iv injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Transfusion protocol consisted of a biweekly transfusion of 2 ml of either donor specific or third party transfusions. Total lymphoid irradiation was carried out by daily administration of 200 rads during one week prior to transplantation. Transplantation of the isolated islets was performed by intraportal injection. Syngeneic transplant of one and a half donor pancreata in each recipient reverted the diabetic condition indefinitely (greater than 100 days). Untreated allogenic grafts had a mean survival time (MST) of 5.2 days. Total lymphoid irradiation in dosages of 800, 1000, and 1200 rads, as the only immunosuppressive regimen, prolonged the MST of allografts to 15.3, 16.5, and 21.8 days, respectively (P less than .05). Pretransplant third party blood transfusion had no effect on allograft survival (MST 6.0). When donor specific blood transfusions were given, the MST was prolonged to 25.3 days (P less than .05). When TLI was administered to recipients of donor specific transfusions, the MST of the allografts did not show any statistical significant difference when compared with untreated animals. This abrogation of the beneficial effect of specific blood transfusion was observed in all dosages of TLI employed: 800 rad (MST 3.0), 1000 rad (MST 8.0), 1200 rad (MST 5.18).

  4. Trichinella spiralis infection changes immune response in mice performed abdominal heterotopic cardiac transplantation and prolongs cardiac allograft survival time.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gengguo; Deng, Ronghai; Yao, Jianping; Liao, Bing; Chen, Yinghua; Wu, Zhongdao; Hu, Hongxing; Zhou, Xingwang; Ma, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allograft rejection has been an obstacle for long-term survival of patients for many years. Current strategies for transplant rejection are not as optimal as we expected, especially for long-term treatments. Trichinella spiralis, a nematode parasitized in mammalian muscle and as an invader, maintains harmonious with host in the long term by evading host immune attack. To determine whether T. spiralis infection impacts on allograft rejection, we performed mice cardiac allograft transplantation model by using BALB/c (H-2(b)) mice as donors and C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice orally infected with 300 muscle larvae for 28 days as recipients. Graft survival was monitored by daily palpation of the abdomen; histologic change was observed by H&E stain; and CD4(+), CD8(+), CD4(+)IFN-γ(+), and CD4(+)IL-17(+) T cells and regulatory T cells were examined with the use of flow cytometry. Serum cytokine levels were measured by Luminex. Finally, we found that mean survival time of cardiac allografts in T. spiralis group was 23.40 ± 1.99 days, while the vehicle control group was 10.60 ± 0.75 days. Furthermore, we observed alleviated histological changes in the heart allograft, decreased corresponding CD8(+) T cells, suppressed Th1 and Th17 responses, and increased regulatory T cell frequency in a murine cardiac transplantation model at day 7 post-transplantation in experimental group. These data suggest that T. spiralis infection resulted in prolonged allograft survival following murine cardiac transplantation, with suppressed Th1/Th17 responses and augmented regulatory T cells. PMID:26481486

  5. Long-term Survival of Allograft Murine Islets Coated via Covalently Stabilized Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Rengifo, Hernán R.; Giraldo, Jaime A.; Labrada, Irayme; Stabler, Cherie L.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical islet transplantation (CIT) has emerged as a promising treatment option for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, the anti-rejection drug regimen necessary to mitigate allograft islet rejection is undesirable. The use of polymeric coatings to immunocamouflage the transplant from host immune attack has great potential. We have recently developed alginate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers, functionalized with azide and phosphine, respectively, which form spontaneous and chemoselective crosslinks via the bioorthogonal Staudinger ligation scheme. Herein, we explored the utility of these polymers to form immunoprotective, ultrathin coatings on murine primary pancreatic islets. Resulting coatings were nontoxic, with unimpaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Transplantation of coated BALB/c (H-2d) islets into streptozotozin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 (H-2b) resulted in prompt achievement of normoglycemia, at a rate comparable to controls. A significant subset of animals receiving coated islets (57%) exhibited long-term (> 100 d) function, with robust islets observed upon explantation. Control islets rejected after 15 d (+/− 9 d). Results illustrate the capacity of chemoselectively functionalized polymers to form coatings on islets, imparting no detrimental effect to the underlying cells, with resulting coatings exhibiting significant protective effects in an allograft murine model. PMID:24497465

  6. Effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the survival of rat cardiac allograft

    SciTech Connect

    Sakagami, K.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Saito, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Orita, K.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL2 MoAb) and the accumulation of intravenously administered /sup 125/I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb were examined in heterotopic rat cardiac allografts. Mouse anti-human recombinant IL2 MoAb was obtained by the hybridoma technique. The anti-IL2 MoAb, termed 8H-10, was an IgG2a which inhibited IL2-driven (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation in cytolytic T lymphocyte line cells at a dilution of 2(6). 8H-10 was injected iv at a dose of 200 micrograms/day for 8 consecutive days, beginning on the day of transplantation. Hearts from F344 rats (RT11v1) were transplanted into ACI recipient rats (RT1av1). The mean survival time was 7.6 +/- 0.8 days in untreated controls, 9.0 +/- 1.2 days in additional controls treated with mouse anti-sheep red blood cell monoclonal antibody, and 25.3 +/- 18.4 days in the anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10)-treated group (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10) was specifically seen in the grafted heart. In conclusion, these results suggest that IL2 may play an important role in allograft rejection and that anti-IL2 MoAb may serve as a useful immunosuppressive agent in clinical transplantation.

  7. Long-term survival of intestinal allografts induced by costimulation blockade, busulfan and donor bone marrow infusion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong; Wang, Jun; Dong, Ying; Adams, Andrew B; Shirasugi, Nozomu; Kim, Oliver; Hart, John; Newton-West, Marvin; Pearson, Thomas C; Larsen, Christian P; Newell, Kenneth A

    2003-09-01

    Tolerance-inducing strategies that infuse donor bone marrow cells in conjunction with costimulation blockade have not been applied to intestinal transplantation. Intestines from BALB/c mice were transplanted into C57BL/6 recipients treated with anti-CD40L mAb, CTLA4-Ig, donor bone marrow, and busulfan. The majority of mice transplanted after completion of this regimen developed hematopoietic macrochimerism, although the degree of chimerism varied widely between recipients, and experienced long-term allograft survival. T cells from these mice demonstrated donor-specific hyporesponsiveness in vitro. However, T cells from chimeric mice proliferated to donor alloantigen in vivo. Furthermore, chimeric mice bearing intestinal allografts were capable of rejecting subsequently placed donor-strain skin grafts. These data suggest that although long-term allograft survival occurs in the absence of acute or chronic rejection, recipient mice are not completely unresponsive to donor alloantigens. When intestinal transplantation was performed at the time of initial bone marrow infusion (initiation of the chimerism protocol), most recipients failed to develop chimerism and promptly rejected the intestinal allograft. Although this is the most effective protocol that we have tested using this stringent model of transplantation, our observations suggest that modifications will be necessary before it can be reliably applied to the transplantation of highly immunogeneic organs like the intestine. PMID:12919088

  8. FTY720 prolongs clear corneal allograft survival with a differential effect on different lymphocyte populations

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, K; Birnbaum, F; Reinhard, T; Reis, A; Braunstein, S; Claas, F; Sundmacher, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: FTY720 is a potent immunomodulator with unique effects on lymphocyte homing and has recently proved to be safe and effective in renal transplantation in man. The authors investigated the potency of FTY720 in inhibiting allograft rejection in the rat model of orthotopic allogeneic penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: Penetrating keratoplasties were performed using Fisher rats as donors and Lewis rats as recipients or donors: group 1 (n = 10), allogeneic control; group 2 (n = 10), Lewis/Lewis syngeneic control; group 3 (n = 9), mycophenolate mofetile (MMF) 40 mg/kg; group 4 (n = 10), FTY720 1.2 mg/kg; group 5 (n = 8), FTY720 0.3 mg/kg. Four animals from each group were sacrificed for immunohistological evaluation on day 14. Medication in the therapy groups was given for 18 days. Results: The mean (SD) rejection free graft survival time was 11.3 (0.8) days for the allogeneic control (group 1), 24.6 (2.5) days for group 3 (MMF), 44.5 (5.7) days for group 4 (FTY720 1.2 mg/kg), and 35.3 (5.7) days for group 5 (FTY720 0.3 mg/kg) (p<0.05). The allogeneic control showed a dense infiltration with CD4+, CD8+, CD161+ (NK-cells), CD25+ (IL2 receptor), and macrophages. In the therapy groups the density of infiltrating CD4+, CD8+, CD161+ (NK-cells), and CD25+ (IL2 receptor) cells was notably reduced compared with the allogeneic control (p<0.05). In group 5 however, the reduction of infiltration by CD4+ cells was higher than the reduction of infiltration by CD8+ (p<0.05) and CD161+ (NK) cells. Discussion: Oral immunosuppression with FTY720 significantly prolongs corneal allograft survival in this transplant model. The results suggest that FTY720 has a different effect on certain lymphocyte populations. CD4+ cells seem to be more affected than CD8+ cells and NK-cells. PMID:15205237

  9. Development and Effects of FTY720 Ophthalmic Solution on Corneal Allograft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaochuan; Lin, Haotian; Huang, Chulong; Chen, Wan; Xiang, Wu; Geng, Yu; Chen, Weirong

    2015-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), a novel class of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulators, has received special interest among ophthalmologists, particularly given that oral administration of FTY720 has proven to effectively treat corneal graft rejection in animal models. However, no studies have examined the performance of FTY720 as an ophthalmic solution in reducing corneal rejection in high-risk corneal rejection models, and the stability and ocular irritation profile of FTY720 ophthalmic solution are also unknown. Thus, we developed 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and evaluated their chemical stabilities under various storage conditions with high- performance liquid chromatography. To investigate the ocular irritancy of the FTY720 ophthalmic solution, New Zealand albino rabbits were subjected to the Draize test. Furthermore, classic, well-established rat allogenic penetrating keratoplasty models were used to investigate the anti-rejection efficacy of the tested FTY720 ophthalmic solutions. We found that the non-irritating 0.5% FTY720 ophthalmic solution could prolong corneal allograft survival in rats with significant efficacy for about one month. Furthermore, no significant concentration changes occurred in any of the types of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions within three months. These results revealed crucial profiles of FTY720 ophthalmic solutions and warrant further investigation and optimization of FTY720 in the anti-rejection therapy after keratoplasty. PMID:26558849

  10. Autologous endothelial progenitor cells improve allograft survival in porcine lung transplantation with prolonged ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Ting; Roan, Jun-Neng; Fang, Shih-Yuan; Chang, Shi-Wei; Tseng, Yau-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background As endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) attenuated acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbit model, we hypothesized that autologous EPCs preserved lung graft function during the acute reperfusion period of lung transplantation and tested the therapeutic potential of EPCs in a porcine model of lung transplantation with prolonged graft ischemia. Methods Day-7 EPCs isolated from the recipient subjects or plain culture media were administered into the left pulmonary artery immediately before restoration of pulmonary blood flow in a porcine lung allotransplantation model, with the transplantation surgeons blinded to the content of injection. Hemodynamics and arterial blood gas were recorded, and the right pulmonary artery was occluded 30 min after reperfusion to evaluate the lung graft function. The lung grafts were sectioned for histological examination at the end of experiments. The total ischemic time for lung graft was approximately 14 h. Results All animals receiving plain medium died within 40 min after reperfusion, but 3 out of 5 (60%) piglets receiving EPCs survived up to 4 h after diversion of the entire cardiac output into the lung graft (P<0.01). The donor body weight, recipient body weight, cold ischemic time, and time for anastomosis were comparable between the EPC and control group (P=0.989, 0.822, 0.843, and 0.452, respectively). The mean aortic pressure decreased, and the cardiac output and mean pulmonary artery pressure elevated after right pulmonary artery occlusion. All these parameters were gradually compensated in the EPC group but decompensated in the control group. Better preservation of gas exchange function, reduced thrombi formation in the terminal pulmonary arterioles, and attenuated interstitial hemorrhage of the lung graft were observed in the EPC group. Conclusions We concluded autologous EPCs significantly enhanced the function of lung allograft and improved survival in a porcine model of lung transplantation with prolonged ischemia

  11. The Effect of Renin-angiotensin System Inhibitors on Kidney Allograft Survival: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Mao, Michael A.; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Sathick, Insara J. J.; Erickson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease, and especially in diabetic kidney disease, has been shown to provide renoprotective effects and slow progression to end-stage renal disease. However, this protective effect in kidney transplant patient populations is unclear. Aim: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of RAS inhibitors on kidney allograft survival. Materials and Methods: A literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed from inception through February 2016. Studies that reported relative risks or hazard ratios comparing the risks of renal graft loss in renal transplant recipients who received RAS inhibitors vs. controls were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Results: Five studies (3 RCTs and 2 cohort studies) with 20024 kidney transplant patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled RR of allograft failure in recipients who received RAS inhibitors was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.45–1.21). When meta-analysis was limited only to RCTs, the pooled RR of allograft failure in patients using RAS inhibitors was 0.59 (95%: CI 0.20–1.69). The risk for mortality (RR: 1.13 [95% CI: 0.62–2.07]) in patients using RAS inhibitors compared to controls was not significantly reduced. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated insignificant reduced risks of renal graft loss among renal transplant recipients who received RAS inhibitors. Future studies assessing the potential benefits of RAS inhibitors on allograft survival in specific kidney transplant patient populations are needed. PMID:27583237

  12. Comparison of Fusion Rates between Glycerol-Preserved and Frozen Composite Allografts in Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rodway, Ian; Gander, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background. This retrospective, two cohort series study was designed to compare a room temperature, glycerol-preserved composite pinned bone allograft (G-CPBA) with the same graft type provided in a frozen state (F-CPBA) for use as a cervical interbody spacer in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods. A comprehensive chart review was performed for 67 sequential patients that received either a F-CPBA or a G-CPBA and had at least one-year follow-up. Twenty-eight patients had received G-CPBA grafts and 37 patients had received F-CPBA grafts. Two additional 2-level patients had received one of each type of grafts. Results. At 3 months, 45.3% (29 of 64) of glycerol-preserved and 41.4% (29 of 70) of frozen allografts, respectively, were considered to be fused radiographically. At 12 months, 100% of both treatment groups (41 glycerol-preserved and 45 frozen) were considered fused. Fusion rates for G-CPBA were statistically similar to F-CPBA at both 3 and 12 months (P = 0.6535 and >0.999, resp.). There were no allograft related complications in either treatment group. Conclusions. 100% fusion rates were attained by both treatment groups at 12 months and were similar at short-term follow-up for all comparable levels. Level of Evidence. Level of evidence is III.

  13. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P = 0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation. PMID:26335204

  14. Expression of decoy receptor 3 in kidneys is associated with allograft survival after kidney transplant rejection

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shuo-Chun; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Ming-Ju; Wen, Mei-Chin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang; Chen, Nien-Jung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) expression in kidneys has been shown to predict progression of chronic kidney disease. We prospectively investigated a cohort comprising 96 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) undergoing graft kidney biopsies. Computer-assisted quantitative immunohistochemical staining value of DcR3 in renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) was used to determine the predictive role of DcR3 in kidney disease progression. The primary end point was doubling of serum creatinine and/or graft failure. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the risk of DcR3 expression in rejected kidney grafts toward the renal end point. In total, RTRs with kidney allograft rejection were evaluated and the median follow-up was 30.9 months. The greater expression of DcR3 immunoreactivity in RTECs was correlated with a higher rate of the histopathological concordance of acute T cell-mediated rejection. Compared with 65 non-progressors, 31 progressors had higher DcR3 expression (HDE) regardless of the traditional risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed HDE was significantly associated with the risk of renal end point with a hazard ratio of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 7.27; P = 0.006) after adjusting for other variables. In repetitive biopsies, HDE in tissue showed rapid kidney disease progression due to persistent inflammation. PMID:26335204

  15. Effect of tissue culture storage on the in vivo survival of canine osteochondral allografts.

    PubMed

    Oates, K M; Chen, A C; Young, E P; Kwan, M K; Amiel, D; Convery, F R

    1995-07-01

    In vitro studies in our laboratory have shown that the biomechanical and biochemical characteristics of osteochondral grafts can be preserved for as long as 28 days under tissue culture conditions. This study represents an attempt to extend these results to an in vivo model. In adult mongrel dogs, either an autograft, a fresh allograft, or a stored allograft was placed in a standardized defect on the weight-bearing surface of the medial femoral condyle. The stored grafts were kept at 4 degrees C in tissue culture medium for 14 days prior to implantation. The animals were killed at 12 weeks. Cartilage from the contralateral knee served as a control. The modulus and permeability of the cartilage were assessed with confined compression creep tests. The collagen and glycosaminoglycan contents were measured, and the cartilage was analyzed histologically with hematoxylin and eosin and safranin O stains. Grossly, the cartilage appeared viable at harvest. The histologic results were similar in the treatment groups, with the same spectrum of mild degenerative changes being noted in each group. The glycosaminoglycan content was significantly less in the autograft group than in its control group and than in the fresh allograft group. The glycosaminoglycan content did not differ significantly between fresh and stored allografts. The collagen content, modulus, and permeability did not differ either between experimental and control groups or between graft types. Our results support the conclusion that osteochondral allografts can be stored for as many as 14 days without significantly affecting the results of the procedure. PMID:7674072

  16. Allograft tissue irradiation and failure rate after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dashe, Jesse; Parisien, Robert L; Cusano, Antonio; Curry, Emily J; Bedi, Asheesh; Li, Xinning

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft irradiation is effective for sterility without compromising graft integrity and increasing failure rate. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and Google. The following search terms were used: “Gamma irradiation AND anterior cruciate ligament AND allograft” with a return of 30 items. Filters used included: English language, years 1990-2015. There were 6 hits that were not reviewed, as there were only abstracts available. Another 5 hits were discarded, as they did not pertain to the topic of interest. There were 9 more articles that were excluded: Three studies were performed on animals and 6 studies were meta-analyses. Therefore, a total of 10 articles were applicable to review. RESULTS: There is a delicate dosing crossover where gamma irradiation is both effective for sterility without catastrophically compromising the structural integrity of the graft. Of note, low dose irradiation is considered less than 2.0 Mrad, moderate dose is between 2.1-2.4 Mrad, and high dose is greater than or equal to 2.5 Mrad. Based upon the results of the literature search, the optimal threshold for sterilization was found to be sterilization at less than 2.2 Mrad of gamma irradiation with the important caveat of being performed at low temperatures. The graft selection process also must include thorough donor screening and testing as well as harvesting the tissue in a sterile fashion. Utilization of higher dose (≥ 2.5 Mrad) of irradiation causes greater allograft tissue laxity that results in greater graft failure rate clinically in patients after ACL reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Allograft ACL graft gamma irradiated with less than 2.2 Mrad appears to be a reasonable alternative to autograft for patients above 25 years of age. PMID:27335815

  17. Kidney Allograft Stone after Kidney Transplantation and its Association with Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee-Zavareh, M. S.; Ajudani, R.; Ramezani Binabaj, M.; Heydari, F.; Einollahi, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is said that renal transplantation lithiasis is rare. However, literature has some different frequencies in this field and most of the studies related to this issue are case reports. Also the exact effect of this complication on the graft survival rate is not clear. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nephrolithiasis among kidney transplant recipients and evaluate its association with the graft survival. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of renal stone among 574 kidney transplant patients aged ≥18 years who had undergone renal transplantation in Baqiyatallah Transplant Center between 1990 and 2010. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the effect of renal stone on the graft survival. Results: The mean±SD follow-up time was 55±53 months. Kidney stones were diagnosed in 31 (4.4%) of all 574 kidney transplants studied. Cox regression analysis revealed that nephrolithiasis after transplantation had no significant effects on the survival of the transplanted kidney (OR 1.04, CI: 0.708–1.54). Conclusion: For the first time, we showed that nephrolithiasis in recipients does not have a significant effect on the transplant survival. PMID:26306157

  18. Preserved saphenous vein allografts for vascular access.

    PubMed

    Piccone, V A; Sika, J; Ahmed, N; LeVeen, H H; DiScala, V

    1978-09-01

    Preserved venous allografts were used as an alternate access procedure in 70 patients receiving dialysis during a three year period. The clinical experience with allograft fistulas revealed an extremely high initial patency rate; absence of infection postoperatively and during three years of dialysis; suitability for dialysis a week after implantation, thus greatly obviating the need for Silastic shunts; a low long term thrombosis rate and the weakly antigenic allograft veins produced no accelerated rejection of subsequently transplanted kidneys. Surviving patients average 172 dialysis treatments per allograft. Allograft fistulas constituted 45 per cent of the last 100 vascular procedures, an indication of the extent of usage. Microscopic examination of grafts retrieved from patients who died during the late follow-up period demonstrated that structural components of the wall of the vein were still identifiable. Allograft venous fistulas offer dependable, safe vascular access, especially in the infection prone patient with diabetes who is receiving dialysis treatment. The clinical results of allograft fistulas suggests a major role for this technique in vascular access operations. PMID:684591

  19. Implementation and Results of a Percutaneous Renal Allograft Biopsy Protocol to Reduce Complication Rate.

    PubMed

    Li, Charles H; Traube, Laura E; Lu, David S; Raman, Steven S; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Gritsch, Hans A; McWilliams, Justin P

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous renal transplant biopsy (PRTB) is the gold standard for evaluating allograft rejection after renal transplant. Hemorrhage is the predominant complication. We describe the implementation of a standardized protocol for PRTB at a single institution, with the aim of reducing bleeding complications. Utilizing the plan-do-study-act model for quality improvement, we created and deployed a protocol centered on controlling patient's hypertension, platelet function, and anticoagulation status. The 4-year study encompassed a total of 880 PRTBs, before and after implementation of the protocol. Total complication rate, which was 5.8% in the 2 years leading up to implementation of the protocol, was reduced to 2.9% after the protocol was introduced (P = .04). A standardized approach to PRTB can potentially lower complication rates; we present a framework for implementating a quality improvement protocol at other institutions. PMID:26970700

  20. Similar patient survival following kidney allograft failure compared with non-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Georges; Minguet, Johanna; Pernin, Vincent; Garrigue, Valérie; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Kessler, Michèle; Jacquelinet, Christian; Couchoud, Cécile; Duny, Yohan; Daurès, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Data from the national French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry were used to compare survival between transplant recipients under age 65 who resumed dialysis after graft failure during 2007-2009 and transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients matched for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, and year of starting dialysis. Among 911 transplant patients who returned to dialysis, 103 had died by 1 January 2011. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 48 years, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and inability to walk unassisted were significant predictors of death. In the case-control analysis, the observed mortality rates in 778 transplant failure and 778 transplant-naïve dialysis patients were 11.8 and 10.8%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival after transplant failure vs. the transplant-naïve controls were 95.2 vs. 94.1% at 1 year, 90.3 vs. 88.8% at 2 years, and 84.2 vs. 80.2% at 3 years (log rank P=0.197 overall). Dialysis in transplant failure vs. transplant-naïve patients was not associated with significantly increased mortality. At the start of dialysis, the serum creatinine levels and the rate of unplanned dialysis were significantly lower in transplant failure patients compared with transplant-naïve controls. Thus, in patients under 65 years of age in France, survival of dialysis patients after graft loss is similar to that of incident dialysis patients who have not undergone transplantation. PMID:24552850

  1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  2. Immune Privilege of Corneal Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Niederkorn, Jerry Y.; Larkin, D. Frank P.

    2013-01-01

    Corneal transplantation has been performed successfully for over 100 years. Normally, HLA typing and systemic immunosuppressive drugs are not utilized, yet 90% of corneal allografts survive. In rodents, corneal allografts representing maximal histoincompatibility enjoy >50% survival even without immunosuppressive drugs. By contrast, other categories of transplants are invariably rejected in such donor/host combinations. The acceptance of corneal allografts compared to other categories of allografts is called immune privilege. The cornea expresses factors that contribute to immune privilege by preventing the induction and expression of immune responses to histocompatibility antigens on the corneal allograft. Among these are soluble and cell membrane molecules that block immune effector elements and also apoptosis of T lymphocytes. However, some conditions rob the corneal allograft of its immune privilege and promote rejection, which remains the leading cause of corneal allograft failure. Recent studies have examined new strategies for restoring immune privilege to such high-risk hosts. PMID:20482389

  3. Bax siRNA promotes survival of cultured and allografted granule cell precursors through blockade of caspase-3 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhokhov, S S; Desfeux, A; Aubert, N; Falluel-Morel, A; Fournier, A; Laudenbach, V; Vaudry, H; Gonzalez, B J

    2008-06-01

    Transplantation of neuronal precursor cells (NPCs) into the central nervous system could represent a powerful therapeutical tool against neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, numerous NPCs die shortly after transplantation, predominantly due to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Using a culture of cerebellar neuronal precursors, we have previously demonstrated protective effect of the neuropeptide PACAP, which suppresses ceramide-induced apoptosis by blockade of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The main objective of this study was to determine whether Bax repression can promote survival of NPCs allotransplanted into a host animal. In vivo and ex vivo experiments revealed that C2-ceramide increases Bax expression, while PACAP reverses this effect. In vitro tests using cerebellar NPCs demonstrated that the Bax-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) could reduce their death and caspase-3 cleavage within the first 24 h. BrdU-labelled NPCs were subjected to transfection procedure with or without siRNA introduction before using for in vivo transplantation. Twenty-four hours after, the allografted NPCs containing siRNA showed significantly reduced level of caspase-3 cleavage, and the volume of their implants was almost twofold higher than in the case of empty-transfected precursors. These data evidence an important role of Bax in life/death decision of grafted NPCs and suggest that RNA interference strategy may be applicable for maintaining NPCs survival within the critical first hours after their transplantation. PMID:18323863

  4. Regulatory T cell expressed MyD88 is critical for prolongation of allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Borges, Christopher M; Reichenbach, Dawn K; Kim, Beom Seok; Misra, Aditya; Blazar, Bruce R; Turka, Laurence A

    2016-08-01

    MyD88 signaling directly promotes T-cell survival and is required for optimal T-cell responses to pathogens. To examine the role of T-cell-intrinsic MyD88 signals in transplantation, we studied mice with targeted T-cell-specific MyD88 deletion. Contrary to expectations, we found that these mice were relatively resistant to prolongation of graft survival with anti-CD154 plus rapamycin in a class II-mismatched system. To specifically examine the role of MyD88 in Tregs, we created a Treg-specific MyD88-deficient mouse. Transplant studies in these animals replicated the findings observed with a global T-cell MyD88 knockout. Surprisingly, given the role of MyD88 in conventional T-cell survival, we found no defect in the survival of MyD88-deficient Tregs in vitro or in the transplant recipients and also observed intact cell homing and expression of Treg effector molecules. MyD88-deficient Tregs also fail to protect allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients from chronic graft-versus-host disease, confirming the observations of defective regulation seen in a solid organ transplant system. Together, our data define MyD88 as having a divergent requirement for cell survival in non-Tregs and Tregs, and a yet-to-be defined survival-independent requirement for Treg function during the response to alloantigen. PMID:27112509

  5. Quantitative podocyte parameters predict human native kidney and allograft half-lives

    PubMed Central

    Cibrik, Diane; Hodgin, Jeffrey B.; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Min; Kikuchi, Masao; Wickman, Larysa; Samaniego, Milagros; Bitzer, Markus; Wiggins, Jocelyn E.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Li, Yi; Wiggins, Roger C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Kidney function decreases with age. A potential mechanistic explanation for kidney and allograft half-life has evolved through the realization that linear reduction in glomerular podocyte density could drive progressive glomerulosclerosis to impact both native kidney and allograft half-lives. METHODS Predictions from podometrics (quantitation of podocyte parameters) were tested using independent pathologic, functional, and outcome data for native kidneys and allografts derived from published reports and large registries. RESULTS With age, native kidneys exponentially develop glomerulosclerosis, reduced renal function, and end-stage kidney disease, projecting a finite average kidney life span. The slope of allograft failure rate versus age parallels that of reduction in podocyte density versus age. Quantitative modeling projects allograft half-life at any donor age, and rate of podocyte detachment parallels the observed allograft loss rate. CONCLUSION Native kidneys are designed to have a limited average life span of about 100–140 years. Allografts undergo an accelerated aging-like process that accounts for their unexpectedly short half-life (about 15 years), the observation that older donor age is associated with shorter allograft half-life, and the fact that long-term allograft survival has not substantially improved. Podometrics provides potential readouts for these processes, thereby offering new approaches for monitoring and intervention. FUNDING National Institutes of Health. PMID:27280173

  6. Length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation is a critical factor affecting patient survival after allografting.

    PubMed

    West, J C; Bisordi, J E; Squiers, E C; Latsha, R; Miller, J; Kelley, S E

    1992-01-01

    Within the past year at our transplant center we have had the experience of performing renal allografts in two patients older than 65 years, each of whom had been on hemodialysis more than 10 years. Both resulted in patient mortality within 90 days of transplant (one due to myocardial infarction, the other due to visceral ischemia with infarction). This prompted us to review retrospectively our own data (n = 204) and the national (UNOS) data (n = 10,971) regarding transplant outcome, patient age, and length of time on dialysis prior to renal transplantation. This review revealed that patient mortality after transplant increased with the length of end-stage renal disease (dialysis, regardless of type) independent of age, the greatest mortality occurring within the first 6 months of transplant (and not thereafter); graft survival was similar for all age cohorts analyzed. Our review of the literature reveals a paucity of articles pertaining to post-transplant mortality and length of time on dialysis prior to transplant. Our results indicate the following possible conclusions. (1) The length of time of end-stage renal disease therapy prior to renal transplantation is a significant and independent risk factor for post-transplant mortality. (2) Higher priority should be given to this factor when formulating strategies for allocation of scarce resources. (3) Patients on dialysis for extended periods of time who are elderly may be at particularly high risk. (4) Patients being considered for renal transplant should be informed of their individual risk factors for mortality post-transplant based on length of ESRD therapy. (5) Renal transplantation should be considered as early as possible in patients with ESRD (or imminent ESRD). PMID:14621760

  7. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  8. A Biodegradable, Sustained-Released, Prednisolone Acetate Microfilm Drug Delivery System Effectively Prolongs Corneal Allograft Survival in the Rat Keratoplasty Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Chi; Peng, Yan; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Venkatraman, Subbu S.

    2013-01-01

    Frequent and long-term use of topical corticosteroids after corneal transplantation is necessary to prevent graft rejection. However, it relies heavily on patient compliance, and sustained therapeutic drug levels are often not achieved with administration of topical eye drops. A biodegradable drug delivery system with a controlled and sustained drug release may circumvent these limitations. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a prednisolone acetate (PA)-loaded poly (d,l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLC) microfilm drug delivery system on promoting the survival of allogeneic grafts after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) using a rat model. The drug release profiles of the microfilms were characterized (group 1). Subsequently, forty-eight PK were performed in four experimental groups: syngeneic control grafts (group 2), allogeneic control grafts (group 3), allogeneic grafts with subconjunctivally-implanted PA microfilm (group 4), and allogeneic grafts with PA eye drops (group 5; n = 12 in each). PA-loaded microfilm achieved a sustained and steady release at a rate of 0.006–0.009 mg/day, with a consistent aqueous drug concentration of 207–209 ng/ml. The mean survival days was >28 days in group 2, 9.9±0.8 days in group 3, 26.8±2.7 days in group 4, and 26.4±3.4 days in group 5 (P = 0.023 and P = 0.027 compared with group 3). Statistically significant decrease in CD4+, CD163+, CD 25+, and CD54+ cell infiltration was observed in group 4 and group 5 compared with group 3 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the mean survival and immunohistochemical analysis between group 4 and group 5. These results showed that sustained PA-loaded microfilm effectively prolongs corneal allograft survival. It is as effective as conventional PA eye drops, providing a promising clinically applicable alternative for patients undergoing corneal transplantation. PMID:23940573

  9. MicroRNA-155 may affect allograft survival by regulating the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maomao; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Yin, Li; Yu, Bo; Wu, Jian

    2011-10-01

    Immune rejection of organ transplants has life-threatening implications. It is believed that allograft rejection is initiated by the activation of lymphocytes following recognition of donor antigens, leading to generation of effector T lymphocytes, alloantibody production, and graft infiltration by alloreactive cells. There is solid evidence that miRNAs are integral for maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. A deeper understanding of the regulation of the immune response by miRNAs could define new mechanisms for manipulating graft immunity and preventing rejection. The miRNA miR-155 is of particular interest due to its known roles in regulating the expression of genes relevant to allograft rejection and the induction of immune tolerance. Indeed, miR-155 has been shown to dramatically impact both innate and adaptive immune processes, including inflammation, antigen presentation, T-cell differentiation, cytokine production, and T regulatory cell (Treg) functions. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a critical regulator of immune cell function and an evolutionarily conserved target of miR-155 in breast cancer cells. We propose that suppression of miR-155 could enhance SOCS1 expression in immune cells and suppress allograft rejection. Further studies on the specific role of miR-155 in allograft rejection may lead to the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21802214

  10. NAD+ regulates Treg cell fate and promotes allograft survival via a systemic IL-10 production that is CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells independent

    PubMed Central

    Elkhal, Abdallah; Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Hector; Heinbokel, Timm; Uehara, Hirofumi; Quante, Markus; Seyda, Midas; Schuitenmaker, Jeroen M.; Krenzien, Felix; Camacho, Virginia; de la Fuente, Miguel A.; Ghiran, Ionita; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs have been shown to play a central role in immune homeostasis while preventing from fatal inflammatory responses, while Th17 cells have traditionally been recognized as pro-inflammatory mediators implicated in a myriad of diseases. Studies have shown the potential of Tregs to convert into Th17 cells, and Th17 cells into Tregs. Increasing evidence have pointed out CD25 as a key molecule during this transdifferentiation process, however molecules that allow such development remain unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of NAD+ on the fate of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Tregs in-depth, dissected their transcriptional signature profile and explored mechanisms underlying their conversion into IL-17A producing cells. Our results demonstrate that NAD+ promotes Treg conversion into Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo via CD25 cell surface marker. Despite the reduced number of Tregs, known to promote homeostasis, and an increased number of pro-inflammatory Th17 cells, NAD+ was able to promote an impressive allograft survival through a robust systemic IL-10 production that was CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ independent. Collectively, our study unravels a novel immunoregulatory mechanism of NAD+ that regulates Tregs fate while promoting allograft survival that may have clinical applications in alloimmunity and in a wide spectrum of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26928119

  11. Effectiveness evaluation of dendritic cell immunotherapy for osteosarcoma on survival rate and in vitro immune response.

    PubMed

    Fang, X; Jiang, C; Xia, Q

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dendritic cell (DC) therapy in osteosarcoma. Bone marrow DCs from Wistar (allograft group) and Sprague Dawley (SD) (homograft group) rats were electrically fused with the SD-derived osteosarcoma cell line UMR106 to generate a DC-osteosarcoma fusion (DOF) tumor vaccine, which was co-incubated with SD T lymphocytes to stimulate T cell proliferation. CD8+ and CD4+ cell percentages were measured by flow cytometry; tumor-cytotoxic effects of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were measured by the MTT assay. Active immunotherapy was applied to SD osteosarcoma model rats via subcutaneous injection of the tumor vaccine. Significant potentiation of T lymphocyte proliferation was observed in both groups. In the homograft group, the CD8+/CD4+ ratio was elevated to 78.2 from 55.1% after stimulation (P < 0.05) whereas the CD4+ cell percentage was reduced from 61.3 to 21.2% (P < 0.05). Similarly, in the allograft group the CD8+ and CD4+ cell percentages significantly increased (33.8 to 69.6%) or decreased (61.3 to 28.1%) after stimulation, respectively (P < 0.05). The preferential homograft group response was not significant (P > 0.05). Induced UMR106- specific CTLs showed a significantly higher tumor-cytotoxic effect after stimulation (P < 0.05). After DOF active immunotherapy, tumor bodies displayed atrophy or disappearance, leading to higher survival times and rates (60 and 70% in the allograft and homograft groups) (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that osteosarcoma immunotherapy using a DC-fused tumor vaccine can effectively stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation and induce the tumor-cytotoxic activity of CTLs. PMID:26436501

  12. Prolongation of skin allograft survival in rats by the transplantation of microencapsulated xenogeneic neonatal porcine Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Calvitti, Mario; Mancuso, Francesca; Arato, Iva; Falabella, Giulia; Cucchia, Rosa; Fallarino, Francesca; Becchetti, Alessio; Baroni, Tiziano; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Bodo, Maria; Becchetti, Ennio; Cameron, Don F; Luca, Giovanni; Calafiore, Riccardo

    2012-07-01

    Skin rejection remains a major hurdle in skin reconstructive transplantation surgery. In fact, 85% of the grafted patients experience at least one episode of acute skin rejection in the first year. It has been observed that Sertoli cells (SC), when co-transplanted with allo- or xenogeneic cell/tissues, can induce graft acceptance in the absence of systemic immunosuppression. A method aimed at significantly prolonging skin allografts in rats transplanted with barium alginate-based microencapsulated xenogeneic porcine SC (SC-MCs) is described. Results demonstrated that intraperitoneal (IP) transplantation of SC-MCs with high cellular viability and function can significantly prolong allogeneic skin grafts when compared to transplantation controls receiving only empty alginate capsules (E-MCs). Lymphocytic infiltration at the skin graft site was not observed in 80% of the SC-MCs transplanted rats and these recipient animals showed a significant increased expression of T regulatory (Tregs) cells when compared to E-MCs transplantation controls. The findings of this report further substantiate the positive therapeutic effects of SC on transplantation technology mediated by Sertoli cell-induced alterations of the host's immune system and indicate new perspectives and new strategies for successful skin tissue allografts. PMID:22560198

  13. An N-(alkylcarbonyl)anthranilic acid derivative prolongs cardiac allograft survival synergistically with cyclosporine A in a high-responder rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jibing; Xia, Junjie; Axelsson, Bengt; Fritzson, Ingela; Ekberg, Henrik; Törngren, Marie; Qi, Zhongquan

    2010-08-01

    We investigated the immunosuppressive effects of the dihydroortate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitor compounds ABR-222417 and ABR-224050 from Active Biotech (Sweden). We verified the inhibitory effects of these compounds on the proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells in vivo by using superantigen staphylococcus enterotoxin A (SEA)-mediated proliferation test. To evaluate their efficacy, the compounds were screened in a low-responder heart allograft transplantation model in rats [heart from Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) transplanted to Dark Agouti (DA)]. The immunosuppressive effects of the compounds were then investigated in a high-responder model (DA to PVG). Treatment with ABR-222417 (30 mg/kg) was more efficient than that with ABR-224050 (10 mg/kg), and the former provided a longer graft median survival time (MST, 29.5 days) than the latter (MST, 18.5 days). Furthermore, there was a marked increase in graft survival time (53 days) when low doses of ABR-222417 and cyclosporine A (CsA) were used in combination. No sign of tolerability problems was detected using this combination or when ABR-222417 was used singly at a higher dose. Furthermore, T-cell proliferation studies in vitro support that the anti proliferative effect of ABR-222417 is caused by inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis, which is the consequence of DHODH inhibition. These results show that ABR-222417 had marked immunosuppressive effects on the heart allograft transplantation and that it exerts an even more powerful inhibitory effect on graft rejection when used in combination with CsA, with good tolerability. PMID:20553870

  14. Factors Predicting Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nicholas; Asplin, Laura; Thompson, Peter; Spalding, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is performed to improve symptoms and function in patients with a meniscal-deficient compartment of the knee. Numerous studies have shown a consistent improvement in patient-reported outcomes, but high failure rates have been reported by some studies. The typical patients undergoing MAT often have multiple other pathologies that require treatment at the time of surgery. The factors that predict failure of a meniscal allograft within this complex patient group are not clearly defined. Purpose: To determine predictors of MAT failure in a large series to refine the indications for surgery and better inform future patients. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients undergoing MAT at a single institution between May 2005 and May 2014 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were prospectively evaluated and included in this study. Failure was defined as removal of the allograft, revision transplantation, or conversion to a joint replacement. Patients were grouped according to the articular cartilage status at the time of the index surgery: group 1, intact or partial-thickness chondral loss; group 2, full-thickness chondral loss 1 condyle; and group 3, full-thickness chondral loss both condyles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine significant predictors of failure, independently of other factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced for overall survival and significant predictors of failure in the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: There were 125 consecutive MATs performed, with 1 patient lost to follow-up. The median follow-up was 3 years (range, 1-10 years). The 5-year graft survival for the entire cohort was 82% (group 1, 97%; group 2, 82%; group 3, 62%). The probability of failure in group 1 was 85% lower (95% CI, 13%-97%) than in group 3 at any time. The probability of failure with lateral allografts was 76% lower (95% CI, 16%-89%) than medial allografts at

  15. Excellent long term patient and renal allograft survival after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: Experience of one center

    PubMed Central

    Melexopoulou, Christina; Marinaki, Smaragdi; Liapis, George; Skalioti, Chrysanthi; Gavalaki, Maria; Zavos, George; Boletis, John N

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term results of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation in a single center in Greece. METHODS: Thirty consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations were performed from June 2005 to December 2013. All patients received rituximab one month prior to transplantation. Immunoadsorption therapy was performed for the removal of anti-A/B IgG antibodies until the titer was ≤ 1:16. Additional apheresis sessions were performed post-operatively. Intravenous immunoglobulin and oral immunosuppression consisting of tacrolimus (TAC) in combination with either everolimus or mycophenolate acid was administered. We compared the long term results of our ABOi group to those of a matched group of 30 ABO compatible (ABOc) living kidney recipients with similar baseline characteristics. The ABOc recipients received an immunosuppressive regimen consisting of TAC and mycophenolate acid. All patients in both groups received induction therapy with Basiliximab or Daclizumab, whereas corticosteroids were instituted on the day of surgery. During the follow-up period, indication biopsies were performed and interpreted by an experienced nephropathologist. The parameters we analyzed included the following: Donor/recipient age, gender, blood type, human leukocyte antigen mismatches, panel reactive antibodies, primary cause of renal failure, mean time on dialysis, immunosuppressive regimen, patient survival, graft outcome, incidence of rejections, surgical and infectious complications. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 6 years (range 1 to 9 years). A mean of 5.0 ± 3.0 (range 0-14) pre-transplant immunoadsorptions were required in order to reach the target titer. Patient survival in ABOi group in comparison to ABOc group at 1, 3, 5 and 8 years did not differ significantly (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 100%, 92% vs 100% and 92% vs 100%, P = ns). Additionally, graft survival was similar in the two groups at the same time points (100% vs 100%, 96% vs 96%, 92% vs 96% and 81

  16. Cutting Edge: CTLA-4Ig Inhibits Memory B Cell Responses and Promotes Allograft Survival in Sensitized Recipients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Qiang; Yin, Dengping; Vu, Vinh; Sciammas, Roger; Chong, Anita S

    2015-11-01

    Sensitized recipients with pretransplant donor-specific Abs are at higher risk for Ab-mediated rejection than nonsensitized recipients, yet little is known about the properties of memory B cells that are central to the recall alloantibody responses. Using cell enrichment and MHC class I tetramers, C57BL/6 mice sensitized with BALB/c splenocytes were shown to harbor H-2K(d)-specific IgG(+) memory B cells with a post-germinal center phenotype (CD73(+)CD273(+)CD38(hi)CD138(-)GL7(-)). These memory B cells adoptively transferred into naive mice without memory T cells recapitulated class-switched recall alloantibody responses. During recall, memory H-2K(d)-specific B cells preferentially differentiated into Ab-secreting cells, whereas in the primary response, H-2K(d)-specific B cells differentiated into germinal center cells. Finally, our studies revealed that, despite fundamental differences in alloreactive B cell fates in sensitized versus naive recipients, CTLA-4Ig was unexpectedly effective at constraining B cell responses and heart allograft rejection in sensitized recipients. PMID:26416270

  17. Development of cytotoxic antibodies following renal allograft transplantation is associated with reduced graft survival due to chronic vascular rejection.

    PubMed

    Davenport, A; Younie, M E; Parsons, J E; Klouda, P T

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively followed 64 patients who had had no cytotoxic antibodies prior to first cadaveric renal allograft transplantation for post-transplant antibodies. During a mean follow-up period of 62 months (range 45-92) cytotoxic antibodies developed in 36 patients (56%). Sixteen grafts were lost due to chronic vascular rejection in the group of patients who developed antibodies compared to two in those who remained antibody negative, P < 0.01. Renal function was worse in the antibody-positive group, median serum creatinine 215 mumol/l (131-256) (interquartile range) versus 111 mumol/l (98-127) in the antibody-negative group, P = 0.002, and creatinine clearance 39 ml/min (25-55) versus 90 ml/min (55-104), P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in immunosuppressive protocol, HLA-mismatching, blood transfusion history, the number of acute rejection episodes, mean arterial blood pressure, or proteinuria between the groups. The presence of cytotoxic antibodies predated the classical manifestations of chronic vascular rejection. This suggests that humoral mechanisms may play a role in the development of chronic vascular rejection. PMID:7816298

  18. Survival and band recovery rates of mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, M.; Caithness, T.

    1990-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ) were banded at 4 discrete study areas in New Zealand. We used hunting season recoveries in conjunction with band recovery models to estimate annual survival and recovery rates and to test hypotheses about sources of variation in these rates. Recovery rates varied among the 4 areas and from year to year within areas. Recovery rates were generally higher for young mallards than for adults, and recovery rates of males were higher than those of females. Survival rates varied among the 4 areas and from year to year within some areas. Survival rates of females were lower than those of males, but survival rates of young birds were not consistently lower than those of adults. Average survival rates over all 4 areas were generally lower than averages for North American mallards.

  19. Allograft rejection in cattle with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency.

    PubMed

    Müller, K E; Rutten, V P; Becker, C K; Hoek, A; Bernadina, W E; Wentink, G H; Figdor, C G

    1995-09-01

    In the present investigation cell-mediated immunity in animals with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was studied by means of skin transplantation experiments. Autograft and allograft behaviour in animals with BLAD was compared with the behaviour of simultaneously transplanted autografts and allografts in healthy controls. Allograft survival time was prolonged in three BLAD cattle (28, 30, and 72 days) compared to six healthy controls (12-14 days). When transplantations were repeated on one animal with BLAD using skin grafts from the same donor, accelerated rejection was observed (allograft survival time decreased from 72 days at primary to 35 days at secondary and to 21 days at tertiary transplantation), suggesting the development of immunological memory. Graft-infiltrating lymphocytes that were obtained from allograft biopsies during the period of rejection, were shown to be from recipient origin (beta 2-integrin negative). Our findings demonstrate that, although prolonged allograft survival is observed in cattle with BLAD, skin allografts are ultimately rejected. PMID:8533316

  20. Pre-Transplant Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affect Kidney Allograft Survival: A Multi-Center Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Pyo; Bae, Eunjin; Kang, Eunjeong; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Yong-Jin; Oh, Yun Kyu; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Young Hoon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-transplant cardiovascular (CV) risk factors affect the development of CV events even after successful kidney transplantation (KT). However, the impact of pre-transplant CV risk factors on allograft failure (GF) has not been reported. Methods and Findings We analyzed the graft outcomes of 2,902 KT recipients who were enrolled in a multi-center cohort from 1997 to 2012. We calculated the pre-transplant CV risk scores based on the Framingham risk model using age, gender, total cholesterol level, smoking status, and history of hypertension. Vascular disease (a composite of ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease) was noted in 6.5% of the patients. During the median follow-up of 6.4 years, 286 (9.9%) patients had developed GF. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model, pre-transplant vascular disease was associated with an increased risk of GF (HR 2.51; 95% CI 1.66–3.80). The HR for GF (comparing the highest with the lowest tertile regarding the pre-transplant CV risk scores) was 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.23). In the competing risk model, both pre-transplant vascular disease and CV risk score were independent risk factors for GF. Moreover, the addition of the CV risk score, the pre-transplant vascular disease, or both had a better predictability for GF compared to the traditional GF risk factors. Conclusions In conclusion, both vascular disease and pre-transplant CV risk score were independently associated with GF in this multi-center study. Pre-transplant CV risk assessments could be useful in predicting GF in KT recipients. PMID:27501048

  1. Survival rate of airborne Mycobacterium bovis.

    PubMed

    Gannon, B W; Hayes, C M; Roe, J M

    2007-04-01

    Despite years of study the principle transmission route of bovine tuberculosis to cattle remains unresolved. The distribution of pathological lesions, which are concentrated in the respiratory system, and the very low dose of Mycobacterium bovis needed to initiate infection from a respiratory tract challenge suggest that the disease is spread by airborne transmission. Critical to the airborne transmission of a pathogenic microorganism is its ability to survive the stresses incurred whilst airborne. This study demonstrates that M. bovis is resistant to the stresses imposed immediately after becoming airborne, 94% surviving the first 10 min after aerosolisation. Once airborne the organism is robust, its viability decreasing with a half-life of approximately 1.5 hours. These findings support the hypothesis that airborne transmission is the principle route of infection for bovine tuberculosis. PMID:17045316

  2. Chimeric Allografts Induced by Short-Term Treatment With Stem Cell-Mobilizing Agents Result in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Survival Without Immunosuppression: A Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Okabayashi, T; Cameron, A M; Wang, Y; Hisada, M; Li, J; Raccusen, L C; Zheng, Q; Montgomery, R A; Williams, G M; Sun, Z

    2016-07-01

    Transplant tolerance allowing the elimination of lifelong immunosuppression has been the goal of research for 60 years. The induction of mixed chimerism has shown promise and has been extended successfully to large animals and to the clinic; however, it remains cumbersome and requires heavy early immunosuppression. In this study, we reported that four injections of AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, plus eight injections of low-dose FK506 (0.05 mg/kg per day) in the first week after kidney transplantation extended survival, but death from renal failure occurred at 30-90 days. Repeating the same course of AMD3100 and FK506 at 1, 2 and 3 mo after transplant resulted in 92% allograft acceptance (n = 12) at 7 mo, normal kidney function and histology with no further treatment. Transplant acceptance was associated with the influx of host stem cells, resulting in a hybrid kidney and a modulated host immune response. Confirmation of these results could initiate a paradigm shift in posttransplant therapy. PMID:26749344

  3. The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

  4. Survival rates of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Noh, Mohamed Asyraf; Bakhtiar, Mohammed Faizal; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mahmud, Siti Haniza; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate. PMID:25854407

  5. Immunosuppressive effect of the anti-IL-2-receptor monoclonal antibody, AMT-13, on organ-cultured fetal pancreas allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhardt, K.; Loughnan, M.S.; Diamantstein, T.; Mandel, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    Recently, prolongation of cardiac allograft survival in mice was reported using a rat anti-IL-2R mAb (AMT-13). However, its immunosuppressive action in vivo, alone and in combination with other immunosuppressants, and its effect on other organ transplants has not been extensively studied. We grafted cultured fetal pancreas from CBA (H-2k) donors to Balb/c (H-2d) mice. Recipients were treated with 10 consecutive daily injections each of 20 micrograms AMT-13 only, or with an additional mild immunosuppression of 350 rads irradiation. Control groups received rat immunoglobulin or 350 rads irradiation. Graft survival and the phenotype of infiltrating cells were assessed histologically and immunocytochemically on days 12, 17, and 21, and soluble IL-2R levels were measured in the serum with a quantitative ELISA in all recipients. Two of five grafts in the AMT-13-treated group had islets on day 12 posttransplantation despite lymphocytic infiltration in all grafts, while at this time all grafts of rat Ig treated control mice were completely rejected with only scar tissue and a few lymphocytes remaining. Additional immunosuppression with 350 rads irradiation had a marked additive effect with AMT-13. Soluble IL-2R levels in the serum of untreated recipients were not elevated compared with normal serum levels, but recipients injected with AMT-13 had multifold increased soluble IL-2R levels. The percentage of IL-2R+ cells in the grafts of AMT-13-treated animals was either normal (less than 5%) or increased (20%) in the additionally irradiated mice, providing strong evidence that the immunosuppressive effect of AMT-13 is not due to a depletion of activated IL-2R+ lymphocytes.

  6. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Is Associated With an Increased Rate of Acute Rejection in Lung Transplant Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Shah, N.S.; Force, S.D.; Mitchell, P.O.; Lin, E.; Lawrence, E.C.; Easley, K.; Qian, J.; Ramirez, A.; Neujahr, D.C.; Gal, A.; Leeper, K.; Pelaez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Gastric fundoplication (GF) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may protect against the progression of chronic rejection in lung transplant (LT) recipients. However, the association of GERD with acute rejection episodes (ARE) is uncertain. This study sought to identify if ARE were linked to GERD in LT patients. Methods This single-center retrospective observational study, of patients transplanted from January 1, 2000, to January 31, 2009, correlated results of pH probe testing for GERD with ARE (≥International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation A1 or B1). We compared the rates of ARE among patients with GERD (DeMeester Score > 14.7) versus without GERD as number of ARE per 1,000 patient-days after LT. Patients undergoing GF prior to LT were excluded. Results The analysis included 60 LT subjects and 9,249 patient-days: 33 with GERD versus 27 without GERD. We observed 51 ARE among 60 LT recipients. The rate of ARE was highest among patients with GERD: 8.49 versus 2.58, an incidence density ratio (IDR) of 3.29 (P = .00016). Upon multivariate negative binomial regression modeling, only GERD was associated with ARE (IDR 2.15; P = .009). Furthermore, GERD was associated with multiple ARE (36.4% vs 0%; P < .0001) and earlier onset compared with patients without GERD: ARE proportion at 2 months was 0.55 versus 0.26 P = .004). Conclusion In LT recipients, GERD was associated with a higher rate, multiple events, and earlier onset of ARE. The efficacy of GF to reduce ARE among patients with GERD needs further evaluation. PMID:20832573

  7. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  8. The risk of allograft failure and the survival benefit of kidney transplantation are complicated by delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jagbir; Dong, Jianghu; Rose, Caren; Gill, John S

    2016-06-01

    Concern about the long-term impact of delayed graft function (DGF) may limit the use of high-risk organs for kidney transplantation. To understand this better, we analyzed 29,598 mate kidney transplants from the same deceased donor where only 1 transplant developed DGF. The DGF associated risk of graft failure was greatest in the first posttransplant year, and in patients with concomitant acute rejection (hazard ratio: 8.22, 95% confidence interval: 4.76-14.21). In contrast, the DGF-associated risk of graft failure after the first posttransplant year in patients without acute rejection was far lower (hazard ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.29). In subsequent analysis, recipients of transplants complicated by DGF still derived a survival benefit when compared with patients who received treatment with dialysis irrespective of donor quality as measured by the Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI). The difference in the time required to derive a survival benefit was longer in transplants with DGF than in transplants without DGF, and this difference was greatest in recipients of lower quality kidneys (difference: 250-279 days for KDPI 20%-60% vs. 809 days for the KDPI over 80%). Thus, the association of DGF with graft failure is primarily limited to the first posttransplant year. Transplants complicated by DGF provide a survival benefit compared to treatment with dialysis, but the survival benefit is lower in kidney transplants with lower KDPI. This information may increase acceptance of kidneys at high risk for DGF and inform strategies to minimize the risk of death in the setting of DGF. PMID:27165823

  9. Survival rates of children with severe neurologic disabilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Plioplys, Audrius V

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of accurate survival rates of children with neurologic disabilities is important for third-party insurance payers planning future medical expenses. This is of particular importance to pediatric skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that depend on financial support from governmental sources. Eyman published survival rate results from California that were extremely pessimistic and not in keeping with our clinical impressions. This led us to conduct a thorough review of our survival rates, which were much better than those reported by Eyman. Since the publication of our study, a large number of reports have appeared from many different countries, as well as further information from California using an expanded database. The survival rate data that we obtained remain consistently better than that in most recent reports. In the California results, 10-year survival rates for the most-disabled group (group 1) were reported to be 32% in 1993 and 45% in 1998, compared with 73% in our study. Eight-year survival rates for group 1 from California were reported to be 38% in 1993 and 63% in 2000, compared with our finding of 73%. The reasons for our better survival rates include the fact that all of our patients were in SNFs, where prompt medical care for acute illnesses was always provided, whereas only 3.5% of the study group was in SNFs in California. Also, the California data contained many methodologic and statistical errors, which are reviewed here. PMID:14572148

  10. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  11. Aortic valve allografts in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, John; Hill, G. L.

    1968-01-01

    Some of the mechnical and biological problems surrounding the use of fresh allograft inverted aortic valves as mitral valve substitutes are described. Certain aspects of the problem have been studied experimentally. In three sheep `fresh' aortic valve allografts were inserted, using cardiopulmonary bypass, into the main pulmonary artery, and were observed from 5 to 7 months after operation. The animals survived normally. Their normal pulmonary valves remained in situ. The technique is described. At subsequent necropsy, macroscopically the valves were found to be free from vegetation, and the cusps were pliable and apparently normal. Microscopically, the supporting allograft myocardium showed necrosis and early calcification. The valve cusp showed hyalinization of collagen, although beneath the endocardium this hyalinized collagen contained moderate numbers of fibroblasts with no evidence of proliferation. The endocardium and arterial intima of the allograft showed evidence of ingrowth from adjacent normal host endocardial tissues. The allograft itself was invested in a loose layer of fibro-fatty tissue, which, in view of the necrotic state of the graft myocardium, could well have been a reparative reaction rather than a homograft reaction. It is concluded that, although the cusps could function normally, the necrosis of the myocardium might in time lead to late failure of the graft. Further studies with the valve inserted at mitral level are indicated. Images PMID:5656757

  12. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  13. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  14. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  15. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  16. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled elder survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Moran, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  17. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  18. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  19. Balancing the Rates of New Bone Formation and Polymer Degradation Enhances Healing of Weight-Bearing Allograft/Polyurethane Composites in Rabbit Femoral Defects

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Jerald E.; Prieto, Edna M.; Zienkiewicz, Katarzyna J.; Guda, Teja; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bible, Jesse; Holt, Ginger E.

    2014-01-01

    There is a compelling clinical need for bone grafts with initial bone-like mechanical properties that actively remodel for repair of weight-bearing bone defects, such as fractures of the tibial plateau and vertebrae. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating remodeling of weight-bearing bone grafts in preclinical models, and consequently there is limited understanding of the mechanisms by which these grafts remodel in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of the rates of new bone formation, matrix resorption, and polymer degradation on healing of settable weight-bearing polyurethane/allograft composites in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model. The grafts induced progressive healing in vivo, as evidenced by an increase in new bone formation, as well as a decrease in residual allograft and polymer from 6 to 12 weeks. However, the mismatch between the rates of autocatalytic polymer degradation and zero-order (independent of time) new bone formation resulted in incomplete healing in the interior of the composite. Augmentation of the grafts with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 not only increased the rate of new bone formation, but also altered the degradation mechanism of the polymer to approximate a zero-order process. The consequent matching of the rates of new bone formation and polymer degradation resulted in more extensive healing at later time points in all regions of the graft. These observations underscore the importance of balancing the rates of new bone formation and degradation to promote healing of settable weight-bearing bone grafts that maintain bone-like strength, while actively remodeling. PMID:23941405

  20. CIRCUMFERENTIAL PROXIMAL FEMORAL ALLOGRAFTS IN TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY REVISION SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Bruno Dutra; Roos, Milton Valdomiro; Júnior, Antero Camisa; Lampert, Henrique Bonotto; da Silva, Matheus Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic results from patients who underwent femoral reconstruction secondary to loosening of total hip arthroplasty, using circumferential proximal femoral allografts and cemented implants. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 32 patients (33 hips) who underwent femoral reconstruction secondary to loosening of total hip arthroplasty, using circumferential proximal femoral allografts and cemented implants. Among these patients, 28 (29 hips) fulfilled all the requirements for this study. The mean follow-up was five years and two months. The clinical evaluation was done in accordance with the Harris Hip Score. Radiographically, the patients were assessed regarding reabsorption and consolidation of the allograft, migration of the greater trochanter, stability of the femoral component and heterotypic calcification. Results: The average preoperative Harris Hip Score was 32 points. At the last postoperative follow-up, the average score was 82 points. Allograft resorption of some degree was seen in nine hips (31%). Regarding consolidation, 24 cases (82.8%) showed full consolidation, three (10.3%) showed partial consolidation and two (6.9%) showed pseudarthrosis. All femoral components were stable. According to the criteria established, 27 cases (93.1%) were considered to be successful reconstructions after a mean follow-up of five years and two months. Conclusion: From the results obtained, it was concluded that use of circumferential proximal femoral allografts in selected cases of femoral reconstruction secondary to loosening of arthroplasty presented a high survival rate from the reconstruction over an average follow-up of five years and two months. PMID:27047896

  1. Infectious Triggers of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Gregson, Aric L

    2016-07-01

    Survival after lung transplantation is limited in large part due to the high incidence of chronic rejection, known as chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Pulmonary infections are a frequent complication in lung transplant recipients, due both to immunosuppressive medications and constant exposure of the lung allograft to the external environment via the airways. Infection is a recognized risk factor for the development of CLAD, and both acute infection and chronic lung allograft colonization with microorganisms increase the risk for CLAD. Acute infection by community acquired respiratory viruses, and the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are increasingly recognized as important risk factors for CLAD. Colonization by the fungus Aspergillus may also augment the risk of CLAD. Fostering this transition from healthy lung to CLAD in each of these infectious episodes is the persistence of an inflammatory lung allograft environment. PMID:27221821

  2. [A study on survival rates of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, G S; Chen, C H

    1996-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is seen predominantly after the fourth decade of life. We have retrospectively reviewed 103 patients (92 males and 11 females) with squamous cell carcinoma, which were confirmed by histopathologic examination and treated by surgical excision at Kaohsiung Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1991. The age of the patients ranged from 23 to 87 years. 39.8% of cases occurred on the buccal mucosa, 27.2% on the tongue, 15.5% on the gingiva of mandible, 8% on the maxilla, 7.8% on the lower lip and 1% on the floor of the mouth. 23.3% of the patients had stage I disease, 14.6% were stage II, 43.7% were stage III and 18.4% stage IV. Of 103 patients treated with wide excision, about 65% (17/103) of patients treated with wide excision and radical neck dissection or suprahyoid neck dissection, and 41% (42/103) were treated by a combination of radiation and surgery. 96% (99/103) of our cases have completed a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. The sex and age of the patients did not influence survival significantly. The 5-year survival rates were 62% for patients with stage I disease, 80% for patients with stage II disease, 42% for patients with stage III, and 19% for patients with stage IV disease. Stage at initial presentation was an important factor influencing survival. The location of the primary tumor did not significantly influence survival for early stage tumors (stage I & II). In terminal stage tumors (stage III & IV). those with carcinomas of the floor of the mouth, gingiva of the mandible, lip, and maxilla had a 5-year survival of 15%, those with carcinomas of the tongue had a 5-year survival of 47%, and those with carcinomas of the buccal mucosa had a favorable survival rate of 53%. The differences were significant (P = 0.017). PMID:8699569

  3. A high-fat diet containing lard accelerates prostate cancer progression and reduces survival rate in mice: possible contribution of adipose tissue-derived cytokines.

    PubMed

    Cho, Han Jin; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Park, Heesook; Song, Hyerim; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jung-In; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) containing lard on prostate cancer development and progression and its underlying mechanisms, transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) and TRAMP-C2 allograft models, as well as in vitro culture models, were employed. In TRAMP mice, HFD feeding increased the incidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma and decreased that of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral lobes of the prostate, which was accompanied by increased expression of proteins associated with proliferation and angiogenesis. HFD feeding also led to increased metastasis and decreased survival rate in TRAMP mice. In the allograft model, HFD increased solid tumor growth, the expression of proteins related to proliferation/angiogenesis, the number of lipid vacuoles in tumor tissues, and levels of several cytokines in serum and adipose tissue. In vitro results revealed that adipose tissue-conditioned media from HFD-fed mice stimulated the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and angiogenesis compared to those from control-diet-fed mice. These results indicate that the increase of adipose tissue-derived soluble factors by HFD feeding plays a role in the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer via endocrine and paracrine mechanisms. These results provide evidence that a HFD containing lard increases prostate cancer development and progression, thereby reducing the survival rate. PMID:25912035

  4. Allograft pancreas: pale acinar nodules.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Megan L; Drachenberg, Cinthia

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic pale-staining acinar nodules were characterized in native pancreas in the 1980s under a variety of names but have been infrequently reported since. We retrospectively studied the frequency and characteristics of pale acinar nodules in allograft pancreas biopsies, as compared to a sampling of native pancreas specimens at our center. Pale acinar nodules were present in 13% (9/69) of allograft biopsies from 22% (7/32) of transplant patients, and 23% (5/22) of native pancreas surgical specimens, although more nodules per pancreas area were present in allograft needle biopsies. Acinar nodules had size of 100 to 700 μm, were periodic acid-Schiff pale, were synaptophysin negative, stained more weakly with keratin CAM 5.2 compared to surrounding parenchyma, and had a low proliferative rate. Ultrastructural evaluation revealed paucity of zymogen granules with dilated cistern-like structures. In our experience, pale acinar nodules have similar features in allograft and native pancreas specimens, yet remain of uncertain etiology and significance. PMID:27063474

  5. Comparison of frozen and freeze-dried particulate bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Malinin, Theodore; Temple, H Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Freeze-dried and frozen particulate bone allografts are used interchangeably on the assumption that the biologic behavior of these grafts is similar. Dissimilarities in biologic behavior and differences in the rate and extent of bone incorporation of freeze-dried and frozen particulate grafts were demonstrated in a comparative study using a non-human primate model. Freeze-dried particulate allografts induced new bone formation and healing of the osseous defects much faster than the frozen allografts. PMID:17658506

  6. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  7. Relative survival rates after alternative therapies for uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Egan, K.M.; Glynn, R.J.; Howard, S.; Fante, R.G.; Albert, D.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Survival in a group of 556 patients with uveal melanoma treated by proton beam irradiation with a median follow-up of 5.3 years was compared with that of 238 patients enucleated during the same 10-year period as irradiated patients (July 1975 to December 1984) with a median follow-up of 8.8 years, and 257 patients enucleated during the preceding 10 years (January 1965 to June 1975) with a median follow-up of 17.0 years. Adjustments were made for known prognostic factors including age, tumor location, tumor height, and clinical estimate of tumor diameter (for enucleated patients this was estimated in a regression equation relating histologic to clinical measurement). The overall rate ratio for all cause mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9-1.6) for the concurrent enucleation series versus proton beam, and 1.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.1) for the earlier enucleation series versus proton beam. Relative rates of metastatic death, cancer death, and all cause mortality comparing alternative treatments were found to vary with time after treatment. Interval-specific rate ratios were evaluated using proportional hazards models fitted to separate time intervals after treatment. For all three outcomes, rate ratios were over two and statistically significant for the first 2 years after treatment and closer to one and nonsignificant after year 6 comparing the two enucleation groups with proton beam. Results suggest that treatment choice has little overall influence on survival in patients with uveal melanoma.

  8. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  9. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  10. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  11. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  12. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  13. Prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts in the primate with total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Els, D.; Du Toit, L.B.; Weideman, A.; Davids, H.; van der Merwe, E.

    1987-09-01

    The prolongation of segmental and pancreaticoduodenal allografts (PDA) by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA) was assessed in a well established total pancreatectomy, diabetic, primate transplantation model. Pancreatic transplantation was performed in 119 pancreatectomized baboons (Papio ursinus). Of a total of 109 allografts performed, 71 were segmental allografts (open duct drainage) and 38 PDA. Of 119 graft recipients, 10 received segmental pancreatic autografts. TLI and CsA administered separately to segmental allograft recipients resulted in modest allograft survival and indefinite graft survival was not observed. 8 of 17 (47%) segmental allograft recipients that received TLI and CsA had graft survival beyond 100 days, indicating highly significant pancreatic allograft survival. All long-term segmental allograft recipients were rendered normoglycemic (plasma glucose less than 8 mmol/L) by this immunosuppressive regimen. In contrast, poor results were observed in PDA recipients treated with TLI and CsA. Mean survival in 18 treated PDA recipients was 23.8 days, 8 survived longer than 20 days (44.4%), and 1 greater than 100 days (5.5%). Despite treatment, early rejection of the duodenum in PDA recipients frequently resulted in necrosis and perforation and contributed to a high morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that, in contrast to the significant prolongation of segmental allografts by TLI and CsA, poor immunosuppression was achieved by this regimen in PDA recipients and was associated with a high morbidity and mortality caused by early rejection of the duodenum.

  14. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. PMID:21055997

  15. Blockade of the integrin αLβ2 but not of integrins α4 and/or β7 significantly prolongs intestinal allograft survival in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarnacki, S; Auber, F; Cretolle, C; Camby, C; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Muller, W; Wagner, N; Brousse, N; Revillon, Y; Fischer, A; Cerf-Bensussan, N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Small bowel transplantation remains a difficult therapeutic option endangered by a high rate of rejection and infectious complications. To improve these clinical results, it is mandatory to set up animal models to test alternative immunosuppressive regimens which may lead to immunotolerance.
AIMS—To determine the value of blockade of αLβ2 (LFA-1) and α4 and β7 integrins (α4β1, α4β7, and αEβ7) in the prevention of rejection of fetal small bowel grafts in mice and the effect of the association of calcineurin dependent drugs in anti-LFA-1 treated mice.
METHODS—Adult recipient mice engrafted with allogeneic fetal small bowel received a short course of anti-α4 and/or anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with or without FK506 or cyclosporin A. In addition, in a set of experiment, β7−/− mice were used as recipients. Graft biopsies were performed and processed for standard histology.
RESULTS—Blockade of the pathways of the integrins α4 and β7 had a modest or no effect on intestinal graft survival. In contrast, transitory, short administration of anti-LFA-1 monoclonal antibody alone, when started before engraftment (day −1), allowed long term survival of intestinal grafts, even when associated with calcineurin dependent drugs. However, early withdrawal of FK506 reversed the immunosuppressive effect of anti-LFA-1 treatment.
CONCLUSION—These results suggest that firstly, anti-LFA-1, but not anti-α4 mAb treatment, may be useful in improving the results of intestinal transplantation, and secondly, that this treatment is not incompatible with long term administration of tacrolimus currently used in the prevention of small bowel graft rejection in humans.


Keywords: small bowel transplantation; integrins; calcineurin; tolerance; mouse PMID:10861270

  16. Disruption of Murine Cardiac Allograft Acceptance by Latent Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Charles H.; Bickerstaff, Alice A.; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Zimmerman, Peter D.; Forster, Meghan R.; Nadasdy, Tibor; Colvin, Robert B.; Hadley, Gregg A.; Orosz, Charles G.

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is a well described complication of solid organ transplantation. These studies were performed to 1.) determine if cardiac allograft transplantation of latently infected recipients results in reactivation of CMV, and 2.) determine what impact CMV might have on development of graft acceptance/tolerance. BALB/c cardiac allografts were transplanted into C57BL/6 mice with/without latent murine CMV (MCMV). Recipients were treated with gallium nitrate induction and monitored for graft survival, viral immunity, and donor reactive DTH responses. Latently infected allograft recipients had ∼80% graft loss by 100 days after transplant, compared with ∼8% graft loss in naïve recipients. PCR evaluation demonstrated that MCMV was transmitted to cardiac grafts in all latently infected recipients, and 4/8 allografts had active viral transcription compared to 0/6 isografts. Latently infected allograft recipients showed intragraft IFN-α expression consistent with MCMV reactivation, but MCMV did not appear to negatively influence regulatory gene expression. Infected allograft recipients had disruption of splenocyte DTH regulation, but recipient splenocytes remained unresponsive to donor antigen even after allograft losses. These data suggest that transplantation in an environment of latent CMV infection may reactivate virus, and that intragraft responses disrupt development of allograft acceptance. PMID:18976295

  17. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  18. Cumulative survival rate of Astra Tech implants: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Soo; Sohn, Joo-Yeon; Park, Jung-Chul; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Shim, June-Sung; Lee, Keun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the short-term predictability and reliability of Astra Tech implants according to the demographical distribution of patients and condition of implant sites and location of implants. Methods Among patients treated with Astra Tech implant (Astra Tech AB) in the Department of Periodontology at the Dental Hospital of Yonsei University of College of Dentisry and K Dental Clinic from May 2004 to March 2009, 195 implants in 98 patients which had been restored more than 6 months ago were reviewed in this study. Following data were reviewed from patient charts and implants success rate was examined: 1) patient type and implant location, 2) bone status at the implant site, 3) diameter and length of the placed implants, 4) presence or absence of bone augmentation and types of the augmentation. Results The results from this study are as follows: 1) most implants were placed in the molar area, especially 1st molar area of maxilla, 2) most implants were placed at D2 and D3 bone type, 3) most implants were placed in areas of B and C bone quantity, 4) autogenous and alloplastic bone graft and artificial membrane were used for placement of 74 implants. Conclusions Short-term survival rate of Astra Tech implants was 100%. PMID:21556259

  19. Predicting the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Seki, Atsuko; Fishbein, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is a lifesaving therapy for patients with end-stage cardiovascular disease. There has been remarkable progress in controlling acute rejection, and the early survival rate after the heart transplantation has significantly improved. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is one of the common causes of death and a major limiting factor for long-term graft survival years after heart transplantation. CAV is a progressive occlusion of arteries and veins of the transplanted heart. CAV is often clinically silent because of the denervation of the transplanted heart. CAV tends to be found at an advanced stage of disease, including myocardial infarction (MI), congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, and/or sudden cardiac death. Because of the serious sequelae of CAV, risk factors, prevention, and prediction of CAV have been investigated. Despite the effort by many researchers, the pathogenesis is not yet completely understood. There are a number of both immune and nonimmune factors in the donor and recipient that are related to the development of CAV. In addition, several biomarkers in blood and tissue are found to correlate with the presence of CAV, and that may be able to predict CAV. Here, we review the pathology, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and the potential for prediction of CAV. PMID:24972526

  20. The relevance of Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin and metronidazole during complex maxillary rehabilitations using bone allograft. Part II: implant surgery, prosthodontics, and survival.

    PubMed

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2009-06-01

    Extensive bone grafting remains a delicate procedure, due to the slow and difficult integration of the grafted material into the physiological architecture. The recent use of platelet concentrates aims to improve this process of integration by accelerating bone and mucosal healing. Choukroun's platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a healing biomaterial that concentrates in a single autologous fibrin membrane, most platelets, leukocytes, and cytokines from a 10-mL blood harvest, without artificial biochemical modification (no anticoagulant, no bovine thrombin). In this second part, we describe the implant and prosthetic phases of a complex maxillary rehabilitation, after preimplant bone grafting using allograft, Choukroun's PRF membranes, and metronidazole. Twenty patients were treated using this new technique and followed up during 2.1 years (1-5 years). Finally, 184 dental implants were placed, including 54 classical screw implants (3I, Palm Beach Gardens, FL) and 130 implants with microthreaded collar (46 from AstraTech, Mölndal, Sweden; 84 from Intra-Lock, Boca Raton, FL). No implant or graft was lost in this case series, confirming the validity of this reconstructive protocol. However, the number of implants used per maxillary rehabilitation was always higher with simple screw implants than with microthreaded implants, the latter presenting a stronger initial implant stability. Finally, during complex implant rehabilitations, PRF membranes are particularly helpful for periosteum healing and maturation. The thick peri-implant gingiva is related to several healing phases on a PRF membrane layer and could explain the low marginal bone loss observed in this series. Microthreaded collar and platform-switching concept even improved this result. Multiple healing on PRF membranes seems a new opportunity to improve the final esthetic result. PMID:19509532

  1. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

  2. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  3. Rejection of cardiac allografts by T cells expressing a restricted repertoire of T-cell receptor V beta genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shirwan, H; Barwari, L; Cramer, D V

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown that T cells infiltrating cardiac allografts early in graft rejection use a limited T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta repertoire. In this study we tested whether this limited repertoire of V beta genes is important for graft rejection. A cell line, AL2-L3, was established from LEW lymphocytes infiltrating ACI heart allografts 2 days after transplantation. This cell line is composed of CD4+ T cells that primarily recognize the class II RTI.B major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule expressed by the donor graft. This cell line precipitated acute rejection of donor hearts with a median survival time (MST) of 10.5 days following adoptive transfer to sublethally irradiated LEW recipients. This rate of graft rejection was significantly (P < 0.0007) accelerated when compared with a MST of 60 days for allografts in irradiated control recipients. The AL2-L3-mediated acceleration of graft rejection was donor specific as WF third-party heart allografts were rejected with a delayed tempo (MST = 28.5 days). The V beta repertoire of this cell line was primarily restricted to the expression of V beta 4, 15 and 19 genes. The nucleotide sequence analysis of the beta-chain cDNAs from this cell line demonstrated that the restricted use of the V gene repertoire was not shared with the N, D and J regions. A wide variety of CDR3 loops and J beta genes were used in association with selected V beta genes. These data provide evidence for the role a restricted repertoire of V beta genes plays in cardiac allograft rejection in this model. The restricted usage of the V beta repertoire in an early T-cell response to allografts may provide the opportunity to therapeutically disrupt the rejection reaction by targeting selected T-cell populations for elimination at the time of organ transplantation. Images Figure 2 PMID:9176111

  4. Monitoring of canine pancreas allograft function with measurements of urinary amylase.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, H; Deane, S A; Allen, R D; Hawthorne, W J; Williamson, P; Grierson, J M; Stewart, G J; Little, J M

    1988-07-01

    A canine model of whole pancreas transplantation with pancreaticocystostomy was studied for predictability of graft rejection using urinary amylase (UA) monitoring. Six pancreatectomized dogs were transplanted without immunosuppression and with acute rejection occurring at a median of 9.5 days (range 7-12 days). A differential loss of allograft exocrine and endocrine function was demonstrated, with a gradual decrease in UA after transplantation but maintenance of fasting blood glucose levels (FBGL) till the day before complete loss of graft structure. Another 13 dogs treated with cyclosporin (25 mg/kg per day) had prolonged graft survival (P less than 0.01) with an actuarial median survival of 91 days (range 8-159 days). Five allografts were lost because of rejection and eight dogs died with functioning grafts. Fasting spot levels of UA less than 5000 iu/l or less than 10,000 iu/l had a positive predictivity of graft failure of 71% or 31%, respectively. Falls of UA levels of greater than 75% in 24 h and 48 h were seen equally in both rejecting and functioning allografts. This study confirmed the role of UA as an earlier marker of rejection than FBGL. The clinical role of UA will be important, but its use as a predictor of pancreas rejection may be dependent on a fall to a predetermined level rather than the rate of fall. PMID:2473736

  5. Autograft Versus Nonirradiated Allograft Tissue for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mariscalco, Michael W.; Magnussen, Robert A.; Mehta, Divyesh; Hewett, Timothy E.; Flanigan, David C.; Kaeding, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Background An autograft has traditionally been the gold standard for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), but the use of allograft tissue has increased in recent years. While numerous studies have demonstrated that irradiated allografts are associated with increased failure rates, some report excellent results after ACLR with nonirradiated allografts. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether the use of nonirradiated allograft tissue is associated with poorer outcomes when compared with autografts. Hypothesis Patients undergoing ACLR with autografts versus nonirradiated allografts will demonstrate no significant differences in graft failure risk, laxity on postoperative physical examination, or differences in patient-oriented outcome scores. Study Design Systematic review. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify prospective or retrospective comparative studies (evidence level 1, 2, or 3) of autografts versus nonirradiated allografts for ACLR. Outcome data included graft failure based on clinical findings and instrumented laxity, postoperative laxity on physical examination, and patient-reported outcome scores. Studies were excluded if they did not specify whether the allograft had been irradiated. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by 2 examiners. Results Nine studies comparing autografts and nonirradiated allografts were included. Six of the 9 studies compared bone– patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) autografts with BPTB allografts. Two studies compared hamstring tendon autografts to hamstring tendon allografts, and 1 study compared hamstring tendon autografts to tibialis anterior allografts. The mean patient age in 7 of 9 studies ranged from 24.5 to 32 years, with 1 study including only patients older than 40 years and another not reporting patient age. The mean follow-up duration was 24 to 94 months. Six of 9 studies reported clinical graft failure rates, 8 of 9 reported postoperative instrumented

  6. ACL reconstruction with BPTB autograft and irradiated fresh frozen allograft*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; Tian, Shao-qi; Zhang, Ji-hua; Xia, Chang-suo; Zhang, Cai-long; Yu, Teng-bo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with irradiated bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allograft compared with non-irradiated allograft and autograft. Methods: All BPTB allografts were obtained from a single tissue bank and the irradiated allografts were sterilized with 2.5 mrad of irradiation prior to distribution. A total of 68 patients undergoing arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were prospectively randomized consecutively into one of the two groups (autograft and irradiated allograft groups). The same surgical technique was used in all operations done by the same senior surgeon. Before surgery and at the average of 31 months of follow-up (ranging from 24 to 47 months), patients were evaluated by the same observer according to objective and subjective clinical evaluations. Results: Of these patients, 65 (autograft 33, irradiated allograft 32) were available for full evaluation. When the irradiated allograft group was compared to the autograft group at the 31-month follow-up by the Lachman test, the anterior drawer test (ADT), the pivot shift test, and KT-2000 arthrometer test, statistically significant differences were found. Most importantly, 87.8% of patients in the autograft group and just only 31.3% in the irradiated allograft group had a side-to-side difference of less than 3 mm according to KT-2000. The failure rate of the ACL reconstruction with irradiated allograft (34.4%) was higher than that with autograft (6.1%). The anterior and rotational stabilities decreased significantly in the irradiated allograft group. According to the overall International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), functional and subjective evaluations, and activity level testing, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. Besides, patients in the irradiated allograft group had a shorter operation time and a longer duration of postoperative fever. When the patients had a fever, the

  7. Immunomodulation of vascular endothelium: Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on vein allograft rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Marin, M.L.; Hardy, M.A.; Gordon, R.E.; Reemtsma, K.; Benvenisty, A.I. )

    1990-01-01

    Prosthetic grafts of vein allografts are inadequate as small-diameter vessel substitutes. We have applied ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to modulate the immunogenicity of vein allografts to avoid immunologic injury. The veins of male ACI rats were irradiated with UVB (60 mJ/cm2) in situ and transplanted to male ACI rats (autografts) and female Lewis rats (allografts). Nonirradiated veins served as controls. At 4, 7, 14, and 28 days, all grafts were patent and were studied for morphologic changes by scanning electron microscopy and for immunogold labeling of major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression. In autografts, scanning electron microscopy demonstrated minimal endothelial loss after grafting, regardless of UVB irradiation. Untreated allografts showed severe endothelial injury 4, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. UVB irradiation of veins protected allografts from injury to the endothelium and basement membrane. Major histocompatibility complex class II-positive endothelial cells were not seen in autografts but were seen in 40% of cells 4 days after transplantation in untreated allografts. UVB-treated allografts showed MHC class II antigen expression labeling of 20% of the endothelial cells. Barr body analysis demonstrated the donor origin of these endothelial cells. UVB irradiation of rat vein allografts prolongs endothelial survival while decreasing endothelial surface expression of class II antigens. These data suggest that modification of vein immunogenicity with UVB irradiation may permit functional survival of small-vessel allografts without chronic immunosuppression.

  8. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  9. Acute and Chronic Allograft Dysfunction in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ryan J; Weng, Francis L; Kandula, Praveen

    2016-05-01

    Allograft dysfunction after a kidney transplant is often clinically asymptomatic and is usually detected as an increase in serum creatinine level with corresponding decrease in glomerular filtration rate. The diagnostic evaluation may include blood tests, urinalysis, transplant ultrasonography, radionuclide imaging, and allograft biopsy. Whether it occurs early or later after transplant, allograft dysfunction requires prompt evaluation to determine its cause and subsequent management. Acute rejection, medication toxicity from calcineurin inhibitors, and BK virus nephropathy can occur early or later. Other later causes include transplant glomerulopathy, recurrent glomerulonephritis, and renal artery stenosis. PMID:27095641

  10. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  11. Chimeric Allografts Induced by Short-Term Treatment With Stem Cell Mobilizing Agents Result in Long-Term Kidney Transplant Survival Without Immunosuppression: II, Study in Miniature Swine.

    PubMed

    Cameron, A M; Wesson, R N; Ahmadi, A R; Singer, A L; Hu, X; Okabayashi, T; Wang, Y; Shigoka, M; Fu, Y; Gao, W; Raccusen, L C; Montgomery, R A; Williams, G M; Sun, Z

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation is now lifesaving therapy for patients with end-stage organ failure but requires lifelong immunosuppression with resultant morbidity. Current immunosuppressive strategies inhibit T cell activation and prevent donor-recipient engagement. Therefore, it is not surprising that few host cells are demonstrated in donor grafts. However, our recent small animal studies found large numbers of recipient stem cells present after transplantation and pharmacological mobilization, resulting in a chimeric, repopulated organ. We now confirm these findings in a well-characterized large animal preclinical model. Here, we show that AMD3100 and FK506 mobilization of endogenous stem cells immediately post kidney transplantation combined with repeat therapy at 1, 2, and 3 months led to drug-free long-term survival in maximally immunologically mismatched swine. Three long-term recipients have stable chimeric transplants, preserved antidonor skin graft responses, and normal serum creatinine levels despite withdrawal of all medication for 3 years. PMID:26748958

  12. Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

  13. Iontophoresis as a means of delivering antibiotics into allograft bone.

    PubMed

    Day, R E; Megson, S; Wood, D

    2005-11-01

    Allograft bone is widely used in orthopaedic surgery, but peri-operative infection of the graft remains a common and disastrous complication. The efficacy of systemic prophylactic antibiotics is unproven, and since the graft is avascular it is likely that levels of antibiotic in the graft are low. Using an electrical potential to accelerate diffusion of antibiotics into allograft bone, high levels were achieved in specimens of both sheep and human allograft. In human bone these ranged from 187.1 mg/kg in endosteal (sd 15.7) to 124.6 (sd 46.2) in periosteal bone for gentamicin and 31.9 (sd 8.9) in endosteal and 2.9 (sd 1.1) in periosteal bone for flucloxacillin. The antibiotics remained active against bacteria in vitro after iontophoresis and continued to elute from the allograft for up to two weeks. Structural allograft can be supplemented directly with antibiotics using iontophoresis. The technique is simple and inexpensive and offers a potential means of reducing the rate of peri-operative infection in allograft surgery. Iontophoresis into allograft bone may also be applicable to other therapeutic compounds. PMID:16260682

  14. Comparison between Constrained and Semiconstrained Knee Allograft-Prosthesis Composite Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Farfalli, German L.; Aponte-Tinao, Luis A.; Ayerza, Miguel A.; Muscolo, D. Luis; Boland, Patrick J.; Morris, Carol D.; Athanasian, Edward A.; Healey, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Allograft-prosthesis composite (APC) can restore capsular and ligamentous tissues of the knee sacrificed in a tumor extirpation. We asked if performing APC would restore knee stability and allow the use of nonconstrained arthroplasty while preventing aseptic loosening. We retrospectively compared 50 knee APCs performed with non-constrained revision knee prosthesis (Group 1) with 36 matched APCs performed with a constrained prosthesis (Group 2). In Group 1, the survival rate was 69% at five and 62% at ten years. Sixteen reconstructions were removed due to complications: eight deep infections, three fractures, two instabilities, one aseptic loosening, one local recurrence, and one nonunion. In Group 2, the survival rate was 80% at five and 53% at ten years. Nine reconstructions were removed: 3 due to deep infections, 3 to fractures, and 3 to aseptic loosening. In both groups, we observed more allograft fractures when the prosthetic stem does not bypass the host-donor osteotomy (P > 0.05). Both groups had mainly good or excellent MSTS functional results. Survival rate and functional scores and aseptic loosening were similar in both groups. A rotating-hinge APC is recommended when host-donor soft tissue reconstruction fails to restore knee instability. The use of a short prosthetic stem has a statistical relationship with APC fractures. PMID:23476114

  15. Endocrine function after immunosuppression of pancreatic allograft by ionizing irradiation in the primate

    SciTech Connect

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.; Louw, G.; Zuurmond, T.; Laker, L.; Els, D.; Weideman, A.; Wolfe-Coote, S.; Du Toit, L.B.

    1986-05-01

    The object of this preliminary study was to evaluate the endocrine function after heterotopic intraperitoneal segmental pancreatic allotransplantation with unligated duct in irradiated, totally pancreatectomized primates. All allograft recipients received, pre- and peroperative donor-specific blood transfusions and peroperative external irradiation from a linear accelerator; 200 rads was administered weekly and increased to a total dose of 1,500 rads. Pancreatic transplantation was performed between 2 and 6 weeks after completion of irradiation and preoperative blood transfusions. As previously reported, only minimal pancreatic allograft survival was achieved following preoperative irradiation. One recipient remained normoglycaemic for greater than 100 days after transplantation, the longest surviving pancreatic allograft recipient reported from this laboratory. Intravenous glucose tolerance test results in this recipient revealed normoglycaemia, reduced K-value, hypoinsulinaemia, normal glucagon response, reduced C-peptide values, and moderate glucose intolerance. Aortography and electron-microscopic examination of allograft biopsy tissue confirmed the presence of a functioning allograft.

  16. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in renal allograft

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guilan; Ali, Reza; Shuldberg, Mark M.; Bastani, Bahar; Brink, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), defined as the presence of hematopoietic elements outside of the medullary cavity of bone, has been reported in patients with various hematopoietic neoplasms including myelofibrosis. EMH commonly occurs in the liver and spleen (resulting in hepatosplenomegaly) and uncommonly involves the kidney. EMH involving the allograft kidney has not been reported in English literature. Herein, we report the first case of EMH in allograft kidney in a patient with myelofibrosis. The clinical and pathological findings are described. Through comparison of the medullary neoplastic infiltrate with the renal allograft infiltrate, we postulate the neoplastic nature of the infiltrate in the allograft kidney. PMID:26120442

  17. Allograft Pancreatectomy: Indications and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nagai, S; Powelson, J A; Taber, T E; Goble, M L; Mangus, R S; Fridell, J A

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the indications, surgical techniques, and outcomes of allograft pancreatectomy based on a single center experience. Between 2003 and 2013, 47 patients developed pancreas allograft failure, excluding mortality with a functioning pancreas allograft. Early graft loss (within 14 days) occurred in 16, and late graft loss in 31. All patients with early graft loss eventually required allograft pancreatectomy. Nineteen of 31 patients (61%) with late graft loss underwent allograft pancreatectomy. The main indication for early allograft pancreatectomy included vascular thrombosis with or without severe pancreatitis, whereas one recipient required urgent allograft pancreatectomy for gastrointestinal hemorrhage secondary to an arterioenteric fistula. In cases of late allograft pancreatectomy, graft failure with clinical symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, pain, and nausea were the main indications (13/19 [68%]), simultaneous retransplantation without clinical symptoms in 3 (16%), and vascular catastrophes including pseudoaneurysm and enteric arterial fistula in 3 (16%). Postoperative morbidity included one case each of pulmonary embolism leading to mortality, formation of pseudoaneurysm requiring placement of covered stent, and postoperative bleeding requiring relaparotomy eventually leading to femoro-femoral bypass surgery 2 years after allograftectomy. Allograft pancreatectomy can be performed safely, does not preclude subsequent retransplantation, and may be lifesaving in certain instances. PMID:25912792

  18. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  19. Results of 32 Allograft-prosthesis Composite Reconstructions of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Larousserie, Frédérique; Thévenin, Fabrice; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Anract, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The use of allograft-prosthesis composites for reconstruction after bone tumor resection at the proximal femur has generated considerable interest since the mid1980s on the basis that their use would improve function and survival, and restore bone stock. Although functional improvement has been documented, it is unknown whether these composites survive long periods and whether they restore bone stock. We therefore determined long-term allograft-prosthesis composite survival, identified major complications that led to revision, and determined whether allograft bone stock could be spared at the time of revision. We also compared the radiographic appearance of allografts sterilized by gamma radiation and fresh-frozen allografts. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with bone malignancy in the proximal femur who underwent reconstruction with a cemented allograft-prosthesis composite. The allograft-prosthesis composite was a primary reconstruction for 23 patients and a revision procedure for nine. The minimum followup was 2 months (median, 68 months; range, 2–232 months). The cumulative incidence of revision for any reason was 14% at 5 years (95% confidence interval, 1%–28%) and 19% at 10 years (95% confidence interval, 3%–34%). Nine patients (28%) had revision of the reconstruction during followup; four of these patients had revision surgery for infection. Allografts sterilized by gamma radiation showed worse resorption than fresh-frozen allografts. Based on reported results, allograft-composite prostheses do not appear to improve survival compared with megaprostheses. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19851817

  20. Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francis, C.M.; Sauer, J.R.; Serie, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Population management of waterfowl requires an understanding of the effects of changes in hunting regulations on harvest and survival rates. Mean survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were estimated during 3 periods of increasingly restrictive harvest regulations: 1950-66, 1967-82, and 1983-93. From the first to the second period, direct recovery rates declined for at least 1 age class in 4 of 6 reference areas, with a mean decline of 14% for adult and 7% for immature black ducks. From the second to the third period, direct recovery rates declined in all areas, declines averaging 37% for adults and 27% for immatures. Estimated mean survival rates increased from the first to the second period, consistent with a model of additivity of hunting mortality. Limited evidence existed for increases in survival rates from the second to the third period for immature males. For adults, however, survival increased less between these periods than would be expected if hunting mortality were additive and changes in recovery rates were proportional to changes in hunting mortality. Changes in survival and recovery rates of black ducks banded postseason were similar to those of adults banded preseason. Comparisons among estimates by degree blocks of latitude and longitude indicate that, at least between 1967 and 1983, estimated survival rates of immature and adult black ducks were lower in areas with high direct recovery rates. Smaller samples of banded birds and changes in banding locations in recent years may be limiting ability to evaluate consequences of recent changes in harvest rates. These correlation-based studies are limited in their ability to explain causes of observed changes in survival rates, suggesting the need for alternative approaches such as adaptive harvest management to increase understanding of the effects of hunting on black duck populations.

  1. Fresh-frozen Complete Extensor Mechanism Allograft versus Autograft Reconstruction in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guanyin; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Qiong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yinglong; Fan, Qingyu; Ma, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Different clinical results have been reported in the repair of extensor mechanism disruption using fresh-frozen complete extensor mechanism (CEM) allograft, creating a need for a better understanding of fresh-frozen CME allograft reconstruction. Here, we perform histological and biomechanical analyses of fresh-frozen CEM allograft or autograft reconstruction in an in vivo rabbit model. Our histological results show complete incorporation of the quadriceps tendon into the host tissues, patellar survival and total integration of the allograft tibia, with relatively fewer osteocytes, into the host tibia. Vascularity and cellularity are reduced and delayed in the allograft but exhibit similar distributions to those in the autograft. The infrapatellar fat pad provides the main blood supply, and the lowest cellularity is observed in the patellar tendon close to the tibia in both the allograft and autograft. The biomechanical properties of the junction of quadriceps tendon and host tissues and those of the allograft patellar tendon are completely and considerably restored, respectively. Therefore, fresh-frozen CEM allograft reconstruction is viable, but the distal patellar tendon and the tibial block may be the weak links of the reconstruction. These findings provide new insight into the use of allograft in repairing disruption of the extensor mechanism. PMID:26911538

  2. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  3. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  4. In vitro allograft irradiation prevents graft-versus-host disease in small-bowel transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.K.; Schraut, W.H.

    1985-04-01

    In small-bowel transplantation, the transfer of large numbers of donor lymphocytes with the intestinal allograft may provoke a lethal graft-versus-host reaction. The effectiveness of allograft irradiation in vitro as a method of preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was studied in a rat model of small-bowel transplantation, with the Lewis----Lewis X Brown Norway F1 hybrid strain combination. Cold harvested small-bowel allografts were irradiated immediately prior to heterotopic or orthotopic transplantation. Animals that had received heterotopic allografts irradiated with 0, 250, or 500 rad all died of GVHD after 14.4 +/- 3.0, 15.0 +/- 1.3, and 14.2 +/- 1.9 days, respectively. None of the animals that had received allografts treated with 1000 rad developed clinical or pathologic evidence of GVHD, however, and all survived for more than 6 months (P less than 0.001). Allograft function was studied in animals that underwent orthotopic transplantation. Recipients of nonirradiated orthotopic allografts all died of GVHD after 14.0 +/- 0.7 days, whereas recipients of allografts irradiated with 1000 rad all survived for more than 5 months (P less than 0.001). After 120 days, weight gain (51.8 +/- 11.7%), serum albumin (3.9 +/- 0.7 g/dl), serum triglycerides (67.0 +/- 24.3 mg/dl), CBC, and differential in these animals were not statistically different from those in either age-matched isograft recipients or normal animals, and when the rats were sacrificed, irradiated allografts showed no changes suggestive of radiation injury. These results indicate that irradiation of small-bowel allografts in vitro prevents development of GVHD, and that this can be achieved at a dose which does not cause injury to or malfunction of the allograft.

  5. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric American black ducks and mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Obrecht, H.H., III; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) banded in the same breeding or wintering areas over the same time periods were used to estimate annual survival and band recovery rates. Recovery rates, based on preseason bandings, were very similar for sympatric black ducks and mallards and exhibited similar patterns of year-to-year variation for the 2 species. Tests for differences between the species in annual survival rates yielded equivocal results. We tentatively conclude that annual survival rates of mallards generally were not higher than those of black ducks banded in the same areas. The apparent difference in population status between black ducks and eastern mallards does not seem to result from differences in mortality rate. Nevertheless, we should attempt to identify management practices that might increase survival probabilities of black ducks.

  6. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  7. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  8. A Novel Therapy to Attenuate Acute Kidney Injury and Ischemic Allograft Damage after Allogenic Kidney Transplantation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gueler, Faikah; Shushakova, Nelli; Mengel, Michael; Hueper, Katja; Chen, Rongjun; Liu, Xiaokun; Park, Joon-Keun; Haller, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx). In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV), might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20–50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days) was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI) was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg) twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25617900

  9. Survival rates of porcelain molar crowns-an update.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Amr Shebl; Atta, Osama; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify recent studies that dealt with the clinical performance of porcelain molar crowns and to explore the possibility of grouping the findings from similar studies together to draw overall conclusions. A MEDLINE literature search was conducted in early 2009 covering the preceding 12 years. Seventeen studies were indentified. However, only seven met the specific inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Among seven studies, five European countries were covered. Five studies reported on Procera AllCeram molar crowns while one reported on In-Ceram Alumina and Spinell crowns and another on CEREC crowns. For comparison, one additional study that reported on premolar crowns was included. In the five Procera AllCeram studies, 235 molar crowns were evaluated for 5 or more years, of which 24 failed. When the results of the five studies on the performance of Procera AllCeram molar crowns were considered collectively, an overall failure rate of 10.2% was found at 5 or more years. Int J Prosthodont 2010;23:60-62. PMID:20234895

  10. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    PubMed

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. PMID:22618192

  12. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Gogan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  13. Effects of pressure and temperature on the survival rate of adherent A-172 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhara, Ryo; Kushida, Ryo; Ishii, Shiwori; Yamanoha, Banri; Shimizu, Akio

    2013-06-01

    Preservation of cells under high pressure is an important alternative to cryopreservation. We studied the effect of temperature (4, 25, 37°C) and pressure (0.1-350 MPa) on the survival rate of A-172 glioblastoma cells. The survival rate was not changed by brief (10 min) pressurization of up to 150 MPa, but the survival rate began to decrease from 150 MPa, and most of the A-172 cells died when treated with over 200 MPa. Lengthy pressurization (4 days) at lower pressure (upto 20.1 MPa) without medium exchange showed complex results. The survival rate of cells preserved at 25°C showed two maxima at 1.6 and 20.1 MPa. After preservation, cells adhered and proliferated in the same way as normal cells when cultured at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. The other two temperatures, 4° and 37°C, showed no maximum survival rate. Therefore, a high survival rate can be maintained with high pressure treatment.

  14. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  15. Healing properties of allograft from alendronate-treated animal in lumbar spine interbody cage fusion.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingyun; Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Bünger, Mathias; Egund, Niels; Lind, Martin; Christensen, Finn Bjarke; Bünger, Cody

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the healing potential of allograft from bisphosphonate-treated animals in anterior lumbar spine interbody fusion. Three levels of anterior lumbar interbody fusion with Brantigan cages were performed in two groups of five landrace pigs. Empty Brantigan cages or cages filled with either autograft or allograft were located randomly at different levels. The allograft materials for the treatment group were taken from the pigs that had been fed with alendronate, 10 mg daily for 3 months. The histological fusion rate was 2/5 in alendronate-treated allograft and 3/5 in non-treated allograft. The mean bone volume was 39% and 37.2% in alendronate-treated or non-treated allograft (NS), respectively. No statistical difference was found between the same grafted cage comparing two groups. The histological fusion rate was 7/10 in all autograft cage levels and 5/10 in combined allograft cage levels. No fusion was found at all in empty cage levels. With the numbers available, no statistically significant difference was found in histological fusion between autograft and allograft applications. There was a significant difference of mean bone volume between autograft (49.2%) and empty cage (27.5%) (P<0.01). In conclusion, this study did not demonstrate different healing properties of alendronate-treated and non-treated allograft for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in pigs. PMID:15248057

  16. Temporal and spatial variation in survival rates of the tropical lizard Anolis limifrons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated survival of the lizard, Anolis limifrons at two sites, AVA and Lutz, from 1976-1979 and during two periods at Lutz site, 1971-1976 vs 1976-1979, at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Survival of adult females and males did not differ nor did survival of juveniles and adults. In contrast, survival was significantly higher at Lutz site during 1971-1976 than during 1976-1979 and survival was significantly higher at AVA than at Lutz site during 1976-1979. On an annual basis, mean survival rates were 0.042,0.013,0.055 for Lutz 1971-1976, Lutz 1976-1979, and AVA 1976-1979, respectively. These rates are in accord with reports of annual population turnover for this and other small mainland Anolis. Temporal and spatial variation in survival was not associated with habitat, season, year of observation, or numbers and abundances of avian predators. Survival patterns of mainland Anolis are contrasted with those of West Indian species in terms of life history evolution.

  17. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  19. Program CONTRAST--A general program for the analysis of several survival or recovery rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the use of program CONTRAST, which implements a generalized procedure for the comparison of several rate estimates. This method can be used to test both simple and composite hypotheses about rate estimates, and we discuss its application to multiple comparisons of survival rate estimates. Several examples of the use of program CONTRAST are presented. Program CONTRAST will run on IBM-cimpatible computers, and requires estimates of the rates to be tested, along with associated variance and covariance estimates.

  20. Survival rates in a small hibernator, the edible dormouse: a comparison across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Lebl, Karin; Bieber, Claudia; Adamík, Peter; Fietz, Joanna; Morris, Pat; Pilastro, Andrea; Ruf, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how local environmental factors lead to temporal variability of vital rates and to plasticity of life history tactics is one of the central questions in population ecology. We used long-term capture-recapture data from five populations of a small hibernating rodent, the edible dormouse Glis glis, collected over a large geographical range across Europe, to determine and analyze both seasonal patterns of local survival and their relation to reproductive activity. In all populations studied, survival was lowest in early summer, higher in late summer and highest during hibernation in winter. In reproductive years survival was always lower than in non-reproductive years, and females had higher survival rates than males. Very high survival rates during winter indicate that edible dormice rarely die from starvation due to insufficient energy reserves during the hibernation period. Increased mortality in early summer was most likely caused by high predation risk and unmet energy demands. Those effects have probably an even stronger impact in reproductive years, in which dormice were more active. Although these patterns could be found in all areas, there were also considerable differences in average survival rates, with resulting differences in mean lifetime reproductive success between populations. Our results suggest that edible dormice have adapted their life history strategies to maximize lifetime reproductive success depending on the area specific frequency of seeding events of trees producing energy-rich seeds. PMID:23447711

  1. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  2. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  3. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  4. Do intersections of mortality-rate and survival functions have significance?

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H R

    1995-01-01

    Common points of intersections have frequently been reported among members of families of linearized mortality-rate and survival functions. A general condition for the existence of such intersections is derived. It is shown that a common point of intersection between straight-line functions exists if and only if the intercepts of the functions are linearly related to their slopes. This slope-intercept condition is applied to a didactic model to illustrate its generality and to three models, the Gompertz-Makeham, the Weibull, and the logistic, which are often used in the analysis of mortality data. The slope-intercept condition for the Gompertz-Makeham mortality-rate model proves to be the well-known Strehler-Mildvan correlation. Families of mortality-rate functions or of the corresponding survival functions but not both may display common points of intersection. Differences between the ages at which survival functions intersect and those at which the associated mortality-rate functions intersect are calculated to be of the order of magnitude of 10 to 20 years. Survival function intersections lie close to the limit of human life span but often arise in consequence of unsupported extrapolations of data obtained at younger ages. These and other results lead to the conclusion that, in themselves, the intersections of survival and mortality-rate functions are not of great importance. To the extent that significance can be attributed to the intersections, it lies in the existence of linear relationships between their slopes and intercepts. PMID:8591809

  5. Urinary Calprotectin and Posttransplant Renal Allograft Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bistrup, Claus; Marcussen, Niels; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix S.; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current methods do not predict the acute renal allograft injury immediately after kidney transplantation. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of urinary calprotectin for predicting immediate posttransplant allograft injury. Methods In a multicenter, prospective-cohort study of 144 incipient renal transplant recipients, we postoperatively measured urinary calprotectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after 4 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Results We observed a significant inverse association of urinary calprotectin concentrations and eGFR 4 weeks after transplantation (Spearman r = −0.33; P<0.001). Compared to the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile of urinary calprotectin had an increased risk for an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 four weeks after transplantation (relative risk, 4.3; P<0.001; sensitivity, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98; specificity, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.66). Higher urinary calprotectin concentrations predicted impaired kidney function 4 weeks after transplantation, as well as 6 months and 12 months after transplantation. When data were analyzed using the urinary calprotectin/creatinine-ratio similar results were obtained. Urinary calprotectin was superior to current use of absolute change of plasma creatinine to predict allograft function 12 months after transplantation. Urinary calprotectin predicted an increased risk both in transplants from living and deceased donors. Multivariate linear regression showed that higher urinary calprotectin concentrations and older donor age predicted lower eGFR four weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after transplantation. Conclusions Urinary calprotectin is an early, noninvasive predictor of immediate renal allograft injury after kidney transplantation. PMID:25402277

  6. Differential rates of ischemic cholangiopathy and graft survival associated with induction therapy in DCD liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Halldorson, J B; Bakthavatsalam, R; Montenovo, M; Dick, A; Rayhill, S; Perkins, J; Reyes, J

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors is associated with ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) and graft loss. The University of Washington (UW) DCD experience totals 89 DCD liver transplants performed between 2003 and 2011. Overall outcome after DCD liver transplantation at UW demonstrates Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year patient and graft survival rates of 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively, with the great majority of patient and graft losses occurring in the first-year posttransplant from IC. Our program has almost exclusively utilized either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or basiliximab induction (86/89) for DCD liver transplantations. Analysis of the differential effect of induction agent on graft survival demonstrated graft survival of 96.9% at 1 year for ATG versus 75.9% for basiliximab (p = 0.013). The improved survival did not appear to be from a lower rate of rejection (21.9% vs. 22.2%) but rather a differential rate of IC, 35.2% for basiliximab versus 12.5% for ATG (p = 0.011). Multivariable analysis demonstrated induction agent to be independently associated with graft survival and IC free graft survival when analyzed against variables including donor age, fWIT, donor cold ischemia time and transplant era. PMID:25534449

  7. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  8. An immunomodulatory role for follistatin-like 1 in heart allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Le Luduec, J B; Condamine, T; Louvet, C; Thebault, P; Heslan, J-M; Heslan, M; Chiffoleau, E; Cuturi, M-C

    2008-11-01

    Donor-specific tolerance to heart allografts in the rat can be achieved by donor-specific blood transfusions (DST) before transplantation. We have previously reported that this tolerance is associated with strong leukocyte infiltration, and that host CD8(+) T cells and TGFbeta are required. In order to identify new molecules involved in the induction phase of tolerance, we compared tolerated and rejected heart allografts (suppressive subtractive hybridization) 5 days after transplantation. We identified overexpression of Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) transcript in tolerated allografts compared to rejected allografts or syngeneic grafts. We show that FSTL1 is overexpressed during both the induction and maintenance phase of tolerance, and appears to be specific to the tolerance model induced by DST. Analysis of graft-infiltrating cells revealed predominant expression of FSTL1 in CD8(+) T cells from tolerated grafts, and depletion of these cells prior to transplantation abrogated FSTL1 expression and heart allograft survival. Moreover, overexpression of FSTL1 by adenovirus gene transfer in vivo significantly prolonged allograft survival in association with inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokines, IL6, IL17 A and IFNgamma. Taken together, these results suggest that FSTL1 could be an active component of the mechanisms mediating heart allograft tolerance. PMID:18925901

  9. The Clinicopathologic Characteristics and 5-year Survival Rate of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mortazavizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Bashardust, Nasrollah; Zakerian, Neda; Zaidabadi, Mahbube; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria; Teimoori, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer is the second most common malignancy in women, the most common cause of gynecologic cancer deaths, and most patients have advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 5-year survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer based on age, tumor histology, stage of disease, and type of treatment. Methods This study was conducted on 120 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer referred to Shahid Sadoughi hospital and Shah Vali oncology clinic of Yazd from 2006 to 2012. Demographic data and patient records were studied to evaluate the treatment outcome, pathology of the tumor, and stage of disease. Finally, the overall survival rate and tumor-free survival of patients was assessed. Results The mean patient age was 53.87± 14.11 years. Most participants had stage I (36.7%) or stage II (35%) disease. Serous adenocarcinoma (57.6%) was the most common pathology found in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. The overall survival of patients in this study was significantly associated with the histological tumor type (p = 0.000) and disease stage (p = 0.0377). Stage I (84.18%) and serous adenocarcinoma (72.81%) demonstrated the best survival. The tumor-free survival rates were not associated with histology types (p = 0.079), surgical procedure (p = 0.18), or chemotherapy (p = 0.18). Conclusion The survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer was significantly associated with disease stage. Serous adenocarcinoma also had the best prognosis among the pathologies studied. Therefore, early detection of ovarian cancer can substantially increase the survival rate. PMID:26516450

  10. Survival Rates with Time Course of Frozen-thawed Pacific Oyster Larvae in Indoor Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Tae; Lim, Han Kyu; Chang, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Post-thawed larval rearing in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was performed to investigate the survival rate with time course in three kinds of larvae cryopreserved. The highest survival rate and larval activity index (LAI) of post-thawed larvae were obtained from the permeation in 0.2 M sucrose and 2.0 M ethylene glycol (EG) at -1°C/min in freezing speed showing the survival rates just after thawing of 63.8% in trochophore, 84.1% in D-shaped veliger and 56.3% in early umbo veliger. In post-thawed larval rearing with food supply, the larvae lasted their lives until 24 hours in trochophore, 75 hours in D-shaped veliger and 57 hours in early umbo veliger. The results suggested that each larval stage post-thawed revealed no more further development to subsequent respective stage. PMID:25949149

  11. Survival rate of initial azimuthal anisotropy in a multiphase transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Feng; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the survival rate of an initial momentum anisotropy (v2ini), not spatial anisotropy, to the final state in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV. It is found that both the final-state parton and charged hadron v2 show a linear dependence versus v2ini{PP } with respect to the participant plane (PP). It is found that the slope of this linear dependence (referred to as the survival rate) increases with transverse momentum pT, reaching ˜100 % at pT˜2.5 GeV/c for both parton and charged hadron. The survival rate decreases with collision centrality and energy, indicating decreasing survival rate with increasing interactions. It is further found that a v2ini{Rnd } with respect to a random direction does not survive in v2{PP } but in the two-particle cumulant v2{2 } . The dependence of v2{2 } on v2ini{Rnd } is quadratic rather than linear.

  12. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  13. Success and survival rates of mandibular overdentures supported by two or four implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Isabelle de Sousa; Souza, Mariana Barbosa Câmara de; Morais, Maria Helena de Siqueira Torres; Carreiro, Adriana da Fonte Porto; Barbosa, Gustavo Augusto Seabra

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review evaluated the influence played by the number of implants on the results of rehabilitation treatment with mandibular overdentures on 2 or 4 implants. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases. Specific terms were used in performing a search from January 1980 to January 2013. The search strategy was applied by two reviewers who extracted the data and compared the results. Discrepancies were resolved by discussion. Great heterogeneity was seen among the selected studies, in regard to survival rates, prosthesis failure and function rates. A medium degree of quality and methodological consistency was found in one study, and no studies showed a high degree. When considering the prosthesis success rate for 2 implants, there was a variation of 23% to 100%. However, when considering the survival rate, the result was 92% to 100%. For 4 implants, prosthesis survival rates showed less variation, i.e., 97.7% to 100%. Ball attachments were the most common type of abutment for 2 implants; however, there was a higher prevalence of bar abutments for 4 implants. Rehabilitations with 2 implants showed more complications and required more maintenance according to the connection type. Given the limitations of this review, mandibular overdentures with 4 implants showed better results with respect to survival and success rates, especially those with a bar connection. Further studies comparing these two treatment types are necessary to improve the scientific evidence in this area. PMID:24402059

  14. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  15. Maxillary sinus grafting with fresh frozen allograft versus bovine bone mineral: A tomographic and histological study.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Samuel Porfirio; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Sehn, Felipe Perraro; Silva, Erick Ricardo; Garcez-Filho, João de Andrade; Martins-Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated histologically and tomographically the effects of fresh frozen bone allograft (FFB) or bovine bone mineral (BBM) in maxillary sinus floor augmentations. In total, 30 maxillary sinuses from 30 patients (mean age = 51.17 ± 10.86 years) underwent sinus augmentation. Patients were divided in two test groups (15 sinuses each). The first group was grafted with allograft bone, and the second group received bovine bone mineral. After 6 months, bone samples from each group were collected for histological examination. Implant survival rates were 97.78% (FFB group) and 100% (BBM group) 6 months after functional loading. Median volumetric reductions of 31.2% (11.33-40.56) and 12.22% (9.91-20.59) were observed in the FFB and BBM groups, respectively. Comparisons between the groups for differences in initial and final volumes of bone (p = 0.015) and the rate of resorption (p = 0.009) showed statistically significant differences. The FFB group showed osteoblastic cells in close contact with osteoid matrix, connected through bridges between allograft bone particles and new bone formation. The BBM group showed BBM particles in close contact with new bone, with visible osteoid matrix bridges and osteoblastic cells surrounding it. None showed signs of acute or chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Despite better results with BBM, both FFB and BBM in maxillary sinus augmentation resulted in high percentages of new bone formation, and allowed implant placement with a low rate of failure of osseointegration at a 6-month follow-up. PMID:27107475

  16. [Effects of different transplanting conditions on survival rate and growing status of Anoictochilus roxburghii plantlets].

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Huang, Yu-Qiu; Dong, Ying-Lei; Hu, Bing-Kang; Li, Ming-Yan

    2014-03-01

    The growing status of Anoectochilus roxburghii seedling was observed and the survival rate of seedlings, height, stem diameter and plant fresh weight under the conditions of different transplanting substrate compositions, planting density, shading rate were measured. The results showed that the effects of different transplanting substrates, planting densities, shading rates and nutrient solutions on the growing status of A. roxburghii plantlets varied greatly. A. roxburghii plantlets demonstrated a high survival rate and better growing status under the Following conditions: the ratio of peat and river sand as 2: 1, the planting density as 3 cm x 3 cm, the shading rate as 70%, and the nutrient solution as 1/4MS. The findings of the study provide a solid technical solution for the artificial cultivation of A. roxburghii plantlets. PMID:24956832

  17. Skin allograft and vascularized composite allograft: potential for long-term efficacy in the context of lymphatic modulation.

    PubMed

    Rinkinen, Jacob; Selley, Ryan; Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Tissue transplantation restores form and function in burn patients. The treatment of burn injuries is influenced by severity, location, and the percentage of total body surface area. There have been a number of different techniques developed to temporize and repair the destroyed tissue. However, in patients with large wound burden, sufficient donor site tissue may not be available for autograft harvesting. Such extensive burns necessitate other temporary and permanent options for wound coverage such as skin or vascularized composite allografts (VCA). Rejection of these tissues presents an ongoing problem which is currently managed using a host of systemic immunosuppressive medications. This article discusses the mechanism behind the innate and adaptive immune systems rejection of the allografts. By understanding these pathways, various techniques using immunomodulatory protocols have led to increased allograft survival. However, our primary interest lies in the initial recognition of the graft. We tailor this article to have a specific emphasis on lymphatic modulation as a potential adjunctive therapy. Reviews of the studies evaluating the effect of lymph node modulation on graft survival are described with future implications to allograft transplant research. PMID:25051523

  18. Recipient-derived EDA fibronectin promotes cardiac allograft fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Booth, Adam J; Wood, Sherri C; Cornett, Ashley M; Dreffs, Alyssa A; Lu, Guanyi; Muro, Andrés F; White, Eric S; Bishop, D Keith

    2012-03-01

    Advances in donor matching and immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the prevalence of acute rejection of cardiac grafts; however, chronic rejection remains a significant obstacle for long-term allograft survival. While initiating elements of anti-allograft immune responses have been identified, the linkage between these factors and the ultimate development of cardiac fibrosis is not well understood. Tissue fibrosis resembles an exaggerated wound healing response, in which extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are central. One such ECM molecule is an alternatively spliced isoform of the ubiquitous glycoprotein fibronectin (FN), termed extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDA cFN). EDA cFN is instrumental in fibrogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that it might also regulate fibrotic remodelling associated with chronic rejection. We compared the development of acute and chronic cardiac allograft rejection in EDA cFN-deficient (EDA(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice. While EDA(-/-) mice developed acute cardiac rejection in a manner indistinguishable from WT controls, cardiac allografts in EDA(-/-) mice were protected from fibrosis associated with chronic rejection. Decreased fibrosis was not associated with differences in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy or intra-graft expression of pro-fibrotic mediators. Further, we examined expression of EDA cFN and total FN by whole splenocytes under conditions promoting various T-helper lineages. Conditions supporting regulatory T-cell (Treg) development were characterized by greatest production of total FN and EDA cFN, though EDA cFN to total FN ratios were highest in Th1 cultures. These findings indicate that recipient-derived EDA cFN is dispensable for acute allograft rejection responses but that it promotes the development of fibrosis associated with chronic rejection. Further, conditions favouring the development of regulatory T cells, widely considered graft-protective, may drive production of ECM molecules which enhance

  19. Variable developmental rate and survival of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on pistachio.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joel P; Bas Kuenen, L P S

    2011-04-01

    A series of laboratory and field studies were conducted using two lines of navel orangeworm, reared on different stages of new crop and mummy pistachios, Pistacia vera L. This study demonstrated the potential importance of malformed pistachios (pea splits) to the population dynamics of navel orangeworm, because these nuts, which are available as early as two months before mature nuts, supported navel orangeworm development and survival. Overall, the developmental rate on new crop pistachios is fastest on mature nuts, 422.3 +/- 123 degree-days (DD, degrees C), but other factors such as exposure to insecticide residue also sped development, although survival decreased. Development took the longest on unharvested nuts (mummies) dried at 90 degrees C for 24 h, 2664.7 +/- 131.4 DD. In most trials development was variable and two generations could develop at the fastest rate before the slowest individual completed development, which in turn calls into question the concept of discrete generations. Generally, survival was highest on mature pistachios and other stages of new crop nut and lowest on mummies collected in May. Survival was also higher on the new varieties 'Lost Hills' and 'Golden Hills' (24.7 and 32.0%, respectively) than on the most extensively planted variety 'Kerman' (13.3%). In our trials, both the rate of development and survival were dependent on nut stage, age, variety, and quality, indicating that pistachios, like almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb, are a dynamic rather than a static nutrient source for navel orangeworm. PMID:21510201

  20. High-risk corneal allografts: A therapeutic challenge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Rajendran, Vijayalakshmi; Griffith, May; Forrester, John V; Kuffová, Lucia

    2016-03-24

    Corneal transplantation is the most common surgical procedure amongst solid organ transplants with a high survival rate of 86% at 1-year post-grafting. This high success rate has been attributed to the immune privilege of the eye. However, mechanisms originally thought to promote immune privilege, such as the lack of antigen presenting cells and vessels in the cornea, are challenged by recent studies. Nevertheless, the immunological and physiological features of the cornea promoting a relatively weak alloimmune response is likely responsible for the high survival rate in "low-risk" settings. Furthermore, although corneal graft survival in "low-risk" recipients is favourable, the prognosis in "high-risk" recipients for corneal graft is poor. In "high-risk" grafts, the process of indirect allorecognition is accelerated by the enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses due to pre-existing inflammation and neovascularization of the host bed. This leads to the irreversible rejection of the allograft and ultimately graft failure. Many therapeutic measures are being tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies to counter the immunological challenge of "high-risk" recipients. Despite the prevailing dogma, recent data suggest that tissue matching together with use of systemic immunosuppression may increase the likelihood of graft acceptance in "high-risk" recipients. However, immunosuppressive drugs are accompanied with intolerance/side effects and toxicity, and therefore, novel cell-based therapies are in development which target host immune cells and restore immune homeostasis without significant side effect of treatment. In addition, developments in regenerative medicine may be able to solve both important short comings of allotransplantation: (1) graft rejection and ultimate graft failure; and (2) the lack of suitable donor corneas. The advances in technology and research indicate that wider therapeutic choices for patients may be available to address the worldwide

  1. High-risk corneal allografts: A therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Rajendran, Vijayalakshmi; Griffith, May; Forrester, John V; Kuffová, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Corneal transplantation is the most common surgical procedure amongst solid organ transplants with a high survival rate of 86% at 1-year post-grafting. This high success rate has been attributed to the immune privilege of the eye. However, mechanisms originally thought to promote immune privilege, such as the lack of antigen presenting cells and vessels in the cornea, are challenged by recent studies. Nevertheless, the immunological and physiological features of the cornea promoting a relatively weak alloimmune response is likely responsible for the high survival rate in “low-risk” settings. Furthermore, although corneal graft survival in “low-risk” recipients is favourable, the prognosis in “high-risk” recipients for corneal graft is poor. In “high-risk” grafts, the process of indirect allorecognition is accelerated by the enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses due to pre-existing inflammation and neovascularization of the host bed. This leads to the irreversible rejection of the allograft and ultimately graft failure. Many therapeutic measures are being tested in pre-clinical and clinical studies to counter the immunological challenge of “high-risk” recipients. Despite the prevailing dogma, recent data suggest that tissue matching together with use of systemic immunosuppression may increase the likelihood of graft acceptance in “high-risk” recipients. However, immunosuppressive drugs are accompanied with intolerance/side effects and toxicity, and therefore, novel cell-based therapies are in development which target host immune cells and restore immune homeostasis without significant side effect of treatment. In addition, developments in regenerative medicine may be able to solve both important short comings of allotransplantation: (1) graft rejection and ultimate graft failure; and (2) the lack of suitable donor corneas. The advances in technology and research indicate that wider therapeutic choices for patients may be available to

  2. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  3. Pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) marine survival rates reflect early marine carbon source dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.; Boldt, Jennifer L.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Haldorson, Lewis J.; Helle, John H.

    2008-05-01

    Marine survival rate (the number of adult salmon returning divided by the number of salmon fry released) of pink salmon runs propagated by Prince William Sound, Alaska (PWS) salmon hatcheries is highly variable resulting in large year-to-year run size variation, which ranged from ∼20 to ∼50 million during 1998-2004. Marine survival rate was hypothesized to be determined during their early marine life stage, a time period corresponding to the first growing season after entering the marine environment while they are still in coastal waters. Based on the predictable relationships of 13C/ 12C ratios in food webs and the existence of regional 13C/ 12C gradients in organic carbon, 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon were measured to test whether marine survival rate was related to food web processes. Year-to-year variation in marine survival rate was inversely correlated to 13C/ 12C ratios of early marine pink salmon, but with differences among hatcheries. The weakest relationship was for pink salmon from the hatchery without historic co-variation of marine survival rate with other PWS hatcheries or wild stocks. Year-to-year variation in 13C/ 12C ratio of early marine stage pink salmon in combination with regional spatial gradients of 13C/ 12C ratio measured in zooplankton suggested that marine survival was driven by carbon subsidies of oceanic origin (i.e., oceanic zooplankton). The 2001 pink salmon cohort had 13C/ 12C ratios that were very similar to those found for PWS carbon, i.e., when oceanic subsidies were inferred to be nil, and had the lowest marine survival rate (2.6%). Conversely, the 2002 cohort had the highest marine survival (9.7%) and the lowest mean 13C/ 12C ratio. These isotope patterns are consistent with hypotheses that oceanic zooplankton subsidies benefit salmon as food subsidies, or as alternate prey for salmon predators. Oceanic subsidies are manifestations of significant exchange of material between PWS and the Gulf of Alaska. Given

  4. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  5. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved...

  6. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  7. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved...

  8. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  9. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  10. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  11. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General §...

  12. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and...

  13. Emission rates, survival and modeled dispersal of viable pollen of creeping bentgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal and deposition of pollen of Agrostis stolonifera was estimated through the use of CALPUFF, a complex model originally developed to simulate dispersal of particulates and other air pollutants. Rate and diurnal pattern of pollen emission, as well as pollen survival characteristics, were det...

  14. Allografts in the treatment of athletic injuries of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jason Y; Miller, Suzanne L

    2007-09-01

    As allogeneic musculoskeletal tissue is readily available, has minimal limitation in size or shape, and carries no donor site morbidity, it has become attractive for use in reconstructive shoulder surgery. Allograft is a viable option for treating osseous defects associated with glenohumeral instability and has been shown to achieve a stable shoulder with good clinical outcomes. Although there are mixed results on the use of allograft as rotator cuff augments or substitutes, new commercially processed materials such as GraftJacket are being tested to address the high failure rates associated with massive rotator cuff repair. Interposition arthroplasty as a treatment for glenohumeral arthritis in the young and active patient is a novel concept in which the arthritic glenoid is biologically resurfaced. Satisfactory results have been described using lateral meniscus and Achilles tendon allograft. Despite the promising reports on the use of allograft in reconstructive shoulder surgery, most of the published literature exists as retrospective, case reports. Additional large, controlled research is needed to prove the efficacy and safety of allograft tissue in the treatment of athletic injuries of the shoulder. PMID:17700375

  15. Use of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography to Evaluate Chronic Allograft Nephropathy in Rats and Correlations between Time-Intensity Curve Parameters and Allograft Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Zexing; Xu, Yue; Zeng, Song; Zhang, Zijian; Xue, Wenrui; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2016-07-01

    This study quantitatively analyzed changes in the hemodynamic characteristics of renal allografts at different stages in a rat chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) model as well as the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and renal allograft fibrosis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). The experimental group used a CAN rat model (n = 30), and the control group used an orthotopic syngeneic renal transplant model (n = 30). After surgery, creatinine clearance rates were regularly monitored every 2 wk. The checking times were set at 4, 12 and 24 wk after surgery, which represent early, middle and late stage of CAN, respectively. At different stages of CAN, eight rats from each group were randomly selected for CEUS examination. Time-intensity curve (TIC) parameters, including rise time, peak intensity, mean transit time, area under the curve, wash-in slope, time-to-peak and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression; Vimentin expression; and chronic allograft damage index scores were evaluated by linear correlation analysis. Before the creatinine clearance rate showed significant abnormalities, the renal allografts in the experimental group had already presented pathologic changes associated with CAN. In the early stage after surgery, compared to the TIC curve of the control group, the experimental group showed increased rise time, mean transit time, area under the curve and time-to-peak, and decreased wash-in slope (p < 0.05). Chronic allograft damage index scores and the expression levels of α-SMA and Vimentin proteins in renal allografts were correlated with TIC parameters (p < 0.05). Compared to creatinine clearance rate, CEUS can detect CAN at earlier stages. The correlations between TIC-related parameters and the expression levels of α-SMA and Vimentin in renal allografts indicate that CEUS is a feasible way to assess the degree of renal allograft fibrosis quantitatively. PMID:27056611

  16. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  17. Osteochondral Allograft of the Talus

    PubMed Central

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Rosso, Federica; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talus are being recognized as an increasingly common injury. They are most commonly located postero-medially or antero-laterally, while centrally located lesions are uncommon. Large osteochondral lesions have significant biomechanical consequences and often require resurfacing with osteochondral autograft transfer, mosaicplasty, autologous chondrocyte implantation (or similar methods) or osteochondral allograft transplantation. Allograft procedures have become popular due to inherent advantages over other resurfacing techniques. Cartilage viability is one of the most important factors for successful clinical outcomes after transplantation of osteochondral allografts and is related to storage length and intra-operative factors. While there is abundant literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation in the knee, there are few papers about this procedure in the talus. Failure of non-operative management, initial debridement, curettage or microfractures are an indication for resurfacing. Patients should have a functional ankle motion, closed growth plates, absence of cartilage lesions on the tibial side. This paper reviews the published literature about osteochondral allograft transplantation of the talus focusing on indications, pre-operative planning, surgical approaches, postoperative management, results and complications of this procedure. PMID:25328456

  18. Graft survival rate of renal transplantation during a period of 10 years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ranjbaran, Mehdi; Karami-far, Simin; Soori, Hamid; Manesh, Hadi Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is a preferred treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and is far more profitable than hemodialysis. Analyzing renal transplantation data can help to evaluate the effectiveness of transplantation interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the organ survival rate after kidney transplantation during a period of 10 years (March 2001-March 2011) among transplanted patients in Arak, Markazi Province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, all recipients of kidney transplantation from Arak, Markazi Province, Iran who had medical records in Valiasr Hospital and “charity for kidney patients” of Arak, Markazi Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 2001 to March 2011 were included. Data collected by using checklists were completed from patients’ hospital records. Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the graft cumulative survival rate, log-rank test to compare survival curves in subgroups, and Cox regression model to define the hazard ratio and for ruling out the intervening factors. Statistical analysis was conducted by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 and Stata 11. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 55.43 ± 42.02 months. By using the Kaplan-Meier method, the cumulative probability of graft survival at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years was 99.1, 97.7, 94.3, 85.7, and 62.1%, respectively. The number of dialysis by controlling the effect of other variables had a significant association with the risk of graft failure [hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 (1.02-2.13)]. Conclusion: This study showed that the graft survival rate was satisfactory in this community and was similar to the results of single-center studies in the world. Dialysis time after transplantation was a significant predictor of survival in the recipients of kidney transplantation that should be considered. PMID:26941807

  19. Arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with allograft versus autograft

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiujiang; Zhang, Jianfeng; Qu, Xiaoyi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare and analyze retrospectively the outcomes of arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with autograft versus allograft. Material and methods Seventy-one patients who underwent arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an autograft or allograft met our inclusion criteria. There were 36 patients in the autograft group and 35 patients in the allograft group. All the patients were evaluated by physical examination and a functional ligament test. Comparative analysis was done in terms of operation time, incision length, fever time, postoperative infection rate, incidence of numbness and dysesthesia around the incision, as well as a routine blood test. Results The average follow-up of the autograft group was 3.2 ±0.2 years and that of the allograft group was 3.3 ±0.6 years; there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). No differences existed in knee range of motion, Lysholm scores, International Knee Documentation Committee standard evaluation form and Tegner activity score at final follow-up (p > 0.05), except that patients in the allograft group had a shorter operation time and incision length and a longer fever time (p < 0.05). We found a difference in posterior drawer test and KT-2000 arthrometer assessment (p < 0.05). The posterior tibia displacement averaged 3.8 ±1.5 mm in the autograft group and 4.8 ±1.7 mm in the allograft group (p < 0.05). The incidence of numbness and dysesthesia around the incision in the autograft group was higher than that in the allograft group (p < 0.05). There was no infection postoperatively. The white blood cells and neutrophils in the allograft group increased more than those in the autograft group postoperatively (p < 0.05). Conclusions Both groups of patients had satisfactory outcomes after the operation. However, in the instrumented posterior laxity test, the autograft gave better results than the allograft. No differences in functional scores

  20. Emerging role of B cells in chronic allograft dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Robert B.; Hirohashi, Tsutomu; Farris, Alton B.; Minnei, Francesca; Collins, A. Bernard; Smith, R. Neal

    2015-01-01

    B cells have many possible mechanisms by which they can affect allograft survival, including antigen presentation, cytokine production, immune regulation, and differentiation into alloantibody-producing plasma cells. This report reviews the last mechanism, which the authors regard as most critical for the long-term survival of allografts, namely, the promotion of chronic rejection by alloantibodies. Chronic humoral rejection characteristically arises late after transplantation and causes transplant glomerulopathy, multilamination of peritubular capillary basement membranes, and C4d deposition in PTCs and glomeruli. Circulating antidonor human leukocyte antigen class II antibodies are commonly detected and may precede the development of graft injury. Prognosis is poor, especially when recognized after graft dysfunction has developed. Improved detection and treatment are critically needed for this common cause of late graft loss. PMID:21116310

  1. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P<.05). No significant differences were found in relation to the following factors: gender, diameter and bone quality (P>.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  2. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Saatchi, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran. PMID:25371800

  3. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  4. Functional Immune Anatomy of the Liver-As an Allograft.

    PubMed

    Demetris, A J; Bellamy, C O C; Gandhi, C R; Prost, S; Nakanuma, Y; Stolz, D B

    2016-06-01

    The liver is an immunoregulatory organ in which a tolerogenic microenvironment mitigates the relative "strength" of local immune responses. Paradoxically, necro-inflammatory diseases create the need for most liver transplants. Treatment of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and acute T cell-mediated rejection have redirected focus on long-term allograft structural integrity. Understanding of insults should enable decades of morbidity-free survival after liver replacement because of these tolerogenic properties. Studies of long-term survivors show low-grade chronic inflammatory, fibrotic, and microvascular lesions, likely related to some combination of environment insults (i.e. abnormal physiology), donor-specific antibodies, and T cell-mediated immunity. The resultant conundrum is familiar in transplantation: adequate immunosuppression produces chronic toxicities, while lightened immunosuppression leads to sensitization, immunological injury, and structural deterioration. The "balance" is more favorable for liver than other solid organ allografts. This occurs because of unique hepatic immune physiology and provides unintended benefits for allografts by modulating various afferent and efferent limbs of allogenic immune responses. This review is intended to provide a better understanding of liver immune microanatomy and physiology and thereby (a) the potential structural consequences of low-level, including allo-antibody-mediated injury; and (b) how liver allografts modulate immune reactions. Special attention is given to the microvasculature and hepatic mononuclear phagocytic system. PMID:26848550

  5. Therapeutic lymphangiogenesis ameliorates established acute lung allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ye; Liu, Kaifeng; Monzon-Medina, Maria E; Padera, Robert F; Wang, Hao; George, Gautam; Toprak, Demet; Abdelnour, Elie; D'Agostino, Emmanuel; Goldberg, Hilary J; Perrella, Mark A; Forteza, Rosanna Malbran; Rosas, Ivan O; Visner, Gary; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2015-11-01

    Lung transplantation is the only viable option for patients suffering from otherwise incurable end-stage pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Despite aggressive immunosuppression, acute rejection of the lung allograft occurs in over half of transplant recipients, and the factors that promote lung acceptance are poorly understood. The contribution of lymphatic vessels to transplant pathophysiology remains controversial, and data that directly address the exact roles of lymphatic vessels in lung allograft function and survival are limited. Here, we have shown that there is a marked decline in the density of lymphatic vessels, accompanied by accumulation of low-MW hyaluronan (HA) in mouse orthotopic allografts undergoing rejection. We found that stimulation of lymphangiogenesis with VEGF-C156S, a mutant form of VEGF-C with selective VEGFR-3 binding, alleviates an established rejection response and improves clearance of HA from the lung allograft. Longitudinal analysis of transbronchial biopsies from human lung transplant recipients demonstrated an association between resolution of acute lung rejection and decreased HA in the graft tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that lymphatic vessel formation after lung transplantation mediates HA drainage and suggest that treatments to stimulate lymphangiogenesis have promise for improving graft outcomes. PMID:26485284

  6. Therapeutic lymphangiogenesis ameliorates established acute lung allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ye; Liu, Kaifeng; Monzon-Medina, Maria E.; Padera, Robert F.; Wang, Hao; George, Gautam; Toprak, Demet; Abdelnour, Elie; D’Agostino, Emmanuel; Goldberg, Hilary J.; Perrella, Mark A.; Forteza, Rosanna Malbran; Rosas, Ivan O.; Visner, Gary; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation is the only viable option for patients suffering from otherwise incurable end-stage pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Despite aggressive immunosuppression, acute rejection of the lung allograft occurs in over half of transplant recipients, and the factors that promote lung acceptance are poorly understood. The contribution of lymphatic vessels to transplant pathophysiology remains controversial, and data that directly address the exact roles of lymphatic vessels in lung allograft function and survival are limited. Here, we have shown that there is a marked decline in the density of lymphatic vessels, accompanied by accumulation of low-MW hyaluronan (HA) in mouse orthotopic allografts undergoing rejection. We found that stimulation of lymphangiogenesis with VEGF-C156S, a mutant form of VEGF-C with selective VEGFR-3 binding, alleviates an established rejection response and improves clearance of HA from the lung allograft. Longitudinal analysis of transbronchial biopsies from human lung transplant recipients demonstrated an association between resolution of acute lung rejection and decreased HA in the graft tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that lymphatic vessel formation after lung transplantation mediates HA drainage and suggest that treatments to stimulate lymphangiogenesis have promise for improving graft outcomes. PMID:26485284

  7. Rectal cancer. Treatment advances that reduce recurrence rates and lengthen survival.

    PubMed

    Sexe, R; Miedema, B W

    1993-07-01

    The risk of malignant disease arising in rectal mucosa is high. Surgery is the most effective form of treatment but results in cure in only 50% of patients. Adjuvant preoperative radiation therapy reduces the likelihood of local recurrence but does not improve survival rates. Fluorouracil is the most effective agent for adjuvant chemotherapy and slightly improves survival when given after surgery. Combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy appears to have a synergistic effect, and recent studies show that providing this combination after surgery improves survival. Future trends in the treatment of rectal cancer are expected to include expanded use of local excision to preserve anal sphincter function, preoperative use of a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, perioperative use of chemotherapy combined with immunostimulating therapy, and use of tumor antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:8321771

  8. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-01-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  9. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-08-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  10. Population trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear as estimated from reproductive and survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L. L.; Blanchard, B. M.; Knight, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population was estimated using reproductive rates calculated from 22 individual females and survival rates from 400 female bear-years. The point estimate of the rate of increase was 4.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 0 and 9%. Caution in interpreting this result is advised because of possible biases in the population parameter estimates. The main prospects for improving present knowledge of the population trend appear to be further study of possible biases in the parameter estimates, and the continued use of radiotelemetry to increase the number of samples on which the estimates are based.

  11. Biomechanical properties of bone allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Pelker, R.R.; Friedlaender, G.E.; Markham, T.C.

    1983-04-01

    The biomechanical properties of allograft bone can be altered by the methods chosen for its preservation and storage. These effects are minimal with deep-freezing or low-level radiation. Freeze-drying, however, markedly diminishes the torsional and bending strength of bone allografts but does not deleteriously affect the compressive or tensile strength. Irradiation of bone with more than 3.0 megarad or irradiation combined with freeze-drying appears to cause a significant reduction in breaking strength. These factors should be considered when choosing freeze-dried or irradiated allogeneic bone that will be subjected to significant loads following implantation.

  12. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  13. Glucosamine administration improves survival rate after severe hemorrhagic shock combined with trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Nöt, Laszlo G; Marchase, Richard B; Fülöp, Norbert; Brocks, Charlye A; Chatham, John C

    2007-09-01

    We have previously shown that glucosamine administration resulted in higher cardiac output and improved tissue perfusion after trauma-hemorrhage with resuscitation in rats, which was associated with the increased levels of protein O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of glucosamine on the survival, without resuscitation, in rats. Adult male rats underwent midline laparotomy and 55% of total blood volume was withdrawn for 25 min under isoflurane anesthesia. At the end of the hemorrhage period, 2.5 mL of 150 mM glucosamine or equivalent osmolarity of mannitol solution was injected intravenously for 10 min. The survival time, mean blood pressure, heart rate, and central body temperature were monitored continuously; then, the O-GlcNAc levels in heart, brain, liver, and muscle were measured by means of Western blot analysis. Glucosamine administration significantly increased the survival rate in comparison with mannitol administration (percentage of survival after 2 h, 47% vs. 20%; P < 0.05). The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the glucosamine group for 18 min after treatment. The protein O-GlcNAc levels, assessed 30 min after glucosamine treatment, were significantly increased in the heart, brain, and liver. These data demonstrate that i.v. glucosamine administration improves the survival rate after trauma-hemorrhage without resuscitation; this effect may be related to the glucosamine-induced increase in protein O-glycosylation. Furthermore, the increase in mean arterial pressure may suggest a vasoactive and/or positive inotropic effect of glucosamine in hypovolemic shock. PMID:17545939

  14. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

  15. Clinical Outcomes of Cryopreserved Arterial Allograft Used as a Vascular Conduit for Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kwon, Tae-Won; Han, Duck Jong; Cho, Yong-Pil; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    This single center cohort study aimed to test the hypothesis that use of a cryopreserved arterial allograft could avoid the maturation or healing process of a new vascular access and to evaluate the patency of this technique compared with that of vascular access using a prosthetic graft. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 20 patients underwent an upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft for failed or failing vascular accesses and 53 using a prosthetic graft were included in this study. The mean duration of catheter dependence, calculated as the time interval from upper arm access placement to removal of the tunneled central catheter after successful cannulation of the access, was significantly longer for accesses using a prosthetic graft than a cryopreserved arterial allograft (34.4 ± 11.39 days vs. 4.9 ± 8.5 days, P < 0.001). In the allograft group, use of vascular access started within 7 days in 16 patients (80%), as soon as from the day of surgery in 10 patients. Primary (unassisted; P = 0.314) and cumulative (assisted; P = 0.673) access survivals were similar in the two groups. There were no postoperative complications related to the use of a cryopreserved iliac arterial allograft except for one patient who experienced wound hematoma. In conclusion, upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft may permit immediate hemodialysis without the maturation or healing process, resulting in access survival comparable to that of an access using a prosthetic graft. PMID:27478338

  16. Clinical Outcomes of Cryopreserved Arterial Allograft Used as a Vascular Conduit for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae-Yong; Kim, Young Hoon; Chang, Jai Won; Park, Yangsoon; Han, Youngjin; Kwon, Hyunwook; Kwon, Tae-Won; Han, Duck Jong; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This single center cohort study aimed to test the hypothesis that use of a cryopreserved arterial allograft could avoid the maturation or healing process of a new vascular access and to evaluate the patency of this technique compared with that of vascular access using a prosthetic graft. Between April 2012 and March 2013, 20 patients underwent an upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft for failed or failing vascular accesses and 53 using a prosthetic graft were included in this study. The mean duration of catheter dependence, calculated as the time interval from upper arm access placement to removal of the tunneled central catheter after successful cannulation of the access, was significantly longer for accesses using a prosthetic graft than a cryopreserved arterial allograft (34.4 ± 11.39 days vs. 4.9 ± 8.5 days, P < 0.001). In the allograft group, use of vascular access started within 7 days in 16 patients (80%), as soon as from the day of surgery in 10 patients. Primary (unassisted; P = 0.314) and cumulative (assisted; P = 0.673) access survivals were similar in the two groups. There were no postoperative complications related to the use of a cryopreserved iliac arterial allograft except for one patient who experienced wound hematoma. In conclusion, upper arm vascular access using a cryopreserved arterial allograft may permit immediate hemodialysis without the maturation or healing process, resulting in access survival comparable to that of an access using a prosthetic graft. PMID:27478338

  17. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  18. Survival and success rate of one-piece implant inserted in molar sites

    PubMed Central

    Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, the use of one-piece implants (OPI) has become more popular. Since no reports specifically focus on OPIs inserted in molar areas, a retrospective study has been performed. Materials and Methods: A series of 36 OPIs (Diamond; BIOIMPLANT, Milan, Italy) were inserted into the molar area of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti, Italy, for oral rehabilitation between January and December 2010. Results: In our series survival rate (SVR) and success rate (SCR) were 91.7% and 97%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable has an impact on survival (i.e., lost implants) as well as on clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusion: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the molar areas. PMID:23814575

  19. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    PubMed Central

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury. PMID:27512220

  20. A retrospective clinical study of Xinjiang Uygur patients with corneal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Maimaitiming, Reziwan; Yang, Xin; Wupuer, Kelala; Ye, Nan; Kong, Na; Gu, Baoyu; Fan, Yuanyuan; Shao, Lan; Pan, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To explore the causes of corneal allograft rejection in Xinjiang Uygur patients and the factors that affect rejection through a retrospective clinical analysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 126 Uygur cases from January 2010 to November 2014 in which corneal transplantation had been performed at the Xinjiang Urumqi ENT hospital. Of the treated patients, 85 eyes belonged to male patients and 41 eyes belonged to female patients. Patients were aged 10-77 years (mean age 46.14 ± 8.20 years). Surgical methods included penetrating keratoplasty (75 eyes) and lamellar keratoplasty (38 eyes). Follow-up time ranged from 0.5 to 3 years and a total of seven pre-operative keratopathies were observed: walleye, corneal ulcer, bullous keratopathy, corneal degeneration. Eye changes included 72 cases of limbal vascularization and 15 cases of high intraocular pressure. Allograft rejection was observed in 25 eyes. Results: The pre-operative keratopathies associated with the highest incidences of allograft rejection were: viral corneal ulcer, bullous keratopathy, adhesive walleye, and fungal corneal ulcers. The rate of allograft rejection using avascular corneal tissue was 10%, while the rate was 36% with severly-vascularized cornea. The earliest time of rejection was 20 days after surgery, while the latest was 16.4 months after surgery. Heavy corneal vascularization is associated with more rapid post-operative rejection. The rate of allograft rejection was higher after combined surgery when compared to penetrating keratoplasty or lamellar keratoplasty alone, while the rate was higher with penetrating keratoplasty than with lamellar keratoplasty. With increasing graft diameter, there was an increase in post-operative allograft rejection. Allograft rejection was significantly increased when graft diameter was above 7.75 mm. Conclusion: The major cause of corneal allograft rejection is viral corneal ulcers. High corneal vascularization, combined surgical methods

  1. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  2. Intersections of mortality-rate and survival functions: model-independent considerations.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H R

    1997-01-01

    In work reported previously (Hirsch, 1995), it was shown that families of straight lines intersect at a single point if and only if the slopes of the lines are linearly related to their intercepts. This slope-intercept relation was applied to several mathematical mortality models including the Gompertz-Makeham and the Weibull. In all cases, survival functions intersected at greater ages than the corresponding mortality-rate functions. It was further demonstrated that a common point of intersection can exist for members of a family of survival functions or for members of the corresponding family of mortality-rate functions but not for both. Here the same results are obtained with respect to intersections of general model-independent survival and mortality-rate functions. The generality of the results strengthens the conclusion reached earlier that these intersections imply only the existence of a valid slope-intercept relation and have little other significance with regard to the biology of aging. PMID:9193896

  3. Changes in Survival Rate for Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Comparison with Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae Won; Jin, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN) was established in order to enhance treatment outcomes further through the registration of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) data. The present study was conducted on 2,606 VLBWI, 2,386 registered and 220 un-registered, in the KNN participating centers, with the objective of reporting on recent survival rates of VLBWI in Korea and verifying the changing trends in survival rates with data from the 1960s and beyond. The study also aimed to compare the premature infants' survival rate in Korea with those reported in neonatal networks of other countries. The recent survival rate of VLBWI increased more than twice from 35.6% in the 1960s to 84.8%, and the survival rate of the extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) increased by more than 10 times, indicating improvement of the survival rate in premature infants with lower birth weight and gestational age. Comparison of VLBWI between countries showed improved survival rates according to each birth weight group in Canada, Australia-New Zealand, and European countries with Japan at the head, but in terms of comparison based on gestational age, differences, except for Japan, have been reduced. Efforts to increase the survival rate of premature infants in Korea with low birth rate are inevitable, and they should be the foundation of academic and clinical development based on its network with advanced countries. PMID:26566354

  4. Survival rates in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Influence of postoperative external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Benker, G.; Olbricht, T.; Reinwein, D.; Reiners, C.; Sauerwein, W.; Krause, U.; Mlynek, M.L.; Hirche, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Nine hundred thirty-two patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were seen at the Departments of Medicine, Surgery, and Radiology of the University of Essen, Essen, Germany, between 1970 and 1986. In addition to standard treatment by surgery, radioactive iodine and medical thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression, 346 patients had received conventional external irradiation to the neck before referral to our institutions, whereas 586 patients had not received radiotherapy. From the follow-up data of these patients, survival rates were calculated separately for tumor Stages T1 (n = 203), T2 (n = 552), and T3/T4 (n = 277) using life-table analysis. Distribution of risk factors (histologic type of tumor, grading of malignancy, presence of distant metastases, age and sex) was similar in all groups with the one exception, that the radiotherapy patients with Stage T3/T4 were older. There was no significant difference in the life expectancy of irradiated and not irradiated patients by Breslow and Mantel-Cox tests. In Stages T1, T2, and T3/T4, 75% of the radiotherapy patients survived for 10.6 +/- 0.32, 11.5 +/- 0.61, and 6.71 +/- 0.85 years, respectively; the figures for the nonirradiated patients were 9.4 +/- 0.17, 10.8 +/- 0.37, and 6.26 +/- 0.51 years, respectively. When survival rates were calculated separately for patients with Stage T3/T4 older and younger than 40 years, there was no obvious effect of radiotherapy in the younger group, whereas in the older patients, improvement of survival by radiation just failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, this retrospective analysis failed to prove that survival is prolonged in patients with differentiated carcinoma by administration of conventional external radiotherapy after surgery. A benefit to older patients with locally advanced tumors has still to be demonstrated.

  5. Emphysema in the renal allograft

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.L.; Sullivan, B.M.; Fluornoy, J.G.; Gerza, C.

    1985-04-01

    Two diabetic patients in whom emphysematous pyelonephritis developed after renal transplantation are described. Clinical recognition of this unusual and serious infection is masked by the effects of immunosuppression. Abdominal radiographic, ultrasound, and computed tomography findings are discussed. The clinical presentation includes urinary tract infection, sepsis, and acute tubular malfunction of the allograft in insulin-dependent diabetics.

  6. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  7. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  9. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  10. Risk factors affecting the survival rate in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion undergoing surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Mozaffary, Amirhossein; Lotfaliany, Mojtaba; Behzadnia, Neda; Ansari Aval, Zahra; Ghiasi, Seyed Mohammad Saeed; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The optimal management and treatment of pericardial effusion are still controversial. There is limited data related to the risk factors affecting survival in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors affecting the survival rate of patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion who underwent surgical interventions. METHODS From 2004 to 2011, we retrospectively analysed 153 patients who underwent subxiphoid pericardial window as their surgical intervention to drain pericardial effusions at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung diseases (NRITLD). To determine the effects of risk factors on survival rate, demographic data, clinical records, echocardiographic data, computed tomographic and cytopathological findings and also operative information of patients were recorded. Patients were followed annually until the last clinical follow-up (August 2011). To determine the prognostic factors affecting survival, both univariate analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were utilized. RESULTS There were 89 men and 64 women with a mean age of 50.3 ± 15.5 years. The most prevalent symptom was dyspnoea. Concurrent malignancies were present in 66 patients. Lungs were the most prevalent primary site for malignancy. The median duration of follow-up was 15 (range 1–85 months). Six-month, 1-year and 18-month survival rates were 85.6, 61.4 and 36.6%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, positive history of lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 2.894, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.362–6.147, P = 0.006) or other organ cancers (HR 2.315, 95% CI 1.009–50311, P = 0.048), presence of a mass in the computed tomography (HR 1.985, 95% CI 1.100–3.581, P = 0.023), and echocardiographic findings compatible with tamponade (HR 1.745, 95% CI 1.048–2.90 P = 0.032) were the three independent predictors of postoperative death. CONCLUSIONS In the surgical management of pericardial effusion, patients with underlying

  11. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles.

    PubMed

    Dodd, C Kenneth; Ozgul, Arpat; Oli, Madan K

    2006-10-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture-mark-recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes. PMID:17069384

  12. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  13. Evolution of digital organisms at high mutation rates leads to survival of the flattest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Claus O.; Wang, Jia Lan; Ofria, Charles; Lenski, Richard E.; Adami, Christoph

    2001-07-01

    Darwinian evolution favours genotypes with high replication rates, a process called `survival of the fittest'. However, knowing the replication rate of each individual genotype may not suffice to predict the eventual survivor, even in an asexual population. According to quasi-species theory, selection favours the cloud of genotypes, interconnected by mutation, whose average replication rate is highest. Here we confirm this prediction using digital organisms that self-replicate, mutate and evolve. Forty pairs of populations were derived from 40 different ancestors in identical selective environments, except that one of each pair experienced a 4-fold higher mutation rate. In 12 cases, the dominant genotype that evolved at the lower mutation rate achieved a replication rate >1.5-fold faster than its counterpart. We allowed each of these disparate pairs to compete across a range of mutation rates. In each case, as mutation rate was increased, the outcome of competition switched to favour the genotype with the lower replication rate. These genotypes, although they occupied lower fitness peaks, were located in flatter regions of the fitness surface and were therefore more robust with respect to mutations.

  14. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  15. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  16. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  17. Genetic analysis of low survival rate of pups in RR/Sgn inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2015-07-01

    Newborn offspring of the inbred mouse RR/Sgn strain have a low survival rate prior to weaning. We hypothesized that this is a consequence of an inferior nurturing ability of RR/Sgn mothers and that RR/Sgn mothers have a tendency to lose their pups. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping for inferior nurturing ability and tendency to lose pups in RR/Sgn mothers. The number of pups was adjusted to 6 per dam on the day of delivery, and the number of surviving pups and their total weight (litter weight) were scored at 12 days after birth. Nurturing ability was evaluated by litter weight, and tendency to lose pups was evaluated by scoring whether or not the mothers lost their pups. For litter weight, we identified one significant QTL on chromosome 4 and three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 7, 9 and 17. The RR/Sgn allele was associated with lower litter weight at all loci. For the tendency to lose pups, we identified three suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 4, 9 and 16. The RR/Sgn allele was associated with an increased tendency to lose pups at all loci. These results supported our hypothesis that the low survival rate phenotype was attributable, at least in part, to a phenotype whereby mothers display inferior nurturing ability and a tendency to lose pups. Thus, it suggests that these two traits share genetic basis. PMID:25754650

  18. Autophagy in allografts rejection: A new direction?

    PubMed

    Sun, Hukui; Cheng, Dayan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Huaiquan; Liang, Ting; Hou, Guihua

    2016-03-18

    Despite the introduction of new and effective immunosuppressive drugs, acute cellular graft rejection is still a major risk for graft survival. Modulating the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs is not a good choice for all patients, new rejection mechanisms discovery are crucial to limit the inflammatory process and preserve the function of the transplant. Autophagy, a fundamental cellular process, can be detected in all subsets of lymphocytes and freshly isolated naive T lymphocytes. It is required for the homeostasis and function of T lymphocytes, which lead to cell survival or cell death depending on the context. T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and costimulator signals induce strong autophagy, and autophagy deficient T cells leads to rampant apoptosis upon TCR stimulation. Autophagy has been proved to be activated during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and associated with grafts dysfunction. Furthermore, Autophagy has also emerged as a key mechanism in orchestrating innate and adaptive immune response to self-antigens, which relates with negative selection and Foxp3(+) Treg induction. Although, the role of autophagy in allograft rejection is unknown, current data suggest that autophagy indeed sweeps across both in the graft organs and recipients lymphocytes after transplantation. This review presents the rationale for the hypothesis that targeting the autophagy pathway could be beneficial in promoting graft survival after transplantation. PMID:26876576

  19. [Global survival rate calculated by Kaplan-Mayer method in children with malignant lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Rugină, Aurica; Miron, Ingrid; Brumaru, O; Moraru, D; Tansanu, I; Georgescu, Doina; Mihăilă, Doina

    2003-01-01

    The Kaplan Maier method is being used in oncology in order to calculate the survival rate during/at the end of the study. The purpose of this study is the assessment of the survival period referred to the clinical and histopathological state, laboratory findings, the diagnostic and treatment time. The material of the study is a LIMCO group (n = 308 cases) hospitalized in the Oncology Department of the Children's Clinical and Emergency Hospital "Sf. Maria", Iaşi between 1980-1995. The LIMCO group was divided in 2 smaller groups: LMH group (110 cases) and a LMNH group (198 cases). The results statistical analysis was made by chi 2, Long-Rank and Breslow test. The results established a series of favorable LIMCO prognostic factors referred to the clinical state I-II, the histopathological type, normal or pathological laboratory findings at the first admission and the quality of the remission after the multimodal treatment. PMID:14756020

  20. Eighteen-month bracket survival rate: conventional versus self-etch adhesive.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alessandra; dos Santos, José Elui; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; de Oliveira Bauer, José Roberto

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, over an 18-month period, the clinical performance of a self-etch adhesive [Transbond Plus Self Etching Primer (SEP), 3M Unitek] compared with a conventional adhesive that employs the etch-and-rinse approach (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek). One operator, using the straight-wire technique, bonded 567 metallic brackets to the teeth of 30 patients (age range 12-18 years) in a way that patients acted as self-control. The brackets were bonded following the manufacturers' instructions except for the fact that the self-etch system was brushed for a longer time than recommended (10-15 seconds) since previous investigations have reported that prolonged application times can improve the bonding efficacy of self-etch systems to enamel. The failure modes were visually classified into: adhesive-enamel, adhesive-bracket, and cohesive failure. The survival rates of the brackets were estimated by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test (P < 0.05). The failure rates of the self-etch and conventional adhesives were 15.6 and 17.6 per cent, respectively. No significant differences in the survival rate were observed between the materials (P > 0.05). Most of the failures were cohesive and at the adhesive-enamel interface. There was no difference in the fracture debonding mode. These findings indicate that Transbond Plus SEP can be safely used for orthodontic brackets since the survival rates are similar to the conventional Transbond XT. PMID:17989121

  1. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  2. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  3. Imaging-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Thölking, Gerold; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Kentrup, Dominik; Pawelski, Helga; Reuter, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end stage renal disease. Despite the introduction of effective immunosuppressant drugs, episodes of acute allograft rejection still endanger graft survival. Since efficient treatment of acute rejection is available, rapid diagnosis of this reversible graft injury is essential. For diagnosis of rejection, invasive core needle biopsy of the graft is the “gold-standard”. However, biopsy carries the risk of significant graft injury and is not immediately feasible in patients taking anticoagulants. Therefore, a non-invasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review current imaging-based state of the art approaches for non-invasive diagnostics of acute renal transplant rejection. We especially focus on new positron emission tomography-based as well as targeted ultrasound-based methods. PMID:27011915

  4. Canine lymphomas: association of classification type, disease stage, tumor subtype, mitotic rate, and treatment with survival.

    PubMed

    Valli, V E; Kass, P H; San Myint, M; Scott, F

    2013-09-01

    Canine lymphoma is the neoplasm most often treated by chemotherapy, yet there are few data to correlate response to therapy with its different subtypes. This study is based on biopsy specimens from 992 dogs for which lymphoma was the clinical diagnosis. All cases were phenotyped by immunohistochemistry for CD3 and CD79alpha. Cases with histiocytic proliferation were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD18. Clonality was verified in 12 cases by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Survival (event time) data and complete survival information (cause of death or time to last follow-up) were available on 456 dogs. Additional covariate information when available included size, age, sex, phenotype, stage and grade of lymphoma, mitotic index, and treatment protocol. Because of the many subtypes of B- and T-cell lymphoma, the cases were grouped into 7 diagnostic categories: (1) benign hyperplasia; (2) low-grade B-cell; (3) high-grade B- and T-cell; (4) low-grade T-cell; (5) centroblastic large B-cell of all mitotic grades (subdivided by clinical stage); (6) immunoblastic large B-cell of all mitotic grades, and (7) high-grade peripheral T-cell. Grouping was determined by histological grade (based on mitotic rate/400× field, with low-grade 0-5, intermediate 6-10, and high-grade >10) and stage for survival function estimation. No association with survival was found for size (based on breed of dog) or sex. All diagnostic categories of indolent or low-grade type had low mitotic rates, whereas those with clinically high grades had high mitotic rates. The diagnostic category with the most cases was centroblastic large B-cell lymphoma. Compared with dogs in this largest represented group of lymphomas, dogs with high-grade lymphomas had significantly higher mortality rates, and dogs with low-grade T-cell lymphomas had significantly lower mortality rates. Treatments for high-, intermediate-, and low-grade lymphomas were divided into 4 groups: absence of treatment, chemotherapy with or

  5. Non-immunologic predictors of chronic renal allograft failure: data from the United Network of Organ Sharing.

    PubMed

    Chertow, G M; Brenner, B M; Mackenzie, H S; Milford, E L

    1995-12-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience suggest that non-immunologic factors are important predictors of long-term renal allograft survival. It has been suggested that chronic allograft failure may in some cases by mediated by non-immunologic factors implicated in the pathobiology of other forms of progressive renal disease. Donor age, sex, and race may influence the "dose" of nephrons delivered in cadaveric renal transplantation. The United Network of Organ Sharing 1994 Public Use Data Tape was used to evaluate these and other risk factors in more than 31,000 recipients of cadaver allografts followed between 1987 and 1992. Female sex and African American race of the donor were important predictors of allograft failure. There was a markedly increased risk of allograft failure at both extremes of donor age. Recipients of large body size had accelerated graft loss. Stratified analyses suggested an interaction between donor and recipient race; nevertheless, all non-immunologic factors examined expressed independent associations with allograft survival. In sum, antigen-independent factors appear to be important determinants of allograft performance. Additional multivariable analyses are required to assess the relative importance of these factors compared with other known immunologic factors, such as HLA antigen mismatch. These findings may have important biomedical and health care policy implications. PMID:8587283

  6. Racial differences in primary central nervous system lymphoma incidence and survival rates.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Jose S; Vierkant, Robert A; Olson, Janet E; Abrey, Lauren; Schiff, David; O'Neill, Brian Patrick

    2009-06-01

    To determine racial and ethnic differences in incidence and survival in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data from 1992 to 2002 were queried. Data were substratified by age (20-49 years vs. 50 or above) and race (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander [A/PI], American Indian/Alaskan Native [AI/AN]). Incidence of PCNSL and survival were calculated by SEER(*)Stat software. The incidence rates were 0.94 per 100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.98) for Whites, 1.10 (95% CI 0.98-1.22) for Blacks, 0.51 (95% CI 0.28-0.74) for AI/AN, and 0.64 (95% CI 0.56-0.72) for A/PI. In patients aged 20-49 years the rates were 0.72 (95% CI 0.68-0.76) for Whites, 1.43 (95% CI 1.27-1.59) for Blacks, 0.58 (95% CI 0.30-0.86) for AI/AN, and 0.21 (CI 0.15-0.27) for A/PI. In patients over 49 years, the rates were 1.30 (95% CI 1.22-1.38) for Whites, 0.56 (95% CI 0.40-0.72) for Blacks, 0.34 (95% CI 0-0.70) for AI/AN, and 1.31 (95% CI 1.00-1.53) for A/PI. PCNSL incidence for ages 20-49 years for Black patients was twice that for Whites. Incidence for ages over 49 years for Whites was twice that for Blacks. Survival at 12 months, 24 months, and 60 months was higher among Whites than Blacks. Research is needed to determine the origin of these differences. PMID:19273630

  7. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  8. BCS theory has to be overhauled: Reassurance from numerical survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    The BCS theory has conceptual and numerical difficulties. We have previously overhauled it with a new scheme of phonon-mediated electron pairing that can be expressed analytically in terms of an empirical pairing survival rate factor, S(q) = 0 or 1/2, depending on phonon momentum, q. Now we evaluate S(q) numerically entirely from experimental data on normal state electrical resistivity and on superconducting tunnelling conductance. The empirical and numerical S(q) are reassuringly close in aluminium and lead and particularly so in two other cases, niobium and tantalum.

  9. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  10. Nationwide statistical analysis of myeloid malignancies in Korea: incidence and survival rate from 1999 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hyewon; Won, Young-Joo; Ju, Hee Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Ingabire, Cecile; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Park, Byung-Kiu; Yoon, Ju Young; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale epidemiologic analysis for hematologic malignancies will be helpful to understand the trends in incidence and survival. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) updated the nationwide analysis on the incidence and survival of myeloid malignancies, from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database between 1999 and 2012. Myeloid malignancies were classified based on the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology 3rd edition (ICD-O-3). Results Overall 3,771 cases of myeloid diseases, which was 1.7% of all cancers, were identified in 2012. The highest incidence of myeloid malignancies was observed in age 70s and male predominance was noted (1.3:1). Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was the most frequent subtype, followed by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and MDS/MPN: age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) in 2012 for each disease were 2.02, 1.95, 1.13, and 0.12 per 100,000 persons, respectively. The ASR for all myeloid malignancies was increased from 3.31 in 1999 to 5.70 in 2012 with the annual percentage change (APC) of 5.4 %. Five-year relative survival rate (RS) for myeloid malignancies has gradually improved for decades. RS changed from 26.3% to 34.8% in AML, specifically from 51.6% to 69.6% in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and from 23.8% to 29.9% in non-APL AML, between 1996-2000 and 2008-2012. RS also increased from 81.8% to 87.1% in MPN, with a significant improvement in CML (from 74.5% to 85.5%), and from 27.3% to 31.7% in MDS/MPN between 2001-2005 and 2008-2012. However, there was no survival improvement in MDS during the study period (45.6% in 2001-2005 to 44.4% in 2008-2012). Conclusion This report updated the nationwide statistical analysis on myeloid malignancies since 2008, showing increasing incidence and improving trends in survival. PMID:26770948

  11. SPECT- and PET-Based Approaches for Noninvasive Diagnosis of Acute Renal Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Pawelski, Helga; Schnöckel, Uta; Kentrup, Dominik; Grabner, Alexander; Schäfers, Michael; Reuter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging techniques such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography are promising tools for noninvasive diagnosis of acute allograft rejection (AR). Given the importance of renal transplantation and the limitation of available donors, detailed analysis of factors that affect transplant survival is important. Episodes of acute allograft rejection are a negative prognostic factor for long-term graft survival. Invasive core needle biopsies are still the “goldstandard” in rejection diagnostics. Nevertheless, they are cumbersome to the patient and carry the risk of significant graft injury. Notably, they cannot be performed on patients taking anticoagulant drugs. Therefore, a noninvasive tool assessing the whole organ for specific and fast detection of acute allograft rejection is desirable. We herein review SPECT- and PET-based approaches for noninvasive molecular imaging-based diagnostics of acute transplant rejection. PMID:24804257

  12. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, E.; Gao, Y.; Chen, J.; Roberts, A. I.; Wang, X.; Chen, Z.; Shi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance.

  13. Allograft tolerance induced by donor apoptotic lymphocytes requires phagocytosis in the recipient.

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Gao, Y; Chen, J; Roberts, A I; Wang, X; Chen, Z; Shi, Y

    2004-12-01

    Cell death through apoptosis plays a critical role in regulating cellular homeostasis. Whether the disposal of apoptotic cells through phagocytosis can actively induce immune tolerance in vivo, however, remains controversial. Here, we report in a rat model that without using immunosuppressants, transfusion of apoptotic splenocytes from the donor strain prior to transplant dramatically prolonged survival of heart allografts. Histological analysis verified that rejection signs were significantly ameliorated. Splenocytes from rats transfused with donor apoptotic cells showed a dramatically decreased response to donor lymphocyte stimulation. Most importantly, blockade of phagocytosis in vivo, either with gadolinium chloride to disrupt phagocyte function or with annexin V to block binding of exposed phosphotidylserine to its receptor on phagocytes, abolished the beneficial effect of transfused apoptotic cells on heart allograft survival. Our results demonstrate that donor apoptotic cells promote specific allograft acceptance and that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells in vivo plays a crucial role in maintaining immune tolerance. PMID:15375386

  14. Acetabular Reconstruction with the Burch-Schneider Antiprotrusio Cage and Bulk Allografts: Minimum 10-Year Follow-Up Results

    PubMed Central

    Sandri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of severe pelvic bone loss is a challenging problem in hip revision surgery. Between January 1992 and December 2000, 97 hips with periprosthetic osteolysis underwent acetabular revision using bulk allografts and the Burch-Schneider antiprotrusio cage (APC). Twenty-nine patients (32 implants) died for unrelated causes without additional surgery. Sixty-five hips were available for clinical and radiographic assessment at an average follow-up of 14.6 years (range, 10.0 to 18.9 years). There were 16 male and 49 female patients, aged from 29 to 83 (median, 60 years), with Paprosky IIIA (27 cases) and IIIB (38 cases) acetabular bone defects. Nine cages required rerevision because of infection (3), aseptic loosening (5), and flange breakage (1). The average Harris hip score improved from 33.1 points preoperatively to 75.6 points at follow-up (P < 0.001). Radiographically, graft incorporation and cage stability were detected in 48 and 52 hips, respectively. The cumulative survival rates at 18.9 years with removal for any reason or X-ray migration of the cage and aseptic or radiographic loosening as the end points were 80.0% and 84.6%, respectively. The use of the Burch-Schneider APC and massive allografts is an effective technique for the reconstructive treatment of extensive acetabular bone loss with long-lasting survival. PMID:24967339

  15. Leiomyoma in a Renal Allograft.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan Jun; Siriwardana, Amila Rohan; Symons, James Lawrence Penn; O'Neill, Gordon Francis; Qiu, Min Ru; Furlong, Timothy John

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumours that are rarely found in the kidney. There is one report of a leiomyoma in a kidney transplant in a paediatric recipient. Here, we report an adult renal transplant recipient who developed an Epstein-Barr virus-positive leiomyoma in his allograft 15 years after transplantation. The patient was converted to everolimus for posttransplant immunosuppression management and there was no sign of progression over a year. PMID:27195169

  16. Leiomyoma in a Renal Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan Jun; Siriwardana, Amila Rohan; Symons, James Lawrence Penn; O'Neill, Gordon Francis; Qiu, Min Ru; Furlong, Timothy John

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumours that are rarely found in the kidney. There is one report of a leiomyoma in a kidney transplant in a paediatric recipient. Here, we report an adult renal transplant recipient who developed an Epstein-Barr virus-positive leiomyoma in his allograft 15 years after transplantation. The patient was converted to everolimus for posttransplant immunosuppression management and there was no sign of progression over a year. PMID:27195169

  17. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  18. Survival-rate analysis of surface treated dental zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Verdenik, Ivan; Swain, Michael V; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2014-10-01

    The role of surface preparation, hydrothermal ageing exposure and subsequent cyclic fatigue testing on the biaxial strength of a dental Y-TZP material are investigated. The initial strength and survival rate of a dental Y-TZP ceramic material to fatigue testing was found to be highly dependent upon surface preparation more so than exposure to various hydrothermal exposure conditions. The results suggest that the monoclinic phase generated by either surface damage (especially sandblasting) and to a lesser extent hydrothermal exposure does appear to mitigate strength and fatigue degradation. The results are discussed in terms of the size of defects generated following various surface treatments and the role of cyclic fatigue induced crack growth. A critical ratio is established between the monotonic strength and fatigue stress survival. From the specimens that failed and exhibited reduced strength after cycling a plot of averaged crack growth rate versus max cyclic stress intensity factor was established which closely matched existing results for Y-TZP ceramics. PMID:24781534

  19. Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Yoichi; Otani, Naoki; Fujita, Masanori; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) often result in high mortality. Free radicals have been reported to play an important role in global cerebral I/R, and therefore, reduction of these might improve the outcome. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen gas (H2) (a strong free radical scavenger) on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral I/R. We further examined the histopathological outcome and also the brain water content (as a possible determinant of mortality). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to global cerebral I/R by means of 45-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). A total of 160 mice were divided into three groups: sham surgery (sham group), BCCAO without H2 (BCCAO group), and BCCAO treated with 1.3% H2 (BCCAO + H2 group). We observed that H2 treatment significantly (P = 0.0232) improved the 7-day survival rate of mice, from 8.3% (BCCAO group, n = 12) to 50% (BCCAO + H2 group, n = 10). Histopathological analysis revealed that H2 treatment significantly attenuated neuronal injury and autophagy in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector and also brain edema, after 24 h of reperfusion. The beneficial effects of H2 treatment on brain injury were associated with significantly lower levels of oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) in the brain tissue. Thus, we believe that H2 may be an effective treatment for global cerebral I/R. PMID:22392146

  20. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls. PMID:27098161

  1. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  2. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. L.; Xue, J. M.; Lai, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, W. M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W. J.; He, F.; Gu, H. Y.; Wang, Y. G.

    2006-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 × 109-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  3. Inhibition of Chemokine-Glycosaminoglycan Interactions in Donor Tissue Reduces Mouse Allograft Vasculopathy and Transplant Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Erbin; Liu, Li-Ying; Wang, Hao; McIvor, Dana; Sun, Yun ming; Macaulay, Colin; King, Elaine; Munuswamy-Ramanujam, Ganesh; Bartee, Mee Yong; Williams, Jennifer; Davids, Jennifer; Charo, Israel; McFadden, Grant; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Lucas, Alexandra R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is classically described as initiating inflammatory cell migration and creating tissue chemokine gradients that direct local leukocyte chemotaxis into damaged or transplanted tissues. While chemokine-receptor binding has been extensively studied during allograft transplantation, effects of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interactions with chemokines on transplant longevity are less well known. Here we examine the impact of interrupting chemokine-GAG interactions and chemokine-receptor interactions, both locally and systemically, on vascular disease in allografts. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of GAG or CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) deficiency were coupled with the infusion of viral chemokine modulating proteins (CMPs) in mouse aortic allograft transplants (n = 239 mice). Inflammatory cell invasion and neointimal hyperplasia were significantly reduced in N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1f/fTekCre+) heparan sulfate (GAG)-deficient (Ndst1−/−, p<0.044) and CCR2-deficient (Ccr2−/−, p<0.04) donor transplants. Donor tissue GAG or CCR2 deficiency markedly reduced inflammation and vasculopathy, whereas recipient deficiencies did not. Treatment with three CMPs was also investigated; Poxviral M-T1 blocks CC chemokine receptor binding, M-T7 blocks C, CC, and CXC GAG binding, and herpesviral M3 binds receptor and GAG binding for all classes. M-T7 reduced intimal hyperplasia in wild type (WT) (Ccr2+/+, p≤0.003 and Ccr2−/−, p≤0.027) aortic allografts, but not in Ndst1−/− aortic allografts (p = 0.933). M-T1 and M3 inhibited WT (Ccr2+/+ and Ndst1+/+, p≤0.006) allograft vasculopathy, but did not block vasculopathy in Ccr2−/− (p = 0.61). M-T7 treatment alone, even without immunosuppressive drugs, also significantly prolonged survival of renal allograft transplants (p≤0.001). Conclusions/Significance Interruption of chemokine-GAG interactions, even in the absence of

  4. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  5. Recipient–derived EDA fibronectin promotes cardiac allograft fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Adam J; Wood, Sherri C; Cornett, Ashley M; Dreffs, Alyssa A; Lu, Guanyi; Muro, Andrés F; White, Eric S; Bishop, D Keith

    2014-01-01

    Advances in donor matching and immunosuppressive therapies have decreased the prevalence of acute rejection of cardiac grafts; however, chronic rejection remains a significant obstacle for long-term allograft survival. While initiating elements of anti-allograft immune responses have been identified, the linkage between these factors and the ultimate development of cardiac fibrosis is not well understood. Tissue fibrosis resembles an exaggerated wound healing response, in which extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are central. One such ECM molecule is an alternatively spliced isoform of the ubiquitous glycoprotein fibronectin (FN), termed extra domain A-containing cellular fibronectin (EDA cFN). EDA cFN is instrumental in fibrogenesis; thus, we hypothesized that it might also regulate fibrotic remodelling associated with chronic rejection. We compared the development of acute and chronic cardiac allograft rejection in EDA cFN-deficient (EDA−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice. While EDA−/− mice developed acute cardiac rejection in a manner indistinguishable from WT controls, cardiac allografts in EDA−/− mice were protected from fibrosis associated with chronic rejection. Decreased fibrosis was not associated with differences in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy or intra-graft expression of pro-fibrotic mediators. Further, we examined expression of EDA cFN and total FN by whole splenocytes under conditions promoting various T-helper lineages. Conditions supporting regulatory T-cell (Treg) development were characterized by greatest production of total FN and EDA cFN, though EDA cFN to total FN ratios were highest in Th1 cultures. These findings indicate that recipient-derived EDA cFN is dispensable for acute allograft rejection responses but that it promotes the development of fibrosis associated with chronic rejection. Further, conditions favouring the development of regulatory T cells, widely considered graft-protective, may drive production of ECM molecules which

  6. Successful treatment of renal allograft and bladder malakoplakia with minimization of immunosuppression and prolonged antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Angela L; Texler, Michael; Manning, Laurens; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2014-04-01

    Malakoplakia is an unusual granulomatous inflammatory disorder associated with diminished bactericidal action of leucocytes that occurs in immunosuppressed hosts. Cases of renal allograft malakoplakia are generally associated with a poor graft and patient survival. We present the case of a 56-year-old female with allograft and bladder malakoplakia occurring two years after renal transplantation complicated by an early antibody mediated rejection. Following a number of symptomatic urinary tract infections caused by resistant Gram-negative bacilli, a diagnosis of malakoplakia was made by biopsy of a new mass lesion of the renal allograft. Cystoscopy also revealed malakoplakia of the bladder wall. Immunosuppressant regimen was modified. Mycophenolate mofetil was ceased, prednisolone reduced to 5 mg/day and tacrolimus concentrations were carefully monitored to maintain trough serum concentrations of 2-4 μg/L. Concurrently, she received a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics followed by 13 months of dual oral antibiotic therapy with fosfomycin and faropenem. This joint approach resulted in almost complete resolution of allograft malakoplakia lesions and sustained regression of bladder lesions on cystoscopy with histological resolution in bladder lesions. Her renal function has remained stable throughout the illness. If treated with sustained antimicrobial therapy and reduction of immunosuppression, cases of allograft malakoplakia may not necessarily be associated with poor graft survival. PMID:24460630

  7. Elderly recipients of hepatitis C positive renal allografts can quickly develop liver disease.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Tanya R; Bonatti, Hugo; Hranjec, Tjasa; Keith, Doug S; Lobo, Peter I; Kumer, Sean C; Schmitt, Timothy M; Sawyer, Robert G; Pruett, Timothy L; Roberts, John P; Brayman, Kenneth L

    2012-08-01

    Our institution explored using allografts from donors with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) for elderly renal transplantation (RT). Thirteen HCV- elderly recipients were transplanted with HCV+ allografts (eD+/R-) between January 2003 and April 2009. Ninety HCV- elderly recipients of HCV- allografts (eD-/R-), eight HCV+ recipients of HCV+ allografts (D+/R+) and thirteen HCV+ recipients of HCV- allografts (D-/R+) were also transplanted. Median follow-up was 1.5 (range 0.8-5) years. Seven eD+/R- developed a positive HCV viral load and six had elevated liver transaminases with evidence of hepatitis on biopsy. Overall, eD+/R- survival was 46% while the eD-/R- survival was 85% (P = 0.003). Seven eD+/R- died during follow-up. Causes included multi-organ failure and sepsis (n = 4), cancer (n = 1), failure-to-thrive (n = 1) and surgical complications (n = 1). One eD+/R- died from causes directly related to HCV infection. In conclusion, multiple eD+/R- quickly developed HCV-related liver disease and infections were a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. PMID:22316669

  8. Elderly Recipients of Hepatitis C Positive Renal Allografts Can Quickly Develop Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Tanya R.; Bonatti, Hugo; Hranjec, Tjasa; Keith, Doug S.; Lobo, Peter I.; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Sawyer, Robert G.; Pruett, Timothy L.; Roberts, John P.; Brayman, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Our institution explored using allografts from donors with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) for elderly renal transplantation (RT). Thirteen HCV− elderly recipients were transplanted with HCV+ allografts (eD+/R−) between January 2003 and April 2009. Ninety HCV− elderly recipients of HCV− allografts (eD−/R−), eight HCV+ recipients of HCV+ allografts (D+/R+) and thirteen HCV+ recipients of HCV− allografts (D−/R+) were also transplanted. Median follow-up was 1.5 (range 0.8–5) years. Seven eD+/R− developed a positive HCV viral load and six had elevated liver transaminases with evidence of hepatitis on biopsy. Overall, eD+/R− survival was 46% while the eD−/R− survival was 85% (P = 0.003). Seven eD+/R− died during follow-up. Causes included multi-organ failure and sepsis (n = 4), cancer (n = 1), failure-to-thrive (n = 1) and surgical complications (n = 1). One eD+/R− died from causes directly related to HCV infection. In conclusion, multiple eD+/R− quickly developed HCV-related liver disease and infections were a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. PMID:22316669

  9. Myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma affects survival rate following extended thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHEFENG; CUI, YOUBIN; JIA, RUI; XUE, LEI; LIANG, HUAGANG

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common adult tumors in the anterior mediastinal compartment, and a significant amount of thymomas are complicated by myasthenia gravis (MG). Extended thymectomy (ET) is the primary treatment method for thymomas and is used to completely resect possible ectopic thymus to avoid recurrence. Studies on the effect of MG in thymoma patients following ET are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of MG affects the prognosis of patients with thymoma. The present study consisted of 104 patients with thymoma that underwent ET; 61 men (58.7%) and 43 women (41.3%) (mean age, 54.6 years). In total, 38 patients had MG (36.5%). MG was most frequently observed in World Health Organization (WHO) classification type B2 thymoma compared with other types of thymoma. During the 5-year follow-up period, 11 patients succumbed to a recurrence of thymoma or respiratory failure due to MG. The overall 5-year survival rate in patients without MG or with MG was 89.1 and 76.0%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate in patients with Masaoka stages I + II and III + IV was 90.0 and 68.0%, respectively. The OS rate in patients with WHO type A + AB + B1 and type B2 + B3 was 96.9 and 76.8%, respectively. The patients with MG (P=0.026), Masaoka stages III + IV (P=0.008) and WHO type B2 + B3 (P=0.032) had a poorer prognosis compared with patients without these characteristics. Furthermore, multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed that age [P=0.032; relative risk (RR)=1.097; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.097–1.192] and MG (P=0.042; RR=0.167; 95% CI=0.037–0.940) significantly affected OS rate. In summary, ET is a reliable method for the treatment of thymoma. Long-term survival is expected for patients at early Masaoka stages, and for patients without MG. The prognosis of patients with thymomas with MG is poorer compared with patients without MG. The present findings provide useful information for the future management of

  10. Solar wind evolution since 1990 and H ENA ionization rates and survival probabilities in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; McComas, D. J.; Bochsler, P.

    2012-04-01

    We derive the solar wind speed and density evolution in heliolatitude and time from 1990 to the end of 2011 based on remote-sensing and in-situ data sources in and out of the ecliptic plane and use it to calculate survival probabilities of heliospheric Energetic Neutral H Atoms (H ENA) in the energy range observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). We determine the heliolatitude structure of the solar wind speed using remote-sensing radio observations of interplanetary scintillations processed using the Computer Assisted Tomography algorithm and obtain yearly profiles on a 10-degree heliolatitude grid, which agree well with the in-situ measurements by Ulysses. Since the in-situ information on the solar wind density structure out of ecliptic is only available from the Ulysses data, we derive correlation formulae between solar wind speed and density profiles from Ulysses fast latitude scans and calculate the 3D structure of solar wind density. For the ecliptic heliolatitude band we use in-situ measurements from the OMNI-2 collection. Having obtained evolution of solar wind speed and density in time and heliolatitude, to calculate the ionization rate of H ENA we need the photoionization rate of H, which we obtain from TIMED SEE and SOHO CELIAS/SEM measurements supplemented with proxies. With the history of evolution of the solar factors responsible for the ionization of H ENA derived, we calculate the survival probabilities of H ENA observed by IBEX. To that end, we employ an atom-tracing approach. We track the atom trajectories from IBEX backwards in time up to the termination shock, solving the equation of motion and simultaneously calculating the survival probability against ionization. The equation of motion includes the forces of solar gravity and radiation pressure, which is a function of the total solar flux in the Lyman-alpha line and of radial velocity of the atom relative to the Sun due to the Doppler effect. To model the radiation pressure, we

  11. Usability of Cryopreserved Aortic Allografts for Middle Hepatic Vein Reconstruction During Living-Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hwan; Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Iliac vein allografts are suitable for middle hepatic vein (MHV) reconstruction during living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but their supply is often limited. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts are easily available but have drawbacks of accidental gastric penetration and non-degradable foreign body. To replace the use of PTFE grafts, we started using cryopreserved aorta allografts (CAAs). This study presents the technical details and patency outcomes of using CAAs in MHV reconstruction. We reviewed the surgical techniques of CAA interposition and analyzed the patency rates in 74 patients who underwent LDLT during the 6-year study period. The two control groups received either cryopreserved iliac veins (n = 122) or PTFE grafts (n = 84). The surgical techniques for MHV reconstruction used to implant the CAA and PTFE grafts are very similar because the techniques developed for PTFE grafts were also applied to CAAs. We inserted an arterial patch at the liver cut surface because the CAA wall is too thick to perform direct anastomosis. Two patients (2.7 %) underwent MHV stenting during the first month. The 1-year patency rate was 69.7 % in the CAA group vs. 39.2 % in iliac vein group vs. 57.2 % in PTFE group (p = 0.000). The overall graft and patient survival rates did not differ depending on the MHV interposition vessel materials (p > 0.1). CAAs combined with small-artery patches demonstrated high patency rates that surpass other vessel grafts, and thus, we suggest that CAA can be reliably used for MHV reconstruction when CAA is available. PMID:26666546

  12. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  13. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  14. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  15. Allografts in Soft Tissue Reconstructive Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Giedraitis, Andrius; Arnoczky, Steven P.; Bedi, Asheesh

    2014-01-01

    Context Allografts offer several important advantages over autografts in musculoskeletal reconstructive procedures, such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Despite growing widespread use of allograft tissue, serious concerns regarding safety and functionality remain. We discuss the latest knowledge of the potential benefits and risks of allograft use and offer a critical review of allograft tissue regulation, management, and sterilization to enable the surgeon to better inform athletes considering reconstructive surgery options. Evidence Acquisition A review of sources published in the past 10 years is the primary basis of this research. Study Design: Observational analysis (cohort study). Level of Evidence: Level 3. Results Comparable outcome data for autografts and allografts do not support universal standards for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and physician recommendation and bias appear to significantly influence patient preference and satisfaction. Sterilization by gamma and electron-beam irradiation diminishes the biomechanical integrity of allograft tissue, but radioprotective agents such as collagen cross-linking and free radical scavengers appear to have potential in mitigating the deleterious effects of irradiation and preserving tissue strength and stability. Conclusion Allografts offer greater graft availability and reduced morbidity in orthopaedic reconstructive procedures, but greater expansion of their use by surgeons is challenged by the need to maintain tissue sterility and biomechanical functionality. Advances in the radioprotection of irradiated tissue may lessen concerns regarding allograft safety and structural stability. PMID:24790696

  16. Capture-recapture estimation of prebreeding survival rate for birds exhibiting delayed maturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Spendelow, J.A.; Hines, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Many species of seabirds exhibit delayed maturity and do not return to the natal colony to breed for several years after fledging. Capture-recapture studies are frequently conducted at such breeding colonies and often include marking of young birds. However, because of the absence of these birds from the natal colony during the first few years after banding, the data do not fit neatly into existing capture-recapture models. Here we present a method for estimating prebreeding survival rate from capture-recapture studies on species exhibiting such patterns of delayed maturation. We illustrate the method using data from a capture-recapture study of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii ) on Falkner Island, Connecticut. The method appears to work well and emphasizes the potential to tailor capture-recapture models to specific field situations.

  17. Allograft Replacement for Absent Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Salma; Wanivenhaus, Florian; Fox, Alice J.; Warren, Russell F.; Doyle, Maureen; Rodeo, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Structural instability due to poor soft tissue quality often requires augmentation. Allografts are important biological substitutes that are used for the symptomatic patient in the reconstruction of deficient ligaments, tendons, menisci, and osteochondral defects. Interest in the clinical application of allografts has arisen from the demand to obtain stable anatomy with restoration of function and protection against additional injury, particularly for high-demand patients who participate in sports. Traditionally, allografts were employed to reinforce weakened tissue. However, they can also be employed to substitute deficient or functionally absent tissue, particularly in the sports medicine setting. Objective: This article presents a series of 6 cases that utilized allografts to restore functionally deficient anatomic architecture, rather than just simply augmenting the degenerated or damaged native tissue. Detailed discussions are presented of the use of allografts as a successful treatment strategy to replace functionally weakened tissue, often after failed primary repairs. PMID:24427387

  18. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review. PMID:26440584

  19. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  20. Cryotop vitrification of human oocytes results in high survival rate and healthy deliveries.

    PubMed

    Antinori, Monica; Licata, Emanuele; Dani, Gianluca; Cerusico, Fabrizio; Versaci, Caterina; Antinori, Severino

    2007-01-01

    Vitrification, an ultra-rapid cooling technique, offers a new perspective in attempts to develop an optimal cryopreservation procedure for human oocytes and embryos. To further evaluate this method for human oocytes, 796 mature oocytes (metaphase II) were collected from 120 volunteers. Since Italian legislation allows the fertilization of a maximum of only three oocytes per woman, there were 463 supernumerary oocytes; instead of being discarded, they were vitrified. When, in subsequent cycles, these oocytes were utilized, 328 out of 330 (99.4%) oocytes survived the warming procedure. The fertilization rate, pregnancy rate and implantation rate per embryo were 92.9, 32.5 and 13.2% respectively. Thus, as already reported in the literature, the vitrification procedure seems to be highly effective, safe (since healthy babies have been born) and easy to apply. In situations where embryo cryopreservation is not permitted (as in Italy), there is now good indication for routine application of the method, once further standardization is achieved. PMID:17207335

  1. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  2. Chloroquine improves survival and hematopoietic recovery following lethal low dose- rate radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang, Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We have previously shown that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hr. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hrs and 4 hrs before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retro orbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methyl cellulose colony forming assay of whole bone marrow cells as well as FACS analysis of lineage depleted cells was used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results Mice pretreated with chloroquine prior to radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate compared to mice treated with radiation alone (80 vs.31 percent, p=0.0026). Chloroquine administration prior to radiation did not impact the survival of ATM null mice (p=0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after the transplantation (4.2 percent vs. 0.4 percent, p=0.015). Conclusion Chloroquine administration prior to radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect like the in vitro effect is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the

  3. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. PMID:24405998

  4. Osteochondral Allografts in the Ankle Joint

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Francesca; Buda, Roberto; Ruffilli, Alberto; Cavallo, Marco; Giannini, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to report about the clinical use of partial and total fresh osteochondral allograft in the ankle joint. The state of the art of allografts with regard to basic science, procurement and storage methods, immunogenicity, generally accepted indications and contraindications, and the rationale of the allografting procedure have been described. Methods: All studies published in PubMed from 2000 to January 2012 addressing fresh osteochondral allograft procedures in the ankle joint were identified, including those that fulfilled the following criteria: (a) level I-IV evidence addressing the areas of interest outlined above; (b) measures of functional, clinical, or imaging outcome; and (c) outcome related to ankle cartilage lesions or ankle arthritis treated by allografts. Results: The analysis showed a progressively increasing number of articles from 2000. The number of selected articles was 14; 9 of those focused on limited dimension allografts (plugs, partial) and 5 on bipolar fresh osteochondral allografts. The evaluation of evidence level showed 14 case series and no randomized studies. Conclusions: Fresh osteochondral allografts are now a versatile and suitable option for the treatment of different degrees of osteochondral disease in the ankle joint and may even be used as total joint replacement. Fresh osteochondral allografts used for total joint replacement are still experimental and might be considered as a salvage procedure in otherwise unsolvable situations. A proper selection of the patients is therefore a key point. Moreover, the patients should be adequately informed about the possible risks, benefits, and alternatives to the allograft procedure. PMID:26069666

  5. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuk Man; Chen, Luqiu; Wang, Ying; Stefka, Andrew T; Molinero, Luciana L; Theriault, Betty; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Sivan, Ayelet S; Nagler, Cathryn R; Gajewski, Thomas F; Chong, Anita S; Bartman, Caroline; Alegre, Maria-Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Transplantation is the only cure for end-stage organ failure, but without immunosuppression, T cells rapidly reject allografts. While genetic disparities between donor and recipient are major determinants of the kinetics of transplant rejection, little is known about the contribution of environmental factors. Because colonized organs have worse transplant outcome than sterile organs, we tested the influence of host and donor microbiota on skin transplant rejection. Compared with untreated conventional mice, pretreatment of donors and recipients with broad-spectrum antibiotics (Abx) or use of germ-free (GF) donors and recipients resulted in prolonged survival of minor antigen-mismatched skin grafts. Increased graft survival correlated with reduced type I IFN signaling in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and decreased priming of alloreactive T cells. Colonization of GF mice with fecal material from untreated conventional mice, but not from Abx-pretreated mice, enhanced the ability of APCs to prime alloreactive T cells and accelerated graft rejection, suggesting that alloimmunity is modulated by the composition of microbiota rather than the quantity of bacteria. Abx pretreatment of conventional mice also delayed rejection of major antigen-mismatched skin and MHC class II-mismatched cardiac allografts. This study demonstrates that Abx pretreatment prolongs graft survival, suggesting that targeting microbial constituents is a potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing graft acceptance. PMID:27322054

  6. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  7. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  8. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  9. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, David H.; Fabius, Armida W. M.; Issa, Reda; Francis, Jasmine H.; Marr, Brian P.; Dunkel, Ira J.; Gobin, Y. Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma. Patients and Methods Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006) and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates. Results 156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010–2014 compared to 2006–2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months). There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease. Conclusion OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group). In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:26709699

  10. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  11. Drug Survival Rates of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the compliance of Korean patients using tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and identified potential predictors associated with treatment discontinuation. The study population comprised 114 RA and 310 AS patients treated with TNF inhibitors at a single tertiary center for at least 1 yr from December 2002 to November 2011. Of the 114 RA patients, 64 (56.1%) discontinued their first TNF inhibitors with a mean duration of 18.1 months. By contrast, 65 of 310 patients (21.0%) with AS discontinued their first TNF inhibitors, with a mean duration of 84 months. Although the survival rate did not differ among the three TNF inhibitors in the AS patients, the etanercept group had a lower discontinuation rate than the infliximab group in the RA patients. In addition, RA patients who received corticosteroids in combination with TNF inhibitors were more likely to discontinue their TNF inhibitors. The independent predictors of drug discontinuation in AS patients were male gender and complete ankylosis on radiographs of the sacroiliac joint. Our results provide further evidence that real-life treatment outcomes of RA and AS patients may be different from those observed in randomized clinical trials. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246737

  12. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge; Joanne Saher; Theresa Childers

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  13. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  14. Abundance and survival rates of the Hawai'i Island associated spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) stock.

    PubMed

    Tyne, Julian A; Pollock, Kenneth H; Johnston, David W; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai'i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture-recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai'i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture-recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE ± 0.05. Open and closed capture-recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221 ± 4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631 ± 60.1 SE, (95% CI 524-761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai'i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this Hawai'i Island

  15. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. PMID:25354647

  16. Meniscal allograft transplantation in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Liana M; Del Carlo, Ricardo J; Melo Filho, Edson V; Favarato, Lukiya S C; Duarte, Tatiana S; Pontes, Kelly C S; Cunha, Daise N Q

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the technique for meniscal allograft transplantation using allografts preserved in glycerin 98% in rabbits. Euthanasia was performed at 70 days to compare the transplanted (TM1 to TM16) versus the contralateral meniscus (OM1 to OM16). Sixteen menisci, 8 transplanted and 8 contralateral, were submitted to gross examination, histomorphometric analysis for identification and quantification of cellular type, and for quantification and distribution of collagen fibers. A revascularization study was conducted in all of the other samples. Lengths of the OM varied from 0.9 to 1.0 cm and two TM were smaller. All TM were completely attached to the synovial membrane, except for one case that presented partial fixation. Both, TM and OM had similar amounts of chondrocytes, fibroblasts and fibrocytes, and at the horns, chondrocytes were predominant. The collagen fibers in TM were well organized throughout the body, and disorganized at the horns. These fibers in OM were organized. The amounts of collagen type I and III, and the vascularization of the perimeniscal tissue and of the edge were similar in OM and TM. These results demonstrated graft integration and thus this transplantation technique and preservation method may be recommended. PMID:26648544

  17. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  18. Local allograft irradiation as an adjunct for treating severe resistant rejection after liver transplantation in adults.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Rajesh; Sharma, Amit; Kaspar, Matthew; Behnke, Martha; Song, Shiyu; Stravitz, R Todd; Cotterell, Adrian; Posner, Marc; Fisher, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Acute rejection after liver transplantation occurs in one-third of all recipients and can be managed with conventional rejection therapy in the majority of cases. In rare instances, patients with severe acute rejection may be refractory to or have contraindications for conventional therapies. This case series evaluates the role of local allograft irradiation (LAI) as an adjunct for patients with rejection that is refractory to or contraindicated for conventional therapies. Additionally, the literature on the use of radiation therapy for reversing rejection in solid organ transplantation is reviewed. Five patients underwent 9 LAI treatments: 2 had refractory rejection, and 1 each had a malignancy, a concurrent life-threatening infection, and serum sickness with antibody therapy. Conventional rejection therapies included steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and antithymocyte globulin. LAI consisted of 3 cycles of 1.5 Gy directed toward the liver allograft. Two of the 5 patients remained alive with excellent graft function. Six of the 9 treatments were successful in rescuing the liver allograft (reversing the rejection episode). Treatment success was associated with lower pretreatment serum bilirubin levels and higher pretreatment alanine aminotransferase levels. Compared with patients with immunosuppression-responsive severe acute rejection, those requiring LAI trended toward a later onset of first rejection. In conclusion, local irradiation of liver allografts can be a useful adjunct in patients for whom conventional options have been exhausted or cannot be used. The ability of LAI to reverse allograft dysfunction and promote patient survival appears to be greatest before the onset of severe cholestatic injury. PMID:25287272

  19. Changes in the management and survival rates of patients with oral cancer: a 30-year single-institution study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in the management and 5-year survival rates of patients with oral cancer in our department over a 30-year period. Materials and Methods We investigated the patient distributions, treatment methods, method of neck dissection according to cancer stage, and 5-year survival rates for 700 oral cancer patients over the periods of 1982–1996 (256 patients), 1999–2006 (248 patients), and 2007–2011 (196 patients). Results Stage IV patients were the largest group in all of the time periods evaluated. Although surgery and radiotherapy were the most common methods in all periods (over 50%), the prevalence of patients who underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy increased from 7.0% to 16.2%. The use of radical neck dissection decreased from 43.0% to 5.3%, while conservative surgical methods increased from 24.1% to 76.3%. Lastly, the overall 5-year survival rate increased from 31.6% to 63.5% during the study period. Conclusion Although the 5-year survival rate reached the same level as that of other developed countries during the course of our study, most patients continue to come to the hospital with stage IV disease. In order to increase the 5-year survival rate of oral carcinoma, it may be necessary to improve public education and social efforts relevant to early diagnosis. PMID:26904492

  20. Prolongation of rat heart allografts by donor-specific blood transfusion treated with ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators.

  1. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  2. Future of allografts in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Harner, Christopher D; Lo, Marvin Y

    2009-04-01

    Allografts play a prominent role in sports medicine, and their usage has increased dramatically over the past few decades, but the role of allograft in the future of sports medicine largely depends on several factors: (1) the ability of the tissue banking industry to convince both surgeons and the general population that tissue procurement is safe and nearly disease-free, (2) the ability to sterilize tissue with minimal compromise to tissue integrity, (3) successful clinical outcomes with allograft, and (4) the advent of artificial scaffolds and ligaments that function as well. PMID:19306738

  3. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  4. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  6. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  7. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  8. Using genetic techniques to quantify reinvasion, survival and in situ breeding rates during control operations.

    PubMed

    Veale, A J; Edge, K-A; McMurtrie, P; Fewster, R M; Clout, M N; Gleeson, D M

    2013-10-01

    Determining the origin of individuals caught during a control/eradication programme enables conservation managers to assess the reinvasion rates of their target species and evaluate the level of success of their control methods. We examine how genetic techniques can focus management by distinguishing between hypotheses of 'reinvasion' and 'survivor', and defining kin groups for invasive stoats (Mustela erminea) on Secretary Island, New Zealand. 205 stoats caught on the island were genotyped at 16 microsatellite loci, along with 40 stoats from the opposing mainland coast, and the age and sex were determined for each individual. Using these data, we compare and combine a variety of genetic techniques including genetic clustering, population assignment and kinship-based techniques to assess the origin of each stoat. The population history and individual movement could be described in fine detail, with results indicating that both in-situ survival and breeding, and reinvasion are occurring. Immigration to the island was found to be generally low, apart from in 1 year where around 8 stoats emigrated from the mainland. This increased immigration was probably linked to a stoat population spike on the mainland in that year, caused by a masting event of southern beech forest (Nothofagus sp.) and the subsequent rodent irruption. Our study provides an example of some of the ways genetic analyses can feed directly into informing management practices for invasive species. PMID:24033616

  9. Tuftsin-derived T-peptide prevents cellular immunosuppression and improves survival rate in septic mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Lei; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Han, Su; Zhu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Qing-Hong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The primary mechanisms of sepsis induced cellular immunesuppression involve immune dysfunction of T lymphocytes and negative immunoregulation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). It has been found that tuftsin is an immune modulating peptide derived from IgG in spleen. T-peptide is one of tuftsin analogs. Herein, we examined the effect of T-peptide on cell-mediated immunity in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the survival rate in septic mice. T-peptide regulated the proliferative ability of CD4+CD25− T cells in dual responses. Meanwhile, 10 and 100 μg/ml T-peptides were able to enhance the apoptotic rate of CD4+CD25− T cells compared with 1 μg/ml T-peptide, but markedly lowered interleukin (IL)-2 levels. When CD4+CD25+ Tregs were treated with T-peptide for 24 hours, and co-cultured with normal CD4+CD25− T cells, the suppressive ability of CD4+CD25+ Tregs on CD4+CD25− T cells was significantly lowered, along with decreased expression in forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p-3 (Foxp-3) as well as cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4, and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. Moreover, T-peptide has the ability to improve outcome of septic mice in a dose- and time- dependent manner, and associated with improvement in the microenvironment of cellular immunosuppression in septic mice. PMID:26577833

  10. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Koike, J; Oshima, T

    1993-08-01

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 x 10(-8) torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively. PMID:11541644

  11. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  12. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Fisheries agencies and tribes have developed a multi-year program, the Comparative Survival Study (CSS), to obtain information to be used in monitoring and evaluating the impacts of the mitigation measures and actions (e.g., flow augmentation, spill, and transportation) under NMFS' Biological Opinion to recover listed stocks. Through 2001, the CSS has utilized PIT tagged yearling hatchery chinook that were tagged specifically for the CSS and PIT tagged wild chinook from all available marking efforts in the Snake River basin above Lower Granite Dam. We selected hatchery programs that would allow the opportunity to mark sufficient numbers of smolts to give enough returning adult fish that statistically rigorous smolt-to-adult survival rates could be computed. Since the CSS inception, hatchery fish that have consistently been used include spring/summer chinook tagged at McCall, Rapid River, Dworshak, and Lookingglass (Imnaha stock) hatcheries. The CSS has also included a group of spring chinook from Carson Hatchery in the lower Columbia River for planned upstream/downstream comparison. The wild stocks included chinook PIT tagged as parr (summer/fall tagging season) and smolts (spring tagging season) in each major tributary above Lower Granite Dam. Future years will see the CSS add wild and hatchery steelhead in the Snake River basin, hatchery steelhead in the Mid-Columbia River basin, hatchery yearling chinook in the Mid-Columbia River basin, and wild chinook in John Day River in the lower Columbia River. Each PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag has a unique code. The tags are glass encapsulated, 11 mm in length, and implanted into the fish's underbelly by a syringe. All attempts are made to make the PIT tagged fish as representative of their untagged cohorts as possible. At trapping sites, sampling and tagging occur over the entire migration season. At hatcheries, fish to tag are obtained across as wide a set of ponds and raceways as possible to allow effective

  13. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  14. Enzymes for Pancreatic Islet Isolation Impact Chemokine-Production and Polarization of Insulin-Producing β-Cells with Reduced Functional Survival of Immunoisolated Rat Islet-Allografts as a Consequence

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Paul; Smink, Alexandra M.; Paredes, Genaro; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; de Haan, Bart J.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether normal variations in enzyme-activities of collagenases applied for rat-islet isolation impact longevity of encapsulated islet grafts. Also we studied the functional and immunological properties of rat islets isolated with different enzyme preparations to determine whether this impacts these parameters. Rat-islets were isolated from the pancreas with two different collagenases with commonly accepted collagenase, neutral protease, and clostripain activities. Islets had a similar and acceptable glucose-induced insulin-release profile but a profound statistical significant difference in production of the chemokines IP-10 and Gro-α. The islets were studied with nanotomy which is an EM-based technology for unbiased study of ultrastructural features of islets such as cell-cell contacts, endocrine-cell condition, ER stress, mitochondrial conditions, and cell polarization. The islet-batch with higher chemokine-production had a lower amount of polarized insulin-producing β-cells. All islets had more intercellular spaces and less interconnected areas with tight cell-cell junctions when compared to islets in the pancreas. Islet-graft function was studied by implanting encapsulated and free islet grafts in rat recipients. Alginate-based encapsulated grafts isolated with the enzyme-lot inducing higher chemokine production and lower polarization survived for a two-fold shorter period of time. The lower survival-time of the encapsulated grafts was correlated with a higher influx of inflammatory cells at 7 days after implantation. Islets from the same two batches transplanted as free unencapsulated-graft, did not show any difference in survival or function in vivo. Lack of insight in factors contributing to the current lab-to-lab variation in longevity of encapsulated islet-grafts is considered to be a threat for clinical application. Our data suggest that seemingly minor variations in activity of enzymes applied for islet

  15. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-04-28

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  16. Renal allograft rejection: sonography and scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Cohen, W.N.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 30 renal allograft patients who had sonographic B scanning and radionuclide studies of the transplant was studied as to whether: (1) the allograft rejection was associated with any consistent and reliable sonographic features and (2) the sonograms complemented the radionuclide studies. Focal areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistent sonographic finding in chymal echogenicity were the most striking and consistens sonographic finding in allograft rejection. This was observed in most of the patients exhibiting moderate or severe rejection, but was frequently absent with mild rejection. Areas of decreased parenchymal echogenicity were not seen during episodes of acute tubular necrosis. Therefore, sonography showing zones of decreased parenchymal echogenicity was complementary to radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of allograft rejection versus acute tubular necrosis. Corticomedullary demarcation was difficult to interpret because of technical variables, and was inconsistently related to rejection in this series.

  17. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone Autograft Versus Allograft in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Atanda, Alfred; O’Brien, Daniel Francis; Kraeutler, Matthew John; Flato, Russell R.; Salminen, Matthew Robert; Henrichsen, Kevin; Kane, Patrick; Dodson, Christopher C.; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Traditionally, bone-patella tendon-bone (BTB) autograft has been the gold standard graft choice for younger, athletic patients requiring ACL reconstruction. However, donor site morbidity, post-operative patella fracture, and increased operative time have led many surgeons to choose BTB allograft for their reconstructions. Opponents of allografts feel that slower healing time, higher rate of graft failure, and potential for disease transmission makes them undesirable graft choices in athletic patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes, both subjective and objective, of young patients that who have undergone either BTB autograft or allograft reconstructions with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients (60 autograft, 60 allograft), age 25 and below at time of surgery, were contacted after being retrospectively identified as patients having an ACL reconstruction with either a BTB allograft or autograft by one senior surgeon. Patients were administered the Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation questionnaires. Fifty (25 BTB autograft and 25 BTB allograft) of the 120 returned for physical examination as well as completion of a single leg hop test and laxity evaluation using a KT-1000 arthrometer evaluation. Of the 120 patients contacted, there were a total of 7 failures (5.8%) requiring revision, 6 in the allograft group (86%) and 1 in the autograft group (14%). Results: The average Lysholm scores were 89.0 and 89.56 and the average IKDC scores were 90.8 and 92.1 in the autograft and allograft groups respectively. The differences in the Lysholm scores and the IKDC scores were not significant. The single leg hop and KT-1000 scores were also not significantly different. One autograft patient had a minor motion deficit. Three allograft patients had a grade 1 Lachman and pivot glide. One autograft patient and two allograft patients had mild patellafemoral crepitus. There was no

  19. Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate for pancreas allograft preservation: the Indiana University experience.

    PubMed

    Fridell, J A; Mangus, R S; Powelson, J A

    2010-05-01

    Histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK) has been scrutinized for use in pancreas transplantation. A recent case series and a United Network for Organ Sharing data base review have suggested an increased incidence of allograft pancreatitis and graft loss with HTK compared to the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Conversely, a recent randomized, controlled study failed to show any significant difference between HTK and UW for pancreas allograft preservation. This study was a retrospective review of all pancreas transplants performed at Indiana University between 2003 and 2009 comparing preservation with HTK or UW. Data included recipient and donor demographics, 7-day, 90-day and 1-year graft survival, peak 30-day serum amylase and lipase, HbA1c and C-peptide levels. Of the 308 pancreas transplants, 84% used HTK and 16% UW. There were more SPK compared to pancreas after kidney and pancreas transplant alone in the HTK group. Donor and recipient demographics were similar. There was no significant difference in 7-day, 90-day or 1-year graft survival, 30-day peak serum amylase and lipase, HbA1c or C-peptide. No clinically significant difference between HTK and UW for pancreas allograft preservation was identified. Specifically, in the context of low-to-moderate flush volume and short cold ischemia time (allograft pancreatitis or graft loss was observed. PMID:20353471

  20. Effects of copper on development and survival rate of Paphia malabarica Chemnitz larvae under low saline condition.

    PubMed

    Gireesh, R; Gopinathan, C P

    2009-08-01

    Venerid clam, Paphia malabarica Chemnitz, is the commercially exploited species distributed exclusively in Vembanad Lake and Ashtamudi estuary, along the south west coast of India. In this study, the survival rate and development of P. malabarica larvae were studied for 3 days in ambient salinity (33), copper (2.5 microg Cu2+ l(-1)), reduced salinities (25 and 20) and a combination of copper in low salinities. No significant differences were found in larval development between treatments. The survival rates decreased considerably with low salinities although the combination of copper and low salinity gave synergistic effects. The reduced survival in low salinities would limit population growth of this species in estuarine areas experiencing low salinities and also explains the absence of larval settlement on habitats close to harbors or river mouths. PMID:18784980

  1. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nan-Ze; Huang, Jiu-Zuo; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhao, Ru; Bai, Ming; Long, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG) is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR) of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30–83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3–52.5% after 15 weeks). Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00–14.56% after 1-year). Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2), stroke (10), vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke), sepsis (3), multiple abscess (1) and giant fat necrotic cyst (2). Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack of

  2. Bortezomib produces high hematological response rates with prolonged renal survival in monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Camille; Royer, Bruno; Javaugue, Vincent; Szalat, Raphael; El Karoui, Khalil; Caulier, Alexis; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Jaccard, Arnaud; Chevret, Sylvie; Touchard, Guy; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Arnulf, Bertrand; Bridoux, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD) is a rare complication of plasma cell disorders, defined by linear Congo red-negative deposits of monoclonal light chain, heavy chain, or both along basement membranes. While renal involvement is prominent, treatment strategies, such as the impact of novel anti-myeloma agents, remain poorly defined. Here we retrospectively studied 49 patients with MIDD who received a median of 4.5 cycles of intravenous bortezomib plus dexamethasone. Of these, 25 received no additional treatment, 18 also received cyclophosphamide, while 6 also received thalidomide or lenalidomide. The hematological diagnoses identified 38 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, 10 with symptomatic multiple myeloma, and 1 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. The overall hematologic response rate, based on the difference between involved and uninvolved serum-free light chains (dFLCs), was 91%. After median follow-up of 54 months, 5 patients died and 10 had reached end-stage renal disease. Renal response was achieved in 26 patients, with a 35% increase in median eGFR and an 86% decrease in median 24-h proteinuria. Predictive factors were pre-treatment eGFR over 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and post-treatment dFLC under 40 mg/l; the latter was the sole predictive factor of renal response by multivariable analysis. Thus, bortezomib-based therapy is a promising treatment strategy in MIDD, mainly when used early in the disease course. dFLC response is a favorable prognostic factor for renal survival. PMID:26176826

  3. Infiltration of Macrophages Correlates with Severity of Allograft Rejection and Outcome in Human Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bourier, Felix; Kühne, Louisa; Banas, Miriam C.; Rümmele, Petra; Wurm, Simone; Banas, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite substantial progress in recent years, graft survival beyond the first year still requires improvement. Since modern immunosuppression addresses mainly T-cell activation and proliferation, we studied macrophage infiltration into the allografts of 103 kidney transplant recipients during acute antibody and T-cell mediated rejection. Macrophage infiltration was correlated with both graft function and graft survival until month 36 after transplantation. Results Macrophage infiltration was significantly elevated in antibody-mediated and T-cell mediated rejection, but not in kidneys with established IFTA. Treatment of rejection with steroids was less successful in patients with more prominent macrophage infiltration into the allografts. Macrophage infiltration was accompanied by increased cell proliferation as well as antigen presentation. With regard to the compartmental distribution severity of T-cell-mediated rejection was correlated to the amount of CD68+ cells especially in the peritubular and perivascular compartment, whereas biopsies with ABMR showed mainly peritubular CD68 infiltration. Furthermore, severity of macrophage infiltration was a valid predictor of resulting creatinine values two weeks as well as two and three years after renal transplantation as illustrated by multivariate analysis. Additionally performed ROC curve analysis showed that magnitude of macrophage infiltration (below vs. above the median) was a valid predictor for the necessity to restart dialysis. Having additionally stratified biopsies in accordance to the magnitude of macrophage infiltration, differential CD68+ cell infiltration was reflected by striking differences in overall graft survival. Conclusion The differences in acute allograft rejection have not only been reflected by different magnitudes of macrophage infiltration, but also by compartment-specific infiltration pattern and subsequent impact on resulting allograft function as well as need for dialysis

  4. Cytomegalovirus infection enhances smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal thickening of rat aortic allografts.

    PubMed Central

    Lemström, K B; Bruning, J H; Bruggeman, C A; Lautenschlager, I T; Häyry, P J

    1993-01-01

    Inbred DA (AG-B4, RT1a) and WF (AG-B2, RT1v) rats were used as donors and recipients of aortic allografts. The recipient rats were inoculated i.p. either on day 1 (early infection) or on day 60 (late infection) with 10(5) plaque-forming units of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV). The control rats were left noninfected. The presence of viral infection was demonstrated by plaque assays from biopsies of the salivary glands, liver, and spleen at sacrifice. The rats received 300 microCi[3H]thymidine by i.v. injection 3 h before sacrifice, and the grafts were removed at various time points for histology, immunohistochemistry, and autoradiography. RCMV infection significantly enhanced the generation of allograft arteriosclerosis. Infection at the time of transplantation had two important effects. First, the infection was associated with an early, prominent inflammatory episode and proliferation of inflammatory cells in the allograft adventitia. Second, the viral infection doubled the proliferation rate of smooth muscle cells and the arteriosclerotic alterations in the intima. In late infection the impact of RCMV infection on the allograft histology was nearly nonexistent. RCMV infection showed no effect in syngeneic grafts. These results suggest that early infection is more important to the generation of accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis than late infection, and that an acute alloimmune response must be associated with virus infection, to induce accelerated allograft arteriosclerosis. RCMV-infected aortic allografts, as described here, provide the first experimental model to investigate the interaction between the virus and the vascular wall of the transplant. Images PMID:8394384

  5. Impaired elastin deposition in Fstl1-/- lung allograft under the renal capsule.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Li, Lian; Dong, Yingying; Liu, Xue; Li, Xiao-He; Ning, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Lung alveolar development in late gestation is a process important to postnatal survival. Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a matricellular protein of the Bmp antagonist class, which is involved in the differentiation/maturation of alveolar epithelial cells during saccular stage of lung development. This study investigates the role of Fstl1 on elastin deposition in mesenchyme and subsequent secondary septation in the late gestation stage of terminal saccular formation. To this aim, we modified the renal capsule allograft model for lung organ culture by grafting diced E15.5 distal lung underneath the renal capsule of syngeneic host and cultured up to 7 days. The saccular development of the diced lung allografts, as indicated by the morphology, epithelial and vascular developments, occurred in a manner similar to that in utero. Fstl1 deficiency caused atelectatic phenotype companied by impaired epithelial differentiation in D3 Fstl1(-/-) lung allografts, which is similar to that of E18.5 Fstl1(-/-) lungs, supporting the role of Fstl1 during saccular stage. Inhibition of Bmp signaling by intraperitoneal injection of dorsomorphin in the host mice rescued the pulmonary atelectasis of D3 Fstl1(-/-) allografts. Furthermore, a marked reduction in elastin expression and deposition was observed in walls of air sacs of E18.5 Fstl1(-/-) lungs and at the tips of the developing alveolar septae of D7 Fstl1(-/-) allografts. Thus, in addition to its role on alveolar epithelium, Fstl1 is crucial for elastin expression and deposition in mesenchyme during lung alveologenesis. Our data demonstrates that the modified renal capsule allograft model for lung organ culture is a robust and efficient technique to increase our understanding of saccular stage of lung development. PMID:24282586

  6. Intraperitoneal adipose tissue is strongly related to survival rate in a mouse cecal ligation and puncture model

    PubMed Central

    Niiyama, Shuhei; Takasu, Osamu; Sakamoto, Teruo; Ushijima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) models exhibiting polymicrobial sepsis are considered as the gold standard in sepsis research. However, despite meticulous research being conducted in this field, only few treatment drugs are available, indicating that CLP sepsis models do not completely mimic human sepsis models. The greatest flaw in CLP models is abscess formation because the localization of inflammation caused by abscess formation increases the survival rate. Therefore, by resecting intraperitoneal adipose tissue, we developed a mouse CLP model wherein abscess formation was unlikely. Survival rates at 7 days postoperatively were compared using the Kaplan–Meier method for an intraperitoneal adipose tissue resection group (resection group, n=34), an intraperitoneal adipose tissue non-resection group (non-resection group, n=35) and a sham group (n=10). Results indicated that the survival rate was significantly higher in the non-resection group compared with the resection group. Intraperitoneal macroscopic findings in the non-resection group revealed the localization of inflammation caused by abscesses formation covered in adipose tissue. The survival rate for the sham group was 100%. Measurement of interleukin 6 (IL-6) indicated that during the 12 h after the creation of the CLP model, the median level of IL-6 was 1300 (552–3000) pg ml−1 in the non-resection group (n=19) and 3000 (1224–8595) pg ml−1 in the resection group (n=19). Meanwhile, for the sham group, IL-6 values were below measurement sensitivity in most cases (9/10 mice). Thus our results suggest that, in CLP models, intraperitoneal adipose tissue has an important role in abscess formation and is strongly related to the survival rate. PMID:26962454

  7. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  8. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  9. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks. PMID:26523399

  10. A Comparative Study of Survival Rate in High Grade Glioma Tumors Being Treated by Radiotherapy Alone Versus Chemoradiation With Nitrosourea

    PubMed Central

    Houshyari, Mohammad; Hajalikhani, Farzaneh; Rakhsha, Afshin; Hajian, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: In adults, malignant glioma (high-grade glioma) is one of the most common brain tumors. In spite of different types of treatment, the outcome is still not likely to be favorable. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between survival rate in adult patients with high grade glioma treated by radiotherapy only and those treated by a combination of radiotherapy and nitrosurea-based chemotherapy. Methods: This study was conducted using the records of 48 patients with grade 3 or 4 of glial brain tumor referred to the radiation-oncology ward of Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in Tehran, Iran from 2005 to 2012. The patients had undergone radiotherapy alone or adjuvant chemoradiation with nitrosourea. The median survival of patients after receiving the different types of treatment were evaluated using the Kaplan –Meier method and the log –rank exam. Data were analyzed using univariate analysis for median survival regarding to the patients’ age, gender, extent of surgery, Karnofsky performance status (KPS) with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank exam. We used the Cox-model for multivariate analysis. Results: Records of 48 patients were studied (34 men and 14 women). The mean survival were 18 months for men and 15.2 months for women (P = 0.05). Around 58% (28 patients) were more than 50 years old, and 42% (20 patients) were less than 50, and mean survival for the two age groups were 13 and 20 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Then, the patients were divided into three groups according to the extent of surgery, i.e., excisional biopsy (11 patients), stereotactic biopsy (22 patients), and resection (15 patients), and the mean survival for the three groups were 14.7, 17.3, and 18.8 months, respectively. There was no significant statistical difference for mean survival between the three groups (P = 0.23). The KPS was greater than 70% in 23 patients and less than 70% in 21 patients, and the mean survival for the former and latter groups were 17

  11. Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, Scott G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

  12. Delayed implantation of nigral grafts improves survival of dopamine neurones and rate of functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, S R; Fawcett, J W; Dunnett, S B

    1999-04-26

    In order to test the hypothesis that poor survival of dopaminergic neurones in nigral transplants may be due, at least in part, to acute toxic changes in the host striatum within the first hour after injury, we experimentally evaluated the consequences of imposing a brief delay (20 min, 1 or 3 h) between positioning the injection cannula and extruding the graft tissue. A delay of as little as 1 h resulted in a three-fold increase in survival of dopamine neurones in the grafts and a more rapid abolition of amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the host animals. These results suggest that acute but rapidly resolving changes in the host striatal environment induced by the implantation procedure itself can have a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of embryonic nigral grafts. PMID:10363936

  13. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  14. Contributions of cooling and warming rate and developmental stage to the survival of Drosophila embryos cooled to -205 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mazur, P; Cole, K W; Schreuders, P D; Mahowald, A P

    1993-02-01

    Because of their high susceptibility to chilling injury, permeabilized Drosophila embryos can not be cryobiologically preserved by slow freezing at rates low enough to prevent the formation of intraembryonic ice. Calculations indicated that to outrun the chilling injury they must be cooled and warmed rapidly at an estimated 20,000 degrees C/min or faster. Ordinarily, such cooling rates would inevitably produce lethal intracellular ice. To prevent this, embryos must contain and be surrounded by sufficiently high concentrations of glass-promoting solutes to induce vitrification on cooling and prevent devitrification on warming. Like Steponkus et al. (Nature 345, 170, 1990) we have used ethylene glycol as the solute and have exposed permeabilized 12-h embryos to it in two steps. (Permeabilization was effected by exposing dechorionated embryos to a mixture of 0.3% 1-butanol in n-heptane for 90 or 110 s.) The two steps were (i) a 30-min exposure to 2 M ethylene glycol at 23 degrees C and (ii) a 5-min exposure to 8.5 M ethylene glycol [+/- 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)] at 5 degrees C. The volumetric response to the first step indicates that full permeation of the 2 M glycol has been approached by 30 min. The point of the second step is to raise the intraembryonic concentration of ethylene glycol to near 8.5 M ethylene glycol by osmotic dehydration. Survival based on hatching is some 45% at this point. When 12-h embryos in 8.5 M glycol containing 10% PVP are then cooled to -205 degrees C at approximately 100,000 degrees C/min and warmed at about that rate, an average of about 12% survive (hatch), although in about half the runs 15-29% survive. Survivals in the absence of PVP are usually poorer but have been as high as 40%. Currently, 5% of the surviving larvae develop to adult flies (Steponkus et al. reported 18% hatching and 3% development to adult). Embryos that develop but do not hatch show readily detectable abnormalities in mouth parts and dorsal closure. Very high

  15. Anti-huCD20 Antibody Therapy for Antibody-Mediated Rejection of Renal Allografts in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Toyofumi; Ishii, Daisuke; Gorbacheva, Victoria; Kohei, Naoki; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Dvorina, Nina; Nonomura, Norio; Takahara, Shiro; Valujskikh, Anna; Baldwin, William M.; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    We have reported that B6.CCR5−/− mice reject renal allografts with high serum donor-specific antibody (DSA) titers and marked C4d deposition in grafts, features consistent with AMR. B6.huCD20/CCR5−/− mice, where human CD20 expression is restricted to B cells, rejected A/J renal allografts by day 26 post-transplant with DSA first detected in serum on day 5 post-transplant and increased thereafter. Recipient treatment with anti-huCD20 mAb prior to the transplant and weekly up to 7 weeks post-transplant promoted long-term allograft survival (> 100 days) with low DSA titers. To investigate the effect of B cell depletion at the time serum DSA was first detected, recipients were treated with anti-huCD20 mAb on days 5, 8 and 12 post-transplant. This regimen significantly reduced DSA titers and graft inflammation on day 15 post-transplant and prolonged allograft survival > 60 days. However, DSA returned to the titers observed in control treated recipients by day 30 post-transplant and histological analyses on day 60 post-transplant indicated severe interstitial fibrosis. These results indicate that anti-huCD20 mAb had the greatest effect as a prophylactic treatment and that the distinct kinetics of DSA responses accounts for acute renal allograft failure versus the development of fibrosis. PMID:25731734

  16. Precise Calculation of a Bond Percolation Transition and Survival Rates of Nodes in a Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition. PMID:25885791

  17. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  18. Regenerative Effects of Three Types of Allografts on Rabbit Calvarium: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Shakeri, Abbas Seyed; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Manasheof, Rebecca; Barikani, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to histologically compare the regenerative properties of two allografts manufactured by two Iranian companies. Materials and Methods: In this study, four 8-mm defects were produced in the calvaria of 12 rabbits. In three defects, three types of allografts namely ITB, CenoBone and Grafton were placed and one defect served as control. Samples were prepared and histomorphometric evaluations were carried out after healing periods of four weeks (interval 1) and eight weeks (interval 2). Qualitative and quantities variables were compared and analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Mild inflammation was observed in 45% and 12.5% of the samples in the first and second intervals, respectively. Foreign body reaction was observed in only 5% of the samples. The quality of regenerated bone was immature, mixed and lamellar in 54.5%, 15.9% and 4.5% of the samples, respectively. The rate of allograft resorption was the highest and lowest in the CenoBone and Grafton samples, respectively. The mean amount of regenerated bone was higher in areas containing Grafton; however, the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Despite the differences in the numerical values of bone regeneration, there were no statistically significant differences in bone generation among the material groups, and allografts manufactured in Iran can be suitable alternatives to Grafton with the same good properties. Further studies are necessary to clarify the efficacy of these allografts. PMID:27507993

  19. Effect of two cleaning processes for bone allografts on gentamicin impregnation and in vitro antibiotic release.

    PubMed

    Coraça-Huber, D C; Hausdorfer, J; Fille, M; Steidl, M; Nogler, M

    2013-06-01

    Bone allografts are a useful and sometimes indispensable tool for the surgeon to repair bone defects. Microbial contamination is a major reason for discarding allografts from bone banks. To improve the number of safe allografts, we suggest chemical cleaning of the grafts followed by antibiotic impregnation. Comparison of two chemical cleaning processes for bone allografts aiming for antibiotic impregnation and consequently delivery rates in vitro. Bone chips of 5-10 mm were prepared from human femoral heads. Two cleaning methods (cleaning A and cleaning B) based on solutions containing hydrogen peroxide, paracetic acid, ethanol and biological detergent were carried out and compared. After the cleaning processes, the bone chips were impregnated with gentamicin. Bacillus subtilis bioassay was used to determine the gentamicin release after intervals of 1-7 days. Differences were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests. The zones of inhibition obtained from the bone grafts cleaned with both cleaning processes were similar between the groups. The concentration of the released antibiotic was decreasing gradually over time, following a similar pattern for both groups. The cleaning procedure A as well as the cleaning procedure B for bone allografts allowed the impregnation with gentamicin powder in the same concentrations in both groups. The delivery of gentamicin was similar for both groups. Both cleaning procedures were easy to be carried out, making them suitable for routine use at the bone banks. PMID:22581168

  20. Mast Cells Condition Dendritic Cells to Mediate Allograft Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Victor C.; Pino-Lagos, Karina; Nowak, Elizabeth C.; Bennett, Kathy A.; Oliva, Carla; Noelle, Randolph J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Peripheral tolerance orchestrated by regulatory T cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells (MCs) has been studied in several models including skin allograft tolerance. We now define a role for MCs in controlling DC behavior (“conditioning”) to facilitate tolerance. Under tolerant conditions, we show that MCs mediated a marked increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNFα)-dependent accumulation of graft-derived DCs in the dLN compared to nontolerant conditions. This increase of DCs in the dLN is due to the local production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by MCs that induces a survival advantage of graft-derived DCs. DCs that migrated to the dLN from the tolerant allograft were tolerogenic; i.e., they dominantly suppress T cell responses and control regional immunity. This study underscores the importance of MCs in conditioning DCs to mediate peripheral tolerance and shows a functional impact of peripherally produced TNFα and GM-CSF on the migration and function of tolerogenic DCs. PMID:22035846

  1. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  2. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. PMID:27287305

  3. The mechanical stability of allografts after a cleaning process: comparison of two preparation modes.

    PubMed

    Putzer, David; Huber, Debora Coraca; Wurm, Alexander; Schmoelz, Werner; Nogler, Michael

    2014-08-01

    In revision hip arthroplasty, bone loss can be compensated by impacting allograft material. Cleaning processes reduce the risk of bacterial and viral contamination. Cleaned allograft material was compared to native untreated allografts by using a uniaxial compression test. 30 measurements were performed for each group before and after compaction. Grain size distribution and weight loss were determined. A reduction in the amount of large bone fragments and a higher compaction rate were observed in the cleaned bone grafts. The cleaned bone chips presented with a better mechanical resistance to a compression force and a reduced flowability. The benefit of a cleaner and a mechanical stable graft material comes with the drawback that higher initial amounts of graft material are needed. PMID:24793889

  4. Recurrent and de novo disease after renal transplantation: a report from the Renal Allograft Disease Registry.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Sundaram; Savin, Virginia J

    2004-08-01

    Recurrent and de novo disease is an increasing problem and is known to negatively impact transplant graft survival. Immunosuppressive medications have not had an impact on the prevalence of recurrent and de novo disease. Renal Allograft Disease Registry (RADR) was established to study the prevalence, impact and risk factors for the development of recurrent and de novo disease. Retrospective and prospective study on recurrent disease is discussed in this manuscript. PMID:15265160

  5. Skin allografts in lethally irradiated animals repopulated with syngeneic hemopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Total body irradiation and repopulation with syngeneic hemopoietic cells can be used to induce tolerance to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatched heart and kidney grafts in rats and mice. However, this protocol does not work for MHC mismatched skin grafts in rats or mice. Furthermore, LEW rats that accept WF cardiac allografts after irradiation and repopulation reject subsequent WF skin grafts. Treatment of skin allograft donors with methotrexate prior to grafting onto irradiated and reconstituted mice resulted in doubling of the mean survival time. Analysis of which antigens provoked skin graft rejection by irradiation and reconstituted animals revealed the importance of I region antigens. Cardiac allograft acceptance by irradiated and reconstituted animals is mediated by suppressor cells found in the spleen. Adoptively tolerant LEW rats accepted WF skin grafts in 50% of grafted animals. Analysis of this phenomenon revealed that the adoptive transfer procedure itself was important in achieving skin allograft acceptance by these animals. In general, it seems that the lack of ability of irradiated and reconstituted animals to accept fully MHC disparate skin grafts results from the inability of these animals to suppress lymph node effector cells against I region antigen seen on highly immunogenic allogeneic Langerhans cells in the skin.

  6. Cutting edge: membrane lymphotoxin regulates CD8(+) T cell-mediated intestinal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z; Wang, J; Meng, L; Wu, Q; Kim, O; Hart, J; He, G; Zhou, P; Thistlethwaite, J R; Alegre, M L; Fu, Y X; Newell, K A

    2001-11-01

    Blocking the CD28/B7 and/or CD154/CD40 costimulatory pathways promotes long-term allograft survival in many transplant models where CD4(+) T cells are necessary for rejection. When CD8(+) T cells are sufficient to mediate rejection, these approaches fail, resulting in costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. To address this problem we examined the role of lymphotoxin-related molecules in CD8(+) T cell-mediated rejection of murine intestinal allografts. Targeting membrane lymphotoxin by means of a fusion protein, mAb, or genetic mutation inhibited rejection of intestinal allografts by CD8(+) T cells. This effect was associated with decreased monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) and secondary lymphoid chemokine (SLC) gene expression within allografts and spleens respectively. Blocking membrane lymphotoxin did not inhibit rejection mediated by CD4(+) T cells. Combining disruption of membrane lymphotoxin and treatment with CTLA4-Ig inhibited rejection in wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that membrane lymphotoxin is an important regulatory molecule for CD8(+) T cells mediating rejection and suggest a strategy to avoid costimulation blockade-resistant rejection. PMID:11673481

  7. Bioengineering Thymus Organoids to Restore Thymic Function and Induce Donor-Specific Immune Tolerance to Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Tajima, Asako; Goh, Saik Kia; Geng, Xuehui; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; Bertera, Suzanne; Rudert, William A; Banerjee, Ipsita; Bottino, Rita; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in organ transplantation is to establish immune tolerance of allografts. Although immunosuppressive drugs can prevent graft rejection to a certain degree, their efficacies are limited, transient, and associated with severe side effects. Induction of thymic central tolerance to allografts remains challenging, largely because of the difficulty of maintaining donor thymic epithelial cells in vitro to allow successful bioengineering. Here, the authors show that three-dimensional scaffolds generated from decellularized mouse thymus can support thymic epithelial cell survival in culture and maintain their unique molecular properties. When transplanted into athymic nude mice, the bioengineered thymus organoids effectively promoted homing of lymphocyte progenitors and supported thymopoiesis. Nude mice transplanted with thymus organoids promptly rejected skin allografts and were able to mount antigen-specific humoral responses against ovalbumin on immunization. Notably, tolerance to skin allografts was achieved by transplanting thymus organoids constructed with either thymic epithelial cells coexpressing both syngeneic and allogenic major histocompatibility complexes, or mixtures of donor and recipient thymic epithelial cells. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of restoring thymic function with bioengineered thymus organoids and highlight the clinical implications of this thymus reconstruction technique in organ transplantation and regenerative medicine. PMID:25903472

  8. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Enhances Lymphatic Endothelial VEGFR3 and Rejection in Cardiac Allografts.

    PubMed

    Dashkevich, A; Raissadati, A; Syrjälä, S O; Zarkada, G; Keränen, M A I; Tuuminen, R; Krebs, R; Anisimov, A; Jeltsch, M; Leppänen, V-M; Alitalo, K; Nykänen, A I; Lemström, K B

    2016-04-01

    Organ damage and innate immunity during heart transplantation may evoke adaptive immunity with serious consequences. Because lymphatic vessels bridge innate and adaptive immunity, they are critical in immune surveillance; however, their role in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in allotransplantation remains unknown. We investigated whether the lymphangiogenic VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway during cardiac allograft IRI regulates organ damage and subsequent interplay between innate and adaptive immunity. We found that cardiac allograft IRI, within hours, increased graft VEGF-C expression and lymphatic vessel activation in the form of increased lymphatic VEGFR3 and adhesion protein expression. Pharmacological VEGF-C/VEGFR3 stimulation resulted in early lymphatic activation and later increase in allograft inflammation. In contrast, pharmacological VEGF-C/VEGFR3 inhibition during cardiac allograft IRI decreased early lymphatic vessel activation with subsequent dampening of acute and chronic rejection. Genetic deletion of VEGFR3 specifically in the lymphatics of the transplanted heart recapitulated the survival effect achieved by pharmacological VEGF-C/VEGFR3 inhibition. Our results suggest that tissue damage rapidly changes lymphatic vessel phenotype, which, in turn, may shape the interplay of innate and adaptive immunity. Importantly, VEGF-C/VEGFR3 inhibition during solid organ transplant IRI could be used as lymphatic-targeted immunomodulatory therapy to prevent acute and chronic rejection. PMID:26689983

  9. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  10. Autograft Substitutes: Conduits and Processed Nerve Allografts.

    PubMed

    Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory

    2016-05-01

    Manufactured conduits and allografts are viable alternatives to direct suture repair and nerve autograft. Manufactured tubes should have gaps less than 10 mm, and ideally should be considered as an aid to the coaptation. Processed nerve allograft has utility as a substitute for either conduit or autograft in sensory nerve repairs. There is also a growing body of evidence supporting their utility in major peripheral nerve repairs, gap repairs up to 70 mm in length, as an alternative source of tissue to bolster the diameter of a cable graft, and for the management of neuromas in non-reconstructable injuries. PMID:27094886

  11. Meniscal allograft transplantation: rationale for treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, N A; Costa, M L; Spalding, T

    2015-05-01

    The anatomy and microstructure of the menisci allow the effective distribution of load across the knee. Meniscectomy alters the biomechanical environment and is a potent risk factor for osteoarthritis. Despite a trend towards meniscus-preserving surgery, many tears are irreparable, and many repairs fail. Meniscal allograft transplantation has principally been carried out for pain in patients who have had a meniscectomy. Numerous case series have reported a significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes after surgery, but randomised controlled trials have not been undertaken. It is scientifically plausible that meniscal allograft transplantation is protective of cartilage, but this has not been established clinically to date. PMID:25922450

  12. Bipap improves survival and rate of pulmonary function decline in patients with ALS.

    PubMed

    Kleopa, K A; Sherman, M; Neal, B; Romano, G J; Heiman-Patterson, T

    1999-03-15

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease that frequently causes death within five years of diagnosis. The majority of deaths are due to pulmonary complications resulting from respiratory muscle weakness and bulbar involvement. A promising respiratory intervention is the recently introduced bi-level intermittent positive pressure (Bipap), which is a noninvasive ventilator modality shown to reduce the work of breathing and improve not only gas exchange, but also exercise tolerance and sleep quality. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of Bipap in prolonging survival in ALS. We retrospectively analyzed the results of Bipap use in 122 patients followed at Hahnemann University. All patients in this study were offered Bipap when their forced vital capacity (FVC) dropped below 50% of predicted value. Group 1 (n=38) accepted Bipap and used it more than 4 h/day. Group 2 (n=32) did not tolerate Bipap well and used it less than 4 h/day. Group 3 (n=52) refused to try Bipap. There was a statistically significant improvement in survival from initiation of Bipap in Group 1 (14.2 months) compared to Group 2 (7.0 months, P=0.002) or 3 (4.6 months, P<0.001) respectively. Furthermore, when the slope of vital capacity decline was examined, the group that used Bipap more than 4 h/day had slower decline in vital capacity (-3.5% change/month) compared to Group 2 (-5.9% change/month, P=0.02) and Group 3 (-8.3% change/month, P<0.001). We conclude that Bipap can significantly prolong survival and slow the decline of FVC in ALS. Our results suggest that all patients with ALS be offered Bipap when their FVC drops below 50%, at the onset of dyspnea, or when a rapid drop in %FVC is noted. PMID:10385053

  13. Low-Salt Intake during Mating or Gestation in Rats Is Associated with Low Birth and Survival Rates of Babies.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ranna; Hara, Anna; Du, DongDong; Shimizu, Namiko; Sakuyama, Hiroe; Uehara, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of maternal salt restriction during mating or gestation on birth rate and offspring growth in Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DS). DS were divided into 5 groups: DS fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl, w/w) (DS-low) or high-salt (4% NaCl, w/w) diet (DS-high) during mating and DS-high or DS-low during gestation, and DS fed regular chow (0.75% NaCl, w/w) (DS-regular) throughout mating and gestation. During the unspecified periods, the rats were given regular chow. DS-low during mating delivered fewer infants than high-salt mothers (P < 0.05). The birth rate on regular chow was 87%. Six out of 11 DS-low rats during pregnancy produced pups while the rats fed a high-salt diet all delivered pups (P < 0.025). The pup survival rate was 67% for high-salt mothers during mating and 54% for mothers on a low-salt diet. The pup survival rate was 95% for mothers on a high-salt diet during pregnancy and 64% for mothers on a low-salt diet (P < 0.0001). Seven out of 8 DS-regular rats during mating delivered 59 neonates. However, 66% of the neonates survived. A low-salt diet during mating or pregnancy lowers birth rate and the neonates from low-salt mothers during pregnancy were more likely to die than those from high-salt mothers. PMID:25197564

  14. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  15. Ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition using an acellular dermal allograft for thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Zanaros, George; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2009-03-01

    Ligament reconstruction tendon interposition arthroplasty is currently the preferred technique for carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb by most surgeons. Despite its efficacy, morbidity has been associated with the harvest of the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Using an allograft as material for arthroplasty, donor site morbidity is avoided. In this report, we present our surgical technique to perform ligament reconstruction tendon interposition arthroplasty using an acellular dermal matrix allograft (GraftJacket) in patients with Eaton stages II, III, and IV symptomatic first carpometacarpal arthritis.One hundred thumbs with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis underwent surgical treatment using GraftJacket allograft instead of the flexor carpi radialis tendon autograft. Each patient was followed for a minimum of 12 months. The surgical procedure included trapezial excision and identification of the flexor carpi radialis. The allograft was cut to create a 15-cm strip. The ligament reconstruction was performed by passing the strip around the flexor carpi radialis tendon and suturing it to the base of the thumb metacarpal base through an intramedullary drill hole. The remaining portion of the allograft was fashioned as an interposition mass (anchovy) and interposed between the scaphoid and the base of the first metacarpal.All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement in his or her pain scale rating and grip and pinch strengths. Outcomes from this study compare very favorably with those of other series. No patients experienced a foreign body reaction or infection in this series. We believe that the use of an acellular dermal allograft for both ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition provides a safe and an effective alternative technique for the treatment of advanced first carpometacarpal arthritis. PMID:19276927

  16. Comparison of Clinical Outcome of Autograft and Allograft Reconstruction for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yu-Hua; Sun, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring (HS) autograft and bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft are the most common choice for reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). There was a little report about the clinical outcome and difference of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using allograft and autograft. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcome of autograft and allograft reconstruction for ACL tears. Methods: A total of 106 patients who underwent surgery because of ACL tear were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, including 53 patients in each group. The patients in group I underwent standard ACL reconstruction with HS tendon autografts, while others in group II underwent reconstruction with bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft. All the patients were followed up and analyzed; the mean follow-up was 81 months (range: 28–86 months). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), Lysholm scores, physical instability tests, and patient satisfaction questionnaires. The complication rates of both groups were compared. Tibial and femoral tunnel widening were assessed using lateral and anteroposterior radiographs. Results: At the end of follow-up, no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of IKDC, Lysholm scores, physical instability tests, patient satisfaction questionnaires, and incidences of arthrofibrosis. Tibial and femoral tunnel widening was less in the HS tendon autografts. This difference was more significant on the tibial side. Conclusions: In the repair of ACL tears, allograft reconstruction is as effective as the autograft reconstruction, but the allograft can lead to more tunnel widening evidently in the tibial tunnel, particularly. PMID:26612290

  17. Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Promote Allograft Tolerance Induction

    PubMed Central

    Anam, Khairul; Lazdun, Yelena; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Elster, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Amputations and unsalvageable injuries with devastating tissue loss are common in the combat wounded. Reconstructive transplantation in the civilian setting using vascular composite allotransplants (VCAs) with multiple tissues (skin, muscle, nerve, bone) combined with long-term multidrug immunosuppression has been encouraging. However, skin rejection remains a critical complication. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are easily obtained from normal individuals in high numbers, precluding ex vivo expansion. The reparative function and paracrine immunomodulatory capacity of ASCs has gained considerable attention. The present study investigated whether ASCs facilitate long-term skin allograft survival. ASCs were isolated from fresh human subcutaneous adipose lipoaspirate. Full-thickness skin grafts from BALB/c mice were transplanted onto the dorsal flanks of C57BL/6 mice treated with five doses of anti-CD4/CD8 monoclonal antibodies (10 mg/kg) on days 0, +2, +5, +7, and +14 relative to skin grafting. A single nonmyeloablative low dose of busulfan (5 mg/kg) was given on day +5. Seven days after skin transplantation, ASCs (3 × 106) were infused i.v. with or without donor bone marrow cells (BMCs; 5 × 105). ASC+BMC coinfusion with minimal conditioning led to stable lymphoid and myeloid macrochimerism, deletion of alloreactive T cells, expansion of regulatory T cells, and long-term allograft survival (>200 days). ASCs constitutively produced high levels of anti-inflammatory/immunoregulatory factors such as prostaglandin E2, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, APO-1/Fas (CD95), and programmed cell death-1 ligand-2. These findings serve as a foundation for developing a translational advanced VCA protocol, embodying both ASCs and low-dose donor BMCs, in nonhuman primates, with the goal of enhancing functional outcomes and eliminating the complications associated with long-term immunosuppression. PMID:25411475

  18. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times. PMID:19734200

  19. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  20. Immunophenotypic features of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from mammary carcinomas in female dogs associated with prognostic factors and survival rates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The immune system plays an important role in the multifactorial biologic system during the development of neoplasias. However, the involvement of the inflammatory response in the promotion/control of malignant cells is still controversial, and the cell subsets and the mechanisms involved are poorly investigated. The goal of this study was to characterize the clinical-pathological status and the immunophenotyping profile of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and their association with the animal survival rates in canine mammary carcinomas. Methods Fifty-one animals with mammary carcinomas, classified as carcinomas in mixed tumors-MC-BMT = 31 and carcinomas-MC = 20 were submitted to systematic clinical-pathological analysis (tumor size; presence of lymph node and pulmonary metastasis; clinical stage; histological grade; inflammatory distribution and intensity as well as the lymphocytic infiltrate intensity) and survival rates. Twenty-four animals (MC-BMT = 16 and MC = 8) were elected to the immunophenotypic study performed by flow cytometry. Results Data analysis demonstrated that clinical stage II-IV and histological grade was I more frequent in MC-BMT as compared to MC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the intensity of inflammation (moderate/intense) and the proportion of CD4+ (≥ 66.7%) or CD8+ T-cells (<33.3%) were not associated with worse survival rate. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only lymphocytic infiltrate intensity ≥ 600 (P = 0.02) remained as independent prognostic factor. Despite the clinical manifestation, the lymphocytes represented the predominant cell type in the tumor infiltrate. The percentage of T-cells was higher in animals with MC-BMT without metastasis, while the percentage of B-lymphocytes was greater in animals with metastasized MC-BMT (P < 0.05). The relative percentage of CD4+ T-cells was significantly greater in metastasized tumors (both MC-BMT and MC), (P < 0.05) while the proportion of CD8+ T-cells was higher in

  1. Natural killer cells play a critical role in mediating inflammation and graft failure during antibody-mediated rejection of kidney allografts.

    PubMed

    Kohei, Naoki; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Kazunari; Masumori, Naoya; Dvorina, Nina; Valujskikh, Anna; Baldwin, William M; Fairchild, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    While the incidence of antibody-mediated kidney graft rejection has increased, the key cellular and molecular participants underlying this graft injury remain unclear. Rejection of kidney allografts in mice lacking the chemokine receptor CCR5 is dependent on production of donor-specific antibody. Here we determine if cells expressing cytotoxic function contributed to antibody-mediated kidney allograft rejection in these recipients. Wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) mice were transplanted with complete MHC-mismatched A/J kidney grafts, and intragraft inflammatory components were followed to rejection. B6.CCR5(-/-) and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients rejected kidney allografts by day 35, whereas 65% of allografts in wild-type recipients survived past day 80 post-transplant. Rejected allografts in wild-type C57BL/6, B6.CCR5(-/-), and B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients expressed high levels of VCAM-1 and MMP7 mRNA that was associated with high serum titers of donor-specific antibody. High levels of perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression peaked on day 6 post-transplant in allografts in all recipients, but were absent in isografts. Depletion of natural killer cells in B6.CD8(-/-)/CCR5(-/-) recipients reduced this expression to background levels and promoted the long-term survival of 40% of the kidney allografts. Thus, natural killer cells have a role in increased inflammation during antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury and in rejection of the grafts. PMID:27165816

  2. Respiratory assistance with a non-invasive ventilator (Bipap) in MND/ALS patients: survival rates in a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pinto, A C; Evangelista, T; Carvalho, M; Alves, M A; Sales Luís, M L

    1995-05-01

    Noninvasive ventilatory assistance, in ALS patients, with the bilevel intermittent positive air pressure (Bipap) was studied, in a prospective and controlled trial, by the authors. Twenty ALS bulbar patients, fulfilling El Escorial criteria for probable or definite disease, were selected. For the follow-up all patients were submitted to evaluation with the Norris scale, modified Barthel score and an analog scale of life satisfaction, every 3 months. All patients were also submitted to respiratory functional testing (RFT). Ten of these patients were treated with palliative management (group I), the remaining ten patients received Bipap support (group II). Clinical evolution curves and clinical parameters were not statistically different in both groups, except for the percentage of actual predicted value of vital capacity (p < 0.03), showing a more advanced disease in group II patients. Analog scale of life satisfaction showed improvement in the group II, even after the beginning of respiratory insufficiency, though without significance probably due to the small sample size (p < 0.1). Since 6 patients in group II are still alive survival rates were compared with log rank test considering cumulative survivals with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Total survival and survival from diurnal abnormalities in gas exchange (survival 1) were significantly longer for group II (p < 0.006 and p < 0.0004, respectively). In spite of the small number of patients, preliminary results strongly support the importance of BIPAP in ALS patients, though further studies must go on in order to optimize the best time for introducing Bipap. PMID:7595610

  3. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  4. Porous allograft bone scaffolds: doping with strontium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28 ± 0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60 ± 0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  5. Porous Allograft Bone Scaffolds: Doping with Strontium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yantao; Guo, Dagang; Hou, Shuxun; Zhong, Hongbin; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Chunli; Zhou, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) can promote the process of bone formation. To improve bioactivity, porous allograft bone scaffolds (ABS) were doped with Sr and the mechanical strength and bioactivity of the scaffolds were evaluated. Sr-doped ABS were prepared using the ion exchange method. The density and distribution of Sr in bone scaffolds were investigated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Controlled release of strontium ions was measured and mechanical strength was evaluated by a compressive strength test. The bioactivity of Sr-doped ABS was investigated by a simulated body fluid (SBF) assay, cytotoxicity testing, and an in vivo implantation experiment. The Sr molar concentration [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] in ABS surpassed 5% and Sr was distributed nearly evenly. XPS analyses suggest that Sr combined with oxygen and carbonate radicals. Released Sr ions were detected in the immersion solution at higher concentration than calcium ions until day 30. The compressive strength of the Sr-doped ABS did not change significantly. The bioactivity of Sr-doped material, as measured by the in vitro SBF immersion method, was superior to that of the Sr-free freeze-dried bone and the Sr-doped material did not show cytotoxicity compared with Sr-free culture medium. The rate of bone mineral deposition for Sr-doped ABS was faster than that of the control at 4 weeks (3.28±0.23 µm/day vs. 2.60±0.20 µm/day; p<0.05). Sr can be evenly doped into porous ABS at relevant concentrations to create highly active bone substitutes. PMID:23922703

  6. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  7. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  8. ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ESOPHAGEAL CANCER LEADS TO IMPROVED SURVIVAL RATES: RESULTS FROM A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Sachin; Das, Ananya; Rastogi, Amit; Drahos, Jennifer; Ricker, Winifred; Parsons, Ruth; Bansal, Ajay; Yen, Roy; Hosford, Lindsay; Jankowski, Meghan; Sharma, Prateek; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography-positron emission tomography (CT-PET) in relation to survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients are unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of EUS, CT-PET and its combination on overall survival relative to cases not receiving these procedures. Methods Patients aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with EC were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cases were split into four analytic groups: EUS only (n=318), CT-PET only (853), EUS+CT-PET (189) and “no EUS or CT-PET” (2,439). Survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using log-rank test for each group versus the “no EUS or CT-PET” group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 1, 3 and 5-year survival rates. Results Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients undergoing EUS, CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET had improved survival for all stages, all compared with “no EUS or CT-PET”, with the exception of stage 0 disease. Receipt of EUS increased the likelihood of receiving endoscopic therapies, esophagectomy and chemoradiation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models showed that receipt of EUS was a significant predictor for improved 1-year (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, p<0.0001), 3-year (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.48–0.66, p<0.0001) and 5-year (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.50–0.68) survival. Similar results were noted when results were stratified based on histology, as well as for CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET groups. Conclusions Receipt of either EUS or CT-PET alone in EC patients is associated with improved 1, 3 and 5-year survival. Future studies should identify barriers to dissemination of these staging modalities. PMID:25236485

  9. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  10. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: effects of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, J G; Rikardsen, A H; Halttunen, E; Thorstad, E B; Økland, F; Letcher, B H; Skardhamar, J; Naesje, T F

    2009-11-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97.0 to 99.5% km(-1). On average, the post-smolts spent 1.5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1.8 LF s(-1)) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3.0 LF s(-1)). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. PMID:20738643

  11. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Trentacosta, Natasha; Graham, William C; Gersoff, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    Meniscal allograft transplantation has evolved over the years to provide a state-of-the-art technique for the sports medicine surgeon to utilize in preserving contact mechanics and function of the knee in irreparable meniscal pathology. However, this procedure continues to spark considerable debate on proper tissue processing techniques, acceptable indications, methods of implantation, and potential long-term outcomes. PMID:27135295

  13. Effective treatment for improving the survival rate of raccoon dogs infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  14. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  15. Overweight and obesity predict better overall survival rates in cancer patients with distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ngan Ming; Pai, Ping Ching; Chuang, Chi Cheng; Chuang, Wen Ching; Tseng, Chen Kan; Chang, Kai Ping; Yen, Tzu Chen; Lin, Jen Der; Chang, Joseph Tung Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies conducted in patients with chronic diseases have reported an inverse association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. However, the question as to whether BMI may predict prognosis in patients with metastatic cancer remains open. We therefore designed the current retrospective study to investigate the potential association between BMI and overall survival (OS) in patients with distant metastases (DM) and a favorable performance status. Between 2000 and 2012, a total of 4010 cancer patients with DM who required radiotherapy (RT) and had their BMI measured at the initiation of RT were identified. The relation between BMI and OS was examined by univariate and multivariable analysis. The median OS time was 3.23 months (range: 0.1-122.17) for underweight patients, 6.08 months (range: 0.03-149.46) for normal-weight patients, 7.99 months (range: 0.07-158.01) for overweight patients, and 12.49 months (range, 0.2-164.1) for obese patients (log-rank: P < 0.001). Compared with normal-weight patients, both obese (HR = 0.676; 95% P < 0.001) and overweight individuals (HR = 0.84; P < 0.001) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis. Conversely, underweight patients had a significantly higher risk of death from all causes (HR = 1.41; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity are independent predictors of better OS in metastatic patients with a good performance status. Increased BMI may play a role to identify metastatic patients with superior survival outcome and exhibit a potential to encourage aggressive management in those patients even with metastases. PMID:26811258

  16. Effect of restrictive hunting regulations on canvasbacks and redhead harvest rates and survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geis, A.D.; Crissey, W.F.

    1969-01-01

    Because of low population levels, there were especially restrictive hunting regulations between 1958-1965, including complete closures during the 1960-1963 seasons, for canvasback (Aythya valimeria) and redhead (A. americana) ducks. Banding data from 1952 through 1965 indicated that restrictive regulations reduced both harvest and annual mortality rates. During the period with very restrictive regulations, annual mortality-rate estimates ranged from 14 to 21 percent, much lower than before this period when estimates were 50 percent or higher.

  17. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  18. The survival rate of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus following 4 randomized treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Shiloah, J; Patters, M R; Dean, J W; Bland, P; Toledo, G

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this clinical study was to determine the short-term anti-infective effects of four randomized treatment modalities on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Bacteroides forsythus (Bf) and determine the effects of bacterial survival on treatment outcomes in patients with adult periodontitis. Twelve adult patients requiring therapy for moderate periodontitis were selected for this study. All patients had at least one tooth in each quadrant that had an inflamed pocket of probing depth > or =5 mm with probing attachment loss that harbored at least one of the following three periodontal pathogens: Aa, Pg, or Bf. The number of target organisms per site was determined pre-operatively, at 1 week, and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively utilizing DNA probes. One quadrant in each patient was randomly assigned to each one of the following four treatment groups: 1) scaling and root planing (SRP group); 2) pocket reduction through osseous surgery and apically-positioned flap (OS group); 3) modified Widman flap (MWF group); and 4) modified Widman flap and topical application of saturated citric acid at pH 1 for 3 minutes (CA group). The 4 treatment modalities were performed in one appointment. No postoperative antibiotics were used. Patients were instructed to supplement their daily oral hygiene with chlorohexidine oral rinse during the study. The results of this investigation indicated that: 1) none of the treatment modalities was effective in eliminating the target species; 2) the incidence of infected sites for all groups was 100% preoperatively; 62.5%, 33.3%, and 31.3% at 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, respectively; 3) these infected sites lost 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm of probing attachment compared to gain of 0.0 +/- 0.3 mm for uninfected sites; 4) the infected sites had higher plaque and bleeding on probing 0.9 +/- 0.3, 73 +/- 12%, respectively, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 30 +/- 8% for the uninfected sites

  19. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies. PMID:27298392

  20. Lovastatin Delays Infection and Increases Survival Rates in AG129 Mice Infected with Dengue Virus Serotype 2

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gutierrez, Marlen; Correa-Londoño, Luis A.; Castellanos, Jaime E.; Gallego-Gómez, Juan C.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been reported that treatment of DENV-infected cultures with Lovastatin (LOV), can affect viral assembly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LOV on the survival rate and viremia levels of DENV-2-infected AG129 mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were inoculated with 1×106 plaque-forming units (PFU/ml) of DENV-2 and treated with LOV (200 mg/kg/day). Pre-treatment with one or three doses of LOV increased the survival rate compared to untreated mice (7.3 and 7.1 days, respectively, compared to 4.8 days). Viremia levels also decreased by 21.8% compared to untreated mice, but only in the group administered three doses prior to inoculation. When LOV was administered after viral inoculation, the survival rate increased (7.3 days in the group treated at 24 hpi, 6.8 days in the group treated at 48 hpi and 6.5 days in the group treated with two doses) compared to the untreated group (4.8 days). Interestingly, the serum viral titer increased by 24.6% in mice treated at 48 hpi with a single dose of LOV and by 21.7% in mice treated with two doses (at 24 and 48 hpi) of LOV compared to untreated mice. Finally histopathological changes in the liver and spleen in infected and untreated mice included massive extramedullary erythropoiesis foci and inflammatory filtration, and these characteristics were decreased or absent in LOV-treated mice. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the effect of LOV on viremia depends on the timing of treatment and on the number of doses administered. We observed a significant increase in the survival rate in both schemes due to a delay in the progression of the disease. However, the results obtained in the post-treatment scheme must be handled carefully because this treatment scheme increases viremia and we do not know how this increase could affect disease progression in humans. PMID:24586275

  1. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, urine albumin excretion, and survival among patients consulting in public Chilean public primary care clinics.

    PubMed

    Rios, Alvaro; Lorca, Eduardo; Garmendia, María Luisa; Hirsch, Sandra; Sandoval, Verónica; Bunout, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Chronic renal disease (CRD) in its pre-dialysis stage is an important risk factor for mortality among adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of CRD on mortality among consultants in Chilean public primary care clinics. We obtained information about serum creatinine, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), blood pressure, and body mass index of 5224 consultants [3379 females aged 67 (59-75) years and 1845 males aged 68 (59-75) years] in three clinics of Metropolitan Santiago. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine risk factors for mortality, determined 41 months after obtaining the blood samples. During the follow-up period, 262 patients died (33% due to circulatory causes and 29% due to tumors). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that there was a significant association between survival, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and UAE. Cox models showed that serum creatinine, UAE, a lower body mass index, and a history of diabetes were significant mortality predictors. A sensitivity analysis performed eliminating extreme ages (less than 50 and more than 80 years), included high diastolic pressure as a predictor of survival. We conclude that among patients with CRD in its pre-dialysis stage, UAE is an important predictor of survival, along with serum creatinine. A low body mass index was associated with a higher mortality. PMID:26765359

  3. Correlations of survival with progression-free survival, response rate, and disease control rate in advanced biliary tract cancer: a meta-analysis of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sugaya, Akinori; Yamada, Takeshi; Endo, Shinji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need to promote novel drug development for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC) has emphasised the importance of determining whether various efficacy end points can act as surrogates for overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a literature search of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy for ABTC and investigated correlations between efficacy end points and OS using weighted linear regression analysis. The ratios of the median OS, median progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and disease control rate in each trial were used to summarise treatment effects. The surrogate threshold effect (STE), which was the minimum treatment effect on PFS required to predict a non-zero treatment effect on OS, was calculated. Results: Seventeen randomised trials with 36 treatment arms were identified, and a sample size of 2148 patients with 19 paired arms was analysed. The strongest correlation between all evaluated efficacy end points was observed between median OS and median PFS ratios (r2=0.66). In trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies and targeted agents, the r2-values were 0.78. The STE was estimated at 0.83 for all trials and 0.81 for trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies, and was not calculated for trials with targeted agents. Conclusions: The median PFS ratio correlated well with the median OS ratio, and may be useful for planning a clinical trial for novel drug development. PMID:27031848

  4. Informed consent is not routinely documented for procedures using allografts.

    PubMed

    Porter, Scott E; Stull, Douglass; Kneisl, Jeffrey S; Frick, Steven L

    2004-06-01

    Patients who receive musculoskeletal allografts may have severe postoperative infections develop. Media reports have heightened public awareness of the risk of allograft use. Explaining these risks to patients preoperatively has become more important as attention to informed consent issues has increased. This study retrospectively investigated the patterns of informed consent for allograft bone used during elective orthopaedic procedures at a major teaching hospital. Forty-seven (32%) of 148 patients had preoperative discussions of allograft risks and benefits documented with a signed preoperative consent. In nearly 70% of the cases in which structural allograft was used, preoperative consent was documented. Only 8% of cases in which nonstructural, highly processed allograft was used had documented preoperative consent. Forty-eight (32%) of 148 patients were treated with allograft and autograft. Consent was obtained for the harvesting and use of autograft from 90% of these patients. In none of these patients was consent obtained for the allograft used. Although risks of disease transmission vary widely with the degree of allograft processing and the source of its procurement, informed consent for any allograft use should be a routine part of preoperative discussions of risks and benefits in elective orthopaedic surgeries. PMID:15232464

  5. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Does habitat heterogeneity in a multi-use landscape influence survival rates and density of a native mesocarnivore?

    PubMed

    Gese, Eric M; Thompson, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between predators, prey, and habitat have long been of interest to applied and basic ecologists. As a native Great Plains mesocarnivore of North America, swift foxes (Vulpes velox) depended on the historic disturbance regime to maintain open grassland habitat. With a decline in native grasslands and subsequent impacts to prairie specialists, notably the swift fox, understanding the influence of habitat on native predators is paramount to future management efforts. From 2001 to 2004, we investigated the influence of vegetation structure on swift fox population ecology (survival and density) on and around the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado, USA. We monitored 109 foxes on 6 study sites exposed to 3 different disturbance regimes (military training, grazing, unused). On each site we evaluated vegetation structure based on shrub density, basal coverage, vegetation height, and litter. Across all sites, annual fox survival rates ranged from 0.50 to 0.92 for adults and 0.27 to 0.78 for juveniles. Among sites, population estimates ranged from 1 to 7 foxes per 10 km transect. Fox density or survival was not related to the relative abundance of prey. A robust model estimating fox population size and incorporating both shrub density and percent basal cover as explanatory variables far outperformed all other models. Our results supported the idea that, in our region, swift foxes were shortgrass prairie specialists and also indicated a relationship between habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity. We suggest the regulation of swift fox populations may be based on habitat quality through landscape-mediated survival, and managers may effectively use disturbance regimes to create or maintain habitat for this native mesocarnivore. PMID:24963713

  7. Sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Richardson, Kyle S; Buddle, Bryce M; French, Nigel P; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-08-01

    The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression. We monitored the survival of 16 wild free-living possums, fitted with VHF mortality collars and experimentally challenged with a new model, out to six months post-challenge. The aim was to assess whether the new model does indeed result in an ongoing pathogenesis trajectory that is more reflective of natural TB in possums. The mean survival period of challenged possums (~4.6months) did not differ from that estimated for wild free-living possums with naturally acquired TB. In addition, and unexpectedly, infected males survived on average for five weeks longer than females. This significant difference has not been previously observed in experimental trials with other TB/possum challenge models. If this is reflective of natural disease (as is the survival period produced by the percutaneous challenge model), TB infected males in the wild may be generating more secondary cases of infection than infected females. This insight has important implications for understanding the dynamics of, and managing, the disease in its New Zealand wildlife reservoir. PMID:27473982

  8. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jessica L; King, Lindsay Y; Johnson, Kara B; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A; Fuchs, Bryan C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Gordon, Fredric D; Curry, Michael P; Chung, Raymond T

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93-4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis. PMID:26854475

  9. Impact of EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3 polymorphisms on the outcome of allograft hepatitis C: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jessica L.; King, Lindsay Y.; Johnson, Kara B.; Gao, Tian; Nephew, Lauren D.; Kothari, Darshan; Simpson, Mary Ann; Zheng, Hui; Wei, Lan; Corey, Kathleen E.; Misdraji, Joseph; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Lin, M. Valerie; Gogela, Neliswa A.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.; Gordon, Fredric D.; Curry, Michael P.; Chung, Raymond T.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accelerated following liver transplantation (LT). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the epidermal growth factor (EGF) (rs4444903), IL28B (rs12979860), and PNPLA3 (rs738409) loci are associated with treatment response, fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in non-transplant hepatitis C, but allograft population data are limited. We sought to determine the role of these SNPs in 264 patients with HCV who underwent LT between 1990 and 2008. Genotypes were determined from donor wedge/allograft biopsies and recipient explants. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess time to cirrhosis, liver-related death, and retransplantation, adjusting for donor age and sustained virological response (SVR). Over a median follow-up of 6.3 yr, a trend toward increased progression to graft cirrhosis was observed among recipients of an EGF non-AA vs. AA donor liver (adjusted HR 2.01; 95% CI 0.93–4.34; p = 0.08). No other genotypes predicted cirrhosis development or graft survival. The CC IL28B variant in both recipients and donors was associated with increased rate of SVR (R-CC/D-CC 8/12[67%], R-non-CC/D-CC or R-CC/D-non-CC 23/52[44%], R-non-CC/D-non-CC 12/45[27%], p linear trend = 0.009). Recipient EGF, IL28B, and PNPLA3, and donor IL28B and PNPLA3 genotypes do not predict adverse outcomes in HCV LT recipients. A potential association exists between donor EGF genotype and cirrhosis. PMID:26854475

  10. The beginning of clinical tolerance in solid organ allografts.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Anthony P

    2004-06-01

    Development of effective multidrug immunosuppressive regimens and improvements in the management of chronically immunosuppressed patients have produced extraordinary patient and allograft survival in clinical organ transplantation. Unfortunately, significant problems of morbidity and mortality related to chronic immunosuppression remain. Thus, there is an enormous motivation and interest in inducing specific unresponsiveness (tolerance) to clinical solid organ allografts. Operational clinical tolerance may be defined as stable, normal graft function in the total absence of a requirement for maintenance immunosuppression. Alternatively, the concept of employing tolerogenic strategies to permit graft acceptance with dramatically reduced immunosuppression requirements is referred to as prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance. There have been isolated examples of clinical tolerance, usually in the context of spontaneous or induced donor chimerism, excellent HLA matching, and/or drug weaning or patient noncompliance. The various attempts that are currently being employed to induce some type of clinical tolerance are reviewed in this manuscript. Strategies in which all immunosuppression was to be withdrawn from the recipient (donor-specific unresponsiveness) are first discussed. These include strategies that utilize initial immunoablation with varying doses of irradiation and/or lymphocytic antibodies with or without donor-specific bone marrow infusion and short-term standard immunosuppressive therapy. Strategies to induce prope' or minimal immunosuppression tolerance that utilize induction lymphoablation with polyclonal or monoclonal antilymphocyte antibodies, with or without donor bone marrow infusion, followed by limited low-dose immunosuppressive therapy are also discussed. The ethical considerations in testing clinical tolerance strategies and protocols are discussed in detail. The limited number of clinical tolerance studies already available affirms that

  11. BubR1 as a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y-K; Choi, E; Kim, M A; Park, P-G; Park, N-H; Lee, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies, and has a high recurrence rate. Thus, prognostic markers for recurrence are crucial for the care of ovarian cancer. As ovarian cancers frequently exhibit chromosome instability, we aimed at assessing the prognostic significance of two key mitotic kinases, BubR1 and Aurora A. Methods: We analysed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 160 ovarian cancer patients whose clinical outcomes had been tracked after first-line treatment. Results: The median recurrence-free survival in patients with a positive and negative expression of BubR1 was 27 and 83 months, respectively (P<0.001). A positive BubR1 expression was also associated with advanced stage, serous histology and high grade. In contrast, Aurora A immunostaining did not correlate with any of the clinical parameters analysed. Conclusion: BubR1, but not Aurora A, is a prognostic marker for recurrence-free survival rates in epithelial ovarian cancers. PMID:19603021

  12. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  13. Parasitism and survival rate of Diadegma fenestrale (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and DfIV gene expression patterns in two lepidopteran hosts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Il; Kwon, Min; Lee, Si Hyeock; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-04-17

    The genus Diadegma is a well-known parasitoid group and some are known to have symbiotic virus, polydnavirus (PDV). A novel IV was discovered from the calyx of Diadegma fenestrale female and sequenced its genome. D. fenestrale has more than two hosts, including potato tuber moth (PTM) and diamondback moth (DBM). D. fenestrale preferred PTM to DBM as hosts based on the oviposition and survival rate. Nevertheless, the developmental period and morphology of D. fenestrale were not significantly different between PTM and DBM. We compared DfIV gene expression patterns between PTM and DBM under various conditions to understand the phenomena. DfIV genes were more widely expressed in PTM with large numbers than in DBM after parasitized by D. fenestrale, particularly at the initial point. They showed differential expression patterns between two lepidopteran hosts. This DfIV gene expression plasticity showed a dependency on the lepidopteran host species and parasitization time, suggesting that it may contribute to increase the parasitoid survival rate. This might be one of the key elements that determine the symbiotic relationship between PDV and parasitoid. PMID:25769948

  14. A Comparative Study of USC (University of South Carolina) Student Survival Rates by Race, 1973-76. Research Notes 33-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Paul; Ponder, Eunice

    A study made at the University of South Carolina compared the survival (persistence) rates of full-time black and white students who entered the university as freshmen during the fall semesters of 1973, 1974, and 1975. Survival is defined as the percentage of students in an entering class who return for a second or subsequent years' enrollment at…

  15. Arsenic trioxide attenuated the rejection of major histocompatibility complex fully-mismatched cardiac allografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, S; Zhang, Q Y; Zhou, B; Xue, L; Chen, H; Wang, Y; Zheng, S S

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) on allogeneic immune response using a mouse heart transplantation model. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The control group received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); the As(2)O(3)-treated group, intraperitoneal (IP) injection of As(2)O(3) (1 mg/kg) from days -3 to 10 after heart transplantation. The cyclosporine (CsA)-treated group was given a subtherapeutic dose of CsA (10 mg/kg) IP, and the As(2)O(3) plus CsA-treated group, a combined protocol of As(2)O(3) and CsA. Six days after transplantation, cardiac allografts were harvested for immunohistology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The survival of the allografts was significantly improved among the As(2)O(3)-treated group compared with the control group (17.2 +/- 1.9 vs 8.0 +/- 0.9 days; P < .05). A marked prolongation (28.6 +/- 6.0 days) of graft survival was achieved by the combined protocol compared with the CsA-treated group (9.6 +/- 3.0 days; P < .05) or the As(2)O(3)-treated group. Allografts of As(2)O(3)-treated and As(2)O(3) plus CsA-treated mice showed a changing pattern of Th1/Th2 cytokine mRNA expression. Allograft rejection was apparently alleviated by low-dose As(2)O(3), and particularly when combined with a subtherapeutic CsA dose. PMID:19545743

  16. Knee salvage procedures: The indications, techniques and outcomes of large osteochondral allografts

    PubMed Central

    Chui, Karen; Jeys, Lee; Snow, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The overall incidence of osteochondral defect in the general population is estimated to be 15 to 30 per 100000 people. These lesions can become symptomatic causing pain, swelling and decreased function of the knee, and may eventually progress to osteoarthritis. In the young and active population, partial or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is rarely the treatment of choice due to risk of early failure. Osteochondral allograft transplantation has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective treatment of large osteochondral and chondral defects of the knee in appropriately selected patients. The treatment reduces pain, improves function and is a viable limb salvage procedure for patients, especially young and active patients for whom TKA is not recommended. Either large dowels generated with commercially available equipment or free hand shell allografts can be implanted in more posterior lesions. Current recommendations for fresh allografts stored at 4C advise implantation within 21-28 d of procurement for optimum chondrocyte viability, following screening and testing protocols. Higher rates of successful allograft transplantation are observed in younger patients, unipolar lesions, normal or corrected malalignment, and defects that are treated within 12 mo of symptom onset. Patients with bipolar lesions, uncorrectable malalignment, advanced osteoarthritis, and those over 40 tend to have less favourable outcomes. PMID:25893177

  17. Induction of tolerance to cardiac allografts in lethally irradiated rats reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, organ grafts from one individual animal to another are rejected in one-two weeks. However, if the recipients are given Total Body Irradiation (TBI) just prior to grafting, followed by reconstitution of hemopoietic function with syngeneic (recipient-type) bone marrow cells, then vascularized organ grafts are permanently accepted. Initially after irradiation, it is possible to induce tolerance to many strain combinations in rats. This thesis examines the system of TBI as applied to the induction of tolerance in LEW recipients of WF cardiac allografts. These two rat strains are mismatched across the entire major histocompatibility complex. When the LEW recipient are given 860 rads, a WF cardiac allograft and LEW bone marrow on the same day, 60% of the grafts are accepted. Methods employed to improve the rate of graft acceptance include: treating either donor or recipient with small amounts of methotrexate, or waiting until two days after irradiation to repopulate with bone marrow. It seems from these investigations of some of the early events in the induction of tolerance to allografts following TBI and syngeneic marrow reconstitution that an immature cell population in the bone marrow interacts with a radioresistant cell population in the spleen to produce tolerance to completely MHC-mismatched allografts.

  18. Acute allograft rejection and immunosuppression: influence on endogenous melatonin secretion.

    PubMed

    Cardell, Markus; Jung, Florian Johannes; Zhai, Wei; Hillinger, Sven; Welp, Andre; Manz, Bernhard; Weder, Walter; Korom, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    Melatonin displays a dose-dependent immunoregulatory effect in vitro and in vivo. Exogenous high-dose melatonin therapy exerted an immunosuppressive effect, abrogating acute rejection (AR), significantly prolonging transplant survival. Endogenous melatonin secretion, in response to heterotopic rat cardiac allograft transplantation (Tx), was investigated during the AR response and under standardized immunosuppressive maintenance therapy with cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin (RPM). Recipients of syngeneic transplants, and recipients of allogeneic grafts, either untreated or receiving immunosuppressive therapy constituted the experimental groups. Endogenous circadian melatonin levels were measured at 07:00, 19:00, and 24:00 hr, using a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure, under standardized 12-hr-light/dark-conditions (light off: 19:00 hr; light on: 07:00 hr), before and after Tx. Neither the operative trauma, nor the challenge with a perfused allograft or the AR response influenced endogenous melatonin peak secretion. Immunosuppressive therapy with CsA led to a significant increase in peak secretion, measured for days 7 (212 +/- 40.7 pg/mL; P < 0.05), 14 (255 +/- 13.9 pg/mL; P < 0.001), and 21 (219 +/- 34 pg/mL; P < 0.01) after Tx, as compared with naïve animals (155 +/- 25.8 pg/mL). In contrast, treatment with RPM significantly decreased the melatonin peak post-Tx up to day 7 (87 +/- 25.2 pg/mL; P < 0.001), compared with naïve animals (155 +/- 25.8 pg/mL). These findings imply a robust nature of the endogenous circadian melatonin secretion kinetics, even against the background of profound allogeneic stimuli. Immunosuppressive maintenance therapy with CsA and RPM modulated early melatonin secretion, indicating a specific secondary action of these drugs. Further studies are necessary to disclose the long-term effect of immunosuppressive therapy on circadian melatonin secretion in transplant recipients. PMID:18339121

  19. Survival of tumor cells after proton irradiation with ultra-high dose rates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Laser acceleration of protons and heavy ions may in the future be used in radiation therapy. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed and ultra high dose rates of >109 Gy s-1may be achieved. Here we compare the radiobiological effects of pulsed and continuous proton beams. Methods The ion microbeam SNAKE at the Munich tandem accelerator was used to directly compare a pulsed and a continuous 20 MeV proton beam, which delivered a dose of 3 Gy to a HeLa cell monolayer within < 1 ns or 100 ms, respectively. Investigated endpoints were G2 phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and colony formation. Results At 10 h after pulsed irradiation, the fraction of G2 cells was significantly lower than after irradiation with the continuous beam, while all other endpoints including colony formation were not significantly different. We determined the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for pulsed and continuous proton beams relative to x-irradiation as 0.91 ± 0.26 and 0.86 ± 0.33 (mean and SD), respectively. Conclusions At the dose rates investigated here, which are expected to correspond to those in radiation therapy using laser-driven particles, the RBE of the pulsed and the (conventional) continuous irradiation mode do not differ significantly. PMID:22008289

  20. [Extensor mechanism allograft reconstruction after total knee replacement].

    PubMed

    Bürde, C; Sweeney, Patrick

    2007-04-01

    We present three cases in which we used a complete extensor mechanism allograft for the reconstruction of an insufficient extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty (and failed reconstruction with local tissue in two of these cases). Early results are encouraging. Allograft reconstruction can be taken into consideration as an alternative to arthrodesis in those "worst-case scenarios". Late failure may occur in about 20%, probably due to a lack of revitalisation in the centre of the allograft. PMID:17262182

  1. Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown. Methods/Design The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating. Discussion Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation. Trial

  2. In vitro effect of mineralized and demineralized bone allografts on proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Lafzi, Ardeshir; Vahabi, Surena; Ghods, Shadab; Torshabi, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    Due to the extensive use of bone allografts in bone reconstruction and periodontal therapy as suitable alternatives to autografts, they are now marketed under different commercial brands. Considering the controversial reports regarding the osteoinductive properties of bone allografts, this study sought to assess the effect of type (mineralized/demineralized), amount and particle size of several allografts on the proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. MG-63 cells (24-h culture) were exposed to 20 and 40 mg amounts of nine different commercially available freeze-dried bone allografts. After 24 and 72 h of incubation, the effect of water-soluble allograft released materials on cell viability and proliferation was assessed using methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay after 24 and 72 h of exposure. Cell differentiation and mineralization was assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR and alizarin red staining after 72 h of exposure. The amount and particle size of understudy allografts had significant effects on cell viability after 24 h of exposure (in contrast to 72 h). Higher rate of proliferation was seen in non-differentiated or slow-differentiated groups. The amount and particle size factors had no significant effect on the amount of calcified nodules or the expression of osteogenic marker genes in most groups. Faster and more distinct differentiation and mineralization was noted in mineralized compared to demineralized groups during the 3-day study period. Based on the results, the understudy mineralized (non-demineralized) bone allografts had greater effect on osteogenic differentiation of the MG-63 cells and showed more in vitro osteoinductive activity compared to partially demineralized and fully demineralized types. PMID:26084504

  3. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  4. Mechanisms of allograft rejection of corneal endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Tagawa, Y.; Silverstein, A.M.; Prendergast, R.A.

    1982-07-01

    The local intraocular graft-vs.-host (GVH) reaction, involving the destruction of the corneal endothelial cells of the rabbit host by sensitized donor lymphoid cells, has been used to study the mechanism of corneal allograft rejection. Pretreatment of donor cells with a specific mouse monoclonal hybridoma anti-T cell antibody and complement suppresses the destructive reaction, suggesting that a cellular-immune mechanism is primarily involved. Pretreatment of donor cells with mitomycin-C completely abolishes the local GVH reaction, indicating that the effector lymphocytes must undergo mitosis within the eye before they can engage in target cell destruction. Finally, studies of the local GVH reaction in irradiated leukopenic recipients or in preinflamed rabbit eyes suggest that host leukocytes may contribute nonspecifically to enhance the destructive process. These studies show that the local ocular GVH reaction may provide a useful model for the study of the mechanisms involved in the rejection of corneal allografts.

  5. Filgrastim-Stimulated Bone Marrow Compared with Filgrastim-Mobilized Peripheral Blood in Myeloablative Sibling Allografting for Patients with Hematologic Malignancies: A Randomized Canadian Blood and Marrow Transplant Group Study.

    PubMed

    Couban, Stephen; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Lachance, Sylvie; Walker, Irwin; Toze, Cynthia; Rubinger, Morel; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Lee, Stephanie J; Szer, Richard; Doocey, R; Lewis, Ian D; Huebsch, Lothar; Howson-Jan, Kang; Lalancette, Michel; Almohareb, Fahad; Chaudhri, Nadeem; Ivison, Sabine; Broady, Raewyn; Levings, Megan; Fairclough, Diane; Devins, Gerald; Szwajcer, David; Foley, Ronan; Smith, Clayton; Panzarella, Tony; Kerr, Holly; Kariminia, Amina; Schultz, Kirk R

    2016-08-01

    In adult hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), filgrastim-mobilized peripheral blood (G-PB) has largely replaced unstimulated marrow for allografting. Although the use of G-PB results in faster hematopoietic recovery, it is also associated with more chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). A potential alternative allograft is filgrastim-stimulated marrow (G-BM), which we hypothesized may be associated with prompt hematopoietic recovery but with less cGVHD. We conducted a phase 3, open-label, multicenter randomized trial of 230 adults with hematologic malignancies receiving allografts from siblings after myeloablative conditioning to compare G-PB with G-BM. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure, defined as a composite of extensive cGVHD, relapse/disease progression, and death. With a median follow-up of 36 months (range, 9.6 to 48), comparing G-BM with G-PB, there was no difference between the 2 arms with respect to the primary outcome of this study (hazard ratio [HR], .91; 95% confidence interval [CI], .68 to 1.22; P = .52). However, the cumulative incidence of overall cGVHD was lower with G-BM (HR, .66; 95% CI, .46 to .95; P = .007) and there was no difference in the risk of relapse or progression (P = .35). The median times to neutrophil recovery (P = .0004) and platelet recovery (P = .012) were 3 days shorter for recipients allocated to G-PB compared with those allocated to G-BM, but there were no differences in secondary engraftment-related outcomes, such as time to first hospital discharge (P = .17). In addition, there were no graft failures in either arm. This trial demonstrates that, compared with G-PB, the use of G-BM allografts leads to a significantly lower rate of overall cGVHD without a loss of the graft-versus-tumor effect and comparable overall survival. Our findings suggest that further study of this type of allograft is warranted. PMID:27154847

  6. Zygomycosis in a renal allograft recipient

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, G.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Unni, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Zygomycosis is a type of invasive fungal infection with a rapid course and grave prognosis. Renal transplant recipients with concomitant diabetes mellitus are most susceptible to this infection. We report here a case of disseminated zygomycosis (Rhizopus sp.) in a renal allograft recipient with posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM). This is the first reported case of zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus species. PMID:20352010

  7. Procurement of hand and arm allografts.

    PubMed

    Cetrulo, Curtis L; Kovach, Stephen J

    2013-12-01

    Upper extremity transplantation has been at the forefront of vascularized composite allotransplantation. There have been more hand and upper extremity transplants than any other kinds of vascularized composite allotransplantation. However, it is a new and evolving field. Reconstructive surgeons are relative newcomers to the field of transplantation, and the procurement of upper extremity allografts has many subtleties that will differ depending on the intended recipient. However, there are certain principles that can be adhered to that this review serves to elucidate. PMID:24310234

  8. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  9. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  10. Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  11. TNF-alpha antagonist survival rate in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients observed under conditions of standard clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Marchesoni, Antonio; Zaccara, Eleonora; Gorla, Roberto; Bazzani, Chiara; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Atzeni, Fabiola; Caporali, Roberto; Bobbio-Pallavicini, Francesca; Favalli, Ennio Giulio

    2009-09-01

    A cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the Lombardy Rheumatology Network (LOHREN) registry and receiving anti-TNF therapy was evaluated after 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Of the 1114 patients in the registry 1064 met the clinical criteria for inclusion with 519 receiving infliximab, 303 adalimumab, and 242 etanercept. The therapeutic survival curve of these patients showed that the likelihood of continuing anti-TNF therapy was 78.8% after 12 months, 65.2% after 24 months, and 52.9% after 36 months, with a risk of dropout similar for inefficacy and adverse events. There were 405 anti-TNF therapy discontinuations (38.1%): 180 (16.9%) due to inefficacy, 194 (18.2%) adverse events, and 31 (2.9%) other reasons. Four deaths (2 septicemia, 1 postinfective cerebritis, 1 heart failure) were considered to be related to anti-TNF therapy. Of the discontinuations, 219 (54.1%) occurred within the first 12 months: 110 due to adverse events, 89 inefficacy, and 20 due to other reasons. After 36 months, the likelihood of survival on etanercept (62.5%) was significantly greater than the likelihood of survival on infliximab (49.1%) or adalimumab (53.6%). A higher risk of therapy discontinuations due to adverse events was associated with increasing age, a corticosteroid > 5 mg/day, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), a higher risk of therapy discontinuations due to inefficacy was associated with the previous use of > or = 4 disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and a high ESR. Comorbidities, increasing DAS28 values and co-therapy with methotrexate were associated with a lower risk of discontinuation. PMID:19758236

  12. Effect of clearcutting operations on the survival rate of a small mammal.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Martín A H; Uribe, Sandra V; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g., higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  13. Effect of Clearcutting Operations on the Survival Rate of a Small Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martín A. H.; Uribe, Sandra V.; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F.

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g. higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  14. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  15. Conditional knockdown of BCL2A1 reveals rate-limiting roles in BCR-dependent B-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Sochalska, M; Ottina, E; Tuzlak, S; Herzog, S; Herold, M; Villunger, A

    2016-04-01

    Bcl2 family proteins control mitochondrial apoptosis and its members exert critical cell type and differentiation stage-specific functions, acting as barriers against autoimmunity or transformation. Anti-apoptotic Bcl2a1/Bfl1/A1 is frequently deregulated in different types of blood cancers in humans but its physiological role is poorly understood as quadruplication of the Bcl2a1 gene locus in mice hampers conventional gene targeting strategies. Transgenic overexpression of A1, deletion of the A1-a paralogue or constitutive knockdown in the hematopoietic compartment of mice by RNAi suggested rate-limiting roles in lymphocyte development, granulopoiesis and mast cell activation. Here we report on the consequences of conditional knockdown of A1 protein expression using a reverse transactivator (rtTA)-driven approach that highlights a critical role for this Bcl2 family member in the maintenance of mature B-cell homeostasis. Furthermore, we define the A1/Bim (Bcl-2 interacting mediator of cell death) axis as a target of key kinases mediating B-cell receptor (BCR)-dependent survival signals, such as, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk). As such, A1 represents a putative target for the treatment of B-cell-related pathologies depending on hyperactivation of BCR-emanating survival signals and loss of A1 expression accounts, in part, for the pro-apoptotic effects of Syk- or Btk inhibitors that rely on the 'BH3-only' protein Bim for cell killing. PMID:26450454

  16. Multi-episode survival analysis: an application modelling readmission rates of heroin dependents at an inpatient detoxification unit.

    PubMed

    Trujols, Joan; Guàrdia, Joan; Peró, Maribel; Freixa, Montserrat; Siñol, Núria; Tejero, Antonio; Pérez de Los Cobos, José

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of a statistical technique appropriate for analysing multi-episode data (multi-episode survival analysis), and to show its application in modelling the flow of readmissions at an inpatient detoxification unit. Data are from 784 opioid-dependent patients admitted at an inpatient detoxification unit, who totalled 1,255 admission episodes. Information stored prospectively at the unit database was reviewed for the following variables at the time of each patient discharge: episode serial number, sex, route of heroin administration, reason for discharge, time of discharge, and transition time (re-entry into the inpatient detoxification unit). Cox's semi-parametric regression model seems the most appropriate for describing the series of episodes. Amongst the parametric models, most noteworthy was the superior fit of the Gompertz-Makeham model, suggesting that the transition rate decreases monotonically with time. The influence of the variables assessed differed based on the serial number of the episode. The results suggest that multi-episode survival analysis is a statistical method that can fully address the long-term perspective on treatment utilization. PMID:17399908

  17. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  18. Conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimus in pediatric chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Falger, Jutta C; Mueller, Thomas; Arbeiter, Klaus; Boehm, Michael; Regele, Heinz; Balzar, Egon; Aufricht, Christoph

    2006-06-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy is a major cause for allograft loss in renal transplantation. Sirolimus was recently introduced as a potent non-nephrotoxic alternative to calcineurin inhibitors. In the present study, effects of a conversion protocol were investigated in pediatric chronic allograft nephropathy with declining glomerular filtration rate (GFR), defined by a Schwartz formula clearance below 60 mL/1.73 m(2)/min, steadily increasing serum creatinine and allograft biopsy. In eight children with a median age of 12.8 yr, sirolimus was started at median 32 months after transplantation with a loading dose of 0.24 mg/kg bodyweight (BW), followed by 0.2 mg/kgBW/day, aimed at trough levels of 15-20 ng/mL. Calcineurin inhibitors were reduced to 50% at the start of sirolimus and discontinued at median 7 days when target levels of sirolimus were reached. Following conversion, changes of GFR significantly stabilized (-2.9 vs. +0.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/month, p = 0.025). Individual GFR increased in five out of eight patients (p = 0.026), and only one child exhibited unaltered progression of graft failure. In the responders, mean serum creatinine improved by 0.3 mg/dL (p = 0.043). Effects were not dependent on GFR at conversion, or on time post-transplantation. Blood pressure, hematological parameters and proteinuria remained stable during the observation period, and serum lipids increased transiently. About half of the children suffered from infectious complications. No child had to be taken off sirolimus; there was no graft loss during the observation period. In conclusion, conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus is an effective protocol with tolerable side effects to stabilize renal graft function for at least one yr in the majority of children with biopsy-proven chronic allograft nephropathy. PMID:16712606

  19. Title efficacy of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor on distant burn-induced muscle autophagy, microcirculation, and survival rate.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Sachiko; Koseki, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Michio; Maeyama, Yoshihiro; Yomogida, Kentaro; Mehr, Chelsea; Rutledge, Madeleine; Greenfeld, Hannah; Kaneki, Masao; Tompkins, Ronald G; Martyn, J A Jeevendra; Yasuhara, Shingo E

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is an exacerbating factor in the prognosis of critically ill patients. Using a systemic burn injury model in mice, we have established a role of autophagy in the resulting muscle wasting that is distant from the burn trauma. We provide evidence that burn injury increases the autophagy turnover in the distal skeletal muscle by conventional postmortem tissue analyses and by a novel in vivo microscopic method using an autophagy reporter gene (tandem fluorescent LC3). The effect of tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5I), on burn-induced skeletal muscle autophagy is documented and extends our published results that PDE5Is attenuates muscle degeneration in a muscular dystrophy model. We also designed a translational experiment to examine the impact of PDE5I on whole body and demonstrated that PDE5I administration lessened muscle atrophy, mitigated microcirculatory disturbance, and improved the survival rate after burn injury. PMID:23512808

  20. Liver Retransplantation for Recurrence of HCV-Related Cirrhosis Using Hepatitis C-Positive Allografts: A 19-Year OPTN Analysis.

    PubMed

    Torosian, Justin C; Leiby, Benjamin E; Fenkel, Jonathan M; Frank, Adam M; Ramirez, Carlo G; Doria, Cataldo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Liver re-transplantation (re-OLT) in hepatitis C-infected (HCV+) recipients remains a controversial life-saving procedure, as the process of allograft HCV reinfection is universal. Current literature and practice show that in primary liver transplantations (OLT) in HCV+ recipients, HCV+ grafts have equivalent graft survival as non-infected (HCV-) grafts. MATERIAL AND METHODS Standard Transplant Analysis and Research (STAR) files from the OPTN (Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network) were used to identify HCV+ patients who underwent a second transplant between 3/16/1994 and 6/30/2013. Of 33 816 HCV+ patients who underwent primary OLT during this time 2345 underwent re-OLT; of whom 2079 could be confirmed as second transplants. Out of 2079 HCV+ patients who underwent retransplantation, 75 received HCV+ grafts and 2004 received HCV- grafts. Excluding primary or secondary graft losses within 1 week of transplant, 60 HCV+ donor grafts and 1557 HCV- donor grafts at re-transplantation remained for more focused analysis. RESULTS Graft survival for these patients appeared essentially identical regardless of whether they received an HCV+ or HCV- graft. In addition, using the 33 816 HCV+ patients who underwent primary transplantation during this time, our data agreed with the results of previous studies showing that HCV+ patients who receive HCV+ grafts at first transplant have equivalent graft and patient survival rates. CONCLUSIONS Due to the equivalency of HCV graft survival in re-OLT, selecting HCV+ donor organs for hepatitis C-infected recipients appears to be appropriate. PMID:27137953

  1. Endoscopic versus transcranial procurement of allograft tympano-ossicular systems: a prospective double-blind randomized controlled audit.

    PubMed

    Caremans, Jeroen; Hamans, Evert; Muylle, Ludo; Van de Heyning, Paul; Van Rompaey, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Allograft tympano-ossicular systems (ATOS) have proven their use over many decades in tympanoplasty and reconstruction after resection of cholesteatoma. The transcranial bone plug technique has been used in the past 50 years to procure en bloc ATOS (tympanic membrane with malleus, incus and stapes attached). Recently, our group reported the feasibility of the endoscopic procurement technique. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical outcome is equivalent in ATOS acquired by using the endoscopic procurement technique compared to ATOS acquired by using the transcranial technique. A double-blind randomized controlled audit was performed in a tertiary referral center in patients that underwent allograft tympanoplasty because of chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Allograft epithelialisation was evaluated at the short-term postoperative visit by microscopic examination. Failures were reported if reperforation was observed. Fifty patients underwent allograft tympanoplasty: 34 received endoscopically procured ATOS and 16 received transcranially procured ATOS. One failed case was observed, in the endoscopic procurement group. We did not observe a statistically significant difference between the two groups in failure rate. This study demonstrates equivalence of the clinical outcome of allograft tympanoplasty using either endoscopic or transcranial procured ATOS and therefore indicates that the endoscopic technique can be considered the new standard procurement technique. Especially because the endoscopic procurement technique has several advantages compared to the former transcranial procurement technique: it avoids risk of prion transmission and it is faster while lacking any noticeable incision. PMID:26342932

  2. Effect of warming rate on the survival of vitrified mouse oocytes and on the recrystallization of intracellular ice.

    PubMed

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Successful cryopreservation demands there be little or no intracellular ice. One procedure is classical slow equilibrium freezing, and it has been successful in many cases. However, for some important cell types, including some mammalian oocytes, it has not. For the latter, there are increasing attempts to cryopreserve them by vitrification. However, even if intracellular ice formation (IIF) is prevented during cooling, it can still occur during the warming of a vitrified sample. Here, we examine two aspects of this occurrence in mouse oocytes. One took place in oocytes that were partly dehydrated by an initial hold for 12 min at -25 degrees C. They were then cooled rapidly to -70 degrees C and warmed slowly, or they were warmed rapidly to intermediate temperatures and held. These oocytes underwent no IIF during cooling but blackened from IIF during warming. The blackening rate increased about 5-fold for each five-degree rise in temperature. Upon thawing, they were dead. The second aspect involved oocytes that had been vitrified by cooling to -196 degrees C while suspended in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectants and warmed at rates ranging from 140 degrees C/min to 3300 degrees C/min. Survivals after warming at 140 degrees C/min and 250 degrees C/min were low (<30%). Survivals after warming at > or =2200 degrees C/min were high (80%). When warmed slowly, they were killed, apparently by the recrystallization of previously formed small internal ice crystals. The similarities and differences in the consequences of the two types of freezing are discussed. PMID:18562703

  3. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  4. Scedosporium apiospermum causing brain abscess in a renal allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit; Singh, Divya

    2015-11-01

    Scedosporium apiospermum is the asexual form of a rare fungus Pseudallescheria boydii that is usually present in the soil, sewage and dirty water. In immunocompromised patients, it is a rare infection involving multiple organs. We present a case of renal allograft recipient who developed fever two weeks post renal transplant. He was initially found to have dengue fever. After five days, he became drowsy and developed right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple irregular masses with associated edema consistent with fungal brain abscesses. Left parietal abscess was drained and he was started on voriconazole. His cyclosporine was stopped. Drained pus revealed fungal hyphae on potassium hydroxide stain and Scedosporium apiospermum on culture. Unfortunately, the patient died after five days. Scedosporium infections should be kept as a possibility in transplant recipients with disseminated infections, especially with a brain abscess. Despite antifungal therapy and surgical drainage, mortality rates are high. PMID:26586067

  5. Histopathology of cell mediated immune reaction in mouse colon--allograft rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Holden, R J; Ferguson, A

    1976-01-01

    Grafts of mouse fetal colon, implanted beneath the renal capsule of adult hosts, have been used to study the growth and development of colonic isografts and the rejection of colonic allografts. Isografts grew normally and maintained a structure similar to normal colon. Grafts between strains with H2 histocompatibility differences were rejected by 13 days after transplantation. Early progressive infiltration of the grafts by lymphoid cells was followed by increasing damage to, and subsequent loss of, the epithelial cell layer and destruction of the underlying muscle, changes which parallel those seen in rejection of skin and small bowel. The increase in survival time which is seen in allografts between strains with H2 identity was longer in the colon than has been seen in the skin or small bowel; none of the allografts of colon were completely rejected before 30 days, and some remained viable at 50 days. Comparison of the appearances of rejection in the colon with those of ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease does not show the striking similarity which is seen between small bowel rejection and coeliac disease. Many of the individual features of these diseases are, however, present in the course of colonic rejection. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:976806

  6. Studies Introducing Costimulation Blockade for Vascularized Composite Allografts in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, A M; Samy, K P; Farris, A B; Leopardi, F V; Song, M; Stempora, L; Strobert, E A; Jenkins, J A; Kirk, A D; Cendales, L C

    2015-08-01

    Vascularized composite allografts (VCAs) are technically feasible. Similar to other organ transplants, VCAs are hampered by the toxicity and incomplete efficacy associated with conventional immunosuppression. Complications attributable to calcineurin inhibitors remain prevalent in the clinical cases reported to date, and these loom particularly large given the nonlifesaving nature of VCAs. Additionally, acute rejection remains almost ubiquitous, albeit controllable with current agents. Costimulation blockade offers the potential to provide prophylaxis from rejection without the adverse consequences of calcineurin-based regimens. In this study, we used a nonhuman-primate model of VCA in conjunction with immunosuppressive regimens containing combinations of B7-specific costimulation blockade with and without adhesion blockade with LFA3-Ig to determine what adjunctive role these agents could play in VCA transplantation when combined with more conventional agents. Compared to tacrolimus, the addition of belatacept improved rejection free allograft survival. The combination with LFA3-Ig reduced CD2(hi) memory T cells, however did not provide additional protection against allograft rejection and hindered protective immunity. Histology paralleled clinical histopathology and Banff grading. These data provide the basis for the study of costimulation blockade in VCA in a relevant preclinical model. PMID:26139552

  7. Use of local allograft irradiation following renal transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Halperin, E.C.; Delmonico, F.L.; Nelson, P.W.; Shipley, W.U.; Cosimi, A.B.

    1984-07-01

    Over a 10 year period, 67 recipients of 71 renal allografts received graft irradiation following the diagnosis of rejection. The majority of kidneys were treated with a total dose of 600 rad, 150 rad per fraction, in 4 daily fractions. Fifty-three kidneys were irradiated following the failure of standard systemic immunosuppression and maximally tolerated antirejection measures to reverse an episode of acute rejection. Twenty-two (42%) of these allografts were noted to have stable (i.e. no deterioration) or improved function 1 month following the treatment with irradiation. Eleven (21%) of these allografts maintained function 1 year following transplantation. Biopsies were obtained of 41 allografts. Of the 24 renal allografts with predominantly cellular rejection, 10 (42%) had the process reversed or stabilized at 1 month following irradiation. Five (21%) of these allografts were functioning at 1 year following irradiation. Rejection was reversed or stabilized in 6 of 17 (35%) allografts at 1 month when the histologic features of renal biopsy suggested predominantly vascular rejection. Local graft irradiation has helped maintain a limited number of allografts in patients whose rejection has failed to respond to systemic immunosuppression. Irradiation may also benefit patients with ongoing rejection in whom further systemic immunosuppression is contra-indicated.

  8. Surgical techniques and radiological findings of meniscus allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoseok; Lee, Sang Yub; Na, Young Gon; Kim, Sung Kwan; Yi, Jae Hyuck; Lim, Jae Kwang; Lee, So Mi

    2016-08-01

    Meniscus allograft transplantation has been performed over the past 25 years to relieve knee pain and improve knee function in patients with an irreparable meniscus injury. The efficacy and safety of meniscus allograft transplantation have been established in numerous experimental and clinical researches. However, there is a lack of reviews to aid radiologists who are routinely interpreting images and evaluating the outcome of the procedures, and also meniscus allograft transplantation is not widely performed in most hospitals. This review focuses on the indications of the procedure, the different surgical techniques used for meniscus allograft transplantation according to the involvement of the lateral and medial meniscus, and the associated procedures. The postoperative radiological findings and surgical complications of the meniscus allograft transplantation are also described in detail. PMID:27423673

  9. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  10. The Safety and Efficacy of Cadaveric Allografts and Titanium Cage as a Fusion Substitutes in Pyogenic Osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Ryu, Je-il

    2011-01-01

    Objective The safety and efficacy of various fusion substitutes in pyogenic osteomyelitis has not been investigated. We evaluated and compared the cadaveric allograft and titanium cages used to reconstruct, maintain alignment and achieve fusion in the management of pyogenic spinal infection. Methods There were 33 patients with pyogenic osteomyelitis underwent fusion in this study. Fifteen of the 33 patients were operated on by fusion with allografts (cadaveric patella bones) and 18 of those were operated with titanium mesh cages filled with autologous cancellous iliac bone. After the affected disc and vertebral body resection with pus drainage, cadaveric allograft or titanium cages were inserted into the resected space. Posterior transpedicular screw fixation and rod compression in resected space, where cadaveric allograft or titanium cages were inserted, was performed to prevent the malposition in all patients except in 1 case. Recurrent infection was identified by serial erythrocyte sedimentation rate and cross reactive protein follow-up. Osseous union and recurred infection available at a minimum of 2 years following operation was identified. The amount of kyphosis correction and the subsidence were measured radiographically. Results Spinal fusion was achieved in 29 of 33 patients. In the cadaveric allograft group, 93.3% of patient (14 of 15) showed the osseous union while 83.3% of patient (15 of 18) in the titanium cage group showed union. Subsidence was noted in 12 of the patients. Twelve patients (36.3%) showed unsettling amounts of subsidence postoperatively whereas 46.6% of patients in the cadaveric allograft group and 37.7% of patients in the titanium cage group showed similar subsidence, respectively. There were statistical difference in the fusion rate (p=0.397) and subsidence rate (p=0.276) between the two groups. There was significant statistical difference in the postoperative improvement of segmental kyphosis between the two groups (p=0.022), that is

  11. Function of transplanted human pancreatic allografts after preservation in cold storage for 6 to 26 hours.

    PubMed

    Abouna, G M; Sutherland, D E; Florack, G; Najarian, J S

    1987-05-01

    Preservation of cadaveric pancreas allografts has been a difficult problem in clinical pancreas transplantation; most institutions use Collins solution and limit preservation time to less than 6 hr. Longer preservation times have been used at the University of Minnesota. Between August 1983, and December 1985, 47 human cadaveric pancreas grafts were transplanted into Type I diabetic recipients after cold storage at 4 degrees C in a modified, hyperosmolar silica-gel filtered plasma (SGFP), a solution previously found to allow dog pancreas grafts to be successfully preserved for up to 48 hr. Ten grafts were preserved for 2-5 hr (group 1); 20 for 6-11 hr (group 2; 17 for 12-26 hr (group 3). Graft function and late outcome were compared between these groups and another group of 7 cadaveric grafts (group 4), which were transplanted immediately and without any preservation. Analysis of exocrine pancreatic function early after transplantation showed a maximum mean serum amylase (IU/L) of 557, 440, 429, and 307 in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Primary preservation failure rates of 0, 5%, 5.8%, and 0%, and endocrine graft function rates at 1 month of 80%, 80%, 76%, and 86% were obtained for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (P = NS). Only patients who were insulin-independent were counted as having functioning grafts. Detailed functional studies at 1 month showed that mean plasma glucose levels during 24-hr metabolic profiles were in the normal range in 71%, 68%, 72%, and 50%, while oral glucose tolerance test results were within the normal range in 38%, 81%, 76%, and 66% of groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively (P = NS). At 1 year, patient survival rates were 57%, 88%, 75%, and 100% (P = NS), and the graft functional survival rates were 0, 25%, 33%, and 29% (P = NS) in the respective groups. Five patients in group 2, and 6 in group 3 have currently functioning grafts at 4 to 37 months after transplantation. We conclude that cadaver pancreas grafts can be safely

  12. Graft vasculopathy in the skin of a human hand allograft: implications for diagnosis of rejection of vascularized composite allografts.

    PubMed

    Kanitakis, Jean; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Lanzetta, Marco; Petruzzo, Palmina

    2014-11-01

    Whereas vascularized composite allografts often undergo acute rejections early in the postgraft period, rejection manifesting with severe vascular changes (graft vasculopathy) has only been observed on three occasions in humans. We report a hand-allografted patient who developed severe rejection following discontinuation of the immunosuppressive treatment. It manifested clinically with erythematous maculopapules on the skin and pathologically with graft vasculopathy that affected both large vessels and smaller cutaneous ones. The observation that graft vasculopathy can affect skin vessels shows that it is amenable to diagnosis with usual skin biopsy as recommended for the follow-up of these allografts. Graft vasculopathy developing in the setting of vascularized composite allografts likely represents chronic rejection due to under-immunosuppression and, if confirmed, should be included in a future update of the Banff classification of vascularized composite allograft rejection. PMID:25041139

  13. The relationship between annual survival rate and migration distance in mallards: an examination of the time-allocation hypothesis for the evolution of migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Predictions of the time-allocation hypothesis were tested with several a posteriori analyses of banding data for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The time-allocation hypothesis states that the critical difference between resident and migrant birds is their allocation of time to reproduction on the breeding grounds and survival on the nonbreeding grounds. Residents have higher reproduction and migrants have higher survival. Survival and recovery rates were estimated by standard band-recovery methods for banding reference areas in the central United States and central Canada. A production-rate index was computed for each reference area with data from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service May Breeding Population Survey and July Production Survey. An analysis of covariance was used to test for the effects of migration distance and time period (decade) on survival, recovery, and production rates. Differences in migration chronology were tested by comparing direct-recovery distributions for different populations during the fall migration. Differences in winter locations were tested by comparing distributions of direct recoveries reported during December and January. A strong positive relationship was found between survival rate, and migration distance for 3 of the 4 age and sex classes. A weak negative relationship was found between recovery rate and migration distance. No relationship was found between production rate and migration distance. During the fall migration, birds from the northern breeding populations were located north of birds from the southern breeding populations. No pattern could be found in the relative locations of breeding and wintering areas. Although our finding that survival rate increased with migration distance was consistent with the time-allocation hypothesis, our results on migration chronology and location of wintering areas were not consistent with the mechanism underlying the time-allocation hypothesis. Neither this analysis nor other recent

  14. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ru; Ka, Ka; Zhang, Ge-Chen; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Yan; Zhao, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve fibers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when allografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury. PMID:26604913

  15. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-ru; Ka, Ka; Zhang, Ge-chen; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Yan; Zhao, Guo-qiang; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-01-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve fibers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when allografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury. PMID:26604913

  16. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  17. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  18. Reversible Disassembly of the Actin Cytoskeleton Improves the Survival Rate and Developmental Competence of Cryopreserved Mouse Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Basarab G.; Mullen, Steven F.; Critser, John K.; Forgacs, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    Effective cryopreservation of oocytes is critically needed in many areas of human reproductive medicine and basic science, such as stem cell research. Currently, oocyte cryopreservation has a low success rate. The goal of this study was to understand the mechanisms associated with oocyte cryopreservation through biophysical means using a mouse model. Specifically, we experimentally investigated the biomechanical properties of the ooplasm prior and after cryopreservation as well as the consequences of reversible dismantling of the F-actin network in mouse oocytes prior to freezing. The study was complemented with the evaluation of post-thaw developmental competence of oocytes after in vitro fertilization. Our results show that the freezing-thawing process markedly alters the physiological viscoelastic properties of the actin cytoskeleton. The reversible depolymerization of the F-actin network prior to freezing preserves normal ooplasm viscoelastic properties, results in high post-thaw survival and significantly improves developmental competence. These findings provide new information on the biophysical characteristics of mammalian oocytes, identify a pathophysiological mechanism underlying cryodamage and suggest a novel cryopreservation method. PMID:18665248

  19. Pharmacogenetic Analysis of Pediatric Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Possible Association between Survival Rate and ITPA Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyery; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Jang, Mi Kyung; Kim, Nam Hee; Oh, Yongtaek; Han, Byoung-Don; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Chul Woo; Lee, Ji Won; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2012-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms are important factors in the effects and toxicity of chemotherapeutics. To analyze the pharmacogenetic and ethnic differences in chemotherapeutics, major genes implicated in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were analyzed. Eighteen loci of 16 genes in 100 patients with ALL were analyzed. The distribution of variant alleles were CYP3A4*1B (0%), CYP3A5*3 (0%), GSTM1 (21%), GSTP1 (21%), GSTT1 (16%), MDR1 exon 21 (77%), MDR1 exon 26 (61%), MTHFR 677 (63%), MTHFR 1298 (29%), NR3C1 1088 (0%), RFC1 80 (68%), TPMT combined genotype (7%), VDR intron 8 (11%), VDR FokI (83%), TYMS enhancer repeat (22%) and ITPA 94 (30%). The frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 10 loci were statistically different from those in Western Caucasians. Dose percents (actual/planned dose) or toxicity of mercaptopurine and methotrexate were not related to any SNPs. Event free survival (EFS) rate was lower in ITPA variants, and ITPA 94 AC/AA variant genotypes were the only independent risk factor for lower EFS in multivariate analysis, which was a different pharmacogenetic implication from Western studies. This study is the first pharmacogenetic study in Korean pediatric ALL. Our result suggests that there are other possible pharmacogenetic factors besides TPMT or ITPA polymorphisms which influence the metabolism of mercaptopurine in Asian populations. PMID:23029095

  20. Medication management of cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Ian B; Reed, Brent N; Moranville, Michael P

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a common complication following heart transplantation (HT), resulting in diminished graft survival. The preferred strategy for preventing CAV is optimal medical management; however, for patients who develop CAV, delaying disease progression through effective medication management is equally important. A review of the literature regarding medication management of CAV was conducted via a search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were included if they were published in English, conducted in humans ≥ 18 years of age or older, and used noninvestigational medications. Immunosuppressive medications such as the antiproliferative mycophenolate, the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus, and the proliferation signal inhibitors sirolimus and everolimus have been shown to prevent the development of CAV. Certain cardiovascular medications, such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), gemfibrozil, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, have also demonstrated efficacy in preventing this disease process. Prevention of CAV has also been observed with prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus infection and antioxidant medications. Despite being commonly used in HT patients, neither antiplatelet agents nor glycemic control have proved effective at preventing CAV. Only sirolimus has been shown to arrest the progress of existing CAV. PMID:26011142

  1. Minimizing the risk of chronic allograft nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Weir, Matthew R; Wali, Ravinder K

    2009-04-27

    Chronic allograft nephropathy, now defined as interstital fibrosis and tubular atrophy not otherwise specified, is a near universal finding in transplant kidney biopsies by the end of the first decade posttransplantation. After excluding death with functioning graft, caused by cardiovascular disease or malignancy, chronic allograft nephropathy is the leading cause of graft failure. Original assumptions were that this was not a modifiable process but inexorable, likely due to past kidney injuries. However, newer understandings suggest that acute or subacute processes are involved, and with proper diagnosis, appropriate interventions can be instituted. Our method involved a review of the primary and secondary prevention trials in calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal. Some of the more important causes of progressive graft deterioration include subclinical cellular or humoral rejection, and chronic calcineurin inhibitor toxicity. Early graft biopsy, assessment of histology, and changes in immunosuppression may be some of the most important measures available to protect graft function. The avoidance of clinical inertia in pursuing subtle changes in graft function is critical. Modification in maintenance immunosuppression may benefit many patients with early evidence of graft deterioration. PMID:19384181

  2. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  3. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations. PMID:25835174

  4. Severing corneal nerves in one eye induces sympathetic loss of immune privilege and promotes rejection of future corneal allografts placed in either eye.

    PubMed

    Paunicka, K J; Mellon, J; Robertson, D; Petroll, M; Brown, J R; Niederkorn, J Y

    2015-06-01

    Less than 10% of corneal allografts undergo rejection even though HLA matching is not performed. However, second corneal transplants experience a threefold increase in rejection, which is not due to prior sensitization to histocompatibility antigens shared by the first and second transplants since corneal grafts are selected at random without histocompatibility matching. Using a mouse model of penetrating keratoplasty, we found that 50% of the initial corneal transplants survived, yet 100% of the subsequent corneal allografts (unrelated to the first graft) placed in the opposite eye underwent rejection. The severing of corneal nerves that occurs during surgery induced substance P (SP) secretion in both eyes, which disabled T regulatory cells that are required for allograft survival. Administration of an SP antagonist restored immune privilege and promoted graft survival. Thus, corneal surgery produces a sympathetic response that permanently abolishes immune privilege of subsequent corneal allografts, even those placed in the opposite eye and expressing a completely different array of foreign histocompatibility antigens from the first corneal graft. PMID:25872977

  5. Tunable Delivery of Bioactive Peptides from HA Biomaterials and Allograft Bone Using Variable Length Polyglutamate Domains

    PubMed Central

    Culpepper, Bonnie K.; Webb, William M.; Bonvallet, Paul P.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) biomaterials and allograft bone are common alternatives to autogenous grafts, however these materials lack the strong osteoinductive potential of autologous bone. Previous studies have established that polyglutamate domains, which bind selectively to HA, can be engineered onto bioactive peptides as a mechanism for coupling osteoinductive signals onto HA and allograft. In the current investigation, we adapted the polyglutamate approach to tailor delivery of a model collagen-derived peptide, DGEA, by manipulating the number of glutamates in the HA binding domain. Specifically, DGEA was modified with diglutamate (E2-DGEA), tetraglutamate (E4-DGEA) or heptaglutamate (E7-DGEA), and it was found that initial peptide binding to HA and allograft was significantly enhanced as the number of glutamates increased. We also determined that the rate of release of polyglutamate-DGEA from substrates over a 5-day interval increased proportionally as the number of glutamate residues was decreased. Additionally, we tuned the peptide release rate by creating mixtures of E2-DGEA, E4-DGEA and E7-DGEA, and observed that release kinetics of the mixtures were distinct from pure solutions of each respective peptide. These collective results suggest that variable length polyglutamate domains provide an effective mechanism for controlled delivery of osteoregenerative peptides on HA-containing bone graft materials. PMID:23625466

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes in rat aortic allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Myllärniemi, M.; Akyürek, L. M.; Häyry, P.; Marsden, P. A.; Paul, L. C.

    1996-01-01

    Graft vasculopathy is an important complication of long-surviving organ transplants, but its pathogenesis has remained elusive. We investigated rat aortic transplants with vasculopathy, aortic transplants without vasculopathy, and normal aortas for differentially expressed mRNA transcripts to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms involved. Aortic transplants were performed in allogeneic or syngeneic recipients followed by removal after 1 or 5 months, RNA isolation, and differential display to identify mRNA transcripts the expression of which was modulated in conjunction with the transplant procedure and the development of vasculopathy. Using 80 random primers, 57 differentially displayed polymerase chain reaction products were identified, 18 of which were found in allografts but not in syngeneic grafts or normal vessels, whereas 15 were expressed in normal vessels and syngeneic grafts but not in allografts. Of the differentially displayed amplicons, 13 were successfully reamplified and used as probes for Northern analysis; differential expression was confirmed in 6 instances. DNA sequence analysis of these PCR products revealed identity with the immunoglobulin J chain in 2 instances, the ferritin heavy chain, a sequence related but not identical with Ras, and an established sequence tag recently isolated from a human fetal heart library; 1 sequence was not related to any known gene. To assess whether differential mRNA expression of the J-chain gene, a gene expressed in cells of B lymphocyte lineage, was associated with infiltration of the graft by B lymphocytes, tissue sections were stained with an antibody against the B cell marker CD45RA. Although the number of CD45RA-positive cells was low, there was a significant increase in the number of CD45RA-positive cells in the adventitia and intima of grafts with vasculopathy. Furthermore, immunostaining with anti-ferritin antiserum confirmed the presence of ferritin-positive cells within the inner layer of

  7. Reduced-intensity stem cell allografting for PNH patients in the eculizumab era: The Mexican experience.

    PubMed

    Schcolnik-Cabrera, Alejandro; Labastida-Mercado, Nancy; Galindo-Becerra, Laura Samantha; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Herrera-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo Jose; Ruiz-Arguelles, Guillermo José

    2015-06-01

    Background Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) presents as two major entities: the classical form, predominantly haemolytic and a secondary type with marrow failure and resultant aplastic anaemia (AA-PNH). Currently, the treatment of choice of the haemolytic variant is eculizumab; however, the most frequent form of PNH in México is AA-PNH. Patients and methods Six consecutive AA-PNH patients with HLA-identical siblings were allografted in two institutions in México, employing a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for stem cell transplantation (RIST) conducted on an outpatient basis. Results Median age of the patients was 37 years (range 25-48). The patients were given a median of 5.4 × 10(6)/kg allogeneic CD34(+) cells, using 1-3 apheresis procedures. Median time to achieve above 0.5 × 10(9)/l granulocytes was 21 days, whereas median time to achieve above 20 × 10(9)/l platelets was 17 days. Five patients are alive for 330-3150 days (median 1437) after the allograft. The 3150-day overall survival is 83.3%, whereas median survival has not been reached, being above 3150 days. Conclusion We have shown that hypoplastic PNH patients can be allografted safely using RIST and that the long-term results are adequate, the cost-benefit ratio of this treatment being reasonable. Additional studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of RIST in the treatment of AA-PNH. PMID:25148373

  8. Better Rooting Procedure to Enhance Survival Rate of Field Grown Malaysian Eksotika Papaya Transformed with 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  9. Better rooting procedure to enhance survival rate of field grown malaysian eksotika papaya transformed with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid oxidase gene.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom

    2013-01-01

    A high survival rate for transformed papaya plants when transferred to the field is useful in the quest for improving the commercial quality traits. We report in this paper an improved rooting method for the production of transformed Malaysian Eksotika papaya with high survival rate when transferred to the field. Shoots were regenerated from embryogenic calli transformed with antisense and RNAi constructs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) genes using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method. Regenerated transformed shoots, each measuring approximately 3-4 cm in height, were cultured in liquid half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium or sterile distilled water, and with either perlite or vermiculite supplementation. All the culturing processes were conducted either under sterile or nonsterile condition. The results showed that rooting under sterile condition was better. Shoots cultured in half-strength MS medium supplemented with vermiculite exhibited a 92.5% rooting efficiency while perlite showed 77.5%. The survival rate of the vermiculite-grown transformed papaya plantlets after transfer into soil, contained in polybags, was 94%, and the rate after transfer into the ground was 92%. Morpho-histological analyses revealed that the tap roots were more compact, which might have contributed to the high survival rates of the plantlets. PMID:25969786

  10. Comparison of structural allograft and traditional autograft technique in occipitocervical fusion: radiological and clinical outcomes from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Godzik, Jakub; Ravindra, Vijay M; Ray, Wilson Z; Schmidt, Meic H; Bisson, Erica F; Dailey, Andrew T

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT The authors' objectives were to compare the rate of fusion after occipitoatlantoaxial arthrodesis using structural allograft with the fusion rate from using autograft, to evaluate correction of radiographic parameters, and to describe symptom relief with each graft technique. METHODS The authors assessed radiological fusion at 6 and 12 months after surgery and obtained radiographic measurements of C1-2 and C2-7 lordotic angles, C2-7 sagittal vertical alignments, and posterior occipitocervical angles at preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up examinations. Demographic data, intraoperative details, adverse events, and functional outcomes were collected from hospitalization records. Radiological fusion was defined as the presence of bone trabeculation and no movement between the graft and the occiput or C-2 on routine flexion-extension cervical radiographs. Radiographic measurements were obtained from lateral standing radiographs with patients in the neutral position. RESULTS At the University of Utah, 28 adult patients underwent occipitoatlantoaxial arthrodesis between 2003 and 2010 using bicortical allograft, and 11 patients were treated using iliac crest autograft. Mean follow-up for all patients was 20 months (range 1-108 months). Of the 27 patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, 18 (95%) of 19 in the allograft group and 8 (100%) of 8 in the autograft group demonstrated evidence of bony fusion shown by imaging. Patients in both groups demonstrated minimal deterioration of sagittal vertical alignment at final follow-up. Operative times were comparable, but patients undergoing occipitocervical fusion with autograft demonstrated greater blood loss (316 ml vs 195 ml). One (9%) of 11 patients suffered a significant complication related to autograft harvesting. CONCLUSIONS The use of allograft in occipitocervical fusion allows a high rate of successful arthrodesis yet avoids the potentially significant morbidity and pain associated with

  11. Comparison of structural allograft and traditional autograft technique in occipitocervical fusion: radiological and clinical outcomes from a single institution

    PubMed Central

    Godzik, Jakub; Ravindra, Vijay M.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Schmidt, Meic H.; Bisson, Erica F.; Dailey, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Object The authors' objectives were to compare the rate of fusion after occipitoatlantoaxial arthrodesis using structural allograft with the fusion rate from using autograft, to evaluate correction of radiographic parameters, and to describe symptom relief with each graft technique. Methods The authors assessed radiological fusion at 6 and 12 months after surgery and obtained radiographic measurements of C1–2 and C2–7 lordotic angles, C2–7 sagittal vertical alignments, and posterior occipitocervical angles at preoperative, postoperative, and final follow-up examinations. Demographic data, intraoperative details, adverse events, and functional outcomes were collected from hospitalization records. Radiological fusion was defined as the presence of bone trabeculation and no movement between the graft and the occiput or C-2 on routine flexion-extension cervical radiographs. Radiographic measurements were obtained from lateral standing radiographs with patients in the neutral position. Results At the University of Utah, 28 adult patients underwent occipitoatlantoaxial arthrodesis between 2003 and 2010 using bicortical allograft, and 11 patients were treated using iliac crest autograft. Mean follow-up for all patients was 20 months (range 1–108 months). Of the 27 patients with a minimum of 12 months of follow-up, 18 (95%) of 19 in the allograft group and 8 (100%) of 8 in the autograft group demonstrated evidence of bony fusion shown by imaging. Patients in both groups demonstrated minimal deterioration of sagittal vertical alignment at final follow-up. Operative times were comparable, but patients undergoing occipitocervical fusion with autograft demonstrated greater blood loss (316 ml vs 195 ml). One (9%) of 11 patients suffered a significant complication related to autograft harvesting. Conclusions The use of allograft in occipitocervical fusion allows a high rate of successful arthrodesis yet avoids the potentially significant morbidity and pain associated

  12. Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: A spatially continuous approach within stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, A.M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (???100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September - 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (-) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (-), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

  13. Comparative efficacy of 2 different demineralized bone matrix allografts in treating long-bone nonunions in heavy tobacco smokers.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce; Cheung, Sunny; Smith, Wade; Westerheide, Ken

    2005-07-01

    Smoking impairs bone healing and increases the risk for complications associated with nonunions. The efficacies of 2 different allografts, Grafton (demineralized bone matrix [DBM] in a gel-like glycerol carrier) and Orthoblast (DBM with a reverse thermal poloxamer carrier) were examined with respect to nonunions in patients who reported heavy tobacco use. The Grafton allograft was used in 25 patients, and the Orthoblast allograft was used in 13 patients. All patients smoked more than half a pack of cigarettes a day and did not use electric stimulators. A successful graft was defined as healing on the first graft attempt without complications or later regraft. The Grafton and Orthoblast success rates were 52% and 85%, respectively (P = .077). The unique thermal properties of the Orthoblast reverse poloxamer, which may enhance DBM osteoinduction, may account for the difference in success rates. Although results failed to reach statistical significance, the large difference and high likelihood ratio (4.2) between the 2 groups suggest that perhaps not all commercially available allografts may necessarily perform with the same efficacy with respect to heavy smokers. PMID:16130350

  14. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  15. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  16. Progressive provisioning by the females of the earwig, Anisolabis maritima, increases the survival rate of the young.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Seizi

    2010-01-01

    Provisioning the young is an important form of insect parental care and is believed to improve the survival and growth of the young. Anisolabis maritima Bonelli (Dermaptera: Anisolabididae) is a cosmopolitan species of earwig that shows sub-social behavior in which the females tend clutches of eggs in soil burrows. The defensive and provisioning behaviors of these females were examined in this study. When disturbed, maternal individuals abandoned the nest less than non-maternal individuals. Females brought food to the nest after their eggs hatched, and the survival of the nymphs was increased by provisioning. Even when mothers were removed, providing food to the nymphs increased survival as well as when the nymphs were provisioned by the mother. These results show that A. maritima mothers provision the nymphs and that this provisioning improves their survival. PMID:21062141

  17. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated martian conditions.

  18. Tube shunt coverage with gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft)

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Feyzahan; Moster, Marlene R; Cvintal, Victor; Hu, Wanda D; Waisbourd, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the clinical outcomes of tube shunt coverage using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft. Patients and methods The Wills Eye Hospital Glaucoma Research Center retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 165 patients who underwent glaucoma tube shunt procedures using sterile gamma-irradiated cornea allograft (VisionGraft) between December 2012 and November 2013. Demographic characteristics, type of tube shunt, and position were noted. Complications were recorded at 1 day; 1 week; 1, 3, 6, and 12 months; and on the final postoperative visit. Results One hundred and sixty-nine eyes of 165 patients were included. The mean follow-up time was 4.8±3.5 (ranging from 1 to 16) months. There was no evidence of immunological reaction, infection, or exposure in 166 eyes (98.2%). Three eyes (1.8%) experienced graft or tube exposure within the first 3 postoperative months. Two of the cases had underlying diseases: bullous pemphigoid and chronic allergic conjunctivitis. Conclusion Coverage of tube shunts using gamma-irradiated cornea allograft had a low exposure rate and was well tolerated. The graft can be stored long term at room temperature and has an excellent postoperative cosmetic appearance. PMID:25995612

  19. Multi-State Survival Analysis in Renal Transplantation Recipients

    PubMed Central

    MIRZAEE, Moghaddameh; MOHAMMAD, Kazem; MAHMOODI, Mahmood; ZERAATI, Hojjat; EBADZADEH, Mohammad-Reza; ETMINAN, Abbas; FAZELI, Faramarz; DEHGHANI FIROUZABADI, Mohammad Hasan; SATTARY, Hossein; HAGHPARAST, Mahdiyeh; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Renal transplantation is a therapy for end-stage renal disease. During the study of recipients’ survival after renal transplantation, there are some events as intermediate events that not only affect the recipients’ survival but also events which are affected by various factors. The aim of this study was to handle these intermediate events in order to identify factors that affect recipients’ survival by using multi-state models. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 405 renal transplant patients from Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, from 2004 to 2010. The survival time of these recipients was determined after transplantation and the effect of various factors on the death hazard with and without renal allograft failure and hazard of renal allograft failure was studied by using multi-state models. Results During 4.06 years (median) of follow-up; 28 (6.9%) recipients died and allograft failure occurred in 51 (12.6%) recipients. Based on the results of multi-state model, receiving a living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of renal allograft failure (HR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.17- 0.87), pre-transplant hypertension (HR=2.94; 95% CI: 1.54- 5.63) and serum creatinine levels >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital (HR=7.38; 95% CI: 3.87- 7.08) increased the hazard of renal allograft failure. Receiving living kidney transplantation decreased the hazard of death directly (HR=0.18; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.93). Conclusion It was concluded that the effect of donor type, pre-transplant hypertension and having serum creatinine >1.6 upon discharge from the hospital was significant on hazard of renal allograft failure. The only variable that had a direct significant effect on hazard of death was donor type. PMID:25988091

  20. Co-transplantation of autologous MSCs delays islet allograft rejection and generates a local immunoprivileged site

    PubMed Central

    Ben Nasr, Moufida; Vergani, Andrea; Avruch, James; Liu, Liye; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; D’Addio, Francesca; Tezza, Sara; Corradi, Domenico; Bassi, Roberto; Valderrama-Vasquez, Alessandro; Usuelli, Vera; Kim, James; Azzi, Jamil; Essawy, Basset El; Markmann, James; Abdi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aims Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with immunomodulatory properties. We tested the ability of MSCs to delay islet allograft rejection. Methods Mesenchymal stem cells were generated in vitro from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice bone marrow, and their immunomodulatory properties were tested in vitro. We then tested the effect of a local or systemic administration of heterologous and autologous MSCs on graft survival in a fully allogeneic model of islet transplantation (BALB/c islets into C57BL/6 mice). Results In vitro, autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs abrogated immune cell proliferation in response to alloantigens and skewed the immune response toward a Th2 profile. A single dose of autologous MSCs co-transplanted under the kidney capsule with allogeneic islets delayed islet rejection, reduced graft infiltration, and induced long-term graft function in 30 % of recipients. Based on ex vivo analysis of recipient splenocytes, the use of autologous MSCs did not appear to have any systemic effect on the immune response toward graft alloantigens. The systemic injection of autologous MSCs or the local injection of heterologous MSCs failed to delay islet graft rejection. Conclusion Autologous, but not heterologous, MSCs showed multiple immunoregulatory properties in vitro and delayed allograft rejection in vivo when co-transplanted with islets; however, they failed to prevent rejection when injected systemically. Autologous MSCs thus appear to produce a local immunoprivileged site, which promotes graft survival. PMID:25808641

  1. Linking Reproduction and Survival Can Improve Model Estimates of Vital Rates Derived from Limited Time-Series Counts of Pinnipeds and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Battaile, Brian C.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))—and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts. PMID:24324541

  2. Results of reconstruction of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears using a fascia lata allograft

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrios, Varvitsiotis; Athanasios, Papaspiliopoulos; Eleni, Antipa; Xenofon, Papacharalampous; George, Flevarakis; John, Feroussis

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the advances in surgical treatment options, massive rotator cuff (r-c) tears still represent a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. This study assesses the effectiveness of fascia lata allograft in reconstruction of massive and irreparable r-c tear and to evaluate the healing and functional outcomes. Materials and Methods: 68 patients (38 men, 30 women, mean age 64.9 years) with massive or irreparable r-c tears were treated with placement of fascia lata allograft to fill the defect between February 2006 and February 2010. At 43 months followup they were evaluated clinically using the constant score, preoperatively and postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound were used postoperatively, to assess the integrity of the allograft at the repair site. Postoperatively, standard rehabilitation protocol was followed with gradual restoration. Results: Postoperative constant score increased from 32.5 preoperatively to 88.7 postoperatively. The most important was the pain relief from 2.4 preoperatively to 14.1 postoperatively and range of motion. The results of the MRI were not reliable, but the ultrasound was satisfactory. Finally, there was no infection or rejection of the graft in any of the patients. Conclusions: Despite advances in surgical methods, there is still not a universally accepted treatment for massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears, because the standard methods have dubious results, with excessive retear rates and poor outcomes, necessitating the need for new repair strategies. We documented significant clinical improvement using fascia lata allograft in the repair of massive irreparable r-c tear, acting as scaffold to bridge the defect, enhancing the healing at the repair site. PMID:26015630

  3. Is there significant variation in the material properties of four different allografts implanted for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Penn, David; Willet, Thomas L; Glazebrook, Mark; Snow, Martyn; Stanish, William D

    2009-03-01

    The aims of our study were to: (1) determine if there are differences in the material properties of tendon obtained from implanted tibialis anterior, achilles, bone-patella- bone and tibialis posterior allografts; (2) determine the variability in material properties between the implanted specimens. A total of 60 specimens were collected from fresh frozen allografts implanted at ACL reconstruction. Specimens collected included 15 tibialis anterior, 15 tibialis posterior, 15 achilles and 15 bone-patella-bone tendons. Each specimen was mounted in a custom made cryogrip. The mounted specimens were loaded onto a MTS Testline servo-hydraulic testing machine in a uni-axial tensile test configuration. Specimens were subjected to a strain rate of 5% per second until the ultimate tensile stress (UTS), failure strain and high strain modulus was calculated for each specimen after being normalized for specimen dimensions. Individual material properties were tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's B test with a P value of <0.05 considered significant. Homogeneity of variance was assessed using the Levene's test. As a result, no significant difference was found between all four grafts with regards to UTS, failure strain or high strain linear modulus. The UTS was plotted against the modulus demonstrating a linear relationship which is typical of soft tissues. Significant variability in the results were observed. In conclusion, there was no significant statistical difference between the material properties of the four tendon allografts tested. But significant variability in results was observed within groups and between groups, which may provide one explanation for the range of results in allograft ACL reconstruction reported in the literature. PMID:19039574

  4. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  5. Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in the Knee.

    PubMed

    Zouzias, Ioannis C; Bugbee, William D

    2016-06-01

    The technique of osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has been used to treat a wide spectrum of cartilage deficiencies in the knee. Its use has been supported by basic science and clinical studies that show it is a safe and effective treatment option. What sets fresh OCA transplantation apart from other cartilage procedures in the knee, is the ability to treat large defects with mature hyaline cartilage. Studies looking at transplantation of fresh OCAs in the general population have shown reliable pain relief and return to activities of daily living. Reports of cartilage injuries in athletes have risen over the years and more research is needed in evaluating the successfulness of OCA transplantation in the athletic population. PMID:27135291

  6. Dysplasia Epiphysealis Hemimelica Treated with Osteochondral Allograft: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Chris A.; Wolf, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica (DEH), or Trevor's disease, is a developmental disorder of the pediatric skeleton characterized by asymmetric osteochondral overgrowth. Methods We present the case of a five year old boy with a two year history of right knee pain and evidence of DEH on imaging who underwent initial arthroscopic resection of his lesion with subsequent recurrence. The patient then underwent osteochondral allograft revision surgery and was asymptomatic at two year follow-up with a congruent joint surface. Results To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a DEH lesion treated with osteochondral allograft and also the youngest reported case of osteochondral allograft placement in the literature. Conclusions Osteochondral allograft may be a viable option in DEH and other deformities of the pediatric knee. Level of Evidence Level V PMID:26361443

  7. Recurrent Hepatitis C in Liver Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Demetris, A. J.; Eghtesad, B.; Marcos, A.; Ruppert, K.; Nalesnik, M. A.; Randhawa, P.; Wu, T.; Krasinskas, A.; Fontes, P.; Cacciarelli, T.; Shakil, A. O.; Murase, N.; Fung, J. J.; Starzl, T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale and Design The accuracy of a prospective histopathologic diagnosis of rejection and recurrent hepatitis C (HCV) was determined in 48 HCV RNA-positive liver allograft recipients enrolled in an “immunosuppression minimization protocol” between July 29, 2001 and January 24, 2003. Prospective entry of all pertinent treatment, laboratory, and histopathology results into an electronic database enabled a retrospective analysis of the accuracy of histopathologic diagnoses and the pathophysiologic relationship between recurrent HCV and rejection. Results Time to first onset of acute rejection (AR) (mean, 107 days; median, 83 days; range, 7–329 days) overlapped with the time to first onset of recurrent HCV (mean, 115 days; median, 123 days; range, 22–315 days), making distinction between the two difficult. AR and chronic rejection (CR) with and without co-existent HCV showed overlapping but significantly different liver injury test profiles. One major and two minor errors occurred (positive predictive values for AR = 91%; recurrent HCV = 100%); all involved an overdiagnosis of AR in the context of recurrent HCV. Retrospective analysis of the mistakes showed that major errors can be avoided altogether and the impact of unavoidable minor errors can be minimized by strict adherence to specific histopathologic criteria, close clinicopathologic correlation including examination of HCV RNA levels, and a conservative approach to the use of additional immunosuppression. In addition, histopathologic diagnoses of moderate and severe AR and CR were associated with relatively low HCV RNA levels, whereas relatively high HCV RNA levels were associated with a histopathologic diagnosis of hepatitis alone, particularly the cholestatic variant of HCV. Conclusions Liver allograft biopsy interpretation can rapidly and accurately distinguish between recurrent HCV and AR/CR. In addition, the histopathologic observations suggest that the immune mechanism responsible for HCV

  8. A Case of Intraparenchymal Pseudoaneurysms in Kidney Allograft.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Liam Antony; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; Davies, Malcom

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Percutaneous needle biopsy is routinely performed for renal allograft management. Vascular complications of the procedure include pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistulae formation. Delayed diagnosis of these complications is due to their mostly asymptomatic and indolent nature. CASE REPORT We present a case of extensive intraparenchymal pseudoaneurysm formation within the inferior pole of the allograft, diagnosed two years following the most recent biopsy procedure. CONCLUSIONS Renal pseudoaneurysms may only be diagnosed years after their formation as they are typically asymptomatic. PMID:27510594

  9. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  10. Improvement of Survival Rate for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Transarterial Chemoembolization in Combination with Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Houqiao; Gao, Peng; Gao, Hao; Sun, Guangxi; Dong, Chonghai; Han, Jian; Jiang, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) has been used alone or in combination with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The overall survival rate of HCC patients undergoing both treatments, however, has not been systematically studied. The aim of this meta-analysis-based study was to evaluate the overall efficacy of the combined therapy or monotherapy, thereby providing information for clinical treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for eligible studies, and a total of 17 case-control studies (including HCC patients treated by TACE plus 3DCRT or TACE alone) were included to perform the meta-analysis. Based on the available data, we assessed the improvements of 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rate for the combination therapy of TACE and 3DCRT or TACE alone. Furthermore, the analysis was also stratified by the tumor response: complete response (CR), partial response (PR), no response (NR) and progressive disease (PD). Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12 (Stata Statistical Software: Release 12). RESULTS The results show that HCC patients receiving combination therapy have significantly increased overall survival rate when compared to those receiving TACE alone (1-year survival rate: OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.54-2.47, p=7.3×10^-8; 2-year survival rate: OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.49-2.34, p=1.6×10^-7; 3-year survival rate: OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.52-2.64, p=1.8×10^-6). CONCLUSIONS Assessment of tumor response demonstrates that the combination therapy can efficiently increase the tumor response rate (CR+PR: OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.70-3.08, p=1.1×10^-7), with a lower rate of subsequent tumor development (PD: OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.40, p=5.5×10^-8). PMID:27228411

  11. Musculoskeletal allograft risks and recalls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mroz, Thomas E; Joyce, Michael J; Steinmetz, Michael P; Lieberman, Isador H; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2008-10-01

    There have been several improvements to the US tissue banking industry over the past decade. Tissue banks had limited active government regulation until 1993, at which time the US Food and Drug Administration began regulatory oversight because of reports of disease transmission from allograft tissues. Reports in recent years of disease transmission associated with the use of allografts have further raised concerns about the safety of such implants. A retrospective review of allograft recall data was performed to analyze allograft recall by tissue type, reason, and year during the period from January 1994 to June 30, 2007. During the study period, more than 96.5% of all allograft tissues recalled were musculoskeletal. The reasons underlying recent musculoskeletal tissue recalls include insufficient or improper donor evaluation, contamination, recipient infection, and positive serologic tests. Infectious disease transmission following allograft implantation may occur if potential donors are not adequately evaluated or screened serologically during the prerecovery phase and if the implant is not sterilized before implantation. PMID:18832599

  12. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R.

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  13. Rapid prediction of trauma patient survival by analysis of heart rate complexity: impact of reducing data set size.

    PubMed

    Batchinsky, Andriy I; Salinas, Jose; Kuusela, Tom; Necsoiu, Corina; Jones, John; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2009-12-01

    Heart rate complexity (HRC) is an emerging "new vital sign" for critically ill and injured patients. Traditionally, 800-beat data sets have been used to calculate HRC variables, thus limiting their practical use in an emergency. We sought to investigate whether data set reductions diminish the use of HRC to predict mortality in prehospital trauma patients. Ectopy-free, 800-beat sections of electrocardiogram (EKG) were collected from 31 prehospital trauma patients during their helicopter transport to a level 1 trauma center. Twenty patients survived (survivors) and 11 died (nonsurvivors) after admission. HRC was assessed via approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), and similarity of distributions (SOD). The amplitude of high-frequency oscillations was measured via the method of complex demodulation. This analysis was repeated in data sets of 800, 600, 400, 200, and 100 beats. For 800 beats, ApEn and SampEn were lower in nonsurvivors than in survivors, and SOD was higher. With data set reduction, ApEn in survivors and nonsurvivors gradually approached each other but remained different until the 200-beat dataset. Sample entropy did not change with data shortening and remained lower in nonsurvivors in all data sets. Similarity of distributions was nearly constant within groups for all data sets and discriminated survivors from nonsurvivors in 800- and 100-beat data sets. High-frequency amplitude distinguished survivors from nonsurvivors in 400-, 200-, and 100-beat data sets. Logistic regression was performed for the 800-, 200-, and 100-beat data sets, retaining SampEn as a predictor of mortality (area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves, 0.821-0.895). HRC decreased in nonsurvivors versus survivors. This finding was confirmed for data sets as short as 100 beats by computationally different metrics. SampEn, SOD, and complex demodulation were relatively unaffected by data set reduction. These metrics may be useful for rapid identification of

  14. Implant survival rates, marginal bone level changes, and complications in full-mouth rehabilitation with flapless computer-guided surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Velloso, G; Luz, D; Barboza, E Porto

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review evaluated the implant survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and complications associated with guided surgery for the treatment of fully edentulous patients followed up for longer than 1 year. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to retrieve studies published up until July 2014 that met predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen studies were included. In studies on the guided surgery technique, a survival rate of 97.2% and a mean marginal bone loss of 1.45 mm were found during 1-4 years of follow-up. However, associated complications, such as implant loss, prosthesis or surgical guide fractures, and low primary stability, were often found, and there is a learning curve to achieve treatment success. Further longitudinal comparative studies should improve the technique and its success rate. PMID:25790741

  15. Prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction based on gender in Isfahan, Iran (2000-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Salehiniya, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Khazaei, Salman; Soltani, Shahin; Sarrafkia, Ali; Golshahi, Jafar; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinant prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on gender in teen year’s period in Isfahan, Iran, was the aim of this study. METHODS This study is a prospective hospital-based study that consisted, all patients with AMI admitted to all hospitals (private and universal hospitals) in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) during 2000-2009. To determinant the prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients based on gender, analysis conducted separately for male and female. In analysis, we use of t-test, log Rank tests, Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS Short-term (28 days) survival rate was 92.5% in male and 86.7% in female (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death for age group 80 years and older was 12.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.14-31.3] in male and 8.78 (95% CI: 1.2-63.1) in female. HR for acute transmural MI of the unspecified site in male was 8.9 (95% CI: 4.68-16.97) and in female 9.33 (95% CI: 4.42-19.7). HR for receive of streptokinase in male was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.31) and in female was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION Short-term survival rate in male was a higher than female. In male age, anatomic location of MI and hospital status and in female streptokinase use and anatomic location of MI was the most important prognostic factors of survival in-patient with AMI in Isfahan. PMID:26862341

  16. ANCA-Positive Patients: The Influence of PR3 and MPO Antibodies on Survival Rate and The Association with Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Drooger, J.C; Dees, A; Swaak, A.J.G

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the survival rate, and the clinical and laboratory characteristics in patients, characterized by the presence of certain anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic auto-antibodies (ANCAs). Methods: In a retrospective observational study, we analyzed the data of all patients with a positive ANCA test between 1995 and 2005 at our hospital. Based on serology patients were divided in three subgroups (ANCA-Proteinase 3 (PR3), ANCA-Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and atypical ANCA), irrespective of the diagnosis. Patient survival was compared by Kaplan Meier survival analysis. Differences in clinical and laboratory characteristics between the groups of specific ANCAs were determined. Results: Fifty-four ANCA-positive patients were analyzed. Eighteen of these patients were ANCA-PR3-positive, 17 were ANCA-MPO-positive and 19 had a atypical ANCA. A random control group was created of matched ANCA negative patients. Average follow-up time was 52 months. The calculated five year survival rate in respectively the ANCA-PR3- positive group, the ANCA-MPO-positive group, the atypical ANCA group and the ANCA-negative group was 45%, 81%, 90% and 100%. (P = 0.012, Wilcoxon test). A higher mean leukocyte count, a higher mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate and more fever was observed in the ANCA-PR3-positive group compared to the ANCA-MPO-positive group. Conclusions: A remarkable lower survival rate was observed in ANCA-PR3-positive patients compared to ANCA-MPO-positive patients. We also demonstrated that patients characterized by the presence of a defined ANCA differ in clinical and laboratory characteristics. PMID:19461938

  17. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  18. Meta-analysis of Failure and Survival Rate of Implant-supported Single Crowns, Fixed Partial Denture, and Implant Tooth-supported Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Muddugangadhar, B C; Amarnath, G S; Sonika, Radhika; Chheda, Pratik S; Garg, Ashu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental implants have become the most viable option for rehabilitation. Although, many studies report the success of these reconstructions using implants, a cumulative data about the various studies and the failure rate still remain unaddressed. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to analyze these data and to derive the cumulative survival rate of different implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Manual searches followed by a MEDLINE search were conducted to select prospective and retrospective cohort studies on single crowns (SCs), fixed partial denture (FPD), and tooth implant connected prostheses with a mean follow-up time of minimum of 5 years. Random-effects Poisson’s regression models have been used to obtain summary estimates for implant failure and survival rates. Results: Data were extracted from the final selected 63 studies. In a meta-analysis of these studies, the survival rate of SCs supported by implants (95% CI) was 96.363%, for FPDs was 94.525% and implant tooth-supported prostheses was 91.27% after 5 years of function. The cumulative failure rate per 100 FPD years of the SCs, FPDs, and implant tooth-supported prostheses were 0.684, 0.881, and 1.514, respectively. Conclusion: The study concludes high survival rates for implant-supported SCs followed by implant-supported FPDs can be expected over an observation period of 5 years. However, tooth implant-supported prostheses can be provided if there are certain limitations prohibiting the completely implant-supported prostheses. PMID:26435609

  19. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    PubMed