Science.gov

Sample records for allowed outage time

  1. Evaluation of allowed outage times (AOTs) from a risk and reliability standpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Vesely, W.E. )

    1989-08-01

    This report describes the basic risks which are associated with allowed outage times (AOTs), defines strategies for selecting the risks to be quantified, and describes how the risks can be quantified. The report furthermore describes criteria considerations in determining the acceptability of calculated AOT risks, and discusses the merits of relative risk criteria versus absolute risk criteria. The detailed evaluations which are involved in calculating AOT risks, including uncertainty considerations are also discussed. The report also describes the proper ways that risks from multiple AOTs should be considered so that risks are properly accumulated from proposed multiple AOT changes, but are not double-counted. Generally, average AOT risks which include the frequency of occurrence of the AOT need to be accumulated but single downtime risks don't since they apply to individual AOTs. 8 refs., 22 tabs.

  2. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-12-31

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  3. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T. ); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. )

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested.

  4. Minimize substation outage time by maximizing in-service testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lautenschlager, M. )

    1994-05-01

    Most substation maintenance work is based on fixed schedules rather than on known need. Scheduled maintenance is essential and cannot be eliminated entirely, but priority should be given to equipment known to be deteriorated or defective. It makes no sense to perform costly, scheduled outage maintenance work when other equipment is failing because of undetected defects. The following should be included as major elements in an energized testing program: visual inspections; infrared inspection; corona inspection; percent oxygen in gas samples drawn from nitrogen-blanketed transformers; percent total combustible gas in gas samples drawn from nitrogen-blanketed transformers; dissolved gas analysis; oil quality tests; free water in the sample; dissolved water in oil; dissolved metals-in-oil analysis; furfural concentration analysis; SF[sub 6] analysis; battery testing; the substation grounding grid; and protective relays. 4 figs.

  5. GUIDELINES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF AN ADVANCED OUTAGE CONTROL CENTER TO IMPROVE OUTAGE COORDINATION, PROBLEM RESOLUTION, AND OUTAGE RISK MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn St; Farris, Ronald; Whaley, April M; Medema, Heather; Gertman, David

    2014-09-01

    This research effort is a part of the Light-Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by Department of Energy (DOE) and performed in close collaboration with industry R&D programs that provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS program serves to help the U.S. nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Managing NPP outages is a complex and difficult task due to the large number of maintenance and repair activities that are accomplished in a short period of time. During an outage, the outage control center (OCC) is the temporary command center for outage managers and provides several critical functions for the successful execution of the outage schedule. Essentially, the OCC functions to facilitate information inflow, assist outage management in processing information, and to facilitate the dissemination of information to stakeholders. Currently, outage management activities primarily rely on telephone communication, face to face reports of status, and periodic briefings in the OCC. It is a difficult task to maintain current the information related to outage progress and discovered conditions. Several advanced communication and collaboration technologies have shown promise for facilitating the information flow into, across, and out of the OCC. The use of these technologies will allow information to be shared electronically, providing greater amounts of real-time information to the decision makers and allowing OCC coordinators to meet with supporting staff remotely. Passively monitoring status electronically through advances in the areas of mobile worker technologies, computer-based procedures, and automated work packages will reduce the current reliance on manually

  6. Automatic scheduling of outages of nuclear power plants with time windows. Final report, January-December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, C.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a successful project for transference of advanced AI technology into the domain of planning of outages of nuclear power plants as part of DOD`s dual-use program. ROMAN (Rome Lab Outage Manager) is the prototype system that was developed as a result of this project. ROMAN`s main innovation compared to the current state-of-the-art of outage management tools is its capability to automatically enforce safety constraints during the planning and scheduling phase. Another innovative aspect of ROMAN is the generation of more robust schedules that are feasible over time windows. In other words, ROMAN generates a family of schedules by assigning time intervals as start times to activities rather than single start times, without affecting the overall duration of the project. ROMAN uses a constraint satisfaction paradigm combining a global search tactic with constraint propagation. The derivation of very specialized representations for the constraints to perform efficient propagation is a key aspect for the generation of very fast schedules - constraints are compiled into the code, which is a novel aspect of our work using an automatic programming system, KIDS.

  7. Refinery Outages

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Semiannual reporting on refinery outages and their potential implications for available refinery capacity, petroleum product markets, and supply of gasoline, diesel fuel, and heating oil. Dissemination of such analyses can be beneficial to market participants who may otherwise be unable to access such information.

  8. Power Outages

    MedlinePlus

    ... car’s gas tank full-gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps.If you use your car to ... or garage, or connect it to your home's electrical system. For more information about generators visit: After a Power Outage Throw away any food that has been ...

  9. Technology Integration Initiative In Support of Outage Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Often, command and control during outages is maintained in the outage control center where many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. This research reports on the use of advanced integrating software technologies and hand held mobile devices as a means by which to reduce cycle time, improve accuracy, and enhance transparency among outage team members. This paper reports on the first phase of research supported by the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program that is performed in close collaboration with industry to examine the introduction of newly available technology allowing for safe and efficient outage performance. It is thought that this research will result in: improved resource management among various plant stakeholder groups, reduced paper work, and enhanced overall situation awareness for the outage control center management team. A description of field data collection methods, including personnel interview data, success factors, end-user evaluation and integration of hand held devices in achieving an integrated design are also evaluated. Finally, the necessity of obtaining operations cooperation support in field studies and technology evaluation is acknowledged.

  10. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 264... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 264.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within 90 days after...

  11. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure; time allowed for closure. 265... (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.113 Closure; time allowed for closure. (a) Within...

  12. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Julie Knibloe

    2015-06-01

    Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant

  13. Assessment Data at Your Fingertips: Advances Allow for Timely Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    The ever-increasing standards of No Child Left Behind regulations and various state assessments have put more pressure on teachers and administrators to monitor the learning process. Fortunately, the advent of technology is allowing teachers to test more often to prepare students for high-stakes tests and for districts to understand results for…

  14. Detecting Power Outages with the VIIRS DNB Images - potentials and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Shao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Power outages after a major storm or hurricane affect millions of people. The launch of the Suomi NPP with the VIIRS significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect power outages on a daily basis with the Day Night Band (DNB) which outperforms the traditional OSL on DMSP satellites in both spatial and radiometric resolutions. This study explores the use of the DNB for detecting power outages in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012, which was the largest non-hurricane power outage in history for the region with millions of people lost power, and state of emergency declared in some states such as Virginia. The DNB data were analyzed for the period one week before and after the storm. The light loss is estimated through image differencing techniques for spatial patterns, as well as total radiance and irradiance changes as a time series. The effects of cloud absorption and scattering are evaluated using the cloud masks from VIIRS products, and the long wave thermal infrared images are also used to assist the assessment. The results show that the DNB data are very useful for both spatial and radiometric detection of light loss, but also with some challenges due to clouds and the known terminator straylight effect of the instrument for the region during summer solstice. It is expected that further refinements in the methodology will significantly reduce the uncertainties. A VIIRS Data Robotics system is also being developed which will allow the routine detection of power outages for any given location worldwide.

  15. Development of Improved Graphical Displays for an Advanced Outage Control Center, Employing Human Factors Principles for Outage Schedule Management

    SciTech Connect

    St Germain, Shawn Walter; Farris, Ronald Keith; Thomas, Kenneth David

    2015-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are somewhat challenging to coordinate; therefore, finding ways to improve refueling outage performance, while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center (AOCC) project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the LWRS Program. LWRS is an R&D program that works closely with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current fleet of NPPs. As such, the LWRS Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, INL is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. The overall focus is on developing an AOCC with the following capabilities that enables plant and OCC staff to; Collaborate in real-time to address emergent issues; Effectively communicate outage status to all workers involved in the outage; Effectively communicate discovered conditions in the field to the OCC; Provide real-time work status; Provide automatic pending support notifications

  16. How individual traces and interactive timelines could support outage execution - Toward an outage historian concept

    SciTech Connect

    Parfouru, S.; De-Beler, N.

    2012-07-01

    In the context of a project that is designing innovative ICT-based solutions for the organizational concept of outage management, we focus on the informational process of the OCR (Outage Control Room) underlying the execution of the outages. Informational process are based on structured and unstructured documents that have a key role in the collaborative processes and management of the outage. We especially track the structured and unstructured documents, electronically or not, from creation to sharing. Our analysis allows us to consider that the individual traces produced by an individual participant with a specific role could be multi-purpose and support sharing between participants without creating duplication of work. The ultimate goal is to be able to generate an outage historian, that is not just focused on highly structured information, which could be useful to improve the continuity of information between participants. We study the implementation of this approach through web technologies and social media tools to address this issue. We also investigate the issue of data access through interactive visualization timelines coupled with other modality's to assist users in the navigation and exploration of the proposed historian. (authors)

  17. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  18. 40 CFR 97.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a) The NOX allowance...

  19. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 96.41 - Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for NOX allowance... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.41 Timing requirements for NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  1. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. ); Roberts, K.H. . Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  2. Outage management: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T.; Roberts, K.H.

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  3. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  4. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  5. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  6. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  7. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  8. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 97.341 Section 97.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) The Administrator will determine by order the CAIR NOX...

  9. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Season allowance allocations. 96.341 Section 96.341 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting...

  10. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  11. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  12. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  13. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  14. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  15. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  16. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  17. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  18. 40 CFR 97.411 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual... TR NOX Annual Trading Program § 97.411 Timing requirements for TR NOX Annual allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Annual allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  19. 40 CFR 97.511 - Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone... TRADING PROGRAMS TR NOX Ozone Season Trading Program § 97.511 Timing requirements for TR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR NOX Ozone Season allowances are allocated, for the...

  20. 40 CFR 97.711 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2... TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.711 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 2 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  1. 40 CFR 97.611 - Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1... TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.611 Timing requirements for TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations. (a) Existing units. (1) TR SO2 Group 1 allowances are allocated, for the control periods in 2012...

  2. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.141 Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)...

  4. Development and demonstration of techniques for reducing occupational radiation doses during refueling outages. Tasks 7A/7B. Advanced outage management and radiation exposure control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    Objectives of Tasks 7A and 7B were to develop and demonstrate computer based systems to assist plant management and staff in utilizing information more effectively to reduce occupational exposures received as a result of refueling outages, and to shorten the duration of the outage. The Advanced Outage Management (AOM) Tool (Task 7A) is an automated outage planning system specifically designed to meet the needs of nuclear plant outage management. The primary objective of the AOM tool is to provide a computerized system that can manipulate the information typically associated with outage planning and scheduling to furnish reports and schedules that more accurately project the future course of the outage. The Radiation Exposure Control (REC) Tool (Task 7B) is a computerized personnel radiation exposure accounting and management system designed to enable nuclear plant management to project and monitor total personnel radiation exposure on a real-time basis. The two systems were designed to operate on the same computer system and interface through a common database that enables information sharing between plant organizations not typically interfaced. This interfacing provides outage planners with a means of incorporating occupational radiation exposure as a factor for making decisions on the course of an outage.

  5. 30 CFR 203.66 - What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Expansion Projects § 203.66 What happens if MMS does not act in the time allowed? If we do not act within.... (b) An expansion project You get a royalty suspension for the first year of production Abide...

  6. Minimizing forced outage risk in generator bidding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Dibyendu

    Competition in power markets has exposed the participating companies to physical and financial uncertainties. Generator companies bid to supply power in a day-ahead market. Once their bids are accepted by the ISO they are bound to supply power. A random outage after acceptance of bids forces a generator to buy power from the expensive real-time hourly spot market and sell to the ISO at the set day-ahead market clearing price, incurring losses. A risk management technique is developed to assess this financial risk associated with forced outages of generators and then minimize it. This work presents a risk assessment module which measures the financial risk of generators bidding in an open market for different bidding scenarios. The day-ahead power market auction is modeled using a Unit Commitment algorithm and a combination of Normal and Cauchy distributions generate the real time hourly spot market. Risk profiles are derived and VaRs are calculated at 98 percent confidence level as a measure of financial risk. Risk Profiles and VaRs help the generators to analyze the forced outage risk and different factors affecting it. The VaRs and the estimated total earning for different bidding scenarios are used to develop a risk minimization module. This module will develop a bidding strategy of the generator company such that its estimated total earning is maximized keeping the VaR below a tolerable limit. This general framework of a risk management technique for the generating companies bidding in competitive day-ahead market can also help them in decisions related to building new generators.

  7. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  8. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.141 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  9. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  10. 40 CFR 97.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 97.341 Timing requirements for CAIR...

  11. Development of Methodologies for Technology Deployment for Advanced Outage Control Centers that Improve Outage Coordination, Problem Resolution and Outage Risk Management

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Ronald Farris; Heather Medeman

    2013-09-01

    schedule depends upon the performance of the outage management organization. During an outage, the outage control center (OCC) is the temporary command center for outage managers and provides several critical functions for the successful execution of the outage schedule. Essentially, the OCC functions to facilitate information inflow, assist outage management in processing information and to facilitate the dissemination of information to stakeholders. Currently, outage management activities primarily rely on telephone communication, face to face reports of status and periodic briefings in the OCC. Much of the information displayed in OCCs is static and out of date requiring an evaluation to determine if it is still valid. Several advanced communication and collaboration technologies have shown promise for facilitating the information flow into, across and out of the OCC. Additionally, advances in the areas of mobile worker technologies, computer based procedures and electronic work packages can be leveraged to improve the availability of real time status to outage managers.

  12. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  13. 40 CFR 96.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... allowance allocations. (a) By October 31, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to the Administrator... § 96.142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... accordance with § 60.4142(a) and (b), for the control periods in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b)(1) By October 31, 2008 and October 31 of each year thereafter, the permitting authority will submit to...

  16. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  17. 40 CFR 96.341 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX Ozone... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Allocations § 96.341...

  18. Rules Allowing Extended Time on Graduation: Advocates Debate Effects of Change in Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Federal regulations have opened a door that allows schools to get credit under the No Child Left Behind Act for students who take longer than four years to earn a high school diploma. That option worries some education advocates, who fear it could relieve valuable pressure on high schools to graduate students on time. Under the law's…

  19. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  20. Use of VIIRS DNB Data to Monitor Power Outages and Restoration for Significant Weather Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Molthan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    NASA fs Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project operates from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The team provides unique satellite data to the National Weather Service (NWS) and other agencies and organizations for weather analysis. While much of its work is focused on improving short-term weather forecasting, the SPoRT team supported damage assessment and response to Hurricane Superstorm Sandy by providing imagery that highlighted regions without power. The team used data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite. The VIIRS low-light sensor, known as the day-night-band (DNB), can detect nighttime light from wildfires, urban and rural communities, and other human activity which emits light. It can also detect moonlight reflected from clouds and surface features. Using real time VIIRS data collected by our collaborative partner at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin, the SPoRT team created composite imagery to help detect power outages and restoration. This blackout imagery allowed emergency response teams from a variety of agencies to better plan and marshal resources for recovery efforts. The blackout product identified large-scale outages, offering a comprehensive perspective beyond a patchwork GIS mapping of outages that utility companies provide based on customer complaints. To support the relief efforts, the team provided its imagery to the USGS data portal, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other agencies used in their relief efforts. The team fs product helped FEMA, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Army monitor regions without power as part of their disaster response activities. Disaster responders used the images to identify possible outages and effectively distribute relief resources. An enhanced product is being developed and integrated into a web

  1. Spot Variation Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Allows for Superresolution Chronoscopy of Confinement Times in Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ruprecht, Verena; Wieser, Stefan; Marguet, Didier; Schütz, Gerhard J.

    2011-01-01

    Resolving the dynamical interplay of proteins and lipids in the live-cell plasma membrane represents a central goal in current cell biology. Superresolution concepts have introduced a means of capturing spatial heterogeneity at a nanoscopic length scale. Similar concepts for detecting dynamical transitions (superresolution chronoscopy) are still lacking. Here, we show that recently introduced spot-variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy allows for sensing transient confinement times of membrane constituents at dramatically improved resolution. Using standard diffraction-limited optics, spot-variation fluorescence correlation spectroscopy captures signatures of single retardation events far below the transit time of the tracer through the focal spot. We provide an analytical description of special cases of transient binding of a tracer to pointlike traps, or association of a tracer with nanodomains. The influence of trap mobility and the underlying binding kinetics are quantified. Experimental approaches are suggested that allow for gaining quantitative mechanistic insights into the interaction processes of membrane constituents. PMID:21641330

  2. Seasonal and Local Characteristics of Lightning Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko

    The proportion of the lightning outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then lightning protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the lightning performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the lightning outages occur. Winter lightning occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the lightning outages. In summer 70 percent of the lightning outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of lightning-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the lightning outages per lightning strokes detected by the lightning location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of lightning outages from lightning stroke density, 50% value of lightning current and installation rate of lightning protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the lightning outages.

  3. Use of collaboration software to improve nuclear power plant outage management

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) refueling outages create some of the most challenging activities the utilities face in both tracking and coordinating thousands of activities in a short period of time. Other challenges, including nuclear safety concerns arising from atypical system configurations and resource allocation issues, can create delays and schedule overruns, driving up outage costs. Today the majority of the outage communication is done using processes that do not take advantage of advances in modern technologies that enable enhanced communication, collaboration and information sharing. Some of the common practices include: runners that deliver paper-based requests for approval, radios, telephones, desktop computers, daily schedule printouts, and static whiteboards that are used to display information. Many gains have been made to reduce the challenges facing outage coordinators; however; new opportunities can be realized by utilizing modern technological advancements in communication and information tools that can enhance the collective situational awareness of plant personnel leading to improved decision-making. Ongoing research as part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS) has been targeting NPP outage improvement. As part of this research, various applications of collaborative software have been demonstrated through pilot project utility partnerships. Collaboration software can be utilized as part of the larger concept of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Collaborative software can be used for emergent issue resolution, Outage Control Center (OCC) displays, and schedule monitoring. Use of collaboration software enables outage staff and subject matter experts (SMEs) to view and update critical outage information from any location on site or off.

  4. Managing turbine-generator outages by computer

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, E.R.

    1997-09-01

    This article describes software being developed to address the need for computerized planning and documentation programs that can help manage outages. Downsized power-utility companies and the growing demand for independent, competitive engineering and maintenance services have created a need for a computer-assisted planning and technical-direction program for turbine-generator outages. To meet this need, a software tool is now under development that can run on a desktop or laptop personal computer to assist utility personnel and technical directors in outage planning. Total Outage Planning Software (TOPS), which runs on Windows, takes advantage of the mass data storage available with compact-disc technology by archiving the complete outage documentation on CD. Previous outage records can then be indexed, searched, and viewed on a computer with the click of a mouse. Critical-path schedules, parts lists, parts order tracking, work instructions and procedures, custom data sheets, and progress reports can be generated by computer on-site during an outage.

  5. Allowing time to consolidate knowledge gained through random practice facilitates later novel motor sequence acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewon; Rhee, Joohyun; Wright, David L

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of random (RP) and blocked practice (BP) for enhancing later motor learning. Each experiment involved practicing three unique seven key serial reaction time (SRT) tasks in either a blocked or random format followed by practice of a novel SRT task either 2-min (Experiment 1) or 24-h (Experiment 2) later. While the expected benefit of RP for retention was present in both experiments, in Experiment 1 there was no advantage from prior RP for new learning. Experiment 2 explored the possibility that increasing the interval, from 2-min to 24-h, between BP or RP and practice of the novel motor task might allow consolidation of sequence knowledge acquired during BP or RP which in turn might facilitate new learning. As a result of the additional time between training bouts RP facilitated the rate at which the novel motor task was acquired. Interestingly, when this additional time was provided, both BP and RP supported (a) a performance saving for the first trial with the novel task, and (b) an offline improvement in performance across a 24-h interval not present when only the novel motor task was practiced. The latter benefits for new learning may have resulted from exposure to prior physical practice per se. or practice variability. These data are discussed with respect to (a) future learning benefits from prior experience training with greater CI, and (b) the importance of memory consolidation for motor learning. PMID:26686835

  6. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1,200 for small

  7. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status

    PubMed Central

    Santesteban, Luis G.; Palacios, Inés; Miranda, Carlos; Iriarte, Juan C.; Royo, José B.; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if terahertz (THz) time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years-old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head. Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity. PMID:26082791

  8. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy allows contactless monitoring of grapevine water status.

    PubMed

    Santesteban, Luis G; Palacios, Inés; Miranda, Carlos; Iriarte, Juan C; Royo, José B; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is the sector with the greatest water consumption, since food production is frequently based on crop irrigation. Proper irrigation management requires reliable information on plant water status, but all the plant-based methods to determine it suffer from several inconveniences, mainly caused by the necessity of destructive sampling or of alteration of the plant organ due to contact installation. The aim of this work is to test if terahertz (THz) time domain reflectance measurements made on the grapevine trunk allows contactless monitoring of plant status. The experiments were performed on a potted 14-years-old plant, using a general purpose THz emitter receiver head. Trunk THz time-domain reflection signal proved to be very sensitive to changes in plant water availability, as its pattern follows the trend of soil water content and trunk growth variations. Therefore, it could be used to contactless monitor plant water status. Apart from that, THz reflection signal was observed to respond to light conditions which, according to a specifically designed girdling experiment, was caused by changes in the phloem. This latter results opens a promising field of research for contactless monitoring of phloem activity. PMID:26082791

  9. Fluorescently labeled adrenomedullin allows real-time monitoring of adrenomedullin receptor trafficking in living cells.

    PubMed

    Schönauer, Ria; Kaiser, Anette; Holze, Cathleen; Babilon, Stefanie; Köbberling, Johannes; Riedl, Bernd; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2015-12-01

    The human adrenomedullin (ADM) is a 52 amino acid peptide hormone belonging to the calcitonin family of peptides, which plays a major role in the development and regulation of cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. For potential use in clinical applications, we aimed to investigate the fate of the peptide ligand after binding and activation of the adrenomedullin receptor (AM1), a heterodimer consisting of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a G protein-coupled receptor, associated with the receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). Full length and N-terminally shortened ADM peptides were synthesized using Fmoc/tBu solid phase peptide synthesis and site-specifically labeled with the fluorophore carboxytetramethylrhodamine (Tam) either by amide bond formation or copper(I)-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition. For the first time, Tam-labeled ligands allowed the observation of co-internalization of the whole ligand-receptor complex in living cells co-transfected with fluorescent fusion proteins of CLR and RAMP2. Application of a fluorescent probe to track lysosomal compartments revealed that ADM together with the CLR/RAMP2-complex is routed to the degradative pathway. Moreover, we found that the N-terminus of ADM is not a crucial component of the peptide sequence in terms of AM1 internalization behavior. PMID:26767744

  10. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  11. Status Report on the Development of Micro-Scheduling Software for the Advanced Outage Control Center Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn St. Germain; Kenneth Thomas; Ronald Farris; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-09-01

    The long-term viability of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States (U.S.) is dependent upon a number of factors, including maintaining high capacity factors, maintaining nuclear safety, and reducing operating costs, particularly those associated with refueling outages. Refueling outages typically take 20-30 days, and for existing light water NPPs in the U.S., the reactor cannot be in operation during the outage. Furthermore, given that many NPPs generate between $1-1.5 million/day in revenue when in operation, there is considerable interest in shortening the length of refueling outages. Yet, refueling outages are highly complex operations, involving multiple concurrent and dependent activities that are difficult to coordinate. Finding ways to improve refueling outage performance while maintaining nuclear safety has proven to be difficult. The Advanced Outage Control Center project is a research and development (R&D) demonstration activity under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a R&D program which works with industry R&D programs to establish technical foundations for the licensing and managing of long-term, safe, and economical operation of current NPPs. The Advanced Outage Control Center project has the goal of improving the management of commercial NPP refueling outages. To accomplish this goal, this INL R&D project is developing an advanced outage control center (OCC) that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report describes specific recent efforts to develop a capability called outage Micro-Scheduling. Micro-Scheduling is the ability to allocate and schedule outage support task resources on a sub-hour basis. Micro-Scheduling is the real-time fine-tuning of the outage schedule to react to the actual progress of the primary outage activities to ensure that support task resources are

  12. Outage management and health physics issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: India: a potential commercial opportunity, a U.S. Department of Commerce Report, by Joe Neuhoff and Justin Rathke; The changing climate for nuclear energy, by Skip Bowman, Nuclear Energy Insitute; Selecting protective clothing, by J. Mark Price, Southern California Edison; and Succssful refurbishment outage, by Sudesh K. Gambhir, Omaha Public Power District. Industry innovation articles in this issue are: Containment radiation monitoring spiking, by Michael W. Lantz and Robert Routolo, Arizona Public Service Company; Improved outage performance, by Michael Powell and Troy Wilfong, Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station; Stop repacking valves and achieve leak-free performance, by Kenneth Hart, PPL Susquehanna LLC; and Head assembly upgrade package, by Timothy Petit, Dominion Nuclear.

  13. Benchmark Report on Key Outage Attributes: An Analysis of Outage Improvement Opportunities and Priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Shawn St.; Farris, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Advanced Outage Control Center (AOCC), is a multi-year pilot project targeted at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage improvement. The purpose of this pilot project is to improve management of NPP outages through the development of an AOCC that is specifically designed to maximize the usefulness of communication and collaboration technologies for outage coordination and problem resolution activities. This report documents the results of a benchmarking effort to evaluate the transferability of technologies demonstrated at Idaho National Laboratory and the primary pilot project partner, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The initial assumption for this pilot project was that NPPs generally do not take advantage of advanced technology to support outage management activities. Several researchers involved in this pilot project have commercial NPP experience and believed that very little technology has been applied towards outage communication and collaboration. To verify that the technology options researched and demonstrated through this pilot project would in fact have broad application for the US commercial nuclear fleet, and to look for additional outage management best practices, LWRS program researchers visited several additional nuclear facilities.

  14. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries  A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate  A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate  A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate  An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate  A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate  A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into

  15. Entosis allows timely elimination of the luminal epithelial barrier for embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingju; Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-04-21

    During implantation, uterine luminal epithelial (LE) cells first interact with the blastocyst trophectoderm. Within 30 hr after the initiation of attachment, LE cells surrounding the blastocyst in the implantation chamber (crypt) disappear, allowing trophoblast cells to make direct physical contact with the underneath stroma for successful implantation. The mechanism for the extraction of LE cells was thought to be mediated by apoptosis. Here, we show that LE cells in direct contact with the blastocyst are endocytosed by trophoblast cells by adopting the nonapoptotic cell-in-cell invasion process (entosis) in the absence of caspase 3 activation. Our in vivo observations were reinforced by the results of co-culture experiments with primary uterine epithelial cells with trophoblast stem cells or blastocysts showing internalization of epithelial cells by trophoblasts. We have identified entosis as a mechanism to remove LE cells by trophoblast cells in implantation, conferring a role for entosis in an important physiological process. PMID:25865893

  16. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  17. 40 CFR 97.141 - Timing requirements for CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), for the control periods in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. (b) By July 31, 2011 and July 31 of... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing requirements for CAIR NOX... applicable deadline for determination under this paragraph. (c) By July 31, 2009 and July 31 of each...

  18. Simple and versatile modifications allowing time gated spectral acquisition, imaging and lifetime profiling on conventional wide-field microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Robert; Beeby, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    An inverted microscope has been adapted to allow time-gated imaging and spectroscopy to be carried out on samples containing responsive lanthanide probes. The adaptation employs readily available components, including a pulsed light source, time-gated camera, spectrometer and photon counting detector, allowing imaging, emission spectroscopy and lifetime measurements. Each component is controlled by a suite of software written in LabVIEW and is powered via conventional USB ports.

  19. Real-time quantum trajectories for classically allowed dynamics in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimak, L. I.; Ivanov, Misha Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Both the physical picture of the dynamics of atoms and molecules in intense infrared fields and its theoretical description use the concept of electron trajectories. Here, we address a key question which arises in this context: Are distinctly quantum features of these trajectories, such as the complex-valued coordinates, physically relevant in the classically allowed region of phase space, and what is their origin? First, we argue that solutions of classical equations of motion can account for quantum effects. To this end, we construct an exact solution to the classical Hamilton-Jacobi equation which accounts for dynamics of the wave packet, and show that this solution is physically correct in the limit ?. Second, we show that imaginary components of classical trajectories are directly linked to the finite size of the initial wave packet in momentum space. This way, if the electronic wave packet produced by optical tunnelling in strong infrared fields is localised both in coordinate and momentum, its motion after tunnelling ipso facto cannot be described with purely classical trajectories - in contrast to popular models in the literature.

  20. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  1. Time Gating of Chloroplast Autofluorescence Allows Clearer Fluorescence Imaging In Planta.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast, an organelle facilitating photosynthesis, exhibits strong autofluorescence, which is an undesired background signal that restricts imaging experiments with exogenous fluorophore in plants. In this study, the autofluorescence was characterized in planta under confocal laser microscopy, and it was found that the time-gated imaging technique completely eliminates the autofluorescence. As a demonstration of the technique, a clearer signal of fluorescent protein-tagged phototropin, a blue-light photoreceptor localized at the chloroplast periphery, was visualized in planta. PMID:27027881

  2. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Lesley A.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Gladstone, David J.; Jiang, Shudong; Hitchcock, Whitney; Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy.

  3. Differential reproductive timing in Echinocardium spp.: the first Mediterranean survey allows interoceanic and interspecific comparisons.

    PubMed

    Egea, Emilie; Mérigot, Bastien; Mahé-Bézac, Chantal; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Echinocardium cordatum had long been considered as cosmopolitan, but molecular data revealed it is a complex of cryptic species, with two non-hybridizing species (B1 & B2) in the Mediterranean Sea living in syntopy with Echinocardium mediterraneum. Histological analyses of the gonads from a 17-month sampling period revealed a statistically significant time lag between the Maturity Indices of E. cordatum and E. mediterraneum. The main environmental stimulus may be different for the two nominal species, possibly seawater temperature for E. cordatum and chlorophyll a concentration for E. mediterraneum. Within the E. cordatum complex, spawning timing and synchrony are different according to major geographic areas (Atlantic/Pacific/Mediterranean) and/or the corresponding genetic subdivision [A/P/(B1 & B2)]. In contrast, the effects of temperature on the reproductive cycle seem rather to mirror the genetic lineages than environmental similarities of the different localities. Between the sister species (B1 & B2) no differences could be detected, maybe due to small sample sizes. PMID:21262482

  4. Laser speckle imaging allows real-time intraoperative blood flow assessment during neurosurgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Nils; Woitzik, Johannes; König, Susanne; Horn, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there is no adequate technique for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF). To evaluate laser speckle imaging (LSI) for assessment of relative CBF, LSI was performed in 30 patients who underwent direct surgical revascularization for treatment of arteriosclerotic cerebrovascular disease (ACVD), Moyamoya disease (MMD), or giant aneurysms, and in 8 control patients who underwent intracranial surgery for reasons other than hemodynamic compromise. The applicability and sensitivity of LSI was investigated through baseline perfusion and CO2 reactivity testing. The dynamics of LSI were assessed during bypass test occlusion and flow initiation procedures. Laser speckle imaging permitted robust (pseudo-) quantitative assessment of relative microcirculatory flow and standard bypass grafting resulted in significantly higher postoperative baseline perfusion values in ACVD and MMD. The applicability and sensitivity of LSI was shown by a significantly reduced CO2 reactivity in ACVD (9.6±9%) and MMD (8.5±8%) compared with control (31.2±5% P<0.0001). In high- and intermediate-flow bypass patients, LSI was characterized by a dynamic real-time response to acute perfusion changes and ultimately confirmed a sufficient flow substitution through the bypass graft. Thus, LSI can be used for sensitive and continuous, non-invasive real-time visualization and measurement of relative cortical CBF in excellent spatial–temporal resolution. PMID:23512134

  5. Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mailey, Emily L.; Gothe, Neha P.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Fanning, Jason T.; Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The criteria one uses to reduce accelerometer data can profoundly influence the interpretation of research outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of three different interruption periods (i.e., 20, 30, and 60 minutes) on the amount of data retained for analyses and estimates of sedentary time among older adults. Older adults (N=311; Mage=71.1) wore an accelerometer for seven days and reported wear time on an accelerometer log. Accelerometer data were downloaded and scored using 20, 30, and 60-minute interruption periods. Estimates of wear time derived using each interruption period were compared to self-reported wear time, and descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates of sedentary time. Results showed a longer interruption period (i.e., 60 minutes) yields the largest sample size and the closest approximation of self-reported wear time. A short interruption period (i.e., 20 minutes) is likely to underestimate sedentary time among older adults. PMID:23752299

  6. Nuclear cost control focuses on refueling outages

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Extending operating cycles and shortening refueling outages are the mainstays of utility efforts to improve the economics of nuclear generation. Here are key management approaches that have contributed to recent successes. Improving operating efficiency remains the byword of nuclear power producers, as they intensify their drive to reduce operation and maintenance (O and M) costs and survive--even thrive--in a competitive environment. Because replacement-power and other costs can incur penalties of $0.5-million or more for each that a nuclear unit is inoperative--and almost $3-million/day, for one utility--refueling outages are an obvious focal point for such efforts, By the same token, the impact on the bottom line is greater and more dramatic here than for other cost-saving activities.

  7. Outage management and health physics issue, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2006-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles/reports in this issue include: A design with experience for the U.S., by Michael J. Wallace, Constellation Generation Group; Hope to be among the first, by Randy Hutchinson, Entergy Nuclear; Plans to file COLs in 2008, by Garry Miller, Progress Energy; Evolution of ICRP's recommendations, by Lars-Erik Holm, ICRP; European network on education and training in radiological protection, by Michele Coeck, SCK-CEN, Belgium; Outage managment: an important tool for improving nuclear power plant performance, by Thomas Mazour and Jiri Mandula, IAEA, Austria; and Plant profile: Exploring new paths to excellence, by Anne Thomas, Exelon Nuclear.

  8. Outage management and health physics issue, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-05-15

    The focus of the May-June issue is on outage management and health physics. Major articles include the following: Planning and scheduling to minimize refueling outage, by Pat McKenna, AmerenUE; Prioritizing safety, quality and schedule, by Tom Sharkey, Dominion; Benchmarking to high standards, by Margie Jepson, Energy Nuclear; Benchmarking against U.S. standards, by Magnox North, United Kingdom; Enabling suppliers for new build activity, by Marcus Harrington, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; Identifying, cultivating and qualifying suppliers, by Thomas E. Silva, AREVA NP; Creating new U.S. jobs, by Francois Martineau, Areva NP. Industry innovation articles include: MSL Acoustic source load reduction, by Amir Shahkarami, Exelon Nuclear; Dual Methodology NDE of CRDM nozzles, by Michael Stark, Dominion Nuclear; and Electronic circuit board testing, by James Amundsen, FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company. The plant profile article is titled The future is now, by Julia Milstead, Progress Energy Service Company, LLC.

  9. Advanced Outage and Control Center: Strategies for Nuclear Plant Outage Work Status Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Weatherby

    2012-05-01

    The research effort is a part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. LWRS is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, performed in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. The Outage Control Center (OCC) Pilot Project was directed at carrying out the applied research for development and pilot of technology designed to enhance safe outage and maintenance operations, improve human performance and reliability, increase overall operational efficiency, and improve plant status control. Plant outage management is a high priority concern for the nuclear industry from cost and safety perspectives. Unfortunately, many of the underlying technologies supporting outage control are the same as those used in the 1980’s. They depend heavily upon large teams of staff, multiple work and coordination locations, and manual administrative actions that require large amounts of paper. Previous work in human reliability analysis suggests that many repetitive tasks, including paper work tasks, may have a failure rate of 1.0E-3 or higher (Gertman, 1996). With between 10,000 and 45,000 subtasks being performed during an outage (Gomes, 1996), the opportunity for human error of some consequence is a realistic concern. Although a number of factors exist that can make these errors recoverable, reducing and effectively coordinating the sheer number of tasks to be performed, particularly those that are error prone, has the potential to enhance outage efficiency and safety. Additionally, outage management requires precise coordination of work groups that do not always share similar objectives. Outage

  10. The optical communication link outage probability in satellite formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnon, Shlomi; Gill, Eberhard

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, several space systems consisting of multiple satellites flying in close formation have been proposed for various purposes such as interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurement (TerraSAR-X and the TanDEM-X), detecting extra-solar earth-like planets (Terrestrial Planet Finder-TPF and Darwin), and demonstrating distributed space systems (DARPA F6 project). Another important purpose, which is the concern of this paper, is for improving radio frequency communication to mobile terrestrial and maritime subscribers. In this case, radio frequency signals from several satellites coherently combine such that the received/transmit signal strength is increased proportionally with the number of satellites in the formation. This increase in signal strength allows to enhance the communication data rate and/or to reduce energy consumption and the antenna size of terrestrial mobile users' equipment. However, a coherent combination of signals without aligning the phases of the individual communication signals interrupts the communication and outage link between the satellites and the user. The accuracy of the phase estimation is a function of the inter-satellite laser ranging system performance. This paper derives an outage probability model of a coherent combination communication system as a function of the pointing vibration and jitter statistics of an inter-satellite laser ranging system tool. The coherent combination probability model, which could be used to improve the communication to mobile subscribers in air, sea and ground is the main importance of this work.

  11. OTRA-THS MAC to reduce Power Outage Data Collection Latency in a smart meter network

    SciTech Connect

    Garlapati, Shravan K; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Buehrer, Richard M; Reed, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of advanced metering infrastructure by the electric utilities poses unique communication challenges, particularly as the number of meters per aggregator increases. During a power outage, a smart meter tries to report it instantaneously to the electric utility. In a densely populated residential/industrial locality, it is possible that a large number of smart meters simultaneously try to get access to the communication network to report the power outage. If the number of smart meters is very high of the order of tens of thousands (metropolitan areas), the power outage data flooding can lead to Random Access CHannel (RACH) congestion. Several utilities are considering the use of cellular network for smart meter communications. In 3G/4G cellular networks, RACH congestion not only leads to collisions, retransmissions and increased RACH delays, but also has the potential to disrupt the dedicated traffic flow by increasing the interference levels (3G CDMA). In order to overcome this problem, in this paper we propose a Time Hierarchical Scheme (THS) that reduces the intensity of power outage data flooding and power outage reporting delay by 6/7th, and 17/18th when compared to their respective values without THS. Also, we propose an Optimum Transmission Rate Adaptive (OTRA) MAC to optimize the latency in power outage data collection. The analysis and simulation results presented in this paper show that both the OTRA and THS features of the proposed MAC results in a Power Outage Data Collection Latency (PODCL) that is 1/10th of the 4G LTE PODCL.

  12. Design Concepts for an Outage Control Center Information Dashboard

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques Victor; St Germain, Shawn Walter; Thompson, Cheradan Jo; Whitesides, McKenzie Jo; Farris, Ronald Keith

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear industry, and the business world in general, is facing a rapidly increasing amount of data to be dealt with on a daily basis. In the last two decades, the steady improvement of data storage devices and means to create and collect data along the way influenced the manner in which we deal with information. Most data is still stored without filtering and refinement for later use. Many functions at a nuclear power plant generate vast amounts of data, with scheduled and unscheduled outages being a prime example of a source of some of the most complex data sets at the plant. To make matters worse, modern information and communications technology is making it possible to collect and store data faster than our ability to use it for making decisions. However, in most applications, especially outages, raw data has no value in itself; instead, managers, engineers and other specialists want to extract the information contained in it. The complexity and sheer volume of data could lead to information overload, resulting in getting lost in data that may be irrelevant to the task at hand, processed in an inappropriate way, or presented in an ineffective way. To prevent information overload, many data sources are ignored so production opportunities are lost because utilities lack the ability to deal with the enormous data volumes properly. Decision-makers are often confronted with large amounts of disparate, conflicting and dynamic information, which are available from multiple heterogeneous sources. Information and communication technologies alone will not solve this problem. Utilities need effective methods to exploit and use the hidden opportunities and knowledge residing in unexplored data resources. Superior performance before, during and after outages depends upon the right information being available at the right time to the right people. Acquisition of raw data is the easy part; instead, it is the ability to use advanced analytical, data processing and data

  13. Effects of Academic Ability, Time Allowed for Study, and Teacher Directedness on Achievement in a High School Science Course (ISIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkman, Ernest; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The simultaneous effects of two instructional variables of degree of teacher direction (student- versus teacher-directed) and time allowed for study and the student variable of general ability are described for student achievement (N=912) in three life-science instructional modules. (Author)

  14. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  15. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  16. Distributed Power-Line Outage Detection Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Song, Wen-Zhan

    2014-01-01

    In modern power grids, the fast and reliable detection of power-line outages is an important functionality, which prevents cascading failures and facilitates an accurate state estimation to monitor the real-time conditions of the grids. However, most of the existing approaches for outage detection suffer from two drawbacks, namely: (i) high computational complexity; and (ii) relying on a centralized means of implementation. The high computational complexity limits the practical usage of outage detection only for the case of single-line or double-line outages. Meanwhile, the centralized means of implementation raises security and privacy issues. Considering these drawbacks, the present paper proposes a distributed framework, which carries out in-network information processing and only shares estimates on boundaries with the neighboring control areas. This novel framework relies on a convex-relaxed formulation of the line outage detection problem and leverages the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) for its distributed solution. The proposed framework invokes a low computational complexity, requiring only linear and simple matrix-vector operations. We also extend this framework to incorporate the sparse property of the measurement matrix and employ the LSQRalgorithm to enable a warm start, which further accelerates the algorithm. Analysis and simulation tests validate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:25051035

  17. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Alfredo

    2014-08-01

    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it. PMID:25007970

  18. Outage capacity and outage rate performance of MIMO free-space optical system over strong turbulence channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Omar M.; Taha, Mohamed; Abu Sharkh, Osama

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate outage capacity, outage probability, and outage rate performance of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical system operating over strong turbulence channels. The MIMO optical system employs intensity modulation direct detection with on-off signaling, and equal gain combining technique at the receiver. We derived novel closed-form expressions for three system metrics, namely, outage capacity, outage probability, and outage rate. Expressions derived here are based on the generalized Gamma-Gamma channel model, which is based on scintillation theory that assumes that the irradiance of the received optical wave is modeled as the product of small-scale and large-scale turbulence eddies. The results are evaluated for different values of received signal-to-noise ratios, strong turbulence conditions, and several values of transmit/receive diversity.

  19. Improved outage management techniques for better plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bemer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    To maintain high availability of nuclear generating units is one of the most important management objectives. The duration of outages-whether planned or unplanned-is the main parameter impacting on plant availability, but the planned outages, and essentially the refueling outages, are the most important in this respect, and they also have a heavy impact on the economics of plant operation. The following factors influence the duration of the outages: (1) modifications; (2) preventive maintenance operations; and (3) corrective maintenance operations of generic faults. In this paper, the authors examine how the outage management organization of Electricite de France (EdF) plants is tending to optimize the solutions to the above-mentioned points.

  20. Oscillation-Driven Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity Allows Multiple Overlapping Pattern Recognition in Inhibitory Interneuron Networks.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Tolu, Silvia; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2016-08-01

    The majority of operations carried out by the brain require learning complex signal patterns for future recognition, retrieval and reuse. Although learning is thought to depend on multiple forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, the way this latter contributes to pattern recognition is still poorly understood. Here, we have used a simple model of afferent excitatory neurons and interneurons with lateral inhibition, reproducing a network topology found in many brain areas from the cerebellum to cortical columns. When endowed with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at the excitatory input synapses and at the inhibitory interneuron-interneuron synapses, the interneurons rapidly learned complex input patterns. Interestingly, induction of plasticity required that the network be entrained into theta-frequency band oscillations, setting the internal phase-reference required to drive STDP. Inhibitory plasticity effectively distributed multiple patterns among available interneurons, thus allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple overlapping patterns. The addition of plasticity in intrinsic excitability made the system more robust allowing self-adjustment and rescaling in response to a broad range of input patterns. The combination of plasticity in lateral inhibitory connections and homeostatic mechanisms in the inhibitory interneurons optimized mutual information (MI) transfer. The storage of multiple complex patterns in plastic interneuron networks could be critical for the generation of sparse representations of information in excitatory neuron populations falling under their control. PMID:27079422

  1. Automatic outage reporting through in-home monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wyse, G.D.

    1994-12-31

    Customer service and customer satisfaction initiatives take as many varied forms as there are perceptions of the words service and satisfaction. Too often utilities define service and satisfaction in ways that they understand but not in accordance with customers` expectations. Outage reporting and restoration of service is no exception to these expectations. Utilities expect customers to call when they are out of power while many customers expect the utility to know when the power is off. Also, customers` expectations are changing in regards to momentary outages caused by automatic switching devices. Where momentary interruptions were once an inconvenience, some customers are including resultant lost product and sales as a part of the total cost of energy. Redefining the interface between the customer and the utility from the customer`s perspective is fundamental in beginning to serve customers on their terms and expectations. Questions that address one`s vision of how outages are reported and the customers role in the restoration process surfaces the need to reduce customer frustration and involvement in reporting outages while increasing the information needed to restore service efficiently and provide early detection of developing system problems. A customer installed monitoring device has been developed that removes them completely from the process of reporting outages while providing restoration and momentary interruption information. The following discusses the implementation and roll-out of an in-progress pilot to test this technology.

  2. Thinking Allowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2008-01-01

    Disability equality and improving life chances for disabled people are high on the U.K. Government's agenda at present. As someone who was once a practitioner and a manager in a busy further education environment, the author knows how difficult it is to find time to think about, and discuss with colleagues, the implications of policy. This article…

  3. Overview of Common Mode Outages in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Papic, Milorad; Awodele , Kehinde; Billinton, Roy; Dent, Chris; Eager, Dan; Hamoud, Gomaa; Jirutitijaroen, Panida; Kumbale, Murali; Mitra, Joydeep; Samaan, Nader A.; Schneider, Alex; Singh, Chanan

    2012-11-10

    This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Probability Applications for Common Mode Events (PACME) Task Force under the Reliability Risk and Probability Applications (RRPA) Subcommittee. The paper is intended to constitute a valid source of information and references about dealing with common-mode outages in power systems reliability analysis. This effort involves reviewing published literature and presenting state-of-the-art research and practical applications in the area of common-mode outages. Evaluation of available outage statistics show that there is a definite need for collective effort from academia and industry to not only recommended procedures for data collection and monitoring but also to provide appropriate mathematical models to assess such events.

  4. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of relocation? 302-2.110 Section... Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of... travel is approved and inform employees that they must complete all aspects of relocation within a...

  5. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of relocation? 302-2.110 Section... Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of... travel is approved and inform employees that they must complete all aspects of relocation within a...

  6. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of relocation? 302-2.110 Section... Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of... travel is approved and inform employees that they must complete all aspects of relocation within a...

  7. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of relocation? 302-2.110 Section... Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of... travel is approved and inform employees that they must complete all aspects of relocation within a...

  8. 41 CFR 302-2.110 - Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of relocation? 302-2.110 Section... Are there time factors that we must consider for allowing an employee to complete all aspects of... travel is approved and inform employees that they must complete all aspects of relocation within a...

  9. Generalized shot noise model for time-reversal in multiple-scattering media allowing for arbitrary inputs and windowing

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Kevin J.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical shot noise model to describe the output of a time-reversal experiment in a multiple-scattering medium is developed. This (non-wave equation based) model describes the following process. An arbitrary waveform is transmitted through a high-order multiple-scattering environment and recorded. The recorded signal is arbitrarily windowed and then time-reversed. The processed signal is retransmitted into the environment and the resulting signal recorded. The temporal and spatial signal and noise of this process is predicted statistically. It is found that the time when the noise is largest depends on the arbitrary windowing and this noise peak can occur at times outside the main lobe. To determine further trends, a common set of parameters is applied to the general result. It is seen that as the duration of the input function increases, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases (independent of signal bandwidth). It is also seen that longer persisting impulse responses result in increased main lobe amplitudes and SNR. Assumptions underpinning the generalized shot noise model are compared to an experimental realization of a multiple-scattering medium (a time-reversal chaotic cavity). Results from the model are compared to random number numerical simulation. PMID:19425655

  10. Surface functionalization allowing repetitive use of optical sensors for real-time detection of antibody-bacteria interaction.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Marika; Rosenberger, Manuel; Schmauss, Bernhard; Meinel, Lorenz; Lorenz, Udo; Ohlsen, Knut; Hellmann, Ralf; Germershaus, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sensor surface functionalization allowing the repetitive use of a sensing device was evaluated for antibody-based detection of living bacteria using an optical planar Bragg grating sensor. To achieve regenerable immobilization of bacteria specific antibodies, the heterobifunctional cross-linker N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP) was linked to an aminosilanized sensor surface and subsequently reduced to expose sulfhydryl groups enabling the covalent conjugation of SPDP-activated antibodies via disulfide bonds. The immobilization of a capture antibody specific for Staphylococcus aureus on the sensor surface as well as specific binding of S. aureus could be monitored, highlighting the applicability of optical sensors for the specific detection of large biological structures. Reusability of bacteria saturated sensors was successfully demonstrated by cleaving the antibody along with bound bacteria through reduction of disulfide bonds and subsequent re-functionalization with activated antibody, resulting in comparable sensitivity towards S. aureus. PMID:26486822

  11. Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Sanvito, T.; Argentiere, S.; Cella, C.; Paroli, B.; Lenardi, C.; Milani, P.

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies. Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution. Using SPES, we characterized the evolution of PLGA nanoparticles with different structures and drug payloads in solution and we compared the results with DLS. Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production. PMID:26667064

  12. Single particle optical extinction and scattering allows real time quantitative characterization of drug payload and degradation of polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potenza, M. A. C.; Sanvito, T.; Argentiere, S.; Cella, C.; Paroli, B.; Lenardi, C.; Milani, P.

    2015-12-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in biological systems is determined by their dimensions, size distribution, shape, surface chemistry, density, drug loading and stability; the characterization of these parameters in realistic conditions and the possibility to follow their evolution in vitro and in vivo are, in most of the cases, far from the capabilities of the standard characterization technologies. Optical techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) are, in principle, well suited for in line characterization of nanoparticle, however their fail in characterizing the evolution of nanoparticle in solution where change in particle dimension and density is present. Here we present an in-line optical technique based on single particle extinction and scattering (SPES) overcoming the limitations typical of DLS and allowing for the efficient characterization of nanoparticle polydispersity, index of refraction and degradation dynamics in solution. Using SPES, we characterized the evolution of PLGA nanoparticles with different structures and drug payloads in solution and we compared the results with DLS. Our results suggest that SPES could be used as a process analytical technology for pharmaceutical nanoparticle production.

  13. Using Predictive Analytics to Predict Power Outages from Severe Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanik, D. W.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Hartman, B.; Frediani, M. E.; Astitha, M.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of reliable power is essential to businesses, public services, and our daily lives. With the growing abundance of data being collected and created by industry (i.e. outage data), government agencies (i.e. land cover), and academia (i.e. weather forecasts), we can begin to tackle problems that previously seemed too complex to solve. In this session, we will present newly developed tools to aid decision-support challenges at electric distribution utilities that must mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from severe weather. We will show a performance evaluation of outage predictive models built for Eversource Energy (formerly Connecticut Light & Power) for storms of all types (i.e. blizzards, thunderstorms and hurricanes) and magnitudes (from 20 to >15,000 outages). High resolution weather simulations (simulated with the Weather and Research Forecast Model) were joined with utility outage data to calibrate four types of models: a decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), boosted gradient tree (BT) and an ensemble (ENS) decision tree regression that combined predictions from DT, RF and BT. The study shows that the ENS model forced with weather, infrastructure and land cover data was superior to the other models we evaluated, especially in terms of predicting the spatial distribution of outages. This research has the potential to be used for other critical infrastructure systems (such as telecommunications, drinking water and gas distribution networks), and can be readily expanded to the entire New England region to facilitate better planning and coordination among decision-makers when severe weather strikes.

  14. Assessment of Critical Events Corridors through Multivariate Cascading Outages Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Kumbale, Murali; Chen, Yousu; Singh, Ruchi; Green, Irina; Morgan, Mark P.

    2011-10-17

    Massive blackouts of electrical power systems in North America over the past decade has focused increasing attention upon ways to identify and simulate network events that may potentially lead to widespread network collapse. This paper summarizes a method to simulate power-system vulnerability to cascading failures to a supplied set of initiating events synonymously termed as Extreme Events. The implemented simulation method is currently confined to simulating steady state power-system response to a set of extreme events. The outlined method of simulation is meant to augment and provide a new insight into bulk power transmission network planning that at present remains mainly confined to maintaining power system security for single and double component outages under a number of projected future network operating conditions. Although one of the aims of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of simulating network vulnerability to cascading outages, a more important goal has been to determine vulnerable parts of the network that may potentially be strengthened in practice so as to mitigate system susceptibility to cascading failures. This paper proposes to demonstrate a systematic approach to analyze extreme events and identify vulnerable system elements that may be contributing to cascading outages. The hypothesis of critical events corridors is proposed to represent repeating sequential outages that can occur in the system for multiple initiating events. The new concept helps to identify system reinforcements that planners could engineer in order to 'break' the critical events sequences and therefore lessen the likelihood of cascading outages. This hypothesis has been successfully validated with a California power system model.

  15. Maximizing equipment productivity by limiting service outages

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, I.M.

    1997-03-01

    A technique for generator-motor maintenance at hydroelectric power plants is presented in the article. Generator motor stators are rewedged without removing the rotors, cutting maintenance time in half. Details of the development and use of the technique at the Dinorwig Pumped-Storage Plant in the United Kingdom are provided. The jacking system, platform, wedge, time, and cost are discussed.

  16. Resolving piping analysis issues to minimize impact on installation activities during refueling outage at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavnani, D.

    1996-12-01

    While it is required to maintain piping code compliance for all phases of installation activities during outages at a nuclear plant, it is equally essential to reduce challenges to the installation personnel on how plant modification work should be performed. Plant betterment activities that incorporate proposed design changes are continually implemented during the outages. Supporting analysis are performed to back these activities for operable systems. The goal is to reduce engineering and craft man-hours and minimize outage time. This paper outlines how plant modification process can be streamlined to facilitate construction teams to do their tasks that involve safety related piping. In this manner, installation can proceed by minimizing on the spot analytical effort and reduce downtime to support the proposed modifications. Examples are provided that permit performance of installation work in any sequence. Piping and hangers including the branch lines are prequalified and determined operable. The system is up front analyzed for all possible scenarios. The modification instructions in the work packages is flexible enough to permit any possible installation sequence. The benefit to this approach is large enough in the sense that valuable outage time is not extended and on site analytical work is not required.

  17. Satellite Observations Monitor Outages From Superstorm Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy traveled across Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas, then progressed northward along the eastern seaboard of the United States, resulting in numerous tropical storm warnings along the coasts of Florida and North Carolina. As the storm approached the Mid-Atlantic region, interaction with an upper-level low drew the cyclone inland, with the center passing just north of Atlantic City, N. J. In what media reports dubbed a "superstorm," Sandy produced hurricane-force winds, significant coastal storm surge, torrential rain, inland flooding, and extensive damage over a vast area. Further west of the cyclone center, strong winds increased wave activity throughout the Great Lakes, and heavy snowfall occurred across portions of Tennessee, Kentucky, and West Virginia. As of early November, more than 100 fatalities had been attributed to Sandy in the northeastern United States, with total economic losses of up to $50 billion [New York Times, 2012, and Walsh and Schwartz, 2012].

  18. "I Have to Rest All the Time Because You Are Not Allowed to Play": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Autonomy during Sleep-Time in Long Day Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nothard, Michaela; Irvine, Susan; Theobald, Maryanne; Staton, Sally; Pattinson, Cassandra; Thorpe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Daytime sleep is a significant part of the daily routine for children attending early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Australia and many other countries. The practice of sleep-time can account for a substantial portion of the day in ECEC and often involves a mandated sleep/rest period for all children, including older…

  19. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Methodologies and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2012-05-31

    Abstract- This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses different approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies. The second paper summarizes the state of the art in modeling tools for risk assessment of cascading outages.

  20. Tritium Reduction and Control in the Vacuum Vessel during TFTR Outage and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, W.; Camp, R.; Carnevale, H.; Casey, M.; Collins, J.; et al

    1997-11-01

    In the summer/fall of 1996 after nearly three years of D-T operations, TFTR underwent an extended outage during which large port covers were removed from the vacuum vessel in order to complete upgrades to the tokamak. Following the venting of the torus, a three tier system was developed for the outage in order to reduce and control the free tritium in the vacuum vessel so as to minimize the exposure to personnel during port cover removal and reinstallation. The first phase of the program to reduce the free tritium consisted of direct flowthrough of room air through the vacuum vessel to the molecular sieve beds using the Torus Cleanup System. Real time measurements of the effluent tritium concentration were used to derive the amount of tritium removed from the torus. Once the free tritium in the vessel had been reduced to approximately 50 Ci, a second phase was initiated using a 55 Gallon Drum Bubbler System for the direct processing of the vacuum vessel to further lower the tritium level in the torus. Tritium oxide is absorbed by the bubbler system with the exhaust vented to one of the tritium monitored HVAC ventilation stacks. To preclude the release of tritium to the Test Cell location of TFTR and to minimize the exposure of workers, a variable flow exhaust system was employed in order to maintain a negative pressure in the vacuum vessel between 0.05" and 1.5" w.c. during the removal of port covers ranging in size from approximately 5 to 1000 in(superscript2). These systems were completely successful in reducing and controlling the free tritium in TFTR and were instrumental in maintaining ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) exposures to tritium during the 1996 outage. These systems are again being utilized during the safe shutdown and decommissioning of TFTR which commenced in April of 1997. This paper describes in detail the configuration of these systems and the data obtained during the outage and safe shutdown of TFTR.

  1. Risk Assessment of Cascading Outages: Part I - Overview of Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vaiman, Marianna; Bell, Keith; Chen, Yousu; Chowdhury, Badrul; Dobson, Ian; Hines, Paul; Papic, Milorad; Miller, Stephen; Zhang, Pei

    2011-07-31

    This paper is a result of ongoing activity carried out by Understanding, Prediction, Mitigation and Restoration of Cascading Failures Task Force under IEEE Computer Analytical Methods Subcommittee (CAMS). The task force's previous papers are focused on general aspects of cascading outages such as understanding, prediction, prevention and restoration from cascading failures. This is the first of two new papers, which will extend this previous work to summarize the state of the art in cascading failure risk analysis methodologies and modeling tools. This paper is intended to be a reference document to summarize the state of the art in the methodologies for performing risk assessment of cascading outages caused by some initiating event(s). A risk assessment should cover the entire potential chain of cascades starting with the initiating event(s) and ending with some final condition(s). However, this is a difficult task and heuristic approaches and approximations have been suggested. This paper discusses diffeent approaches to this and suggests directions for future development of methodologies.

  2. Simultaneous effects of allowed time, teaching method, ability, and student assessment of treatment on achievement in a high school biology course (ISIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkman, Ernest; Brezin, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    The simultaneous effects of teaching method (self-directed, group directed, and teacher directed), allowed time for study, and two student variables (academic ability and assessment of treatment implementation) are described for student achievement in a high school biology course (ISIS). The variable student assessment of treatment implementation was viewed as a particularly important variable for two reasons: (1) in research by Stayrook, Corno, and Winne (1978) it has accounted for as much variance in achievement as the assigned treatment; and (2) it provides a means for controlling the range of implementation of teaching methods. A between-student analysis resulted in a description of effects complicated by interactions among all the variables. While the interactions were particularly strong in the student-directed method, it may generally be concluded that as time allowed for study decreased, students who perceived the treatment as being well implemented tended to have higher achievement. Also, it was found that the main effect of ability was quite strong. The results confirmed the importance of student assessment of treatment implementation as a descriptive variable. Additionally, the results suggest a qualification in the conclusion of Cronbach and Snow (1971) that individualized instruction tends to favor high-ability students; that conclusion may need to be modified to situations in which students fully perceive their autonomy.

  3. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1997-07-01

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  4. Stress-vs-time signals allow the prediction of structurally catastrophic events during fracturing of immature cartilage and predetermine the biomechanical, biochemical, and structural impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rolauffs, Bernd; Kurz, Bodo; Felka, Tino; Rothdiener, Miriam; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Aurich, Matthias; Frank, Eliot; Bahrs, Christian; Badke, Andreas; Stöckle, Ulrich; Aicher, Wilhelm K.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Trauma-associated cartilage fractures occur in children and adolescents with clinically significant incidence. Several studies investigated biomechanical injury by compressive forces but the injury-related stress has not been investigated extensively. In this study, we hypothesized that the biomechanical stress occurring during compressive injury predetermines the biomechanical, biochemical, and structural consequences. We specifically investigated whether the stress-vs-time signal correlated with the injurious damage and may allow prediction of cartilage matrix fracturing. Methods Superficial and deeper zones disks (SZDs, DZDs; immature bovine cartilage) were biomechanically characterized, injured (50% compression, 100%/sec strain-rate), and re-characterized. Correlations of the quantified functional, biochemical and histological damage with biomechanical parameters were zonally investigated. Results Injured SZDs exhibited decreased dynamic stiffness (by 93.04 ± 1.72%), unresolvable equilibrium moduli, structural damage (2.0 ± 0.5 on a 5-point-damage-scale), and 1.78-fold increased sGAG loss. DZDs remained intact. Measured stress-vs-time-curves during injury displayed 4 distinct shapes, which correlated with histological damage (p<0.001), loss of dynamic stiffness and sGAG (p<0.05). Damage prediction in a blinded experiment using stress-vs-time grades was 100%-correct and sensitive to differentiate single/complex matrix disruptions. Correlations of the dissipated energy and maximum stress rise with the extent of biomechanical and biochemical damage reached significance when SZDs and DZDs were analyzed as zonal composites but not separately. Conclusion The biomechanical stress that occurs during compressive injury predetermines the biomechanical, biochemical, and structural consequences and, thus, the structural and functional damage during cartilage fracturing. A novel biomechanical method based on the interpretation of compressive yielding allows the

  5. Braess's paradox in oscillator networks, desynchronization and power outage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2012-08-01

    Robust synchronization is essential to ensure the stable operation of many complex networked systems such as electric power grids. Increasing energy demands and more strongly distributing power sources raise the question of where to add new connection lines to the already existing grid. Here we study how the addition of individual links impacts the emergence of synchrony in oscillator networks that model power grids on coarse scales. We reveal that adding new links may not only promote but also destroy synchrony and link this counter-intuitive phenomenon to Braess's paradox known for traffic networks. We analytically uncover its underlying mechanism in an elementary grid example, trace its origin to geometric frustration in phase oscillators, and show that it generically occurs across a wide range of systems. As an important consequence, upgrading the grid requires particular care when adding new connections because some may destabilize the synchronization of the grid—and thus induce power outages.

  6. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold... they own, operate, lease, or otherwise utilize, an outage of at least 30 minutes duration that: (1) Potentially affects at least 900,000 user minutes of telephony service; (2) Affects at least 1,350 DS3...

  7. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  8. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  9. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold... they own, operate, lease, or otherwise utilize, an outage of at least 30 minutes duration that: (1) Potentially affects at least 900,000 user minutes of telephony service; (2) Affects at least 1,350 DS3...

  10. 47 CFR 4.9 - Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outage reporting requirements-threshold criteria. 4.9 Section 4.9 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications § 4.9 Outage reporting requirements—threshold criteria. (a) Cable. All...

  11. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  12. A low-cost evolutionary algorithm for the unit commitment problem considering probabilistic unit outages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asouti, V. G.; Giannakoglou, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a solution method to the unit commitment problem with probabilistic unit failures and repairs, which is based on evolutionary algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations. Regarding the latter, thousands of availability-unavailability trial time patterns along the scheduling horizon are generated. The objective function to be minimised is the expected total operating cost, computed after adapting any candidate solution, i.e. any series of generating/non-generating (ON/OFF) unit states, to the availability-unavailability patterns and performing evaluations by considering fuel, start-up and shutdown costs as well as the cost for buying electricity from external resources, if necessary. The proposed method introduces a new efficient chromosome representation: the decision variables are integer IDs corresponding to the binary-to-decimal converted ON/OFF (1/0) scenarios that cover the demand in each hour. In contrast to previous methods using binary strings as chromosomes, the new chromosome must be penalised only if any of the constraints regarding start-up, shutdown and ramp times cannot be met, chromosome repair is avoided and, consequently, the dispatch problems are solved once in the preparatory phase instead of during the evolution. For all these reasons, with or without probabilistic outages, the proposed algorithm has much lower CPU cost. In addition, if probabilistic outages are taken into account, a hierarchical evaluation scheme offers extra noticeable gain in CPU cost: the population members are approximately pre-evaluated using a small 'representative' set of the Monte Carlo simulations and only a few top population members undergo evaluations through the full Monte Carlo simulations. The hierarchical scheme makes the proposed method about one order of magnitude faster than its conventional counterpart.

  13. Induction of an LH surge and ovulation by buserelin (as Receptal) allows breeding of weaned sows with a single fixed-time insemination.

    PubMed

    Driancourt, M A; Cox, P; Rubion, S; Harnois-Milon, G; Kemp, B; Soede, N M

    2013-09-01

    duration of lactation nor magnitude of the fat loss during lactation significantly affected treatment effects. It is concluded that ovulation of weaned multiparous sows can be tightly synchronized by buserelin (10 μg) administration at 86 hours postweaning. This allows breeding once at a fixed time following buserelin injection while maintaining reproductive performance at a level similar to that of sows bred twice during estrus. PMID:23777891

  14. Analysis of the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus Identifies Mutations That Allow Differentiation of the Main Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Josten, Michaele; Reif, Marion; Szekat, Christiane; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Roemer, Terry; Sparbier, Katrin; Kostrzewa, Markus; Rohde, Holger; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial infections involving epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a serious problem in many countries. In order to analyze outbreaks, the infectious isolates have to be typed; however, most molecular methods are expensive or labor-intensive. Here, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of cell extracts for the molecular characterization of S. aureus strains. The peak patterns of 401 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including clinical and laboratory strains, were analyzed. Database searches indicated the peptides that were represented by the corresponding peaks in the spectra. The identities of the peptides were confirmed by the sequencing of mutants, the expression of antisense RNA fragments that resulted in the knockdown of the peptide of interest and the concomitant loss of the signal, or tandem MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). It was shown that the signals derive mainly from stress proteins and ribosomal proteins. Peak shifts that differentiate the main S. aureus clonal complexes CC5, CC22, CC8, CC45, CC30, and CC1 correlate to point mutations in the respective genes. Retrospective typing of an MRSA outbreak showed that it is possible to differentiate unrelated MSSA, MRSA, and borderline resistant S. aureus (BORSA) strains isolated from health care workers. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of the epidemic lineages of S. aureus during species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. PMID:23554199

  15. Gadolinium-loaded liposomes allow for real-time magnetic resonance imaging of convection-enhanced delivery in the primate brain.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryuta; Krauze, Michal T; Bringas, John R; Noble, Charles; McKnight, Tracy R; Jackson, Pamela; Wendland, Michael F; Mamot, Christoph; Drummond, Daryl C; Kirpotin, Dimitri B; Hong, Keelung; Berger, Mitchel S; Park, John W; Bankiewicz, Krystof S

    2005-12-01

    Drug delivery to brain tumors has long posed a major challenge. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been developed as a drug delivery strategy to overcome this difficulty. Ideally, direct visualization of the tissue distribution of drugs infused by CED would assure successful delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain tumor while minimizing exposure of the normal brain. We previously developed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method to visualize the distribution of liposomal agents after CED in rodent brains. In the present study, CED of liposomes was further examined in the non-human primate brain (n = 6). Liposomes containing Gadoteridol, DiI-DS, and rhodamine were infused in corona radiata, putamen nucleus, and brain stem. Volume of distribution was analyzed for all delivery locations by histology and MR imaging. Real-time MRI monitoring of liposomes containing gadolinium allowed direct visualization of a robust distribution. MRI of liposomal gadolinium was highly accurate at determining tissue distribution, as confirmed by comparison with histological results from concomitant administration of fluorescent liposomes. Linear correlation for liposomal infusions between infusion volume and distribution volume was established in all targeted locations. We conclude that an integrated strategy combining liposome/nanoparticle technology, CED, and MRI may provide new opportunities for the treatment of brain tumors. Our ability to directly monitor and to control local delivery of liposomal drugs will most likely result in greater clinical efficacy when using CED in management of patients. PMID:16197944

  16. Power Outages, Extreme Events and Health: a Systematic Review of the Literature from 2011-2012

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Chaamala; Landeg, Owen; Murray, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background Extreme events (e.g. flooding) threaten critical infrastructure including power supplies. Many interlinked systems in the modern world depend on a reliable power supply to function effectively. The health sector is no exception, but the impact of power outages on health is poorly understood. Greater understanding is essential so that adverse health impacts can be prevented and/or mitigated. Methods We searched Medline, CINAHL and Scopus for papers about the health impacts of power outages during extreme events published in 2011-2012. A thematic analysis was undertaken on the extracted information. The Public Health England Extreme Events Bulletins between 01/01/2013 - 31/03/2013 were used to identify extreme events that led to power outages during this three-month period. Results We identified 20 relevant articles. Power outages were found to impact health at many levels within diverse settings. Recurrent themes included the difficulties of accessing healthcare, maintaining frontline services and the challenges of community healthcare. We identified 52 power outages in 19 countries that were the direct consequence of extreme events during the first three months of 2013. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first review of the health impacts of power outages. We found the current evidence and knowledge base to be poor. With scientific consensus predicting an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events due to climate change, the gaps in knowledge need to be addressed in order to mitigate the impact of power outages on global health. PMID:24459613

  17. Power Conditioning And Distribution Units For 50V Platforms A Flexible And Modular Concept Allowing To Deal With Time Constraining Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempereur, V.; Liegeois, B.; Deplus, N.

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of its Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU) Medium power product family, Thales Alenia space ETCA is currently developing Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) and PCDU products for 50V platforms applications. These developments are performed in very schedule constraining programs. This challenge can be met thanks to the modular PCDU concept allowing to share a common heritage at mechanical & thermal points of view as well as at electrical functions level. First Medium power PCDU application has been developed for Herschel-Planck PCDU and re-used in several other missions (e.g. GlobalStar2 PCDU for which we are producing more than 26 units). Based on this heritage, a development plan based on Electrical Model (EM) (avoiding Electrical Qualification Model - EQM) can be proposed when the mechanical qualification of the concept covers the environment required in new projects. This first heritage level allows reducing development schedule and activities. In addition, development is also optimized thanks to the re-use of functions designed and qualified in Herschel- PlanckPCDU. This coversinternal TM/TC management inside PCDU based on a centralized scheduler and an internal high speed serial bus. Finally, thanks to common architecture of several 50V platforms based on full regulated bus, S3R (Sequential Shunt Switch Regulator) concept and one (or two) Li- Ion battery(ies), a common PCU/PCDU architecture has allowed the development of modules or functions that are used in several applications. These achievements are discussed with particular emphasis on PCDU architecture trade-offs allowing flexibility of proposed technical solutions (w.r.t. mono/bi-battery configurations, SA inner capacitance value, output power needs...). Pro's and con's of sharing concepts and designs between several applications on 50V platforms are also be discussed.

  18. In vivo micro-computed tomography allows direct three-dimensional quantification of both bone formation and bone resorption parameters using time-lapsed imaging.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Friederike A; Lambers, Floor M; Kuhn, Gisela; Müller, Ralph

    2011-03-01

    Bone is a living tissue able to adapt its structure to external influences such as altered mechanical loading. This adaptation process is governed by two distinct cell types: bone-forming cells called osteoblasts and bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. It is therefore of particular interest to have quantitative access to the outcomes of bone formation and resorption separately. This article presents a non-invasive three-dimensional technique to directly extract bone formation and resorption parameters from time-lapsed in vivo micro-computed tomography scans. This includes parameters such as Mineralizing Surface (MS), Mineral Apposition Rate (MAR), and Bone Formation Rate (BFR), which were defined in accordance to the current nomenclature of dynamic histomorphometry. Due to the time-lapsed and non-destructive nature of in vivo micro-computed tomography, not only formation but also resorption can now be assessed quantitatively and time-dependent parameters Eroded Surface (ES) as well as newly defined indices Mineral Resorption Rate (MRR) and Bone Resorption Rate (BRR) are introduced. For validation purposes, dynamic formation parameters were compared to the traditional quantitative measures of dynamic histomorphometry, where MAR correlated with R = 0.68 and MS with R = 0.78 (p < 0.05). Reproducibility was assessed in 8 samples that were scanned 5 times and errors ranged from 0.9% (MRR) to 6.6% (BRR). Furthermore, the new parameters were applied to a murine in vivo loading model. A comparison of directly extracted parameters between formation and resorption within each animal revealed that in the control group, i.e., during normal remodeling, MAR was significantly lower than MRR (p < 0.01), whereas MS compared to ES was significantly higher (p < 0.0001). This implies that normal remodeling seems to take place by many small formation packets and few but large resorption volumes. After 4 weeks of mechanical loading, newly extracted trabecular BFR and MS were

  19. Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

    2014-04-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  20. Conventional and Real-Time PCRs for Detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans Allow Its Distinction from the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 103 cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 102 cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

  1. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  2. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  3. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  4. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  5. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in...

  6. 76 FR 33686 - Proposed Extension of Part 4 of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...The purpose of this document is to seek comment on a proposal to extend the Commission's communications outage reporting requirements to interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service providers and broadband Internet Service Providers (ISPs). This action will help ensure that our current and future 9-1-1 systems are as reliable and resilient as possible and assist our Nation's......

  7. MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Peter J; Foschini, Gerard J

    2011-08-15

    With wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) rapidly nearing its scalability limits, space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the capacity of optical transport networks. In order for SDM systems to continue the WDM trend of reducing energy and cost per bit with system capacity, integration will be key to SDM. Since integration is likely to introduce non-negligible crosstalk between multiple parallel transmission paths, multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) signal processing techniques will have to be used. In this paper, we discuss MIMO capacities in optical SDM systems, including related outage considerations which are an important part in the design of such systems. In order to achieve the low-outage standards required for optical transport networks, SDM transponders should be capable of individually addressing, and preferably MIMO processing all modes supported by the optical SDM waveguide. We then discuss the effect of distributed optical noise in MIMO SDM systems and focus on the impact of mode-dependent loss (MDL) on system capacity and system outage. Through extensive numerical simulations, we extract scaling rules for mode-average and mode-dependent loss and show that MIMO SDM systems composed of up to 128 segments and supporting up to 128 modes can tolerate up to 1 dB of per-segment MDL at 90% of the system's full capacity at an outage probability of 10(-4). PMID:21935030

  8. Power Line Damage, Electrical Outages Reduced in the ''Sleet Belt'': NICE3 Steel Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-25

    The AR Windamper System was developed through a grant from the Inventions and Innovation Program, to protect power transmission lines in sleet belt states and provinces by eliminating the ''galloping'' phenomenon. Wind damping products minimize power outages and reduce repair costs to transmission lines.

  9. 77 FR 63757 - Extension of the Commission's Rules Regarding Outage Reporting to Interconnected Voice Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ..., regarding Interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) outage reporting rules, published at 77 FR..., and 4.9 published at 77 FR 25088, April 27, 2012, are effective December 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER... Voice Over Internet Protocol Service Providers and Broadband Internet Service Providers AGENCY:...

  10. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  11. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  12. 47 CFR 4.5 - Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions of outage, special offices and facilities, and 911 special facilities. 4.5 Section 4.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS Reporting Requirements for Disruptions to Communications §...

  13. Space-based Scintillation Nowcasting with the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, K.; Starks, M.; Beach, T.; Basu, S.

    2008-12-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) fuses ground- and space-based data in a near real-time physics-based model aimed at forecasting and nowcasting equatorial scintillations and their impacts on satellite communications and navigation. A key component of the system is the C/NOFS satellite that was launched into a low-inclination (13°) elliptical orbit (400 km x 850 km) in April 2008. The satellite contains six sensors to measure space environment parameters including electron density and temperature, ion density and drift, electric and magnetic fields and neutral wind, as well as a tri-band radio beacon transmitting at 150 MHz, 400 MHz and 1067 MHz. Scintillation nowcasts are derived from measuring the one-dimensional in situ electron density fluctuations and subsequently modeling the propagation environment for satellite-to-ground radio links. The modeling process requires a number of simplifying assumptions regarding the three-dimensional structure of the ionosphere and the results are readily validated by comparisons with ground-based measurements of the satellite's tri-band beacon signals. In mid-September 2008 a campaign to perform detailed analyses of space-based scintillation nowcasts with numerous ground observations was conducted in the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands. To maximize the collection of ground-truth data, the ALTAIR radar was employed to obtain detailed information on the spatial structure of the ionosphere during the campaign and to aid the improvement of space-based nowcasting algorithms. A comparison of these results will be presented; it appears that detailed information on the electron density structure is a limiting factor in modeling the scintillation environment from in situ observations.

  14. Effects of the April 1st, 2014 GLONASS Outage on GNSS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Romero, I.; D'Anastasio, E.

    2014-12-01

    The use of multi-constellation GNSS receivers has been assumed as a way to increase system integrity both by increased coverage during normal operations and failover redundancy in the event of a constellation failure. At approximately 21:00 UTC on April 1st the entire GLONASS constellation was disrupted as illegal ephemeris uploaded to each satellite took effect simultaneously. The outage continued for more than 10 hours. While ephemeris were incorrect, pseudoranges were correctly broadcast on both L1 and L2 and carrier phases were not affected; in the best case, GNSS receivers could be expected to continue to track all signals including GLONASS and at the worst to continue to track GPS and other constellations. It became clear to operators of the GeoNet network in New Zealand that the majority of their 79 GLONASS-enabled receivers experienced total tracking failures. Further detailed analysis of data from these and 315 additional GLONASS-enabled stations worldwide showed that receiver tracking behavior was affected for most receiver brands and models, both for GLONASS and GPS. Findings regarding the impacts of the GLONASS outage on receiver behavior will be highlighted. We use data recorded by GLONASS enabled global sites for the days during, preceding and following the outage to evaluate the impact of the outage on tracking and positioning performance. We observe that for some receiver types the onboard receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM) failed to ignore the incorrect messages, resulting in degraded GLONASS and GPS tracking and in some cases complete tracking failures and significant data loss. In addition, many of the receivers with clock steering enabled showed outliers in their receiver clock bias estimates that also coincided with the outage. Our results show in detail how different brands, configurations, and distributions of receivers were affected to varying extents, but no common factors are apparent. This event shows that many manufacturers

  15. Method for estimating power outages and restoration during natural and man-made events

    DOEpatents

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Fernandez, Steven J.

    2016-01-05

    A method of modeling electric supply and demand with a data processor in combination with a recordable medium, and for estimating spatial distribution of electric power outages and affected populations. A geographic area is divided into cells to form a matrix. Within the matrix, supply cells are identified as containing electric substations and demand cells are identified as including electricity customers. Demand cells of the matrix are associated with the supply cells as a function of the capacity of each of the supply cells and the proximity and/or electricity demand of each of the demand cells. The method includes estimating a power outage by applying disaster event prediction information to the matrix, and estimating power restoration using the supply and demand cell information of the matrix and standardized and historical restoration information.

  16. Recent Performance of and Plasma Outage Studies with the SNS H- Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Martin P; Han, Baoxi; Murray Jr, S N; Pennisi, Terry R; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    SNS ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised RFQ, which requires higher RF power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ~55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ~90% of the continuous ~300W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly-detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 also increased the H- beam current to ~55 mA, and increased the transmission by ~7%.

  17. Recent performance of and plasma outage studies with the SNS H- source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockli, M. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Welton, R.

    2016-02-01

    Spallation Neutron Source ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which requires higher radio frequency power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H- beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ˜55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ˜90% of the continuous ˜300 W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 gas also increased the H- beam current to ˜55 mA and increased the RFQ transmission by ˜7% (relative).

  18. Exact Outage Probability of Cognitive Underlay DF Relay Networks with Best Relay Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; Duong, Trung Quang

    In this letter, we address the performance analysis of underlay selective decode-and-forward (DF) relay networks in Rayleigh fading channels with non-necessarily identical fading parameters. In particular, a novel result on the outage probability of the considered system is presented. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to verify the correctness of our exact closed-form expression. Our proposed analysis can be adopted for various underlay spectrum sharing applications of cognitive DF relay networks.

  19. A novel fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages for land vehicle positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xu; Song, Xiang; Li, Bin; Song, Xianghui; Xu, Qimin

    2015-07-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle position information whether in open-sky environments or in Global Positioning System (GPS) denied environments. However, there remains a challenging task for land vehicles to achieve such positioning performance using low-cost sensors, especially microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors. In this paper, a novel and cost-effective fusion methodology to bridge GPS outages is proposed and applied in the Inertial Navigation System (INS)/GPS/ compass integrated positioning system. In the implementation of the proposed methodology, a key data preprocessing algorithm is first developed to eliminate the noise in inertial sensors in order to provide more accurate information for subsequent modeling. Then, a novel hybrid strategy incorporating the designed autoregressive model (AR model)-based forward estimator (ARFE) with Kalman filter (KF) is presented to predict the INS position errors during GPS outages. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology, real road tests with various scenarios were performed. The proposed methodology illustrates significant improvement in positioning accuracy during GPS outages.

  20. Lights out: Impact of the August 2003 power outage on mortality in New York, NY

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about how power outages affect health. We investigated mortality effects of the largest US blackout to date, August 14–15, 2003 in New York, NY. Methods We estimated mortality risk in New York, NY, using a generalized linear model with data from 1987–2005. We incorporated possible confounders, including weather and long-term and seasonal mortality trends. Results During the blackout, mortality increased for accidental deaths (122% [95% confidence interval = 28%–287%]) and non-accidental (i.e., disease-related) deaths (25% [12%–41%]), resulting in approximately 90 excess deaths. Increased mortality was not from deaths being advanced by a few days; rather, mortality risk remained slightly elevated through August 2003. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of power outages and non-accidental mortality. Understanding the impact of power outages on human health is relevant, given that increased energy demand and climate change are likely to put added strain on power grids. PMID:22252408

  1. Outages of electric power supply resulting from cable failures Boston Edison Company system

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Factual data are provided regarding 5 electric power supply interruptions that occurred in the Boston Metropolitan area during April to June, 1979. Common to all of these outages was the failure of an underground cable as the initiating event, followed by multiple equipment failures. There was significant variation in the voltage ratings and types of cables which failed. The investigation was unable to delineate a single specific Boston Edison design operating or maintenance practice that could be cited as the cause of the outages. After reviewing the investigative report the following actions were recommended: the development and implementation of a plan to eliminate the direct current cable network; develop a network outage restoration plan; regroup primary feeder cables wherever possible to minimize the number of circuits in manholes, and to separate feeders to high load density areas; develop a program to detect incipient cable faults; evaluate the separation of the north and south sections of Back Bay network into separate networks; and, as a minimum, install the necessary facilities to make it possible to re-energize one section without interfering with the other; and re-evaluate the cathodic protection scheme where necessary. (LCL)

  2. Power Outages

    MedlinePlus

    ... surge protectors. If you are considering purchasing a generator for your home, consult an electrician or engineer before purchasing and installing. Only use generators away from your home and NEVER run a ...

  3. Methodology to predict the number of forced outages due to creep failure

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, J.V. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    All alloy metals at a temperature above 950 degrees Fahrenheit experience creep damage. Creep failures in boiler tubes usually begin after 25 to 40 years of operation. Since creep damage is irreversible, the only remedy is to replace the tube sections. By predicting the number of failures per year, the utility can make the best economic decision concerning tube replacement. This paper describes a methodology to calculate the number of forced outages per yea due to creep failures. This methodology is particularly useful to utilities that have boilers that have at least 25 years of operation.

  4. Feasibility Study for the K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (643-1G)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-05-01

    The K-Area Bingham Pump Outage Pit (KBPOP) is one of four BPOP areas at Savannah River Site (SRS), collectively referred to as the BPOP waste unit group. This Feasibility Study (FS) of Remedial Alternatives serves as the lead FS for the BPOP waste unit group. This section identifies the purpose and scope of the FS and presents site background information summarized from the Final Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment (RI/BRA) WSRC-RP- 95-1555, Rev. 1.2 (WSRC 1997).

  5. Development of processes allowing near real-time refinement and validation of triage tools during the early stage of an outbreak in readiness for surge: the FLU-CATs Study.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R; McCann, Gerard; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Hashmi, Maimoona; Belatri, Rabah; Boyle, Emma; Barcroft, Alan; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter; Kirkham, Jamie J; Nguyen Van Tam, Jonathan S; Williams, Timothy J; Semple, Malcolm G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During pandemics of novel influenza and outbreaks of emerging infections, surge in health-care demand can exceed capacity to provide normal standards of care. In such exceptional circumstances, triage tools may aid decisions in identifying people who are most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. Rapid research during the early phase of an outbreak should allow refinement and validation of triage tools so that in the event of surge a valid tool is available. The overarching study aim is to conduct a prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments of influenza-like illness (ILI) using primary care electronic health records (EHRs) during a pandemic. This abstract summarises the preparatory work, infrastructure development, user testing and proof-of-concept study. OBJECTIVES (1) In preparation for conducting rapid research in the early phase of a future outbreak, to develop processes that allow near real-time analysis of general practitioner (GP) assessments of people presenting with ILI, management decisions and patient outcomes. (2) As proof of concept: conduct a pilot study evaluating the performance of the triage tools 'Community Assessment Tools' and 'Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score' to predict hospital admission and death in patients presenting with ILI to GPs during inter-pandemic winter seasons. DESIGN Prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments and anonymised linkage to data from EHRs. User experience was evaluated by semistructured interviews with participating GPs. SETTING Thirty GPs in England, Wales and Scotland, participating in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS All people presenting with ILI. INTERVENTIONS None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Study outcome is proof of concept through demonstration of data capture and near real-time analysis. Primary patient outcomes were hospital admission within 24 hours and death (all causes) within 30 days of GP assessment. Secondary

  6. Economic costs of electrical system instability and power outages caused by snakes on the Island of Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, T.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Brown Tree Snake, Boiga irregularis, is an introduced species on Guam where it causes frequent electrical power outages. The snake's high abundance, its propensity for climbing, and use of disturbed habitats all contribute to interruption of Guam's electrical service and the activities that depend on electrical power. Snakes have caused more than 1600 power outages in the 20-yr period of 1978-1997 and most recently nearly 200 outages per year. Single outages spanning the entire island and lasting 8 or more hours are estimated to cost in excess of $3,000,000 in lost productivity, but the costs of outages that involve only parts of the island or those of shorter durations are more difficult to quantify. Costs to the island's economy have exceeded $4.5 M per year over a 7-yr period without considering repair costs, damage to electrical equipment, and lost revenues. Snakes pose the greatest problem on high voltage transmission lines, on transformers, and inside electrical substations.

  7. Water outage increases the risk of gastroenteritis and eyes and skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study used insurance claims data to investigate infections associated with short-term water outage because of constructions or pipe breaks. Methods The present study used medical claims of one million insured persons for 2004-2006. We estimated incidences of gastroenteritis and eye and skin complaints for 10 days before, during, and after 10 days of water supply restriction for outpatient visits and for emergency and in-patient care combined. Results There was an increase in medical services for these complaints in outpatient visits because of water outages. Poisson regression analyses showed that increased risks of medical services were significant for gastroenteritis (relative risk [RR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.37), skin disease (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.30-1.42), and eye disease patients (RR 1.34, 95% CI 1.26-1.44). Similar risks were observed during 10-day lag periods. Compared with those in cool days, risks of medical services are higher when average daily temperature is above 30°C for gastroenteritis (RR 12.1, 95% CI 6.17-23.7), skin diseases (RR 4.48, 95% CI 2.29-8.78), and eye diseases (RR 40.3, 95% CI 7.23-224). Conclusion We suggest promoting personal hygiene education during water supply shortages, particularly during the warm months. PMID:21943080

  8. Analytical Tools to Predict Distribution Outage Restoration Load. Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Law, John

    1994-11-14

    The main activity of this project has been twofold: (1) development of a computer model to predict CLPU(Cold Load Pickup) and (2) development of a field measurement and analysis method to obtain the input parameters of the CLPU model. The field measurement and analysis method is called the Step-Voltage-Test (STEPV). The Kootenai Electric Cooperative Appleway 51 feeder in Coeur d`Alene was selected for analysis in this project and STEPV tests were performed in winters of 92 and 93. The STEPV data was analyzed (method and results presented within this report) to obtain the Appleway 51 feeder parameters for prediction by the CLPU model. One only CLPU record was obtained in winter 1994. Unfortunately, the actual CLPU was not dramatic (short outage and moderate temperature) and did not display cyclic restoration current. A predicted Appleway 51 feeder CLPU was generated using the parameters obtained via the STEPV measurement/analysis/algorithm method at the same ambient temperature and outage duration as the measured actual CLPU. The predicted CLPU corresponds reasonably well with the single actual CLPU data obtained in winter 1994 on the Appleway 51 feeder.

  9. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. PMID:27420061

  10. Recent performance of and plasma outage studies with the SNS H⁻ source.

    PubMed

    Stockli, M P; Han, B; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Piller, C; Santana, M; Welton, R

    2016-02-01

    Spallation Neutron Source ramps to higher power levels that can be sustained with high availability. The goal is 1.4 MW despite a compromised radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), which requires higher radio frequency power than design levels to approach the nominal beam transmission. Unfortunately at higher power the RFQ often loses its thermal stability, a problem apparently enhanced by beam losses and high influxes of hydrogen. Delivering as much H(-) beam as possible with the least amount of hydrogen led to plasma outages. The root cause is the dense 1-ms long ∼55-kW 2-MHz plasma pulses reflecting ∼90% of the continuous ∼300 W, 13-MHz power, which was mitigated with a 4-ms filter for the reflected power signal and an outage resistant, slightly detuned 13-MHz match. Lowering the H2 gas also increased the H(-) beam current to ∼55 mA and increased the RFQ transmission by ∼7% (relative). PMID:26932022

  11. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Hina; Javaid, Nadeem; Sher, Muhammad; Qasim, Umar; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Alrajeh, Nabil; Niaz, Iftikhar Azim

    2016-01-01

    This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. PMID:27420061

  12. Development of a Real-Time PCR for a Sensitive One-Step Coprodiagnosis Allowing both the Identification of Carnivore Feces and the Detection of Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jenny; Umhang, Gérald; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Millon, Laurence

    2016-05-15

    Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens. PMID:26969697

  13. Analysis of 12 electric power system outages/disturbances impacting the Florida Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Between January 3 and August 3, 1979, there were 12 occasions on which electric power was curtailed or public appeals were made to customers to reduce their load in Peninsular Florida due to bulk electric power supply problems. The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the US DOE, pursuant to its electric power supply adequacy and reliability responsibilities, initiated a twofold analysis of the bulk power supply situation in Florida. The first phase of the analysis evaluated the technical and engineering aspects of the overall Florida bulk power supply system with special attention given to the City of Jacksonville's electric system. The second phase evaluated the socioeconomic impacts of the bulk power supply outages on residential customers in Jacksonville. The 12 disturbances are described and a comparative analysis of the causes is presented. (LCL)

  14. A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2013-05-01

    During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks. PMID:23091221

  15. Are Older Adults Prepared to Ensure Food Safety during Extended Power Outages and Other Emergencies?: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosa, Katherine M.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Karns, Shawn; Godwin, Sandria L.; Coppings, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers' knowledge and use of recommended practices during/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper…

  16. Emergency preparedness for power outages and wi-fi loss: tips for students and educators of online courses.

    PubMed

    Heithaus, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Severe weather can impact online education due to a loss of power and Internet access that can last hours or weeks. Planning for such losses is essential to enable participation in the online classroom. This article discusses measures that can be used to maintain an online presence in the event of a power outage or loss of Wi-Fi. PMID:25647316

  17. Olkiluoto 1 and 2 - Plant efficiency improvement and lifetime extension-project (PELE) implemented during outages 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Kosonen, M.; Hakola, M.

    2012-07-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) is a non-listed public company founded in 1969 to produce electricity for its stakeholders. TVO is the operator of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. TVO follows the principle of continuous improvement in the operation and maintenance of the Olkiluoto plant units. The PELE project (Plant Efficiency Improvement and Lifetime Extension), mainly completed during the annual outages in 2010 and 2011, and forms one part of the systematic development of Olkiluoto units. TVO maintains a long-term development program that aims at systematically modernizing the plant unit systems and equipment based on the latest technology. According to the program, the Olkiluoto 1 and Olkiluoto 2 plant units are constantly renovated with the intention of keeping them safe and reliable, The aim of the modernization projects is to improve the safety, reliability, and performance of the plant units. PELE project at Olkiluoto 1 was done in 2010 and at Olkiluoto 2 in 2011. The outage length of Olkiluoto 1 was 26 d 12 h 4 min and Olkiluoto 2 outage length was 28 d 23 h 46 min. (Normal service-outage is about 14 days including refueling and refueling-outage length is about seven days. See figure 1) The PELE project consisted of several single projects collected into one for coordinated project management. Some of the main projects were as follows: - Low pressure turbines: rotor, stator vane, casing and turbine instrumentation replacement. - Replacement of Condenser Cooling Water (later called seawater pumps) pumps - Replacement of inner isolation valves on the main steam lines. - Generator and the generator cooling system replacement. - Low voltage switchgear replacement. This project will continue during future outages. PELE was a success. 100 TVO employees and 1500 subcontractor employees participated in the project. The execution of the PELE projects went extremely well during the outages. The replacement of the low pressure turbines and seawater pumps improved the

  18. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit: Addendum to long-term testing report, September 1994 outage: Examination of corrosion test panel and UT survey in DP&L Unit {number_sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, S.C.; Kleisley, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    As part of this DOE`s demonstration program, a corrosion test panel was installed on the west sidewall of Dayton Power & Light Unit no.4 at the J. M. Stuart Station (JMSS4) during the burner retrofit outage in November 1991. The test panel consisted of four sections of commercial coatings separated by bare SA213-T2 tubing. During the retrofit outage, a UT survey was performed to document the baseline wall thicknesses of the test panel, as well as several furnace wall areas outside the test panel. The purpose of the UT survey was to generate the baseline data so that the corrosion wastage associated with the operation of Low NO{sub x} Cell Burners (LNCB{trademark} burner) could be quantitatively determined. The corrosion test panel in JMSS4 was examined in April 1993 after the first 15-month operation of the LNCB{trademark} burners. Details of the corrosion analysis and UT data were documented in the Long-Term Testing Report. The second JMSS4 outage following the LNCB{trademark} burner retrofit took place in September 1944. Up to this point, the test panel in JMSS4 had been exposed to the corrosive combustion environment for approximately 31 months under normal boiler operation of JMSS4. This test period excluded the down time for the April 1993 outage. During the September 1994 outage, 70 tube samples of approximately one-foot length were cut from the bottom of the test panel. These samples were evaluated by the Alliance Research Center of B&W using the same metallurgical techniques as those employed for the previous outage. In addition, UT measurements were taken on the same locations of the lower furnace walls in JMSS4 as those during the prior outages. Results of the metallurgical analyses and UT surveys from different exposure times were compared, and the long-term performance of waterwall materials was analyzed. The corrosion data obtained from the long-term field study at JMSS4 after 32 months of LNCB{trademark} burner operation are summarized in this report.

  19. Method for Evaluation of Outage Probability on Random Access Channel in Mobile Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, Martin

    2012-05-01

    In order to access the cell in all mobile communication technologies a so called random-access procedure is used. For example in GSM this is represented by sending the CHANNEL REQUEST message from Mobile Station (MS) to Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which is consequently forwarded as an CHANNEL REQUIRED message to the Base Station Controller (BSC). If the BTS decodes some noise on the Random Access Channel (RACH) as random access by mistake (so- called ‘phantom RACH') then it is a question of pure coincidence which èstablishment cause’ the BTS thinks to have recognized. A typical invalid channel access request or phantom RACH is characterized by an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT procedure (assignment of an SDCCH or TCH) which is not followed by sending an ESTABLISH INDICATION from MS to BTS. In this paper a mathematical model for evaluation of the Power RACH Busy Threshold (RACHBT) in order to guaranty in advance determined outage probability on RACH is described and discussed as well. It focuses on Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) however the obtained results can be generalized on remaining mobile technologies (ie WCDMA and LTE).

  20. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  1. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  2. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  3. 38 CFR 21.4145 - Work-study allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Work-study allowance. 21...; Educational Assistance Allowance § 21.4145 Work-study allowance. (a) Eligibility. (1) A veteran or reservist... rate of three-quarter time or full time is eligible to receive a work-study allowance. (2) An...

  4. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels.

    PubMed

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source's radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  5. Down-select ion specific media (ISM) utilization in upset and outage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, Mark S.; Bostick, William D.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a process that has been used to help nuclear power plant (NPP) clients resolve some of their more challenging waste water processing issues. These treatment issues may become even more evident during outage conditions, due (in part) to associated decontamination activities that may cause off-normal chemical conditions, which may subsequently change both the peak levels of activities for radionuclides introduced into the collected waste water and also the chemical forms in which they may exist (e.g., formation of colloids or soluble chelates). In one NPP waste processing example, a large proportion of soluble Co-58, which is normally present as a soluble cationic species or an uncharged colloidal solid, was found to behave like an anion; formation of an anionic chelation complex was implicated, possibly due to suspect EDTA, or similar additive, in a proprietary decontamination soap formulation. Antimony 125 (Sb{sup 125}), normally present as a weakly anionic (Sb(OH){sub 6}{sup -}) or even neutral (Sb(OH){sub 3}{sup 0}) species, was being displaced from previously-loaded media by other, more strongly bound species, causing an unacceptable peak activity in water intended for discharge. A quick resolution of the existing waste processing limitations was required, due to limited waste water holding capacity. Samples of the authentic NPP waste water containing the recalcitrant radionuclides were sent to our licensed off-site laboratory (MCLinc), where small-scale batch-equilibrium testing was used to down-select, from a large number (36) of candidate media (both commercially available and developed internally), those that were relatively effective and economical for use in achieving the required discharge criteria. Batch equilibrium testing is very efficient for use in screening the relative effectiveness of contaminant removal by candidate media in a select waste water composition, and can also provide an estimate of the ultimate contaminant loading

  6. Vietnam recommended dietary allowances 2007.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nguyen Cong; Hoan, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    It has been well acknowledged that Vietnam is undergoing a nutrition transition. With a rapid change in the country's reform and economic growth, food supply at the macronutrient level has improved. Changes of the Vietnamese diet include significantly more foods of animal origin, and an increase of fat/oils, and ripe fruits. Consequently, nutritional problems in Vietnam now include not only malnutrition but also overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases related to nutrition and lifestyles. The recognition of these shifts, which is also associated with morbidity and mortality, was a major factor in the need to review and update the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for the Vietnamese population. This revised RDA established an important science-based tool for evaluation of nutrition adequacy, for teaching, and for scientific communications within Vietnam. It is expected that the 2007 Vietnam RDA and its conversion to food-based dietary guidelines will facilitate education to the public, as well as the policy implementation of programs for prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases and addressing the double burden of both under and over nutrition. PMID:18460440

  7. Proxies to GNSS signal outages from irregularity dynamics around the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tanmay; Paul, Ashik

    proportion of local post-sunset to midnight hours during equinoctial months. After the unusually prolonged bottom of the solar cycle spanning 2006-2010, scintillation activity dramatically picked up during the equinoxes of 2011. While the autumnal equinox of 2010 witnessed only a few cases of intense VHF scintillations, 47 cases of intense (S4>0.6) were recorded at VHF during the vernal equinox of 2011 and 38 cases of intense (S4>0.6) L band scintillations. Dual-frequency GPS data at recorded at Calcutta and another station, Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic lat; 40°N magnetic dip), situated beyond the northern crest of the EIA have been used. For the analysis, GPS satellites observed from Calcutta with 350-km subionospheric points lying within latitude swath of 20.12°-22.12°N and longitude 86.25°-88.25°E were selected around that of FSC. It was found that periods of intense L-band scintillations corresponded to low decorrelation times at VHF and abrupt fluctuations in PDOP indicating significant compromise of navigational accuracy. A causal understanding behind GNSS tracking errors are being attempted using VHF measurements, and efforts are being made to identify a threshold decorrelation time which results in GNSS signal outages exceeding the specifications of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  8. Transformation of serum-susceptible Escherichia coli O111 with p16Slux plasmid to allow for real-time monitoring of complement-based inactivation of bacterial growth in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Maye, S; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Kelly, P M

    2016-01-01

    Complement activity has only recently been characterized in raw bovine milk. However, the activity of this component of the innate immune system was found to diminish as milk was subjected to heat or partitioning during cream separation. Detection of complement in milk relies on a bactericidal assay. This assay exploits the specific growth susceptibility of Escherichia coli O111 to the presence of complement. Practical application of the assay was demonstrated when a reduction in complement activity was recorded in the case of pasteurized and reduced-fat milks. This presented an opportunity to improve the functionality of the bactericidal assay by incorporating bioluminescence capability into the target organism. Following some adaptation, the strain was transformed by correctly integrating the p16Slux plasmid. Growth properties of the transformed strain of E. coli O111 were unaffected by the modification. The efficacy of the strain adaptation was correlated using the LINEST function analysis [r=0.966; standard error of prediction (SEy)=0.957] bioluminescence with that of bactericidal assay total plate counts within the range of 7.5 to 9.2 log cfu/mL using a combination of raw and processed milk samples. Importantly, the transformed E. coli O111 p16Slux strain could be identified in milk and broth samples using bioluminescence measurement, thus enabling the bactericidal assay-viability test to be monitored in real time throughout incubation. PMID:26585477

  9. A fluorescein-labeled AmpC β-lactamase allows rapid characterization of β-lactamase inhibitors by real-time fluorescence monitoring of the β-lactamase-inhibitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Man-Wah; Chan, Pak-Ho; Liu, Sze-Yan; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Leung, Yun-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Rapid emergence of class C β-lactamases has urged an immediate need for developing class C β-lactamase specific inhibitors for effective clinical treatment. To facilitate the development of effective class C β-lactamase inhibitors, we propose a new approach for a rapid analysis of the interaction of AmpC β-lactamase and its inhibitors using our recently developed V211Cf fluorescent β-lactamase biosensor during drug screening. Since the fluorescein of V211Cf can report the local environment change in the active site of AmpC β-lactamase, fluorescence responses of V211Cf toward its substrates/inhibitors can provide real-time traces of the dynamic change of the interaction of the β-lactamase with its substrates/inhibitors. In this study, we found that V211Cf displayed distinct fluorescence signal patterns toward different kinds of inhibitors (including clavulanic acid, sulbactam, tazobactam and 2-thiopheneboronic acid) due to the differences in their interactions with β-lactamase. V211Cf not only enables a high throughput screening for inhibitors but can also provide a rapid preliminary indication on the inhibitor's potency and stability to β-lactamase's hydrolytic action as well as how the inhibitors interact with the target enzyme, thereby speeding up the drug discovery and development cycle of class C β-lactamase inhibitors. PMID:26250526

  10. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4160 Submission of Hg allowance transfers. An Hg authorized account representative seeking recordation of a Hg allowance...

  11. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... includes an amended waste analysis plan, ground-water monitoring and response program, human exposure... and that an extension will not pose a threat to human health and the environment. (4) If a...

  12. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permit requirements; and (2) The request to modify the permit includes an amended waste analysis plan... longer than the allotted period to complete and that an extension will not pose a threat to human...

  13. 40 CFR 264.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... permit requirements; and (2) The request to modify the permit includes an amended waste analysis plan... longer than the allotted period to complete and that an extension will not pose a threat to human...

  14. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... includes an amended waste analysis plan, ground-water monitoring and response program, human exposure... and that an extension will not pose a threat to human health and the environment. (4) If a...

  15. High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder Operations for Optimal Payload and Science Telemetry Management Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, Michael T.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    All International Space Station (ISS) Ku-band telemetry transmits through the High-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (HCOR). The HCOR provides the recording and playback capability for all payload, science, and International Partner data streams transmitting through NASA's Ku-band antenna system. The HCOR is a solid-state memory recorder that provides recording capability to record all eight ISS high-rate data during ISS Loss-of-Signal periods. NASA payloads in the Destiny module are prime users of the HCOR; however, NASDA and ESA will also utilize the HCOR for data capture and playback of their high data rate links from the Kibo and Columbus modules. Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Integration Center manages the HCOR for nominal functions, including system configurations and playback operations. The purpose of this paper is to present the nominal operations plan for the HCOR and the plans for handling contingency operations affecting payload operations. In addition, the paper will address HCOR operation limitations and the expected effects on payload operations. The HCOR is manifested for ISS delivery on flight 9A with the HCOR backup manifested on flight 11A. The HCOR replaces the Medium-Rate Communications Outage Recorder (MCOR), which has supported payloads since flight 5A.1.

  16. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, A.; Bignan, G.; Szabo, J. L.; Arenas-Carrasco, J.; Arlt, R.; Dubreuil, A.; Esmailpur Kazerouni, K.

    2000-07-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR) coupled to a gamma transport code (MCNP) allows us to predict and interpret the experimental data from CdZnTe detectors. Particularly, bremsstrahlung contribution to the gamma spectra is suggested and modeled. Calculation results indicate a good agreement between this hypothesis and the present measurements.

  17. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg...

  18. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may not exceed $10 a day....

  19. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  20. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  1. Outage Performance and Average Symbol Error Rate of M-QAM for Maximum Ratio Combining with Multiple Interferers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Kyung Seung

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of maximum ratio combining (MRC) in the presence of multiple cochannel interferences over a flat Rayleigh fading channel. Closed-form expressions of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINK), outage probability, and average symbol error rate (SER) of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) with Mary signaling are obtained for unequal-power interference-to-noise ratio (INR). We also provide an upper-bound for the average SER using moment generating function (MGF) of the SINR. Moreover, we quantify the array gain loss between pure MRC (MRC system in the absence of CCI) and MRC system in the presence of CCI. Finally, we verify our analytical results by numerical simulations.

  2. The Fixed-bias Langmuir Probe on the Communication-navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite: Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, Jeffrey H.; Rowland, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication Navigation Outage Forecast System (CNOFS) satellite.CNOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H+ and O+. The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasmadensity is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the CNOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future xed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on CNOFS.

  3. The Fixed-Bias Langmuir Probe on the Communication-Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite: Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.

    2012-01-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication Navigation Outage Forecast System (CNOFS) satellite.CNOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H+ and O+. The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasma density is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the CNOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future fixed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on CNOFS.

  4. 49 CFR 266.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 266.11 Section 266.11... TRANSPORTATION ACT § 266.11 Allowable costs. Allowable costs include only the following costs which are properly allocable to the work performed: Planning and program operation costs which are allowed under...

  5. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  6. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  7. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  8. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  9. 46 CFR 154.421 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.421 Section 154.421 Shipping COAST... § 154.421 Allowable stress. The allowable stress for the integral tank structure must meet the American Bureau of Shipping's allowable stress for the vessel's hull published in “Rules for Building and...

  10. 46 CFR 154.440 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.440 Section 154.440 Shipping COAST... Tank Type A § 154.440 Allowable stress. (a) The allowable stresses for an independent tank type A must... Commandant (CG-522). (b) A greater allowable stress than required in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may...

  11. Evaluation of the resilience of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge reactor to long-term outages at a sewage treatment plant in India.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takashi; Takayama, Daisuke; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Harada, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    Resilience to process outages is an essential requirement for sustainable wastewater treatment systems in developing countries. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a full-scale down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor to recover after a 10-day outage. The DHS tested in this study uses polyurethane sponge as packing material. This full-scale DHS reactor has been tested over a period of about 4 years in India with a flow rate of 500 m(3)/day. Water was not supplied to the DHS reactor that was subjected to the 10-day outage; however, the biomass did not dry out because the sponge was able to retain enough water. Soon after the reactor was restarted, a small quantity of biomass, amounting to only 0.1% of the total retained biomass, was eluted. The DHS effluent achieved satisfactory removal of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonium nitrogen within 90, 45, and 90 min, respectively. Conversely, fecal coliforms in the DHS effluent did not reach satisfactory levels within 540 min; instead, the normal levels of fecal coliforms were achieved within 3 days. Overall, the tests demonstrated that the DHS reactor was sufficiently robust to withstand long-term outages and achieved steady state soon after restart. This reinforces the suitability of this technology for developing countries. PMID:27450993

  12. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  13. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  14. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clothing allowance; multiple types of garments affected. A veteran is entitled to an annual clothing...) Two clothing allowances; single type of garment affected. A veteran is entitled to two annual...

  15. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  16. 50 CFR 85.41 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable Federal cost principles in 43 CFR 12.60(b). Purchase of informational signs, program signs, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 85.41 Section 85.41... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.41 Allowable costs. (a) Allowable grant costs are limited to those...

  17. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  18. 45 CFR 1180.56 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1180.56 Section 1180.56 Public... by a Grantee General Administrative Responsibilities § 1180.56 Allowable costs. (a) Determination of costs allowable under a grant is made in accordance with government-wide cost principles in...

  19. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that are proper...

  20. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public... PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs...

  1. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  2. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  3. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... Financial and Program Management § 34.17 Allowable costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined...

  4. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  5. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  6. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  7. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  8. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  9. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  10. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  11. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable activities. Allowable activities are...

  12. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  13. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  14. 42 CFR 417.534 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.534 Section 417.534 Public... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.534 Allowable costs. (a) Definition—Allowable costs means the direct and indirect costs, including normal standby costs incurred by the HMO or CMP, that...

  15. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  16. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  17. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  18. 34 CFR 675.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 675.33 Section 675.33 Education... costs. (a)(1) Allowable and unallowable costs. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, costs reasonably related to carrying out the programs described in § 675.32 are allowable. (2)...

  19. 45 CFR 1157.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1157.22 Section 1157.22 Public... Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable...

  20. 34 CFR 304.21 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Grantee § 304.21 Allowable costs. In addition to the allowable costs established in the Education Department General Administrative Regulations in 34 CFR 75.530 through 75.562, the following items are... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Allowable costs. 304.21 Section 304.21...

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  3. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  4. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  5. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  6. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  7. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  8. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  9. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  10. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  11. 20 CFR 211.8 - Displacement allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Displacement allowance. 211.8 Section 211.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.8 Displacement allowance. An allowance paid to an employee because he has...

  12. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs....

  13. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  14. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  15. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  16. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... costs for major disasters and emergencies will be paid in accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  17. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  18. 44 CFR 204.63 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....63 Allowable costs. 44 CFR 13.22 establishes general policies for determining allowable costs. (a) We will reimburse direct costs for the administration of a fire management assistance grant under 44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs....

  19. 44 CFR 206.439 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. (a) General requirements for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those requirements as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained in paragraph (b) of this... CFR part 207. (c) Pre-award costs. FEMA may fund eligible pre-award planning or project costs at...

  20. 46 CFR 154.428 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.428 Section 154.428 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.428 Allowable stress. The membrane tank and the supporting insulation must have allowable...

  1. 46 CFR 154.447 - Allowable stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable stress. 154.447 Section 154.447 Shipping COAST... Tank Type B § 154.447 Allowable stress. (a) An independent tank type B designed from bodies of revolution must have allowable stresses 3 determined by the following formulae: 3 See Appendix B for...

  2. 44 CFR 206.228 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Allowable costs. General policies for determining allowable costs are established in 44 CFR 13.22. Exceptions to those policies as allowed in 44 CFR 13.4 and 13.6 are explained below. (a) Eligible direct... accordance with 44 CFR part 207. (b)...

  3. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis will not be allowed if any of the following circumstances..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  4. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis will not be allowed if any of the following circumstances..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  5. Cluster approach allows budgeting, planning with DRGs.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, P L

    1984-01-01

    Measuring costs and revenues on a diagnosis related group (DRG) basis allows health care managers to define product lines, identify market shares, and examine the effects of case mix and physician behavior on profitability. It also enables public agencies to predict bed needs and evaluate certificate-of-need applications. The large number of DRGs, however, and other managerial considerations may discourage the use of DRG-based budgeting and planning. To save time and enhance data usefulness, financial officers may consolidate the DRGs into fewer groups. Revenue, for example, can be estimated by grouping the DRGs into 23 major diagnostic categories or by clustering them according to cost weight or into one group. Comparisons of payment rates and costs will identify the DRGs that lose money and will determine whether departmental costs are excessive. Strategic planning units formed from the 468 DRGs will help health care managers analyze and project performance. Product lines for this purpose may be clustered according to major diagnostic category, physician specialty, or clinical department. Since a potentially enormous amount of DRG-based clinical and financial information could be generated, hospitals should create data committees to ensure that managers receive only the information they need. PMID:10310693

  6. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  7. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  8. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.32 Claims not allowed. Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep..., authorized, or certified at the time of the test; (c) Testing of goats, sheep, and horses in the herd...

  9. Prediction of Communication Outage Period between Satellite and Earth station Due to Sun Interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongjun; Kim, Kap-Sung; Jin, Ho; Lee, Byoung-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Geostationary satellites are located at an altitude of approximately 35,786km above the equator, and revolve in the same angular velocity as earth. Geostationary satellites can therefore, communicate with a ground earth station at all times. However, geostationary satellites also experience communication failure time, twice a year, closely one upon the other in spring and autumn quarters. The communication errors occur when ground station-satellite-the Sun are aligned closely, which occurs during spring and fall equinoxes. At such times, thermal noise emitted from the Sun's surface hits the rear side of the satellite and flows directly into the earth station antenna. This is called solar interference. Studies on duration calculation methods and prediction results of a solar interference phenomenon were implemented by many scientists (Vuong & Forsey 1983, Mohamadi & Lyon 1988, Lin & Yang 1989) abroad, and also by Lee et al. (1991) in Korea. To calculate the time of solar interference, information on precise position of the Sun and earth station antenna systems is necessary. Previous researches used the formula of Van Flandern (Van Flandern & Pulkkinen 1979) when calculating the Sun's position, but it has position error of about 1 arcmin. Using the precise ephemeris DE406, which published by NASA/JPL and the earth ellipsoid model, the study calculated the precise positioning of the Sun as causing error within 10 arcsec. For the verification of the calculation, we used TU media ground station located in Seongsu-dong and the MBSAT satellite operated by TU media.

  10. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  11. The fixed-bias Langmuir probe on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite: calibration and validation.

    PubMed

    Klenzing, J; Rowland, D

    2012-11-01

    A fixed-bias spherical Langmuir probe is included as part of the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) suite on the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. C/NOFS gathers data in the equatorial ionosphere between 400 and 860 km, where the primary constituent ions are H(+) and O(+). The ion current collected by the probe surface per unit plasma density is found to be a strong function of ion composition. The calibration of the collected current to an absolute density is discussed, and the performance of the spherical probe is compared to other in situ instruments on board the C/NOFS satellite. The application of the calibration is discussed with respect to future fixed-bias probes; in particular, it is demonstrated that some density fluctuations will be suppressed in the collected current if the plasma composition rapidly changes along with density. This is illustrated in the observation of plasma density enhancements on C/NOFS. PMID:23206077

  12. 14 CFR 1273.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply...) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in the form of payments to fixed-price contractors; and (2) Reasonable fees or profit to...

  13. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply with... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  14. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  15. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  16. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  17. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  18. 27 CFR 28.334 - Credit allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Credit allowance. 28.334... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Action on Claims § 28.334 Credit allowance. Where the credit relates to internal revenue taxes on beer that have been determined but not yet paid by...

  19. Allocation of Allowances and Associated Family Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, M. Kaye; Cheadle, Tannis

    This study gathered information on general family practices concerning allowances given to children, parental reasons for the provision of allowances, the bases for their administration, and the frequency of conflicts generated around them. The subjects were 81 parents of elementary school children in a midwest Canadian city. Subjects completed…

  20. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  1. 29 CFR 1470.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 1470.22 Section 1470.22 Labor Regulations... Financial Administration § 1470.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  2. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  3. 2 CFR 215.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 230, “Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations (OMB Circular A-122).” The allowability of... CFR part 220, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions (OMB Circular A-21).” The allowability of costs incurred by hospitals is determined in accordance with the provisions of appendix E of 45 CFR...

  4. 45 CFR 2541.220 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2541.220 Section 2541.220 Public... Post-Award Requirements § 2541.220 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may...

  5. 45 CFR 1183.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1183.22 Section 1183.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  7. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  8. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment Plans § 417.802 Allowable costs. (a) General rule. The costs that are... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802...

  9. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  10. 20 CFR 632.258 - Allowable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable activities. 632.258 Section 632.258 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.258 Allowable...

  11. 19 CFR 191.141 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback allowance. 191.141 Section 191.141 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.141 Drawback allowance. Section 313(h) of the...

  12. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  13. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  14. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  15. 21 CFR 1403.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and an organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31... Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees and cost-type contractors, including allowable costs in...

  16. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  17. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  18. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  19. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  20. 20 CFR 631.84 - Allowable projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable projects. 631.84 Section 631.84... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.84 Allowable projects...) Shall be used exclusively to provide employment on projects that provide food, clothing, shelter...

  1. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clothing allowance. 3.810 Section 3.810 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Special Benefits § 3.810 Clothing allowance. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  2. 20 CFR 617.46 - Travel allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part... prevailing per diem allowance rate authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel allowance. 617.46 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  4. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.160 - Operating allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Operating allowances. 1206.160 Section 1206.160 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Gas § 1206.160 Operating allowances. Notwithstanding any...

  6. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  7. 4 CFR 5.6 - Allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowances. 5.6 Section 5.6 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.6 Allowances. The provisions of chapter 59 of title 5, U.S. Code and the implementing regulations for the Executive Branch apply to Government...

  8. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  9. 28 CFR 66.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 66.22 Section 66.22... Administration § 66.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  10. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  11. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  12. 45 CFR 1174.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 1174.22 Section 1174.22 Public....22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  13. 45 CFR 602.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 602.22 Section 602.22 Public... Requirements § 602.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for:...

  14. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  15. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  16. 32 CFR 33.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 33.22 Section 33.22 National... Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 33.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use...

  17. 45 CFR 92.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 92.22 Section 92.22 Public... Financial Administration § 92.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be...

  18. 40 CFR 31.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 31.22 Section 31.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 31.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  19. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85... TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 85.22 Allowable costs....

  20. 30 CFR 735.24 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allowable costs. 735.24 Section 735.24 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.24 Allowable costs. The Director or his authorized designee shall determine costs which may be reimbursed according to Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-87....

  1. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 633.303 Section 633.303... FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.303 Allowable costs. (a) General....

  2. 7 CFR 3016.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 3016.22 Section 3016.22 Agriculture... GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 3016.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on...

  3. 38 CFR 43.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allowable costs. 43.22... Requirements Financial Administration § 43.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds...

  4. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... considered allowable for HCPP reimbursement are the same as those for reasonable cost HMOs and CMPs specified... and other Part B supplier services furnished under arrangements is an allowable cost to the extent it... reasonable if they— (A) Do not exceed those that a prudent and cost-conscious buyer would incur to...

  5. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food... EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24 Inventory... registered manufacturer shall be allowed as a part of the quota an amount sufficient to maintain an...

  6. 21 CFR 1303.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1303.24 Section 1303.24 Food... Quotas § 1303.24 Inventory allowance. (a) For the purpose of determining individual manufacturing quotas... sufficient to maintain an inventory equal to, (1) For current manufacturers, 50 percent of his...

  7. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  8. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  9. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  10. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and proposal...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a.... Allowability of costs must be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable to the...

  11. 7 CFR 550.25 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. Program Management ... at 2 CFR part 225. The allowability of costs incurred by non-profit organizations is determined in... at 2 CFR part 230. The allowability of costs incurred by institutions of higher education...

  12. 50 CFR 80.15 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., see 5 CFR 1310.3.). (b) What is required to determine the allowability of costs? Source documents or...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS, PITTMAN-ROBERTSON WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.15 Allowable costs. (a) What...

  13. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  14. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  15. 10 CFR 600.317 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OMB Circular A-122 is determined in accordance with the for-profit costs principles in 48 CFR part 31 in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, except that patent prosecution costs are not allowable unless... Organizations.” (iii) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part...

  16. Family Allowances and Fertility: Socioeconomic Differences

    PubMed Central

    SCHELLEKENS, JONA

    2009-01-01

    This article explores socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances on fertility. Although several studies have examined the relationship between cash benefits and fertility, few studies have addressed the possible differential effects of cash benefits on families of different income or education levels. I reconstructed the birth histories of women in the past two Israeli censuses of 1983 and 1995 to study socioeconomic differences in the effect of family allowances up to the seventh parity. The results indicate that family allowances have a significant effect at every parity. Using female education as an indicator of socioeconomic status, I find that socioeconomic status is a significant modifier of the effect of family allowances. Family allowances seem to have a relatively large impact on more-educated women. PMID:19771939

  17. Outage Performance Analysis of Relay Selection Schemes in Wireless Energy Harvesting Cooperative Networks over Non-Identical Rayleigh Fading Channels †

    PubMed Central

    Do, Nhu Tri; Bao, Vo Nguyen Quoc; An, Beongku

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study relay selection in decode-and-forward wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the relays harvest energy from the source’s radio-frequency radiation and then use that energy to forward the source information. Considering power splitting receiver architecture used at relays to harvest energy, we are concerned with the performance of two popular relay selection schemes, namely, partial relay selection (PRS) scheme and optimal relay selection (ORS) scheme. In particular, we analyze the system performance in terms of outage probability (OP) over independent and non-identical (i.n.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channels. We derive the closed-form approximations for the system outage probabilities of both schemes and validate the analysis by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The numerical results provide comprehensive performance comparison between the PRS and ORS schemes and reveal the effect of wireless energy harvesting on the outage performances of both schemes. Additionally, we also show the advantages and drawbacks of the wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks and compare to the conventional cooperative networks. PMID:26927119

  18. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL AND GAS LEASES § 1220.012 Overhead allowance. (a) During the capital recovery period the overhead... under § 1220.011(c) that are salvaged, returned, or used for the benefit of non-NPSL operations....

  19. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  20. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  1. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  2. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  3. 36 CFR 1207.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1) The allowable costs of the grantees, subgrantees...

  4. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  5. 15 CFR 24.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable costs. 24.22 Section 24.22... Administration § 24.22 Allowable costs. (a) Limitation on use of funds. Grant funds may be used only for: (1)...

  6. Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.

  7. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  8. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  9. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 85.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 85.22 Section 85.22 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 30 CFR 220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 220.012 Section 220.012 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL AND GAS...

  12. 30 CFR 1220.012 - Overhead allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead allowance. 1220.012 Section 1220.012 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ACCOUNTING PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING NET PROFIT SHARE PAYMENT FOR OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF OIL...

  13. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 2543.27 Section 2543.27...

  15. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62... COST PRINCIPLES FOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and...

  16. 24 CFR 84.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 84.27 Section...

  17. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  18. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  19. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  20. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  1. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  2. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  3. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  4. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  5. 22 CFR 135.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allowable costs. 135.22 Section 135.22 Foreign... AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Post-Award Requirements Financial Administration § 135.22...

  6. 42 CFR 405.2468 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 405.2468 Section 405.2468 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Rural Health Clinic and Federally Qualified Health Center Services Payment for Rural...

  7. 78 FR 32629 - Post Allowance and Refiling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Post Allowance and Refiling ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  8. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  9. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-12-31

    The use of the SO{sub 2} allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO{sub 2} emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO{sub 2} for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO{sub x} emission averaging, the utility would average NO{sub x} emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  10. 15 CFR 921.81 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 921.81 Section 921.81 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL ESTUARINE RESEARCH RESERVE...

  11. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  12. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  13. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  14. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  15. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  18. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  19. 34 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Educational institution OMB Circular A-21. Hospital Appendix E to 45 CFR part 74. Commercial for-profit organization other than a hospital and an educational institution 48 CFR part 31 Contract Cost Principles and... and Program Management § 74.27 Allowable costs. (a) For each kind of recipient, there is a set of...

  20. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  1. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  3. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  4. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  5. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable costs. 208.33 Section 208.33 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  7. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  8. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  9. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  11. 40 CFR 30.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. In addition... costs. Allowability of costs shall be determined in accordance with the cost principles applicable...

  12. 49 CFR 19.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 19.27 Section...

  13. 49 CFR 18.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and... transportation services provided leasing is more cost effective than acquisition or construction. ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable costs. 18.22 Section...

  14. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable claims. 180.104 Section 180.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... are payable: (i) Where personal funds were accepted by responsible Government personnel with...

  15. 19 CFR 191.101 - Drawback allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.101 Drawback allowance. (a... perfumery) manufactured or produced in the United States in part from the domestic tax-paid alcohol. (b... tax on flavoring extracts or medicinal or toilet preparations (including perfumery) manufactured...

  16. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  17. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  18. 44 CFR 208.33 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Consistent with Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars A-21, A-87, A-102 and A-110 (2 CFR part 215... Agreements § 208.33 Allowable costs. (a) Cost neutrality. DHS policy is that an Alert or Activation should be as cost neutral as possible to Sponsoring Agencies and Participating Agencies. To make an Alert...

  19. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  20. 28 CFR 70.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 70.27 Allowable costs. (a... current period. However, if the recipient's established practice is to treat these costs by some other... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. (b) OMB Circular A-122 does not cover the treatment of bid and...

  1. 34 CFR 80.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or uniform cost accounting standards that comply... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable costs. 80.22 Section 80.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS...

  2. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  3. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  4. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... allowance of the tax where the cigarette papers and tubes, after removal from the factory upon determination... perjury and shall show the date the cigarette papers and tubes were removed from the factory. A claim... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  5. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  6. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  7. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  8. 21 CFR 1315.24 - Inventory allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inventory allowance. 1315.24 Section 1315.24 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPORTATION AND PRODUCTION QUOTAS FOR EPHEDRINE, PSEUDOEPHEDRINE, AND PHENYLPROPANOLAMINE Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.24...

  9. 20 CFR 633.303 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR part 29-70... be allowable, a cost must be necessary and reasonable for proper and efficient administration of the... billed as a single unit charge do not have to be allocated or prorated among the several cost...

  10. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  11. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  12. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  13. 20 CFR 632.37 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... otherwise indicated below, direct and indirect costs shall be charged in accordance with 41 CFR 29-70 and 41 CFR 1-15.7. (c) Costs associated with repairs, maintenance, and capital improvements of existing... charged to the program shall be consistent with those normally allowed in like circumstances and,...

  14. 33 CFR 136.205 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.205 Section 136.205 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  15. 33 CFR 136.211 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.211 Section 136.211 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  16. 33 CFR 136.223 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.223 Section 136.223 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  17. 33 CFR 136.217 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.217 Section 136.217 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  18. 33 CFR 136.229 - Compensation allowable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compensation allowable. 136.229 Section 136.229 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  19. 43 CFR 12.62 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR Part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 12.62 Section 12.62 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND...

  20. Manpower Training Allowances: Financial Assistance or Investment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, Georges

    1975-01-01

    The author compares the differing approaches of Germany, Sweden, France, and Australia for providing financial support to adults enrolled in vocational training programs, focusing on training allowances for recurrent education. He concludes that without some governmental maintenance program, it is unlikely that adults can utilize even tuition-free…

  1. 42 CFR 417.802 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 417.802 Section 417.802 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS, COMPETITIVE MEDICAL PLANS, AND HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Health Care Prepayment...

  2. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  3. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  4. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  5. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  6. 10 CFR 440.18 - Allowable expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the purchase of vehicles or other certain types of equipment as defined in 10 CFR part 600 may be... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allowable expenditures. 440.18 Section 440.18 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.18...

  7. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  8. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  9. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  11. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  13. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  15. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  16. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  17. 22 CFR 226.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and... accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 226.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  18. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  19. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  20. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  1. 22 CFR 518.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is determined in accordance with the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for... Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Financial and Program Management § 518.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set...

  2. 44 CFR 79.8 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Allowable costs. 79.8 Section 79.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Management Costs—(i) Grantee. States are eligible to receive management costs consisting of a maximum of...

  3. 45 CFR 74.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 74.27... cost principles applicable to the entity incurring the costs. Thus, allowability of costs incurred...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  5. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  6. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  7. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  9. 45 CFR 2543.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 2543.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  10. 44 CFR 13.22 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR part 31. Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable costs. 13.22 Section 13.22 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 20 CFR 435.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 435.27 Allowable costs. For each...

  12. 15 CFR 14.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Research and Development Under Grants and... provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Financial and Program Management § 14.27 Allowable costs. For each kind...

  13. 7 CFR 3019.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... determined in accordance with the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR part 31. ... Management § 3019.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  14. 36 CFR 1210.27 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the provisions of Appendix E of 45 CFR Part 74, “Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to... the provisions of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) at 48 CFR Part 31. ... Management § 1210.27 Allowable costs. For each kind of recipient, there is a set of Federal principles...

  15. 44 CFR 11.73 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 11.73 Section 11.73 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... request of, or with the knowledge and consent of, superior authority or by reason of necessity. (8)...

  16. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allowance. 40.472 Section 40.472 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette...

  17. 27 CFR 40.472 - Allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allowance. 40.472 Section 40.472 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette...

  18. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the government. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property used for the benefit of the...

  19. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  20. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  1. 32 CFR 34.17 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organizations, is to be determined in accordance with: (1) The for-profit cost principles in 48 CFR parts 31 and.... (3) Hospitals. Allowability is determined in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR part 74... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award...

  2. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nodependents Onedependent Twodependents Additionalamount for each dependent over two Institutional: 1 Full-time....88 29.71 Combination of institutional and OJT (Full-time only): Institutional greater than 1/2 time... (Full-time only): Institutional 374.93 465.08 548.05 39.95 On-job 327.81 396.44 456.88 29.71...

  3. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  4. Evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost Program

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. James; Hefner, Dennis; Dobson, Allen; Hardy, Ralph

    1983-01-01

    This article summarizes an evaluation of the Maximum Allowable Cost (MAC)-Estimated Acquisition Cost (EAC) program, the Federal Government's cost-containment program for prescription drugs.1 The MAC-EAC regulations which became effective on August 26, 1976, have four major components: (1) Maximum Allowable Cost reimbursement limits for selected multisource or generically available drugs; (2) Estimated Acquisition Cost reimbursement limits for all drugs; (3) “usual and customary” reimbursement limits for all drugs; and (4) a directive that professional fee studies be performed by each State. The study examines the benefits and costs of the MAC reimbursement limits for 15 dosage forms of five multisource drugs and EAC reimbursement limits for all drugs for five selected States as of 1979. PMID:10309857

  5. 10 CFR 600.222 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than a hospital and an organization named in OBM Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular 48 CFR... organization named in OMB Circular A-122 as not subject to that circular. 48 CFR 931.2 Hospitals 45 CFR part 74... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable costs. 600.222 Section 600.222 Energy...

  6. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31.... Training consisting of solely distance learning: 5 Full-time 1/2 BAH National Average. 3/4 time 3/8 BAH... extended evaluation. 5 Payment for training consisting of both distance learning and courses taken at...

  7. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31.... Training consisting of solely distance learning: 5 Full-time 1/2 BAH National Average. 3/4 time 3/8 BAH... extended evaluation. 5 Payment for training consisting of both distance learning and courses taken at...

  8. 38 CFR 21.260 - Subsistence allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31.... Training consisting of solely distance learning: 5 Full-time 1/2 BAH National Average. 3/4 time 3/8 BAH... extended evaluation. 5 Payment for training consisting of both distance learning and courses taken at...

  9. 40 CFR 60.4160 - Submission of Hg allowance transfers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission of Hg allowance transfers. 60.4160 Section 60.4160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Coal-Fired Electric...

  10. Robust technique allowing manufacturing superoleophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Grynyov, Roman; Chaniel, Gilad; Taitelbaum, Haim; Bormashenko, Yelena

    2013-04-01

    We report the robust technique allowing manufacturing of superhydrophobic and oleophobic (omniphobic) surfaces with industrial grade low density polyethylene. The reported process includes two stages: (1) hot embossing of polyethylene with micro-scaled steel gauzes; (2) treatment of embossed surfaces with cold radiofrequency plasma of tetrafluoromethane. The reported surfaces demonstrate not only pronounced superhydrophobicity but also superoleophobicity. Superoleophobicity results from the hierarchical nano-scaled topography of fluorinated polyethylene surface. The observed superoleophobicity is strengthened by the hydrophobic recovery. The stability of the Cassie wetting regime was studied.

  11. Horizontal subsea trees allow frequent deepwater workovers

    SciTech Connect

    Krenek, M.; Hall, G.; Sheng, W.Z.

    1995-05-01

    Horizontal subsea wellheads have found application in the Liuhua oil field in the South China Sea. These trees allow installation and retrieval of downhole equipment through the tree without having to disturb the tree or its external connections to flow lines, service lines, or control umbilicals. This access to the well is important because the Liuhua wells will be produced with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs), which may have relatively short intervals between maintenance, leading to frequent well work. The wells will be completed subsea in about 300 m of water. The large bore, horizontal trees allow all downhole equipment to be pulled without removal of the subsea tree. This wellhead configuration also provides well control and vertical access to downhole equipment through a conventional marine drilling riser and subsea blowout preventer (BOP), eliminating the need for costly specialized completion risers. Another benefit of the horizontal tree is its extremely compact profile with a low number of valves for well control. Valve size and spacing are decoupled from the size and bore spacing of the tubing hanger. The tree`s low profile geometry reduces costs of manufacturing the tree and framework and optimize load transfer to the wellhead.

  12. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Airborne Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2008-01-01

    The enclosed table lists official spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations (SMACs), which are guideline values set by the NASA/JSC Toxicology Group in cooperation with the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology (NRCCOT). These values should not be used for situations other than human space flight without careful consideration of the criteria used to set each value. The SMACs take into account a number of unique factors such as the effect of space-flight stress on human physiology, the uniform good health of the astronauts, and the absence of pregnant or very young individuals. Documentation of the values is given in a 5 volume series of books entitled "Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants" published by the National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. These books can be viewed electronically at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9786&page=3. Short-term (1 and 24 hour) SMACs are set to manage accidental releases aboard a spacecraft and permit risk of minor, reversible effects such as mild mucosal irritation. In contrast, the long-term SMACs are set to fully protect healthy crewmembers from adverse effects resulting from continuous exposure to specific air pollutants for up to 1000 days. Crewmembers with allergies or unusual sensitivity to trace pollutants may not be afforded complete protection, even when long-term SMACs are not exceeded. Crewmember exposures involve a mixture of contaminants, each at a specific concentration (C(sub n)). These contaminants could interact to elicit symptoms of toxicity even though individual contaminants do not exceed their respective SMACs. The air quality is considered acceptable when the toxicity index (T(sub grp)) for each toxicological group of compounds is less than 1, where T(sub grp), is calculated as follows: T(sub grp) = C(sub 1)/SMAC(sub 1) + C(sub 2/SMAC(sub 2) + ...+C(sub n)/SMAC(sub n).

  13. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  14. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  15. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  16. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  17. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  18. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  19. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  20. 42 CFR 61.8 - Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Benefits: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances; vacation. 61.8 Section 61.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.8 Benefits:...

  1. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  2. 42 CFR 61.9 - Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payments: Stipends; dependency allowances; travel allowances. 61.9 Section 61.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.9 Payments: Stipends;...

  3. 40 CFR 82.8 - Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant of essential use allowances and critical use allowances. 82.8 Section 82.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.8 Grant of essential use...

  4. 78 FR 26637 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance-Relocation Income Tax (RIT) Allowable Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... June 25, 2008 (73 FR 35952), specifying that GSA would no longer publish the RIT Allowance tables in... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowance--Relocation Income Tax (RIT)...

  5. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, the... time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal owner of the property for... for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with NASA may be considered...

  6. 14 CFR 1261.104 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, the... time of the damage or loss, or solely because the claimant was not the legal owner of the property for... for damage to, or loss of, personal property incident to service with NASA may be considered...

  7. Allowing "Artistic Agency" in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rufo, David

    2011-01-01

    The author was interested in seeing what would happen if children were given more latitude when making art in school. In January 2009, he began by setting up environments in his classroom wherein he hoped his students would feel free to create self-initiated forms of artmaking. Two times each week an hour was set aside for an activity called Open…

  8. Global aerial flyways allow efficient travelling.

    PubMed

    Kranstauber, B; Weinzierl, R; Wikelski, M; Safi, K

    2015-12-01

    Birds migrate over vast distances at substantial costs. The highly dynamic nature of the air makes the selection of the best travel route difficult. We investigated to what extent migratory birds may optimise migratory route choice with respect to wind, and if route choice can be subject to natural selection. Following the optimal route, calculated using 21 years of empirical global wind data, reduced median travel time by 26.5% compared to the spatially shortest route. When we used a time-dependent survival model to quantify the adaptive benefit of choosing a fixed wind-optimised route, 84.8% of pairs of locations yielded a route with a higher survival than the shortest route. This suggests that birds, even if incapable of predicting wind individually, could adjust their migratory routes at a population level. As a consequence, this may result in the emergence of low-cost flyways representing a global network of aerial migratory pathways. PMID:26477348

  9. Assessing allowable take of migratory birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, M.C.; Sauer, J.R.; Avery, M.L.; Blackwell, B.F.; Koneff, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Legal removal of migratory birds from the wild occurs for several reasons, including subsistence, sport harvest, damage control, and the pet trade. We argue that harvest theory provides the basis for assessing the impact of authorized take, advance a simplified rendering of harvest theory known as potential biological removal as a useful starting point for assessing take, and demonstrate this approach with a case study of depredation control of black vultures (Coragyps atratus) in Virginia, USA. Based on data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey and other sources, we estimated that the black vulture population in Virginia was 91,190 (95% credible interval = 44,520?212,100) in 2006. Using a simple population model and available estimates of life-history parameters, we estimated the intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) to be in the range 7?14%, with 10.6% a plausible point estimate. For a take program to seek an equilibrium population size on the conservative side of the yield curve, the rate of take needs to be less than that which achieves a maximum sustained yield (0.5 x rmax). Based on the point estimate for rmax and using the lower 60% credible interval for population size to account for uncertainty, these conditions would be met if the take of black vultures in Virginia in 2006 was <3,533 birds. Based on regular monitoring data, allowable harvest should be adjusted annually to reflect changes in population size. To initiate discussion about how this assessment framework could be related to the laws and regulations that govern authorization of such take, we suggest that the Migratory Bird Treaty Act requires only that take of native migratory birds be sustainable in the long-term, that is, sustained harvest rate should be

  10. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  11. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision.

    PubMed

    Svenkeson, A; Swami, A

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  12. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  13. Allowable response delay for large aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, R. T.; Tingas, S. A.; Grantham, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The degree of permissible time delay in an airliner flight control system is presently sought by means of a pilot-in-the-loop moving base flight simulator, assuming the characteristics of an advanced L-1011 aircraft variant. Test pilots and engineers from the U.S. Navy, the airliner manufacturer, and NASA Langley were used in a task which encompassed approach and landing after recovery from offsets in localizer and glide slope, during calm, turbulent, and cross-wind conditions. The data obtained in the course of 279 runs included statistics on pilot workload and performance as well as pilot opinion. Preliminary results indicate that requirements for a 0.1-sec maximum delay in aircraft response are excessively conservative for large aircraft, where an offset landing maneuver is the critical design task. Lateral axis delays appear to be more critical than longitudinal ones.

  14. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    PubMed Central

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-01-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form. PMID:26439503

  15. 34 CFR 656.30 - What are allowable costs and limitations on allowable costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Library acquisitions; (3) Teaching and research materials; (4) Curriculum planning and development; (5) Bringing visiting scholars and faculty to the Center to teach, conduct research, or participate in... training in the Center's field or topic. (b) Limitations on allowable costs. The following are...

  16. 76 FR 16629 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Relocation Allowances-Relocation Income Tax Allowance (RITA) Tables

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... Register (73 FR 35952) specifying that the General Services Administration (GSA) would no longer publish.... FTR Bulletin 11-05 and all other FTR Bulletins can be found at http://www.gsa.gov/ftrbulletin . The RIT allowance tables are located at http://www.gsa.gov/relocationpolicy . DATES: This notice...

  17. Equatorial longitude and local time variations of topside magnetic field-aligned ion drifts at solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, A. G.; Heelis, R. A.; Stoneback, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    In the topside ionosphere, the high mobility of the plasma along the magnetic field allows field-aligned ion drifts to occur readily as a result of field-aligned gravitational forces, collisional forces, or pressure gradients. Therefore, variations in the field-aligned ion drifts can be used to explore the influence of thermospheric, electrodynamic, and chemical processes on the ionosphere. Longitude and local time variations in the field-aligned ion drifts near the magnetic equator are presented using observations from the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation on board the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System satellite. These observations were obtained during the period of extremely low solar activity present in 2008 and 2009, allowing the seasonal, local time, and longitudinal variations to reveal the relative importance of the processes responsible for topside field-aligned plasma drifts during solar minimum. This investigation found that the low-altitude winds and tides, the net ionization or loss, and the meridional E×B drift were all influential in creating longitudinal and local time variations in the field-aligned drift, though the strength of the influence seen by each driver was found to vary with season, local time, and longitude.

  18. Computer-generated holograms allowing 360-degree viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yuji; Kashiwagi, Akifumi; Murarya, Yoshimi

    2007-02-01

    Holograms that is allowing 360-degree viewing such as cylindrical holograms, show us 3D images with motion parallax and look-around property. Especially, full parallax holograms - not multiplex holograms - make reproductions with an impressive 3-D feeling. However, it has not been realized by a computer-generated hologram, because it takes huge amount of time to calculate a fringe pattern by a PC. To improve the calculation time, we have studied two types of computer-generated holograms allowing 360-degree viewing: cylindrical holograms and prismatic holograms. A prismatic hologram consists of some plates, and it takes not so much time to synthesize the hologram on each plate, because there are some fast calculation methods on planar shape hologram. For the example of the prismatic holograms, we made decagonal prismatic holograms that consist of 10 plates. On the other hand, a fast calculation method of cylindrical-holograms has been proposed, theoretically. We have implemented the method and verified the efficiency of the method. Both calculated fringe patterns were printed on transparent sheets and were carried out experiments of reconstruction. As the results, the holograms show us 3D images of objects at the center of the hologram. A viewer can see the 3D objects from 360-degree by both eyes. In this paper, we discuss the methods and experimental results.

  19. Allowable pillar to diameter ratio for strategic petroleum reserve caverns.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2011-05-01

    This report compiles 3-D finite element analyses performed to evaluate the stability of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) caverns over multiple leach cycles. When oil is withdrawn from a cavern in salt using freshwater, the cavern enlarges. As a result, the pillar separating caverns in the SPR fields is reduced over time due to usage of the reserve. The enlarged cavern diameters and smaller pillars reduce underground stability. Advances in geomechanics modeling enable the allowable pillar to diameter ratio (P/D) to be defined. Prior to such modeling capabilities, the allowable P/D was established as 1.78 based on some very limited experience in other cavern fields. While appropriate for 1980, the ratio conservatively limits the allowable number of oil drawdowns and hence limits the overall utility and life of the SPR cavern field. Analyses from all four cavern fields are evaluated along with operating experience gained over the past 30 years to define a new P/D for the reserve. A new ratio of 1.0 is recommended. This ratio is applicable only to existing SPR caverns.

  20. Allowable carbon emissions for a medium mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Huntingford, C.; Kawamiya, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world climate research centres are currently running Earth System Models (ESMs) forced by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. Based on these future pathways in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the emphasis has been mainly on estimating the associated levels of global warming that might be expected. There is also the important task of determining emission trajectories associated with the pathways, that may then be assessed by socio-economists for feasibility. Here we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity and a probabilistic framework to estimate the range of future temperature change and allowable emissions corresponding to a medium CO2 concentration pathway (RCP4.5). Uncertainty is initially estimated by allowing the equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within the widely accepted ranges. The results are then further constrained by extensive use of contemporary measurements. The resulting range of temperatures corresponding to RCP4.5 remains large. By year 2300, the predicted global temperature increase from pre-industrial has ± 2 standard deviation range of 1.4K, either side of a mean of 3.0K with 91% probability for increase over 2K. This result has major implications for future planning, as the difference between the upper and lower levels of warming may be expected to be enormous in terms of impacts, and quite possibly could differentiate between what is deemed "dangerous change" or otherwise. After constraint using contemporary data, the ensemble mean of the experiment allows similar emissions to the standard RCP4.5 emission scenario. The allowable emission for the peak emission period is projected as 11.5±2.0 PgC yr-1. Our ensemble demonstrates that, with high probability, drastic cuts in emissions will be required and that there is a probability of around 2% that there will need to be an extended period of time with global negative