Sample records for alloxan-induced diabetic mice

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  2. Cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris prevents hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Song; Du, Mei

    2015-05-01

    Cordyceps militaris has long been used in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Cordycepin with proven immunomodulatory, antitumor, and hepatoprotective properties is the main active metabolite of C militaris. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels. Hence, we hypothesized that cordycepin can normalize blood sugar levels and improve the indicators of diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of cordycepin from C militaris on diabetes in an alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. Diabetic mice were intraperitoneally administered different doses of cordycepin (8, 24, and 72mg/kg body weight) daily for 21days. Acute toxicity test on normal mice was carried out by giving them maximum tolerance dose of cordycepin (3600mg/kg) daily. A 47% reduction of the blood glucose level, 214% increase of hepatic glycogen content, and significant improvement of oral glucose tolerance were noticed after the effective dose of cordycepin was administered. Polyphagia and polydipsia, the typical symptoms of diabetes, were partly alleviated. Moreover, cordycepin offered protective effects against diabetes-related kidney and spleen injury. Maximum tolerance dose test indicated that cordycepin at the large dose of 3600mg/kg did not show significant effect on body weight and major organ in normal mice after intraperitoneal administration for 14days. The results showed that cordycepin from C militaris that elicited hypoglycemic activity contributes to the regulation of glucose metabolism in liver in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Therefore, a cordycepin treatment during diabetes can improve some of the metabolic syndrome symptoms by regulation of glucose absorption in vivo. Cordycepin may serve as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetes and its related complications. PMID:25940982

  3. Mogrosides extract from Siraitia grosvenori scavenges free radicals in vitro and lowers oxidative stress, serum glucose, and lipid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang-Yang Qi; Wei-Jun Chen; Li-Qin Zhang; Bi-Jun Xie

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the supplementation of a mogrosides extract (MG) from fruits of Siraitia grosvenori on reducing oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The oxygen free radical scavenging activity of MG was also assessed in vitro. After induction of diabetes, a significant increase in the levels of serum glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and hepatic malondialdehyde

  4. The effects of the king oyster mushroom Pleurotus eryngii (higher Basidiomycetes) on glycemic control in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ping; Lei, Ya-li; Zhan, Huan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Pleurotus eryngii on glycemic metabolism. Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice were used to study the effects of P. eryngii on blood glucose, glycohemoglobin, insulin secretion, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, total antioxidant status (TAOS), and hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice. Sixty diabetic mice were divided equally into 5 groups: the alloxan (AX)-induced hyperglycemic group, the AX and glibenclamide (GLI)-treated group, the AX and P. eryngii extracts (PEEs) 50-treated group (PEE 50 mg/kg), the AX and PEE100-treated group (PEE 100 mg/kg), and the AX and PEE200-treated group (PEE 200 mg/kg). The other 12 normal mice were injected intravenously with the normal saline and used as the control group. After PEE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally administered to the mice over 5 weeks, blood glucose and HbAlc were significantly decreased in AX-induced hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), whereas the level of insulin secretion was markedly elevated in (P < 0.05). The pancreatic ?-cells damaged by AX partially and gradually recovered after PPE extract was administered to the hyperglycemic mice for 35 days. In addition, PEE treatment gradually increased the body weight and significantly increased the concentration of hepatic glycogen in hyperglycemic mice (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the action of PPE on glycemic metabolism occurs via increasing glycogen and insulin concentrations as well as recovering injured ?-cells and reducing free radical damage. PPE may become a new potential hypoglycemic food for hyperglycemic people. PMID:24941163

  5. Protective role of three vegetable peels in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Yamini; Kar, Anand

    2010-09-01

    The hitherto unknown glucose regulating role of three vegetable peels from cucurbitaceae family was evaluated. In a preliminary study, effects of ethanolic extracts of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus and Praecitrullus fistulosus peels were studied at 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 15 days in the alterations in serum glucose and in hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) in male mice. In the pilot experiment, the effective and safe concentration of each peel was administered (p.o.) for 10 consecutive days and then on 11th and 12th days alloxan was administered along with peel extracts. The treatment was continued up to 15th day. At the end, alterations in serum glucose, insulin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, hepatic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase were studied. All the three peel extracts nearly reversed most of these changes induced by alloxan suggesting their possible role in ameliorating diabetes mellitus and related changes in serum lipids. However, Cucurbita pepo peel was found to be the most effective. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and ascorbic acid contents of the test peels were also estimated, which appear to be associated with the observed antidiabetic and antioxidative potentials. PMID:20614191

  6. Isolation, purification, and structural features of a polysaccharide from Phellinus linteus and its hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Liao, Zunsheng; Wu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lin, Zhanxi; Huang, Yifan; Liu, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Phellinus linteus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used in Oriental countries for centuries for its antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and biological activity on hyperglycemia. A water-soluble crude polysaccharide was extracted using hot water from P. linteus mycelia grown under submerged culture. An orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the extraction conditions of P. linteus mycelia polysaccharides (PLP). The crude polysaccharide was purified using DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the purified P. linteus polysaccharide (PLP-I), revealing that it was mainly a branched-type glycan with both ?- and ?-linkages and a pyranoid sugar ring conformation. PLP orally administered at 100 mg/kg body weight/d could significantly reduce the blood glucose level by 35.60% in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The results of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that PLP had an effect on glucose disposal after 28 d of treatment. The result revealed that PLP from a submerged culture of P. linteus mycelia possessed potent hypoglycemic properties. The polysaccharide may be useful as a functional food additive and a hypoglycemic agent. PMID:24761950

  7. Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata and their effects on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. S. Reyes; N. D. Bautista; N. C. Tanquilut; R. V. Anunciado; A. B. Leung; G. C. Sanchez; R. L. Magtoto; P. Castronuevo; H. Tsukamura; K.-I. Maeda

    2006-01-01

    Momordica charantia and Andrographis paniculata are the commonly used herbs by the diabetic patients in Pampanga, Philippines. While the anti-diabetic potential of Momordica charantia is well established in streptozocin- or alloxan-induced diabetic animals, the anti-diabetic potential of Andrographis paniculata in alloxan-induced diabetic rat is not known. Neither the effects of these herbs on estrous cyclicity of alloxan-induced diabetic rats are

  8. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Zaleya decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Periasamy; Bhuvaneshwari, Rajendran; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Guravaiah, Dugganaboyana Chinna; Jiji, Muthedath Janardhanan; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Zaleya decandra roots on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of the root (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days restored the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidant enzymes significantly in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed significant changes like necrosis and degeneration in the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also these histopathological abnormalities were found to be normalized after treatment with Z. decandra extract. The efficacy of the root extract was found to be equivalent when compared to the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg body weight/day, orally) in diabetic rats. PMID:19957208

  9. Hypoglycemic and antiperglycemic effects of Semecarpus anacardium linn in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kothai, R; Arul, B; Kumar, K Suresh; Christina, A J M

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of dried nuts of Semecarpus anacardium on blood glucose level was investigated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours after the treatment. The ethanolic extract of S. anacardium (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal rat from 84 +/- 1.4 to 67 +/- 1.7 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). It also significantly lowered blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rat from 325 +/- 2.2 to 144 +/- 1.4 mg/dl, 3 hours after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic activity of S. anacardium was compared with tolbutamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:16260409

  10. Effect of Caralluma attenuata in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, B; Rajkapoor, B; Suresh, B

    2004-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of whole plant Caralluma attenuata was investigated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the treatment. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. attenuata (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose level of normal rat from 84.5 +/- 2.0 to 68.5 +/- 2.8 mg/dl and 82.6 +/- 1.8 to 67.4 +/- 2.8 mg/dl, respectively, 3h after oral administration (P < 0.001). Blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats were also significantly lowered from 316 +/- 3.32 to 162 +/- 2.76 and 324 +/- 4.10 to 150 +/- 3.94 mg/dl, respectively, 3 h after oral administration (P < 0.001). PMID:15273075

  11. Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect of Aporosa lindleyana in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, B; Suresh, B

    2003-02-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of root of Aporosa lindleyana was investigated in both normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after the treatment. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of A. lindleyana (100 mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal rat from 80.4+/-2.7 to 69.8+/-2.0 mg% and 82.6+/-1.9 to 70.8+/-3.2 mg%, respectively 3 h after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.001) and also significantly lowered blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rat from 306+/-3.37 to 160+/-2.46 and 328+/-4.15 to 152+/-3.86 mg%, respectively 3 h after oral administration of the extract (P < 0.001). The antihyperglycemic activity of A. lindleyana was compared with tolbutamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. PMID:12648822

  12. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Raut, Nishikant A; Gaikwad, Naresh J

    2006-12-01

    In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro. PMID:17056202

  13. Modification of cardiac oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits with repaglinide treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Gumieniczek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the antioxidative effect of repaglinide in the heart of alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The activities of superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl groups (PCG) were estimated after 4 and 8 weeks of repaglinide treatment (1

  14. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, G; Bhavapriya, V; Kalpana, S; Govindasamy, S; Apparanantham, T

    2005-02-10

    Aqueous extract of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers (ACF) was screened for its antioxidant effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats. An appreciable decrease in peroxidation products viz thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides was observed in heart tissues of ACF treated diabetic rats. The decreased activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in diabetic rats were brought back to near normal range upon ACF treatment. These results suggest that ACF has got promising antioxidative activity in alloxan diabetic rats. PMID:15652272

  15. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Ha, Bae Jin

    2013-03-01

    Alloxan administration in rats is used as a model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). NIDDM is a multifactorial disease, characterized by hyperglycemia and lipoprotein abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis (FRN) through the regulation of glucose uptake in alloxan-induced rats. Fermented R. nulubilis was administered orally for 28 d at 500 mg/kg of body weight. Body weight and food intake were monitored every day. Biochemical parameters were quantified after 4 week. In the diabetic + FRN group, body weight increased significantly and blood glucose concentrations decreased when compared to those of the diabetic group. After 2 hr of administration, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) indicated a significant reduction in the diabetic + FRN group compared to diabetic group. The diabetic + FRN group experienced a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, coronary risk factors, and malondialdehyde concentrations, with significantly increased high density lipoprotein compared to those of diabetic group. These results demonstrate that fermented R. nulubilis possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24278624

  16. Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Alloxan administration in rats is used as a model for non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). NIDDM is a multifactorial disease, characterized by hyperglycemia and lipoprotein abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of fermented Rhynchosia nulubilis (FRN) through the regulation of glucose uptake in alloxan-induced rats. Fermented R. nulubilis was administered orally for 28 d at 500 mg/kg of body weight. Body weight and food intake were monitored every day. Biochemical parameters were quantified after 4 week. In the diabetic + FRN group, body weight increased significantly and blood glucose concentrations decreased when compared to those of the diabetic group. After 2 hr of administration, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) indicated a significant reduction in the diabetic + FRN group compared to diabetic group. The diabetic + FRN group experienced a significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, coronary risk factors, and malondialdehyde concentrations, with significantly increased high density lipoprotein compared to those of diabetic group. These results demonstrate that fermented R. nulubilis possesses potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24278624

  17. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Thespesia populnea fruit pulp extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Belhekar, S N; Chaudhari, P D; Saryawanshi, J S; Mali, K K; Pandhare, R B

    2013-03-01

    Present study was carried to find out the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea fruit pulp on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration of alloxan (150 mg/kg, i.p.). After the successful induction of experimental diabetes, the rats were divided into five groups each comprising a minimum of six rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity study of extracts was also done. The effects of extracts and metformin on fasting blood glucose and plasma lipid were examined for 28 days. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's multiple comparison test and paired t-test were done as the test of significance using GraphPad Prism. P?0.05 was considered as the minimal level of statistical significance. Therapeutic dose of extract was found to be 200 mg/kg on the basis of acute toxicity study. Aqueous and alcoholic extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels as well as a lipid profile of diabetic rats at the end of 28(th) day of treatment. However, in groups treated with plant extract the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was slightly less than that achieved with the standard group (metformin). From this study, it can be concluded that ethanol and aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea exhibited significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24019572

  18. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Hina; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Shareef, Huma; Khursheed, Raheela; Huma, Ambreen; Hasan, S M Farid

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast) Hook (Malvaceae) flower and leaves extracts were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic activity of both the extracts (100mg/kg, body weight) was tested in fasting normal rat, glucose loaded rats. Observation on body weight was also recorded. The extracts showed a significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level in normal fasting rats. In glucose tolerance test, significant (p<0.01) decreased observed in all glucose loaded animals. While in alloxan induced diabetic rats, the percent blood glucose reduction was 59.94% and 45.14% in extracts treated groups. The results obtained were compared with the reference standard drug Tolbutamide (100mg/kg, body weight). The diabetic rats showed sign of decreased in their body weight during the treatment period. Cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased (p<0.001) by HFE. The results obtained demonstrated the potential hypoglycemic activity of methanolic extracts of H. schizopetalus. There is need of bioassay-directed assay of the active principles responsible for the anti-diabetic activity. The methanolic extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, saponins and glycosides. PMID:24374457

  19. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Monday, Onakpa Michael; Uzoma, Asuzu Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P<0.01) as well as improving liver, kidney functions and hyperlipidaemia due to diabetes. The extract had a favourable effect on the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes. Conclusions I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes. PMID:23905020

  20. High-cholesterol diets impair short–term retention of memory in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, but not acquisition of memory nor retention of memory in prediabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Xie; Lijun Du

    2005-01-01

    Whether high-cholesterol diets (HCD) induce a high incidence of memory deficits in diabetes requires to be established; if so, whether they induce impairments of memory acquired in the pre-diabetic stage as well as in the diabetic stage also needs to be elucidated, and part of the related mechanisms involved in this dysfunction should be determined. The mice were grouped into:

  1. Antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sikarwar, Mukesh S.; Patil, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Crateva nurvala stem bark (family: Capparidaceae) extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of C. nurvala and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 ?g/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, and aqueous extracts of C. nurvala stem bark were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by following pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50–5000 mg/kg b. wt.) as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Results and Conclusions: C. nurvala petroleum ether extract (CNPEE) and ethanolic extract (CNEE) showed significant (P< 0.001) antidiabetic activities. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose level of these extracts on seventh day of study were CNPEE (126.33±13.703 mg/dl) and CNEE (126.66±13.012 mg/dl) when compared with diabetic control (413.50±4.752 mg/dl) and chloroform extract (320.83±13.516 mg/dl). In OGGT model (glucose loaded rats), CNPEE showed a glucose level of 178.83±3.070 mg/dl after 30 min and 131.66±2.486 mg/dl after 90 min, whereas CNEE showed 173.66±4.224 mg/dl after 30 min and 115.50±3.394 mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:21814425

  2. Antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sikarwar, Mukesh S.; Patil, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata ( Family: Leguminosae) leaf extracts was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of P. pinnata and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 ?g/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. pinnata were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. P. pinnata ethanolic extract (PPEE) and aqueous extract (PPAE) showed significant (P < 0.001) antidiabetic activity. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose levels of these extracts on 7th day of the study were 155.83 ± 11.211mg/dl (PPEE) and 132.00 ± 4.955mg/dl (PPAE) in comparison of diabetic control (413.50 ± 4.752mg/dl) and chloroform extract (210.83 ± 14.912mg/dl). In glucose loaded rats, PPEE exhibited glucose level of 164.50 ± 6.350mg/dl after 30 min and 156.50 ± 4.089mg/dl after 90 min, whereas the levels in PPAE treated animals were 176 ± 3.724mg/dl after 30 min and 110.33 ± 6.687mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:21455444

  3. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts of Nymphaea Stellata flowers in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rajagopal; K. Sasikala

    2008-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of hydro-ethanolic extract (HEE) of Nymphaea stellata Willd flower was investigated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the animals were divided in to normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated and control treated group (n = 6). Effect of oral administration of HEE (300 mg\\/kg) for 30 days on the level of blood glucose,

  4. Amelioration of oxidative stress by Tabernamontana divaricata on alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanthlal, S. K.; Kumar, B. Anil; Joseph, Jipnomon; Aravind, R.; Frank, P. Royal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Tabernamontana divaricata (L.) and its ameliorative effect on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight). Methanol extract of T. divaricata was administered at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in diabetic induced rats including glibenclamide (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. In the continuous 21 days treatment, fasting blood glucose level was determined on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. On day 21, serum lipid profiles and glycosylated hemoglobin, liver antioxidant enzymes levels were estimated. Results: Experimental findings showed a significant anti-diabetic potential of the extract in terms of reduction in blood glucose levels and a correct effect on the altered biochemical parameters. Observed data were found statistically significant in correction of antioxidant enzyme level accompanied with diabetes, particularly at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the T. divaricata is found to be effective in type 2 diabetes in rats and to have an ameliorative effect on the associated oxidative stress. PMID:25593402

  5. Alloxan-induced diabetes delays repair in a rat model of closed tibial fracture.

    PubMed

    Diniz, S F; Amorim, F P L G; Cavalcante-Neto, F F; Bocca, A L; Batista, A C; Simm, G E P M; Silva, T A

    2008-05-01

    A closed fracture was performed on the left tibia of 3-month-old Wistar rats weighing 250 to 350 g that were either healthy (N = 24) or made diabetic with alloxan (N = 24) to investigate the effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on the course of bone fracture healing. Histomorphometric analysis of the fracture site was performed at 7, 14, 25, and 35 days. After 7 days, diabetic rats had significantly less cartilage (P = 0.045) and greater fibrous connective (P = 0.006) tissue formation at the fracture site compared to controls. In contrast, marked callus formation was seen in diabetic rats with significant osteogenesis (P = 0.011, P = 0.010, P = 0.010, respectively, for 14, 25, and 35 days) and chondrogenesis (P = 0.028, P = 0.033, P = 0.019) compared to controls. Radiographic analysis revealed a displaced fracture with poor bone fragment alignment and delayed consolidation at these times in the diabetic group. The levels of alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher in diabetic rats at 25 days (P = 0.009). These results suggest that the initial excessive formation of fibrous connective tissue associated with delay in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis may not provide suitable stability of the fractured site, contributing to the inappropriate alignment of fragments and an increase in the volume of callus in later stages of repair. The resulting displaced fracture in diabetic rats requires long periods for remodeling and complete bone consolidation. PMID:18488099

  6. Nutritional and Hypoglycemic Effect of Fruit Pulp of Annona squamosa in Normal Healthy and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Achyut Narayan Kesari; Geeta Watal; P. S. Murthy; Ramesh Chandra; Vibha Tandon

    2005-01-01

    Thenutritive value of the pulp of the edible fruit of Annona squamosa and its effect on various biochemical parameters has been assessed in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Different doses (2.5, 5.0, 10.0 g\\/kg b.w.) of fresh fruit pulp of A. squamosa were given to the three groups each of normal healthy and diabetic rabbits orally daily for 1 month.

  7. Antioxidant, Antihyperlipidaemic and Antidiabetic Activity of Eugenia Floccosa Bedd Leaves in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jelastin, Kala S Mary; Tresina, P.S.; Mohan, V.R.

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa Bedd (Family: Myrtaceae) leaf was investigated for its antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic and antidiabetic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in Albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p). The ethanol extracts of E. floccosa at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of E. floccosa leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C), high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C) and phospholipid (PL)] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)], lipoprotein peroxidation (LPO) antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa leaf elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05), lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes. The extracts also caused significant increase in plasma insulin (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Eugenia floccosa possesses significant antidiabetic, antihyperlipidaemic and antioxidant effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24826030

  8. Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Anacardium occidentale leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fagbohun, T R; Odufuwa, K T

    2010-01-01

    Anacardium occidentale Leave (Anacardiaceae), a plant natively grown in wastelands in Africa is used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Previous studies, reported the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous leaf extract of A. occidentale in diabetic rats and its prophylactic activity against the diabetogenic action of streptozotocin This study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of a methanolic extract of streptozotocin leaves and its fractions in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats in comparison to Tolbutamide, a reference drug. For moderately diabetic rat, A. occidentale caused a 79.2 % change over 4 hours and Tolbutamide caused a 63.1 % change over this same time period. When the rat were considered to be severely diabetic, the A. occidentale decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.8% change over four hours and the mean percent change over 4 hours for Tolbutamide was 47.63%. These values were not considered significant. So the same conclusion can be made about the efficacy of A. occidentale, when compared to the reference drug, Tolbutamide. These results that show that A. occidentale has a similar ability compared with Tolbutamide to lower blood glucose levels. PMID:22314909

  9. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Triplochiton scleroxylon on White Blood Cell Differentials in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Prohp; L. C. Anyanwu; S. C. Uzoaru; P. C. Onyebuagu; N. Obeto; I. O. Onoagbe

    2008-01-01

    6 Abstract: Studies were conducted on the effects of aqueous extract of Triplochiton scleroxylon on white blood cell differentials in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. At least 100 mL of the aqueous extract was administered orally to test rabbits of New Zealand strain weighing between 1200 to 1680g for a period of 28 days. Clean drinking troughs were used in the administration

  10. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Triplochiton scleroxylon on Red Blood Cells and Associated Parameters in Alloxan - Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    2 Abstract: The effect of aqueous extract of Triplochiton scleroxylon on the body weight, plasma glucose concentration and some hematological parameters in alloxan-induc ed diabetic rabbits were investigated. Rabbits of the same strain (New Zealand) weighing between 1.20 and 1.68kg were used. At least 100ml of the aqueous extract of the plant was administered to a set of test rabbits

  11. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (P<0.001) in the blood glucose in group C (100mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (P<0.001) in rats treated with 1,000mg/kg Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  12. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhang; Shao-Long, Yang; Ai-Hong, Wang; Zhi-Chun, Sun; Ya-Fen, Zhuo; Ye-Ting, Xu; Yu-Ling, He

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40?mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na(+)K(+)ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25960754

  13. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Leaf Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Udayakumar, Rajangam; Kasthurirengan, Sampath; Mariashibu, Thankaraj Salammal; Rajesh, Manoharan; Anbazhagan, Vasudevan Ramesh; Kim, Sei Chang; Ganapathi, Andy; Choi, Chang Won

    2009-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases. Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt) and leaf (WSLEt). The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and 520 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of WSREt and WSLEt were also investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. WSREt and WSLEt and the standard drug glibenclamide were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, urine sugar, blood glucose, haemoglobin (Hb), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), liver glycogen, serum and tissues lipids, serum and tissues proteins, liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were determined. The levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c) and tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids were significantly (p < 0.05) increased, however Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G) ratio, tissues protein and glycogen were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal level after eight weeks of treatment, indicating that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. PMID:19564954

  14. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300?mg/kg b.?w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300?mg/kg b.?w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:26018915

  15. Hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic activity of stem bark extracts Erythrina indica in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yashwant Kumar, A.; Nandakumar, K.; Handral, M.; Talwar, Sahil; Dhayabaran, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the alcoholic (AlcE) and aqueous (AqsE) extracts of stem bark of Erythrina indica (Papilionaceae) for hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days. In normal rats, AlcE and AqsE had significantly decreased the blood glucose level (BGL) in a dose dependent manner after repeated administration for 7 days. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats, both the extracts decreased blood sugar levels with significant improvement in glucose tolerance and body weight at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd week after test extract treatment. In case of dexamethasone induced insulin resistant diabetic rats, repeated administration of AlcE and AqsE inhibited the increase in blood glucose level and improved glucose tolerance induced by dexamethasone as compared to dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that both extracts possess hypoglycaemic activity in normal as well as in diabetic rats. Among AlcE and AqsE, AqsE possesses better hypoglycaemic activity than AlcE in all the models. Preliminary phytochemical investigations revealed that alcoholic extracts contain carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, phenolics and tannins. Aqueous extract contains carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols and triterpenoids. These phytoconstituents may be responsible for the hypoglycaemic activity of the plant. PMID:23960740

  16. Therapeutic potency of saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in alloxan induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, P. Saravana; Anaswara, P. V.; Muthuraman, A.; Krishan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is major metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. This leads to alter the multiple organ system. Aims: To investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the saponin rich aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis (SRE-SD) using alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat model. Material and Methods: The single dose of alloxan was injected for the induction of diabetes in rats. The SRE-SD and glibenclamide were administered for 15 consecutive days from the 3rd day of alloxan administration. Quantity of food and water intake was measured at day 0, and 18. Further, body weight was recorded and blood samples were collected at different time intervals that is, day 0, 3, 8, 13, and 18. The oxidative biomarkers (i.e. thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitrite (NO2?) levels were also estimated in the serum sample. Results: The SRE-SD showed a remarkable dose and time-dependent changes in alloxan-induced rise in the level of food consumption and water intake, serum glucose level, TBARS, NO2? and fall in the level of GSH. Further, significant attenuation was observed at 20 and 30 mg/kg of SRE-SD treated group. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that SRE-SD has both antidiabetic and antioxidant effects on the experimental model of diabetes in rat. PMID:25558170

  17. Effects of the antifungal agent itraconazole on proliferative changes of the forestomach mucosa in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sano, Tomoya; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2009-10-01

    Alloxan-induced diabetic rats frequently exhibit proliferative lesions of squamous hyperplasia accompanied by chronic inflammation and Candida albicans infection in the forestomach, and some lesions progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Candida infection causes not only hyperplastic changes with inflammation but might also lead to SCC in human oral mucosa. Thus, the present study was conducted to examine the effects of the antifungal agent itraconazole (ITCZ) on proliferative and inflammatory changes of the forestomach in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats. Diabetes was induced by alloxan at fifteen weeks of age. Rats were allocated to three groups at forty-five weeks of age and were given ITCZ by gavage 0 (vehicle control), 5, and 10 mg/kg/day for four weeks, and they were sacrificed at the sixty-fifth week of age. Mucosal hyperplastic changes were consistently accompanied by inflammation and Candida infections in the 0 mg/kg group. These lesions were reduced by ITCZ (0 mg/kg; 100%, 5 mg/kg; 53.5%, 10 mg/kg; 61.5%). Squamous cell carcinoma was detected in three rats from the 0 mg/kg, but only one rat from the 10 mg/kg dose groups in this study. Itraconazole reduced the degree of mucosal hyperplasia, inflammatory changes, and Candida infection. Therefore, C. albicans infection was an important factor in pathogenesis of mucosal proliferation and inflammation. PMID:19700660

  18. EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITIES OF MARKER ENZYMES IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Ragavan, B.; Krishnakumari, S.

    2005-01-01

    Insight of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycemia, we investigated the effect of T. arjuna bark extract on serum, liver and kidney marker enzymes in alloxan - induced diabetic rats. T. arjuna was administered orally at a doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, after which serum liver and kidney tissues were assayed for the degree of pathological changes by means of markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) resulted in a significant reduction in serum and tissue of liver and kidney marker enzymes when compared with control rats T. arjuna at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited higher efficacy. PMID:22557182

  19. Effect of Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Nasreen; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major threat to present and future generations. The role of herbal medication has emerged as a safe alternative to currently available medication due to its decreased potential to produce side effects, hence effect of Carthamus tinctorius was observed on fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Thirty five healthy male rabbits were divided into 5 groups with 7 rabbits in each (Normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, diabetic treated with Carthamus tinctorius extract at doses of 200 and 300mg/kg of body weight). Drug and extract were given orally for 30 days and the values for blood glucose levels were observed after 15(th) and 30(th) day of treatment by using standard reagent kits provided by Human Germany. While insulin levels were checked at the end of the study by using Architect i1000 by Abbott Diagnostics USA. Animals were also observed for any gross toxicity during the study. Results revealed that Carthamus tinctorius has significant hypoglycemic effect at 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg doses as compared to diabetic control group. Insulin levels were significantly increased in Glibenclamide treated as well as Carthamus tinctorius treated groups as compared to diabetic control. PMID:24577929

  20. EFFECTS OF Artemisia sieberi Besser (A. herba-alba) ON HEART RATE AND SOME HEMATOLOGICAL VALUES IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal Mansi; Jamil Lahham

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of Artemisia sieberi Besser on heart rate and some hematological values in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. It was found that water extract of Artemisia sieberi produced significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose level in diabetic rats after 10 days of treatment; however, there was a significant (p<0.05)

  1. The Protective Effect of Cordymin, a Peptide Purified from the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, on Diabetic Osteopenia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Yan, Ya-Bo; Lei, Wei; Wu, Zi-Xiang; Liu, Ning; Liu, Shuai; Shi, Lei; Fan, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and the possible mechanisms involved. The diabetic rats received daily intraperitoneal injection with cordymin (20, 50, and 100?mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Cordymin could restore the circulating blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), and insulin levels in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the treatment of diabetic rats with cordymin could partially reverse the ? cells death and decrease the total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the diabetic rats. The results may directly and indirectly account for the possible mechanism of the beneficial effect of cordymin on diabetic osteopenia, which was confirmed with the increased bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in diabetic rats (P < 0.05). All those findings indicate that cordymin may play a protective role in diabetic osteoporosis. PMID:24174985

  2. The Effect of Food Hardness on the Development of Dental Caries in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that dental caries may be produced in diabetic rodent models fed with noncariogenic standard diets; however, many studies usually add large amounts of sugar to the diet to induce dental caries. Moreover, the physical properties of cariogenic diets have been reported as an important factor in the formation of caries. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of the hardness of non-cariogenic diets on the development of dental caries in diabetic rodents. Seven-week-old female F344 rats were divided into 4 groups: intact rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet and alloxan-induced diabetic rats fed with a standard pelletized or powdered diet. All of the rats were sacrificed at 52 weeks of age for morphological examinations on their dental tissue. Dental caries had developed and extended to all the molars in the diabetic rats that were fed with both the pelletized and powdered diets. Moreover, the lesion was significantly enhanced in the powdered diet group compared to that in the pelletized diet group. In conclusion, food hardness is an important factor influencing the development of dental caries in diabetic rats. PMID:23762876

  3. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-02-01

    The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

  4. [Cerebroprotective effect of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of original domestic derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol) on cellular composition of cortical and diencephalic structures in rat brain were studied in parallel with monitoring of behavioral, conditional learning, and metabolic disorders in acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The efficiency of 3-oxypyridine derivatives was compared to the results of alpha-lipoic acid administration. Single administration of emoxipine, reamberin, and mexidol in optimal doses prevented lipofuscin deposition in CA1 field neurocytes in hippocampus and/or increased the amount of terminally differentiated cells ofneuroectodermal lineage (oligodendrocytes, pyramid and basket cells) in this zone ofpaleocortex. Concurrently conditional learning capacity in morbid animals was restored. The cerebroprotective and nootropic effects of emoxipine and reamberin were associated with increased exploration motivation in the open field and were independent of their effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism dysfunction. On the contrary, the neuroprotective and nootropic effects of mexidol were associated with additional inhibition of morbid rat activity in the open field and a decrease in the level of circulating products of lipid peroxidation. It is established that 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives significantly exceed alpha-lipoic acid in terms of neuroprotective effects but exhibit significantly lower hypolipdemic activity in acute phase of alloxan diabetes. PMID:21809693

  5. Physiological and pathological influences on sheep blood plasma amine oxidase: effect of pregnancy and experimental alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J; Fowden, A L; Callingham, B A; Sharman, D F; Silver, M

    1991-05-01

    A copper-containing amine oxidase is present in sheep blood plasma and has a high capacity to deaminate spermine and spermidine. The physiological function of this enzyme remains to be determined. Sheep blood plasma amine oxidase (SPAO) was measured by its ability to deaminate spermidine (700 microM) using a peroxidase-linked colorimetric assay developed for microtitre plates. SPAO activity has been studied in a group of Welsh Mountain sheep with experimental alloxan-induced diabetes. This resulted in an increase in SPAO activity which reached a peak of 70 days after alloxan treatment (60 per cent increase). This change could be seen in both pregnant and non-pregnant diabetic sheep. In normal pregnant ewes, SPAO activity remained stable for the first 100 days of pregnancy but declined by 50 per cent in the last month of pregnancy. Together, these findings suggest that SPAO activity is controlled by hormonal influences. This sensitive and convenient assay method could provide clues as to the physiological significance of SPAO and may be a useful clinical chemical indicator in the sheep. PMID:1882142

  6. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Petroleum Ether Leaf Extract of Ficus krishnae L. on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, M. C.; Sharma, Tanu

    2014-01-01

    The petroleum ether leaf extract of Ficus krishnae has been evaluated for the management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract for various chemical compounds has also been carried out. Leaf extract was administered continuously for 21 days orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. Along with this, the blood glucose level was monitored at regular intervals to understand the activity of the extract. The leaf extract has decreased the blood glucose level of diabetic rats which was comparable to an antidiabetic standard drug, glibenclamide, given at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg. It has been observed that the leaves of Ficus krishnae possess antidiabetic activity and it reduces the blood glucose level significantly. The phytochemical screening of leaf has revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, gums and mucilage, phlobatannins, reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The Fourier Transform Infrared analysis of glibenclamide and leaf powder has displayed some common absorption spectra. This shows that leaf powder has a molecule which is close to glibenclamide. Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy have shown the presence of cellulose, Ca, Si, K, Cl, Mg, P, S, Al, Fe, Na, Sr, Pd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo, Br, Ni, Rb and Zr. It is assumed that these elements alongwith other chemical compounds of the plant species may play a role in the management of diabetes. The Raman Specta of both glibenclamide and leaf powder has also shown some similarities. The results obtained during the present investigation have revealed the antidiabetic activity of Ficus krishnae leaves. The phytochemical screening has indicated the various chemical constituents likely to be responsible for this activity. The Fourier Transform Infrared, Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Specta of the leaf powder suggested that there is some glibenclamide like molecule or its derivatives which is imparting antidiabetic activity. PMID:25284930

  7. Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) essential oils attenuate hyperglycemia and protect against oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study described the phytochemical profile of Lavandula stoechas essential oils, collected in the area of Ain-Draham (North-West of Tunisia), as well as their protective effects against alloxan-induced diabetes and oxidative stress in rat. Methods Essential oils samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. Rats were divided into four groups: Healthy Control (HC); Diabetic Control (DC); Healthy?+?Essential Oils (H?+?EO) and Diabetic?+?Essential Oils (D?+?EO). Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities were evaluated after subacute intraperitoneally injection of Lavandula stoechas essential oils (50 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) to rats during 15 days. Results The principal compounds detected are: D-Fenchone (29.28%), ?-pinene (23.18%), Camphor (15.97%), Camphene (7.83%), Eucapur (3.29%), Limonene, (2.71%) Linalool, (2.01%) Endobornyl Acetate (1.03%). The essential oils also contained smaller percentages of Tricyclene, Cymene, Delta-Cadinene, Selina-3,7(11)-diene. Furthermore, we found that Lavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose as well as the decrease of antioxidant enzyme activities induced by aloxan treatment. Subacute essential oils treatment induced a decrease of lipoperoxidation as well as an increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Conclusions These findings suggested that lavandula stoechas essential oils protected against diabetes and oxidative stress induced by alloxan treatment. These effects are in partly due to its potent antioxidant properties. PMID:24373672

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Noory, Ahmad Sameer; Amreen, Abdul-Nasser; Hymoor, Shatha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae) on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results: It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups. PMID:23901210

  9. Increased severity of acute Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -induced diabetes Ikechukwu Onyebuchi Igbokwea Sani Isaa Umma Kalsum Aliyub Hajja Gana Hamzab Tobias Egbe made diabetic by treatment with alloxan monohydrate (10 % solution, 100 mg/kg body weight). Ten diabetic and ten non-diabetic rats were intraperitoneally infected with the same infective doses

  10. Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C; Edwin, S

    2013-07-01

    Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

  11. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibition and in vivo antioxidant potential of Amaranthus spinosus in alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok Kumar, B.S.; Lakshman, K.; Nandeesh, R.; Arun Kumar, P.A.; Manoj, B.; Kumar, Vinod; Sheshadri Shekar, D.

    2010-01-01

    Amaranthus spinosus Linn. (Amaranthaceae), commonly known as “Mulluharivesoppu” in Kannada, is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. The present study deals with the scientific evaluation of alpha amylase and the antioxidant potential of methanol extract of A. spinosus (MEAS). The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro alpha-amylase enzyme inhibition by CNPG3 (2-chloro-4-nitrophenol ?-d-maltotrioside) and in vivo antioxidant potential of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols (TT) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats of a methanolic extract of A. spinosus. Blood sugar was also determined in MEAS-treated alloxan-induced diabetic rats. MEAS showed significant inhibition of alpha-amylase activity and IC50 46.02 ?g/ml. Oral administration of MEAS (200 and 400 mg/kg) for 15 days showed significant reduction in the elevated blood glucose, MDA and restores GSH, CAT and TT levels as compared with a diabetic control. The present study provides evidence that the methanolic extract of A. spinosus has potent alpha amylase, anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities. PMID:23961097

  12. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of alcoholic Syzigium cumini seeds in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stanely Mainzen Prince; N. Kamalakkannan; Venugopal P. Menon

    2004-01-01

    Syzigium cumini, commonly known as ‘jamun’, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of an alcoholic extract of Syzigium cumini seeds (JSEt) in alloxan diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150mgkg?1 body weight). Oral administration of

  13. Effect of alloxan-induced diabetes on serum and cardiac butyrylcholinesterases in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K R Dave; S S Katyare

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity in the diabetic rat, mouse and human is very evident. The source of the increased level of BChE in the diabetic condition is not known. The effect of diabetes on cardiac BChE has not been studied so far, in spite of high BChE levels in the heart. In the present study, we investigated the effect

  14. Lectins binding during alloxan-induced diabetes in rat soleus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nursel Gül; Suna Cebesoy; Nesrin Özsoy

    Membrane structural changes of soleus muscle of alloxan-diabetic rats were detected with a panel of six biotinylated lectins. Samples of muscles were obtained from normal and diabetic rats. The biotinylated lectins in staining were detected by avidin-peroxidase complex. Lectin stainning of soleus muscle cryostat sections from alloxan-diabetic rats were compared with similar cryostat sections from normal rats. All lectins were

  15. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology. PMID:18715471

  16. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology. PMID:18715471

  17. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia pallida fruit in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kameswara Rao, B; Renuka Sudarshan, P; Rajasekhar, M D; Nagaraju, N; Appa Rao, Ch

    2003-03-01

    Different doses of ethanolic fraction of fruits of Terminalia pallida were evaluated for hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity in normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The oral administration of ethanolic extract at a dosage of 0.5 g/kg body weight exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats, whereas in normal rats no hypoglycemic activity was observed. PMID:12576217

  18. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of alcoholic Syzigium cumini seeds in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prince, P Stanely Mainzen; Kamalakkannan, N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2004-04-01

    Syzigium cumini, commonly known as 'jamun', is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of an alcoholic extract of Syzigium cumini seeds (JSEt) in alloxan diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg kg(-1) body weight). Oral administration of alcoholic JSEt to diabetic rats at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1) body weight resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and urine sugar and lipids in serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats. The extract also increases total haemoglobin. The extract brought back all the parameters to normal levels. The effect of alcoholic JSEt was similar to that of insulin. Thus, our investigation clearly shows that alcoholic JSEt has both antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects. PMID:15120440

  19. Glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. on alloxan induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Devaki, K; Beulah, U; Akila, G; Narmadha, R; Gopalakrishnan, V K

    2011-09-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. leaf on alloxan induced Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). Aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia tomentosa at the dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the diabetic animals. In this study, glycemic parameters, lipid parameters and serum enzymes were reduced whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was elevated. The extract significantly increased the total protein and glycogen level in the liver of diabetic rats. Furthermore, the liver carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were normalized by the administration of the extracts. Histopatholgical examination results of liver, pancreas and kidney were normal in general. The above results indicated the anti-diabetic efficacy of the B.tomentosa leaf extract. PMID:24826019

  20. Glucose lowering effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. on alloxan induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Narmadha, R.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of Bauhinia tomentosa L. leaf on alloxan induced Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg body weight). Aqueous leaf extract of Bauhinia tomentosa at the dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered once a day for 30 days to the diabetic animals. In this study, glycemic parameters, lipid parameters and serum enzymes were reduced whereas the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol was elevated. The extract significantly increased the total protein and glycogen level in the liver of diabetic rats. Furthermore, the liver carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were normalized by the administration of the extracts. Histopatholgical examination results of liver, pancreas and kidney were normal in general. The above results indicated the anti-diabetic efficacy of the B.tomentosa leaf extract PMID:24826019

  1. Effects of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan- induced diabetic wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mohammed; A. B. Adelaiye; M. S. Abubakar; E. M. Abdurahman

    2007-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum mushroom has long been used as a potent medicinal plant in the far East, but its ethnomedicinal importance in Nigeria is yet to be fully realized. The effects of the aqueous extract on blood glucose levels of alloxan induced and normal Wistar rats have been investigated. Three doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg\\/Kg) were administered

  2. Additive effect of lipid lowering drug (simvastatin) in combination with antidiabetic drug (glibenclamide) on alloxan induced diabetic rats with long term dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Begum, Mst Marium; Sultana, Zakia; Ershad Ali, Md; Jami, Md Safkath Ibne; Khondkar, Proma; Khan, Md Masuduzzaman; Haque, Md Mominul

    2014-10-01

    High blood glucose level, elevated level of liver enzyme, necrosis and shrinkage of islets of Langerhans has been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. High blood glucose cause oxidative stress, production of free radical as well as elevated SGPT and SGOT level. Both glibenclamide and simvastatin in fixed dose used as antihyperglycemic antidyslipidemic and antioxidative agents for type 2 diabetes treatment. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidative effect of fixed dose combination of glibenclamide (0.6 mg/70 kg body weight) and simvastatin (5 mg/70 kg body weight) on long term alloxan induced diabetic rats with cardiovascular disease using various diagnostic kits as a parameter of phamacotherapeutic and pharmacological effect. The study was carried out using 96 Swiss Albino male rats weighing about 200-220 g. Combination therapy induced a significant decrease in blood glucose level in alloxan induced diabetic rats, from 33.75 ± 1.65 to 5.80 ± 0.07 mmol/l 2 h after last dose administration, after 4 weeks treatment. In case of dyslipidemic effect, combination therapy reduced total cholesterol (45 %), triglyceride (36 %) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (32 %) levels significantly and increased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level (57 %) in comparison with their respective diabetic control groups. Results of this study showed that combination therapy effectively decreased SGPT (ALAT) (55 %) and SGOT (ASAT) (51 %) in comparison with diabetic control group. It was also observed that catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity was increased by 58 and 91 % respectively in comparison with diabetic control group after 4 weeks treatment with combination of both drugs. In conclusion, these findings of combination therapy (glibenclamide and simvastatin) on alloxan induced diabetes in rats are significantly better than monotherapy using single drug. The results of the present study suggest that, combination of the fixed dose of glibenclamide and simvastatin might be efficacious in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia and increased oxidative stress. Furthermore, this combination therapy offer dosage convenience to the patients and by virtue of its dual mode of action might be a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for patients with diabetic dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. PMID:25298626

  3. Alloxan-Induced Diabetes Causes Morphological and Ultrastructural Changes in Rat Liver that Resemble the Natural History of Chronic Fatty Liver Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cassettari, Lucas Langoni; Spadella, César Tadeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluated the long-term effects of alloxan-induced diabetes in rat liver. Methods. Thirty nondiabetic control rats (NC) and 30 untreated diabetic (UD) rats were divided into three subgroups sacrificed after 6, 14, or 26 weeks. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed. Fresh liver weight and its relationship with body weight were obtained, and liver tissue was analyzed. Results. UD rats showed sustained hyperglycemia, high glycosylated hemoglobin, and low plasma insulin. High serum levels of AST and ALT were observed in UD rats after 2 weeks, but only ALT remained elevated throughout the experiment. Fresh liver weight was equal between NC and UD rats, but the fresh liver weight/body weight ratio was significantly higher in UD rats after 14 and 26 weeks. UD rats showed liver morphological changes characterized by hepatic sinusoidal enlargement and micro- and macrovesicular hepatocyte fatty degeneration with progressive liver structure loss, steatohepatitis, and periportal fibrosis. Ultrastructural changes of hepatocytes, such as a decrease in the number of intracytoplasmic organelles and degeneration of mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclei, were also observed. Conclusion. Alloxan-induced diabetes triggered liver morphological and ultrastructural changes that closely resembled human disease, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis. PMID:25789328

  4. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and ?-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of ?-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be considered as a potential strong candidate for future application as a functional supplement for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:22591682

  5. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ?17.00?mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2?g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3?g, 42.6?g, and 85.2?g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  6. Short-term stromal alterations in the rat ventral prostate following alloxan-induced diabetes and the influence of insulin replacement.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-02-01

    The stromal microenvironment is pivotal to prostate physiology and malign transformation. Diabetes leads to testosterone withdrawal and affects the prostate stromal compartment and smooth muscle cells in a similar way to that observed after castration. However the response of these cells and their involvement in extracellular matrix remodeling is not satisfactorily understood. We investigated the changes caused in the short term (one week) by alloxan-induced diabetes in the stromal components of the rat ventral prostate (VP) with an emphasis on morphological alterations of stromal cells, their conversion to a myofibroblast phenotype and the remodeling of extracellular matrix and the influence of insulin therapy. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned into untreated diabetic (n=12), insulin-treated (n=8) diabetic and control (n=10) groups. Diabetes was induced by means of the injection of alloxan (40 mg/kg b.w.), while the control animals received saline solution only. Insulin (5 UI) was administered daily for one week after diabetes diagnosis. Testosterone and estrogen plasma levels were determined. VP was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The main stromal cells were identified by means of light microscopy, using immunocytochemistry for specific markers - vimentin for fibroblasts, ?-actin for smooth muscle cells (smc) and vimentin/calponin for myofibroblasts, following the estimation of their relative frequency and absolute volume by means of stereology. After one week diabetes led to a marked decrease in testosterone levels and an atrophy of about 35% in the VP. The relative frequency of smc and collagen fibers increased in the VP of diabetic rats but their absolute weight remained unchanged. Experimental diabetes promptly altered smc morphology which assumed at the ultrastructural level a shrunken appearance with the approximation of cytoplasmic dense bodies and also exhibited a decreased immunoreactivity to calponin. The conversion of stromal cells to a myofibroblast phenotype did not occur in alloxan-induced diabetes, as evaluated by double immunoreaction to calponin and vimentin. Insulin treatment maintained testosterone levels and preserved at least partly the cell morphology and collagen fiber organization of the prostate stroma in short-term diabetes. The apparent collagen increase observed by means of microscopic analysis in the stromal prostate compartment in the short term after diabetes is mainly associated with gland atrophy and does not involve the formation of new collagen fibers, the generation of myofibroblast-like cells or the acquisition of a secretory phenotype by stromal cells. PMID:22014851

  7. Hydro-alcoholic extract of the root of Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl can improve serum glucose and lipids in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kafash Farkhad, Najme; Farokhi, Farah; Tukmacki, Amir; Soltani band, Khosro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of this disease are multifactorial. Previous studies proved that this disease is directly related to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Prangos frulacea (L.) Lindl in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Forty female Wistar rats with body weight of 200±20 g were randomly divided into five groups with eight rats per group. Diabetes was induced in rats by alloxan monohydrate at dose of 120 mg/kg body weight (BW) injected intraperitoneally. Hydro-alcoholic extract of the root and leaves with stems of P. frulacea at 100 mg/kg BW were given orally to diabetic rats daily for 4 weeks. Result: Diabetic rats (D) exhibited a significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of the serum glucose, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), and LDL in comparison with the control group whereas their BW and serum HDL levels were decreased. In diabetic rats treated by root extract of P. frulacea, these parameters were reversed to the normal levels compared with diabetic group. Conclusion: According to the results obtained, it was concluded that Root´s hydro-alcoholic extract of P. frulacea can be used in diabetics for the purpose of glucose and lipid profile reduction. PMID:25050248

  8. Study of Antiglycation, Hypoglycemic, and Nephroprotective Activities of the Green Dwarf Variety Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera L.) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabella F D; Silva, Railmara P; Filho, Adriano de B Chaves; Dantas, Lucas S; Bispo, Vanderson S; Matos, Isaac A; Otsuka, Felipe A M; Santos, Aline C; Matos, Humberto Reis

    2015-07-01

    Coconut water (CW) is a natural nutritious beverage, which contains several biologically active compounds that are traditionally used in the treatment of diarrhea and rehydration. Several works with CW have been related with antioxidant activity, which is very important in the diabetic state. To evaluate the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective activities of CW, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were pre- and post-treated by gavage with CW (3?mL/kg), caffeic acid (CA) (10 and 15?mg/kg), and acarbose (Acb) (714 ?g/kg) during a period of 16 days. Body weight, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and Amadori products in plasma and kidney homogenates were evaluated in all groups and used as parameters for the monitoring of the diabetic state. The results showed that rats of the CW+diabetic group had maintenance in blood glucose compared with the control group (P<.05) in addition to a decrease of HbA1c levels and increase of body weight when compared with the diabetic group rats (P<.05). The animals of the CA and CA+diabetic groups did not have significant variation of body weight (P<.05) during the experiment; however, they showed decrease in their HbA1c and urea levels in plasma as well as Amadori products in kidney homogenates when compared with the diabetic group (P<.05). Our results indicate that CW has multiple beneficial effects in diabetic rats for preventing hyperglycemia and oxidative stress caused by alloxan. PMID:25651375

  9. Therapy with methanolic extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb and Ocimum sanctum Linn reverses dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in alloxan induced type I diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prem Kumar; Baxi, Darshee; Banerjee, Sudip; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-07-01

    Methanolic extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb (P. marsupium) and Ocimum sanctum Linn (O. sanctum) were prepared separately and then administered to both non-diabetic and alloxan induced diabetic adult female Wistar rats as a mixture of both at a dosage of 500mg/kg body weight, and its effect was checked on serum and tissue lipids together with corticosterone, estrogen and progesterone profile. Further, tissue load of metabolites (cholesterol), enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status together with lipid peroxidation levels and serum markers of hepatic and renal damage were also assessed. Results of the present study strongly support the possibility of this herbal combination in humans to meet the objective of achieving a holistic amelioration and cure of diabetes as, the herbal extract mixture of P. marsupium and O. sanctum has succeeded in not only rectifying dyslipidemia but also in restoring the endogenous antioxidant levels to the pre diabetic status. Herbal preparations are ideal candidates of choice and in this context, the present combination of P. marsupium and O. sanctum provides compelling evidence for a holistic efficacy in amelioration of associated diabetic manifestations/dysregulations. PMID:21106356

  10. Autologous circulating angiogenic cells treated with osteopontin and delivered via a collagen scaffold enhance wound healing in the alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit ear ulcer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic foot ulceration is the leading cause of amputation in people with diabetes mellitus. Peripheral vascular disease is present in the majority of patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Despite standard treatments there exists a high amputation rate. Circulating angiogenic cells previously known as early endothelial progenitor cells are derived from peripheral blood and support angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, providing a potential topical treatment for non-healing diabetic foot ulcers. Methods A scaffold fabricated from Type 1 collagen facilitates topical cell delivery to a diabetic wound. Osteopontin is a matricellular protein involved in wound healing and increases the angiogenic potential of circulating angiogenic cells. A collagen scaffold seeded with circulating angiogenic cells was developed. Subsequently the effect of autologous circulating angiogenic cells that were seeded in a collagen scaffold and topically delivered to a hyperglycemic cutaneous wound was assessed. The alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit ear ulcer model was used to determine healing in response to the following treatments: collagen seeded with autologous circulating angiogenic cells exposed to osteopontin, collagen seeded with autologous circulating angiogenic cells, collagen alone and untreated wound. Stereology was used to assess angiogenesis in wounds. Results The cells exposed to osteopontin and seeded on collagen increased percentage wound closure as compared to other groups. Increased angiogenesis was observed with the treatment of collagen and collagen seeded with circulating angiogenic cells. Conclusions These results demonstrate that topical treatment of full thickness cutaneous ulcers with autologous circulating angiogenic cells increases wound healing. Cells exposed to the matricellular protein osteopontin result in superior wound healing. The wound healing benefit is associated with a more efficient vascular network. This topical therapy provides a potential novel therapy for the treatment of non-healing diabetic foot ulcers in humans. PMID:24444259

  11. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100?mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100?mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250?mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250?mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  12. Inhibition of key enzymes related to diabetes and hypertension by Eugenol in vitro and in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Kaanich, Fatima; Derbali, Amal; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the effect of treating diabetic rats with eugenol (EG). In vitro enzyme activity was measured in the presence of eugenol, and it was found to inhibit pancreatic ?-amylase (IC(50) = 62.53 µg/mL) and lipase (IC(50) = 72.34 µg/mL) as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity (IC50 = 130.67 µg/mL). In vivo, EG reduced the activity of amylase in serum, pancreas and intestine also the peak level of glucose by 60% compared to diabetic rats. Furthermore, eugenol similar to acarbose reduced serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipase and ACE levels. In addition, treatments with EG showed notable decrease in serum total-cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with an increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Overall, EG significantly reverted back to near normal the values of the biochemical biomarkers such as transaminases (AST&ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities, total-bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid rates. PMID:23886079

  13. Effect of Croatian propolis on diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined the antioxidant effect of water soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) and ethanolic (EEP) extract of propolis on renal and liver function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we examined whether different extract of propolis could prevent diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vivo. Methods Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino mice with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (75?mg?kg-1). Two days after alloxan injection, propolis preparations (50?mg?kg-1 per day) were given intraperitoneally for 7?days in diabetic mice. Survival analysis and body weights as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The renal and liver oxidative stress marker malonaldehyde levels and histopathological changes were monitored in the liver and kidney of treated and control mice. Results Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice. Conclusions Propolis preparations are able to attenuate diabetic hepatorenal damage, probably through its anti-oxidative action and its detoxification proccess as well as the potential to minimize the deleterious effects of free radicals on tissue. The protective role of propolis against the ROS induced damages in diabetic mice gives a hope that they may have similar protective action in humans. PMID:22866906

  14. Increased Oxidative Stress and Imbalance in Antioxidant Enzymes in the Brains of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ceretta, Luciane B.; Réus, Gislaine Z.; Abelaira, Helena M.; Ribeiro, Karine F.; Zappellini, Giovanni; Felisbino, Francine F.; Steckert, Amanda V.; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system (SNC) as well as alterations in oxidative stress. Thus, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan on memory and oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by using a single injection of alloxan (150?mg/kg), and fifteen days after induction, the rats memory was evaluated through the use of the object recognition task. The oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured in the rat brain. The results showed that diabetic rats did not have alterations in their recognition memory. However, the results did show that diabetic rats had increases in the levels of superoxide in the prefrontal cortex, and in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in the prefrontal cortex and in the amygdala in submitochondrial particles. Also, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the hippocampus and striatum, and in TBARS oxidation in the striatum and amygdala. The SOD activity was decreased in diabetic rats in the striatum and amygdala. However, the CAT activity was increased in the hippocampus taken from diabetic rats. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that the animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan did not cause alterations in the animals' recognition memory, but it produced oxidants and an imbalance between SOD and CAT activities, which could contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes. PMID:22645603

  15. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Ashok Kumar; K. Lakshman; K. N. Jayaveea; D. Sheshadri Shekar; Saleemulla Khan; B. S. Thippeswamy; Veeresh P. Veerapur

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140mg\\/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400mg\\/kg) and glibenclamide (10mg\\/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15

  16. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects of leaf essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.), which is used in traditional Tunisian folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely known as one of the medicinal herbs with the highest antioxidant activity. The present paper is conducted to test the hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities of the leaf essential oil of P. graveolens. Methods The essential oil P. graveolens was administered daily and orally to the rats at two doses of 75?mg/kg and 150?mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for 30?days. The chemical composition of P. graveolens essential oil, body weight, serum glucose, hepatic glycogen, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), the components of hepatic, and renal and serum antioxidant systems were evaluated. The hypoglycemic effect of rose-scented geranium was compared to that of the known anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600??g/kg b.w.). Results After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. together with glibenclamide which is known by its antidiabetic activities and used as reference (600??g/kg b.w.), for four weeks, the serum glucose significantly decreased and antioxidant perturbations were restored. The hypoglycemic effect of P. graveolens at the dose of 150?mg/kg b.w. was significantly (pdiabetic rats that these beneficial effects of geranium oils were confirmed. Conclusions It suggests that administration of essential oil of P. graveolens may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress. Our results, therefore, suggest that the rose-scented geranium could be used as a safe alternative antihyperglycemic drug for diabetic patients. PMID:22734822

  17. [Platelet hyperreactivity and antiaggregatory properties of nootropic drugs under conditions of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhiliuk, V I; Levykh, A É; Mamchur, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effects of nootropic drugs (noopept, pentoxifylline, piracetam, pramiracetam, Ginkgo biloba extract, entrop, cerebrocurin and citicoline) on platelet aggregation in rats with experimental diabetes have been studied. It is established that all these drugs exhibit an inhibitory action of various degrees against platelet hyperreactivity under conditions of chronic hyperglycemia. The maximum universality of the antiaggregatory action is characteristic of pramiracetam, entrop and Ginkgo biloba extract. PMID:22702111

  18. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis Linn in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, B S; Lakshman, K; Jayaveea, K N; Sheshadri Shekar, D; Saleemulla Khan; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, Veeresh P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was confirmed after 5 days of single intraperitoneal injection of ALX (140 mg/kg) in albino Wister rats. MEAV (200 and 400 mg/kg) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) orally administered daily for 15 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 1, 10 and 15 days respectively. On the 15th day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for the determination of high density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), total glycerides (TG) and total proteins (TP). For in vivo antioxidant activity of MEAV, liver tissues were homogenized and the assay of lipid peroxidation and was measured as Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and total thiols (TT) were performed in control, ALX and MEAV treated rats. MEAV at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction is blood glucose, lipid profiles and significant improvement in MDA, GSH, CAT and TT when compared to diabetic control group. In vitro ?-amylase inhibition activity of MEAV was also studied. We concluded that MEAV possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities. PMID:20643534

  19. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, R. S.; Singh, Vishakha; Ram, Mahendra; Yadava, Harlokesh Narayan; Singh, K. K.; Kumari, Suruchi; Roy, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic extract (Group IV). For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results: Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg) administration of aqueous extract (A.E.) , ether extract (E.E.) and methanol extract (M.E.) for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion: The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner. PMID:21808578

  20. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF FRUIT JUICE OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (L) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oxidative stress has been defined as a disturbance in the balance the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence system, which can lead to tissue injury. Antioxidant level in the tissue is an important factor for sensitivity of individual tissue to oxidative stress. It has been suggested that oxidative stress can play an important role in tissue damage

  1. Modulatory effects of gymnema montanum leaf extract on alloxan-induced oxidative stress in wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Ananthan; M Latha; K. M Ramkumar; L Pari; C Baskar; V Narmatha Bai

    2004-01-01

    ObjectivesIn light of evidence that some complications of diabetes mellitus may be caused or exacerbated by oxidative damage, we investigated the effect of Gymnema montanum leaf extract (GLEt) on tissue antioxidant defense systems in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  2. Efficacy of Composite Extract from Leaves and Fruits of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Diabetic Therapy against Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dileep; Abidi, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on composite extract (CE) and making small dose of naturally occurring antidiabetic plants leaf and fruits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of CE against alloxan- (ALX-) induced diabetes of Wistar strain rats. A dose-dependent study for CE (25, 50, and 100?mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the composite compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, plasma advanced oxidation product (AOPP), sialic acid demonstrating disturbed antioxidant status.CE at a dose of 100?mg/kg body weight restored/minimised these alterations towards normal values. In conclusion, small dose of CE possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. PMID:24729889

  3. Effect of methanolic extract of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub leaves on hyperglycemia and indices of diabetic complications in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Atawodi, Sunday Ene-Ojo; Yakubu, Ojochenemi Ejeh; Liman, Mubarak Labaran; Iliemene, Dorothy Uju

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ameliorative role of Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) Taub (T. tetraptera) leaf in hyperglycemia with associated conditions like oxidative stress, kidney damage and disorders in lipid metabolism. Methods Five groups of five rats each intraperitoneally received the following treatment schedules for 7 d: untreated normal control, untreated alloxan-diabetic control, diabetic treated with glibenclamide, normal rats treated with extract (50 mg/kg) and diabetic rats treated with the extract. Evaluations were made for fasting blood sugar, body weight changes, malondialdehyde, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid profile, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, urea and creatinine in all the rats. Results Whereas the untreated diabetic rats showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in packed cell volume, superoxide dismutase, catalase and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol with a concomitant increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, fasting blood sugar, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, urea and creatinine, administration of methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaf or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats. Conclusions Methanolic extract of T. tetraptera leaves possesses a potent capacity for treatment of diabetes and the accompanying complications, including oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. PMID:25182550

  4. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress in rats through inhibiting pancreatic beta-cells from apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Semantee [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)] [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Manna, Prasenjit [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)] [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India); Gachhui, Ratan [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India)] [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Jadavpur University, 188, Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in [Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata-700054 (India)

    2011-12-15

    Oxidative stress plays a vital role in diabetic complications. To suppress the oxidative stress mediated damage in diabetic pathophysiology, a special focus has been given on naturally occurring antioxidants present in normal diet. D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL), a derivative of D-glucaric acid, is present in many dietary plants and is known for its detoxifying and antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial role of DSL against alloxan (ALX) induced diabetes in the pancreas tissue of Swiss albino rats. A dose-dependent study for DSL (20-120 mg/kg body weight) was carried out to find the effective dose of the compound in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure elevated the blood glucose, glycosylated Hb, decreased the plasma insulin and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries whereas oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight restored these alterations close to normal. Investigating the mechanism of the protective activity of DSL we observed that it prevented the pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Results showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced cytochrome c release in the cytosol and reciprocal regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in the diabetic rats. These events were also found to be associated with increased level of Apaf-1, caspase 9, and caspase 3 that ultimately led to pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis. DSL treatment, however, counteracted these changes. In conclusion, DSL possesses the capability of ameliorating the oxidative stress in ALX-induced diabetes and thus could be a promising approach in lessening diabetic complications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress is suggested as a key event in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) reduces the alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL normalizes cellular antioxidant machineries disturbed due to alloxan toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL inhibits pancreatic {beta}-cells apoptosis via mitochondria-dependent pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSL could be a promising approach for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramalingam Saravanan; Leelavinothan Pari

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. METHODS: Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg\\/kg body weight) for 30 days. The different doses of

  6. Effect of Trigonella foenum graecum L on the Activities of Antioxidant Enzyme and Their Expression in Tissues of Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sapneh; Mishra, Vibhuti; Jayant, Shiv Kumar; Srivastava, Nalini

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is a life-threatening metabolic disorder. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of seed powder of Trigonella foenum-graecum L in alloxan (55 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats. The results obtained showed that extensive oxidative stress is generated in tissues of diabetic rats as evidenced by increased production of hydrogen peroxide, increased accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonanal (4HNE) and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in tissues of diabetic rats. It was observed that the transcription of genes of SOD, GPx, and CAT was also significantly decreased when compared with control. Treatment of Trigonella for 15 days to diabetic rats showed hypoglycemic effect and improved the altered levels of H2O2, MDA, and 4HNE, the activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT as well as transcription of these genes in the liver and the brain of diabetic rats. PMID:25854675

  7. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NF?B in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NF?B translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ? Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic ? cells in diabetic rat. ? Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ? Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling pathways in diabetic conditions. ? Taurine exerts antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antiinflammatory activities. ? It protects cardiac apoptosis by regulating Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins.

  8. Proliferation and apoptotic rates and increased frequency of p63-positive cells in the prostate acinar epithelium of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Arcolino, Fanny Oliveira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimental type 1 diabetes were investigated in the acinar epithelium of rat ventral prostate, focusing on the rates of cell proliferation and the frequency of apoptosis and p63-positive cells. Type 1 diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a single alloxan administration (42 mg/kg b.w.) and its effects were analysed for 1 week and 3 months after the establishment of the disease. A group of diabetic rats was treated daily with 5 IU of insulin during 1 week after diabetes had been diagnosed. Immunocytochemical methods for the localization of cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), androgen receptor (AR) and p63 protein were carried out, and apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL essay. In diabetic rats, testosterone levels reduced drastically after 1 week and in a lower degree after 3 months. In short-term diabetic rats, cell proliferation decreased, and in medium-term, epithelial apoptotic rates increased. In both periods after the onset of diabetes, the frequency of p63-positive cells doubled. Insulin treatment was effective in preventing testosterone decrease, p63-positive cell increase and apoptotic rates, but did not interfere in cell proliferation. This investigation shows that, soon after diabetes onset, there are important modifications in cell proliferation within the acinar prostatic epithelium, and in longer term, there is a marked impact on kinetics of differentiation and cell death, which may initially be attributable to an androgenic fall, but is probably also because of other factors related to diabetes, as changes are considerably different from those resulting from castration. PMID:20041964

  9. Proliferation and apoptotic rates and increased frequency of p63-positive cells in the prostate acinar epithelium of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Arcolino, Fanny Oliveira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimental type 1 diabetes were investigated in the acinar epithelium of rat ventral prostate, focusing on the rates of cell proliferation and the frequency of apoptosis and p63-positive cells. Type 1 diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a single alloxan administration (42 mg/kg b.w.) and its effects were analysed for 1 week and 3 months after the establishment of the disease. A group of diabetic rats was treated daily with 5 IU of insulin during 1 week after diabetes had been diagnosed. Immunocytochemical methods for the localization of cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), androgen receptor (AR) and p63 protein were carried out, and apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL essay. In diabetic rats, testosterone levels reduced drastically after 1 week and in a lower degree after 3 months. In short-term diabetic rats, cell proliferation decreased, and in medium-term, epithelial apoptotic rates increased. In both periods after the onset of diabetes, the frequency of p63-positive cells doubled. Insulin treatment was effective in preventing testosterone decrease, p63-positive cell increase and apoptotic rates, but did not interfere in cell proliferation. This investigation shows that, soon after diabetes onset, there are important modifications in cell proliferation within the acinar prostatic epithelium, and in longer term, there is a marked impact on kinetics of differentiation and cell death, which may initially be attributable to an androgenic fall, but is probably also because of other factors related to diabetes, as changes are considerably different from those resulting from castration. PMID:20041964

  10. The effect of sulfur dioxide inhalation on visual evoked potentials, antioxidant status, and lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    A?ar, A; Küçükatay, V; Yargiço?lu, P; Aktekin, B; Kipmen-Korgun, S; Gümü?lü, D; Apaydin, C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 10 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) exposure on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the activities of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in diabetes mellitus. Forty healthy male albino rats, aged 3 months, were divided into four equal groups: control (C), sulfur dioxide + control (CSO(2)), diabetic (D), and sulfur dioxide + diabetic (DSO(2)) groups. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by IV injection of alloxane monohydrate in a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Ten ppm sulfur dioxide was administered to the animals of sulfur dioxide-exposed groups in an exposure chamber for 1 h/day x 7 days/week x 6 weeks while control and diabetic groups were exposed to filtered air in the same condition. SO(2) exposure, though markedly decreasing retina CAT and GSH-Px activities, significantly increased retina Cu,Zn-SOD activity in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In contrast to SO(2)-related increase in the activity of Cu,Zn-SOD, decrease in GSH-Px activity was observed in the brain of those groups. Brain CAT activity was unaltered. SO(2) exposure caused the significant elevation in brain TBARS levels of CSO(2) and DSO(2) groups, whereas only in the retina TBARS level of the CSO(2) group. SO(2) exposure caused the significant prolongations of P(1), N(1), P(2), and P(3) components of VEPs in the nondiabetic and all components of VEPs in the diabetic groups. SO(2) exposure also resulted in significant amplitude reductions in both experimental groups. PMID:10871429

  11. Inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes activities by Zygophyllum album extracts: effect on blood and pancreas inflammatory biomarkers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mnafgui, Kais; Kchaou, Mouna; Hamden, Khaled; Derbali, Fatma; Slama, Sadok; Nasri, Mbarek; Salah, Hichem Ben; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2014-03-01

    Zygophyllum album has been used as herbal medicine in Southern Tunisia to treat several diseases such as diabetes mellitus. This study is aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the antihyperglycemic potential, the anti-inflammatory and the protective hematological proprieties of this plant in diabetic rats. The inhibition of the ?-amylase activity by different solvent-extract fractions of Z. album was tested in vitro. The fraction endowed with the powerful inhibitory activity against ?-amylase was administered to surviving diabetic rats for 30 days. Data from in vitro indicated that each extract from the medicinal plant showed moderate inhibition of ?-amylase enzyme except the ethyl acetate extract which was ineffective. The powerful inhibition was achieved by ethanol extract of Z. album (EZA) with an IC50 of 43.48 ?g/ml as compared to acarbose (Acar) with an IC50 of 14.88 ?g/ml. In vivo, the results showed that EZA decreased the ?-amylase levels in serum, pancreas and intestine of diabetic rats by 40 %, 45 % and 46 %, respectively, associated with considerably reduction in blood glucose rate by 61 %. Moreover, the EZA helped to protect the structure and function of the ?-cells. Interestingly, EZA had a potent anti-inflammatory effect which is manifested by decreases in CRP and TNF-? levels. Overall, a notable reduction in lipase activity both in serum and small intestine of treated diabetic rats resulted in the improvement of serum and liver lipids profile. Z. album showed a prominent antidiabetic effect via inhibition of carbohydrate and lipid digestive enzymes and ameliorated the inflammation and the disturbance of hematological biomarkers in diabetes. PMID:23996134

  12. [Anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivatives in the acute phase of alloxan-induced diabetes in rats].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Miroshnichenko, I Iu; Rassokhina, L M; Fa?zullin, R M; Malkin, M P; Priakhina, K E; Kalugina, A V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of derivatives of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid (emoxypine, reamberin, and mexidol) on the manifestations of anxiety (according to the criteria of behavior in elevated cross plus maze test) depression (according to the criterian of immobility in the Porsolt test) in the acute phase of alloxan diabetes (96 h after alloxan administration) has been studied in rats. The effectiveness of emoxypine, reamberin, and mexidol was compared with that of alpha-lipoic acid (etalon treatment of diabetic neuropathy). It was established that a single administration of 3-oxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives in doses equivalent to the therapeutic range for humans corrected anxio-depressive disorders in the acute phase of alloxan diabetes, while being not inferior to alpha-lipoic acid with respect to the intensity of anxiolytic and antidepressant action. The correction of affective disorders by emoxypine, reamberin and mexidol did not depend on their effect on hyperglycemia in the acute phase of alloxan diabetes. The most pronounced anxiolytic action was observed upon the administration of emoxypine, while the most pronounced antidepressant effect was observed upon the administration of mexidol. PMID:25076754

  13. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280?g) were given an injection of 120?mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9?mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12?h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400?mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02?mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01?mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400?mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  14. Assessment of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in diabetic mice: effects of propolis and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).

    PubMed

    Oršoli?, Nada; Sirovina, Damir; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Jazvinš?ak Jembrek, Maja; Kosalec, Ivan

    2013-09-18

    There is growing recognition that polyphenolic compounds present in many plants and natural products may have beneficial effects on human health. Propolis - a substance produced by honeybees - and catechins in tea, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are strong antioxidants that appear to have anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. The present study was designed to elucidate the anti-diabetic effect of the water-soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP), which contains phenolic acids as the main compounds, and EGCG in alloxan-induced (75mg/kg, iv) diabetes in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of EGCG or propolis at doses of 50mg/kg body weight (bw) to diabetic mice for a period of 7 days resulted in a significant increase in body weight and in haematological/immunological blood parameters, as well as in 100% survival of the mice. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain tissue was also observed in diabetic mice treated with these two agents. Additionally, EGCG and propolis clearly reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes of diabetic mice. Our studies demonstrate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of WSDP and EGCG, which could exert beneficial effects against diabetes and the associated consequences of free-radical formation in kidney, liver, spleen and brain tissue. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with WSDP or EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:23859956

  15. Antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin, a polyherbal formulation in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Saravanan, Ramalingam; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2005-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to investigation the effect of Diasulin, a poly herbal drug composed of ethanolic extract of ten medicinal plants on blood glucose, plasma insulin, tissue lipid profile, and lipidperoxidation in alloxan induced diabetes. Methods Ethanolic extract of Diasulin a, poly herbal drug was administered orally (200 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. The different doses of Diasulin on blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats were studied and the levels of lipid peroxides [TBARS, and Hydroperoxide] and tissue lipids [cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipides and free fatty acids] were also estimated in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The effects were compared with glibenclamide. Result Treatment with Diasulin and glibenclamide resulted in a significant reduction of blood glucose and increase in plasma insulin. Diasulin also resulted in a significant decrease in tissue lipids and lipid peroxide formation. The effect produced by Diasulin was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Conclusion The decreased lipid peroxides and tissue lipids clearly showed the antihyperlipidemic and antiperoxidative effect of Diasulin apart from its antidiabetic effect. PMID:15969768

  16. Protective role of D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone in alloxan induced oxidative stress in the spleen tissue of diabetic rats is mediated by suppressing mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Sil, Parames C

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigated the role of D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (DSL) in the spleen tissue of alloxan (ALX) induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by injecting ALX (at a dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally in sterile normal saline. Elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated Hb and TNF? decreased levels of plasma insulin and disturbed intra-cellular antioxidant machineries were detected in ALX exposed animals. Oral administration of DSL at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight, however, restored these alterations in diabetic rats. Studies on the mechanism of ALX-induced diabetes showed that hyperglycemia caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the spleen, released cytochrome C in the cytosol, activated caspase 3 and ultimately led to apoptotic cell death. Results suggest that DSL possesses the ability of protecting the spleen tissue from ALX-induced hyperglycemia and thus could act as an anti-diabetic agent in lessening diabetes associated spleen dysfunction. PMID:22239106

  17. Diabetic state-induced modifications of succinyl-choline binding mode in the microsomal fractions of mouse skeletal muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.; Kimura, I.; Fujihara, M.; Hoshino, N.

    1988-01-01

    The skeletal muscles of alloxan-induced diabetic mice and genetically diabetic KK-CA/sup Y/ mice are hypersensitive to a depolarizing blocker, succinylcholine (SuCh) but not to the competitive antagonist, d-tubocurarine (d-TC). The mechanism by which the action of the depolarizing blocker is modified in the diabetic state was investigated on the binding of /sup 14/C-SuCh to the microsomal fraction isolated from mouse skeletal muscles. The Scatchard plot of microsomal preparations from normal ddY mice showed positive cooperativity in SuCh binding, whereas that of the preparations from alloxan-induced diabetic mice as well as genetically diabetic KK-CA/sup Y/ mice lost the positive cooperative interactions. The dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of high affinity site in diabetic muscles was significantly lower than that in non-diabetic ddY muscle. The microsomal fractions from denervated muscles of normal ddY mice maintained weakly positive cooperativity in SuCh binding, and the affinity of SuCh binding in denervated muscles was lower than that of non-denervated muscles. 17 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  18. Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

    2004-12-01

    The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID:15507325

  19. The protective effect of vanadium against diabetic cataracts in diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Shi, De-Jing; Gao, Xiang-Chun; Mi, Shu-Yong; Yu, Ying; Han, Qing

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of vanadium in alloxan-induced diabetes and cataract in rats. Different doses of vanadium was administered once daily for 8 weeks to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. To know the mechanism of action of vanadium, lens malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), activities of aldose reductase (AR), and sorbitol levels were assayed, respectively. Supplementation of vanadium to alloxan-induced diabetic rats decreased the blood glucose levels due to hyperglycemia, inhibited the AR activity, and delayed cataract progression in a dose-dependent manner. The observed beneficial effects may be attributed to polyol pathway activation but not decreased oxidative stress. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that vanadium could effectively reduce the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and diabetic cataracts in rats. PMID:24604151

  20. The medicinal cracked-cap polypore mushroom Phellinus rimosus (higher Basidiomycetes) attenuates alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Rony, Kuttikkadan A; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Mathew, John; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is usually associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), impaired antioxidant defense systems, or both, which result in oxidative damage and lead to ROS-mediated diabetic pathogenesis. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of extract from the wood-inhabiting polypore medicinal mushroom Phellinus rimosus in an alloxan-induced diabetic model and the oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Oral administration of extract at doses of 50 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 days to rats with alloxan-induced diabetes was found to possess significant dose-dependent hypoglycemic activity. In the oral glucose tolerance test, hypoglycemic effect of P. rimosus (250 mg/kg) was significant (P < 0.01) and maximum at 90 minutes after the glucose challenge when compared with that of control group. The effect of extract on antioxidant status in the pancreas, liver, and kidney was estimated. The diabetic control rats exhibited elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and lower activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in pancreatic, hepatic, and renal tissues compared with normal tissues. The activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH were found to be increased in diabetic rats treated with the extract. The increased level of lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats also was found to revert to near-normal status in groups treated with the extract. The findings thus suggest the therapeutic efficiency of Ph. Rimosus against declined antioxidant status as well as hyperglycemia associated with diabetes. PMID:23662616

  1. Paradoxical effect of burns in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Spillert, C R; Suval, W D; Vernese, N A; Lazaro, E J

    1986-01-01

    Since the microcirculation is impaired in diabetes and since burn injury is associated with microvascular thrombosis, the purpose of this study was to determine whether diabetes increases the severity of burns. Swiss white mice were made diabetic with alloxan, and control animals received saline. One week later, animals with over 2000 mg/dl urine sugar and the control animals were anesthetized and burned uniformly on the back with a steel disc at 100 C for 10 sec. At 24 hr, burn severity was evaluated on a scale of 0 to 4 using gross and microscopic criteria. The mean burn severity of the diabetic mice was 0.80 +/- .15 and that of the control mice was 3.22 +/- .09 at 24 hr (P less than 0.001.). At 5 days, the differences of the burn severity between the two groups were still significant, but 5/10 (50%) of the diabetic mice and none of the control mice died. In diabetic mice, through burn severity appears mild in the wound, the mortality is high. Therefore, the criteria for initial evaluation of the diabetic with burns need to be reassessed. PMID:3942390

  2. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kyoraku, Itaru; Shiomi, Kazutaka [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Nakazato, Masamitsu, E-mail: nakazato@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, suppresses inflammation and oxidative stress, and promotes cell survival and proliferation. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in the treatment of polyneuropathy in uncontrolled streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. Ghrelin or desacyl-ghrelin was administered daily for 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetic polyneuropathy had developed. Ghrelin administration did not alter food intake, body weight gain, blood glucose levels, or plasma insulin levels when compared with mice given saline or desacyl-ghrelin administration. Ghrelin administration ameliorated reductions in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in diabetic mice and normalized their temperature sensation and plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin {alpha}, an oxidative stress marker. Desacyl-ghrelin failed to have any effect. Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder.

  3. Evaluation of antidiabetic effect of Momordica cymbalaria fruit in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kameswararao, B; Kesavulu, M M; Apparao, C

    2003-02-01

    The oral treatment with the aqueous extract of Momordica cymbalaria fruit (MC) (0.5 g/kg) for 6 weeks showed a significant antihyperglycemic as well as antihyperlipidemic effects in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:12628387

  4. T cell vaccination against autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Formby, B; Shao, T

    1993-01-01

    The diabetogenic autoimmune process was accelerated in 23 days nonirradiated postnatal nonobese diabetic (NOD) female mice by adoptive transfer of pathogenic, polyclonal CD4+ 8- T cells isolated from diabetic spleens. Recipient mice developed hyperglycemia 15 days after transfer of pathogenic immune cells with typical histological signs of pancreatic infiltration. The CD4+V beta 8+ T cells isolated from diabetic spleens and activated by surface-immobilized anti-TCRV beta 8 monoclonal antibody (mAb, clone F23.1) induced suppression of a diabetogenic disease process accelerated earlier by adoptively transferred polyclonal CD4+8- T cells. When CD4+V beta 8+ T cells isolated from diabetic spleens were activated by cross-linking TCRV beta 8 and systemically injected into young female NOD mice, an endogenous immunosuppressive circuit was stimulated that completely prevented development of insulitis and disease. A suppressor mechanism involving CD8+ T cells might be involved since in vitro these cells strongly proliferated in response to irradiated CD4+ V beta 8+ T cells that in blocking experiments with specific mAb was found to be class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted. Hence, T cells expressing the CD8 phenotype specifically respond to idiotypic or ergotypic determinants on the inducing activated CD4+V beta 8+ T cells and effectively suppress a diabetogenic disease process by a mechanism that may involve T-T cell interactions. PMID:8096128

  5. Exercise training modifies gut microbiota in normal and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Jennifer E; Myslicki, Jason P; Bomhof, Marc R; Belke, Darrell D; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A

    2015-07-01

    Cecal microbiota from type 2 diabetic (db/db) and control (db/(+)) mice was obtained following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise activity. qPCR analysis revealed a main effect of exercise, with greater abundance of select Firmicutes species and lower Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in both normal and diabetic exercised mice compared with sedentary counterparts. Conversely, Bifidobacterium spp. was greater in exercised normal but not diabetic mice (exercise × diabetes interaction). How exercise influences gut microbiota requires further investigation. PMID:25962839

  6. Hypoglycemic Effect of Combination of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Gynura procumbens (Lour.) Merr. Ethanolic Extracts Standardized by Rutin and Quercetin in Alloxan-induced Hyperglycemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sunarwidhi, Anggit Listyacahyani; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Exploration of plant combinations could be an alternative approach for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of combination of A. indica and G. procumbens ethanolic extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Powder of A. indica and G. procumbens leaves were macerated with ethanol 70%. Determination of rutin in A. indica and quercetin in G. procumbens were performed by TLC-densitometry. Hyperglycemia in rats was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a single dose of 150 mg/kgBW. The rats were treated with 3 dosage variation of combinations for 15 days. Hypoglycemic effect was evaluated by estimating the blood glucose levels and the rats pancreas histological study. Results: A. indica contained 2.90±0.15% of rutin and G. procumbens contained 18.86±0.86% of quercetin. Combination at the ratio of 50mg/kgBW A. indica:112.5mg/kgBW G. procumbens showed the highest hypoglycemic effect: 68.74±4.83% (preprandial) and 73.91±3.18% (postprandial). Histological studies indicated that this combination improved the morphology of the islets of Langerhans and ? cells. It also increased insulin expression and decreased the elevated-glucose concentrations. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of both extracts has better hypoglycemic effect than the single treatment of A. indica or G. procumbens. Combination of both extracts was potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients. PMID:25671197

  7. State of lymphopoiesis in mice with alloxan diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, Yu.A.; Timofeeva, E.E.; Zinger, M.G.

    1986-09-01

    The state of lymphopoiesis was studied in mice with alloxan diabetes. After blood analysis, all the animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of /sup 3/H-thymidine before being killed. It is concluded that the state of alloxan diabetes is characterized by marked disturbances of lymphopoiesis. The total number of leukocytes and absolute number of lymphocytes in the blood of both healthy and diabetic mice is shown. The cytological parameters characterizing the state of lymphopoiesis in thymus and bone marrow of healthy and diabetic mice are presented.

  8. Chronic rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Christine E; Partap, Uttara; Patchen, Bonnie K; Swoap, Steven J

    2014-08-15

    Current evidence indicates that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin both increases longevity and, seemingly contradictorily, impairs glucose homeostasis. Most studies exploring the dimensions of this paradox have been based on rapamycin treatment in mice for up to 20 wk. We sought to better understand the metabolic effects of oral rapamycin over a substantially longer period of time in HET3 mice. We observed that treatment with rapamycin for 52 wk induced diabetes in male mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, significant urine glucose levels, and severe glucose and pyruvate intolerance. Glucose intolerance occurred in male mice by 4 wk on rapamycin and could be only partially reversed with cessation of rapamycin treatment. Female mice developed moderate glucose intolerance over 1 yr of rapamycin treatment, but not diabetes. The role of sex hormones in the differential development of diabetic symptoms in male and female mice was further explored. HET3 mice treated with rapamycin for 52 wk were gonadectomized and monitored over 10 wk. Castrated male mice remained glucose intolerant, while ovariectomized females developed significant glucose intolerance over the same time period. Subsequent replacement of 17?-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized females promoted a recovery of glucose tolerance over a 4-wk period, suggesting the protective role of E2 against rapamycin-induced diabetes. These results indicate that 1) oral rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice, 2) the diabetes is partially reversible with cessation of treatment, and 3) E2 plays a protective role against the development of rapamycin-induced diabetes. PMID:24965794

  9. Angiotensin II inhibitor facilitates epidermal wound regeneration in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Maria; Papalazarou, Vasileios; Rouni, Georgia; Papageorgopoulou, Evagelia; Papalois, Apostolos; Kostourou, Vassiliki

    2015-01-01

    Tissue regeneration and wound healing are severely impaired in diabetes and are associated with poor circulation and dysfunctional blood vessels. Angiotensin II inhibitors are anti-hypertensive drugs used in clinical practice to regulate blood pressure and could affect tissue remodeling. We hypothesize that blocking angiotensin II, using Losartan, could facilitate tissue regeneration in diabetic mice. To this end, we established an experimental model of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data demonstrated that Losartan accelerates wound repair and normalizes wound stromal responses, having a beneficial role in wounds of diabetic individuals. Our findings highlight a potential therapeutic use of Losartan in improving wound repair in diabetic conditions.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Bupleurum Polysaccharides in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Liu, Zhenzhen; Xu, Yanyan; Zhou, Chunjiao; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yunyi; Chen, Daofeng

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is related to low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Bupleurum Polysaccharides (BPs), isolated from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, little is known about its therapeutic effects on diabetes. In this experiment, the effects of BPs on alleviation of diabetes and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Diabetic mice model was established via successive intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) for two days. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 16.8mmol/L were selected for experiments. The diabetic mice were orally administered with BPs (30 and 60 mg/kg) once a day for 35 days. BPs not only significantly decreased levels of blood glucose, but also increased those of serum insulin and liver glycogen in diabetic mice compared to model mice. Additionally, BPs adminstration improved the insulin expression and suppressed the apoptosis in pancreas of the diabetic mice. Histopathological observations further demonstrated that BPs protected the pancreas and liver from oxidative and inflammatory damages. These results suggest that BPs protect pancreatic ? cells and liver hepatocytes and ameliorate diabetes, which is associated with its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26176625

  11. Non-obese diabetic mice rapidly develop dramatic sympathetic neuritic dystrophy: a new experimental model of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Beaudet, Lucie N; Frederick, Kathy E; Parvin, Curtis A; Plurad, Santiago B; Levisetti, Matteo G

    2003-11-01

    To address the pathogenesis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, we have examined the sympathetic nervous system in non-obese diabetic (NOD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, two models of type 1 diabetes, and the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes. After only 3 to 5 weeks of diabetes, NOD mice developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites ("neuritic dystrophy") in the prevertebral superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMG-CG), similar to the pathology described in diabetic STZ- and BBW-rat and man. Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia of the NOD mouse or in the SMG-CG of non-diabetic NOD siblings. STZ-induced diabetic mice develop identical changes, although at a much slower pace and to a lesser degree than NOD mice. NOD-SCID mice, which are genetically identical to NOD mice except for the absence of T and B cells, do not develop diabetes or neuropathology comparable to diabetic NOD mice. However, STZ-treated NOD-SCID mice develop severe neuritic dystrophy, evidence against an exclusively autoimmune pathogenesis for autonomic neuropathy in this model. Chronically diabetic type 2 db/db mice fail to develop neuritic dystrophy, suggesting that hyperglycemia alone may not be the critical and sufficient element. The NOD mouse appears to be a valuable model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, rapidly developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man. PMID:14578206

  12. Prevention of Type I Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice by Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ikehara; Hitoshi Ohtsuki; Robert A. Good; Hitoshi Asamoto; Takao Nakamura; Kenichi Sekita; Eri Muso; Yoshihiro Tochino; Tatsuya Ida; Hideshi Kuzuya; Hiroo Imura; Yoshihiro Hamashima

    1985-01-01

    An animal model [the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse] for type I diabetes features a striking infiltration of T cells into the pancreatic islets. This infiltration selectively destroys beta cells. Most of the T cells are Lyt-1+, but some are Lyt-2+,3+. Transfer experiments using parabiosis revealed that insulitis can be transferred within 2 weeks after parabiosis to immunoincompetent thymectomized mice. When

  13. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Swanston-Flatt; C. Day; C. J. Bailey; P. R. Flatt

    1990-01-01

    Summary  The effects on glucose homeostasis of eleven plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes mellitus were evaluated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Dried leaves of agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), alfalfa (Medicago saliva), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus), celandine (Chelidonium majus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis); seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum); dried berries of

  14. Role of ITGAE in the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Elizabeth S; Lodder, Mels; Weinreb, Paul H; Buss, Jill; Rajab, Amer; Adin, Christopher; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Hadley, Gregg A

    2015-03-01

    There is compelling evidence that autoreactive CD8(+)T cells play a central role in precipitating the development of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Given that ITGAE (CD103) recognizes an islet-restricted ligand (E-cadherin), we postulated that its expression is required for initiation of disease. We herein use a mouse model of autoimmune diabetes (NOD/ShiLt mice) to test this hypothesis. We demonstrate that ITGAE is expressed by a discrete subset of CD8(+)T cells that infiltrate pancreatic islets before the development of diabetes. Moreover, we demonstrate that development of diabetes in Itgae-deficient NOD mice is significantly delayed at early but not late time points, indicating that ITGAE is preferentially involved in early diabetes development. To rule out a potential contribution by closely linked loci to this delay, we treated WT NOD mice beginning at 2 weeks of age through 5 weeks of age with a depleting anti-ITGAE mAb and found a decreased incidence of diabetes following anti-ITGAE mAb treatment compared with mice that received isotype control mAbs or non-depleting mAbs to ITGAE. Moreover, a histological examination of the pancreas of treated mice revealed that NOD mice treated with a depleting mAb were resistant to immune destruction. These results indicate that ITGAE(+) cells play a key role in the development of autoimmune diabetes and are consistent with the hypothesis that ITGAE(+)CD8(+)T effectors initiate the disease process. PMID:25525188

  15. Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stanely Mainzen Prince; N. Kamalakkannan; Venugopal P. Menon

    2003-01-01

    Syzigium cumini commonly known as Jamun, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous Jamun seed extract (JSEt) for 6 weeks caused a significant decrease in lipids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase in the brain of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral

  16. Anti-diabetic effects of CTB-APSL fusion protein in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Gao, Zhangzhao; Guo, Qingtuo; Wang, Tao; Lu, Conger; Chen, Ying; Sheng, Qing; Chen, Jian; Nie, Zuoming; Zhang, Yaozhou; Wu, Wutong; Lv, Zhengbing; Shu, Jianhong

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24633252

  17. Lack of Type VIII Collagen in Mice Ameliorates Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Ulrike; Hopfer, Helmut; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Loeffler, Ivonne; Fukai, Naomi; Olsen, Bjorn R.; Stahl, Rolf A.K.; Wolf, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Key features of diabetic nephropathy include the accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. In recent studies, increased expression of type VIII collagen in the glomeruli and tubulointerstitium of diabetic kidneys has been noted. The objectives of this study were to assess whether type VIII collagen affects the development of diabetic nephropathy and to determine type VIII collagen–dependent pathways in diabetic nephropathy in the mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was induced by STZ injections in collagen VIII–deficient or wild-type mice. Functional and histological analyses were performed 40 days after induction of diabetes. Type VIII collagen expression was assessed by Northern blots, immunohistochemistry, and real-time PCR. Proliferation of primary mesangial cells was measured by thymidine incorporation and direct cell counting. Expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p27Kip1 was assessed by Western blots. Finally, Col8a1 was stably overexpressed in mesangial cells. RESULTS Diabetic wild-type mice showed a strong renal induction of type VIII collagen. Diabetic Col8a1?/Col8a2? animals revealed reduced mesangial expansion and cellularity and extracellular matrix expansion compared with the wild type. These were associated with less albuminuria. High-glucose medium as well as various cytokines induced Col8a1 in cultured mesangial cells. Col8a1?/Col8a2? mesangial cells revealed decreased proliferation, less phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and increased p27Kip1 expression. Overexpression of Col8a1 in mesangial cells induced proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Lack of type VIII collagen confers renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy. One possible mechanism is that type VIII collagen permits and/or fosters mesangial cell proliferation in early diabetic nephropathy. PMID:19401424

  18. Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency Prevents Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Manal; Machavoine, François; Rignault, Rachel; Dam, Julie; Dy, Michel; Thieblemont, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has highlighted the role of histamine in inflammation. Since this monoamine has also been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes, we assessed its effect in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. To this end, we used mice (inactivated) knocked out for the gene encoding histidine decarboxylase, the unique histamine-forming enzyme, backcrossed on a NOD genetic background. We found that the lack of endogenous histamine in NOD HDC?/? mice decreased the incidence of diabetes in relation to their wild-type counterpart. Whereas the proportion of regulatory T and myeloid-derived suppressive cells was similar in both strains, histamine deficiency was associated with increased levels of immature macrophages, as compared with wild-type NOD mice. Concerning the cytokine pattern, we found a decrease in circulating IL-12 and IFN-? in HDC?/? mice, while IL-6 or leptin remained unchanged, suggesting that histamine primarily modulates the inflammatory environment. Paradoxically, exogenous histamine given to NOD HDC?/? mice provided also protection against T1D. Our study supports the notion that histamine is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes, thus providing additional evidence for its role in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:26090474

  19. DBA/2J Mice Are Susceptible to Diabetic Nephropathy and Diabetic Exacerbation of IOP Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ileana; Howell, Gareth R.; John, Cai W.; Kief, Joseph L.; Libby, Richard T.; John, Simon W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Some pathological manifestations of diabetes in the eye include retinopathy, cataracts and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in non-proliferative stages of diabetic retinopathy and small increases in IOP in diabetic patients has raised the possibility that diabetes affects the development and progression of ocular hypertension and glaucoma. The Ins2Akita mutation is known to cause diabetes and retinopathy on a C57BL/6J (B6) background by as early as 3 months of age. Here, the impact of the Akita mutation on glaucoma was assessed using DBA/2J (D2) mice, a widely used mouse model of ocular hypertension induced glaucoma. In D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice, the contribution of diabetes to vascular permeability, IOP elevation, RGC loss, and glaucoma development was assessed. D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice developed a severe diabetic nephropathy and early mortality between 6–8 months of age. This agrees with previous reports showing that the D2 background is more susceptible to diabetes than the B6 background. In addition, D2.Ins2Akita/+ mice had vascular leakage, astrocyte reactivity and a significant increase in IOP. However no RGC loss and no anterograde axonal transport dysfunction were found at 8.5 months of age. Therefore, our data show that despite severe diabetes and an increased IOP compared to controls, RGCs do not lose axon transport or degenerate. This may be due to a DBA/2J-specific genetic modifier(s) that could provide novel and important avenues for developing new therapies for diabetic retinopathy and possibly glaucoma. PMID:25207540

  20. Dietary flavonol epicatechin prevents the onset of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhuo; Yuskavage, Julia; Liu, Dongmin

    2013-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic ?-cells. Although successful islet transplantation provides a promising treatment, high cost, lack of donor organs, immune-mediated destruction of transplanted islets, and side effects from immunosuppressive drugs greatly limit its uses. Therefore, the search for novel and cost-effective agents that can prevent or ameliorate T1D is extremely important to decrease the burden of T1D. In this study, we discovered that epicatechin (EC, 0.5% in drinking water), a flavonol primarily in cocoa, effectively prevented T1D in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. At 32 weeks of age, 66.7% of control mice had overt diabetes, whereas only 16.6% of EC-treated mice became diabetic. Consistently, EC mice had significantly higher plasma insulin levels but lower glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations compared to control mice. EC had no significant effects on food or water intake and body weight gain in NOD mice, suggesting that EC's effect was not due to alterations in these variables. Treatment with EC elevates circulating anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 levels, ameliorates pancreatic insulitis, and improves pancreatic islet mass. These findings demonstrate that EC may be a novel, plant-derived compound capable of preventing T1D by modulating immune function and thereby preserving islet mass. PMID:23578364

  1. Multiple mechanisms involved in diabetes protection by lipopolysaccharide in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Cao, Hui; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Du, Jiao; Xia, Fei; Lu, Jingli; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation has been proposed to be important for islet cell inflammation and eventually ? cell loss in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, according to the "hygiene hypothesis", bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an agonist on TLR4, inhibits T1D progression. Here we investigated possible mechanisms for the protective effect of LPS on T1D development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that LPS administration to NOD mice during the prediabetic state neither prevented nor reversed insulitis, but delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of diabetes, and that a multiple-injection protocol is more effective than a single LPS intervention. Further, LPS administration suppressed spleen T lymphocyte proliferation, increased the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), reduced the synthesis of strong Th1 proinflammatory cytokines, and downregulated TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Most importantly, multiple injections of LPS induced a potential tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC) subset with low TLR4 expression without influencing the DC phenotype. Explanting DCs from repeated LPS-treated NOD mice into NOD/SCID diabetic mice conferred sustained protective effects against the progression of diabetes in the recipients. Overall, these results suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in the protective effects of LPS against the development of diabetes in NOD diabetic mice. These include Treg induction, down-regulation of TLR4 and its downstream MyD88-dependent signaling pathway, and the emergence of a potential tolerogenic DC subset. PMID:25896969

  2. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice by Transplantation of Allogeneic Bone Marrow and Pancreatic Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryoji Yasumizu; Kikuya Sugiura; Hiroshi Iwai; Muneo Inaba; Susumu Makino; Tatuya Ida; Hiroshi Imura; Yoshihiro Hamashima; Robert A. Good; Susumu Ikehara

    1987-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice provide a model for type 1 diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) can prevent and treat insulitis and overt diabetes in NOD mice. However, ABMT alone could not be used to treat overt diabetes in NOD mice whose islets had been completely destroyed. To provide insulin-producing cells, pancreatic tissue from newborn

  3. Altered Metabolic Signature in Pre-Diabetic NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Rasmus; Banday, Viqar Showkat; Moritz, Thomas; Trygg, Johan; Lejon, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Altered metabolism proceeding seroconversion in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes has previously been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice show a similarly altered metabolic profile compared to C57BL/6 mice. Blood samples from NOD and C57BL/6 female mice was collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 weeks and the metabolite content was analyzed using GC-MS. Based on the data of 89 identified metabolites OPLS-DA analysis was employed to determine the most discriminative metabolites. In silico analysis of potential involved metabolic enzymes was performed using the dbSNP data base. Already at 0 weeks NOD mice displayed a unique metabolic signature compared to C57BL/6. A shift in the metabolism was observed for both strains the first weeks of life, a pattern that stabilized after 5 weeks of age. Multivariate analysis revealed the most discriminative metabolites, which included inosine and glutamic acid. In silico analysis of the genes in the involved metabolic pathways revealed several SNPs in either regulatory or coding regions, some in previously defined insulin dependent diabetes (Idd) regions. Our result shows that NOD mice display an altered metabolic profile that is partly resembling the previously observation made in children progressing to Type 1 diabetes. The level of glutamic acid was one of the most discriminative metabolites in addition to several metabolites in the TCA cycle and nucleic acid components. The in silico analysis indicated that the genes responsible for this reside within previously defined Idd regions. PMID:22514744

  4. Gene Expression Profiles of Nondiabetic and Diabetic Obese Mice Suggest a Role of Hepatic Lipogenic

    E-print Network

    Attie, Alan D.

    Gene Expression Profiles of Nondiabetic and Diabetic Obese Mice Suggest a Role of Hepatic Lipogenic Capacity in Diabetes Susceptibility Hong Lan,1 Mary E. Rabaglia,1 Jonathan P. Stoehr,1 Samuel T. Nadler,1 for the development of type 2 diabetes. We have previously reported that in adipose tissue of obese (ob/ob) mice

  5. A wound healing model using healing-impaired diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, R; Shi, C M; Rifkin, D B; Ogawa, H

    1992-11-01

    A quantitative histological approach was employed to evaluate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in healing-impaired diabetic mice. The dorsal areas of female mutant diabetic mice, C57BL KsJ db/db (Jackson Lab.), were given two 6 mm-size full thickness wounds with a punch biopsy instrument. After application of bFGF, the wounds were left open. 8 days after wounding, the mice were sacrificed, and histological sections were evaluated using several histological parameters, such as the degree of wound closure, granulation tissue thickness, matrix density, and capillary numbers. Application of 5 micrograms of bFGF for 5 days induced significant responses by all of these dermal parameters when compared to those of non-treated db/db mice (p < 0.001). A minimum of 0.5 micrograms bFGF per day was required for a significant effect. Time-course experiments indicated that the granulation response in bFGF-treated mice peaked between 8 and 12 days and decreased after 12 days, while matrix density continued to increase until the 18th day. PMID:1293153

  6. Regulation of urinary ACE2 in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Jan; Garcia-Halpin, Laura; Ye, Minghao; Maier, Christoph; Sowers, Kurt; Burns, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) enhances the degradation of ANG II and its expression is altered in diabetic kidneys, but the regulation of this enzyme in the urine is unknown. Urinary ACE2 was studied in the db/db model of type 2 diabetes and stretozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes during several physiological and pharmacological interventions. ACE2 activity in db/db mice was increased in the serum and to a much greater extent in the urine compared with db/m controls. Neither a specific ANG II blocker, telmisartan, nor an ACE inhibitor, captopril, altered the levels of urinary ACE2 in db/db or db/m control mice. High-salt diet (8%) increased whereas low-salt diet (0.1%) decreased urinary ACE2 activity in the urine of db/db mice. In STZ mice, urinary ACE2 was also increased, and insulin decreased it partly but significantly after several weeks of administration. The increase in urinary ACE2 activity in db/db mice reflected an increase in enzymatically active protein with two bands identified of molecular size at 110 and 75 kDa and was associated with an increase in kidney cortex ACE2 protein at 110 kDa but not at 75 kDa. ACE2 activity was increased in isolated tubular preparations but not in glomeruli from db/db mice. Administration of soluble recombinant ACE2 to db/m and db/db mice resulted in a marked increase in serum ACE2 activity, but no gain in ACE2 activity was detectable in the urine, further demonstrating that urinary ACE2 is of kidney origin. Increased urinary ACE2 was associated with more efficient degradation of exogenous ANG II (10?9 M) in urine from db/db compared with that from db/m mice. Urinary ACE2 could be a potential biomarker of increased metabolism of ANG II in diabetic kidney disease. PMID:23761674

  7. Evaluation of Renal Hypoxia in Diabetic Mice by BOLD MRI

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pottumarthi; Li, Lu-Ping; Halter, Sarah; Cabray, JoAnn; Ye, Minghao; Batlle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Renal hypoxia has been proposed to be a pathophysiologic feature of diabetic kidney disease but it has been difficult to demonstrate in vivo, particularly in mouse models of diabetes. The objective of this work was to examine the sensitivity of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess renal oxygenation in vivo in a mouse model of diabetic kidney disease, the db/db mice. Research Design and Methods Kidney BOLD MRI studies were performed on a 3.0 T scanner using multiple gradient echo sequence with a custom-designed surface coil to acquire T2*-weighted images. Studies were performed in 10-week-old db/db mice (n = 7) and db/m controls (n = 6). Results R2* is a measure of the tissue deoxyhemoglobin concentration and higher values of R2* are associated with hypoxia. The db/db mice had higher medullary (43.1 ± 5.1 s?1 vs. 32.3 ± 3.7 s?1, P = 0.001) and cortical R2* (31.7 ± 3.1 s?1 vs. 27.1 ± 4.1 s?1, P = 0.04) values. Using pimonidazole staining as a marker of kidney hypoxia, in kidney sections from 10-week-old db/db mice neither cortex nor medulla had significant differences as compared with 10-week-old db/m mice (cortex: db/db 2.14 ± 0.05 vs. db/m 2.02 ± 0.28, medulla: db/db 2.81 ± 0.08 vs. db/m 2.6 ± 0.08). The db/db mice demonstrated further increased cortical and medullary hypoxia when scanned again at 15 weeks of age. Conclusions The report shows that renal BOLD MRI is a sensitive method for the in vivo evaluation of renal hypoxia in a mouse model of diabetic kidney disease where progressive renal hypoxia can be documented over time. BOLD MRI may be useful to monitor therapeutic interventions that may improve tissue hypoxia in the diabetic kidney. PMID:20829708

  8. Neurotrophic modulation of myelinated cutaneous innervation and mechanical sensory loss in diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Christianson; J. M. Ryals; M. S. Johnson; R. T. Dobrowsky; D. E. Wright

    2007-01-01

    Human diabetic patients often lose touch and vibratory sensations, but to date, most studies on diabetes-induced sensory nerve degeneration have focused on epidermal C-fibers. Here, we explored the effects of diabetes on cutaneous myelinated fibers in relation to the behavioral responses to tactile stimuli from diabetic mice. Weekly behavioral testing began prior to streptozotocin (STZ) administration and continued until 8

  9. Insulin-tumour interrelationship in EL4 lymphoma or thymoma-bearing mice. I. Alloxan-diabetic or non-diabetic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yam, D.; Zilberstein, A.; Fink, A.; Nir, I.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been carried out in which a comparison was made between EL4 lymphoma (assumed to be an insulin-producing secreting tumour) and thymoma (an insulin-dependent tumour). Tumour development and incidence, 3H-thymidine incorporation and insulin content in tumours, the host's food intake, blood insulin, glucose and cholesterol were determined in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic mice. Whereas no significant differences were observed between the diabetic and non-diabetic EL4 tumour-bearing mice, the diabetic, thymoma tumour-bearing mice showed reduced tumour growth and lower tumour incidence as compared with their non-diabetic counterparts. Insulin administration to diabetic tumour bearing mice, enhanced 3H-thymidine incorporation in the thymoma tumour cells only, and the insulin content of the EL4 tumours was found to be higher than that of the thymoma tumours. Rapid diabetes remission was observed in the diabetic, EL4 tumour-bearing mice as compared with the thymoma tumour-bearing mice. PMID:2186773

  10. Diabetes-Resistant NOR Mice Are More Severely Affected by Streptozotocin Compared to the Diabetes-Prone NOD Mice: Correlations with Liver and Kidney GLUT2 Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kahraman, S.; Aydin, C.; Elpek, G. O.; Dirice, E.; Sanlioglu, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) mice are susceptible strains for Type 1 diabetes development, and Nonobese Diabetes-Resistant (NOR) mice are defined as suitable controls for NOD mice in non-MHC-related research. Diabetes is often accelerated in NOD mice via Streptozotocin (STZ). STZ is taken inside cells via GLUT2 transmembrane carrier proteins, the major glucose transporter isoforms in pancreatic beta cells, liver, kidneys, and the small intestine. We observed severe adverse effects in NOR mice treated with STZ compared to NOD mice that were made diabetic with a similar dose. We suggested that the underlying mechanism could be differential GLUT2 expressions in pancreatic beta cells, yet immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies revealed similar GLUT2 expression levels. We also detected GLUT2 expression profiles in NOD and NOR hepatic and renal tissues by western blot analysis and observed considerably higher GLUT2 expression levels in liver and kidney tissues of NOR mice. Although beta cell GLUT2 expression levels are frequently evaluated as a marker predicting STZ sensitivity in animal models, we report here very different diabetic responses to STZ in two different animal strains, in spite of similar initial GLUT2 expressions in beta cells. Furthermore, use of NOR mice in STZ-mediated experimental diabetes settings should be considered accordingly. PMID:25699277

  11. Protective Effect of Enicostemma littorale Blume on Rat Model of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niraj Mukundray Bhatt; Suparna Barua; Sarita Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress is impl icated as a common pathway in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Approach: In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Enicostemma littorale Blume (EL) (2.5 g kg -1 ), a hypoglycemic and antioxidant herbal medicine in alloxan-induced diab etic neuropathy in male Charles foster rats. Results: Tail flick

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anticoagulatory activities of caffeic acid and ellagic acid in cardiac tissue of diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-chun Chao; Cheng-chin Hsu; Mei-chin Yin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeic acid (CA) and ellagic acid (EA) are phenolic acids naturally occurring in many plant foods. Cardiac protective effects of these compounds against dyslipidemia, hypercoagulability, oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetic mice were examined. METHODS: Diabetic mice were divided into three groups (15 mice per group): diabetic mice with normal diet, 2% CA treatment, or 2% EA treatment. One

  13. Piceatannol lowers the blood glucose level in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Uchida-Maruki, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Ryouichi; Kurita, Ikuko; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) seeds contained a high amount of piceatannol (3,5,3',4'-trans-tetrahydroxystilbene), a natural analog of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene). Resveratrol has been proposed as a potential anti-metabolic disorder compound, by its activation of sirtuin and AMP-activated protein kinase. Many reports show that resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether piceatannol also affects diet-induced obesity. We explored the effect of piceatannol on high fat diet-fed mice. The results showed that piceatannol did not affect high fat diet-induced body weight gain or visceral fat gain in mice. However, piceatannol did reduce fasting blood glucose levels. Furthermore, to explore the potential of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol as a functional food, passion fruit seed extract was administered in a genetic diabetic mouse model (db/db mice). Single administration of passion fruit seed extract, as well as piceatannol reduced the blood glucose levels of these db/db mice. These results suggest that piceatannol and passion fruit seed extract may have potential application in the prevention of diabetes. PMID:25832644

  14. [Antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives and their nootropic action in alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between the antihypoxic effect of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivatives (emoxipine, reamberin and mexidol) and their effect on conditional learning, glycemia, and lipidemia was studied in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. In parallel, the analogous relationship was investigated for alpha-lipoic acid that is regarded as a "gold standard" in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. It was established that single administration of emoxipine and mexidol in mice in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans produces antihypoxic effect manifested by increased resistance to acute hypoxic hypoxia in test animals. Alpha-lipoic acid is inferior to emoxipin and mexidol in the degree of antihypoxic action. Reamberin does not exhibit this effect. The introduction of emoxipin, reamberin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes during 7 or 14 days in doses equivalent to therapeutic-range doses in humans corrects conditional learning disorders in direct relationship with the antihypoxic activity of these drugs. The development of the nootropic effect of emoxipin, mexidol, and alpha-lipoic acid is related to a decrease in hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in rats with alloxan diabetes. The nootropic action of reamberin is accompanied by a transient hypoglycemizing effect and aggravation of dyslipidemic disorders. The antihypoxic activity of investigated drugs determines the direction and expression of their lipidemic effect, but is not correlated with the hypoglycemizing action these drugs on test animals with alloxan diabetes. PMID:22379879

  15. HoxD3 accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Scott L.; Myers, Connie A.; Charboneau, Aubri; Young, David M.; and Boudreau, Nancy

    2003-12-01

    Poorly healing diabetic wounds are characterized by diminished collagen production and impaired angiogenesis. HoxD3, a homeobox transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis and collagen synthesis, is up-regulated during normal wound repair whereas its expression is diminished in poorly healing wounds of the genetically diabetic (db/db) mouse. To determine whether restoring expression of HoxD3 would accelerate diabetic wound healing, we devised a novel method of gene transfer, which incorporates HoxD3 plasmid DNA into a methylcellulose film that is placed on wounds created on db/db mice. The HoxD3 transgene was expressed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes of the wounds for up to 10 days. More importantly, a single application of HoxD3 to db/db mice resulted in a statistically significant acceleration of wound closure compared to control-treated wounds. Furthermore, we also observed that the HoxD3-mediated improvement in diabetic wound repair was accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the HoxD3 target genes, Col1A1 and beta 3-integrin leading to enhanced angiogenesis and collagen deposition in the wounds. Although HoxD3-treated wounds also show improved re-epithelialization as compared to control db/db wounds, this effect was not due to direct stimulation of keratinocyte migration by HoxD3. Finally, we show that despite the dramatic increase in collagen synthesis and deposition in HoxD3-treated wounds, these wounds showed normal remodeling and we found no evidence of abnormal wound healing. These results indicate that HoxD3 may provide a means to directly improve collagen deposition, angiogenesis and closure in poorly healing diabetic wounds.

  16. Impaired response of mature adipocytes of diabetic mice to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Seok Jong, E-mail: seok-hong@northwestern.edu; Jin, Da P.; Buck, Donald W.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A., E-mail: tmustoe@nmh.org

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue contains various cells such as infiltrated monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes. Adipocytes have an endocrine function by secreting adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin. Dysregulation of adipokines in adipose tissues leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation which could result in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. A sustained inflammatory state, which is characterized by prolonged persistence of macrophages and neutrophils, is found in diabetic wounds. In addition, subcutaneous adipocytes are enormously increased in amount clinically in type 2 diabetes. However, the function of subcutaneous adipocytes, which play an important role in injured tissue subjected to hypoxia, has not been well characterized in vitro due to the difficulty of maintaining mature adipocytes in culture using conventional methods because of their buoyancy. In this study, we established a novel in vitro culture method of mature adipocytes by enclosing them in a hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogel to study their role in response to stress such as hypoxia. BrdU labeling and Ki67 immunostaining experiments showed that hydrogel enclosed mature adipocytes proliferate in vitro. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses for hypoxia regulated genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), showed that mature adipocytes of wild type mice respond to hypoxia. In contrast, mature adipocytes of diabetic db/db and TallyHo mice did not efficiently respond to hypoxia. Our studies suggest that mature adipocytes are functionally active cells, and their abnormal function to hypoxia can be one of underlining mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

  17. Amelioration of Diabetes and Painful Diabetic Neuropathy by Punica granatum L. Extract and Its Spray Dried Biopolymeric Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Raafat, K.; Samy, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the effect of Punica granatum (Pg) rind extract and its spray dried biopolymeric dispersions with casein (F1) or chitosan (F2) against Diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic neuropathy (DN). Methods. We measured the acute (6?h) and subacute (8 days) effect of various doses of Pg, F1, and F2 and the active compounds on alloxan-induced DM mouse model. We evaluated DN utilizing latency tests for longer period of time (8 weeks). In addition, the in vivo antioxidant activity was assessed utilizing serum catalase level. Results. The results proved that the highest dose levels of Pg extract, F1, F2 exerted remarkable hypoglycemic activity with 48, 52, and 40% drop in the mice glucose levels after 6 hours, respectively. The tested compounds also improved peripheral nerve function as observed from the latency tests. Bioguided fractionation suggested that gallic acid (GA) was Pg main active ingredient responsible for its actions. Conclusion. Pg extract, F1, F2, and GA could be considered as a new therapeutic potential for the amelioration of diabetic neuropathic pain and the observed in vivo antioxidant potential may be involved in its antinociceptive effect. It is highly significant to pay attention to Pg and GA for amelioration and control of DM and its complications. PMID:24982685

  18. Traditional plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Swanston-Flatt, S K; Day, C; Bailey, C J; Flatt, P R

    1990-08-01

    The effects on glucose homeostasis of eleven plants used as traditional treatments for diabetes mellitus were evaluated in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice. Dried leaves of agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), blackberry (Rubus fructicosus), celandine (Chelidonium majus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lady's mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris), and lily of the valley (Convallaria majalis); seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum); dried berries of juniper (Juniperus communis); bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) and roots of liquorice (Glycyrhizza glabra) were studied. Each plant material was supplied in the diet (6.25% by weight) and some plants were additionally supplied as decoctions or infusions (1 g/400 ml) in place of drinking water to coincide with the traditional method of preparation. Food and fluid intake, body weight gain, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in normal mice were not altered by 12 days of treatment with any of the plants. After administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg i.p.) on day 12 the development of hyperphagia, polydipsia, body weight loss, hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia were not affected by blackberry, celandine, lady's mantle or lily of the valley. Garlic and liquorice reduced the hyperphagia and polydipsia but did not significantly alter the hyperglycaemia or hypoinsulinaemia. Treatment with agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper reduced the level of hyperglycaemia during the development of streptozotocin diabetes. This was associated with reduced polydipsia (except coriander) and a reduced rate of body weight loss (except agrimony). Alfalfa initially countered the hypoinsulinaemic effect of streptozotocin, but the other treatments did not affect the fall in plasma insulin. The results suggest that certain traditional plant treatments for diabetes, namely agrimony, alfalfa, coriander, eucalyptus and juniper, can retard the development of streptozotocin diabetes in mice. PMID:2210118

  19. Petalonia improves glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Seong-Il; Jin, Young-Jun [Department of Life Science, Cheju National University, 66 Jejudaehakno, Ara-1 Dong, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Hee-Chul [Department of Chemistry, Cheju National University, 66 Jejudaehakno, Ara-1 Dong, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo-Youn; Hwang, Joon-Ho [Regional Innovation Center, Cheju National University, 66 Jejudaehakno, Ara-1 Dong, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Ilson; Kim, Moo-Han; Shin, Hye-Sun; Jeong, Hyung-Bok [Department of Life Science, Cheju National University, 66 Jejudaehakno, Ara-1 Dong, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se-Jae [Department of Life Science, Cheju National University, 66 Jejudaehakno, Ara-1 Dong, Jejusi, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjkim@cheju.ac.kr

    2008-08-22

    The anti-diabetic potential of Petalonia binghamiae extract (PBE) was evaluated in vivo. Dietary administration of PBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice significantly lowered blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance. The mode of action by which PBE attenuated diabetes was investigated in vitro using 3T3-L1 cells. PBE treatment stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation. At the molecular level, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and terminal marker protein aP2, as well as the mRNA of GLUT4 were up-regulated by PBE. In mature adipocytes, PBE significantly stimulated the uptake of glucose and the expression of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Furthermore, PBE increased PPAR{gamma} luciferase reporter gene activity in COS-1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vivo anti-diabetic effect of PBE is mediated by both insulin-like and insulin-sensitizing actions in adipocytes.

  20. Baicalein Protects against Type 2 Diabetes via Promoting Islet ?-Cell Function in Obese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu; Luo, Jing; Jia, Zhenquan; Zhen, Wei; Zhou, Kequan; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-01-01

    In both type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the deterioration of glycemic control over time is primarily caused by an inadequate mass and progressive dysfunction of ?-cell, leading to the impaired insulin secretion. Here, we show that dietary supplementation of baicalein, a flavone isolated from the roots of Chinese herb Scutellaria baicalensis, improved glucose tolerance and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in high-fat diet (HFD-) induced middle-aged obese mice. Baicalein had no effect on food intake, body weight gain, circulating lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity in obese mice. Using another mouse model of type 2 diabetes generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that baicalein treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in these middle-aged obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet ?-cell survival and mass. In the in vitro studies, baicalein significantly augmented GSIS and promoted viability of insulin-secreting cells and human islets cultured either in the basal medium or under chronic hyperlipidemic condition. These results demonstrate that baicalein may be a naturally occurring antidiabetic agent by directly modulating pancreatic ?-cell function. PMID:25147566

  1. The Dual Role of Scavenger Receptor Class A in Development of Diabetes in Autoimmune NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mami; Yasuda, Hisafumi; Hara, Kenta; Takahashi, Kazuma; Nagata, Masao; Yokono, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic ? cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A?/? nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A?/? NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I?C)) was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I?C). In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I?C) to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A?/? NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A?/? NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A?/? NOD mice treated with poly(I?C) than in untreated SR-A?/? NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A?/? NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I?C) treatment even in SR-A?/? NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes. PMID:25343451

  2. THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF GINGER ROOT IN DIABETIC MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZAHRA FATEHI-HASSANABAD; ZAHRA GHOLAMNEZHAD; MOSTAFA JAFARZADEH; MOHAMMAD FATEHI

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of reports that ginger (Zingiber officinale, Z. officinale) extract has antiinfalammatory activity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Z. officinale has any significant beneficial effect on chronic inflammation in diabetic mice. Control mice received normal saline (0.1 ml, i.p.), and in the test group, diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin

  3. Cardiac H2S Generation Is Reduced in Ageing Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sheng; Pu, Shi-Xin; Hou, Cui-Lan; Ma, Fen-Fen; Li, Na; Li, Xing-Hui; Tan, Bo; Tao, Bei-Bei; Wang, Ming-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in ageing diabetic mouse hearts. Results. Compared to mice that were fed tap water only, mice that were fed 30% fructose solution for 15 months exhibited typical characteristics of a severe diabetic phenotype with cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. H2S levels in plasma, heart tissues, and urine were significantly reduced in these mice as compared to those in controls. The expression of the H2S-generating enzymes, cystathionine ?-lyase and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase, was significantly decreased in the hearts of fructose-fed mice, whereas cystathionine-?-synthase levels were significantly increased. Conclusion. Our results suggest that this ageing diabetic mouse model developed diabetic cardiomyopathy and that H2S levels were reduced in the diabetic heart due to alterations in three H2S-producing enzymes, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  4. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Momordica cymbalaria Hook. fruit powder in alloxan-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, B K; Kesavulu, M M; Giri, R; Appa Rao, C

    1999-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Momordica cymbalaria fruit powder on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The treatment was given for 15 days. After the treatment, a significant reduction was observed in fasting blood glucose levels in the treated diabetic rats, but no hypoglycaemic activity in the treated normal rats. M. cymbalaria treatment showed considerable lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the treated diabetic group. There was a significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level in treated diabetic rats close to normal level after the treatment with M. cymbalaria. These results suggest that the M. cymbalaria fruit powder possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:10616966

  5. Metabolic profile changes in the testes of mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Mallidis; B. D. Green; D. Rogers; I. M. Agbaje; J. Hollis; M. Migaud; E. Amigues; N. McClure; R. A. Browne

    2009-01-01

    Summary Contrary to the traditional view, recent studies suggest that diabetes mellitus has an adverse influence on male reproductive function. Our aim was to deter- mine the effect of diabetes on the testicular environment by identifying and then assessing perturbations in small molecule metabolites. Testes were obtained from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL ?6 mice, 2, 4 and 8 weeks

  6. Nitrosative stress and peripheral diabetic neuropathy in leptin-deficient ( ob\\/ob) mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Vareniuk; Ivan A. Pavlov; Viktor R. Drel; Valeriy V. Lyzogubov; Olga Ilnytska; Seth R. Bell; Jyoti Tibrewala; John T. Groves; Irina G. Obrosova

    2007-01-01

    Nitrosative stress contributes to nerve conduction slowing, thermal hypoalgesia, and impaired nitrergic innervation in animal models of Type 1 diabetes. The role for reactive nitrogen species in Type 2 diabetes-associated neuropathy remains unexplored. This study evaluated the role for nitrosative stress in functional and structural neuropathic changes in ob\\/ob mice, a model of Type 2 diabetes with mild hyperglycemia and

  7. Reversal of diet-induced obesity and diabetes in C57BL\\/6J mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priti I. Parekh; Ann E. Petro; Jane M. Tiller; Mark N. Feinglos; Richard S. Surwit

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that C57BL\\/6J (B6) mice develop severe obesity and diabetes if weaned onto high-fat diets, whereas A\\/J mice tend to be obesity and diabetes-resistant. The purpose of this study was to determine if obesity and diabetes in the B6 mouse could be completely reversed by reducing dietary fat contente. After 4 months, both strains consumed more calories

  8. Improvement of diabetes, obesity and hypertension in type 2 diabetic KKA y mice by bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Adachi; Yutaka Yoshikawa; Jiro Yoshida; Yukihiro. Kodera; Akira. Katoh; Jitsuya. Takada; Hiromu. Sakurai

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we found that bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(alx)2) exhibits a potent hypoglycemic activity in type 1-like diabetic mice. Since the enhancement of insulin sensitivity is involved in one of the mechanisms by which vanadium exerts its anti-diabetic effects, VO(alx)2 was further tested in type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. The effect of oral administration of VO(alx)2 was examined in obesity-linked type

  9. Manganese superoxide dismutase expression in endothelial progenitor cells accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Marrotte, Eric J.; Chen, Dan-Dan; Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Alex F.

    2010-01-01

    Amputation as a result of impaired wound healing is a serious complication of diabetes. Inadequate angiogenesis contributes to poor wound healing in diabetic patients. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) normally augment angiogenesis and wound repair but are functionally impaired in diabetics. Here we report that decreased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in EPCs contributes to impaired would healing in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. A decreased frequency of circulating EPCs was detected in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice, and when isolated, these cells exhibited decreased expression and activity of MnSOD. Wound healing and angiogenesis were markedly delayed in diabetic mice compared with normal controls. For cell therapy, topical transplantation of EPCs onto excisional wounds in diabetic mice demonstrated that diabetic EPCs were less effective than normal EPCs at accelerating wound closure. Transplantation of diabetic EPCs after MnSOD gene therapy restored their ability to mediate angiogenesis and wound repair. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of MnSOD in normal EPCs reduced their activity in diabetic wound healing assays. Increasing the number of transplanted diabetic EPCs also improved the rate of wound closure. Our findings demonstrate that cell therapy using diabetic EPCs after ex vivo MnSOD gene transfer accelerates their ability to heal wounds in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21060152

  10. Sildenafil decreased cardiac cell apoptosis in diabetic mice: reduction of oxidative stress as a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Asadi, Shahrzad; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Rahimpour, Sina; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Doostar, Yousef; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of cardiac cell apoptosis in diabetic patients. Sildenafil has been demonstrated to have antioxidant effects. In this study, the effects of sildenafil on diabetes-induced cardiac cell apoptosis and the antioxidant status of diabetic mouse hearts were investigated. Diabetic mice showed lower body weight gains and heart weights compared with control mice, and sildenafil treatment did not increase these parameters in diabetic mice. Although apoptotic rates, caspase-3 enzyme activity, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly higher in diabetic mouse hearts than in controls, they were reduced in diabetic mice after sildenafil treatment. At the end of the first week, we observed no significant differences in antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD) in diabetic and control groups, whereas at the end of the second week of sildenafil treatment, antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the diabetic group. In conclusion, our study indicated that sildenafil was beneficial to hearts of diabetic mice by reducing cardiac cell apoptosis, partially because of its antioxidant effects in the heart. PMID:19767879

  11. Early-Onset Diabetic E1-DN Mice Develop Albuminuria and Glomerular Injury Typical of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi E; Dumont, Vincent; Tienari, Jukka; Lehtonen, Eero; Ustinov, Jarkko; Havana, Marika; Jalanko, Hannu; Otonkoski, Timo; Miettinen, Päivi J; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic E1-DN mice express a kinase-negative epidermal growth factor receptor in their pancreatic islets and are diabetic from two weeks of age due to impaired postnatal growth of ?-cell mass. Here, we characterize the development of hyperglycaemia-induced renal injury in the E1-DN mice. Homozygous mice showed increased albumin excretion rate (AER) at the age of 10 weeks; the albuminuria increased over time and correlated with blood glucose. Morphometric analysis of PAS-stained histological sections and electron microscopy images revealed mesangial expansion in homozygous E1-DN mice, and glomerular sclerosis was observed in the most hyperglycaemic mice. The albuminuric homozygous mice developed also other structural changes in the glomeruli, including thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and widening of podocyte foot processes that are typical for diabetic nephropathy. Increased apoptosis of podocytes was identified as one mechanism contributing to glomerular injury. In addition, nephrin expression was reduced in the podocytes of albuminuric homozygous E1-DN mice. Tubular changes included altered epithelial cell morphology and increased proliferation. In conclusion, hyperglycaemic E1-DN mice develop albuminuria and glomerular and tubular injury typical of human diabetic nephropathy and can serve as a new model to study the mechanisms leading to the development of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26000279

  12. Efficacy of lower doses of vanadium in restoring altered glucose metabolism and antioxidant status in diabetic rat lenses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anju Preet; Bihari L. Gupta; Pramod K. Yadava; Najma Z. Baquer

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium compounds are potent in controlling elevated blood glucose levels in experimentally induced diabetes. However the\\u000a toxicity associated with vanadium limits its role as therapeutic agent for diabetic treatment. A vanadium compound sodium\\u000a orthovanadate (SOV) was given to alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats in lower doses in combination withTrigonella foenum graecum, a well-known hypoglycemic agent used in traditional Indian medicines. The

  13. Portulaca oleracea Ameliorates Diabetic Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with significantly accelerated rates of micro- and macrovascular complications such as diabetic vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (AP), an edible plant used as a folk medicine, on diabetic vascular complications. The db/db mice were treated with AP (300?mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 10 weeks, and AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose, plasma triglyceride, plasma level of LDL-cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure in diabetic db/db mice. Furthermore, AP significantly increased plasma level of HDL-cholesterol and insulin level. The impairment of ACh- and SNP-induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings were ameliorated by AP treatment in diabetic db/db mice. This study also showed that overexpression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, MMP-2, and ET-1 were observed in aortic tissues of untreated db/db mice, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with AP. We also found that the insulin immunoreactivity of the pancreatic islets remarkably increased in AP treated db/db mice compared with untreated db/db mice. Taken together, AP suppresses hyperglycemia and diabetic vascular inflammation, and prevents the development of diabetic endothelial dysfunction for the development of diabetes and its vascular complications. PMID:22474522

  14. BAMBI Elimination Enhances Alternative TGF-? Signaling and Glomerular Dysfunction in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Li, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wenzhen; Fu, Jia; Harris, Ray C; Lindenmeyer, Maja; Cohen, Clemens D; Guillot, Nicolas; Baron, Margaret H; Wang, Niansong; Lee, Kyung; He, John C; Schlondorff, Detlef; Chuang, Peter Y

    2015-06-01

    BMP, activin, membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) acts as a pseudo-receptor for the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? type I receptor family and a negative modulator of TGF-? kinase signaling, and BAMBI(-/-) mice show mild endothelial dysfunction. Because diabetic glomerular disease is associated with TGF-? overexpression and microvascular alterations, we examined the effect of diabetes on glomerular BAMBI mRNA levels. In isolated glomeruli from biopsies of patients with diabetic nephropathy and in glomeruli from mice with type 2 diabetes, BAMBI was downregulated. We then examined the effects of BAMBI deletion on streptozotocin-induced diabetic glomerulopathy in mice. BAMBI(-/-) mice developed more albuminuria, with a widening of foot processes, than BAMBI(+/+) mice, along with increased activation of alternative TGF-? pathways such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and Smad1/5 in glomeruli and cortices of BAMBI(-/-) mice. Vegfr2 and Angpt1, genes controlling glomerular endothelial stability, were downmodulated in glomeruli from BAMBI(-/-) mice with diabetes. Incubation of glomeruli from nondiabetic BAMBI(+/+) or BAMBI(-/-) mice with TGF-? resulted in the downregulation of Vegfr2 and Angpt1, effects that were more pronounced in BAMBI(-/-) mice and were prevented by a MEK inhibitor. The downregulation of Vegfr2 in diabetes was localized to glomerular endothelial cells using a histone yellow reporter under the Vegfr2 promoter. Thus, BAMBI modulates the effects of diabetes on glomerular permselectivity in association with altered ERK1/2 and Smad1/5 signaling. Future therapeutic interventions with inhibitors of alternative TGF-? signaling may therefore be of interest in diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25576053

  15. Sotagliflozin improves glycemic control in nonobese diabetes-prone mice with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Powell, David R; Doree, Deon; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Ding, Zhi-Ming; Zambrowicz, Brian; Sands, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral agents are needed that improve glycemic control without increasing hypoglycemic events in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Sotagliflozin may meet this need, because this compound lowers blood glucose through the insulin-independent mechanisms of inhibiting kidney SGLT2 and intestinal SGLT1. We examined the effect of sotagliflozin on glycemic control and rate of hypoglycemia measurements in T1D mice maintained on a low daily insulin dose, and compared these results to those from mice maintained in better glycemic control with a higher daily insulin dose alone. Materials and methods Nonobese diabetes-prone mice with cyclophosphamide-induced T1D were randomized to receive one of four daily treatments: 0.2 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/vehicle, 0.05 U insulin/2 mg/kg sotagliflozin or 0.05 U insulin/30 mg/kg sotagliflozin. Insulin was delivered subcutaneously by micro-osmotic pump; the day after pump implantation, mice received their first of 22 once-daily oral doses of sotagliflozin or vehicle. Glycemic control was monitored by measuring fed blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels. Results Blood glucose levels decreased rapidly and comparably in the 0.05 U insulin/sotagliflozin-treated groups and the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group, which had significantly higher levels than the other three groups from day 2 through day 23. A1c levels were also significantly higher in the 0.05 U insulin/vehicle group compared to the other three groups on day 23. Importantly, the 0.2 U insulin/vehicle group had, out of 100 blood glucose measurements, 13 that were <70 mg/dL compared to one of 290 for the other three groups combined. Conclusion Sotagliflozin significantly improved glycemic control, without increasing the rate of hypoglycemia measurements, in diabetic mice maintained on a low insulin dose. This sotagliflozin-mediated improvement in glycemic control was comparable to that achieved by raising the insulin dose alone, but was not accompanied by the increased rate of hypoglycemia measurements observed with the higher insulin dose. PMID:25759591

  16. Pancreatic islet blood perfusion in the nonobese diabetic mouse: diabetes-prone female mice exhibit a higher blood flow compared with male mice in the prediabetic phase.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, P O; Sandler, S; Jansson, L

    1998-08-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that changes in pancreatic islet blood flow correlate with the difference in diabetes incidence between male and female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The blood flows were determined by a microsphere technique. In animals aged 10 and 14 weeks, the islet blood perfusion was 3-fold higher in female NOD mice compared with that in either age-matched male NOD mice or age- and sex-matched control ICR mice. At 5 weeks of age islet blood flow was similar in all groups. No differences between male and female NOD mice in whole pancreatic, duodenal, ileal, or colonic blood flows were observed at any time point. Administration of a bolus dose of aminoguanidine (a blocker of inducible nitric oxide synthase) to 10-week-old animals selectively and markedly decreased islet blood flow in female NOD mice, whereas islet blood flow in ICR mice and male NOD mice remained unaffected. Aminoguanidine did not affect mean arterial blood pressure or whole pancreatic blood flow in any of the groups. Injection of N(G)-methyl-L-arginine, an unspecific inhibitor of both constitutive and inducible nitric oxide synthase, markedly decreased whole pancreatic and islet blood flow to the same level in both male and female NOD mice. These combined findings suggest that diabetes-prone female NOD mice have an increased islet blood flow, which is mediated by an excessive production of nitric oxide formed by inducible nitric oxide synthase. The islet blood hyperperfusion may augment homing to the pancreatic islets of inflammatory cells and soluble factors involved in beta-cell destruction during the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in this animal model. The presently observed gender difference in the blood flow response could, therefore, at least partially explain why female NOD mice are more prone to develop hyperglycemia than the males. PMID:9681505

  17. Evaluation of the Effects of Novel Nafimidone Derivatives on Thermal Hypoalgesia in Mice with Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kam??l?, Suat; Karakurt, Arzu; Uyumlu, Ay?e B.; Sat?lm??, Basri; Alagöz, Abdullah; Genç, Metin F.; Batc?o?lu, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a common complication in Diabetes Mellitus. The streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodent is the most commonly used animal model of diabetes and increased sodium channel expression and activity were revealed in this model. At this study, we evaluated the effect of three different nafimidone derivatives which have possible anticonvulsant activity on disorders of thermal pain sensation in diabetic mice. Study Design: Randomized animal experiment. Material and Methods: Mice were divided randomly into five groups (5 mice per group): Control, Diabetes, Dibetes+C1, Diabetes+C2, Diabetes+C3. We used hot and cold plate, and tail-immersion tests for assessment of thermal nociceptive responses. Results: Compared with the control group, the hot-plate response time and the number of paw liftings on cold plate as important indicators of loss of sensation increased, but no significant difference (p>0.05) was found in tail-immersion response time test in diabetes group. C3 compound moved it back to control group levels in the all of three tests. C1 and C2 compounds were effective only in cold-plate test. Conclusion: Nafimidone derivatives may be effective in the cases where epilepsy and diabetes occur together since it has shown efficacy against “loss of sensation” which evolves in diabetic neuropathy over time as well as its antiepileptic effect. PMID:25207077

  18. Co-Therapy Using Lytic Bacteriophage and Linezolid: Effective Treatment in Eliminating Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from Diabetic Foot Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Sanjay; Kaur, Tarsem; Sandeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant pathogen in diabetic foot infections and prevalence of methicillin resistant S.aureus (MRSA) strains further complicates the situation. The incidence of MRSA in infected foot ulcers is 15–30% and there is an alarming trend for its increase in many countries. Diabetes acts as an immunosuppressive state decreasing the overall immune functioning of body and to worsen the situation, wounds inflicted with drug resistant strains represent a morbid combination in diabetic patients. Foot infections caused by MRSA are associated with an increased risk of amputations, increased hospital stay, increased expenses and higher infection-related mortality. Hence, newer, safer and effective treatment strategies are required for treating MRSA mediated diabetic foot infections. The present study focuses on the use of lytic bacteriophage in combination with linezolid as an effective treatment strategy against foot infection in diabetic population. Methodology Acute hindpaw infection with S.aureus ATCC 43300 was established in alloxan induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Therapeutic efficacy of a well characterized broad host range lytic bacteriophage, MR-10 was evaluated alone as well as in combination with linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw foot infection in diabetic mice. The process of wound healing was also investigated. Results and Conclusions A single administration of phage exhibited efficacy similar to linezolid in resolving the course of hindpaw infection in diabetic animals. However, combination therapy using both the agents was much more effective in arresting the entire infection process (bacterial load, lesion score, foot myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological analysis). The entire process of tissue healing was also hastened. Use of combined agents has been known to decrease the frequency of emergence of resistant mutants, hence this approach can serve as an effective strategy in treating MRSA mediated foot infections in diabetic individuals who do not respond to conventional antibiotic therapy. PMID:23418497

  19. The gut microbiota modulates glycaemic control and serum metabolite profiles in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Thomas U; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Oreši?, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes is preceded by dysregulated serum metabolite profiles, but the origin of these metabolic changes is unknown. The gut microbiota affects host metabolism and changes in its composition contribute to several immune-mediated diseases; however, it is not known whether the gut microbiota is involved in the early metabolic disturbances in progression to type 1 diabetes. We rederived non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as germ free to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic autoimmunity and to directly investigate whether the metabolic profiles associated with the development of type 1 diabetes can be modulated by the gut microbiota. The absence of a gut microbiota in NOD mice did not affect the overall diabetes incidence but resulted in increased insulitis and levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 12; these changes were counterbalanced by improved peripheral glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we observed a markedly increased variation in blood glucose levels in the absence of a microbiota in NOD mice that did not progress to diabetes. Additionally, germ-free NOD mice had a metabolite profile similar to that of pre-diabetic children. Our data suggest that germ-free NOD mice have reduced glycaemic control and dysregulated immunologic and metabolic responses. PMID:25390735

  20. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Glycaemic Control and Serum Metabolite Profiles in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Thomas U.; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Oreši?, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Islet autoimmunity in children who later progress to type 1 diabetes is preceded by dysregulated serum metabolite profiles, but the origin of these metabolic changes is unknown. The gut microbiota affects host metabolism and changes in its composition contribute to several immune-mediated diseases; however, it is not known whether the gut microbiota is involved in the early metabolic disturbances in progression to type 1 diabetes. We rederived non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice as germ free to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the development of diabetic autoimmunity and to directly investigate whether the metabolic profiles associated with the development of type 1 diabetes can be modulated by the gut microbiota. The absence of a gut microbiota in NOD mice did not affect the overall diabetes incidence but resulted in increased insulitis and levels of interferon gamma and interleukin 12; these changes were counterbalanced by improved peripheral glucose metabolism. Furthermore, we observed a markedly increased variation in blood glucose levels in the absence of a microbiota in NOD mice that did not progress to diabetes. Additionally, germ-free NOD mice had a metabolite profile similar to that of pre-diabetic children. Our data suggest that germ-free NOD mice have reduced glycaemic control and dysregulated immunologic and metabolic responses. PMID:25390735

  1. Deletion of Aldose Reductase from Mice Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Capillary Degeneration and Superoxide Generation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jie; Du, Yunpeng; Petrash, J. Mark; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacologic inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) previously has been studied with respect to diabetic retinopathy with mixed results. Since drugs can have off-target effects, we studied the effects of AR deletion on the development and molecular abnormalities that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Since recent data suggests an important role for leukocytes in the development of the retinopathy, we determined also if AR in leukocytes contributes to leukocyte-mediated death of retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Methods Wild-type (WT; C57BL/6J) and AR deficient (AR?/?) mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 10 months of diabetes to evaluate retinal vascular histopathology, to quantify retinal superoxide production and biochemical and physiological abnormalities in the retina, and to assess the number of retinal endothelial cells killed by blood leukocytes in a co-culture system. Results Diabetes in WT mice developed the expected degeneration of retinal capillaries, and increased generation of superoxide by the retina. Leukocytes from diabetic WT mice also killed more retinal endothelial cells than did leukocytes from nondiabetic animals (p<0.0001). Deletion of AR largely (P<0.05) inhibited the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries, as well as the increase in superoxide production by retina. AR-deficiency significantly inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in retina, but had no significant effect on expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), phosphorylated p38 MAPK, or killing of retinal endothelial cells by leukocytes. Conclusions AR contributes to the degeneration of retinal capillaries in diabetic mice. Deletion of the enzyme inhibits the diabetes-induced increase in expression of iNOS and of superoxide production, but does not correct a variety of other pro-inflammatory abnormalities associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23614016

  2. Arsenic induces diabetic effects through beta-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Su; Guo, Xuechao; Wu, Bing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Mei

    2014-11-01

    Arsenic as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes has been received attention recently. However, the roles of arsenic on development of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we compared the influences of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on normal and diabetic mice by systems toxicology approaches. Although iAs exposure did not change glucose tolerance in normal mice, it caused the pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis and oxidative damages in liver. However, iAs exposure worsened the glucose tolerance in diabetic mice, which might be due to increased gluconeogenesis and impairment of pancreatic ?-cell function. It is interesting that iAs exposure could improve the insulin sensitivity based on the insulin tolerance testing by the activation of glucose uptake-related genes and enzymes in normal and diabetic individuals. Our data suggested that iAs exposure could cause pre-diabetic effects by altering the lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion in normal individual, and worsen diabetic effects in diabetes individual by these processes. Insulin resistance might be not the reason of diabetic effects caused by iAs, indicating that mechanism of the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure is different from the mechanism associated with traditional risk factors (such as obesity)-reduced type 2 diabetes.

  3. Arsenic induces diabetic effects through beta-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Guo, Xuechao; Wu, Bing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic as a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes has been received attention recently. However, the roles of arsenic on development of diabetes are unclear. In this study, we compared the influences of inorganic arsenic (iAs) on normal and diabetic mice by systems toxicology approaches. Although iAs exposure did not change glucose tolerance in normal mice, it caused the pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and increased gluconeogenesis and oxidative damages in liver. However, iAs exposure worsened the glucose tolerance in diabetic mice, which might be due to increased gluconeogenesis and impairment of pancreatic ?-cell function. It is interesting that iAs exposure could improve the insulin sensitivity based on the insulin tolerance testing by the activation of glucose uptake-related genes and enzymes in normal and diabetic individuals. Our data suggested that iAs exposure could cause pre-diabetic effects by altering the lipid metabolism, gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion in normal individual, and worsen diabetic effects in diabetes individual by these processes. Insulin resistance might be not the reason of diabetic effects caused by iAs, indicating that mechanism of the diabetogenic effects of iAs exposure is different from the mechanism associated with traditional risk factors (such as obesity)-reduced type 2 diabetes. PMID:25367288

  4. Saturated fatty acids activate ERK signaling to downregulate hepatic sortilin 1 in obese and diabetic mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Lipeng; Chiang, John Y. L.; Ding, Wen-Xing; Dunn, Winston; Roberts, Benjamin; Li, Tiangang

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic VLDL overproduction is a characteristic feature of diabetes and an important contributor to diabetic dyslipidemia. Hepatic sortilin 1 (Sort1), a cellular trafficking receptor, is a novel regulator of plasma lipid metabolism and reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides by inhibiting hepatic apolipoprotein B production. Elevated circulating free fatty acids play key roles in hepatic VLDL overproduction and the development of dyslipidemia. This study investigated the regulation of hepatic Sort1 in obesity and diabetes and the potential implications in diabetic dyslipidemia. Results showed that hepatic Sort1 protein was markedly decreased in mouse models of type I and type II diabetes and in human individuals with obesity and liver steatosis, whereas increasing hepatic Sort1 expression reduced plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the saturated fatty acid palmitate activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and inhibited Sort1 protein by mechanisms involving Sort1 protein ubiquitination and degradation. Consistently, hepatic ERK signaling was activated in diabetic mice, whereas blocking ERK signaling by an ERK inhibitor increased hepatic Sort1 protein in mice. These results suggest that increased saturated fatty acids downregulate liver Sort1 protein, which may contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in obesity and diabetes. PMID:23904453

  5. Bisphosphonate treatment of type I diabetic mice prevents early bone loss but accentuates suppression of bone formation.

    PubMed

    Coe, Lindsay M; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun; Shu, Yutian; Baumann, Melissa J; McCabe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Type I (T1) diabetes is an autoimmune and metabolic disease associated with bone loss. Previous studies demonstrate that T1-diabetes decreases osteoblast activity and viability. Bisphosphonate therapy, commonly used to treat osteoporosis, is demonstrated to inhibit osteoclast activity as well as osteoblast apoptosis. Therefore, we examined the effect of weekly alendronate treatments on T1-diabetes induced osteoblast apoptosis and bone loss. Bone TUNEL assays identified that alendronate therapy prevents the diabetes-induced osteoblast death observed during early stages of diabetes development. Consistent with this, alendronate treatment for 40 days was able to prevent diabetes-induced trabecular bone loss. Alendronate was also able to reduce marrow adiposity in both control diabetic mice compared to untreated mice. Mechanical testing indicated that 40 days of alendronate treatment increased bone stiffness but decreased the work required for fracture in T1-diabetic and alendronate treated mice. Of concern at this later time point, bone formation rate and osteoblast markers, which were already decreased in diabetic mice, were further suppressed in alendronate-treated diabetic mice. Taken together, our results suggest that short-term alendronate treatment can prevent T1-diabetes-induced bone loss in mice, possibly in part by inhibiting diabetes onset associated osteoblast death, while longer treatment enhanced bone density but at the cost of further suppressing bone formation in diabetic mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 1944-1953, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25641511

  6. Injectable cell scaffold restores impaired cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis in diabetic mice with hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Koji; Fukumoto, Shinya; Motoyama, Koka; Morioka, Tomoaki; Mori, Katsuhito; Kageyama, Ken; Sakai, Yukimasa; Sato, Hideki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Shoji, Tetsuo; Ishimura, Eiji; Emoto, Masanori; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Koichi; Inaba, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    The clinical success of cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis has been limited in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia. We previously reported that an injectable cell scaffold (ICS), which is a nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated polymer microsphere, enhances therapeutic angiogenesis. Subsequently, we developed a modified ICS for clinical use, measuring 50 ?m in diameter using poly(l-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) as a biodegradable polymer, which achieved appropriately accelerated absorption in vivo. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this practical ICS in diabetic hindlimb ischemia. Bone-marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) were intramuscularly injected, without or with a practical ICS, into the ischemic hindlimbs of mice (BMNCs or ICS+BMNCs group, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the beneficial effects of BMNC transplantation for limb salvage after ischemic surgery were almost entirely abrogated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, injection of ICS+BMNCs revealed significant limb salvage in diabetic mice to a similar extent as in non-diabetic mice. The number of apoptotic transplanted BMNCs was 1.8-fold higher in diabetic mice 10 days after transplantation compared to non-diabetic mice, while that in the ICS+BMNCs group was markedly lower (8.3% of that in the BMNCs group) even in diabetic mice. The proangiogenic factors VEGF and FGF2, also known as antiapoptotic factors, mostly co-localized with transplanted GFP-positive BMNCs that were closely aggregated around the ICS in ischemic tissue. In conclusion, the practical ICS significantly augmented cell-based therapeutic angiogenesis even in diabetic animals, through local accumulation of proangiogenic factors and antiapoptotic effects in transplanted cells. PMID:25450367

  7. Dysregulation of monocyte\\/macrophage phenotype in wounds of diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Mirza; Timothy J. Koh

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that cells of the monocyte\\/macrophage lineage (Mo\\/Mp) exhibit an impaired transition from pro-inflammatory to pro-healing phenotypes in wounds of diabetic mice, which contributes to deficient healing. Mo\\/Mp isolated from excisional wounds in non-diabetic db\\/+ mice exhibited a pro-inflammatory phenotype on day 5 post-injury, with high level expression of the pro-inflammatory molecules interleukin-1?, matrix metalloprotease-9

  8. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest University for Nationalities, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Xin-Yuan [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China)] [College of Life Science and Technology, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan 432000 (China); Chen, Zheng-Wang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In the present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.

  9. Flos Puerariae Extract Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-he; Chen, Hong-guang; Wu, Pan-feng; Yao, Qing; Cheng, Hong-ke; Yu, Wei; Liu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The effects of Flos Puerariae extract (FPE) on cognitive impairment associated with diabetes were assessed in C57BL/6J mice. Methods. Experimental diabetic mice model was induced by one injection of 50?mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) for 5 days consecutively. FPE was orally administrated at the dosages of 50, 100, or 200?mg/kg/day, respectively. The learning and memory ability was assessed by Morris water maze test. Body weight, blood glucose, free fatty acid (FFA) and total cholesterol (TCH) in serum, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were also measured. Results. Oral administration of FPE significantly improved cognitive deficits in STZ-induced diabetic mice. FPE treatment also maintained body weight and ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. Additionally, decreased MDA level, enhanced CAT, and GSH-Px activities in cerebral cortex or hippocampus, as well as alleviated AChE activity in cerebral cortex, were found in diabetic mice supplemented with FPE. Conclusion. This study suggests that FPE ameliorates memory deficits in experimental diabetic mice, at least partly through the normalization of metabolic abnormalities, ameliorated oxidative stress, and AChE activity in brain.

  10. Advanced glycation end products facilitate bacterial adherence in urinary tract infection in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ahmet; Altuntas, Cengiz Z; Izgi, Kenan; Bicer, Fuat; Hultgren, Scott J; Liu, Guiming; Daneshgari, Firouz

    2015-07-01

    Diabetic individuals have increased susceptibility to urinary tract infection (UTI), a common, painful condition. During diabetes mellitus, non-enzymatic reactions between reducing sugars and protein amine groups result in excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that accumulate in tissues. Since bacteria adhere to cell surfaces by binding to carbohydrates, we hypothesized that adherence of bacteria to the bladder in diabetics may be enhanced by accumulation of AGEs on urothelial surface proteins. Using a murine model of UTI, we observed increased adherence of type 1 fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to the bladder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female mice compared with age-matched controls, along with increased concentrations of two common AGEs in superficial urothelial cells from diabetic bladders. Several lectins with different specificities exhibited increased binding to urothelial homogenates from diabetic mice compared with controls, and two of those lectins also bound to AGEs. Furthermore, mannose-binding type 1 fimbriae isolated from UPEC bound to different AGEs, and UPEC adherence to the bladder in diabetic mice, were inhibited by pretreatment of mice with the AGE inhibitor pyridoxamine. These results strongly suggest a role for urothelial AGE accumulation in increased bacterial adherence during UTI in diabetes. PMID:25986378

  11. Urtica dioica leaves modulates muscarinic cholinergic system in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Parashar, Arun; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder and has been associated with cognitive dysfunction. In our earlier study, chronic Urtica dioica (UD) treatment significantly ameliorated diabetes induced associative and spatial memory deficit in mice. The present study was designed to explore the effect of UD leaves extract on muscarinic cholinergic system, which has long been known to be involved in cognition. Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p., consecutively for 5 days) was used to induce diabetes followed by treatment with UD extract (50 mg/kg, oral) or rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, oral) for 8 weeks. STZ-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 and choline acetyltransferase expressions. Chronic diabetes significantly up-regulated the protein expression of acetylcholinesterase associated with oxidative stress in hippocampus. Besides, STZ-induced diabetic mice showed hypolocomotion with up-regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. Chronic UD treatment significantly attenuated the cholinergic dysfunction and oxidative stress in the hippocampus of diabetic mice. UD had no effect on locomotor activity and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-4 expression in striatum. In conclusion, UD leaves extract has potential to reverse diabetes mediated alteration in muscarinic cholinergic system in hippocampus and thereby improve memory functions. PMID:25514862

  12. Hypoglycemic effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chun; Wu, Qing-Ping; Cai, Wen; Tan, Jian-Bin; Yang, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Ju-Mei

    2012-10-01

    Our aims were to investigate the hypoglycemic effects and mechanisms of action of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) administered for 7 days in type 2 diabetic mice. The mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice/group): normal control group, diabetic control group, low-dose GLP-treated diabetic group (50 mg/kg/d), and high-dose GLP-treated diabetic group (100 mg/kg/d). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection and high-fat dietary feeding. At the end of the study, fasting serum glucose, insulin, body weight (BW) and epididymal white adipose tissue weight were measured. The hepatic mRNA levels of glycogen phosphorylase (GP), fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Both doses of GLPs significantly decreased fasting serum glucose, insulin and epididymal fat/BW ratio compared with the diabetic control group (p < 0.05). The hepatic mRNA levels of GP, FBPase, PEPCK and G6Pase were significantly lower in both GLP-treated groups compared with the diabetic control group. Taken together, GLPs significantly decrease fasting serum glucose levels in type 2 diabetic mice in a dose-dependent manner. The decreases in fasting serum glucose levels may be associated with decreased mRNA expression levels of several key enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and/or glycogenolysis. PMID:23139131

  13. Altered gene expression with abnormal patterning of the telencephalon in embryos of diabetic Albino Swiss mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Liao; Y. K. Ng; S. S. W. Tay; E. A. Ling; S. T. Dheen

    2004-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Several studies have shown that maternal diabetes increases the risk of congenital malformations in various organ systems including the neural tube. The present study analysed molecular and morphological changes in the forebrain of embryos from diabetic Albino Swiss mice.Methods  Maternal diabetes-induced morphological changes in the forebrain were examined histologically. Cell proliferation index was assayed by BrdU labelling. In situ hybridisation and

  14. Adipose-derived stem cells from diabetic mice show impaired vascular stabilization in a murine model of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Stephen M; Kelly-Goss, Molly R; Ray, H Clifton; Mendel, Thomas A; Hoehn, Kyle L; Bruce, Anthony C; Dey, Bijan K; Guendel, Alexander M; Tavakol, Daniel N; Herman, Ira M; Peirce, Shayn M; Yates, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vascular dropout with subsequent vision loss. We have recently shown that an intravitreal injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can stabilize the retinal microvasculature, enabling repair and regeneration of damaged capillary beds in vivo. Because an understanding of ASC status from healthy versus diseased donors will be important as autologous cellular therapies are developed for unmet clinical needs, we took advantage of the hyperglycemic Akimba mouse as a preclinical in vivo model of diabetic retinopathy in an effort aimed at evaluating therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (mASCs) derived either from healthy, nondiabetic or from diabetic mice. To these ends, Akimba mice received intravitreal injections of media conditioned by mASCs or mASCs themselves, subsequent to development of substantial retinal capillary dropout. mASCs from healthy mice were more effective than diabetic mASCs in protecting the diabetic retina from further vascular dropout. Engrafted ASCs were found to preferentially associate with the retinal vasculature. Conditioned medium was unable to recapitulate the vasoprotection seen with injected ASCs. In vitro diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with healthy mASCs. Diabetic ASCs also secreted less vasoprotective factors than healthy mASCs, as determined by high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings suggest that diabetic ASCs are functionally impaired compared with healthy ASCs and support the utility of an allogeneic injection of ASCs versus autologous or conditioned media approaches in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25769654

  15. Preventive effect of L-carnosine on changes in the thermal nociceptive threshold in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Junzo; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Miyata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    2008-12-14

    Sensory abnormality is one of the serious complications in diabetes. Since the effective therapeutic regimen to ameliorate the diabetic sensory abnormality is very few, the present study was then designed to investigate the effect of zinc L-carnosine on the changes of nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. Zinc L-carnosine (75-300 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered once daily from 1 day after streptozotocin treatment. Diabetic mice showed shorter tail-flick latency at 1-4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and longer tail-flick latency at 6-9 weeks after its treatment. The shortened tail-flick latency in early stage of diabetic mice was ameliorated by treatment with zinc L-carnosine. Moreover, zinc L-carnosine also slowed the onset of hypoalgesia in diabetic mice. Tail-flick latency in non-diabetic mice was not affected by the zinc L-carnosine treatment, indicating that zinc L-carnosine did not affect normal nociceptive transmission. Moreover, L-carnosine, but not zinc sulfate, ameliorated the abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice. Interestingly, the ameliorative effect of zinc l-carnosine on the abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice is much stronger than that of L-carnosine. These results provide the evidence of the ameliorative potential of zinc L-carnosine on the progressive diabetic neuropathy. Moreover, L-carnosine combined with zinc shows more potent amelioration of abnormal sensory perception in diabetic mice than by itself. PMID:18930724

  16. Protective effects of combined micronutrients on islet beta-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ying; Zhang, Gui-Zhen; Piao, Song-Lan; Gao, Shen; Zheng, De-Ming; Song, Yang; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Ying, Sun

    2009-03-01

    There is a tendency for the incidence of diabetes in a population to increase with an improvement in living standards. This would imply the involvement of nutritional factors in the development of diabetes, and so nutritional considerations could be a key aspect in the research and development of an effective remedy for diabetes. In this study, combined micronutrients (selenium, vitamin E, vanadium, and chromium) were orally supplemented to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Results showed that combined micronutrients could decrease the high blood glucose levels (p<0.05 or p<0.01) of diabetic mice. The protective effects of combined micronutrients on structures of beta-cells in pancreatic islets of diabetic mice were observed histopathologically and ultrastructurally. In addition, the supplementation of combined micronutrients increased insulin expression by beta-cells in pancreatic islets of diabetic mice at both translational and transcriptional levels. The immune molecular mechanisms involved were preliminarily regarded as downregulation of the expression of pathogenic T-helper 1 lymphocyte (Th1) cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (p<0.01) along with upregulation of the expression of protective T-helper 2 lymphocyte Th2 cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) (p<0.01) which ameliorates the Th1/Th2 imbalance in diabetes. In conclusion, supplementation of combined micronutrients to diabetic mice could effectively improve disordered glucose metabolism, protect islet structures, and improve the function of beta-cells in pancreatic islets, which are affected by differential regulation of the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:20108212

  17. Increased atherosclerosis in diabetic dyslipidemic swine: protection by atorvastatin involves decreased VLDL triglycerides but minimal effects on the lipoprotein profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Dixon; Siming Shen; James P. Vuchetich; Elzbieta Wysocka; Grace Y. Sun; Michael Sturek

    2002-01-01

    Male Yucatan swine were allocated to four groups (n ? 5-6 pigs per group): low fat (3%) fed control, high fat\\/2% cholesterol (CH) fed (HF), high fat\\/CH fed with alloxan-induced diabetes (DF) and DF pigs that were treated with atorvastatin (80 mg\\/day; DFA). Pigs were fed two meals per day and daily insulin injections were used in diabetic pigs to

  18. Systems genetics of susceptibility to obesity-induced diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    van Nas, Atila; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wen, Pingzi; Yu, Suzanne; Qi, Hongxiu; Rosales, Melenie; Schadt, Eric E.; Broman, Karl W.; Péterfy, Miklós; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2012-01-01

    Inbred strains of mice are strikingly different in susceptibility to obesity-driven diabetes. For instance, deficiency in leptin receptor (db/db) leads to hyperphagia and obesity in both C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, but only on the DBA/2 background do the mice develop beta-cell loss leading to severe diabetes, while C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant. To further investigate the genetic factors predisposing to diabetes, we have studied leptin receptor-deficient offspring of an F2 cross between C57BL/6J (db/+) males and DBA/2J females. The results show that the genetics of diabetes susceptibility are enormously complex and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to diabetes-related traits were identified, notably on chromosomes 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 19. The Chr. 4 locus is likely due to a disruption of the Zfp69 gene in C57BL/6J mice. To identify candidate genes and to model coexpression networks, we performed global expression array analysis in livers of the F2 mice. Expression QTL (eQTL) were identified and used to prioritize candidate genes at clinical trait QTL. In several cases, clusters of eQTLs colocalized with clinical trait QTLs, suggesting a common genetic basis. We constructed coexpression networks for both 5 and 12 wk old mice and identified several modules significantly associated with clinical traits. One module in 12 wk old mice was associated with several measures of hepatic fat content as well as with other lipid- and diabetes-related traits. These results add to the understanding of the complex genetic interactions contributing to obesity-induced diabetes. PMID:22010005

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Accelerates the Development of Insulin-Deficient Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gülden, Elke; Ihira, Masaru; Ohashi, Atsushi; Reinbeck, Anna Lena; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Kolb, Hubert; Burkart, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate the recognition of microbial constituents and stress-induced endogenous ligands by the immune system. They may also be involved in the maintenance or break down of tolerance against autologous antigens. The aim of our investigation was to study the consequence of TLR4 deficiency on the development of insulin-deficient diabetes in the NOD mouse. Methods The TLR4 defect of the C57BL/10ScN mouse was backcrossed onto the NOD background and the effect of TLR4 deficiency on diabetes development was analysed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Results Compared to animals with wildtype TLR4 expression (TLR4+/+), female NOD mice carrying a homozygous TLR4 defect (TLR4?/?), showed significant acceleration of diabetes development, with a younger age at diabetes onset (TLR4+/+ 177±22 d, TLR?/?: 118±21 d; p<0.01). Pancreata of 120 d old TLR4?/? NOD mice revealed increased proportions of islets with advanced stages of immune cell infiltration compared to TLR4+/+ mice (p<0.05). TLR4 deficiency did not affect the susceptibility of islet cells to the beta cell damaging mediators nitric oxide or the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interferon gamma. The lack of TLR4 further had no effect on the frequency of regulatory T-cells but reduced their capacity to inhibit T-cell proliferation. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that TLR4 deficiency results in an acceleration of diabetes development and immune cell infiltration of islets in NOD mice. We conclude that TLR4 is involved in the progression of the insulitis process thereby controlling the development of insulin-deficient diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:24086519

  20. Adeno-associated virus vector-mediated IL10 gene delivery prevents type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Goudy; Sihong Song; Clive Wasserfall; Y. Clare Zhang; Matthias Kapturczak; Andrew Muir; Matthew Powers; Marda Scott-Jorgensen; Martha Campbell-Thompson; James M. Crawford; Tamir M. Ellis; Terence R. Flotte; Mark A. Atkinson

    2001-01-01

    The development of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice provides for their use as a model of human type 1 diabetes. To test the feasibility of muscle-directed gene therapy to prevent type 1 diabetes, we developed recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors containing murine cDNAs for immunomodulatory cytokines IL-4 or IL-10. Skeletal muscle transduction of female NOD mice with

  1. Increased responsiveness to glucoregulatory effect of opiates in obese-diabetic ob\\/ob mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Bailey; P. R. Flatt

    1987-01-01

    Summary  Plasma glucose and insulin responses to opiate receptor stimulation and antagonism were determined in 12–14 week old lean and obese-diabetic Aston ob\\/ob mice. The opiate receptor antagonist naloxone (1 mg\\/kg intraperitoneally) rapidly and transiently raised glucose and suppressed insulin concentrations in lean mice, and produced qualitatively similar but more protracted responses in ob\\/ob mice. Selective stimulation of - and -opiate

  2. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fenglin; Zhang, Yiming; Zhong, Zhijian

    2011-01-01

    The current study evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): diabetic control group, low-dose Gl-PS treated group (50 mg/kg, Gl-PS), high-dose Gl-PS treated group (150 mg/kg, Gl-PS) and positive drug control treated group (glibenclamide, 4 mg/kg), with normal mice used as the control group. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin and blood lipid levels of mice were measured. After 28 days of treatment with Gl-PS, body weights and serum insulin levels of the Gl-PS treated groups was significantly higher than that of the diabetic control group, whereas FBG levels was significantly lower. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of the Gl-PS treated groups had dropped, whereas the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels had increased. In addition, according to acute toxicity studies, Gl-PS did not cause behavioral changes and any death of mice. These data suggest that Gl-PS has an antihyperglycemic effect. Furthermore, considering the Gl-PS effects on lipid profile, it may be a potential hypolipidaemic agent, which will be a great advantage in treating diabetic conditions associated with atherosclerosis or hyperlipidemia. PMID:22016649

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract on glucose-regulating mechanism in type 2 diabetic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to determine the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against type 2 diabetes induced by a high fat diet administered to mice. Dietary administration of 0.5% or 1% RHSE for 7 weeks results in significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride and to...

  4. Gut microbial markers are associated with diabetes onset, regulatory imbalance, and IFN-? level in NOD Mice.

    PubMed

    Krych, ?; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K; Hansen, Chf

    2015-03-01

    Gut microbiota regulated imbalances in the host's immune profile seem to be an important factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and identifying bacterial markers for T1D may therefore be useful in diagnosis and prevention of T1D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the early gut microbiota and immune parameters of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in order to select alleged bacterial markers of T1D. Gut microbial composition in feces was analyzed with 454/FLX Titanium (Roche) pyro-sequencing and correlated with diabetes onset age and immune cell populations measured in diabetic and non-diabetic mice at 30 weeks of age. The early gut microbiota composition was found to be different between NOD mice that later in life were classified as diabetic or non-diabetic. Those differences were further associated with changes in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD11b(+) dendritic cells, and IFN-? production. The model proposed in this work suggests that operational taxonomic units classified to S24-7, Prevotella, and an unknown Bacteriodales (all Bacteroidetes) act in favor of diabetes protection whereas members of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira (all Firmicutes) promote pathogenesis. PMID:25648687

  5. Dosing time-dependent changes in the analgesic effect of pregabalin on diabetic neuropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Akamine, Takahiro; Koyanagi, Satoru; Kusunose, Naoki; Hashimoto, Hana; Taniguchi, Marie; Matsunaga, Naoya; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2015-07-01

    Patients with diabetes often develop peripheral nerve complications, including numbness and pain in the extremities. Diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathic pain is characterized by hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli, known as tactile allodynia. Pregabalin (PGN) is currently used to treat diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathy and alleviates allodynia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the antiallodynic effect of PGN on diabetic mice was modulated by circadian changes in its intestinal absorption. A single intraperitoneal administration of 200 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) to mice induced type I diabetic pathologic changes that were accompanied by tactile allodynia. The intensity of tactile allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic mice was alleviated by the oral administration of PGN; however, the antiallodynic effect varied according to its dosing time. The analgesic effect of PGN was enhanced by its administration at the times of day when its intestinal absorption was accelerated. Organic cation transporter novel type 1 (Octn1) mediated the uptake of PGN into intestinal epithelial cells. The expression of Octn1 in the small intestine of STZ-induced diabetic mice oscillated in a circadian time-dependent manner. This oscillation in Octn1 appeared to cause the time of day-dependent changes in the intestinal absorption of PGN. Similar dosing time dependencies of the antiallodynic effect of PGN and oscillation in Octn1 expression were also detected in type II diabetic db/db mice. These results suggested that the dosing time-dependent differences in the analgesic effect of PGN were attributable to circadian oscillations in the intestinal expression of Octn1 and also that optimizing its dosing schedule may assist in achieving rational pharmacotherapy for diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathic pain. PMID:25962390

  6. Metabolic profile changes in the testes of mice with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mallidis, C; Green, B D; Rogers, D; Agbaje, I M; Hollis, J; Migaud, M; Amigues, E; McClure, N; Browne, R A

    2009-04-01

    Contrary to the traditional view, recent studies suggest that diabetes mellitus has an adverse influence on male reproductive function. Our aim was to determine the effect of diabetes on the testicular environment by identifying and then assessing perturbations in small molecule metabolites. Testes were obtained from control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. Diabetic status was confirmed by glycated haemoglobin, non-fasting blood glucose, physiological condition and body weight. A novel extraction procedure was utilized to obtain protein free, low-molecular weight, water soluble extracts which were then assessed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Principal component analysis of the derived profiles was used to classify any variations, and specific metabolites were identified based on their spectral pattern. Characteristic metabolite profiles were identified for control and type 1 diabetic animals with the most distinctive being from mice with the largest physical deterioration and loss of body weight. Eight streptozotocin-treated animals did not develop diabetes and displayed profiles similar to controls. Diabetic mice had decreases in creatine, choline and carnitine and increases in lactate, alanine and myo-inositol. Betaine levels were found to be increased in the majority of diabetic mice but decreased in a few animals with severe loss of body weight and physical condition. The association between perturbations in a number of small molecule metabolites known to be influential in sperm function, with diabetic status and physiological condition, adds further impetus to the proposal that diabetes influences important spermatogenic pathways and mechanisms in a subtle and previously unrecognized manner. PMID:17971162

  7. Bcl-2–Modifying Factor Induces Renal Proximal Tubular Cell Apoptosis in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Garnet J.; Godin, Nicolas; Maachi, Hasna; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Wu, Shyh-Jong; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Brezniceanu, Marie-Luise; Chénier, Isabelle; Fragasso-Marquis, Joelle; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Ethier, Jean; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Nair, Viji; Kretzler, Matthias; Cohen, Clemens D.; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying tubular apoptosis in diabetes by identifying proapoptotic genes that are differentially upregulated by reactive oxygen species in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) in models of diabetes. Total RNAs isolated from renal proximal tubules (RPTs) of 20-week-old heterozygous db/m+, db/db, and db/db catalase (CAT)-transgenic (Tg) mice were used for DNA chip microarray analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR assays, immunohistochemistry, and mice rendered diabetic with streptozotocin were used to validate the proapoptotic gene expression in RPTs. Cultured rat RPTCs were used to confirm the apoptotic activity and regulation of proapoptotic gene expression. Additionally, studies in kidney tissues from patients with and without diabetes were used to confirm enhanced proapoptotic gene expression in RPTs. Bcl-2–modifying factor (Bmf) was differentially upregulated (P < 0.01) in RPTs of db/db mice compared with db/m+ and db/db CAT-Tg mice and in RPTs of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice in which insulin reversed this finding. In vitro, Bmf cDNA overexpression in rat RPTCs coimmunoprecipated with Bcl-2, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and promoted apoptosis. High glucose (25 mmol/L) induced Bmf mRNA expression in RPTCs, whereas rotenone, catalase, diphenylene iodinium, and apocynin decreased it. Knockdown of Bmf with small interfering RNA reduced high glucose–induced apoptosis in RPTCs. More important, enhanced Bmf expression was detected in RPTs of kidneys from patients with diabetes. These data demonstrate differential upregulation of Bmf in diabetic RPTs and suggest a potential role for Bmf in regulating RPTC apoptosis and tubular atrophy in diabetes. PMID:22210314

  8. The effects of parabiosis on serum and kidney glycosidase activities in spontaneously diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Fushimi, H; Nonaka, K; Tarui, S; Tochino, Y; Kanaya, H

    1980-07-01

    Spontaneously diabetic non-obese mice of the ICR strain were newly inbred in Shionogi laboratory, Japan. Animals became diabetic suddenly, more frequently and severely in females. Blood glucose levels were 452 +/- 73 mg/100 ml with serum insulin levels of less than 1.0 microU/ml in the fed state. Parabiosis with normal control ICR mice for 2 weeks decreased the blood glucose level to 260 +/- 51 mg/100 ml (P less than 0.01) and resulted in serum insulin levels of 46.0 +/- 18.0 microU/ml (P less than 0.01). Kidney homogenate beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase activities were reduced in diabetic mice (42% and 44% decreases respectively) (P less than 0.025 and P less than 0.001), and restored almost to normal after 2 weeks of parabiosis. Renal alpha-mannosidase activity was decreased 43% (P less than 0.001) in the diabetic mice but unaffected by parabiosis. Serum beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-galactosidase and alpha-glucosidase activities were significantly increased in diabetic mice (179%; 233% and 58% increase respectively) (P less than 0.005, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.001), and returned to normal with parabiosis. PMID:6993268

  9. Inhibition of inflammasome activation improves the impaired pattern of healing in genetically diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandra; Altavilla, Domenica; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Pallio, Giovanni; Colonna, Michele R; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Type 2 diabetes impairs the healing process because of an exaggerated and persistent inflammatory response, and an altered expression pattern of angiogenic molecules. We investigated the effects of inflammasome blockade in diabetes-related wound-healings defects, in genetically diabetic mice. Experimental Approach An incisional skin wound model was produced on the back of female diabetic C57BL/KsJ-m +/+ Leptdb mice (db+/db+) and their normal littermates (db+/m+). Animals were treated daily with two inflammasome blocking agents, BAY 11-7082 (20?mg·kg?1 i.p.), or Brilliant Blue G (BBG, 45.5?mg·kg?1 i.p.), or vehicle. Mice were killed on 3, 6 and 12 days after skin injury to measure expression of the NOD-like receptor NLRP3, caspase-1, VEGF, the inflammasome adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and the chemokine CXCL12. Wound levels of IL-1? and IL-18 were also measured, along with histological assessments of wound tissue and the time to complete wound closure. Key Results During healing, the diabetic mice exhibited increased activation of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, IL-1? and IL-18. They also showed a reduced expression of VEGF and CXCL12.Treatment with BAY 11-7082 or BBG, to block activation of the inflammasome, decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory molecules. Histological evaluation indicated that inflammasome blockade improved the impaired healing pattern, at day 12 in diabetic mice, along with a decreased time to complete skin healing. Conclusions and Implications These data strongly suggest that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is one of the key contributors to the delayed healing of wounds in diabetic mice. PMID:24329484

  10. Effect of Hominis Placenta on cutaneous wound healing in normal and diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeun; Lee, Jiyoung; Jeong, Minsu; Min, Seorim; Kim, Song-Yi; Lee, Hyejung; Lim, Yunsook

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The number of diabetic patients has recently shown a rapid increase, and delayed wound healing is a major clinical complication in diabetes. In this study, the wound healing effect of Hominis placenta (HP) treatment was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS/METHODS Four full thickness wounds were created using a 4 mm biopsy punch on the dorsum. HP was injected subcutaneously at the middle region of the upper and lower wounds. Wounds were digitally photographed and wound size was measured every other day until the 14th day. Wound closure rate was analyzed using CANVAS 7SE software. Wound tissues were collected on days 2, 6, and 14 after wounding for H/E, immunohistochemistry for FGF2, and Masson's trichrome staining for collagen study. RESULTS Significantly faster wound closure rates were observed in the HP treated group than in normal and diabetes control mice on days 6 and 8. Treatment with HP resulted in reduced localization of inflammatory cells in wounded skin at day 6 in normal mice and at day 14 in diabetic mice (P < 0.01). Expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 showed a significant increase in the HP treated group on day 14 in both normal (P < 0.01) and diabetic mice (P < 0.05). In addition, HP treated groups showed a thicker collagen layer than no treatment groups, which was remarkable on the last day, day 14, in both normal and diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, HP treatment has a beneficial effect on acceleration of cutaneous wound healing via regulation of the entire wound healing process, including inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. PMID:25110560

  11. Naturally transmitted segmented filamentous bacteria segregate with diabetes protection in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Martin A; Sefik, Esen; Hill, Jonathan A; Wu, Hsin-Jung; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2011-07-12

    Vertebrates typically harbor a rich gastrointestinal microbiota, which has coevolved with the host over millennia and is essential for several host physiological functions, in particular maturation of the immune system. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of a single bacterial species, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), in inducing a robust T-helper cell type 17 (Th17) population in the small-intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP) of the mouse gut. Consequently, SFB can promote IL-17-dependent immune and autoimmune responses, gut-associated as well as systemic, including inflammatory arthritis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we exploit the incomplete penetrance of SFB colonization of NOD mice in our animal facility to explore its impact on the incidence and course of type 1 diabetes in this prototypical, spontaneous model. There was a strong cosegregation of SFB positivity and diabetes protection in females, but not in males, which remained relatively disease-free regardless of the SFB status. In contrast, insulitis did not depend on SFB colonization. SFB-positive, but not SFB-negative, females had a substantial population of Th17 cells in the SI-LP, which was the only significant, repeatable difference in the examined T-cell compartments of the gut, pancreas, or systemic lymphoid tissues. Th17-signature transcripts dominated the very limited SFB-induced molecular changes detected in SI-LP CD4(+) T cells. Thus, a single bacterium, and the gut immune system alterations associated with it, can either promote or protect from autoimmunity in predisposed mouse models, probably reflecting their variable dependence on different Th subsets. PMID:21709219

  12. Fever-Range Whole Body Hyperthermia Prevents the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in Non-Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Capitano, Maegan L.; Ertel, Bradley R.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Ostberg, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin producing ? cells of the pancreatic islets are destroyed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). It has been demonstrated that the injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) can prevent disease onset in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. This effect has been attributed to CFA-enhanced natural killer (NK) cell mediated control of autoimmune CTLs. Fever-range whole body hyperthermia (FR-WBH) has also been shown to stimulate NK cell cytotoxicity. This led to the hypothesis that FR-WBH can prevent disease onset in NOD mice by a thermally regulated mechanism. Methods FR-WBH or mock treatment was administered weekly until the NOD mice reached 32 weeks of age. Blood glucose levels were monitored weekly, with measurements ?33.5mM indicating onset of diabetes, at which time the mice were euthanized for histological and cellular analyses. Results Weekly FR-WBH prevented the onset of T1D in NOD mice and this effect correlated with increased NK cell cytotoxicity and control of blood glucose concentration. Histological analysis revealed significantly fewer lymphocytes infiltrating the pancreatic islets of FR-WBH treated mice than those of untreated mice, suggesting a relationship between thermally induced protection of ? cells and their ability to regulate blood glucose concentrations. Conclusions These studies show, for the first time, that mild systemic hyperthermia can prevent the generation of T1D in a clinically relevant mouse model. Further study of the thermally sensitive aspects of immunoregulation could lead to the development of heatbased therapies for the prevention or treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:18283590

  13. Administration of Danhong Injection to diabetic db/db mice inhibits the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengyang; Pan, Quan; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Xiumei; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Danhong Injection (DHI), a Chinese medicine for treatment of patients with coronary heart disease, inhibits primary abdominal aortic aneurysms in apoE deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice. Formation of microaneurysms plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. It remains unknown if DHI can reduce these diabetic complications. In this study, diabetic db/db mice in two groups were injected with saline and DHI, respectively, for 14 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected to determine serum glucose, lipids and tissue structure. DHI reduced diabetes-induced body weight gain, serum cholesterol and glucose levels. In retinas, DHI blocked the shrink of whole retina and retinal sub-layers by inhibiting expression of caspase 3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, accumulation of carbohydrate macromolecules and formation of acellular capillaries. DHI improved renal functions by inhibiting mesangial matrix expansion, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, fibronectin and advanced glycation end products in kidneys. Mechanistically, DHI induced expression of glucokinase, AMPK?/phosphorylated AMPK?, insulin receptor substrate 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and peroxisome proliferator-activated ?. Expression of genes responsible for energy expenditure was also activated by DHI. Therefore, DHI inhibits diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy by ameliorating glucose metabolism and demonstrates a potential application in clinics. PMID:26061387

  14. Administration of Danhong Injection to diabetic db/db mice inhibits the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Pan, Quan; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Xiumei; Li, Xiaoju; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Danhong Injection (DHI), a Chinese medicine for treatment of patients with coronary heart disease, inhibits primary abdominal aortic aneurysms in apoE deficient (apoE?/?) mice. Formation of microaneurysms plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. It remains unknown if DHI can reduce these diabetic complications. In this study, diabetic db/db mice in two groups were injected with saline and DHI, respectively, for 14 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected to determine serum glucose, lipids and tissue structure. DHI reduced diabetes-induced body weight gain, serum cholesterol and glucose levels. In retinas, DHI blocked the shrink of whole retina and retinal sub-layers by inhibiting expression of caspase 3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, accumulation of carbohydrate macromolecules and formation of acellular capillaries. DHI improved renal functions by inhibiting mesangial matrix expansion, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, fibronectin and advanced glycation end products in kidneys. Mechanistically, DHI induced expression of glucokinase, AMPK?/phosphorylated AMPK?, insulin receptor substrate 1, fibroblast growth factor 21 and peroxisome proliferator-activated ?. Expression of genes responsible for energy expenditure was also activated by DHI. Therefore, DHI inhibits diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy by ameliorating glucose metabolism and demonstrates a potential application in clinics. PMID:26061387

  15. Activation of spinal cannabinoid CB2 receptors inhibits neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Ikegami, M; Kai, M; Ohsawa, M; Kamei, J

    2013-10-10

    The role of spinal cannabinoid systems in neuropathic pain of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice was studied. In normal mice, injection of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 (1 and 3?g, i.t.) dose-dependently prolonged the tail-flick latency, whereas there were no changes with the injection of either cannabinoid CB1 (AM 251, 1 ?g, i.t.) or CB2 (AM 630, 4 ?g, i.t.) receptor antagonists. AM 251 (1 ?g, i.t.), but not AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.), significantly inhibited the prolongation of the tail-flick latency induced by WIN-55,212-2 (3 ?g, i.t.). In STZ-induced diabetic mice, the tail-flick latency was significantly shorter than that in normal mice. A low dose of WIN-55,212-2 (1 ?g, i.t.) significantly recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The effect of WIN-55,212-2 (1 ?g, i.t.) in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly inhibited by AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.), but not AM 251 (1 ?g). The selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist L-759,656 (19 and 38 ?g, i.t.) also dose-dependently recovered the tail-flick latency in STZ-induced diabetic mice, and this recovery was inhibited by AM 630 (4 ?g, i.t.). The protein levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors, CB2 receptors and diacylglycerol lipase ? (DGL-?), the enzyme that synthesizes endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the spinal cord were examined using Western blotting. The protein levels of both cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice, whereas the protein level of DGL-? was significantly decreased. These results indicate that spinal cannabinoid systems are changed in diabetic mice and suggest that cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists might have an ability to recover diabetic neuropathic pain. PMID:23892011

  16. Polyopes lancifolia Extract, a Potent ?-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Alleviates Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Min, Seong Won; Han, Ji Sook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Polyopes lancifolia extract (PLE) on ?-glucosidase activity, ?-amylase activitiy, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The results of this study revealed a marked inhibitory effect of PLE on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities. The IC50s of PLE against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase were 0.20 mg/mL and 0.35 mg/mL, respectively. PLE was a more effective inhibitor of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities than acarbose, the positive control. The postprandial blood glucose levels of STZ-induced diabetic mice were significantly lower in the PLE treated group than in the control group. Moreover, PLE administration was associated with a decreased area under the curve for the glucose response in diabetic mice. These results indicate that PLE may be a potent inhibitor of ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities and may suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:24772403

  17. Hypoglycemic Effect of Sargassum ringgoldianum Extract in STZ-induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Won; Han, Ji-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether Sargassum ringgoldianum extract may inhibit ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities, and alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The IC50 values of Sargassum ringgoldianum extract against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase were 0.12 mg/mL and 0.18 mg/mL, respectively, which evidenced higher activities than those of acarbose. The blood glucose levels of the Sargassum ringgoldianum extract administered group were significantly lower compared to the control group in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, the area under the two-hour blood glucose response curve was significantly reduced and the absorption of dietary carbohydrates was delayed after administration of Sargassum ringgoldianum extract in the diabetic mice. Therefore, these results indicated that Sargassum ringgoldianum extract may help decrease the postprandial blood glucose level via inhibiting ?-glucosidase. PMID:24471057

  18. Protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae on retinal neuronal damage in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dai; Yang, Fang; Cheng, Hongke; Liu, Chao; Sun, Ming; Wu, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the potential protective effects of total flavonoids from Flos Puerariae (TFF) on retinal neural cells in diabetic mice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to generate type I diabetes in a murine model, as indicated by blood glucose levels ?11.1 mmol/l. TFF was administered intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day. After 10 weeks of administration, the mice were euthanized, and the eyes were dissected. Retinal histology was examined, and the thickness of the retina was measured. Ultrastructural changes in the retinal ganglion cells and capillary basement membrane were observed with electron microscopy. Apoptosis of retinal neural cells was determined with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling assay. Bax and Bcl-2 expression in the retinal tissues was determined with immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. Results Compared with the diabetic mice, the blood glucose level decreased (p<0.01) and the bodyweight increased (p<0.05) in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated groups. The thickness of the retina significantly increased (p<0.01), and the retinal capillary basement membrane (BM) thickness was reduced in the 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF-treated diabetic mice (DM). The 100 and 200 mg/kg TFF treatments also attenuated the diabetes-induced apoptosis of retinal neural cells. Consistent with these effects, TFF treatment decreased the Bax expression level and, concurrently, increased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax. Conclusions TFF attenuated diabetes-induced apoptosis in retinal neurons by inhibiting Bax expression and increasing the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, which suggests that TFF might prevent retinal neuronal damage in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24146535

  19. Morphofunctional changes underlying intestinal dysmotility in diabetic RIP-I/hIFN? transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Domènech, Anna; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; De Giorgio, Roberto; Gori, Alessandra; Bosch, Fàtima; Pumarola, Martí; Jiménez, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying gastrointestinal dysmotility in diabetic patients remain poorly understood, although enteric neuropathy, damage to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and smooth muscle cell injury are believed to play a role. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional changes underlying intestinal dysmotility in RIP-I/hIFN? transgenic mice treated with multiple very low doses of streptozotocin (20 mg/kg, i.p., 5 days). Compared with vehicle-treated mice, streptozotocin-treated animals developed type 1 diabetes mellitus, with sustained hyperglycaemia for 3.5 months, polyphagia, polydipsia and increased faecal output without changes in faecal water content (metabolic cages). Diabetic mice had a longer intestine, longer ileal villi and wider colonic crypts (conventional microscopy) and displayed faster gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Contractility studies showed selective impaired neurotransmission in the ileum and mid-colon of diabetic mice. Compared with controls, the ileal and colonic myenteric plexus of diabetic mice revealed ultrastructural features of neuronal degeneration and HuD immunohistochemistry on whole-mount preparations showed 15% reduction in neuronal numbers. However, no immunohistochemical changes in apoptosis-related markers were noted. Lower absolute numbers of neuronal nitric oxide synthase- and choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive neurons and enhanced vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P immunopositivity were observed. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses did not reveal changes in the enteric glial or ICC networks. In conclusion, this model of diabetic enteropathy shows enhanced intestinal transit associated with intestinal remodelling, including neuroplastic changes, and overt myenteric neuropathy. Such abnormalities are likely to reflect neuroadaptive and neuropathological changes occurring in this diabetic model. PMID:22050417

  20. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y S; Kim, D; Lee, E K; Kim, S; Choi, C S; Jun, H S

    2015-04-15

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5mg/kg/day) from 8weeks of age for 8weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-?+ cells, CD8+ IFN-?+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-?+ and CD8+ IFN-?+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:25576766

  1. Low TGF?1 expression prevents and high expression exacerbates diabetic nephropathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Catherine K.; Gasim, Adil M. H.; Grant, Ruriko; Chang, Albert S.; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Madden, Victoria J.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Jennette, J. Charles; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Nephropathy develops in many but not all patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. Substantial efforts to identify genotypic differences explaining this differential susceptibility have been made, with limited success. Here, we show that the expression of the transforming growth factor ?1 gene (Tgfb1) affects the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice. To do this we genetically varied Tgfb1 expression in five steps, 10%, 60%, 100%, 150%, and 300% of normal, in mice with type 1 diabetes caused by the Akita mutation in the insulin gene (Ins2Akita). Although plasma glucose levels were not affected by Tgfb1 genotype, many features of diabetic nephropathy (mesangial expansion, elevated plasma creatinine and urea, decreased creatinine clearance and albuminuria) were progressively ameliorated as Tgfb1 expression decreased and were progressively exacerbated when expression was increased. The diabetic 10% hypomorphs had comparable creatinine clearance and albumin excretion to wild-type mice and no harmful changes in renal morphology. The diabetic 300% hypermorphs had ?1/3 the creatinine clearance of wild-type mice, >20× their albumin excretion, ?3× thicker glomerular basement membranes and severe podocyte effacement, matching human diabetic nephropathy. Switching Tgfb1 expression from low to high in the tubules of the hypomorphs increased their albumin excretion more than 10-fold but creatinine clearance remained high. Switching Tgfb1 expression from low to high in the podocytes markedly decreased creatinine clearance, but minimally increased albumin excretion. Decreasing expression of Tgfb1 could be a promising option for preventing loss of renal function in diabetes. PMID:25902541

  2. Fluorofenidone Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy and Kidney Fibrosis in db\\/db Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling Hao Wang; Ji Shi Liu; Wang Bin Ning; Qiong Jing Yuan; Fang Fang Zhang; Zhang Zhe Peng; Miao Miao Lu; Ren Na Luo; Xiao Fu; Gao Yun Hu; Zhao He Wang; Li Jian Tao

    2011-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Fluorofenidone [1-(3-fluorophenyl)-5-methyl-2-(1H)-pyridone, AKF-PD], a novel pyridone agent, showed potent antifibrotic properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AKF-PD on diabetic nephropathy and kidney fibrosis, and to obtain an insight into its mechanisms of action. Methods: We administered AKF-PD to diabetic db\\/db mice for 12 weeks. Moreover, we performed in vitro cultures using murine

  3. Differences in the pharmacokinetics of Cyp3a substrates in TSOD and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kudo, T; Toda, T; Ushiki, T; Ohi, K; Ikarashi, N; Ochiai, W; Sugiyama, K

    2010-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of drugs can change in diabetes mellitus and even among diabetics. They may differ between type I diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). As triazolam was administered orally to Tsumura, Suzuki, obese, diabetes (TSOD) mice and streptozotocin (STZ) mice, clearance per body (CL/F) in TSOD mice did not differ compared with Tsumura, Suzuki, non-obesity (TSNO) mice. In STZ mice, CL/F was greater than in control mice. Small intestinal cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 3a expression in TSOD mice was significantly lower than in TSNO mice. No significant difference existed in small intestinal Cyp3a expression between STZ mice and control mice. In insulin-treated mice, small intestinal Cyp3a expression was significantly lower than in control mice. These results suggested that the differences in changes in small intestinal Cyp3a expression between T1DM and T2DM may be due to differences in plasma insulin concentrations. This may be a factor in the difference in the drug pharmacokinetics between T2DM and T1DM patients. PMID:20163193

  4. Cannabinoid functions in the amygdala contribute to conditioned fear memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: Interaction with glutamatergic functions.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Ikegami, Megumi; Kai, Misa; Kamei, Junzo

    2015-07-01

    The role of cannabinoid systems in conditioned fear memory was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 (1mg/kg, i.p.), when injected into normal mice after conditioning, significantly prolonged the duration of freezing behavior. This effect was significantly inhibited by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.), but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist AM 630 (1mg/kg, s.c.). The duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice was significantly longer than that in non-diabetic mice. The injection of WIN-55,212-2 (1mg/kg, i.p.) after conditioning significantly prolonged the duration of freezing in non-diabetic mice, but not in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, the injection of AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.) after conditioning significantly shortened the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but not in non-diabetic mice. The injection of AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.) before conditioning or before testing did not significantly affect the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The protein levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the amygdala were increased in STZ-induced diabetic mice. In contrast, the protein levels of cannabinoid CB2 receptors and diacylglycerol lipase ?, the enzyme that synthesizes endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the amygdala did not differ between non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic mice. None of these proteins in the hippocampus was different between non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic mice. The injection of AM 251 (50ng/side) into the basolateral amygdala significantly inhibited the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Since endocannabinoid is controlled by glutamatergic function, we further examined the role of glutamatergic function in the increased fear memory in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The amounts of glutamine and glutamic acid in the amygdala of STZ-induced diabetic mice were significantly increased compared to those in non-diabetic mice. The AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (40ng/side), when injected into the basolateral amygdala, significantly inhibited the duration of freezing in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Finally, AMPA (40ng, i.c.v.) significantly prolonged the duration of freezing in normal mice, and this effect was inhibited by AM 251 (3mg/kg, s.c.). These results suggest that cannabinoid functions in the amygdala are increased in diabetic mice and that enhanced glutamatergic function in the amygdala of diabetic mice activates the endocannabinoid system, which enhances fear memory via cannabinoid CB1 receptors. PMID:25929688

  5. Early myocardial dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: a study using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xichun Yu; Yasvir A Tesiram; Rheal A Towner; Andrew Abbott; Eugene Patterson; Shijun Huang; Marion W Garrett; Suresh Chandrasekaran; Satoshi Matsuzaki; Luke I Szweda; Brian E Gordon; David C Kem

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with a cardiomyopathy that is independent of coronary artery disease or hypertension. In the present study we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiographic techniques to examine and characterize early changes in myocardial function in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 8-week old C57BL\\/6 mice with two intraperitoneal

  6. Glucagon Receptor Blockade With a Human Antibody Normalizes Blood Glucose in Diabetic Mice and Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Haruka; Kim, Jinrang; Aglione, JohnPaul; Lee, Joseph; Cavino, Katie; Na, Erqian; Rafique, Ashique; Kim, Jee Hae; Harp, Joyce; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Murphy, Andrew J; Gromada, Jesper

    2015-08-01

    Antagonizing glucagon action represents an attractive therapeutic option for reducing hepatic glucose production in settings of hyperglycemia where glucagon excess plays a key pathophysiological role. We therefore generated REGN1193, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits glucagon receptor (GCGR) signaling in vitro. REGN1193 administration to diabetic ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice lowered blood glucose to levels observed in GCGR-deficient mice. In diet-induced obese mice, REGN1193 reduced food intake, adipose tissue mass, and body weight. REGN1193 increased circulating levels of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1 and was associated with reversible expansion of pancreatic ?-cell area. Hyperglucagonemia and ?-cell hyperplasia was observed in fibroblast growth factor 21-deficient mice treated with REGN1193. Single administration of REGN1193 to diabetic cynomolgus monkeys normalized fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance and increased circulating levels of glucagon and amino acids. Finally, administration of REGN1193 for 8 weeks to normoglycemic cynomolgus monkeys did not cause hypoglycemia or increase pancreatic ?-cell area. In summary, the GCGR-blocking antibody REGN1193 normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice and monkeys but does not produce hypoglycemia in normoglycemic monkeys. Thus, REGN1193 provides a potential therapeutic modality for diabetes mellitus and acute hyperglycemic conditions. PMID:26020795

  7. Genistein protects female nonobese diabetic mice from developing type 1 diabetes when fed a soy- and alfalfa-free diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tai L; Germolec, Dori R; Zheng, Jian Feng; Kooistra, Linda; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Smith, Matthew J; White, Kimber L; Elmore, Susan A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) on the time of onset and/or the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, when administered GEN by gavage once every day for up to 180 days. Five groups of mice (approximately 24 animals/group; 6-7 weeks of age) were included: naive control, vehicle control (25 mM Na2CO3 in water), and 3 GEN treatment groups (2 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg). Mice were maintained on a soy- and alfalfa-free diet (5K96) during the study and were monitored for blood glucose changes every week. When compared to the vehicle control, exposure to 2-mg/kg GEN produced significant decreases ranging from 55 to 79% in the total incidences of diabetes (blood glucose ? 250 mg/dl) and severe diabetes (blood glucose ? 400 mg/dl) starting at week 14 of the study. However, during the later stages of the study (i.e., after week 23), the 2-mg/kg dose had no effect on disease incidence. In animals treated with 6-mg/kg and 20-mg/kg GEN, significant decreases in the total incidence of diabetes were observed starting at week 16, while the incidence of severe diabetes was significantly decreased with the changes being observed initially at weeks 18 and 17 for the 6-mg/kg and 20-mg/kg GEN treatment groups, respectively. Several lines of evidence, including histopathological analysis, suggested that GEN protected the pancreas from autoimmune destruction. However, this protective effect of GEN was absent when female NOD mice were maintained on NTP-2000 rodent diet, which contained 5% soybean meal and 7.5% alfalfa meal (the total concentrations of phytoestrogens ranged between 95 and 134 mg/kg). In summary, oral dosing of GEN reduced the incidence and increased the time to onset of T1D in female NOD mice but only when fed a soy- and alfalfa-free diet. PMID:24713318

  8. Anti-interleukin 2 receptor antibody attenuates low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Hatamori; K. Yokono; M. Hayakawa; T. Taki; W. Ogawa; M. Nagata; J. Hari; K. Shii; H. Taniguchi; S. Baba

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Recent evidence indicates that activated T cells and macrophages play an important role in the induction of insulitis and diabetes in certain strains of mice treated with multiple subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin. In the present study, we treated C57BL\\/6J mice with five daily doses of 40 mg\\/ml streptozotocin and examined the prophylactic effect of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody

  9. Edaravone Protect against Retinal Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Ping; Yuan, Songtao; Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Xiaojun; Liu, Qinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, is used for the clinical treatment of retinal injury. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of edaravone against diabetic retinal damage in the mouse. Diabetic retinopathy in the mouse was induced by injection of streptozotocin. Edaravone was given once-daily and was intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated at a dose of 3 mg/kg from streptozotocin injection to 4 weeks after onset of diabetes. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) damage was evaluated by recording the pattern electroretinogram (ERG). RGCs damage was also detected by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, and the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined fluorometrically. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, BDNF, and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. Retinal levels of ROS, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and cleaved caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas the expression of BDNF was significantly decreased in the retinas of diabetic mice, compared to nondiabetic mice. Administration of edaravone significantly attenuated diabetes induced RGCs death, upregulation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cleaved caspase-3 and downregulation of BDNF. These findings suggest that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in diabetic retinal damage and that systemic administration of edaravone may slow the progression of retinal neuropathy induced by diabetes. PMID:24897298

  10. NaoXinTong Inhibits the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengyang; Pan, Quan; Chen, Yuanli; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Buchang; Jia, Lifu; Zhu, Yan; Han, Jihong; Li, Xiaoju; Duan, Yajun

    2015-01-01

    Buchang NaoXinTong capsule (NXT) is a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from 16 Chinese traditional medical herbs and widely used for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases in China. Formation of microaneurysms plays an important role in the development of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we investigated if??NXT can protect diabetic mice against the development of diabetic retinopathy. The db/db mice (~6 weeks old), a diabetic animal model, were divided into two groups and fed normal chow or plus NXT for 14 weeks. During the treatment, fasting blood glucose levels were monthly determined. After treatment, retinas were collected to determine retinal thickness, accumulation of carbohydrate macromolecules, and caspase-3 (CAS-3) expression. Our results demonstrate that administration of NXT decreased fasting blood glucose levels. Associated with the decreased glucose levels, NXT blocked the diabetes-induced shrink of multiple layers, such as photoreceptor layer and outer nuclear/plexiform layers, in the retina. NXT also inhibited the diabetes-induced expression of CAS-3 protein and mRNA, MMP-2/9 and TNF? mRNA, accumulation of carbohydrate macromolecules, and formation of acellular capillaries in the retina. Taken together, our study shows that NXT can inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy and suggests a new potential application of NXT in clinic. PMID:25821481

  11. Decoy receptor 3 protects non-obese diabetic mice from autoimmune diabetes by regulating dendritic cell maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen-Ling; Chou, Feng-Cheng; Sung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Fan, Pao-Luo; Hsueh, Chao-Wen; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Shyi-Jou; Lin, Wan-Wan; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2010-10-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, regulates immune responses through competing with receptors of Fas ligand (FasL), LIGHT and TNF-like molecule 1A (TL1A). We have previously demonstrated that transgenic expression of DcR3 in a ? cell-specific manner significantly protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from autoimmune diabetes. In this study, we further investigated the systemic effect of DcR3 in regulating lymphocytes and dendritic cells in NOD mice. Our results demonstrated that both DcR3 plasmid and protein treatments significantly inhibited insulitis and diabetes. Lymphocytes from DcR3.Fc-treated mice revealed less proliferative potential and transferred ameliorated diabetes. By administration of DcR3.Fc in T1 and T2 double transgenic NOD mice expressing human Thy1 or murine Thy1.1 surface marker under IFN-? or IL-4 promoter control respectively, we observed a remarkable reduction of Th1 and an increase of Th2 immune responses in vivo. Strikingly, in vitro polarization experiments exhibited that not only Th1 but also Th17 cell differentiation was significantly inhibited in splenocytes treated with DcR3.Fc protein. However, this phenomenon was only observed in splenocytes, not in purified CD4(+) T cells, suggesting that DcR3-mediated inhibition of Th1 and Th17 differentiation is not T cell-autonomous and maybe through other cell types such as dendritic cells. Finally, our results demonstrated that DcR3 directly modulates the differentiation and maturation of dendritic cells and subsequently regulates the differentiation and effector function of T cells. PMID:20801512

  12. Production of interleukin 10 by islet cells accelerates immune-mediated destruction of beta cells in nonobese diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The T helper type 2 (Th2) cell product interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits the proliferation and function of Th1 lymphocytes and macrophages (M phi). The nonobese diabetic mouse strain (NOD/Shi) develops a M phi and T cell-dependent autoimmune diabetes that closely resembles human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The objective of the present study was to explore the consequences of localized production of IL-10 on diabetes development in NOD/Shi mice. Surprisingly, local production of IL-10 accelerated the onset and increased the prevalence of diabetes, since diabetes developed at 5-10 wk of age in 92% of IL-10 positive I-A beta g7/g7, I-E- mice in first (N2) and second (N3) generation backcrosses between IL-10 transgenic BALB/c mice and (NOD/Shi) mice. None of the IL-10 negative major histocompatibility complex-identical littermates were diabetic at this age. Furthermore, diabetes developed in 33% of I-A beta g7/d, I-E+ N3 mice in the presence of IL-10 before the mice were 10 wk old. Our findings support the notion that IL-10 should not simply be regarded as an immunoinhibitory cytokine, since it possesses powerful, immunostimulatory properties as well. Furthermore, our observations suggest that beta cell destruction in NOD mice may be a Th2-mediated event. PMID:8145050

  13. Antidiabetic efficacy of bradykinin antagonist R-954 on glucose tolerance test in diabetic type 1 mice.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Orlando L; Dziubecki, Damian; Obregon, Pablo; Rodriguez, Ricardo R; Sirois, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetes) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease associated with many complications including nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and hyperalgesia. Experimental evidence has shown that the bradykinin B1 receptor (BKB1-R) is involved in the development of type 1 diabetes and found to be upregulated alongside the disease. In the present study the effects of the selective BKB1-R antagonist the R-954 (Ac-Orn-[Oic(2), alpha-MePhe(5), D-beta Nal(7), Ile(8) ]des-Arg(9)-BK and the BKB1-R agonist des Arg(9)-BK (DBK) were studied on diabetic hyperglycemia. Diabetic type 1 was induced in C57 BL/KsJ mdb male mice by five consecutives doses of STZ (45mg/kg i.p.). A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed by an intraperitoneal administration of glucose, 8, 12 and 18days after the diabetes induction. The induction of type 1 diabetes provoked a significant hyperglycemia levels in diabetic mice at 12 and 18days after STZ. The administration of R-954 (400microg/kg i.p.) at 12 and 18days after STZ returned the glycemia levels of this animals to normal values. In addition the administration of DKB (300microg/kg i.p.) significantly potentiated the diabetes-induced hyperglycemia; this effect that was totally reversed by R-954. These results provide further evidence for the implication of BKB1-R in the type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulitis). PMID:20092893

  14. Retinal Neurodegeneration in db/db Mice at the Early Period of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qin; Xu, Yidan; Xie, Ping; Cheng, Haixia; Song, Qinglu; Su, Tu; Yuan, Songtao; Liu, Qinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe both the functional and pathological alternations in neurosensory retina in a murine model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes (db/db mouse). Methods. db/db (BKS/DB?/?) mice and heterozygous littermates (as control group) at various ages (12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 weeks) were inspected with pattern electroretinogram (PERG), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Histological markers of neuroinflammation (IBA-1 and F4/80) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In addition, levels of retinal ganglion cell death were measured by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Results. Significant alternations of PERG responses and increased retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) apoptosis were observed in diabetic db/db mice for 20-week period when compared with control group. IBA-1 and F4/80 expression in microglia/macrophages became evidently for 24-week period, thus supporting the PERG findings. Furthermore, obvious thinning of nasal and dorsal retina in 28-week-old db/db mice was also revealed by OCT. No visible retinal microvascular changes were detected by FFA throughout the experiments on db/db mice. Conclusions. Diabetic retina underwent neurodegenerative changes in db/db mice, which happened at retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer. But there was no obvious abnormality in retinal vasculature on db/db mice. PMID:25821591

  15. Long-Term Low Carbohydrate Diet Leads to Deleterious Metabolic Manifestations in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Keiko; Inukai, Kouichi; Onuma, Hirohisa; Kudo, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tsugawa, Kazue; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Kawakami, Hayato; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C?P?F?=?63?15?22), a low carbohydrate (LC, C?P?F?=?38?25?37) diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C?P?F?=?18?45?37) diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies. PMID:25170869

  16. Insulin treatment attenuates renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding in diabetic Akita mice.

    PubMed

    Salem, Esam S B; Grobe, Nadja; Elased, Khalid M

    2014-03-15

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is located in several tissues and is highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it degrades the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II) to ANG-(1-7). Accumulating evidence supports protective roles of ACE2 in several disease states, including diabetic nephropathy. A disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 is involved in the shedding of several transmembrane proteins, including ACE2. Our previous studies showed increased renal ACE2, ADAM17 expression, and urinary ACE2 in type 2 diabetic mice (Chodavarapu H, Grobe N, Somineni HK, Salem ES, Madhu M, Elased KM. PLoS One 8: e62833, 2013). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of insulin on ACE2 shedding and ADAM17 in type 1 diabetic Akita mice. Results demonstrate increased renal ACE2 and ADAM17 expression and increased urinary ACE2 fragments (?70 kDa) and albumin excretion in diabetic Akita mice. Immunostaining revealed colocalization of ACE2 with ADAM17 in renal tubules. Renal proximal tubular cells treated with ADAM17 inhibitor showed reduced ACE2 shedding into the media, confirming ADAM17-mediated shedding of ACE2. Treatment of Akita mice with insulin implants for 20 wk normalized hyperglycemia and decreased urinary ACE2 and albumin excretion. Insulin also normalized renal ACE2 and ADAM17 but had no effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) protein expression. There was a positive linear correlation between urinary ACE2 and albuminuria, blood glucose, plasma creatinine, glucagon, and triglycerides. This is the first report showing an association between hyperglycemia, cardiovascular risk factors, and increased shedding of urinary ACE2 in diabetic Akita mice. Urinary ACE2 could be used as a biomarker for diabetic nephropathy and as an index of intrarenal ACE2 status. PMID:24452639

  17. Caprine pancreatic islet xenotransplantation into diabetic immunosuppressed BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hani, Homayoun; Allaudin, Zeenathul N; Mohd-Lila, Mohd-Azmi; Ibrahim, Tengku A Tengku; Othman, Abas M

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease for which there is currently no cure, but only lifetime management. Islet xenotransplantation is a promising technique for the restoration of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential use of caprine (goat) islet cells as xenogeneic grafts in the treatment for diabetes in a mouse model. Methods Caprine pancreases were harvested and transported to the laboratory under conditions optimized to prevent ischemia. Islets were isolated, purified, and tested for functionality. Caprine islets (2000 islet equivalent) were transplanted beneath the kidney capsules of diabetic BALB/c mice under thalidomide-induced immunosuppression. Blood glucose and insulin levels of grafted mice were evaluated by glucometer and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. The functionality and quality of caprine pancreatic islet grafts were assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Results The viability of purified islet cells exceeded 90%. Recipient mice exhibited normoglycemia (<11 mm glucose) for 30 days. In addition, weight gain negatively correlated with blood glucose level. The findings verified diabetes reversal in caprine islet recipient mice. A significant drop in non-fasting blood glucose level (from 23.3 ± 5.4 to 8.04 ± 0.44 mm) and simultaneous increase in serum insulin level (from 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.56 ± 0.17 ?g/l) and body weights (from 23.64 ± 0.31 to 25.85 ± 0.34 g) were observed (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis verified insulin production in the transplanted islets. Conclusions Purified caprine islets were demonstrated to successfully sustain viability and functionality for controlling blood glucose levels in an immunosuppressed mouse model of diabetes. These results suggest the use of caprine islets as an addition to the supply of xenogeneic islets for diabetes research. PMID:24645790

  18. Insulin-independent reversal of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice with brown adipose tissue transplant.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Subhadra C; Piston, David W

    2015-06-15

    Traditional therapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D) involve insulin replacement or islet/pancreas transplantation and have numerous limitations. Our previous work demonstrated the ability of embryonic brown adipose tissue (BAT) transplants to establish normoglycemia without insulin in chemically induced models of insulin-deficient diabetes. The current study sought to extend the technique to an autoimmune-mediated T1D model and document the underlying mechanisms. In nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, BAT transplants result in complete reversal of T1D associated with rapid and long-lasting euglycemia. In addition, BAT transplants placed prior to the onset of diabetes on NOD mice can prevent or significantly delay the onset of diabetes. As with streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic models, euglycemia is independent of insulin and strongly correlates with decrease of inflammation and increase of adipokines. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is the first hormone to increase following BAT transplants. Adipose tissue of transplant recipients consistently express IGF-I compared with little or no expression in controls, and plasma IGF-I levels show a direct negative correlation with glucose, glucagon, and inflammatory cytokines. Adipogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of IGF-I may stimulate regeneration of new healthy white adipose tissue, which in turn secretes hypoglycemic adipokines that substitute for insulin. IGF-I can also directly decrease blood glucose through activating insulin receptor. These data demonstrate the potential for insulin-independent reversal of autoimmune-induced T1D with BAT transplants and implicate IGF-I as a likely mediator in the resulting equilibrium. PMID:25898954

  19. The Altered Renal and Hepatic Expression of Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs) in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Gillies, Mark C.; Zhou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that significantly affects human health and well-being. The Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the Organic anion/cation transporters (Oats/Octs/Octns), Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) and Oligopeptide transporters (Pepts) are essential membrane proteins responsible for cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous substances such as clinically important drugs. They are widely expressed in mammalian key organs especially the kidney and liver, in which they facilitate the influx of various drug molecules, thereby determining their distribution and elimination in body. The altered expression of SLCs in diabetes mellitus could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. In this study, we extensively investigated the renal and hepatic expression of twenty essential SLCs in the type 1 diabetic Ins2Akita murine model that develops both hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications using real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the renal expression of mOatp1a1, mOatp1a6, mOat1, mOat3, mOat5, mOct2 and mPept2 was decreased; while that of mPept1 was increased at the mRNA level in the diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic controls. We found up-regulated mRNA expression of mOatp1a4, mOatp1c1, mOctn2, mOct3 and mPept1 as well as down-regulation of mOatp1a1 in the livers of diabetic mice. We confirmed the altered protein expression of several SLCs in diabetic mice, especially the decreased renal and hepatic expression of mOatp1a1. We also found down-regulated protein expression of mOat3 and mOctn1 in the kidneys as well as increased protein expression of mOatp1a4 and mOct3 in the livers of diabetic mice. Our findings contribute to better understanding the modulation of SLC transporters in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is likely to affect the pharmacokinetic performance of drugs that are transported by these transporters and therefore, forms the basis of future therapeutic optimization of regimens in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25789863

  20. The altered renal and hepatic expression of solute carrier transporters (SLCs) in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Gillies, Mark C; Zhou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that significantly affects human health and well-being. The Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the Organic anion/cation transporters (Oats/Octs/Octns), Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) and Oligopeptide transporters (Pepts) are essential membrane proteins responsible for cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous substances such as clinically important drugs. They are widely expressed in mammalian key organs especially the kidney and liver, in which they facilitate the influx of various drug molecules, thereby determining their distribution and elimination in body. The altered expression of SLCs in diabetes mellitus could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. In this study, we extensively investigated the renal and hepatic expression of twenty essential SLCs in the type 1 diabetic Ins2Akita murine model that develops both hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications using real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the renal expression of mOatp1a1, mOatp1a6, mOat1, mOat3, mOat5, mOct2 and mPept2 was decreased; while that of mPept1 was increased at the mRNA level in the diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic controls. We found up-regulated mRNA expression of mOatp1a4, mOatp1c1, mOctn2, mOct3 and mPept1 as well as down-regulation of mOatp1a1 in the livers of diabetic mice. We confirmed the altered protein expression of several SLCs in diabetic mice, especially the decreased renal and hepatic expression of mOatp1a1. We also found down-regulated protein expression of mOat3 and mOctn1 in the kidneys as well as increased protein expression of mOatp1a4 and mOct3 in the livers of diabetic mice. Our findings contribute to better understanding the modulation of SLC transporters in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is likely to affect the pharmacokinetic performance of drugs that are transported by these transporters and therefore, forms the basis of future therapeutic optimization of regimens in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25789863

  1. Preventive effect of l-carnosine on changes in the thermal nociceptive threshold in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Kamei; Masahiro Ohsawa; Shigeo Miyata; Shun-ichi Tanaka

    2008-01-01

    Sensory abnormality is one of the serious complications in diabetes. Since the effective therapeutic regimen to ameliorate the diabetic sensory abnormality is very few, the present study was then designed to investigate the effect of zinc l-carnosine on the changes of nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. Zinc l-carnosine (75–300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) was administered once daily from 1 day after streptozotocin treatment. Diabetic

  2. Impaired Coronary and Renal Vascular Function in Spontaneously Type 2 Diabetic Leptin-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Helena U.; Grönros, Julia; Heinonen, Suvi E.; Miliotis, Tasso; Jennbacken, Karin; Sabirsh, Alan; Ericsson, Anette; Jönsson-Rylander, Ann-Cathrine; Svedlund, Sara; Gan, Li-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with macro- and microvascular complications in man. Microvascular dysfunction affects both cardiac and renal function and is now recognized as a main driver of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, progression of microvascular dysfunction in experimental models is often obscured by macrovascular pathology and consequently demanding to study. The obese type 2 diabetic leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse lacks macrovascular complications, i.e. occlusive atherosclerotic disease, and may therefore be a potential model for microvascular dysfunction. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that these mice with an insulin resistant phenotype might display microvascular dysfunction in both coronary and renal vascular beds. Methods and Results In this study we used non-invasive Doppler ultrasound imaging to characterize microvascular dysfunction during the progression of diabetes in ob/ob mice. Impaired coronary flow velocity reserve was observed in the ob/ob mice at 16 and 21 weeks of age compared to lean controls. In addition, renal resistivity index as well as pulsatility index was higher in the ob/ob mice at 21 weeks compared to lean controls. Moreover, plasma L-arginine was lower in ob/ob mice, while asymmetric dimethylarginine was unaltered. Furthermore, a decrease in renal vascular density was observed in the ob/ob mice. Conclusion In parallel to previously described metabolic disturbances, the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice also display cardiac and renal microvascular dysfunction. This model may therefore be suitable for translational, mechanistic and interventional studies to improve the understanding of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26098416

  3. Abnormal splicing of the leptin receptor in diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gwo-Hwa Lee; R. Proenca; J. M. Montez; K. M. Carroll; J. G. Darvishzadeh; J. I. Lee; J. M. Friedman

    1996-01-01

    MUTATIONS in the mouse diabetes(db) gene result in obesity and diabetes in a syndrome resembling morbid human obesity1. Previous data suggest that the db gene encodes the receptor for the obese(ob) gene product, leptin2-7. A leptin receptor was recently cloned from choroid plexus and shown to map to the same 6-cM interval on mouse chromosome 4 as db8. This receptor

  4. Impaired adiponectin signaling contributes to disturbed catabolism of branched-chain amino acids in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lian, Kun; Du, Chaosheng; Liu, Yi; Zhu, Di; Yan, Wenjun; Zhang, Haifeng; Hong, Zhibo; Liu, Peilin; Zhang, Lijian; Pei, Haifeng; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Xin, Chao; Cheng, Hexiang; Xiong, Lize; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) accumulated in type 2 diabetes are independent contributors to insulin resistance. The activity of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, rate-limiting enzyme in BCAA catabolism, is reduced in diabetic states, which contributes to elevated BCAA concentrations. However, the mechanisms underlying decreased BCKD activity remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial phosphatase 2C (PP2Cm), a newly identified BCKD phosphatase that increases BCKD activity, was significantly downregulated in ob/ob and type 2 diabetic mice. Interestingly, in adiponectin (APN) knockout (APN(-/-)) mice fed with a high-fat diet (HD), PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were significantly decreased, whereas BCKD kinase (BDK), which inhibits BCKD activity, was markedly increased. Concurrently, plasma BCAA and branched-chain ?-keto acids (BCKA) were significantly elevated. APN treatment markedly reverted PP2Cm, BDK, BCKD activity, and BCAA and BCKA levels in HD-fed APN(-/-) and diabetic animals. Additionally, increased BCKD activity caused by APN administration was partially but significantly inhibited in PP2Cm knockout mice. Finally, APN-mediated upregulation of PP2Cm expression and BCKD activity were abolished when AMPK was inhibited. Collectively, we have provided the first direct evidence that APN is a novel regulator of PP2Cm and systematic BCAA levels, suggesting that targeting APN may be a pharmacological approach to ameliorating BCAA catabolism in the diabetic state. PMID:25071024

  5. Leptin monotherapy rescues spermatogenesis in male Akita type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Erica L; Chi, Maggie; Drury, Andrea; Bertschinger, Ashley; Esakky, Prabagaran; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is associated with subfertility in humans. The current treatment for type 1 diabetes, insulin monotherapy, is suboptimal to fully stabilize glycemia, potentially leading to this subfertility. Recent work has demonstrated that treatment with the energy-regulating hormone leptin, alone or in combination with insulin, can more effectively control glycemia in mouse models of type 1 diabetes. Here, we sought to determine whether the fertility defects in a type 1 diabetic mouse model, the Akita mouse, can be rescued with leptin monotherapy in the absence of any exogenous insulin. Akita homozygous mice treated with leptin alone had a larger total body size, testes, and seminal vesicles than their untreated siblings. Leptin treatment prevented testicular degeneration and rescued sperm motility to wild-type levels. Furthermore, sperm obtained from leptin-treated mice could successfully fertilize ooctyes in vitro. Despite completely rescuing spermatogenesis, the critical reproductive hormones LH and testosterone were only modestly higher than in untreated mice, indicating that a minimum threshold of these hormones must be met to maintain spermatogenesis. Cumulatively, these findings implicate the importance of leptin in maintaining fertility and support the use of leptin therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. PMID:24840347

  6. INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES AND OBESITY ON THE DISPOSITION AND ELIMINATION OF TCDD IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES AND OBESITY ON THE DISPOSTION AND ELIMINATION OF TCDD IN MICE. MJ DeVito', JJ Diliberto', DG Ross', C Emond2, VM Richardson', and LS Birnbaum', 'ETD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, USA, 2National Research Council. One possible explanation fo...

  7. Anti-diabetic activity of a leaf extract prepared from Salacia reticulata in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Kyoji; Miyauchi, Yuko; Kanetaka, Takashi; Takagi, Yasutaka; Koga, Kunimasa

    2009-05-01

    The effects of a water extract prepared from the leaves of Salacia reticulata on the absorption of sugars in normal and type 1 diabetic mice were investigated. The simultaneous oral administration of the extract at a dose of 1.0 mg/mouse with maltose or sucrose inhibited the postprandial elevation of the plasma glucose and insulin levels and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in mice. In addition, the supply of a 0.01% solution of the extract as drinking water prevented the elevation of the plasma glucose level and intestinal alpha-glucosidase activities in type 1 diabetic mice. This treatment also prevented the elevation of the plasma, pancreatic, and kidney lipid peroxide levels, lowering of the plasma insulin level, and elevation of the kidney aldose reductase activities in diabetic mice. These results suggest that the water extract of the leaves of S. reticulata could be a beneficial food material for the prevention of diabetes and obesity because of its multiple effects. PMID:19420711

  8. Hepatic Free Cholesterol Accumulates in Obese, Diabetic Mice and Causes Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Van Rooyen, Derrick M; Larter, Claire Z; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Yeh, Matthew M; Ioannou, George; Kuver, Rahul; Lee, Sum P; Teoh, Narci C; Farrell, Geoffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Type-2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with insulin resistance and disordered cholesterol homeostasis. We investigated the basis for hepatic cholesterol accumulation with insulin resistance and its relevance to pathogenesis of NASH. Methods Alms1 mutant (foz/foz) and wild-type (WT) NOD.B10 mice were fed high-fat diets that contained varying percentages of cholesterol; hepatic lipid pools and pathways of cholesterol turnover were determined. Hepatocytes were exposed to insulin concentrations that circulate in diabetic foz/foz mice. Results Hepatic cholesterol accumulation was attributed to up-regulation of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) via activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), reduced biotransformation to bile acids, and suppression of canalicular pathways for cholesterol and bile acid excretion in bile. Exposing primary hepatocytes to concentrations of insulin that circulate in diabetic Alms1 mice replicated the increases in SREBP-2 and LDLR and suppression of bile salt export pump. Removing cholesterol from diet prevented hepatic accumulation of free cholesterol and NASH; increasing dietary cholesterol exacerbated hepatic accumulation of free cholesterol, hepatocyte injury or apoptosis, macrophage recruitment, and liver fibrosis. Conclusions In obese, diabetic mice, hyperinsulinemia alters nuclear transcriptional regulators of cholesterol homeostasis, leading to hepatic accumulation of free cholesterol; the resulting cytotoxicity mediates transition of steatosis to NASH. PMID:21703998

  9. Hypoglycemic Effect of Jicama (Pachyrhizus erosus) Extract on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Joo; Han, Ji-Sook

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the inhibitory effect of jicama extract on ?-glucosidase activity, ?-amylase activity, and postprandial hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Jicama extract showed prominent inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase. The IC50 values of jicama extract against ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase were 0.083±0.004 and 0.091±0.017 mg/mL, respectively. The increase in postprandial blood glucose levels was more significantly suppressed in the jicama extract-administered group than in the control group of both STZ-induced diabetic and normal mice. Blood glucose levels of the control group increased to 383.75±11.54 and 402.50±15.32 mg/dL at 30 and 60 min after a meal and decreased to 349.67±11.62 mg/dL at 120 min. However, postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly decreased, when diabetic mice were fed with jicama extract (342.00±15.73, 367.00±13.00, and 329.67±12.43 mg/dL at 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively). Furthermore, the area under the curve was significantly decreased with jicama extract administration in diabetic mice (P<0.05). Therefore, these results indicate that jicama extract may help decrease postprandial blood glucose level by inhibiting ?-glucosidase.

  10. Anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yin, Jiao-jiao; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Jiu-liang

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of the polysaccharides obtained from Talinum triangulare (TTP). Two TTP doses (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg · bw/d) were administered orally to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male Kunming mice, respectively. The TTP hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose (FBG) level, fasting serum insulin (FINS), and serum lipids (TC, TG, HDL, LDL) as well as the body, hepar and kidney weights. After four weeks administration, the low-dose group 150 mg/kg · bw/d) and high-dose group (300 mg/kg · bw/d) showed a marked FBG fall rate of 29.85% and 41.18% (FBG fall rate% = ((Diabetic control--TTP group)/Diabetic control) × 100%). The results of FBG and serum lipids indicate that TTP possess significant hypoglycemic effect, but no significant hypolipidemic effect. These results suggest the potential use of TTP as a functional food for the treatment of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). PMID:25236607

  11. Resveratrol-enhanced autophagic flux ameliorates myocardial oxidative stress injury in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Qing; Sun, Yuan-yuan; Xing, Yi-fan; Wang, Ying-bin; Lu, Xiao-ting; Bai, Wen-wu; Liu, Xiao-qiong; Zhao, Yu-xia

    2014-01-01

    Autophagic dysfunction is observed in diabetes mellitus. Resveratrol has a beneficial effect on diabetic cardiomyopathy. Whether the resveratrol-induced improvement in cardiac function in diabetes is via regulating autophagy remains unclear. We investigated the mechanisms underlying resveratrol-mediated protection against heart failure in diabetic mice, with a focus on the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in regulating autophagic flux. Diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Long-term resveratrol treatment improved cardiac function, ameliorated oxidative injury and reduced apoptosis in the diabetic mouse heart. Western blot analysis revealed that resveratrol decreased p62 protein expression and promoted SIRT1 activity and Rab7 expression. Inhibiting autophagic flux with bafilomycin A1 increased diabetic mouse mortality and attenuated resveratrol-induced down-regulation of p62, but not SIRT1 activity or Rab7 expression in diabetic mouse hearts. In cultured H9C2 cells, redundant or overactive H2O2 increased p62 and cleaved caspase 3 expression as well as acetylated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and inhibited SIRT1 expression. Sirtinol, SIRT1 and Rab7 siRNA impaired the resveratrol amelioration of dysfunctional autophagic flux and reduced apoptosis under oxidative conditions. Furthermore, resveratrol enhanced FOXO1 DNA binding at the Rab7 promoter region through a SIRT1-dependent pathway. These results highlight the role of the SIRT1/FOXO1/Rab7 axis in the effect of resveratrol on autophagic flux in vivo and in vitro, which suggests a therapeutic strategy for diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24889822

  12. Proteome wide reduction in AGE modification in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice by hydralazine mediated transglycation

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Suresh K.; Bhat, Shweta; Golegaonkar, Sandeep B.; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G.; Deshmukh, Arati B.; Patil, Harshal S.; Bhosale, Santosh D.; Shaikh, Mahemud L.; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V.; Boppana, Ramanamurthy; Kulkarni, Mahesh J.

    2013-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between glucose and protein can be chemically reversed by transglycation. Here we report the transglycation activity of hydralazine using a newly developed MALDI-TOF-MS based assay. Hydralazine mediated transglycation of HbA1c, plasma proteins and kidney proteins was demonstrated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice, as evidenced by decrease in protein glycation, as well as presence of hydralazine-glucose conjugate in urine of diabetic mice treated with hydralazine. Hydralazine down regulated the expression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE), NADPH oxidase (NOX), and super oxide dismutase (SOD). These findings will provide a new dimension for developing intervention strategies for the treatment of glycation associated diseases such as diabetes complications, atherosclerosis, and aging. PMID:24126953

  13. The Programmed Death1 (PD1) Pathway Regulates Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Javeed; I. Ansari; Alan D. Salama; Tanuja Chitnis; R. Neal Smith; Hideo Yagita; Hisaya Akiba; Tomohide Yamazaki; Miyuki Azuma; Hideyuki Iwai; Samia J. Khoury; Hugh Auchincloss; Mohamed H. Sayegh

    2003-01-01

    Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, an inhibitory costimulatory molecule found on acti- vated T cells, has been demonstrated to play a role in the regulation of immune responses and peripheral tolerance. We investigated the role of this pathway in the development of autoim- mune diabetes. PD-1 or PD-L1 but not PD-L2 blockade rapidly precipitated diabetes in predi- abetic female nonobese diabetic

  14. p13 overexpression in pancreatic ?-cells ameliorates type 2 diabetes in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Shintaro; Katagi, Kazuhiko; Shintani, Norihito; Ikeda, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Soken; Inoue, Naoki; Tanaka, Shota; Koumoto, Mai; Kasai, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hayata-Takano, Atsuko; Hamagami, Ken-Ichi; Tomimoto, Shuhei; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Ago, Yukio; Onaka, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Ryota; Ichikawa, Atsushi; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2015-06-12

    We examined the pancreatic function of p13 encoded by 1110001J03Rik, whose expression is decreased in pancreatic islets in high-fat-fed diabetic mice, by generating transgenic mice overexpressing p13 (p13-Tg) in pancreatic ?-cells. p13-Tg mice showed normal basal glucose metabolism; however, under high-fat feeding, these animals showed augmented glucose-induced first-phase and total insulin secretion, improved glucose disposal, greater islet area and increased mitotic insulin-positive cells. In addition, high-fat diet-induced 4-hydroxynonenal immunoreactivity, a reliable marker and causative agent of lipid peroxidative stress, was significantly decreased in p13-Tg mouse islets. These results indicate that p13 is a novel pancreatic factor exerting multiple beneficial effects against type 2 diabetes. PMID:25912136

  15. RNase L contributes to experimentally induced type 1 diabetes onset in mice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chun; Yi, Xin; Zipris, Danny; Liu, Hongli; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Qiaoyun; Malathi, Krishnamurthy; Jin, Ge; Zhou, Aimin

    2014-12-01

    The cause of type 1 diabetes continues to be a focus of investigation. Studies have revealed that interferon ? (IFN?) in pancreatic islets after viral infection or treatment with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a mimic of viral infection, is associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes. However, how IFN? contributes to the onset of type 1 diabetes is obscure. In this study, we found that 2-5A-dependent RNase L (RNase L), an IFN?-inducible enzyme that functions in the antiviral and antiproliferative activities of IFN, played an important role in dsRNA-induced onset of type 1 diabetes. Using RNase L-deficient, rat insulin promoter-B7.1 transgenic mice, which are more vulnerable to harmful environmental factors such as viral infection, we demonstrated that deficiency of RNase L in mice resulted in a significant delay of diabetes onset induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a type of synthetic dsRNA, and streptozotocin, a drug which can artificially induce type 1-like diabetes in experimental animals. Immunohistochemical staining results indicated that the population of infiltrated CD8(+)T cells was remarkably reduced in the islets of RNase L-deficient mice, indicating that RNase L may contribute to type 1 diabetes onset through regulating immune responses. Furthermore, RNase L was responsible for the expression of certain proinflammatory genes in the pancreas under induced conditions. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying ?-cell destruction and may indicate novel therapeutic strategies for treatment and prevention of the disease based on the selective regulation and inhibition of RNase L. PMID:25287058

  16. Effect of Diallyl Disulphide on Diabetes Induced Dyslipidemia in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kashinath, R.T.; Ambekar, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which may lead to various complications, the important being dyslipidemia leading to Coronary Heart Disorders (CHD), the major cause for morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Diabetes Mellitus could be treated by nutritional therapy/drug therapy and others. But the drug therapy would have its own limitations and side effects. To overcome from this an herbal extract is recommended, such as Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) a principle compound of Garlic oil. Aim To assess the hypolipidemic effect of Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Healthy adult wistar strain male albino rats weighing around 100-150 grams were randomly selected from the animal house at BLDE University’s Shri B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bijapur, India. Diabetes was induced using alloxan and was treated with DADS. After a stipulated time the rats were anesthetised and sacrificed to collect the blood and liver tissue. Various Lipid parameters, HMG CoA Reductase, Fecal bile acids were estimated in the blood, feces and homogenised liver tissue using standard procedures. Statiscal Analysis One-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc t-test is done. Result There was significant decrease in the blood and liver tissue lipid parameters of DADS treated alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared to the alloxan induced diabetic rats. Conclusion From this study it can be concluded that the DADS a principle compound of garlic, definitely has the hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats, which is reducing the morbidity in diabetic cases due to dyslipidemia without the adverse effects. PMID:26023549

  17. The dipeptide Phe-Phe amide attenuates signs of hyperalgesia, allodynia and nociception in diabetic mice using a mechanism involving the sigma receptor system

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that intrathecal administration of the substance P amino-terminal metabolite substance P1-7 (SP1-7) and its C-terminal amidated congener induced antihyperalgesic effects in diabetic mice. In this study, we studied a small synthetic dipeptide related to SP1-7 and endomorphin-2, i.e. Phe-Phe amide, using the tail-flick test and von Frey filament test in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Results Intrathecal treatment with the dipeptide increased the tail-flick latency in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice. This effect of Phe-Phe amide was significantly greater in diabetic mice than non-diabetic mice. The Phe-Phe amide-induced antinociceptive effect in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice was reversed by the ?1 receptor agonist (+)-pentazocine. Moreover, Phe-Phe amide attenuated mechanical allodynia in diabetic mice, which was reversible by (+)-pentazocine. The expression of spinal ?1 receptor mRNA and protein did not differ between diabetic mice and non-diabetic mice. On the other hand, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 proteins was enhanced in diabetic mice. (+)-Pentazocine caused phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2 proteins in non-diabetic mice, but not in diabetic mice. Conclusions These results suggest that the spinal ?1 receptor system might contribute to diabetic mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, which could be potently attenuated by Phe-Phe amide. PMID:22040520

  18. Coronary endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Basu, Aninda; Dai, Anzhi; Heldak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. The decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is the hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, and it leads to attenuated vascular relaxation and atherosclerosis followed by a decrease in blood flow. In the heart, decreased coronary blood flow is responsible for insufficient oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes and, subsequently, increases the incidence of cardiac ischemia. In this study we investigate whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria contribute to coronary endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. T2D was induced in mice by a high-fat diet combined with a single injection of low-dose streptozotocin. ACh-induced vascular relaxation was significantly attenuated in coronary arteries (CAs) from T2D mice compared with controls. The pharmacological approach reveals that NO-dependent, but not hyperpolarization- or prostacyclin-dependent, relaxation was decreased in CAs from T2D mice. Attenuated ACh-induced relaxation in CAs from T2D mice was restored toward control level by treatment with mitoTempol (a mitochondria-specific O2? scavenger). Coronary ECs isolated from T2D mice exhibited a significant increase in mitochondrial ROS concentration and decrease in SOD2 protein expression compared with coronary ECs isolated from control mice. Furthermore, protein ubiquitination of SOD2 was significantly increased in coronary ECs isolated from T2D mice. These results suggest that augmented SOD2 ubiquitination leads to the increase in mitochondrial ROS concentration in coronary ECs from T2D mice and attenuates coronary vascular relaxation in T2D mice. PMID:23986204

  19. INFLUENCE OF D-Nil plus (A POLYHERBAL DRUG) ON HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN DIABETIC INDUCED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Vanithamani, J.; Selvi, V.; Krishnaswamy, B. G.

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia and altered metabolism. The administration of D-Nil plus (a polyherbal drug) showed effective treatment for alloxan induced diabetes in rats. In diabetic rats, haematological profiles namely RBC, WBC, platlet count and haemoglobin were decreased whereas ESR was increased. Similarly biochemical parameters creatinine, urea and protein were decreased but cholesterol level was increased. After the treatment with D-Nil plus, haematological parameters and biochemical parameters were reversed. The results suggest that the D-Nil plus can be used for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22557203

  20. Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Diabetes What is Diabetes? Too Much Glucose in the Blood Diabetes means ... high, causing pre-diabetes or diabetes. Types of Diabetes There are three main kinds of diabetes: type ...

  1. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Diabetic Nephropathy: Lessons from Diabetic eNOS Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Raymond C.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in many countries. The animal models that recapitulate human DN undoubtedly facilitate our understanding of this disease and promote the development of new diagnostic markers and therapeutic interventions. Based on the clinical evidence showing the association of eNOS dysfunction with advanced DN, we and others have created diabetic mice that lack eNOS expression and shown that eNOS-deficient diabetic mice exhibit advanced nephropathic changes with distinct features of progressive DN, including pronounced albuminuria, nodular glomerulosclerosis, mesangiolysis, and arteriolar hyalinosis. These studies clearly defined a critical role of eNOS in DN and developed a robust animal model of this disease, which enables us to study the pathogenic mechanisms of progressive DN. Further, recent studies with this animal model have explored the novel mechanisms by which eNOS deficiency causes advanced DN and provided many new insights into the pathogenesis of DN. Therefore, here we summarize the findings obtained with this animal model and discuss the roles of eNOS in DN, unresolved issues, and future investigations of this animal model study. PMID:25371905

  2. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase gene disruption conferred mice resistant to streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Masutani, Mitsuko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kamada, Nobuo; Watanabe, Miho; Ueda, Otoya; Nozaki, Tadashige; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Tetsuro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Sugimura, Takashi

    1999-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ), a glucose analogue known to induce diabetes in experimental animals, causes DNA strand breaks and subsequent activation of poly(ADPribose) polymerase (Parp). Because Parp uses NAD as a substrate, extensive DNA damage will result in reduction of cellular NAD level. In fact, STZ induces NAD depletion and cell death in isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Activation of Parp therefore is thought to play an important role in STZ-induced diabetes. In the present study, we established Parp-deficient (Parp?/?) mice by disrupting Parp exon 1 by using the homologous recombination technique. These mice were used to examine the possible involvement of Parp in STZ-induced ?-cell damage in vivo. The wild-type (Parp+/+) mice showed significant increases in blood glucose concentration from 129 mg/dl to 218, 370, 477, and 452 mg/dl on experimental days 1, 7, 21, and 60, respectively, after a single injection of 180 mg STZ/kg body weight. In contrast, the concentration of blood glucose in Parp?/? mice remained normal up to day 7, slightly increased on day 21, but returned to normal levels on day 60. STZ injection caused extensive necrosis in the islets of Parp+/+ mice on day 1, with subsequent progressive islet atrophy and loss of functional ? cells from day 7. In contrast, the extent of islet ?-cell death and dysfunction was markedly less in Parp?/? mice. Our findings clearly implicate Parp activation in islet ?-cell damage and glucose intolerance induced by STZ in vivo. PMID:10051636

  3. Metabolic stress–induced activation of FoxO1 triggers diabetic cardiomyopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Battiprolu, Pavan K.; Hojayev, Berdymammet; Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zhao V.; Luo, Xiang; Iglewski, Myriam; Shelton, John M.; Gerard, Robert D.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Gillette, Thomas G.; Lavandero, Sergio; Hill, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is cardiovascular disease; diabetic cardiomyopathy is typified by alterations in cardiac morphology and function, independent of hypertension or coronary disease. However, the molecular mechanism that links diabetes to cardiomyopathy is incompletely understood. Insulin resistance is a hallmark feature of diabetes, and the FoxO family of transcription factors, which regulate cell size, viability, and metabolism, are established targets of insulin and growth factor signaling. Here, we set out to evaluate a possible role of FoxO proteins in diabetic cardiomyopathy. We found that FoxO proteins were persistently activated in cardiac tissue in mice with diabetes induced either genetically or by high-fat diet (HFD). FoxO activity was critically linked with development of cardiomyopathy: cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of FoxO1 rescued HFD-induced declines in cardiac function and preserved cardiomyocyte insulin responsiveness. FoxO1-depleted cells displayed a shift in their metabolic substrate usage, from free fatty acids to glucose, associated with decreased accumulation of lipids in the heart. Furthermore, we found that FoxO1-dependent downregulation of IRS1 resulted in blunted Akt signaling and insulin resistance. Together, these data suggest that activation of FoxO1 is an important mediator of diabetic cardiomyopathy and is a promising therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:22326951

  4. Aerobic interval training reduces inducible ventricular arrhythmias in diabetic mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rolim, Natale; Skårdal, Kristine; Høydal, Morten; Sousa, Mirta M L; Malmo, Vegard; Kaurstad, Guri; Ingul, Charlotte B; Hansen, Harald E M; Alves, Marcia N; Thuen, Marte; Haraldseth, Olav; Brum, Patricia C; Slupphaug, Geir; Loennechen, Jan Pål; Stølen, Tomas; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI), and aggravates ventricular arrhythmias in heart failure patients. Although exercise training improves cardiac function in heart failure, it is still unclear how it benefits the diabetic heart after MI. To study the effects of aerobic interval training on cardiac function, susceptibility to inducible ventricular arrhythmias and cardiomyocyte calcium handling in DM mice after MI (DM-MI). Male type 2 DM mice (C57BLKS/J Lepr (db) /Lepr (db) ) underwent MI or sham surgery. One group of DM-MI mice was submitted to aerobic interval training running sessions during 6 weeks. Cardiac function and structure were assessed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Ventricular arrhythmias were induced by high-frequency cardiac pacing in vivo. Protein expression was measured by Western blot. DM-MI mice displayed increased susceptibility for inducible ventricular arrhythmias and impaired diastolic function when compared to wild type-MI, which was associated with disruption of cardiomyocyte calcium handling and increased calcium leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. High-intensity exercise recovered cardiomyocyte function in vitro, reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum diastolic calcium leak and significantly reduced the incidence of inducible ventricular arrhythmias in vivo in DM-MI mice. Exercise training also normalized the expression profile of key proteins involved in cardiomyocyte calcium handling, suggesting a potential molecular mechanism for the benefits of exercise in DM-MI mice. High-intensity aerobic exercise training recovers cardiomyocyte function and reduces inducible ventricular arrhythmias in infarcted diabetic mice. PMID:26112154

  5. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases. PMID:26149603

  6. Metabonomic analysis of potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in diabetic nephropathy mice

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tingting; Zhao, Liangcai; Jia, Jianmin; Xia, Huanhuan; Du, Yao; Lin, Qiuting; Lin, Xiaodong; Ye, Xinjian; Yan, Zhihan; Gao, Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the lethal manifestations of diabetic systemic microvascular disease. Elucidation of characteristic metabolic alterations during diabetic progression is critical to understand its pathogenesis and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets involved in the disease. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)-based metabonomics with correlative analysis was performed to study the characteristic metabolites, as well as the related pathways in urine and kidney samples of db/db diabetic mice, compared with age-matched wildtype mice. The time trajectory plot of db/db mice revealed alterations, in an age-dependent manner, in urinary metabolic profiles along with progression of renal damage and dysfunction. Age-dependent and correlated metabolite analysis identified that cis-aconitate and allantoin could serve as biomarkers for the diagnosis of DN. Further correlative analysis revealed that the enzymes dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG-CoA lyase) were involved in dimethylamine metabolism, ketogenesis and GTP metabolism pathways, respectively, and could be potential therapeutic targets for DN. Our results highlight that metabonomic analysis can be used as a tool to identify potential biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of diseases. PMID:26149603

  7. Methadone ameliorates multiple-low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Dehpour, A.R. [Department of Pharmacology School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadjati, J. [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sotoudeh, M. [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-Khansari, M. [Department of Pharmacology School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: ghazikha@sina.tums.ac.ir

    2008-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of pancreatic islets and destruction of {beta} cells by the immune system. Opioids have been shown to modulate a number of immune functions, including T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. The immunosuppressive effect of long-term administration of opioids has been demonstrated both in animal models and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of methadone, a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist, on type 1 diabetes. Administration of multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (MLDS) (40mg/kg intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days) to mice resulted in autoimmune diabetes. Mice were treated with methadone (10mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 24days. Blood glucose, insulin and pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Chronic methadone treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia and incidence of diabetes, and restored pancreatic insulin secretion in the MLDS model. The protective effect of methadone can be overcome by pretreatment with naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Also, methadone treatment decreased the proinflammatory Th1 cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interferon-{gamma}] and increased anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Histopathological observations indicated that STZ-mediated destruction of {beta} cells was attenuated by methadone treatment. It seems that methadone as an opioid agonist may have a protective effect against destruction of {beta} cells and insulitis in the MLDS model of type 1 diabetes.

  8. Impaired Musculoskeletal Response to Age and Exercise in PPAR??/? Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, He; Desvergne, Beatrice; Ferrari, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Fragility fractures are recognized complication of diabetes, but yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. This is particularly pronounced in type 2 diabetes in which the propensity to fall is increased but bone mass is not necessarily low. Thus, whether factors implicated in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes directly impact on the musculoskeletal system remains to be investigated. PPAR??/? mice have reduced metabolic activity and are glucose intolerant. We examined changes in bone and muscle in PPAR??/? mice and investigated both the mechanism behind those changes with age as well as their response to exercise. Compared with their wild type, PPAR??/? mice had an accelerated and parallel decline in both muscle and bone strength with age. These changes were accompanied by increased myostatin expression, low bone formation, and increased resorption. In addition, mesenchymal cells from PPAR??/? had a reduced proliferation capacity and appeared to differentiate into more of an adipogenic phenotype. Concomitantly we observed an increased expression of PPAR?, characteristic of adipocytes. The anabolic responses of muscle and bone to exercise were also diminished in PPAR??/? mice. The periosteal bone formation response to direct bone compression was, however, maintained, indicating that PPAR? controls periosteal bone formation through muscle contraction and/or metabolism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPAR? deficiency leads to glucose intolerance, decreased muscle function, and reduced bone strength. On a molecular level, PPAR? appears to regulate myostatin and PPAR? expression in muscle and bone, thereby providing potential new targets to reverse bone fragility in patients with metabolic disturbances. PMID:25279796

  9. Experimental Protection of Diabetic Mice against Lethal P. aeruginosa Infection by Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Shivshetty, Nagaveni; Hosamani, Rajeshwari; Ahmed, Liyakat; Oli, Ajay Kumar; Sannauallah, Syed; Sharanbassappa, Shivshetty; Patil, S. A.; Kelmani, Chandrakanth R.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has become a global crisis and is vulnerable for the exploration of alternative antibacterial therapies. The present study emphasizes the use of bacteriophage for the treatment of multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa was used to induce septicemia in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic and nondiabetic mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 3 × 108?CFU, resulting in a fatal bacteremia within 48?hrs. A single i.p. injection of 3 × 109?PFU phage GNCP showed efficient protection in both diabetic (90%) and nondiabetic (100%) bacteremic mice. It was further noted that the protection rate was reduced in diabetic mice when phage GNCP was administered after 4?h and 6?h of lethal bacterial challenge. In contrast, nondiabetic bacteremic mice were rescued even when treatment was delayed up to 20?h after lethal bacterial challenge. Evaluation of results confirmed that a single intraperitoneal injection of the phage dose (3 × 109?PFU/mL) was more effective than the multiple doses of imipenem. These results uphold the efficacy of phage therapy against pernicious P. aeruginosa infections, especially in cases of immunocompromised host. PMID:24999476

  10. Sildenafil ameliorates long term peripheral neuropathy in type II diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chopp, Michael; Szalad, Alexandra; Jia, LongFei; Lu, XueRong; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, RuiLan; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus. To mimic clinical trials in which patients with diabetes enrolled have advanced peripheral neuropathy, we investigated the effect of sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme, on long term peripheral neuropathy in middle aged male mice with type II diabetes. Treatment of diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J, db/db) at age 36 weeks with sildenafil significantly increased functional blood vessels and regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve, concurrently with augmentation of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in the skin and myelinated axons in the sciatic nerve. Functional analysis showed that the sildenafil treatment considerably improved motor and sensory conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve and peripheral thermal stimulus sensitivity compared with the saline treatment. In vitro studies showed that mouse dermal endothelial cells (MDE) cultured under high glucose levels exhibited significant down regulation of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) expression and reduction of capillary-like tube formation, which were completely reversed by sildenafil. In addition, incubation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with conditioned medium harvested from MDE under high glucose levels suppressed neurite outgrowth, where as conditional medium harvested from MDE treated with sildenafil under high glucose levels did not inhibit neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Moreover, blockage of the Ang1 receptor, Tie2, with a neutralized antibody against Tie2 abolished the beneficial effect of sildenafil on tube formation and neurite outgrowth. Collectively, our data indicate that sildenafil has a therapeutic effect on long term peripheral neuropathy of middle aged diabetic mice and that improvement of neurovascular dysfunction by sildenafil likely contributes to the amelioration of nerve function. The Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway may play an important role in these restorative processes. PMID:25689401

  11. Proregenerative Microenvironment Triggered by Donor Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserves Renal Function and Structure in Mice with Severe Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Ezquer, Fernando; Giraud-Billoud, Maximiliano; Carpio, Daniel; Cabezas, Fabián; Conget, Paulette; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our work was to evaluate, in an animal model of severe diabetes mellitus, the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administration on diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. After diabetes induction, one group of mice received the vehicle (DM) and other group received a single dose of MSCs (DM + MSCs). DM + MSCs mice showed a significant improvement in functional parameters of the kidney compared with untreated mice. While DM mice presented marked histopathological changes characteristics of advanced stages of DN (fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, capillary occlusion, decreased podocyte density, and effacement of foot processes), DM + MSCs mice showed only slight tubular dilatation. The renoprotection was not associated with an improvement in diabetic condition and very low number of donor cells was found in the kidney of DM + MSCs mice, suggesting that renoprotection could be mediated by paracrine effects. Indeed, DM + MSC mice presented increased renal proliferation index, decreased renal apoptotic index and the restoration of proregenerative factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines levels. Moreover, macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress damage were also reduced in DM + MSCs mice. Our data demonstrate that MSC administration triggers a proregenerative microenvironment in DN kidney, which allows the preservation of the renal function even if diabetes was uncorrected.

  12. Cellular Action of Vasopressin in Medullary Tubules of Mice with Hereditary Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Brian A.; Edwards, Richard M.; Valtin, Heinz; Dousa, Thomas P.

    1980-01-01

    Our previous studies (1974. J. Clin. Invest.54: 753-762.) suggested that impaired metabolism of cyclic AMP (cAMP) may be involved in the renal unresponsiveness to vasopressin (VP) in mice with hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). To localize such a defect to specific segments of the nephron, we studied the activities of VP-sensitive adenylate cyclase, cAMP phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDIE), as well as accumulation of cAMP in medullary collecting tubules (MCT) and in medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle's loop (MAL) microdissected from control mice with normal concentrating ability and from mice with hereditary NDI. Adenylate cyclase activity stimulated by VP or by NaF was only slightly lower (?24%) in MCT from NDI mice, compared with controls. In MAL of NDI mice, basal, VP-sensitive, and NaF-sensitive adenylate cyclase was markedly (> ?60%) lower compared with MAL of controls. The specific activity of cAMP-PDIE was markedly higher in MCT of NDI mice compared with controls, but was not different between MAL of control and NDI mice. Under present in vitro conditions, incubation of intact MCT from control mice with VP caused a striking increase in cAMP levels (>10), but VP failed to elicit a change in cAMP levels in MCT from NDI mice. When the cAMP-PDIE inhibitor 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine (MIX) was added to the above incubation, VP caused a significant increase in cAMP levels in MCT from both NDI mice and control mice. Under all tested conditions, cAMP levels in MCT of NDI mice were lower than corresponding values in control MCT. Under the present experimental setting, VP and other stimulating factors (MIX, cholera toxin) did not change cAMP levels in MAL from either control mice or from NDI mice. The results of the present in vitro experiments suggest that the functional unresponsiveness of NDI mice to VP is perhaps mainly the result of the inability of collecting tubules to increase intracellular cAMP levels in response to VP. In turn, this inability to increase cAMP in response to VP is at least partly the result of abnormally high activity of cAMP-PDIE, a somewhat lower activity of VP-sensitive adenylate cyclase in MCT of NDI mice, and perhaps to a deficiency of some other as yet unidentified factors. The possible contribution of low VP-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in MAL of NDI mice to the renal resistance to VP remains to be defined. PMID:6249843

  13. An aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through suppression of renal fibrosis and inflammation in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea (AP) on diabetic nephropathy accelerated by renal fibrosis and inflammation in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks to examine the long-term effects on diabetic nephropathy and renal dysfunction. We found that AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose to 412 ± 11.4 mg/dl and plasma creatinine level to 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl compared to db/db mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). This study also showed that treatment with AP significantly decreased water intake and urine volume in diabetic db/db mice (p < 0.05). In immunohistological study, the renal expression of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), advanced glycation end products (AGE), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 markedly increased in the renal cortex of untreated db/db mice (p < 0.01). In contrast, AP treatment significantly reduced these expressions to 50 ± 2.1%, 48 ± 2.8%, 61 ± 1.1%, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, NF-?B p65 activation in renal tissues markedly increased in untreated db/db mice, which was significantly suppressed by AP treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that AP attenuates diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of renal fibrosis and inflammation in db/db mice. PMID:22745066

  14. Evaluation of Anticonvulsive Effect of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles in Comparison with Conventional MgO in Diabetic and Non-diabetic Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Leila; Kesmati, Mahnaz; Najafzadeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some studies showed that magnesium has anticonvulsive effect in some animal models. Despite of the availability of well-studied anticonvulsant drugs, this evaluation was not carried on new kind of magnesium supplement, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (nMgO). According to the association between magnesium and convulsion and high prevalence of seizure and epilepsy in diabetics, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of nMgO compared to conventional MgO (cMgO) on strychnine-induced convulsion model in diabetic and non-diabetic mice. Methods Healthy male albino mice were divided into 10 groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin in 5 groups. Conventional and nanoparticle MgO (5 and 10mg/kg) were administered to diabetic and non-diabetic mice, then strychnine were injected and onset of convulsions and time of death measured after strychnine administration. Results There were no significant differences between normal and diabetic groups in onset of convulsions and time of death. Pretreatment of cMgO did not have anticonvulsant effect in strychnine-induced convulsion in normal and diabetic mice. But nMgO significantly changed convulsion onset and death time after strychnine administration in normal and diabetic status (p < 0.05). Discussion According to our results, it seems that acute administration of nMgO may be important in prevention of convulsion and is more effective than its conventional form in showing anticonvulsive effect that probably is related to the physicochemical properties of nMgO, especially in diabetic subjects, a point that need further investigations. PMID:25337374

  15. Effect of C-peptide Alone or in Combination with Nicotinamide on Glucose and Insulin Levels in Streptozotocin–Nicotinamide-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    AHANGARPOUR, Akram; RAMEZANI ALI AKBARI, Fatemeh; FATHI MOGHADAM, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Both C-peptide and nicotinamide are known to reduce blood glucose in type 1 diabetes. In the present study, the effects of C-peptide alone or in combination with nicotinamide on glucose and insulin levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Methods: The study used 70 adult male NMARI mice, weighing 25–35 g, divided into seven groups: control; type 1 diabetic; type 2 diabetic; type 2 diabetic + C-peptide; type 2 diabetic + nicotinamide; type 2 diabetic + nicotinamide and C-peptide; type 2 diabetic + glyburide. Type 2 diabetes was induced with ip injection of streptozotocin–nicotinamide. Twenty eight days after the onset of diabetes, treatment with C-peptide, nicotinamide, nicotinamide + C-peptide, or glyburide were initiated. Glucose and insulin levels were evaluated. One-way ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) tests were used to test for significance. Results: Blood glucose significantly increased (P < 0.001) in all diabetic mice compared with control mice. Insulin resistance and blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in C-peptide and nicotinamide + C-peptide mice compared with type 2 diabetic mice. Conclusion: The present study supports the anti-diabetic effects of C-peptide, nicotinamide + C-peptide, and suggests that one of the anti-diabetic mechanisms of these compounds is mediated through the reduction of insulin resistance. PMID:25977616

  16. Supplementation with chromium picolinate recovers renal Cr concentration and improves carbohydrate metabolism and renal function in type 2 diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukiko Mita; Kengo Ishihara; Yoshiko Fukuchi; Yoko Fukuya; Kyoden Yasumoto

    2005-01-01

    To study the preventive effect of supplemented chromium picolinate (CrPic) on the development of diabetic nephropathy in mice,\\u000a we analyzed the effects of CrPic supplementation on renal function and concentrations of serum glucose and tissue chromium\\u000a (Cr). In experiment 1, male KK-Ay obese diabetic mice were fed either a control diet (control) or a diet supplemented with\\u000a 2 mg\\/kg diet

  17. Antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Catathelasma ventricosum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Sun, Jun; Rao, Shengqi; Su, Yujie; Yang, Yanjun

    2013-07-01

    It is the first time to extract polysaccharides (CVPs) from Catathelasma ventricosum. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of CVPs in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were examined. Compared with untreated diabetic mice, the administration of CVPs for 30 days caused a significant decrease in the concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and maleic dialdehyde (MDA), and a significant increase in the concentrations of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Specially, when normal mice were treated with CVPs, all detection indexes and pathologic morphologies of liver, kidney and pancreas are similar to untreated normal mice, which indicated CVPs are safe for normal mice. In addition, the average molecular weight of CVPs was estimated to be from 3.7 × 10(3) to 1.7 × 10(7)Da and they were mainly composed of glucose (93.5%) with the conformation of ?-d-Glucopyranose. PMID:23500773

  18. Therapeutic Effect of MG132 on the Aortic Oxidative Damage and Inflammatory Response in OVE26 Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xiao; Cui, Wenpeng; Sun, Weixia; Xin, Ying; Wang, Bo; Tan, Yi; Cai, Lu; Miao, Lining; Fu, Yaowen; Su, Guanfang; Wang, Yuehui

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested whether MG132 increases vascular nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription to provide a therapeutic effect on diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta. To this end, three-month-old OVE26 diabetic and age-matched control mice were intraperitoneally injected with MG-132, 10??g/kg daily for 3 months. OVE26 transgenic type 1 diabetic mice develop hyperglycemia at 2-3 weeks of age and exhibit albuminuria at 3 months of age with mild increases in TNF-? expression and 3-NT accumulation in the aorta. Diabetes-induced significant increases in the wall thickness and structural derangement of aorta were found in OVE26 mice with significant increases in aortic oxidative and nitrosative damage, inflammation, and remodeling at 6 months of diabetes, but not at 3 months of diabetes. However, these pathological changes seen at the 6 months of diabetes were abolished in OVE26 mice treated with MG-132 for 3 months that were also associated with a significant increase in Nrf2 expression in the aorta as well as transcription of downstream genes. These results suggest that chronic treatment with low-dose MG132 can afford an effective therapy for diabetes-induced pathogenic changes in the aorta, which is associated with the increased Nrf2 expression and transcription. PMID:23589759

  19. Adiponectin retards the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice by counteracting angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaohua; Zhou, Guangyu; Guo, Meizi; Cheung, Alfred K; Huang, Yufeng; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adiponectin is a multifunctional adipokine with insulin?sensitizing, anti?inflammatory, and vasoprotective properties. Epidemiology studies have, however, shown that high levels of serum adiponectin are associated with kidney disease progression. We, therefore, examined the effect of adiponectin administration on the progression of glomerulosclerosis in the obese diabetic (db/db) mouse, a model of type II diabetes. Recombinant human adiponectin was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 30 or 150 ?g per day from weeks 18 to 20. Rosiglitazone administered by gavage at 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) daily served as a therapeutic control. Untreated uninephrectomized db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerular matrix expansion, associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI?1), collagen I (Col I), and fibronectin (FN). Treatment with adiponectin at either dose reduced the increases in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis seen in db/db mice, without affecting BW and blood glucose. Renal expressions of tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and monocyte?chemoattractant protein?1 (MCP?1) and urinary TNF?? levels, the markers of renal inflammation, were increased in diabetic mice, whereas adiponectin treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Furthermore, adiponectin obliterated the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), but not the total effect of TGF?1, on the mRNA expression of PAI?1, Col I, and FN by cultured glomerular mesangial cells. These observations suggest that adiponectin treatment reduces glomerulosclerosis resulting from type II diabetes probably through its anti?inflammatory and angiotensin–antagonistic effects. Thus, adiponectin has therapeutic implications in the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:24744899

  20. NFAT2 inhibitor ameliorates diabetic nephropathy and podocyte injury in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Ruizhao; Shi, Wei; Liang, Xinling; Liu, Shuangxin; Ye, Zhiming; Yu, Chunping; Chen, Yuanhan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenjian; Lai, Yuxiong; Ma, Jianchao; Li, Zhuo; Tan, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Podocyte injury plays a key role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We have recently shown that 11R-VIVIT, an inhibitor of cell-permeable nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), attenuates podocyte apoptosis induced by high glucose in vitro. However, it is not known whether 11R-VIVIT has a protective effect on DN, especially podocyte injury, under in vivo diabetic conditions. Hence, we examined the renoprotective effects of 11R-VIVIT in diabetic db/db mice and the possible mechanisms underlying its protective effects on podocyte injury in vivo and in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Type 2 diabetic db/db mice received i.p. injections of 11R-VIVIT (1 mg·kg?1) three times a week and were killed after 8 weeks. Immortalized mouse podocytes were cultured under different experimental conditions. KEY RESULTS 11R-VIVIT treatment markedly attenuated the albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice and also alleviated mesangial matrix expansion and podocyte injury. However, body weight, food and water intake, and glucose levels were unaffected. It also attenuated the increased NFAT2 activation and enhanced urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPA receptor) expression in glomerulor podocytes. In cultured podocytes, the increased nuclear accumulation of NFAT2 and uPA receptor expression induced by high glucose treatment was prevented by 11R-VIVIT or NFAT2-knockdown; this was accompanied by improvements in the filtration barrier function of the podocyte monolayer. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The NFAT inhibitor 11R-VIVIT might be a useful therapeutic strategy for protecting podocytes and treating DN. The calcinerin/NFAT2/uPA receptor signalling pathway should be exploited as a therapeutic target for protecting podocytes from injury in DN. PMID:23826864

  1. Bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV Reverses Metabolic Changes in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ruchi; Padhye, Subhash; Modak, Manisha; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2007-01-01

    Organic vanadium compounds offer several advantages in the treatment of diabetes, yet they are impractical to use because of known side effects. In order to ameliorate the side effects of vanadium, we conjugated it with quercetin to form bis(quercetinato)oxovanadium IV (BQOV). This study evaluates the effect of BQOV treatment on carbohydrate metabolism and overall oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic mice. Administration of BQOV orally to diabetic mice for 3 weeks led to a reduction of blood glucose levels and the animals exhibited normal glucose tolerance at the end of the study period. The increase in glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and liver as well as the normalization of mRNA levels of G-6-Pase and glucokinase in the liver after BQOV treatment pointed to improvements in carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the antioxidant status of serum, liver and pancreas revealed reduced oxidative stress in BQOV-treated animals compared to untreated diabetic controls. Serum analyses for kidney and liver function showed that BQOV treatment provoked total protection of the kidney and partial protection of the liver from diabetogenic insults. The number of insulin-positive cells and the amount of pancreatic insulin in treated mice (1.2038 +/- 0.34 ng/mg tissue) did not account for pancreatic regeneration but suggested an insulin-mimetic action on the part of BQOV. Moreover, administration of BQOV for 3 weeks did not show any visible side-effects. This data indicate that BQOV is a safe and potent agent for diabetes treatment, because it is able to improve carbohydrate metabolism and to reduce overall oxidative stress. PMID:17565414

  2. Transgenic and Knockout Mice in Diabetes Research: Novel Insights into Pathophysiology, Limitations, and Perspectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    L. Plum (University of Cologne Department of Mouse Genetics and Metabolism, Institute for Genetics)

    2005-06-01

    Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are serious public health threats. Although enormous research efforts have been focused on the pathogenesis of these diseases, the underlying mechanisms remain only partly understood. Here we review mouse phenotypes resulting from inactivation of molecules responsible for the control of glucose metabolism that have led to novel insights into insulin action and the development of insulin resistance. In addition, more sophisticated strategies to manipulate genes in mice in the future are presented.

  3. Antiobesity effects of Kaempferia parviflora in spontaneously obese type II diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Akase; Tsutomu Shimada; Susumu Terabayashi; Yukinobu Ikeya; Hiromi Sanada; Masaki Aburada

    2011-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex Baker (KP) has been used as a folk medicine in Laos and Thailand to lower blood glucose levels, improve blood flow,\\u000a and increase vitality. This study investigated the preventive effects of KP on obesity and its downstream symptoms (various\\u000a metabolic disorders) using Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model in which

  4. Role of Metformin in Suppressing 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Colon Cancer in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Mice: Effect on Tumor Angiogenesis and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zaafar, Dalia K.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with increased colon cancer risk. Recently, studies suggest that metformin can reduce cancer risk in diabetic or non-diabetic patients with unclear mechanisms. This work aimed to determine the effect of metformin on chemically-induced colon cancer in mice. Colon cancer was induced using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg/week, s.c.) for fifteen weeks. Experiment I: healthy mice were fed with basal diet for four weeks and then allocated into seven groups, (i) saline, (ii) DMH, (iii) oxaliplatin, (iv–v): metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg) and (vi–vii): oxaliplatin+metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg), respectively. Experiment II: type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of STZ (30 mg/kg) after four weeks of high-fat feeding and then mice were allocated into seven groups similar to those reported in experiment I. Examination of the colonic tissue at the end of the experiment highlighted an increase in angiogenic markers and cell proliferation and showed a greater immunostaining for insulin growth factor I receptors and CD34 in the colon of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetics. In general, metformin downregulated tumor angiogenesis and augmented the antitumor effect of oxaliplatin. Overall, the current results showed that metformin protected against DMH-induced colon cancer in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. This therapeutic effect was, at least in part, attributed to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative mechanisms. PMID:24971882

  5. [Antidepressant action of emoxipin and mexidol in mice with alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Rassokhina, L M; Miroshnichenko, I Iu

    2009-01-01

    The development of alloxan diabetes in mice is accompanied by prolonged desperate behavior (analogous to human depression) and decreased activity of animals in the open field test. Course administration of emoxypin and mexidol in doses corresponding to the human therapeutic range renders the antidepressant action manifested by reduced desperate behavior and increased activity in the open field. The antidepressant effect of emoxypin and mexidol is accompanied by a decrease in the blood glucose level after 14 days of administration. Emoxypin, in contrast to mexidol, provokes transient deterioration of diabetic hyperglycemia after 7 days of administration. Mexidol is characterized by an optimal combination of antidepressant action and favorable impact on carbohydrate metabolism that makes this 3-oxypyridine derivative a promising substance for the treatment of depression in diabetic patients. PMID:19441720

  6. Recovery from diabetes in neonatal mice after a low-dose streptozotocin treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Masateru; Kawamuro, Yuki; Shiraki, Nobuaki [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miki, Rika; Sakano, Daisuke [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan) [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); The Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Yoshida, Tetsu; Yasukawa, Takanori; Kume, Kazuhiko [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)] [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kume, Shoen, E-mail: skume@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan) [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics (IMEG), Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); The Global COE Cell Fate Regulation Research and Education Unit, Kumamoto University, Honjo 2-2-1, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ? We monitored long-term beta cell regeneration in neonatal mice treated with low dose STZ. ? Low-dose STZ neonatal female mice recovered blood glucose in 150 days. ? Glucose intolerance of the STZ treated mice significantly improved in 150 days. -- Abstract: Administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces destruction of ?-cells and is widely used as an experimental animal model of type I diabetes. In neonatal rat, after low-doses of STZ-mediated destruction of ?-cells, ?-cells regeneration occurs and reversal of hyperglycemia was observed. However, in neonatal mice, ?-cell regeneration seems to occur much slowly compared to that observed in the rat. Here, we described the time dependent quantitative changes in ?-cell mass during a spontaneous slow recovery of diabetes induced in a low-dose STZ mice model. We then investigated the underlying mechanisms and analyzed the cell source for the recovery of ?-cells. We showed here that postnatal day 7 (P7) female mice treated with 50 mg/kg STZ underwent the destruction of a large proportion of ?-cells and developed hyperglycemia. The blood glucose increased gradually and reached a peak level at 500 mg/dl on day 35–50. This was followed by a spontaneous regeneration of ?-cells. A reversal of non-fasting blood glucose to the control value was observed within 150 days. However, the mice still showed impaired glucose tolerance on day 150 and day 220, although a significant improvement was observed on day 150. Quantification of the ?-cell mass revealed that the ?-cell mass increased significantly between day 100 and day 150. On day 150 and day 220, the ?-cell mass was approximately 23% and 48.5% of the control, respectively. Of the insulin-positive cells, 10% turned out to be PCNA-positive proliferating cells. Our results demonstrated that, ?-cell duplication is one of the cell sources for ?-cell regeneration.

  7. Evaluation of Chios mastic gum on lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Ioannis; Karatzas, Theodore; Korou, Laskarina-Maria; Agrogiannis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Pantopoulou, Alkisti; Tzanetakou, Irene P; Katsilambros, Nikolaos; Perrea, Despina N

    2014-03-01

    Chios mastic gum (MG), a resin produced from Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia, is reported to possess beneficial cardiovascular and hepatoprotective properties. This study investigated the effect of crude Chios MG on metabolic parameters in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic 12-week-old male C57bl/6 mice were assigned to three groups: NC (n=9) control; LdM (n=9) animals receiving low dose mastic for 8 weeks (20?mg/kg body weight [BW]); and HdM (n=9) animals receiving high dose mastic (500?mg/kg BW) for the same period. Serum lipid and glucose levels were determined at baseline, at 4 and 8 weeks. Serum total protein, adiponectin, and resistin levels were also measured at the end of the experiment. Histopathological examination for liver, kidney, aorta, and heart lesions was performed. After 4 weeks, MG administration resulted in decreased serum glucose and triglyceride levels in both LdM and HdM, whereas BW levels were reduced in LdM group compared with controls. At the end of the experiment, LdM presented significantly lower serum glucose, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and improved high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with control group. HdM group had ameliorated serum triglyceride levels. Hepatic steatosis observed in control group was partially reversed in LdM and HdM groups. MG administered in low dosages improves glucose and lipid disturbances in diabetic mice while alleviating hepatic damage. PMID:24404977

  8. Combined losartan and nitro-oleic acid remarkably improves diabetic nephropathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Shanshan; Downton, Maicy; Liu, Gang; Du, Yaomin

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can alleviate some of the symptoms of DN but fail to stop the progression to ESRD. Our previous studies demonstrate renoprotective action of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) in several rodent models of renal disease. Here we examined the therapeutic potential and the underlying mechanism of combination of losartan and OA-NO2 in db/db mice. OA-NO2 was infused at 5 mg·kg?1·day?1 via osmotic minipump, and losartan was incorporated into diet at 10 mg·kg?1·day?1, each administered alone or in combination for 2 wk. Diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis, accompanied by podocytes loss, increased indexes of renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Treatment of the diabetic mice with OA-NO2 or losartan alone moderately ameliorated kidney injury; however, the combined treatment remarkably reduced albuminuria, restored glomerular filtration barrier structure, and attenuated glomerulosclerosis, accompanied with significant suppression of renal oxidative stress and inflammation. These data demonstrate that combination of losartan and OA-NO2 effectively reverses renal injury in DN. PMID:23946292

  9. Combined losartan and nitro-oleic acid remarkably improves diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Jia, Zhanjun; Liu, Shanshan; Downton, Maicy; Liu, Gang; Du, Yaomin; Yang, Tianxin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The inhibitors of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) can alleviate some of the symptoms of DN but fail to stop the progression to ESRD. Our previous studies demonstrate renoprotective action of nitro-oleic acid (OA-NO2) in several rodent models of renal disease. Here we examined the therapeutic potential and the underlying mechanism of combination of losartan and OA-NO2 in db/db mice. OA-NO2 was infused at 5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) via osmotic minipump, and losartan was incorporated into diet at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), each administered alone or in combination for 2 wk. Diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis, accompanied by podocytes loss, increased indexes of renal fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Treatment of the diabetic mice with OA-NO2 or losartan alone moderately ameliorated kidney injury; however, the combined treatment remarkably reduced albuminuria, restored glomerular filtration barrier structure, and attenuated glomerulosclerosis, accompanied with significant suppression of renal oxidative stress and inflammation. These data demonstrate that combination of losartan and OA-NO2 effectively reverses renal injury in DN. PMID:23946292

  10. Diabetes-Induced Impairment in Visual Function in Mice: Contributions of p38 MAPK, RAGE, Leukocytes, and Aldose Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chieh Allen; Li, Guangyuan; Patel, Mansi D.; Petrash, J. Mark; Benetz, Beth Ann; Veenstra, Alex; Amengual, Jaume; von Lintig, Johannes; Burant, Christopher J.; Tang, Johnny; Kern, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Visual function is impaired in diabetes, but molecular causes of this dysfunction are not clear. We assessed effects of diabetes on visual psychophysics in mice, and tested the effect of therapeutic approaches reported previously to inhibit vascular lesions of the retinopathy. Methods. We used the optokinetic test to assess contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold in diabetic C57Bl/6J mice and age-matched nondiabetic controls between 2 and 10 months of diabetes. Contributions of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), leukocytes, and aldose reductase (AR) to the defect in contrast sensitivity were investigated. Cataract, a potential contributor to reductions in vision, was scored. Results. Diabetes of 2 months' duration impaired contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold in mice. The defect in contrast sensitivity persisted for at least 10 months, and cataract did not account for this impairment. Diabetic mice deficient in AR were protected significantly from development of the diabetes-induced defects in contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency threshold. In contrast, pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK or RAGE, or deletion of inducible nitrous oxide synthase (iNOS) from bone marrow-derived cells did not protect the visual function in diabetes. Conclusions. Diabetes reduces spatial frequency threshold and contrast sensitivity in mice, and the mechanism leading to development of these defects involves AR. The mechanism by which AR contributes to the diabetes-induced defect in visual function can be probed by identifying which molecular abnormalities are corrected by AR deletion, but not other therapies that do not correct the defect in visual function. PMID:23920367

  11. Protective effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sang Pil; Maeng, Young Hee; Hong, Ran; Lee, Byung Rai; Kim, Chong Gue; Kim, Hyun Lee; Chung, Jong Hoon; Shin, Byung Chul

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that antioxidants in green tea extracts may protect kidneys on the progression of end-stage renal disease. We investigated the protective impacts of (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG) against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice. The mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 per group): control (saline, i.p.), STZ (200mg/kg, i.p.), EGCG50 (50mg/kg, S.Q.), EGCG100 (100mg/kg, S.Q.), and EGCG200 (200mg/kg, S.Q.). Animals were sacrificed at scheduled times after EGCG administration and then quantitative and qualitative analysis were performed. Compared with the control group, the STZ group showed an increase in levels of blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and urine protein amounts with a decrease in body weight. All the above parameters were significantly reversed with EGCG treatment, especially in the EGCG100 group. After STZ injection, there was a mesangial proliferation with increased renal osteopontin accumulation and its protein expression in the glomeruli and the proximal tubules. Mice kidneys after EGCG-treatment showed a reduced expression of above parameters and relatively improved histopathological findings. These results indicated that EGCG 100mg/kg might provide an effective protection against STZ-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice by osteopontin suppression. PMID:25154791

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) suppresses biomarkers of cell stress and kidney injury in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajeev; Chopra, Avijeet; Giardina, Charles; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Smyth, Joan A; Hightower, Lawrence E; Perdrizet, George A

    2015-05-01

    The disease burden from diabetic kidney disease is large and growing. Effective therapies are lacking, despite an urgent need. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) activates Nrf2 and cellular antioxidant defenses; therefore, it may be generally useful for treating conditions that feature chronic oxidative tissue damage. Herein, we determined how periodic exposure to oxygen at elevated pressure affected type 2 diabetes mellitus-related changes in the kidneys of db/db mice. Two groups of db/db mice, designated 2.4 ATA and 1.5 ATA, were treated four times per week with 100 % oxygen at either 1.5 or 2.4 ATA (atmospheres absolute) followed by tests to assess kidney damage and function. The sham group of db/db mice and the Hets group of db/+ mice were handled but did not receive HBOT. Several markers of kidney damage were reduced significantly in the HBOT groups including urinary biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C (CyC) along with significantly lower levels of caspase-3 activity in kidney tissue extracts. Other stress biomarkers also showed trends to improvement in the HBOT groups, including urinary albumin levels. Expressions of the stress response genes NRF2, HMOX1, MT1, and HSPA1A were reduced in the HBOT groups at the end of the experiment, consistent with reduced kidney damage in treated mice. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), a measure of albuminuria, was significantly reduced in the db/db mice receiving HBOT. All of the db/db mouse groups had qualitatively similar changes in renal histopathology. Glycogenated nuclei, not previously reported in db/db mice, were observed in these three experimental groups but not in the control group of nondiabetic mice. Overall, our findings are consistent with therapeutic HBOT alleviating stress and damage in the diabetic kidney through cytoprotective responses. These findings support an emerging paradigm in which tissue oxygenation and cellular defenses effectively limit damage from chronic oxidative stress more effectively than chemical antioxidants. PMID:25648080

  13. Expression of gluconeogenic enzymes and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in liver of diabetic mice after acute exercise

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Korie B; Corbell, Kathryn A; Al-Nakkash, Layla; Babu, Jeganathan Ramesh; Broderick, Tom L

    2014-01-01

    During acute exercise, normoglycemia is maintained by a precise match between hepatic glucose production and its peripheral utilization. This is met by a complex interplay of hepatic responses and glucose uptake by muscle. However, the effect of a single bout of exercise on hepatic gluconeogenesis, corticosterone (CORT) secretion, and glucose homeostasis in the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes is poorly understood. Diabetic db/db and lean control littermates were subjected to a 30 minute session of treadmill running and sacrificed either immediately after exercise or 8 hours later. Plasma glucose levels were markedly increased in db/db mice after exercise, whereas no change in glucose was observed in lean mice. Post-exercise measurements revealed that plasma CORT levels were also significantly increased in db/db mice compared to lean mice. Plasma hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were reciprocally decreased in both db/db and lean mice after exercise, indicating intact feedback mechanisms. Protein expression, determined by Western blot analysis, of the glucocorticoid receptor in liver was significantly increased in db/db mice subjected to prior exercise. In liver of db/db mice, a significant increase in the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was noted compared to lean mice after exercise. However, no change in the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) ? or ? was observed in db/db mice. Expression of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 was increased significantly in db/db mice compared to lean mice after exercise. Our results show differences in plasma glucose and protein expression of gluconeogenic enzymes after acute exercise between lean and diabetic db/db mice. The db/db diabetic mouse is hyperglycemic after acute exercise. This hyperglycemic state may be explained, in part, by enhanced endogenous CORT secretion and regulated hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 protein expression. PMID:25364268

  14. Senescence-associated phenotypes in Akita diabetic mice are enhanced by absence of bradykinin B2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Masao; Kizer, Catherine M; Yi, Xianwen; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Bagnell, C Robert; Edgell, Cora-Jean S; Maeda, Nobuyo; Jennette, J Charles; Smithies, Oliver

    2006-05-01

    We have previously reported that genetically increased angiotensin-converting enzyme levels, or absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor, increase kidney damage in diabetic mice. We demonstrate here that this is part of a more general phenomenon - diabetes and, to a lesser degree, absence of the B2 receptor, independently but also largely additively when combined, enhance senescence-associated phenotypes in multiple tissues. Thus, at 12 months of age, indicators of senescence (alopecia, skin atrophy, kyphosis, osteoporosis, testicular atrophy, lipofuscin accumulation in renal proximal tubule and testicular Leydig cells, and apoptosis in the testis and intestine) are virtually absent in WT mice, detectable in B2 receptor-null mice, clearly apparent in mice diabetic because of a dominant mutation (Akita) in the Ins2 gene, and most obvious in Akita diabetic plus B2 receptor-null mice. Renal expression of several genes that encode proteins associated with senescence and/or apoptosis (TGF-beta1, connective tissue growth factor, p53, alpha-synuclein, and forkhead box O1) increases in the same progression. Concomitant increases occur in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, point mutations and deletions in kidney mitochondrial DNA, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in plasma, together with decreases in the reduced form of glutathione in erythrocytes. Thus, absence of the bradykinin B2 receptor increases the oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA damage, and many senescence-associated phenotypes already present in untreated Akita diabetic mice. PMID:16604193

  15. Increase in Insulin Secretion Induced by Panax ginseng Berry Extracts Contributes to the Amelioration of Hyperglycemia in Streptozotocininduced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Ha-Jung; Kim, Yong-Kyoung; Park, Sang-Un; Choi, Jae-Eul; Cha, Ji-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. More recently, it has received attention for its anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects in humans and in animal models of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we tested the hypoglycemic effects of ginseng berry extract in beta-cell-deficient mice and investigated the mechanisms involved. Red (ripe) and green (unripe) berry extracts were prepared and administered orally (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight) to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice daily for 10 wk. The body weight was measured daily, and the nonfasting blood glucose levels were measured after 5 and 10 wk after administration. Glucose tolerance tests were performed, and the serum insulin levels were measured. The proliferation of betacells was measured in vitro. The administration of red or green ginseng berry extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and improved the glucose tolerance in beta-cell deficient mice, with the higher doses resulting in better effects. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly increased in berry extract-treated mice compared with streptozotocin-induced diabetic control mice. Treatment with ginseng berry extract increased beta-cell proliferation in vitro. Both red berry and green berry extracts improved glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and increased insulin secretion, possibly due to increased beta-cell proliferation. These results suggest that ginseng berry extracts might have beneficial effects on beta-cell regeneration. PMID:23717115

  16. Beneficial effects of parenteral GLP-1 delivery by cell therapy in insulin-deficient streptozotocin diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S; Moffett, R C; McCluskey, J T; Hamid, M H; Irwin, N; Flatt, P R

    2013-11-01

    Parenteral delivery of long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics has received much attention as a therapeutic option for diabetes. However, cell therapy-based GLP-1 treatments may provide a more physiological regulation of blood glucose. The present study assessed the effects of chronic GLP-1 delivery by cell therapy, using the GLP-1-secreting GLUTag cell line, in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. GLUTag cell aggregates were transplanted into the subscapular region of mice. Over 30 days, cellular transplantation gave rise to encapsulated and well-vascularized growths, which contained immunoreactive GLP-1. Cell implantation was well tolerated and had no appreciable metabolic effects in normal mice. However, transplantation significantly (P<0.001) countered excessive food and fluid intake in diabetic mice and maintained normal body weight. Circulating glucose (P<0.01) and glucagon (P<0.05) were significantly reduced and plasma insulin and GLP-1 dramatically increased. This was associated with significantly (P<0.01) improved glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. Histological examination of the pancreata of these mice revealed elevations (P<0.001) in islet and ?-cell area, with reduced (P<0.001) ?-cell area. Increased ?-cell mass reflected the enhanced proliferation relative to apoptosis. These studies emphasize the potential of chronic GLP-1 delivery by cell therapy as a potential therapeutic option for diabetes. PMID:23784442

  17. Cooperative anti-diabetic effects of deoxynojirimycin-polysaccharide by inhibiting glucose absorption and modulating glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Gui; Ji, Dong-Feng; Zhong, Shi; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Lin, Tian-Bao

    2013-01-01

    We had previously shown that deoxynojirimycin-polysaccharide mixture (DPM) not only decreased blood glucose but also reversed the damage to pancreatic ?-cells in diabetic mice, and that the anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of this combination was better than that of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) or polysachharide alone. However, the mechanisms behind these effects were not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of DPM on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. Diabetic mice were treated with DPM (150 mg/kg body weight) for 90 days and continued to be fed without DPM for an additional 30 days. Strikingly, decrease of blood glucose levels was observed in all DPM treated diabetic mice, which persisted 30 days after cessation of DPM administration. Significant decrease of glycosylated hemoglobin and hepatic pyruvate concentrations, along with marked increase of serum insulin and hepatic glycogen levels were detected in DPM treated diabetic mice. Results of a labeled (13)C6-glucose uptake assay indicated that DPM can restrain glucose absorption. Additionally, DPM down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of jejunal Na(+)/glucose cotransporter, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and glucose transporter 2, and enhanced the activities as well as mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glycolysis enzymes (glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, private kinase and pyruvate decarboxylas E1). Activity and expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase) were also found to be attenuated in diabetic mice treated with DPM. Purified enzyme activity assays verified that the increased activities of glucose glycolysis enzymes resulted not from their direct activation, but from the relative increase in protein expression. Importantly, our histopathological observations support the results of our biochemical analyses and validate the protective effects of DPM on STZ-induced damage to the pancreas. Thus, DPM has significant potential as a therapeutic agent against diabetes. PMID:23755289

  18. Delayed catabolism of apoB-48 lipoproteins due to decreased heparan sulfate proteoglycan production in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ebara, Tetsu; Conde, Karin; Kako, Yuko; Liu, Yanzhu; Xu, Yan; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Goldberg, Ira J.; Shachter, Neil S.

    2000-01-01

    We used wild-type (WT) mice and mice engineered to express either apoB-100 only (B100 mice) or apoB-48 only (B48 mice) to examine the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes (DM) on apoB-100– and apoB-48–containing lipoproteins. Plasma lipids increased with DM in WT mice, and fat tolerance was markedly impaired. Lipoprotein profiles showed increased levels and cholesterol enrichment of VLDL in diabetic B48 mice but not in B100 mice. C apolipoproteins, in particular apoC-I in VLDL, were increased. To investigate the basis of the increase in apoB-48 lipoproteins in streptozotocin-treated animals, we characterized several parameters of lipoprotein metabolism. Triglyceride and apoB production rates were normal, as were plasma lipase activity, VLDL glycosaminoglycan binding, and VLDL lipolysis. However, ?-VLDL clearance decreased due to decreased trapping by the liver. Whereas LRP activity was normal, livers from treated mice incorporated significantly less sulfate into heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) than did controls. Hepatoma (HepG2) cells and endothelial cells cultured in high glucose also showed decreased sulfate and glucosamine incorporation into HSPG. Western blots of livers from diabetic mice showed a decrease in the HSPG core protein, perlecan. Delayed clearance of postprandial apoB-48–containing lipoproteins in DM appears to be due to decreased hepatic perlecan HSPG. PMID:10862796

  19. Hyperglycemia and xerostomia are key determinants of tooth decay in type 1 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Harris, Stephen E; Mohan, Sumathy; Horn, Diane; Fajardo, Roberto; Chun, Yong-Hee Patricia; Jorgensen, James; MacDougall, Mary; Abboud-Werner, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and oral diseases are closely interrelated. Poor metabolic control in diabetics is associated with a high risk of gingivitis, periodontitis and tooth loss. Salivary flow declines in diabetics and patients suffer from xerostomia. Reduced saliva predisposes to enamel hypomineralization and caries formation; however, the mechanisms that initiate and lead to progression of tooth decay and periodontitis in type 1 DM have not been explored. To address this issue, we analyzed tooth morphology in Akita ?/? mice that harbor a point mutation in the Ins2 insulin gene, which leads to progressive hyperglycemia. Mandibles from Akita ?/? and wild-type littermates were analyzed by microCT, scanning EM and histology; teeth were examined for amelogenin (Amel) and ameloblastin (Ambn) expression. Mice were injected with pilocarpine to assess saliva production. As hyperglycemia may alter pulp repair, the effect of high glucose levels on the proliferation/differentiation of cultured MD10-F2 pulp cells was also analyzed. Results showed that Akita ?/? mice at 6 weeks of age showed chalky white incisors that correlated with marked hyperglycemia and impaired saliva production. MicroCT of Akita ?/? teeth revealed excessive enamel wearing and hypomineralization; immunostaining for Amel and Ambn was decreased. A striking feature was invasion of dentinal tubules with Streptococcus mitis and microabcesses that originated in the coronal pulp and progressed to pulp necrosis and periapical periodontitis. High levels of glucose also inhibited MD10-F2 cell proliferation and differentiation. Our findings provide the first evidence that hyperglycemia in combination with reduced saliva in a model of type1 DM leads to decreased enamel mineralization/matrix proteins and predisposes to excessive wearing and decay. Importantly, hyperglycemia adversely affects enamel matrix proteins and pulp repair. Early detection and treatment of hyperglycemia and hyposalivation may provide a useful strategy for preventing the dental complications of diabetes and promoting oral health in this population. PMID:22449801

  20. Hepatic Circadian-Clock System Altered by Insulin Resistance, Diabetes and Insulin Sensitizer in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Hsien; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic rhythms that are coordinated with the rotation of the Earth and are also generated by a set of circadian-clock genes at the intracellular level. Growing evidence suggests a strong link between circadian rhythms and energy metabolism; however, the fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice were used to model the molecular and physiological progress from insulin resistance to diabetes. Two-day-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single injection of STZ and were tested for non-obese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the early stage, insulin resistance in the middle stage, and diabetes in the late stage. Gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system were examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Most of the components of the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression system, such as the mRNAs of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2) and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1), were elevated, and circadian patterns were retained in the early and middle stages of insulin-resistant conditions. The insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, returns the physiological and molecular changes associated with the diabetic phenotype to normal levels through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) rather than PPAR?. Early and chronic treatment with rosiglitazone has been shown to be effective to counter the diabetic condition. Over time, this effect acts to attenuate the increased gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system and delay the severity of diabetic conditions. Together, these results support an essential role for the hepatic circadian-clock system in the coordinated regulation and/or response of metabolic pathways. PMID:25799429

  1. Hepatic circadian-clock system altered by insulin resistance, diabetes and insulin sensitizer in mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huey-Ling; Yang, Shu-Chuan; Yang, Shih-Hsien; Shieh, Kun-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are intrinsic rhythms that are coordinated with the rotation of the Earth and are also generated by a set of circadian-clock genes at the intracellular level. Growing evidence suggests a strong link between circadian rhythms and energy metabolism; however, the fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice were used to model the molecular and physiological progress from insulin resistance to diabetes. Two-day-old male C57BL/6 mice received a single injection of STZ and were tested for non-obese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the early stage, insulin resistance in the middle stage, and diabetes in the late stage. Gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system were examined by real-time quantitative PCR. Most of the components of the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression system, such as the mRNAs of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2) and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1), were elevated, and circadian patterns were retained in the early and middle stages of insulin-resistant conditions. The insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, returns the physiological and molecular changes associated with the diabetic phenotype to normal levels through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) rather than PPAR?. Early and chronic treatment with rosiglitazone has been shown to be effective to counter the diabetic condition. Over time, this effect acts to attenuate the increased gene expression levels of the hepatic circadian-clock system and delay the severity of diabetic conditions. Together, these results support an essential role for the hepatic circadian-clock system in the coordinated regulation and/or response of metabolic pathways. PMID:25799429

  2. Oxytocin treatment prevents the cardiomyopathy observed in obese diabetic male db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Plante, Eric; Menaouar, Ahmed; Danalache, Bogdan A; Yip, Denis; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Jankowski, Marek; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and in the activation of cardioprotective mechanisms. We evaluated whether chronic treatment with OT could prevent the metabolic and cardiac abnormalities associated with diabetes and obesity using the db/db mice model. Four-week-old male db/db mice and their lean nondiabetic littermates (db/+) serving as controls were treated with OT (125 ng/kg · h) or saline vehicle for a period of 12 weeks. Compared with db/+ mice, the saline-treated db/db mice developed obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. These mice also exhibited a deficient cardiac OT/natriuretic system and developed systolic and diastolic dysfunction resulting from cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. These abnormalities were associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation, and suppressed 5'-adenosine monophosphate kinase signaling pathway. The db/db mice displayed reduced serum levels of adiponectin and adipsin and elevated resistin. OT treatment increased circulating OT levels, significantly reduced serum resistin, body fat accumulation (19%; P<.001), fasting blood glucose levels by (23%; P<.001), and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. OT also normalized cardiac OT receptors, atrial natriuretic peptide, and brain natriuretic peptide, expressions and prevented systolic and diastolic dysfunction as well as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, and apoptosis. Furthermore, OT reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation and normalized the 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. The complete normalization of cardiac structure and function by OT treatment in db/db mice contrasted with only partial improvement of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. These results indicate that chronic treatment with OT partially improves glucose and fat metabolism and reverses abnormal cardiac structural remodeling, preventing cardiac dysfunction in db/db mice. PMID:25562615

  3. Overt nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice lacking the CLC-K1 chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Y; Uchida, S; Kondo, Y; Miyazaki, H; Ko, S B; Hayama, A; Morimoto, T; Liu, W; Arisawa, M; Sasaki, S; Marumo, F

    1999-01-01

    CLC-K1 is a kidney-specific chloride channel that mediates transepithelial chloride transport in the thin ascending limb of Henle's loop (tAL) in the inner medulla. Transport of NaCl in the tAL is thought to be a component of urinary concentration in a passive model of the countercurrent multiplication system, but there has been no direct evidence that CLC-K1 is involved in urine concentration. To analyse the physiological function of CLC-K1 in vivo, we generated mice lacking CLC-K1 by targeted gene disruption. Clcnk1-/- mice were physically normal appearance, but produced approximately five times more urine than Clcnk1+/- and Clcnk1+/+ mice. After 24 hours of water deprivation, Clcnk1-/- mice were severely dehydrated and lethargic, with a decrease of approximately 27% in body weight. Intraperitoneal injection of the V2 agonist 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) induced a threefold increase in urine osmolarity in Clcnk1+/- and Clcnk1+/+ mice, whereas only a minimal increase was seen in Clcnk1-/- mice, indicating nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. After in vitro perfusion of the tAL, the lumen-to-bath chloride gradient did not produce a diffusion potential in Clcnk1-/- mice in contrast to Clcnk1+/+ and Clcnk1+/- mice. These results establish that CLC-K1 has a role in urine concentration, and that the countercurrent system in the inner medulla is involved in the generation and maintenance of hypertonic medullary interstitium. PMID:9916798

  4. Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Weiss; M. Zeira; S. Reich; M. Har-Noy; R. Mechoulam; S. Slavin; R. Gallily

    2006-01-01

    Cannabidinoids are components of the Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant that have been shown capable of suppressing inflammation and various aspects of cell-mediated immunity. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabidinoid has been previously shown by us to suppress cell-mediated autoimmune joint destruction in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. We now report that CBD treatment significantly reduces the incidence of diabetes in

  5. Nitrosative stress and peripheral diabetic neuropathy in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice.

    PubMed

    Vareniuk, Igor; Pavlov, Ivan A; Drel, Viktor R; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Ilnytska, Olga; Bell, Seth R; Tibrewala, Jyoti; Groves, John T; Obrosova, Irina G

    2007-06-01

    Nitrosative stress contributes to nerve conduction slowing, thermal hypoalgesia, and impaired nitrergic innervation in animal models of Type 1 diabetes. The role for reactive nitrogen species in Type 2 diabetes-associated neuropathy remains unexplored. This study evaluated the role for nitrosative stress in functional and structural neuropathic changes in ob/ob mice, a model of Type 2 diabetes with mild hyperglycemia and obesity. Two structurally diverse peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts, Fe(III) tetrakis-2-(N-triethylene glycol monomethyl ether)-pyridyl porphyrin (FP15) and Fe(III) tetra-mesitylporphyrin octasulfonate (FeTMPS), were administered to control and 8-week-old ob/ob mice for 3 weeks at the doses of 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (FP15) and 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (FeTMPS). The 11-week-old ob/ob mice developed motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and hind-limb digital sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) deficits, thermal hypoalgesia, tactile allodynia, and a remarkable ( approximately 78%) loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. They also had increased nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Treatment with two structurally diverse peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts was associated with restoration of normal MNCV and SNCV, and alleviation of thermal hypoalgesia. Tactile response thresholds increased in response to peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst treatment, but still remained approximately 2.7- to 3.2-fold lower compared with non-diabetic controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber loss was not alleviated by either FP15 or FeTMPS. Nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst-treated ob/ob mice were essentially normal. In conclusion, nitrosative stress plays an important role in functional abnormalities associated with large motor, large sensory, and small sensory fiber neuropathy, but not in small sensory nerve fiber degeneration, in this animal model. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts alleviate Type 2 diabetes-associated sensory nerve dysfunction, likely by mechanism(s) not involving arrest of degenerative changes or enhanced regeneration of small sensory nerve fibers. PMID:17475250

  6. The anti-diabetic effects and pharmacokinetic profiles of berberine in mice treated with Jiao-Tai-Wan and its compatibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Lu, Fuer; Xu, Lijun; Dong, Hui; Yi, Ping; Wang, Fang; Huang, Zhaoyi; Zou, Xin

    2013-07-15

    Jiao-Tai-Wan (JTW), a classical Chinese prescription, has been clinically employed to treat diabetes mellitus in recent years. To investigate the comparative evaluations on anti-diabetic effects and pharmacokinetics of the active ingredient berberine in mice treated with JTW in various combinations of its constituent herbs. In our study, the anti-diabetic study was carried out in diabetic mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The diabetic mice were randomly assigned to three therapy groups and orally administered with different prescription proportions of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cinnamomum cassia respectively. The level of plasma glucose, lipid profile and parameters related to oxidative stress were determined. The concentrations of berberine in non-diabetic mice plasma were determined using HPLC, and main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results indicated that the compatibility effects of ingredients present in Cinnamomum cassia could affect the anti-diabetic ability and pharmacokinetics of berberine in JTW. PMID:23582408

  7. Autoradiographic imaging of formaldehyde adducts in mice: possible relevance for vascular damage in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Grönvall, J L; Garpenstrand, H; Oreland, L; Ekblom, J

    1998-01-01

    The activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has been reported to be elevated in blood from diabetic patients. It has been suggested that the enzyme is involved in the development of complications such as retinopathies, nephropathies and neuropathies, which are associated with advanced diabetes, possibly by the formation of toxic metabolites. Under the influence of SSAO, methylamine is deaminated to formaldehyde which is known to react with various macromolecules. It has therefore been proposed that specific inhibition of SSAO could be of therapeutic value for treatment of diabetic patients. The present results provide evidence that treatment with an SSAO inhibitor potently reduces the levels of irreversible adducts. In this study, 14C-methylamine was given intraperitoneally to NMRI mice, and the tissue distribution of irreversibly bound methylamine metabolites was estimated by an autoradiographic method. Such radioactive residues occurred in high concentrations in the intestinal wall, brown adipose tissue, spleen and bone marrow. By inhibiting SSAO irreversibly with hydralazine before giving 14C-methylamine to the mice, it was possible to determine the resynthesis rate of SSAO in different tissues. A complete recovery of SSAO activity was seen in the intestinal wall after 6 days, whereas only about 60% was recovered in adipose tissue after 14 days. This suggests that factors controlling the synthesis of SSAO differ in these tissues, or that these tissues express different forms of enzymes. PMID:9740313

  8. Berberine nanosuspension enhances hypoglycemic efficacy on streptozotocin induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Junbiao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid and active ingredient of Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activities. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its clinical application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Antidiabetic effects of Ber-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 ± 3.7?nm and 6.99 ± 0.17?mV, respectively. Ber-NS (50?mg/kg) treatment via oral gavage for 8 weeks resulted in a superior hypoglycemic and total cholesterol (TC) and body weight reduction effects compared to an equivalent dose of bulk Ber and metformin (Met, 300?mg/kg). These data indicate that a low dosage Ber-NS decreases blood glucose and improves lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:25866534

  9. Berberine Nanosuspension Enhances Hypoglycemic Efficacy on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Wu, Junbiao; Zhou, Qun; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Tongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid and active ingredient of Coptis, has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic activities. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its clinical application. In this report, Ber nanosuspension (Ber-NS) composed of Ber and D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. Antidiabetic effects of Ber-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Ber were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. The particle size and zeta potential of Ber-NS were 73.1 ± 3.7?nm and 6.99 ± 0.17?mV, respectively. Ber-NS (50?mg/kg) treatment via oral gavage for 8 weeks resulted in a superior hypoglycemic and total cholesterol (TC) and body weight reduction effects compared to an equivalent dose of bulk Ber and metformin (Met, 300?mg/kg). These data indicate that a low dosage Ber-NS decreases blood glucose and improves lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic C57BL/6 mice. These results suggest that the delivery of Ber as a nanosuspension is a promising approach for treating type 2 diabetes. PMID:25866534

  10. Sex steroids influence pancreatic islet hypertrophy and subsequent autoimmune infiltration in nonobese diabetic (NOD) and NODscid mice.

    PubMed

    Rosmalen, J G; Pigmans, M J; Kersseboom, R; Drexhage, H A; Leenen, P J; Homo-Delarche, F

    2001-02-01

    Female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice more frequently develop autoimmune diabetes than NOD males. Orchidectomy of the latter aggravates insulitis and diabetes. Because clear differences in immune function have not been observed between prediabetic females and males, before or after castration, we hypothesized that sex-related differences in diabetes incidence are related to target organ-specific actions of sex steroids. Previously, we showed that prediabetic NOD females develop hyperinsulinemia and subsequently mega-islets. Infiltration of the first inflammatory leukocytes is predominantly associated with these mega-islets. Here, we determined the relationship between sex hormones, mega-islet formation, and infiltrating cells in NOD and nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NODscid) mice. Mega-islet formation was reduced in NOD males compared with NOD females, and orchidectomy increased it, indicating a relationship between androgen levels and mega-islet formation. Moreover, enhanced mega-islet formation in castrated NOD males was associated with increased numbers of infiltrating leukocytes. Castrated NODscid males also exhibited increased mega-islet formation and dendritic cell infiltration, indicating that lymphocytes are not required for castration-induced effects. In conclusion, we show that androgens influence pancreatic islets and autoimmune infiltration in NOD and NODscid mice. This suggests that the gender difference in diabetes incidence in NOD mice is related to target organ-specific androgen effects. PMID:11232645

  11. Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA) on Exercise Capacity and Endothelial Response in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Wojewoda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Wandzel, Krystyna; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), which was initially considered to be a biologically inactive endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide, has emerged as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to release prostacyclin (PGI2). In the present study, we characterized the effects of MNA on exercise capacity and the endothelial response to exercise in diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/db mice were untreated or treated with MNA for 4 weeks (100 mg?kg-1), and their exercise capacity as well as NO- and PGI2-dependent response to endurance running were subsequently assessed. MNA treatment of db/db mice resulted in four-fold and three-fold elevation of urine concentrations of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY + Met-4PY), respectively (P<0.01), but did not affect HbA1c concentration, fasting glucose concentration or lipid profile. However, insulin sensitivity was improved (P<0.01). In MNA-treated db/db mice, the time to fatigue for endurance exercise was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Post-exercise ?6-keto-PGF1? (difference between mean concentration in the sedentary and exercised groups) tended to increase, and post-exercise leukocytosis was substantially reduced in MNA-treated animals. In turn, the post-exercise fall in plasma concentration of nitrate was not affected by MNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MNA improves endurance exercise capacity in mice with diabetes, and may also decrease the cardiovascular risk of exercise. PMID:26115505

  12. Effect of diet-induced obesity or type 1 or type 2 diabetes on corneal nerves and peripheral neuropathy in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yorek, Matthew S; Obrosov, Alexander; Shevalye, Hanna; Holmes, Amey; Harper, Matthew M; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    We determined the impact diet-induced obesity (DIO) and types 1 and 2 diabetes have on peripheral neuropathy with emphasis on corneal nerve structural changes in C57Bl/6J mice. Endpoints examined included nerve conduction velocity, response to thermal and mechanical stimuli and innervation of the skin and cornea. DIO mice and to a greater extent type 2 diabetic mice were insulin resistant. DIO and both types 1 and 2 diabetic mice developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits. In the cornea of DIO and type 2 diabetic mice there was a decrease in sub-epithelial corneal nerves, innervation of the corneal epithelium, and corneal sensitivity. Type 1 diabetic mice did not present with any significant changes in corneal nerve structure until after 20?weeks of hyperglycemia. DIO and type 2 diabetic mice developed corneal structural damage more rapidly than type 1 diabetic mice although hemoglobin A1 C values were significantly higher in type 1 diabetic mice. This suggests that DIO with or without hyperglycemia contributes to development and progression of peripheral neuropathy and nerve structural damage in the cornea. PMID:25858759

  13. Attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice using gene silencing of macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, XianJun; Zhao, Lei; Zhen, Xi; Huang, ShanYing; Wang, ShaSha; He, Hong; Liu, ZiMo; Xu, NaNa; Yang, FaLin; Qu, ZhongHua; Ma, ZhiYong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yun; Hu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) involves the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS) and increased plasma MIF levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with AS. Here, we have been suggested that MIF could be a critical contributor for the pathological process of diabetes-associated AS by using adenovirus-mediated RNA interference. First, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animal model was constructed in 114 apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE?/? mice) fed on a regular chow diet. Then, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: Adenovirus-mediated MIF interference (Ad-MIFi), Ad-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and normal saline (NS) group (n ? 33/group). Non-diabetic apoE?/? mice (n = 35) were served as controls. Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS were, respectively, injected into the tail vein of mice from Ad-MIFi, Ad-EGFP and NS group, which were injected repeatedly 4 weeks later. Physical, biochemical, morphological and molecular parameters were measured. The results showed that diabetic apoE?/? mice had significantly aggravated atherosclerotic lesions. MIF gene interference attenuated atherosclerotic lesions and stabilized atheromatous plaque, accompanied by the decreased macrophages and lipids deposition and inflammatory cytokines production, improved glucose intolerance and plasma cholesterol level, the decreased ratio of matrix matalloproteinase-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and plaque instability index. An increased expression of MIF and its ligand CD74 was also detected in the diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The results suggest that MIF gene interference is able to inhibit atherosclerotic lesions and increase plaque stability in diabetic apoE?/?mice. MIF inhibition could be a novel and promising approach to the treatment of DM-associated AS. PMID:25661015

  14. Hypoglycemic activity of Eriobotrya japonica seeds in type 2 diabetic rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunari; Nishizono, Shoko; Makino, Nozomi; Tamaru, Shizuka; Terai, Osamu; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2008-03-01

    The hypoglycemic effects of Eriobotrya japonica seeds were investigated in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and KK-A(y) mice. The rats and mice were fed on a diet containing 10% powdered Eriobotrya japonica seeds with the coat intact for 4 months. Although the blood glucose concentration in the OLETF rats fed on the control diet without Eriobotrya japonica seeds was increased with time, the concentration in the OLETF rats fed on the diet with Eriobotrya japonica seeds was consistently low throughout the experimental period and was comparable to the level in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats which are normal non-diabetic rats. Serum insulin was significantly lower in the OLETF rats fed on the Eriobotrya japonica seed diet than in those fed on the control diet at the termination of the experimental period. Eriobotrya japonica seeds suppressed the increment of blood glucose for 4 months and also effectively improved the glucose tolerance in the KK-A(y) mice, these actions being mainly exerted by the ethanol extract of the seeds. These results suggest that Eriobotrya japonica seeds had a hypoglycemic property and the effect is attributable to the components extracted by ethanol. PMID:18323632

  15. Hypoglycaemic effects of alcoholic root extract of Borassus flabellifer (Linn.) in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Titas; Radhakrishnan, Rajesh; Murugananthan, Gopal; Talwar, Sahil; K, Nandakumar

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the alcoholic (ALEBF) extract of B. flabellifer for their hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rats by single dose administration of alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.) or by injecting dexamethasone (10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 10 days. In normal rats, ALEBF (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) had significantly decreased the blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner after repeated administration for 7 days. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, extract (ALEBF) had decreased blood sugar level and improved glucose tolerance in alloxan induced diabetic rats at the end of 1st, 2nd , 3rd and 4th week after test extract treatment. However, the insulin levels of extract treated group did not significantly change after 28 days treatment with the extract. It did not alter the insulin levels. In alloxan model, repeated dose administration of ALEBF had showed significant increase in body weight, prevention of elimination of sugar in urine and reduced the mortality rate induced by alloxan. In dexamethasone induced insulin resistance diabetic rats, repeated administration of ALEBF inhibited the increase in blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance and reduced the insulin levels as compared dexamethasone induced diabetic rats. PMID:23811441

  16. Toll-like receptor 3 is critical for coxsackievirus B4-induced type 1 diabetes in female NOD mice.

    PubMed

    McCall, Kelly D; Thuma, Jean R; Courreges, Maria C; Benencia, Fabian; James, Calvin B L; Malgor, Ramiro; Kantake, Noriko; Mudd, William; Denlinger, Nathan; Nolan, Bret; Wen, Li; Schwartz, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are involved in triggering some cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for this remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a receptor that recognizes viral double-stranded RNA, is hypothesized to play a role in virus-induced T1DM, although this hypothesis is yet to be substantiated. The objective of this study was to directly investigate the role of TLR3 in CVB-triggered T1DM in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a mouse model of human T1DM that is widely used to study both spontaneous autoimmune and viral-induced T1DM. As such, we infected female wild-type (TLR3(+/+)) and TLR3 knockout (TLR3(-/-)) NOD mice with CVB4 and compared the incidence of diabetes in CVB4-infected mice with that of uninfected counterparts. We also evaluated the islets of uninfected and CVB4-infected wild-type and TLR3 knockout NOD mice by immunohistochemistry and insulitis scoring. TLR3 knockout mice were markedly protected from CVB4-induced diabetes compared with CVB4-infected wild-type mice. CVB4-induced T-lymphocyte-mediated insulitis was also significantly less severe in TLR3 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences in insulitis were observed between uninfected animals, either wild-type or TLR3 knockout mice. These data demonstrate for the first time that TLR3 is 1) critical for CVB4-induced T1DM, and 2) modulates CVB4-induced insulitis in genetically prone NOD mice. PMID:25422874

  17. Chronic inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation prevents ischaemia-induced vascular pathology in type II diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ali; Choi, Soo-kyoung; Galan, Maria; Kassan, Modar; Partyka, Megan; Kadowitz, Philip; Henrion, Daniel; Trebak, Mohamed; Belmadani, Souad; Matrougui, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation are important mechanisms that underlie many of the serious consequences of type II diabetes. However, the role of ER stress and inflammation in impaired ischaemia-induced neovascularization in type II diabetes is unknown. We studied ischaemia-induced neovascularization in the hind-limb of 4-week-old db?/db? mice and their controls treated with or without the ER stress inhibitor (tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA, 150 mg/kg per day) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra, 0.5 ?g/mouse per day) for 4 weeks. Blood pressure was similar in all groups of mice. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and body weight were reduced in db?/db? mice treated with TUDCA. Increased cholesterol and reduced adiponectin in db?/db? mice were restored by TUDCA and anakinra treatment. ER stress and inflammation in the ischaemic hind-limb in db?/db? mice were attenuated by TUDCA and anakinra treatment. Ischaemia-induced neovascularization and blood flow recovery were significantly reduced in db?/db? mice compared to control. Interestingly, neovascularization and blood flow recovery were restored in db?/db? mice treated with TUDCA or anakinra compared to non-treated db?/db? mice. TUDCA and anakinra enhanced eNOS-cGMP, VEGFR2, and reduced ERK1/2 MAP-kinase signalling, while endothelial progenitor cell number was similar in all groups of mice. Our findings demonstrate that the inhibition of ER stress and inflammation prevents impaired ischaemia-induced neovascularization in type II diabetic mice. Thus, ER stress and inflammation could be potential targets for a novel therapeutic approach to prevent impaired ischaemia-induced vascular pathology in type II diabetes. PMID:22081301

  18. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:24435938

  19. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) plumule polysaccharide ameliorates pancreatic islets loss and serum lipid profiles in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Huei; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2013-08-01

    To unravel possible protective effects of a newly isolated lotus plumule polysaccharide (LPPS) on type 1 diabetes (T1D), this study isolated LPPS and administered it to non-obese diabetic (NOD) female mice for 15 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance, serum ketone body, glucose, insulin, and lipid levels, as well as pancreatic islet cell numbers and the insulin secretion ability of the experimental mice were determined. The results showed that LPPS administration in vivo significantly (P<0.05) increased pancreatic islet cell numbers and slightly enhanced the basal insulin secretion ability compared to the control group. LPPS administration improved serum lipid profiles in the diabetic mice via relatively increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, but decreasing low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. The present study suggests that LPPS supplementation may ameliorate T1D progress and its complications through protecting pancreatic islets and modulating serum lipid profiles. PMID:23707471

  20. Prolactin protects against diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin in mice.

    PubMed

    Holstad, M; Sandler, S

    1999-11-01

    In earlier studies it has been shown that prolactin (PRL) is a stimulating factor for the immune system, and it has been suggested that PRL might antagonize immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids. PRL has been reported to affect the cytokine secretion pattern, by elevating cytokine gene expression in macrophages, after the onset of sepsis. It also promotes the antibody response in mice where it increases the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and inhibits interleukin-1 (IL-1) production. Due to these properties, PRL might influence the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of two drugs; PRL and bromocriptine (BC) in vivo on the development of hyperglycemia and pancreatic insulitis in mice treated with multiple doses of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). The dopaminergic agonist BC is known to inhibit PRL secretion. In another set of experiments, the direct effects of PRL on the function of pancreatic islets exposed to STZ in vitro were studied. Mice treated with STZ became gradually hyperglycemic, and concomitant treatment with PRL (4 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly reduced the elevation in blood glucose levels from day 10 onwards (P<0.05). Morphologic examinations of the pancreas on day 21 of mice receiving STZ injections revealed a marked insulitis, but only moderate insulitis in the STZ treated animals given PRL. BC administration (10 mg/kg body weight) in combination with STZ did not significantly affect the elevation in blood glucose levels or the insulitis. PRL or BC administration alone did not change the serum glucose concentration. This study indicates that PRL may affect hyperglycemia in the early phase of autoimmune diabetes. We suggest that it might be due to counteraction of autoimmune immunologic mechanisms and/or enhancement of beta-cell regeneration. PMID:10556772

  1. Podocyte-Specific GLUT4-Deficient Mice Have Fewer and Larger Podocytes and Are Protected From Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Johanna; Jauregui, Alexandra N.; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Maiguel, Dony; Muresan, Cristina; Mitrofanova, Alla; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Szust, Joel; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Pedigo, Christopher; Molano, R. Damaris; Johnson, Kevin; Kahn, Barbara; Hartleben, Bjoern; Huber, Tobias B.; Saha, Jharna; Burke, George W.; Abel, E. Dale; Brosius, Frank C.; Fornoni, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria. PMID:24101677

  2. Inhibiting heat-shock protein 90 reverses sensory hypoalgesia in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Urban, Michael J; Li, Chengyuan; Yu, Cuijuan; Lu, Yuanming; Krise, Joanna M; McIntosh, Michelle P; Rajewski, Roger A; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the expression of Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) can inhibit sensory neuron degeneration after axotomy. Since the onset of DPN (diabetic peripheral neuropathy) is associated with the gradual decline of sensory neuron function, we evaluated whether increasing Hsp70 was sufficient to improve several indices of neuronal function. Hsp90 is the master regulator of the heat-shock response and its inhibition can up-regulate Hsp70. KU-32 (N-{7-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-6,6-dimethyl-tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yloxy]-8-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl}acetamide) was developed as a novel, novobiocin-based, C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 whose ability to increase Hsp70 expression is linked to the presence of an acetamide substitution of the prenylated benzamide moiety of novobiocin. KU-32 protected against glucose-induced death of embryonic DRG (dorsal root ganglia) neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro. Similarly, KU-32 significantly decreased neuregulin 1-induced degeneration of myelinated Schwann cell DRG neuron co-cultures prepared from WT (wild-type) mice. This protection was lost if the co-cultures were prepared from Hsp70.1 and Hsp70.3 KO (knockout) mice. KU-32 is readily bioavailable and was administered once a week for 6 weeks at a dose of 20 mg/kg to WT and Hsp70 KO mice that had been rendered diabetic with streptozotocin for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of diabetes, both WT and Hsp70 KO mice developed deficits in NCV (nerve conduction velocity) and a sensory hypoalgesia. Although KU-32 did not improve glucose levels, HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) or insulin levels, it reversed the NCV and sensory deficits in WT but not Hsp70 KO mice. These studies provide the first evidence that targeting molecular chaperones reverses the sensory hypoalgesia associated with DPN. PMID:20711301

  3. Antihyperglycaemic activity of 2,4:3,5-dibenzylidene-D-xylose-diethyl dithioacetal in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Gruzman, Arie; Elgart, Anna; Viskind, Olga; Billauer, Hana; Dotan, Sharon; Cohen, Guy; Mishani, Eyal; Hoffman, Amnon; Cerasi, Erol; Sasson, Shlomo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We have recently generated lipophilic D-xylose derivatives that increase the rate of glucose uptake in cultured skeletal muscle cells in an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent manner. The derivative 2,4:3,5-dibenzylidene-D-xylose-diethyl dithioacetal (EH-36) stimulated the rate of glucose transport by increasing the abundance of glucose transporter-4 in the plasma membrane of cultured myotubes. The present study aimed at investigating potential antihyperglycaemic effects of EH-36 in animal models of diabetes. Two animal models were treated subcutaneously with EH-36: streptozotocin-induced diabetes in C57BL/6 mice (a model of insulin-deficient type 1 diabetes), and spontaneously diabetic KKAy mice (Kuo Kondo rats carrying the Ay yellow obese gene; insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes). The in vivo biodistribution of glucose in control and treated mice was followed with the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-D-glucose; the rate of glucose uptake in excised soleus muscles was measured with [3H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis of the in vivo data. The effective blood EH-36 concentration in treated animals was 2 ?M. It reduced significantly the blood glucose levels in both types of diabetic mice and also corrected the typical compensatory hyperinsulinaemia of KKAy mice. EH-36 markedly increased glucose transport in vivo into skeletal muscle and heart, but not to adipose tissue. This stimulatory effect was mediated by Thr172-phosphorylation in AMPK. Biochemical tests in treated animals and acute toxicological examinations showed that EH-36 was well tolerated and not toxic to the mice. These findings indicate that EH-36 is a promising prototype molecule for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs. PMID:21564514

  4. Persistent correction of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice by a non-conventional radical scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, M.; Bonamassa, B.; Masini, M.; Funel, N.; Canistro, D.; De Tata, V.; Martano, M.; Soleti, A.; Campani, D.; Paolini, M.

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported that in a diabetes mouse model, characterised by moderate hyperglycaemia and reduced ?-cell mass, the radical scavenger bis(1-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinyl)decandioate di-hydrochloride (IAC), a non-conventional cyclic hydroxylamine derivative, improves metabolic alterations by counteracting ?-cell dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. The aims of this study were to ascertain whether the beneficial effects of IAC treatment could be maintained after its discontinuation and further elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6J mice by streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA) administration. Diabetic mice were treated for 7 weeks with various doses of IAC (7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg b.w./die i.p.) and monitored for additional 8 weeks after suspension of IAC. Then, pancreatic tissue was used for determination of ?-cell mass by immunohistochemistry and ?-cell ultrastructural analysis. STZ-NA mice showed moderate hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance and reduced ?-cell mass (25% of controls). IAC-treated STZ-NA mice (at both doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg b.w.) showed long-term reduction of hyperglycaemia even after discontinuation of treatment, attenuation of glucose intolerance and partial preservation of ?-cell mass. The lowest IAC dose was much less effective. Plasma nitrotyrosine levels (an oxidative stress index) significantly increased in untreated diabetic mice and were lowered upon IAC treatment. At ultrastructural level, ? cells of IAC-treated diabetic mice were protected against degranulation and mitochondrial alterations. In the STZ-NA diabetic mouse model, the radical scavenger IAC induces a prolonged reduction of hyperglycaemia associated with partial restoration of ?-cell mass and function, likely dependent on blockade of oxidative stress-induced damaging mechanisms. PMID:20512314

  5. Oral administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 completely protects NOD mice from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia B Zella; Laura C McCary; Hector F DeLuca

    2003-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the biologically active form of vitamin D, is widely recognized as a modulator of the immune system as well as a regulator of mineral metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin D status and treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 on diabetes onset in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a murine model of human type

  6. Decreased basal non-insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala S. Thabet; Nermine K. M. Saleh; Sahar S. Thabet; M. Abdel-Aziz; Nagwa K. Kalleny

    2008-01-01

    It had been suggested that chronic exposure to Schistosoma mansoni prevents the onset of Th1-mediated diseases such as diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out on four groups of\\u000a mice: (1) control group, (2) group infected with S. mansoni, (3) group injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes, and (4) group infected and then 3 months postinfection injected\\u000a with streptozotocin. No

  7. Systemic Administration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reverts Hyperglycemia and Prevents Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando E. Ezquer; Marcelo E. Ezquer; Daniela B. Parrau; Daniel Carpio; Alejandro J. Yañez; Paulette A. Conget

    2008-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), often labeled mesenchymal stem cells, contribute to tissue regeneration in injured bone and cartilage, as well as in the infarcted heart, brain, and kidney. We hypothesize that MSCs might also contribute to pancreas and kidney regeneration in diabetic individuals. Therefore, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes C57BL\\/6 mice, we tested whether a single intravenous dose

  8. The H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6 mice, but not diabetes outcome in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice

    PubMed Central

    Anvari, Ebrahim; Wang, Xuan; Sandler, Stellan

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that the histamine 1-receptor (H1-receptor) not only promotes allergic reactions, but also modulates innate immunity and autoimmune reactions. In line with this, we have recently reported that the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine partially counteracts cytokine-induced beta-cell signaling and destruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether cetirizine affects diabetes in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice, a model for human glucose intolerance. Methods Female NOD mice were treated with cetirizine in the drinking water (25 mg/kg body weight) from 9 until 30 weeks of age during which precipitation of diabetes was followed. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet from 5 weeks of age. When the mice were 12 weeks of age cetirizine was given for 2 weeks in the drinking water. The effects of cetirizine were analyzed by blood glucose determinations, glucose tolerance tests, and insulin sensitivity tests. Results Cetirizine did not affect diabetes development in NOD mice. On the other hand, cetirizine treatment for 1 week protected against high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. The glucose tolerance after 2 weeks of cetirizine treatment was improved in high-fat diet mice. We observed no effect of cetirizine on the insulin sensitivity of high-fat diet mice. Conclusion Our results suggest a protective effect of cetirizine against high-fat diet-induced beta-cell dysfunction, but not against autoimmune beta-cell destruction. PMID:25291144

  9. Plasma zinc status and membrane lipid composition in genetically diabetic mice (db/db)

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.P.; Fenton, M.R.

    1986-03-05

    Sex and age matched diabetic C57BL/Ks-db+/db+ mice (db/db) were sacrificed at eight weeks of age. Plasma samples were collected and zinc levels determined. Livers were excised and mitochondrial and microsomal membranes prepared. Aliquots of membrane fractions were subjected to lipid extraction and cholesterol (Cl), phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid analysis (FA) performed. Plasma zinc levels in db/db mice were elevated 25% compared to m/m controls (148.8+/-8.1 ..mu..g/dl vs. 118.9+/-14.9 ..mu..g/dl). Cholesterol and PL levels remained unchanged in both mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. Analysis of PL composition from db/db mitochondria by two dimensional thin layer chromatography revealed no change in the percentage of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but a 40% decrease in cardiolipin. Slight increases were observed in the percentage of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (PS+PI) in microsomes isolated from db/db mice. Fatty acid analysis of microsomal PC and PE showed a decrease of 28% in the 18:1/18:0 ratio as well as a 21% decrease in the ratio of 20:4/18:2 in db/db animals. Analysis of succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial) and glucose-6-phosphatase (microsomal) revealed significant decreases in activity in livers of db/db mice. The altered zinc metabolism as well as the changes in membrane lipid composition suggest that this may be a model to study the role of zinc in membrane structure.

  10. Oral administration of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 completely protects NOD mice from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zella, Julia B; McCary, Laura C; DeLuca, Hector F

    2003-09-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the biologically active form of vitamin D, is widely recognized as a modulator of the immune system as well as a regulator of mineral metabolism. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin D status and treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on diabetes onset in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a murine model of human type I diabetes. We have found that vitamin D-deficiency increases the incidence of diabetes in female mice from 46% (n=13) to 88% (n=8) and from 0% (n=10) to 44% (n=9) in male mice as of 200 days of age when compared to vitamin D-sufficient animals. Addition of 50 ng of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)/day to the diet prevented disease onset as of 200 days and caused a significant rise in serum calcium levels, regardless of gender or vitamin D status. Our results indicate that vitamin D status is a determining factor of disease susceptibility and oral administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) prevents diabetes onset in NOD mice through 200 days of age. PMID:12921782

  11. Local expression of immunoregulatory IL-12p40 gene prolonged syngeneic islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, H; Nagata, M; Arisawa, K; Yoshida, R; Fujihira, K; Okamoto, N; Moriyama, H; Miki, M; Saito, I; Hamada, H; Yokono, K; Kasuga, M

    1998-01-01

    Local production of immunosuppressive cytokines will be one of the most suitable therapeutic strategies against organ-specific autoimmune diabetes. To establish such a new therapy, we constructed recombinant adenoviral vectors with inserted mIL-12p40 (Ad.IL-12p40) and mIL-10 (Ad.IL-10). Sufficient amounts of IL-12p40 and IL-10 were secreted by relevant adenovirus-transfected nonobese diabetic (NOD) islets. Shortly after transfection, 400 NOD islets transfected with Ad.IL-12p40 or Ad.IL-10 were transplanted under the renal capsule of a newly diabetic NOD mouse. NOD mice with IL-12p40-producing islet grafts kept normoglycemia in all of 14 grafted mice for over 4 wk after transplantation. In contrast, NOD mice with IL-10-producing islet grafts became diabetic in all of six grafted mice within 2 wk af-ter transplantation. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that local production of IL-12p40 led to the decrease of interferon-gamma and the augmentation of transforming growth factor-beta at the graft site. These results suggest that IL-12 plays an important role in the destruction of islet cells at the inflamed site of autoimmunity. Such a local blockade of IL-12 would be a useful gene therapy for human autoimmune diabetes. PMID:9819366

  12. Puerarin improves cardiac function through regulation of energy metabolism in Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced diabetic mice after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weili; Wu, Peng; Du, Yingqiang; Wang, Yunle; Zhou, Ningtian; Ge, Yingbin; Yang, Zhijian

    2015-08-01

    It is well recognized that the incidence of heart failure and the risk of death is high in diabetic patients after myocardial infarction (MI). Accumulating evidence showed that puerarin (PUE) has protecting function on both cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The aim of this study is to explore whether puerarin could improve cardiac function in diabetic mice after MI and the underlying mechanism. The left anterior of Streptozotocin (STZ)-Nicotinamide (NA) induced diabetic mice were ligated permanently except for the Shame group. Then the operated mice were randomly treated with PUE or saline. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiograph before and at 1, 2, 4 weeks after MI. GLUT4/CD36/p-Akt/PPAR ? of the heart was examined after treatment for 4 weeks. The results indicated that PUE significantly increased survival rate, improved cardiac function compared with MI group. Moreover, PUE increased expression and translocation of GLUT4 while attenuated expression and translocation of CD36. Western blot analysis showed that PUE enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and decreased PPAR ?. This study demonstrated that PUE improved cardiac function after MI in diabetic mice through regulation of energy metabolism, the possible mechanism responsible for the effect of PUE was increasing the expression and translocation of GLUT4 while attenuating the expression and translocation of CD36. PMID:26079885

  13. Protective Effect of Topiramate on Hyperglycemia-Induced Cerebral Oxidative Stress, Pericyte Loss and Learning Behavior in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Price, Tulin O.; Farr, Susan A.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Ercal, Nuran; Morley, John E.; Shah, Gul N.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus-associated damage to the microvasculature of the brain is caused by hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress, which results in pericyte loss, blood-brain barrier disruption, and impaired cognitive function. Oxidative stress, in diabetes, is caused by reactive oxygen species produced during accelerated respiration (mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of glucose). The rate of respiration is regulated by mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Inhibition of these enzymes protects the brain from diabetic damage. Previously, we reported that topiramate, a mitochondrial CA inhibitor, at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day protects the brain in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress and restoring pericyte numbers. Topiramate has high affinity for both mitochondrial CAs; therefore, it is conceivable that a much lower dose may inhibit these enzymes and thus protect the brain from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage. Therefore, in an effort to reduce the toxicity associated with higher doses of topiramate, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of 1.0 mg/kg topiramate on reducing oxidative stress, restoring pericyte numbers in the brain, and improving the impaired learning behavior in diabetic mouse. Diabetes was induced by a one-time injection of streptozotocin and topiramate was administered daily for 12 weeks. Levels of oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) were measured in the brain and pericyte/endothelial cell ratios in isolated brain microvessels. Learning behavior was assessed by T-maze foot shock avoidance test. A significant decrease in GSH (control, 12.2 ± 0.4 vs. diabetic, 10.8 ± 0.4 vs. diabetic + topiramate, 12.6 ± 0.6, p<0.05) and an increase in HNE (control, 100 ± 4.2, vs. diabetic, 127.3 ± 8.8 vs. diabetic + topiramate, 93.9 ± 8.4 p<0.05) in diabetic mice were corrected by topiramate treatment. Topiramate treatment also resulted in restoration of pericyte numbers in diabetic mice (control, 25.89 ± 0.85 vs. diabetic, 18.14 ± 0.66 vs. diabetic + topiramate, 24.35 ± 0.53, p<0.001) and improvement in learning behavior. In conclusion, these data clearly demonstrate that topiramate at 1.0 mg/kg protects the mouse brain from diabetic damage. A 1.0 mg/kg topiramate in the mouse translates to a 5.0 mg daily dose in a 60 kg human, which may help slow the onset and progression of diabetic complications in the human brain.

  14. Coronary arterioles in type 2 diabetic (db\\/db) mice undergo a distinct pattern of remodeling associated with decreased vessel stiffness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paige S. Katz; Aaron J. Trask; Flavia M. Souza-Smith; Kirk R. Hutchinson; Maarten L. Galantowicz; Kevin C. Lord; James A. Stewart; Mary J. Cismowski; Kurt J. Varner; Pamela A. Lucchesi

    Little is known about the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on coronary arteriole remodeling. The aim of this study\\u000a was to determine the mechanisms that underlie coronary arteriole structural remodeling in type 2 diabetic (db\\/db) mice. Passive\\u000a structural properties of septal coronary arterioles isolated from 12- to 16-week-old diabetic db\\/db and control mice were\\u000a assessed by pressure myography.

  15. Antidiabetic activity of mycelia selenium-polysaccharide from Catathelasma ventricosum in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuntao; Sun, Jun; Rao, Shengqi; Su, Yujie; Li, Junhua; Li, Caiming; Xu, Shude; Yang, Yanjun

    2013-12-01

    Se-polysaccharide from Catathelasma ventricosum (SPC-2) was purified by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The average size of SPC-2 was 1.6×10(5) Da, and it was mainly composed of glucose (87.4%) with the conformation of ?-pyran ring. The branched structure of SPC-2 was proved intuitively by atomic force microscope (AFM). The antidiabetic potential of SPC-2 was tested in STZ-induced diabetic mice. After STZ-induced diabetic mice being administered of SPC-2 for 30 days, SPC-2 treatment significantly reduced the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that were increased by the STZ treatment. Further, the SPC-2 treatment led to increased activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) that were decreased by the STZ. The results of histopathology also showed SPC-2 protected tissues (pancreas, liver and kidney) against peroxidation damage and maintained tissue integrity. PMID:24007742

  16. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Phlorizin on Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in db/db Mice by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Li, Baoying; Yu, Fei; Lu, Weida; Zhang, Zhen; Yin, Mei; Gao, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Patients with diabetes often develop hypertension and atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular disease. However, some diabetic patients develop heart failure without hypertension and coronary artery disease, a process termed diabetic cardiomyopathy. Phlorizin has been reported to be effective as an antioxidant in treating diabetes mellitus, but little is known about its cardioprotective effects on diabetic cardiomyopathy. In this study, we investigated the role of phlorizin in preventing diabetic cardiomyopathy in db/db mice. We found that phlorizin significantly decreased body weight gain and the levels of serum fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Morphologic observations showed that normal myocardial structure was better preserved after phlorizin treatment. Using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics, we identified differentially expressed proteins involved in cardiac lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and cardiomyopathy, suggesting that phlorizin may prevent the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy by regulating the expression of key proteins in these processes. We used ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) to generate an interaction network to map the pathways containing these proteins. Our findings provide important information about the mechanism of diabetic cardiomyopathy and also suggest that phlorizin may be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23671862

  17. Quantitative Proteomic and Functional Analysis of Liver Mitochondria from High Fat Diet (HFD) Diabetic Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yurong; Darshi, Manjula; Ma, Yuliang; Perkins, Guy A.; Shen, Zhouxin; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Saito, Rintaro; Chen, Ai; Lee, Yun Sok; Patel, Hemal H.; Briggs, Steven P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance plays a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity and affects a number of biological processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis. Though mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, the precise mechanism linking the two is not well understood. We used high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity dependent diabetes mouse models to gain insight into the potential pathways altered with metabolic disease, and carried out quantitative proteomic analysis of liver mitochondria. As previously reported, proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, branched chain amino acid degradation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation were uniformly up-regulated in the liver of HFD fed mice compared with that of normal diet. Further, our studies revealed that retinol metabolism is distinctly down-regulated and the mitochondrial structural proteins—components of mitochondrial inter-membrane space bridging (MIB) complex (Mitofilin, Sam50, and ChChd3), and Tim proteins—essential for protein import, are significantly up-regulated in HFD fed mice. Structural and functional studies on HFD and normal diet liver mitochondria revealed remodeling of HFD mitochondria to a more condensed form with increased respiratory capacity and higher ATP levels compared with normal diet mitochondria. Thus, it is likely that the structural remodeling is essential to accommodate the increased protein content in presence of HFD: the mechanism could be through the MIB complex promoting contact site and crista junction formation and in turn facilitating the lipid and protein uptake. PMID:24030101

  18. Identification of a novel gene for diabetic traits in rats, mice, and humans.

    PubMed

    Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Holl, Katie; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary; Tschannen, Michael; He, Hong; Andrae, Jaime Wendt; Li, Shun-Hua; Stoddard, Alex; Wiederhold, Andrew; Parrington, John; Ruas da Silva, Margarida; Galione, Antony; Meigs, James; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Simpson, Pippa; Jacob, Howard; Hessner, Martin; Solberg Woods, Leah C

    2014-09-01

    The genetic basis of type 2 diabetes remains incompletely defined despite the use of multiple genetic strategies. Multiparental populations such as heterogeneous stocks (HS) facilitate gene discovery by allowing fine mapping to only a few megabases, significantly decreasing the number of potential candidate genes compared to traditional mapping strategies. In the present work, we employed expression and sequence analysis in HS rats (Rattus norvegicus) to identify Tpcn2 as a likely causal gene underlying a 3.1-Mb locus for glucose and insulin levels. Global gene expression analysis on liver identified Tpcn2 as the only gene in the region that is differentially expressed between HS rats with glucose intolerance and those with normal glucose regulation. Tpcn2 also maps as a cis-regulating expression QTL and is negatively correlated with fasting glucose levels. We used founder sequence to identify variants within this region and assessed association between 18 variants and diabetic traits by conducting a mixed-model analysis, accounting for the complex family structure of the HS. We found that two variants were significantly associated with fasting glucose levels, including a nonsynonymous coding variant within Tpcn2. Studies in Tpcn2 knockout mice demonstrated a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels and insulin response to a glucose challenge relative to those in wild-type mice. Finally, we identified variants within Tpcn2 that are associated with fasting insulin in humans. These studies indicate that Tpcn2 is a likely causal gene that may play a role in human diabetes and demonstrate the utility of multiparental populations for positionally cloning genes within complex loci. PMID:25236446

  19. Chronic ingestion of advanced glycation end products induces degenerative spinal changes and hypertrophy in aging pre-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cai, Weijing; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Iatridis, James C

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and pathological spinal changes are major causes of back pain, which is the top cause of global disability. Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for back pain and musculoskeletal complications. Modern diets contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cyto-toxic components which are known contributors to obesity, diabetes and accelerated aging pathologies. There is little information about potential effects of AGE rich diet on spinal pathology, which may be a contributing cause for back pain which is common in obese and diabetic individuals. This study investigated the role of specific AGE precursors (e.g. methylglyoxal-derivatives (MG)) on IVD and vertebral pathologies in aging C57BL6 mice that were fed isocaloric diets with standard (dMG+) or reduced amounts of MG derivatives (dMG-; containing 60-70% less dMG). dMG+ mice exhibited a pre-diabetic phenotype, as they were insulin resistant but not hyperglycemic. Vertebrae of dMG+ mice displayed increased cortical-thickness and cortical-area, greater MG-AGE accumulation and ectopic calcification in vertebral endplates. IVD morphology of dMG+ mice exhibited ectopic calcification, hypertrophic differentiation and glycosaminoglycan loss relative to dMG- mice. Overall, chronic exposure to dietary AGEs promoted age-accelerated IVD degeneration and vertebral alterations involving ectopic calcification which occurred in parallel with insulin resistance, and which were prevented with dMG- diet. This study described a new mouse model for diet-induced spinal degeneration, and results were in support of the hypothesis that chronic AGE ingestion could be a factor contributing to a pre-diabetic state, ectopic calcifications in spinal tissues, and musculoskeletal complications that are more generally known to occur with chronic diabetic conditions. PMID:25668621

  20. Anti-diabetic effect of purple corn extract on C57BL/KsJ db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Wang, Zhiqiang; Park, Jong Hyuk; Ryu, Ok Hyun; Choi, Moon Ki; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Recently, anthocyanins have been reported to have various biological activities. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract (PCE) ameliorated insulin resistance and reduced diabetes-associated mesanginal fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting that it may have benefits for the prevention of diabetes and diabetes complications. In this study, we determined the anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin component of PCE by HPLC-ESI-MS and investigated its anti-diabetic activity and mechanisms using C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. MATERIALS/METHODS The db/db mice were divided into four groups: diabetic control group (DC), 10 or 50 mg/kg PCE (PCE 10 or PCE 50), or 10 mg/kg pinitol (pinitol 10) and treated with drugs once per day for 8 weeks. During the experiment, body weight and blood glucose levels were measured every week. At the end of treatment, we measured several diabetic parameters. RESULTS Compared to the DC group, Fasting blood glucose levels were 68% lower in PCE 50 group and 51% lower in the pinitol 10 group. Furthermore, the PCE 50 group showed 2- fold increased C-peptide and adiponectin levels and 20% decreased HbA1c levels, than in the DC group. In pancreatic islets morphology, the PCE- or pinitol-treated mice showed significant prevention of pancreatic ?-cell damage and higher insulin content. Microarray analyses results indicating that gene and protein expressions associated with glycolysis and fatty acid metabolism in liver and fat tissues. In addition, purple corn extract increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6pase) genes in liver, and also increased glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expressions in skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggested that PCE exerted anti-diabetic effects through protection of pancreatic ?-cells, increase of insulin secretion and AMPK activation in the liver of C57BL/KsJ db/db mice. PMID:25671064

  1. Hypoglycemic effect of catalpol on high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Xu, Zhimeng; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Sun, Lixin; Ji, Jinzi; Miao, Jingshan; Zhang, Xueji; Li, Xiaojie; Huang, Shan; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Luyong

    2014-09-01

    Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside, exists in the root of Radix Rehmanniae. Some studies have shown that catalpol has a remarkable hypoglycemic effect in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic model, but the underlying mechanism for this effect has not been fully elucidated. Because mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the pathology of diabetes and because improving mitochondrial function may offer a new approach for the treatment of diabetes, this study was designed. Catalpol was orally administered together with metformin to high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ)-induced diabetic mice daily for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW), fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, and glucose disposal (IPGTT) were measured during or after the treatment. The results showed a dose-dependent reduction of FBG level with no apparent changes in BW through four successive weeks of catalpol administration. Catalpol treatment substantially reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the diabetic mice. In addition, catalpol efficiently increased mitochondrial ATP production and reversed the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA copy number in skeletal muscle tissue. Furthermore, catalpol (200 mg/kg) rescued mitochondrial ultrastructure in skeletal muscle, as detected with transmission electron microscopy. The relative mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) ? was significantly decreased in muscle tissue of diabetic mice, while this effect was reversed by catalpol, resulting in a dose-dependent up-regulation. Taken together, we found that catalpol was capable of lowering FBG level via improving mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle of HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:25178463

  2. Changes in Liver Cell DNA Methylation Status in Diabetic Mice Affect Its FT-IR Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Ghiraldini, Flávia Gerelli; Mello, Maria Luiza S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower levels of cytosine methylation have been found in the liver cell DNA from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice under hyperglycemic conditions. Because the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) profiles of dry DNA samples are differently affected by DNA base composition, single-stranded form and histone binding, it is expected that the methylation status in the DNA could also affect its FT-IR profile. Methodology/Principal Findings The DNA FT-IR signatures obtained from the liver cell nuclei of hyperglycemic and normoglycemic NOD mice of the same age were compared. Dried DNA samples were examined in an IR microspectroscope equipped with an all-reflecting objective (ARO) and adequate software. Conclusions/Significance Changes in DNA cytosine methylation levels induced by hyperglycemia in mouse liver cells produced changes in the respective DNA FT-IR profiles, revealing modifications to the vibrational intensities and frequencies of several chemical markers, including ?as –CH3 stretching vibrations in the 5-methylcytosine methyl group. A smaller band area reflecting lower energy absorbed in the DNA was found in the hyperglycemic mice and assumed to be related to the lower levels of –CH3 groups. Other spectral differences were found at 1700–1500 cm?1 and in the fingerprint region, and a slight change in the DNA conformation at the lower DNA methylation levels was suggested for the hyperglycemic mice. The changes that affect cytosine methylation levels certainly affect the DNA-protein interactions and, consequently, gene expression in liver cells from the hyperglycemic NOD mice. PMID:25019512

  3. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK ? subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within ? subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  4. Restoration of ultrastructural and biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rat sciatic nerve on treatment with Na 3 VO 4 and Trigonella —a promising antidiabetic agent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anju Preet; Bihari L. Gupta; Mohamed R. Siddiqui; Pramod K. Yadava; Nazma Zaheer Baquer

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium has been reported to have broad pharmacological activity both in vitro and in vivo. Vanadium compound, sodium orthovanadate, Na3VO4, is well known for its hypoglycaemic effects. However, Na3VO4 exerts these effects at relatively high doses (0.6 mg\\/ml) and exhibit several toxic effects. In the present study lower doses of Na3VO4 (0.2 mg\\/ml) are combined with Trigonella foenum graecum seed

  5. Wound Healing Improvement with PHD-2 Silenced Fibroblasts in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Dai, Jiezhi; Wang, Chunyang; Han, Pei; Chai, Yimin

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? is the central regulator of the hypoxia-induced response which results in the up-regulation of angiogenic factors. Its activity is under precise regulation of prolyl-hydroxylase domain 2. We hypothesized that PHD2 silenced fibroblasts would increase the expression of angiogenic factors, which might contribute to the improvement of the diabetic wound healing. Materials and Methods 50 dB/db mice were employed and randomly assigned into five groups with 10 mice in each: group 1 (untreated cell), group 2 (PHD2 silenced cell), group 3 (L-mimosine treated cells), group 4 (nontargeting siRNA treated cells) and group 5 (sham control). Fibroblasts were cultivated from the dermis of mice in each group and treated with PHD2 targeting siRNA, L-mimosine and non-targeting siRNA respectively. A fraction of the fibroblasts were employed to verify the silencing rate of PHD2 after 48 hours. The autologous fibroblasts (treated and untreated) labeled with adenovirus-GFP were implanted around the wound (?6mm), which was created on the dorsum of each mouse. The status of wounds was recorded periodically. Ten days postoperatively, 3 mice from each group were sacrificed and wound tissues were harvested. Molecular biological examinations were performed to evaluate the expressions of cytokines. 28 days postoperatively, the remaining mice were sacrificed. Histological examinations were performed to evaluate the densities of GFP+ cells and capillaries. Results The expression of PHD2 reduced to 12.5%, and the expressions of HIF-1? and VEGFa increased significantly after PHD2 siRNA treatment. With the increasing expressions of HIF-1? and VEGFa, the time to wound closure in group 2 was less than 2 weeks. Increased numbers of GFP+ cells and capillaries were observed in group 2. Conclusion PHD2 siRNA treatment not only increased the expression of HIF1? and VEGFa, but also improved the fibroblast proliferation. These effects might contribute to the improvement of the diabetic wound healing. PMID:24376825

  6. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice.

    PubMed

    Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-01

    Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKC? activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. PMID:25645620

  7. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Is Activated in the Endothelium of Retinal Microvessels in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zetterqvist, Anna V.; Blanco, Fabiana; Öhman, Jenny; Kotova, Olga; Berglund, Lisa M.; de Frutos Garcia, Sergio; Al-Naemi, Raed; Wigren, Maria; McGuire, Paul G.; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V.; Gomez, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear but hyperglycemia is an established risk factor. Endothelial dysfunction and changes in Ca2+ signaling have been shown to precede the onset of DR. We recently demonstrated that high extracellular glucose activates the Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor NFAT in cerebral arteries and aorta, promoting the expression of inflammatory markers. Here we show, using confocal immunofluorescence, that NFAT is expressed in the endothelium of retinal microvessels and is readily activated by high glucose. This was inhibited by the NFAT blocker A-285222 as well as by the ectonucleotidase apyrase, suggesting a mechanism involving the release of extracellular nucleotides. Acute hyperglycemia induced by an IP-GTT (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test) resulted in increased NFATc3 nuclear accumulation and NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity in retinal vessels of NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. In both Akita (Ins2+/?) and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice, NFAT transcriptional activity was elevated in retinal vessels. In vivo inhibition of NFAT with A-285222 decreased the expression of OPN and ICAM-1 mRNA in retinal vessels, prevented a diabetes driven downregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in retina, and abrogated the increased vascular permeability observed in diabetic mice. Results identify NFAT signaling as a putative target for treatment of microvascular complications in diabetes. PMID:25918731

  8. Consumption of acidic water alters the gut microbiome and decreases the risk of diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kyle J; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Hartmann, Riley; Khafipour, Ehsan; Lorenz, Robin G

    2014-04-01

    Infant formula and breastfeeding are environmental factors that influence the incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as well as the acidity of newborn diets. To determine if altering the intestinal microbiome is one mechanism through which an acidic liquid plays a role in T1D, we placed non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJt mice on neutral (N) or acidified H2O and monitored the impact on microbial composition and diabetes incidence. NOD-N mice showed an increased development of diabetes, while exhibiting a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria from as early as 2 weeks of age. NOD-N mice had a decrease in the levels of Foxp3 expression in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells, as well as decreased CD4(+)IL17(+) cells, and a lower ratio of IL17/IFN? CD4+ T-cells. Our data clearly indicates that a change in the acidity of liquids consumed dramatically alters the intestinal microbiome, the presence of protective Th17 and Treg cells, and the incidence of diabetes. This data suggests that early dietary manipulation of intestinal microbiota may be a novel mechanism to delay T1D onset in genetically pre-disposed individuals. PMID:24453191

  9. CCR2 antagonist CCX140-B provides renal and glycemic benefits in diabetic transgenic human CCR2 knockin mice

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Timothy; Miao, Zhenhua; Dairaghi, Daniel J.; Krasinski, Antoni; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Bin N.; Baumgart, Trageen; Ertl, Linda S.; Pennell, Andrew; Seitz, Lisa; Powers, Jay; Zhao, Ruiping; Ungashe, Solomon; Wei, Zheng; Boring, Landin; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Charo, Israel; Schall, Thomas J.; Jaen, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (CCR2) is central for the migration of monocytes into inflamed tissues. The novel CCR2 antagonist CCX140-B, which is currently in two separate phase 2 clinical trials in diabetic nephropathy, has recently been shown to reduce hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetics. In this report, we describe the effects of this compound on glycemic and renal function parameters in diabetic mice. Since CCX140-B has a low affinity for mouse CCR2, transgenic human CCR2 knockin mice were generated and rendered diabetic with either a high-fat diet (diet-induced obesity) or by deletion of the leptin receptor gene (db/db). CCX140-B treatment in both models resulted in decreased albuminuria, which was associated with decreased glomerular hypertrophy and increased podocyte density. Moreover, treatment of diet-induced obese mice with CCX140-B resulted in decreased levels of fasting blood glucose and insulin, normalization of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values, and decreased numbers of adipose tissue inflammatory macrophages. Unlike other CCR2 antagonists, CCX140-B had no effect on plasma levels of the CCR2 ligand CCL2 or on the numbers of blood monocytes. These results support the ongoing evaluation of this molecule in diabetic subjects with impaired renal function. PMID:23986513

  10. Effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract on the blood glucose and insulin levels of inbred type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Laditan, A A; Michelin, R; Bryant, J L; Denaro, F; Makinde, J M; Williams, A L; Kennedy, A P; Bronner, Y

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (CA) leaf extract and chlorpropamide on blood glucose and insulin levels in the inbred type 2 diabetic mice are reported. After treatment with CA, the glucose levels were measured at 0 and 2-hour intervals in experimental groups and controls. Group I received no treatment and served as control; Group II was the reference and it received chlorpropamide; Groups I-III were moderately diabetic, 100-300 mg/dL blood glucose levels while Group IV were severely diabetic (> 300 mg/dL). Groups III and IV received CA and served as test groups. There was no significant difference between the blood glucose levels at 0 and 2 hours for the control group, (P>0.23) but there were statistically significant differences for Group II (P<0.0002); Group III (P<0.002) and Group IV (P<0.0001). For moderately diabetic mice, CA and chlorpropamide decreased the glucose levels by 25.6% and 16.3% respectively while for the severely diabetic mice CA decreased the blood glucose by 43.7%. It is proposed that CA has an insulinogenic property that possibly stimulated dormant beta-cells to secrete insulin. The histopathology of several organs in the treated animals was found to differ from the expected. The islets of Langerhans for example were found to be preserved in the time frame examined. Also the liver and kidney were found to display milder pathology in the treated groups. PMID:17531147

  11. In vivo hypoglycaemic effect and inhibitory mechanism of the branch bark extract of the mulberry on STZ-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  12. In Vivo Hypoglycaemic Effect and Inhibitory Mechanism of the Branch Bark Extract of the Mulberry on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Yu; Fang, Meng; Zhang, Yu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Branch bark extract (BBE) derived from the mulberry cultivar Husang 32 (Morus multicaulis L.) with aqueous alcohol solution has been investigated as an inhibitor of ?-glycosidase in vitro. Mulberry BBE was orally administered to STZ-induced diabetic mice for three weeks, and it improved the weight gain and ameliorated the swelling of liver and kidney in diabetic mice. Obviously, mulberry BBE not only can reduce the abnormally elevated levels of serum insulin and ameliorate insulin resistance induced by STZ, but also it regulates dyslipidemia in diabetic mice. To understand this therapeutic effect and the regulatory mechanisms of BBE in diabetic mice, a qRT-PCR experiment was performed, indicating that the mulberry BBE can regulate the mRNA expression of glycometabolism genes in diabetic mice, including glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glucokinase (GCK), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), thereby regulating sugar metabolism and reducing the blood glucose level in diabetic mice. The mulberry BBE can increase the mRNA expression of the genes Ins1, Ins2 and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and may decrease the insulin resistance in diabetic mice. Those results provide an important basis for making the best use of mulberry branch resources and producing biomedical drugs with added value. PMID:25177729

  13. Gold nanorods in an oil-base formulation for transdermal treatment of type 1 diabetes in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Keisuke; Pissuwan, Dakrong; Goto, Masahiro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Niidome, Takuro

    2012-05-01

    Efficient transdermal insulin delivery to the systemic circulation would bring major benefit to diabetic patients. We investigated the possibility of using gold nanorods (GNRs) that formed a complex with an edible surfactant and insulin (INS) in an oil phase to form a solid-in-oil (SO) formulation (SO-INS-GNR) for transdermal treatment of diabetes. Diabetic mice comprised the model for our study. In vitro, there was high penetration of insulin through the stratum corneum (SC) and the dermis in mouse skin treated with an SO-INS-GNR complex plus near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. Blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice were significantly decreased after treatment with SO-INS-GNR plus irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use gold nanorods for systemic insulin delivery through the skin. The use of an SO-INS-GNR complex combined with NIR irradiation may provide the possibility of transdermal insulin delivery to diabetic patients.Efficient transdermal insulin delivery to the systemic circulation would bring major benefit to diabetic patients. We investigated the possibility of using gold nanorods (GNRs) that formed a complex with an edible surfactant and insulin (INS) in an oil phase to form a solid-in-oil (SO) formulation (SO-INS-GNR) for transdermal treatment of diabetes. Diabetic mice comprised the model for our study. In vitro, there was high penetration of insulin through the stratum corneum (SC) and the dermis in mouse skin treated with an SO-INS-GNR complex plus near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation. Blood glucose levels in the diabetic mice were significantly decreased after treatment with SO-INS-GNR plus irradiation. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use gold nanorods for systemic insulin delivery through the skin. The use of an SO-INS-GNR complex combined with NIR irradiation may provide the possibility of transdermal insulin delivery to diabetic patients. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30651d

  14. Antioxidant and anti-diabetic potential of Passiflora alata Curtis aqueous leaves extract in type 1 diabetes mellitus (NOD-mice).

    PubMed

    Colomeu, T C; Figueiredo, D; Cazarin, C B B; Schumacher, N S G; Maróstica, M R; Meletti, L M M; Zollner, R L

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Passiflora alata Curtis were characterized for their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant analyses of DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, ORAC and phenolic compounds were made in three different extracts: aqueous, methanol/acetone and ethanol. Aqueous extract was found to be the best solvent for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, when compared with methanol/acetone and ethanol. To study the anti-inflammatory properties of this extract in experimental type 1 diabetes, NOD mice were divided into two groups: the P. alata group, treated with aqueous extract of P. alata Curtis, and a non-treated control group, followed by diabetes expression analysis. The consumption of aqueous extract and water ad libitum lasted 28 weeks. The treated-group presented a decrease in diabetes incidence, a low quantity of infiltrative cells in pancreatic islets and increased glutathione in the kidney and liver (p<0.05), when compared with the diabetic and non-diabetic control-groups. In conclusion, our results suggest that the consumption of aqueous extract of P. alata may be considered a good source of natural antioxidants and compounds found in its composition can act as anti-inflammatory agents, helping in the control of diabetes. PMID:24269180

  15. Diabetes susceptibility of BALB/cBOM mice treated with streptozotocin. Inhibition by lethal irradiation and restoration by splenic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S.G.; Blue, M.L.; Fleischer, N.; Shin, S.

    1982-09-01

    In genetically susceptible strains of mice, repeated injections of a subdiabetogenic dose of streptozotocin induces the development of progressive insulin-dependent hyperglycemia. We showed previously that host T-cell functions play an obligatory etiologic role in this experimental disease by demonstrating that the athymic nude mouse is resistant to diabetes induction unless its T-cell functions are reconstituted by thymus graft. Here we show that lethal irradiation of euthymic (+/nu) mice of BALB/cBOM background causes selective resistance of the mice to the diabetogenic effects of the multiple low doses of streptozotocin without affecting their sensitivity to a high pharmacologic dose of the toxin. We also show that reconstitution of the irradiated mice with splenic lymphocytes causes the restoration of diabetes susceptibility. Lethally irradiated mice thus represent a useful experimental model for analyzing the host functions involved in the development of this disease. These results provide an additional support for the hypothesis that the induction of diabetes in this model system is mediated by an autoimmune amplification mechanism.

  16. Global biochemical profiling identifies ?-hydroxypyruvate as a potential mediator of type 2 diabetes in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Songyan; Puhl, Matthew D; Jiang, Xuntian; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Laciny, Erin; Wallendorf, Michael J; Pappan, Kirk L; Coyle, Joseph T; Wice, Burton M

    2015-04-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and GLP-1 are incretins secreted by respective K and L enteroendocrine cells after eating and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This amplification has been termed the "incretin response." To determine the role(s) of K cells for the incretin response and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), diphtheria toxin-expressing (DT) mice that specifically lack GIP-producing cells were backcrossed five to eight times onto the diabetogenic NONcNZO10/Ltj background. As in humans with T2DM, DT mice lacked an incretin response, although GLP-1 release was maintained. With high-fat (HF) feeding, DT mice remained lean but developed T2DM, whereas wild-type mice developed obesity but not diabetes. Metabolomics identified biochemicals reflecting impaired glucose handling, insulin resistance, and diabetes complications in prediabetic DT/HF mice. ?-Hydroxypyruvate and benzoate levels were increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting ?-hydroxypyruvate production from d-serine. In vitro, ?-hydroxypyruvate altered excitatory properties of myenteric neurons and reduced islet insulin content but not GSIS. ?-Hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios were lower in humans with impaired glucose tolerance compared with normal glucose tolerance and T2DM. Earlier human studies unmasked a neural relay that amplifies GIP-mediated insulin secretion in a pattern reciprocal to ?-hydroxypyruvate-to-d-serine ratios in all groups. Thus, K cells may maintain long-term function of neurons and ?-cells by regulating ?-hydroxypyruvate levels. PMID:25368100

  17. Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) Seeds on Reproductive Complications of Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin Induced Type-2 Diabetes in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Ehsan, Ghaedi; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seeds on the reproductive system of nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n=8): control; diabetic mice; diabetic mice administered glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg); diabetic mice who received the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds (200 and 400 mg/kg groups); and normal mice who received this extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) 15 minutes after an injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). Then, glibenclamide and the above mentioned extract were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, serum samples, the testes, and the cauda epididymis were removed immediately for hormonal, testis morphology, and sperm parameter assessments. Results Body and testicular weight, sperm count and viability, and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the diabetic mice (p<0.05). The diabetic mice treated with 400 mg/kg of the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds recovered from these reductions (p<0.05). Further, glibenclamide alleviated hormonal and sperm count depletion in diabetes-induced mice (p<0.05). Conclusions The present results indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds has anti-infertility effects in diabetic males. PMID:25606564

  18. Transient cytokine treatment induces acinar cell reprogramming and regenerates functional beta cell mass in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Baeyens, Luc; Lemper, Marie; Leuckx, Gunter; De Groef, Sofie; Bonfanti, Paola; Stangé, Geert; Shemer, Ruth; Nord, Christoffer; Scheel, David W.; Pan, Fong C.; Ahlgren, Ulf; Gu, Guoqiang; Stoffers, Doris A.; Dor, Yuval; Ferrer, Jorge; Gradwohl, Gerard; Wright, Christopher VE; Van de Casteele, Mark; German, Michael S.; Bouwens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into cells resembling beta cells may provide a strategy for treating diabetes. Here we show that transient administration of epidermal growth factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor to adult mice with chronic hyperglycemia efficiently stimulates the conversion of terminally differentiated acinar cells to beta-like cells. Newly generated beta-like cells are epigenetically reprogrammed, functional and glucose-responsive, and reinstate normal glycemic control for up to 248 days. The regenerative process depends on Stat3 signaling and requires a threshold number of Neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) expressing acinar cells. In contrast to previous work demonstrating in vivo conversion of acinar cells to beta-like cells by viral delivery of exogenous transcription factors, our approach achieves acinar-to-beta cell reprogramming through transient cytokine exposure rather than genetic modification. PMID:24240391

  19. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effect of gingerol in cultured cells and obese diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Son, Myoung Jin; Miura, Yutaka; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2015-08-01

    There have been studies on health beneficial effects of ginger and its components. However, there still remain certain aspects that are not well defined in their anti-hyperglycemic effects. Our aims were to find evidence of possible mechanisms for antidiabetic action of [6]-gingerol, a pungent component of ginger, employing a rat skeletal muscle-derived cell line, a rat-derived pancreatic ?-cell line, and type 2 diabetic model animals. The antidiabetic effect of [6]-gingerol was investigated through studies on glucose uptake in L6 myocytes and on pancreatic ?-cell protective ability from reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RIN-5F cells. Its in vivo effect was also examined using obese diabetic db/db mice. [6]-Gingerol increased glucose uptake under insulin absent condition and induced 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in L6 myotubes. Promotion by [6]-gingerol of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to plasma membrane was visually demonstrated by immunocytochemistry in L6 myoblasts transfected with glut4 cDNA-coding vector. [6]-Gingerol suppressed advanced glycation end product-induced rise of ROS levels in RIN-5F pancreatic ?-cells. [6]-Gingerol feeding suppressed the increases in fasting blood glucose levels and improved glucose intolerance in db/db mice. [6]-Gingerol regulated hepatic gene expression of enzymes related to glucose metabolism toward decreases in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis as well as an increase in glycogenesis, thereby contributing to reductions in hepatic glucose production and hence blood glucose concentrations. These in vitro and in vivo results strongly suggest that [6]-gingerol has antidiabetic potential through multiple mechanisms. PMID:24794903

  20. Restoration of the Unfolded Protein Response in Pancreatic ? Cells Protects Mice Against Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Feyza; Yermalovich, Alena; Nguyen, True; Hummasti, Sarah; Fu, Wenxian; Eizirik, Decio L.; Mathis, Diane; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis can evoke stress responses leading to aberrant glucose and lipid metabolism. ER dysfunction is linked to inflammatory disorders, but its role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. We identified defects in the expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) mediators ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) and XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1) in ? cells from two different T1D mouse models and then demonstrated similar defects in pancreatic ? cells from T1D patients. Administration of a chemical ER stress mitigator, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), at the prediabetic stage resulted in a marked reduction of diabetes incidence in the T1D mouse models. This reduction was accompanied by (i) a significant decrease in aggressive lymphocytic infiltration in the pancreas, (ii) improved survival and morphology of ? cells, (iii) reduced ? cell apoptosis, (iv) preserved insulin secretion, and (v) restored expression of UPR mediators. TUDCA?s actions were dependent on ATF6 and were lost in mice with ? cell-specific deletion of ATF6. These data indicate that proper maintenance of the UPR is essential for the preservation of ? cells and that defects in this process can be chemically restored for preventive or therapeutic interventions in T1D. PMID:24225943

  1. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-A(y) Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60-252.20?mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400?mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) ? and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management. PMID:22969823

  2. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60–252.20?mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400?mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) ? and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management. PMID:22969823

  3. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3? Inhibition Ameliorates Cardiac Parasympathetic Dysfunction in Type 1 Diabetic Akita Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yali; Welzig, Charles M.; Picard, Kristen L.; Du, Chuang; Wang, Bo; Pan, Jen Q.; Kyriakis, John M.; Aronovitz, Mark J.; Claycomb, William C.; Blanton, Robert M.; Park, Ho-Jin; Galper, Jonas B.

    2014-01-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a major risk factor for sudden death and cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that parasympathetic dysfunction in the heart of the Akita type 1 diabetic mouse was due to a decrease in the level of the sterol response element–binding protein (SREBP-1). Here we demonstrate that hyperactivity of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK3?) in the atrium of the Akita mouse results in decreased SREBP-1, attenuation of parasympathetic modulation of heart rate, measured as a decrease in the high-frequency (HF) fraction of HRV in the presence of propranolol, and a decrease in expression of the G-protein coupled inward rectifying K+ (GIRK4) subunit of the acetylcholine (ACh)-activated inward-rectifying K+ channel (IKACh), the ion channel that mediates the heart rate response to parasympathetic stimulation. Treatment of atrial myocytes with the GSK3? inhibitor Kenpaullone increased levels of SREBP-1 and expression of GIRK4 and IKACh, whereas a dominant-active GSK3? mutant decreased SREBP-1 and GIRK4 expression. In Akita mice treated with GSK3? inhibitors Li+ and/or CHIR-99021, Li+ increased IKACh, and Li+ and CHIR-99021 both partially reversed the decrease in HF fraction while increasing GIRK4 and SREBP-1 expression. These data support the conclusion that increased GSK3? activity in the type 1 diabetic heart plays a critical role in parasympathetic dysfunction through an effect on SREBP-1, supporting GSK3? as a new therapeutic target for diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:24458356

  4. Diabetes induces stable intrinsic changes to myeloid cells that contribute to chronic inflammation during wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Pauline; Wood, Sally; Restivo, Terry; Campbell, Laura; Hardman, Matthew J; Mace, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    Acute inflammation in response to injury is a tightly regulated process by which subsets of leukocytes are recruited to the injured tissue and undergo behavioural changes that are essential for effective tissue repair and regeneration. The diabetic wound environment is characterised by excessive and prolonged inflammation that is linked to poor progression of healing and, in humans, the development of diabetic foot ulcers. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to excessive inflammation remain poorly understood. Here we show in a murine model that the diabetic environment induces stable intrinsic changes in haematopoietic cells. These changes lead to a hyper-responsive phenotype to both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory stimuli, producing extreme M1 and M2 polarised cells. During early wound healing, myeloid cells in diabetic mice show hyperpolarisation towards both M1 and M2 phenotypes, whereas, at late stages of healing, when non-diabetic macrophages have transitioned to an M2 phenotype, diabetic wound macrophages continue to display an M1 phenotype. Intriguingly, we show that this population predominantly consists of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) CD14(+) cells that have been previously reported as 'inflammatory macrophages' recruited to injured tissue in the early stages of wound healing. Finally, we show that this phenomenon is directly relevant to human diabetic ulcers, for which M2 polarisation predicts healing outcome. Thus, treatments focused at targeting this inflammatory cell subset could prove beneficial for pathological tissue repair. PMID:24057002

  5. Ganglioside GM3 depletion reverses impaired wound healing in diabetic mice by activating IGF-1 and insulin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Qi; Lee, Sarah; Wilson, Heather; Seeger, Mark; Iordanov, Hristo; Gatla, Nandita; Whittington, Adam; Bach, Daniel; Lu, Jian-yun; Paller, Amy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Ganglioside GM3 mediates adipocyte insulin resistance, but the role of GM3 in diabetic wound healing, a major cause of morbidity, is unclear. Purpose Determine whether GM3 depletion promotes diabetic wound healing and directly activates keratinocyte insulin pathway signaling. Results GM3 synthase (GM3S) expression is increased in human diabetic foot skin, ob/ob and diet-induced obese diabetic mouse skin, and mouse keratinocytes exposed to increased glucose. GM3S knockout in diet-induced obese mice prevents the diabetic wound healing defect. Keratinocyte proliferation, migration, and activation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are suppressed by excess glucose in wild type cells, but increased in GM3S ?/? keratinocytes with supplemental glucose. Co-immunoprecipitation of IR, IR substrate-1 (IRS-1), and IGF-1R, and increased IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation accompany receptor activation. GM3 supplementation or inhibition of IGF-1R or PI3K reverses the increased migration of GM3S?/? keratinocytes, whereas IR knockdown only partially suppresses migration. Conclusions Cutaneous GM3 accumulation may participate in the impaired wound healing of diet-induced diabetes by suppressing keratinocyte insulin/IGF-1 axis signaling. Strategies to deplete GM3S/GM3 may improve diabetic wound healing. PMID:24326453

  6. Postnatal Development of Numbers and Mean Sizes of Pancreatic Islets and Beta-Cells in Healthy Mice and GIPRdn Transgenic Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herbach, Nadja; Bergmayr, Martina; Göke, Burkhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Ruediger

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine postnatal islet and beta-cell expansion in healthy female control mice and its disturbances in diabetic GIPRdn transgenic mice, which exhibit an early reduction of beta-cell mass. Pancreata of female control and GIPRdn transgenic mice, aged 10, 45, 90 and 180 days were examined, using state-of-the-art quantitative-stereological methods. Total islet and beta-cell volumes, as well as their absolute numbers increased significantly until 90 days in control mice, and remained stable thereafter. The mean islet volumes of controls also increased slightly but significantly between 10 and 45 days of age, and then remained stable until 180 days. The total volume of isolated beta-cells, an indicator of islet neogenesis, and the number of proliferating (BrdU-positive) islet cells were highest in 10-day-old controls and declined significantly between 10 and 45 days. In GIPRdn transgenic mice, the numbers of islets and beta-cells were significantly reduced from 10 days of age onwards vs. controls, and no postnatal expansion of total islet and beta-cell volumes occurred due to a reduction in islet neogenesis whereas early islet-cell proliferation and apoptosis were unchanged as compared to control mice. Insulin secretion in response to pharmacological doses of GIP was preserved in GIPRdn transgenic mice, and serum insulin to pancreatic insulin content in response to GLP-1 and arginine was significantly higher in GIPRdn transgenic mice vs. controls. We could show that the increase in islet number is mainly responsible for expansion of islet and beta-cell mass in healthy control mice. GIPRdn transgenic mice show a disturbed expansion of the endocrine pancreas, due to perturbed islet neogenesis. PMID:21818396

  7. Lgr5 positive stem cells sorted from small intestines of diabetic mice differentiate into higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xian-Yang; Yu, Tao; Zhong, Wa; Li, Jie-Yao; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Yuan, Yu-Hong; Yu, Zhong; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) can differentiate into all types of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a marker for IESC. Previous studies reported enhanced proliferation of IECs in diabetic mice. In this study, the in vitro differentiation of Lgr5 positive IESCs sorted from diabetic mice was further investigated. The diabetic mouse model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and crypt IECs were isolated from small intestines. Subsequently, Lgr5 positive IESCs were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and sorted by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Differentiation of the sorted IESCs was investigated by detecting the IEC markers in the diabetic mice using immunostaining, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis, which was compared with normal mice. We found that the proportion of Lgr5 positive cells in the crypt IECs of diabetic mice was higher than that of control mice (P < 0.05). Lgr5 positive IESCs could be significantly enriched in Lgr5 positive cell fraction sorted by MACS. Furthermore, the absorptive cell marker sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and the Paneth cell marker lysozyme 1 (Lyz1) were more highly expressed in the differentiated cells derived from Lgr5 positive IESCs of diabetic mice in vitro (P < 0.05). We demonstrate that the number of Lgr5 positive IESCs is significantly increased in the small intestines of STZ-induced diabetic mice. Lgr5 positive IESCs sorted from the diabetic mice can differentiate into a higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro. We characterized the expression of Lgr5 in the small intestine of diabetic mice, and sorted Lgr5 positive intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) for investigating their differentiation in vitro. We proved that the quantity of Lgr5 positive IESCs was significantly increased in the small intestines of diabetic mice. IESCs sorted from the diabetic mice can differentiate into a higher proportion of absorptive cells and Paneth cells in vitro. PMID:26122164

  8. Adoptive Transfer of Immunomodulatory M2 Macrophages Prevents Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Roham; Andresen, Pernilla; Gillett, Alan; Mia, Sohel; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Mayans, Sofia; Holmberg, Dan; Harris, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are multifunctional immune cells that may either drive or modulate disease pathogenesis depending on their activation phenotype. Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic proinflammatory condition characterized by unresolved destruction of pancreatic islets. Adoptive cell transfer of macrophages with immunosuppressive properties represents a novel immunotherapy for treatment of such chronic autoimmune diseases. We used a panel of cytokines and other stimuli to discern the most effective regimen for in vitro induction of immunosuppressive macrophages (M2r) and determined interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10/transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) to be optimal. M2r cells expressed programmed cell death 1 ligand-2, fragment crystallizable region ? receptor IIb, IL-10, and TGF-?, had a potent deactivating effect on proinflammatory lipopolysaccharide/interferon-?–stimulated macrophages, and significantly suppressed T-cell proliferation. Clinical therapeutic efficacy was assessed after adoptive transfer in NOD T1D mice, and after a single transfer of M2r macrophages, >80% of treated NOD mice were protected against T1D for at least 3 months, even when transfer was conducted just prior to clinical onset. Fluorescent imaging analyses revealed that adoptively transferred M2r macrophages specifically homed to the inflamed pancreas, promoting ?-cell survival. We suggest that M2r macrophage therapy represents a novel intervention that stops ongoing autoimmune T1D and may have relevance in a clinical setting. PMID:22745325

  9. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK ? subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24055643

  10. Diabetes insipidus in uricase-deficient mice: a model for evaluating therapy with poly(ethylene glycol)-modified uricase.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S J; Delnomdedieu, M; Oliverio, M I; Williams, L D; Saifer, M G; Sherman, M R; Coffman, T M; Johnson, G A; Hershfield, M S

    2001-05-01

    Uricase-deficient mice develop uric acid nephropathy, with high mortality rates before weaning. Urate excretion was quantitated and renal function was better defined in this study, to facilitate the use of these mice as a model for evaluating poly(ethylene glycol)-modified recombinant mammalian uricases (PEG-uricase) as a potential therapy for gout and uric acid nephropathy. The uric acid/creatinine ratio in the urine of uricase-deficient mice ranges from 10 to >30; on a weight basis, these mice excrete 20- to 40-fold more urate than do human subjects. These mice consistently develop a severe defect in renal concentrating ability, resulting in an approximately sixfold greater urine volume and a fivefold greater fluid requirement, compared with normal mice. This nephrogenic diabetes insipidus leads to dehydration and death of nursing mice but, with adequate water replacement, high urine flow protects adults from progressive renal damage. Treatment of uricase-deficient mice with PEG-uricase markedly reduced urate levels and, when initiated before weaning, preserved the renal architecture (as evaluated by magnetic resonance micros-copy) and prevented the loss of renal concentrating function. PEG-uricase was far more effective and less immunogenic than unmodified uricase. Retention of uricase in most mammals and its loss in humans and some other primates may reflect the evolution of renal function under different environmental conditions. PEG-uricase could provide an effective therapy for uric acid nephropathy and refractory gout in human patients. PMID:11316859

  11. PDGF-BB Does Not Accelerate Healing in Diabetic Mice with Splinted Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nihar M.; Teixeira, Leandro; Motta, Monica J.; Covert, Jill; Dubielzig, Richard; Schurr, Michael; Isseroff, Roslyn Rivkah; Abbott, Nicholas L.; McAnulty, Jonathan; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) is considered to accelerate tissue repair of impaired chronic wounds. However, the vast literature is plagued with conflicting reports of its efficacy in animal models and this is often influenced by a wide array of experimental variables making it difficult to compare the results across the studies. To mitigate the confounding variables that influence the efficacy of topically applied PDGF-BB, we used a controlled full thickness splinted excisional wound model in db/db mice (type 2 diabetic mouse model) for our investigations. A carefully-defined silicone-splinted wound model, with reduced wound contraction, controlled splint and bandage maintenance, allowing for healing primarily by reepithelialization was employed. Two splinted 8 mm dorsal full thickness wounds were made in db/db mice. Wounds were topically treated once daily with either 3 µg PDGF-BB in 30 µl of 5% PEG-PBS vehicle or an equal volume of vehicle for 10 days. Body weights, wound contraction, wound closure, reepithelialization, collagen content, and wound bed inflammation were evaluated clinically and histopathologically. The bioactivity of PDGF-BB was confirmed by in vitro proliferation assay. PDGF-BB, although bioactive in vitro, failed to accelerate wound healing in vivo in the db/db mice using the splinted wound model. Considering that the predominant mechanism of wound healing in humans is by re-epeithelialization, the most appropriate model for evaluating therapeutics is one that uses splints to prevent excessive wound contraction. Here, we report that PDGF-BB does not promote wound closure by re-epithelialization in a murine splinted wound model. Our results highlight that the effects of cytoactive factors reported in vivo ought to be carefully interpreted with critical consideration of the wound model used. PMID:25121729

  12. Development of diabetes in obese, insulin-resistant mice: essential role of dietary carbohydrate in beta cell destruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Jürgens; S. Neschen; S. Ortmann; S. Scherneck; K. Schmolz; G. Schüler; S. Schmidt; M. Blüher; S. Klaus; D. Perez-Tilve; M. H. Tschöp; A. Schürmann; H.-G. Joost

    2007-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  The role of dietary carbohydrate in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is still a subject of controversial debate. Here we\\u000a analysed the effects of diets with and without carbohydrate on obesity, insulin resistance and development of beta cell failure\\u000a in the obese, diabetes-prone New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  NZO mice were kept on a standard diet (4%

  13. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sonta, Toshiyo [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Inoguchi, Toyoshi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)]. E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Shingo [Department of Bio-function Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yasukawa, Keiji [Department of Bio-function Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Inuo, Mieko [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Tsubouchi, Hirotaka [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Sonoda, Noriyuki [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Kobayashi, Kunihisa [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Utsumi, Hideo [Department of Bio-function Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nawata, Hajime [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2005-05-06

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Topiramate Treatment Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Pericytes from Hyperglycemia-Induced Oxidative Damage in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Price, Tulin O.; Eranki, Vijay; Banks, William A.; Ercal, Nuran

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus causes cerebral microvasculature deterioration and cognitive decline. The specialized endothelial cells of cerebral microvasculature comprise the blood-brain barrier, and the pericytes (PC) that are in immediate contact with these endothelial cells are vital for blood-brain barrier integrity. In diabetes, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress is implicated as a mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced PC loss as a prerequisite leading to blood-brain barrier disruption. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases (CA) regulate the oxidative metabolism of glucose and thus play an important role in the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. We hypothesize that the inhibition of mitochondrial CA would reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, rescue cerebral PC loss caused by diabetes-induced oxidative stress, and preserve blood-brain barrier integrity. We studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial CA activity on streptozotocin-diabetes-induced oxidative stress and PC loss in the mouse brain. At 3 wk of diabetes, there was significant oxidative stress; the levels of reduced glutathione were lower and those of 3-nitrotyrosine, 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal, and superoxide dismutase were higher. Treatment of diabetic mice with topiramate, a potent mitochondrial CA inhibitor, prevented the oxidative stress caused by 3 wk of diabetes. A significant decline in cerebral PC numbers, at 12 wk of diabetes, was also rescued by topiramate treatment. These results provide the first evidence that inhibition of mitochondrial CA activity reduces diabetes-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain and rescues cerebral PC dropout. Thus, mitochondrial CA may provide a new therapeutic target for oxidative stress related illnesses of the central nervous system. PMID:22109883

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide L-4F prevents myocardial and coronary dysfunction in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecoli, C.; Cao, J.; Neglia, D.; Inoue, K.; Sodhi, K.; Vanella, L.; Gabrielson, K. K.; Bedja, D.; Paolocci, N.; L'Abbate, A.; Abraham, N. G.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a major health problem associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide L-4F is a putative anti-diabetic drug, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties and improves endothelial function. In obese mice L-4F increases adiponectin levels, improving insulin sensitivity and reducing visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that the pleiotropic actions of L-4F can prevent heart and coronary dysfunction in a mouse model of genetically induced Type II diabetes. We treated db/db mice with either L-4F or vehicle for 8 weeks. Trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed; thereafter, isolated hearts were subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (IR). Glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-?, MCP-1) were measured in plasma and HO-1, pAMPK, peNOS, iNOS, adiponectin and superoxide in cardiac tissue. In db/db mice L-4F decreased accumulation of subcutaneous and total fat, and increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels while lowering inflammatory cytokines (p<0.05). L-4F normalized in vivo left ventricular (LV) function of db/db mice, increasing (p<0.05) fractional shortening and decreasing (p<0.05) LV dimensions. In I/R experiments, L-4F prevented coronary microvascular resistance from increasing and LV function from deteriorating in the db/db mice. These changes were associated with increased cardiac expression of HO-1, pAMPK, peNOS and adiponectin and decreased levels of superoxide and iNOS (p<0.01). In the present study we showed that L-4F prevented myocardial and coronary functional abnormalities in db/db mice. These effects were associated with stimulation of HO-1 resulting in increased levels of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and vasodilatatory action through a mechanism involving increased levels of adiponectin, pAMPK and peNOS. PMID:21598304

  16. Enhanced p22phox expression impairs vascular function through p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Kassan, Modar; Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Galán, Maria; Lee, Young-Ho; Trebak, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with vascular complication. We hypothesized that increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p22phox expression impairs vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetic (db?/db?) and control (db?/db+) mice were treated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, polyethylene glycol superoxide dismutase (1,000 U/kg daily ip), or small interfering RNA p22phox (p22phox-lentivirus-small interfering RNA, 100 ?g iv, 2 times/wk) for 1 mo. EDR was impaired in microvascular bed (coronary arteriole and femoral and mesenteric resistance arteries) from diabetic mice compared with control. Interestingly, ROS scavenger and p22phox downregulation did not affect blood glucose level or body weight but significantly improved EDR. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation and NADPH oxidase activity were increased in arteries from diabetic mice and were reduced after ROS scavenger or p22phox downregulation in db?/db? mice. The present study showed that enhanced p22phox expression causes vascular dysfunction through ERK1/2 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanisms in male type 2 diabetic mice. Therefore, p22phox could be an important target to improve vascular function in diabetes. PMID:24486509

  17. Expression of genetically determined diabetes and insulitis in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse at the level of bone marrow-derived cells. Transfer of diabetes and insulitis to nondiabetic (NOD X B10) F1 mice with bone marrow cells from NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, L.S.; Miller, B.J.; Chai, A.; Terada, M.; Mullen, Y.

    1988-06-01

    The development of autoimmune diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is controlled by at least three recessive loci, including one linked to the MHC. To determine whether any of these genetic loci exert their effects via the immune system, radiation bone marrow chimeras were constructed in which (NOD X B10)F1-irradiated recipients were reconstituted with NOD bone marrow cells. Unmanipulated (NOD X B10)F1 mice, or irradiated F1 mice reconstituted with F1 or B10 bone marrow, did not display insulitis or diabetes. In contrast, insulitis was observed in a majority of the NOD----F1 chimeras and diabetes developed in 21% of the mice. These data demonstrate that expression of the diabetic phenotype in the NOD mouse is dependent on NOD-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Diabetogenic genes in the NOD mouse do not appear to function at the level of the insulin-producing beta cells since NOD----F1 chimeras not only developed insulitis and diabetes but also rejected beta cells within pancreas transplants from newborn B10 mice. These data suggest that the beta cells of the NOD mouse do not express a unique antigenic determinant that is the target of the autoimmune response.

  18. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells recruits trophic macrophages to induce pancreatic beta cell regeneration in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaocang; Han, Zhi-Bo; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Alleviation of hyperglycemia in chemical-induced diabetic mice has been reported after bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we transplanted genetically labeled primary mouse mesenchymal stem cells into the pancreas of the streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic isogeneic mice, resulting in a decrease in blood glucose due to a recovery in beta cell mass. Further analysis revealed that the increase in beta cell mass was predominantly attributable to beta cell replication. The grafted mesenchymal stem cells did not transdifferentiate into beta cells themselves but recruited and polarized macrophages in a Stromal cell-derived factor 1-dependent manner, which in turn promoted beta cell replication. Our finding thus suggests that transplantation of autogenic mesenchymal stem cells may increase functional beta cell mass by boosting beta cell replication in diabetes. PMID:24915493

  19. Treatment with Cordyceps sinensis enriches Treg population in peripheral lymph nodes and delays type I diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fen; Zhu, Qing-Hua; He, Yu-Gong

    2013-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a widely used Chinese traditional herb with a long history. In China C. sinensis is usually applied in the treatment of respiratory diseases, however, the efficacy of C. sinensis still lacks experimental evidence. Type I diabetes is a multi-factor related autoimmune disease caused by cellular-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in the islets in human. We tested C. sinensis for its ability to work as an immune modulator in NOD mice, an animal model which mimicks the progression of type I diabetes in humans and found that treatment with C. sinensis extract could slow down disease development in NOD mice. Further research also suggested that treatment with C. sinensis extract increased the frequency of Treg cells and IFN-gama producing Th1 cells in peripheral lymph nodes. However, C. sinensis has no effect on the natural Treg cell differentiation in thymus. PMID:24147346

  20. Vascular injury in diabetic db/db mice is ameliorated by atorvastatin: role of Rac1/2-sensitive Nox-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Callera, Glaucia E; Montezano, Augusto C; He, Ying; Antunes, Tayze T; Cat, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh; Tostes, Rita C; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-04-01

    Oxidative stress [increased bioavailability of reactive oxygen species (ROS)] plays a role in the endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation, which underlie vascular damage in diabetes. Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that are vasoprotective in diabetes through unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that atorvastatin decreases NADPH oxidase (Nox)-derived ROS generation and associated vascular injury in diabetes. Lepr(db)/Lepr(db) (db/db) mice, a model of Type 2 diabetes and control Lepr(db)/Lepr(+) (db/+) mice were administered atorvastatin (10 mg/kg per day, 2 weeks). Atorvastatin improved glucose tolerance in db/db mice. Systemic and vascular oxidative stress in db/db mice, characterized by increased plasma TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) levels and exaggerated vascular Nox-derived ROS generation respectively, were inhibited by atorvastatin. Cytosol-to-membrane translocation of the Nox regulatory subunit p47(phox) and the small GTPase Rac1/2 was increased in vessels from db/db mice compared with db/+ mice, an effect blunted by atorvastatin. The increase in vascular Nox1/2/4 expression and increased phosphorylation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was abrogated by atorvastatin in db/db mice. Pro-inflammatory signalling (decreased I?B-? and increased NF-?B p50 expression, increased NF-?B p65 phosphorylation) and associated vascular inflammation [vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and vascular monocyte adhesion], which were increased in aortas of db/db mice, were blunted by atorvastatin. Impaired acetylcholine (Ach)- and insulin (INS)-induced vasorelaxation in db/db mice was normalized by atorvastatin. Our results demonstrate that, in diabetic mice, atorvastatin decreases vascular oxidative stress and inflammation and ameliorates vascular injury through processes involving decreased activation of Rac1/2 and Nox. These findings elucidate redox-sensitive and Rac1/2-dependent mechanisms whereby statins protect against vascular injury in diabetes. PMID:25358739

  1. Oncostatin M (OSM) protects against cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice by regulating apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Shuang; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wei, Liping; Qin, Xing; Gao, Erhe

    2015-01-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) exhibits many unique biological activities by activating O? receptor. However, its role in myocardial I/R injury in diabetic mice remains unknown. The involvement of OSM was assessed in diabetic mice which underwent myocardial I/R injury by OSM treatment or genetic deficiency of OSM receptor O?. Its mechanism on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial biogenesis and insulin sensitivity were further studied. OSM alleviated cardiac I/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis through inhibition of inositol pyrophosphate 7 (IP7) production, thus activating PI3K/Akt/BAD pathway, decreasing Bax expression while up-regulating Bcl-2 expression and decreasing the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in db/db mice. OSM enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in db/db mice subjected to cardiac I/R injury. On the contrary, OSM receptor O? knockout exacerbated cardiac I/R injury, increased IP7 production, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose homoeostasis and insulin sensitivity in cardiac I/R injured diabetic mice. Inhibition of IP7 production by TNP (IP6K inhibitor) exerted similar effects of OSM. The mechanism of OSM on cardiac I/R injury in diabetic mice is partly associated with IP7/Akt and adenine mononucleotide protein kinase/PGC-1? pathway. OSM protects against cardiac I/R Injury by regulating apoptosis, insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial biogenesis in diabetic mice through inhibition of IP7 production. PMID:25752217

  2. Treatment effect with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 antibody improves hind limb angiogenesis and blood flow in Type 1 diabetic mice with left femoral artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Tekabe, Yared; Anthony, Tamykah; Li, Qing; Ray, Rashmi; Rai, Vivek; Zhang, Geping; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Johnson, Lynne L

    2015-06-01

    We investigated treatment with a receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) blocking antibody on angiogenic response to hind limb ischemia in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin treated C57BL/6 mice received either murine monoclonal anti-RAGE F(ab')2 intraperitoneally (n=10) or saline (n=9) for 9 weeks. Diabetic plus 10 non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice underwent left femoral artery ligation and 5 days later angiogenesis imaging with (99m)Tc-Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) nanoSPECT/CT. Twenty-four days later, hind limb blood flow was measured with ultrasound, the mice were euthanized, and tissue was taken for immunohistochemistry. The angiogenic imaging signal in ischemic limbs was higher in RAGE-ab treated versus saline treated mice at day 5 (3.1±1.4 vs 1.68±0.35, p=0.02) and blood flow was higher at day 24 (1.49±0.5 vs 0.61±0.39, p=0.04). Immunohistochemistry of ischemic muscles showed greater capillary density in the RAGE-ab treated group versus the vehicle-treated group (p<0.001) (NS from non-diabetic mice). In conclusion, treatment with anti-RAGE F(ab')2 in diabetic mice improves neovascularization in the ischemic leg. PMID:25808570

  3. Angelica sinensis polysaccharide regulates glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in prediabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through the elevation of glycogen levels and reduction of inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiping; Cao, Peng; Shui, Weizhi; Yang, Qiuxiang; Tang, Zhuohong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-11

    The present study was designed to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP), purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS), in prediabetic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. It was observed that fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in both models were reduced after a 4-week oral administration of ASP or metformin, and abnormal fasting serum insulin (FINS) concentrations were ameliorated as well. Moreover, the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was decreased strikingly and body weight (BW) was reduced significantly in prediabetic mice after treatment with ASP. In addition, ASP also contributed to improving the dyslipidemia conditions. Elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) concentrations were reduced after treatment with ASP in prediabetic mice or STZ-induced diabetic mice. Meanwhile, hepatic glycogen (HG) and muscle glycogen (MG) concentrations were increased while insulin resistance (IR)-related inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-? in serum were reduced in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Histopathological examination indicated that the impaired pancreatic/hepatic tissues or adipose tissues were effectively restored in STZ-induced diabetic mice or prediabetic mice after the ASP treatment. Taken together, these results revealed that ASP efficiently exerted hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic benefits, and its potential effect was associated with the amelioration of IR. ASP can be applied in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. PMID:25630053

  4. Macrophage function in alloxan diabetic mice: expression of adhesion molecules, generation of monokines and oxygen and NO radicals

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, W; Klimek, M; Bryniarski, K; Ptak, M; Majcher, P

    1998-01-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial and mycotic infections in poorly controlled diabetic patients or animals is frequently attributed to impaired activities of professional phagocytes (granulocytes, macrophages) in hypoinsulinaemic milieu. We measured production of monokines (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)), active NO and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), as well as expression of several cell surface adhesion molecules (Mac-1, -2 and -3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Fc?RII), by thioglycollate medium-induced peritoneal macrophages of normoglycaemic and alloxan diabetic CBA/J mice (blood glucose level in the range 300 or 500 mg/dl). Macrophages of animals with moderate diabetes (300 mg/dl) produced significantly more IL-6 and TNF-? and ROIs than cells of control mice and showed an increased expression of all cell surface molecules, except Mac-3. NO/NO2 production was not affected. Administration of insulin restored enhanced values to normal levels, except for the production of ROIs which remained unusually high. We conclude that two separate mechanisms influence macrophage physiology in diabetes—lack of saturation of insulin receptors on macrophages and an indirect effect due to formation of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGE) on their surfaces. The latter is possibly responsible for increased generation of ROIs, since it cannot be down-regulated by prolonged insulin treatment. How the increased activity of macrophages of moderately diabetic mice (enhanced production of proinflammatory monokines and oxygen radicals as well as expression of molecules) is related to their ability to kill bacteria is now under investigation. PMID:9764597

  5. Danshensu ameliorates the cognitive decline in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by attenuating advanced glycation end product-mediated neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua; Han, Bing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Xiumei

    2012-04-01

    Spatial learning and memory are impaired in diabetic animals. The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with the receptor of AGEs (RAGE), resulting in the activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), plays an important role in pathways leading to the cytotoxic effects to neurons. Danshensu, a compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has neuroprotective effects. This study aimed to investigate the role of AGE-mediated neuroinflammation in learning and memory deficits and the effect of Danshensu on the cognitive decline in diabetic mice. C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with streptozotocin. Sodium Danshensu (sodium salt of Danshensu) was administered at a dose of 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg for 12 weeks. The results showed that diabetes caused impairment in acquisition and retrieval processes, as demonstrated by performance in the Morris water maze test. Danshensu not only reduced the mean escape latency but also increased the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant. Western blot analysis revealed that there was a significant increase in the expression of RAGE, p-p38, and COX-2, and the NF-?B activation. Danshensu partly blocked the expression of RAGE, p-p38, and COX-2, and NF-?B activation, and inhibited the increase of TNF-?, IL-6, and PGE?. However, Danshensu did not affect body weight and the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, and AGEs. These findings demonstrate that AGE-mediated neuroinflammation plays an important role in learning and memory deficits in diabetic mice and that Danshensu may provide a potential alternative for the prevention of cognitive impairment associated with diabetes by attenuating AGE-mediated neuroinflammation. PMID:22418033

  6. PTP1B antisense oligonucleotide lowers PTP1B protein, normalizes blood glucose, and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley A. Zinker; Cristina M. Rondinone; James M. Trevillyan; Rebecca J. Gum; Jill E. Clampit; Jeffrey F. Waring; Nancy Xie; Denise Wilcox; Peer Jacobson; Leigh Frost; Paul E. Kroeger; Regina M. Reilly; Sandra Koterski; Terry J. Opgenorth; Roger G. Ulrich; Seth Crosby; Madeline Butler; Susan F. Murray; Robert A. McKay; Sanjay Bhanot; Brett P. Monia; Michael R. Jirousek

    2002-01-01

    The role of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) in diabetes was investigated using an antisense oligonucleotide in ob\\/ob and db\\/db mice. PTP1B antisense oligonucleotide treatment normalized plasma glucose levels, postprandial glucose excursion, and HbA1C. Hyperinsulinemia was also reduced with improved insulin sensitivity. PTP1B protein and mRNA were reduced in liver and fat with no effect in skeletal muscle. Insulin signaling proteins,

  7. Alcohol Facilitates CD1d Loading, Subsequent Activation of NKT Cells, and Reduces the Incidence of Diabetes in NOD Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Buschard; Axel Kornerup Hansen; Karen Jensen; Dicky J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve; Lilian F. de Ruiter; Thomas C. Krohn; Majbritt R. Hufeldt; Finn K. Vogensen; Bent Aasted; Thomas Osterbye; Bart O. Roep; Colin de Haar; Edward E. Nieuwenhuis

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundEthanol (‘alcohol’) is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules.MethodsThe study included cellular in vitro tests using ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer), and in vivo NOD mice experiments detecting diabetes incidence and performing behavioural and bacterial analyses.ResultsAlcohol in concentrations from 0.6% to 2.5% increased IL-2 production from NKT cells stimulated with ?GalCer

  8. Preventive Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor on Atherosclerosis Is Mainly Attributable to Incretin's Actions in Nondiabetic and Diabetic Apolipoprotein E-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Michishige; Nagashima, Masaharu; Nohtomi, Kyoko; Kohashi, Kyoko; Tomoyasu, Masako; Sinmura, Kyoko; Nogi, Yukinori; Katayama, Yuki; Sato, Kengo; Itoh, Fumiko; Watanabe, Takuya; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Aim Several recent reports have revealed that dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors have suppressive effects on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe?/?) mice. It remains to be seen, however, whether this effect stems from increased levels of the two active incretins, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). Methods Nontreated Apoe?/? mice, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe?/? mice, and db/db diabetic mice were administered the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in drinking water and co-infused with either saline, the GLP-1 receptor blocker, exendin(9–39), the GIP receptor blocker, (Pro3)GIP, or both via osmotic minipumps for 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerosis and oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation in exudate peritoneal macrophages were determined. Results Vildagliptin increased plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels without affecting food intake, body weight, blood pressure, or plasma lipid profile in any of the animals tested, though it reduced HbA1c in the diabetic mice. Diabetic Apoe?/? mice exhibited further-progressed atherosclerotic lesions and foam cell formation compared with nondiabetic counterparts. Nondiabetic and diabetic Apoe?/? mice showed a comparable response to vildagliptin, namely, remarkable suppression of atherosclerotic lesions with macrophage accumulation and foam cell formation in peritoneal macrophages. Exendin(9–39) or (Pro3)GIP partially attenuated the vildagliptin-induced suppression of atherosclerosis. The two blockers in combination abolished the anti-atherosclerotic effect of vildagliptin in nondiabetic mice but only partly attenuated it in diabetic mice. Vildagliptin suppressed macrophage foam cell formation in nondiabetic and diabetic mice, and this suppressive effect was abolished by infusions with exendin(9–39)+(Pro3)GIP. Incubation of DPP-4 or vildagliptin in vitro had no effect on macrophage foam cell formation. Conclusions Vildagliptin confers a substantial anti-atherosclerotic effect in both nondiabetic and diabetic mice, mainly via the action of the two incretins. However, the partial attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions by the dual incretin receptor antagonists in diabetic mice implies that vildagliptin confers a partial anti-atherogenic effect beyond that from the incretins. PMID:23967137

  9. Diabetes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    1993-04-14

    Diabetes, in a variety of forms, affects many Americans and is the 4th leading cause of death by disease in the US. Diabetes is fundamentally a disease in which the body cannot produce or effectively use a critical hormone called insulin. Untreated / unmanaged diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, loss of limbs and stroke.

  10. Rosiglitazone treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice attenuates urinary albumin and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 excretion.

    PubMed

    Chodavarapu, Harshita; Grobe, Nadja; Somineni, Hari K; Salem, Esam S B; Madhu, Malav; Elased, Khalid M

    2013-01-01

    Alterations within the renal renin angiotensin system play a pivotal role in the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed in renal tubules and has been shown to be renoprotective in diabetes. The protease, a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17, is involved in the ectodomain shedding of several transmembrane proteins including ACE2. Renal ACE2 and ADAM17 were significantly increased in db/db mice compared to controls. We investigated the effect of the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, on albuminuria, renal ADAM17 protein expression and ACE2 shedding in db/db diabetic mice. Rosiglitazone treatment of db/db mice normalized hyperglycemia, attenuated renal injury and decreased urinary ACE2 and renal ADAM17 protein expression. Urinary excreted ACE2 is enzymatically active. Western blot analysis of urinary ACE2 demonstrated two prominent immunoreactive bands at approximately 70 & 90 kDa. The predominant immunoreactive band is approximately 20 kDa shorter than the one demonstrated for kidney lysate, indicating possible ectodomain shedding of active renal ACE2 in the urine. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that renoprotection of rosiglitazone could be partially mediated via downregulation of renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding. In addition, there was a positive correlation between blood glucose, urinary albumin, plasma glucagon, and triglyceride levels with urinary ACE2 excretion. In conclusion, urinary ACE2 could be used as a sensitive biomarker of diabetic nephropathy and for monitoring the effectiveness of renoprotective medication. PMID:23646149

  11. Rosiglitazone Treatment of Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice Attenuates Urinary Albumin and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Chodavarapu, Harshita; Grobe, Nadja; Somineni, Hari K.; Salem, Esam S. B.; Madhu, Malav; Elased, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations within the renal renin angiotensin system play a pivotal role in the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed in renal tubules and has been shown to be renoprotective in diabetes. The protease, a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17, is involved in the ectodomain shedding of several transmembrane proteins including ACE2. Renal ACE2 and ADAM17 were significantly increased in db/db mice compared to controls. We investigated the effect of the insulin sensitizer, rosiglitazone, on albuminuria, renal ADAM17 protein expression and ACE2 shedding in db/db diabetic mice. Rosiglitazone treatment of db/db mice normalized hyperglycemia, attenuated renal injury and decreased urinary ACE2 and renal ADAM17 protein expression. Urinary excreted ACE2 is enzymatically active. Western blot analysis of urinary ACE2 demonstrated two prominent immunoreactive bands at approximately 70 & 90 kDa. The predominant immunoreactive band is approximately 20 kDa shorter than the one demonstrated for kidney lysate, indicating possible ectodomain shedding of active renal ACE2 in the urine. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that renoprotection of rosiglitazone could be partially mediated via downregulation of renal ADAM17 and ACE2 shedding. In addition, there was a positive correlation between blood glucose, urinary albumin, plasma glucagon, and triglyceride levels with urinary ACE2 excretion. In conclusion, urinary ACE2 could be used as a sensitive biomarker of diabetic nephropathy and for monitoring the effectiveness of renoprotective medication. PMID:23646149

  12. Small Molecule Kaempferol Promotes Insulin Sensitivity and Preserved Pancreatic ?-Cell Mass in Middle-Aged Obese Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalidy, Hana; Moore, William; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Aihua; Ali, Mostafa; Suh, Kyung-Shin; Zhen, Wei; Cheng, Zhiyong; Jia, Zhenquan; Hulver, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance and a progressive decline in functional ?-cell mass are hallmarks of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, searching for natural, low-cost compounds to target these two defects could be a promising strategy to prevent the pathogenesis of T2D. Here, we show that dietary intake of flavonol kaempferol (0.05% in the diet) significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and circulating lipid profile, which were associated with the improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in middle-aged obese mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Kaempferol treatment reversed HF diet impaired glucose transport-4 (Glut4) and AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) expression in both muscle and adipose tissues from obese mice. In vitro, kaempferol increased lipolysis and prevented high fatty acid-impaired glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, AMPK activity, and Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle cells. Using another mouse model of T2D generated by HF diet feeding and low doses of streptozotocin injection, we found that kaempferol treatment significantly improved hyperglycemia, glucose tolerance, and blood insulin levels in obese diabetic mice, which are associated with the improved islet ?-cell mass. These results demonstrate that kaempferol may be a naturally occurring anti-diabetic agent by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity and protecting against pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction.

  13. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 Reverses Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice by Abrogating Insulitis and Restoring Islet Function

    PubMed Central

    Villalta, S. Armando; Lang, Jiena; Kubeck, Samantha; Kabre, Beniwende; Szot, Gregory L.; Calderon, Boris; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark A.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Pullen, Nick; Arch, Robert H.; Bluestone, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in multiple cell types during chronic inflammation is indicative of their pathogenic role in autoimmune diseases. Among the many RTKs, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) stands out for its multiple effects on immunity, vascularization, and cell migration. Herein, we examined whether VEGFR participated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We found that RTK inhibitors (RTKIs) and VEGF or VEGFR-2 antibodies reversed diabetes when administered at the onset of hyperglycemia. Increased VEGF expression promoted islet vascular remodeling in NOD mice, and inhibition of VEGFR activity with RTKIs abrogated the increase in islet vascularity, impairing T-cell migration into the islet and improving glucose control. Metabolic studies confirmed that RTKIs worked by preserving islet function, as treated mice had improved glucose tolerance without affecting insulin sensitivity. Finally, examination of human pancreata from patients with T1D revealed that VEGFR-2 was confined to the islet vascularity, which was increased in inflamed islets. Collectively, this work reveals a previously unappreciated role for VEGFR-2 signaling in the pathogenesis of T1D by controlling T-cell accessibility to the pancreatic islets and highlights a novel application of VEGFR-2 antagonists for the therapeutic treatment of T1D. PMID:23835340

  14. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR) were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:24511320

  15. Use of recombinant congenic and congenic strains of NOD mice to identify a new insulin-dependent diabetes resistance gene

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in NOD/Lt mice represents a complex polygenic disease. NOR/Lt is a recombinant congenic strain (RCS) in which limited regions of the NOD/Lt genome have been replaced by genome from the C57BL/KsJ strain. NOR mice are insulitis resistant and diabetes free despite genetic identity with NOD at numerous chromosomal regions containing previously described insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, including the strongly diabetogenic H2g7 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype. The present study revealed BKs-derived genome on segments of chromosomes (Chr) 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, and 18, approximating 11.6% of the total NOR genome analyzed. (NOD x NOR)F2 segregation analysis was employed to identify chromosomal regions in NOR containing Idd resistance alleles. IDDM developed in 33% (10/30) of F1 females, and 29.3% (36/123) of F2 females aged to 1 yr. A previously unrecognized diabetes resistance locus (designated Idd13r) strongly protective in homozygous state was identified on NOR Chr 2 in linkage with the Il1 alpha structural gene. The existence of this locus was confirmed by construction of a NOD stock congenic for NOR-derived markers on Chr 2. Our analysis shows the utility of RCS and congenic stocks for the identification and isolation of non-MHC genes with strong antidiabetogenic functions. PMID:7931087

  16. Both Maximal Expression of Selenoproteins and Selenoprotein Deficiency Can Promote Development of Type 2 Diabetes-Like Phenotype in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in mammals that has been shown to exert its function through selenoproteins. Whereas optimal levels of Se in the diet have important health benefits, a recent clinical trial has suggested that supplemental intake of Se above the adequate level potentially may raise the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanisms for the effect of dietary Se on the development of this disease are not understood. In the present study, we examined the contribution of selenoproteins to increased risk of developing diabetes using animal models. C57BL/6J mice (n=6–7 per group) were fed either Se-deficient Torula yeast-based diet or diets supplemented with 0.1 and 0.4 parts per million Se. Our data show that mice maintained on an Se-supplemented diet develop hyperinsulinemia and have decreased insulin sensitivity. These effects are accompanied by elevated expression of a selective group of selenoproteins. We also observed that reduced synthesis of these selenoproteins caused by overexpression of an i6A? mutant selenocysteine tRNA promotes glucose intolerance and leads to a diabetes-like phenotype. These findings indicate that both high expression of selenoproteins and selenoprotein deficiency may dysregulate glucose homeostasis and suggest a role for selenoproteins in development of diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 2327–2336. PMID:21194350

  17. Linagliptin-mediated DPP-4 inhibition ameliorates kidney fibrosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a therapeutic regimen.

    PubMed

    Kanasaki, Keizo; Shi, Sen; Kanasaki, Megumi; He, Jianhua; Nagai, Takako; Nakamura, Yuka; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Kitada, Munehiro; Srivastava, Swayam Prakash; Koya, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Kidney fibrosis is the final common pathway of all progressive chronic kidney diseases, of which diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has emerged as one of the most important origins of matrix-producing fibroblasts. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been introduced into the market as antidiabetes drugs. Here, we found that the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin ameliorated kidney fibrosis in diabetic mice without altering the blood glucose levels associated with the inhibition of EndMT and the restoration of microRNA 29s. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic CD-1 mice exhibited kidney fibrosis and strong immunoreactivity for DPP-4 by 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. At 20 weeks after the onset of diabetes, mice were treated with linagliptin for 4 weeks. Linagliptin-treated diabetic mice exhibited a suppression of DPP-4 activity/protein expression and an amelioration of kidney fibrosis associated with the inhibition of EndMT. The therapeutic effects of linagliptin on diabetic kidneys were associated with the suppression of profibrotic programs, as assessed by mRNA microarray analysis. We found that the induction of DPP-4 observed in diabetic kidneys may be associated with suppressed levels of microRNA 29s in diabetic mice; linagliptin restored microRNA 29s and suppressed DPP-4 protein levels. Using cultured endothelial cells, we found that linagliptin inhibited TGF-?2-induced EndMT, and such anti-EndMT effects of linagliptin were mediated through microRNA 29 induction. These results indicate the possible novel pleiotropic action of linagliptin to restore normal kidney function in diabetic patients with renal impairment. PMID:24574044

  18. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 To Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Case, James B; Bonami, Rachel H; Nyhoff, Lindsay E; Steinberg, Hannah E; Sullivan, Allison M; Kendall, Peggy L

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes. To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2(+/-)) was introduced but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2(+/-)/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to those of wild-type C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR signaling supports Notch2(+/-)/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, was increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk deficiency reduced Notch2(+/-) signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic (Tg) BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low-level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain-only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, whereas Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk deficiency, but not Notch2 haploinsufficiency. These studies show that 1) Notch2 haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing type 1 diabetes, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. PMID:26034172

  19. Noncontact, Low-Frequency Ultrasound Therapy Enhances Neovascularization and Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maan, Zeshaan N.; Januszyk, Michael; Rennert, Robert C.; Duscher, Dominik; Rodrigues, Melanie; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Whitmore, Natalie Ho Arnetha; Hu, Michael S.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic wounds are a major source of morbidity for patients and represent a significant health burden. Implementing noninvasive techniques that accelerate healing of these wounds would provide great benefit. Ultrasound appears to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic wounds in humans. MIST Therapy is a noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound treatment delivered through a saline mist. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of ultrasound therapy, but the underlying molecular and cellular pathways impacted by this technique remain unclear. The in vivo effect of noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound was therefore examined in a humanized excisional wound model. Methods The treatment group received noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound therapy three times per week, whereas the control group received a standard dressing change. Wounds were photographed at regular intervals to calculate healing kinetics. Wound tissue was harvested and processed for histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The MIST group demonstrated significantly accelerated wound healing, with 17.3 days to wound closure compared with 24 days in the controls (p < 0.05). This improvement became evident by day 9, with healing evidenced by significantly decreased mean wound area relative to original size (68 percent versus 80 percent; p < 0.01). Expression of markers of neovascularization (stromal cell-derived factor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CD31) was also increased in the wound beds of noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound–treated mice compared with controls. Conclusion Noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound treatment improves neo-vascularization and wound closure rates in excisional wounds for diabetic mice, likely because of the stimulated release of angiogenic factors. PMID:25158717

  20. Identification of autoreactive CD8(+) T cell responses targeting chromogranin A in humanized NOD mice and type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zhou, Lina; Li, Yashu; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Binbin; Meng, Gang; Chen, Xiaoling; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Mengjun; Wang, Li

    2015-07-01

    ChgA has recently been identified as the autoantigen for diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in NOD mice and T1D patients. However, autoreactive CD8(+) T-cell responses targeting ChgA haven't been studied yet. Here several HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from mChgA and hChgA were selected by an integrated computational prediction approach, followed by an HLA-A*0201 binding assay. MChgA10-19 and mChgA43-52 peptides, which bound well with HLA-A*0201 molecule, induced significant proliferation and IFN-?-releasing of splenocytes from diabetic NOD.?2m(null).HHD mice. Notably, flow cytometry analysis found that mChgA10-19 and mChgA43-52 stimulated the production of IFN-?, perforin, and IL-17 by splenic CD8(+) T cells of diabetic NOD.?2m(null).HHD mice. Furthermore, hChgA10-19 and hChgA43-52-induced IFN-? releasing by specific CD8(+) T cells were frequently detected in recent-onset HLA-A*0201-positive T1D patients. Thus, this study demonstrated that autoreactive CD8(+) T cells targeting ChgA were present in NOD.?2m(null).HHD mice and T1D patients, and might contribute to pathogenesis of T1D through secreting proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules. PMID:25958206

  1. Exendin-4 Reduces Ischemic Brain Injury in Normal and Aged Type 2 Diabetic Mice and Promotes Microglial M2 Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Martin; Mallard, Carina; Nathanson, David; Nyström, Thomas; Sjöholm, Åke; Johansson, Maria E.; Patrone, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Exendin-4 is a glucagon-like receptor 1 agonist clinically used against type 2 diabetes that has also shown neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models. However, while the neuroprotective efficacy of Exendin-4 has been thoroughly investigated if the pharmacological treatment starts before stroke, the therapeutic potential of the Exendin-4 if the treatment starts acutely after stroke has not been clearly determined. Further, a comparison of the neuroprotective efficacy in normal and aged diabetic mice has not been performed. Finally, the cellular mechanisms behind the efficacy of Exendin-4 have been only partially studied. The main objective of this study was to determine the neuroprotective efficacy of Exendin-4 in normal and aged type 2 diabetic mice if the treatment started after stroke in a clinically relevant setting. Furthermore we characterized the Exendin-4 effects on stroke-induced neuroinflammation. Two-month-old healthy and 14-month-old type 2 diabetic/obese mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion. 5 or 50 µg/kg Exendin-4 was administered intraperitoneally at 1.5, 3 or 4.5 hours thereafter. The treatment was continued (0.2 µg/kg/day) for 1 week. The neuroprotective efficacy was assessed by stroke volume measurement and stereological counting of NeuN-positive neurons. Neuroinflammation was determined by gene expression analysis of M1/M2 microglia subtypes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We show neuroprotective efficacy of 50 µg/kg Exendin-4 at 1.5 and 3 hours after stroke in both young healthy and aged diabetic/obese mice. The 5 µg/kg dose was neuroprotective at 1.5 hour only. Proinflammatory markers and M1 phenotype were not impacted by Exendin-4 treatment while M2 markers were significantly up regulated. Our results support the use of Exendin-4 to reduce stroke-damage in the prehospital/early hospitalization setting irrespectively of age/diabetes. The results indicate the polarization of microglia/macrophages towards the M2 reparative phenotype as a potential mechanism of neuroprotection. PMID:25101679

  2. The role of nitric oxide in diabetes-induced changes of morphine tolerance in rats.

    PubMed

    Joharchi, Khojasteh; Jorjani, Masoumeh

    2007-09-10

    Several neuroendocrine complications including diabetes change the morphine antinociception and the development of tolerance to the drug. Morphine antinociception was reduced significantly in morphine tolerant diabetic rats compared to the non-diabetic animals. The exact mechanism of this effect is not known. This study was performed to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) on morphine tolerance in diabetic state. Nociceptive responses in alloxan-induced diabetic morphine tolerated rats were measured by the hot-plate test. The urinary nitric oxide level was measured spectrophotometrically with Griess reagent. For the conversion of nitrate to nitrite, vanadium chloride was used. The results showed that experimental diabetes increased morphine analgesia. Conversely, degree of tolerance to morphine was diminished in diabetic state. The urinary nitrite content in diabetic morphine tolerated rats was higher than non-diabetic groups. L-arginine significantly increased the NO production in diabetic morphine tolerated animals, whereas aminoguanidine decreased it. Appropriately, L-arginine increased the latency time of reaction to noxious stimuli in diabetic compared to non-diabetic rats. L-arginine-treated animals also showed more tolerance to morphine analgesia. As expected, aminoguanidine deducted the level of morphine tolerance in diabetic animals. It is suggested that NO has a modulatory role in the effects of diabetes on morphine analgesia and tolerance. PMID:17599829

  3. Automated 3D Segmentation of Intraretinal Surfaces in SD-OCT Volumes in Normal and Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Bhavna J.; Jeong, Woojin; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Vance, Joseph; Sohn, Elliott H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe an adaptation of an existing graph-theoretic method (initially developed for human optical coherence tomography [OCT] images) for the three-dimensional (3D) automated segmentation of 10 intraretinal surfaces in mice scans, and assess the accuracy of the method and the reproducibility of thickness measurements. Methods Ten intraretinal surfaces were segmented in repeat spectral domain (SD)-OCT volumetric images acquired from normal (n = 8) and diabetic (n = 10) mice. The accuracy of the method was assessed by computing the border position errors of the automated segmentation with respect to manual tracings obtained from two experts. The reproducibility was statistically assessed for four retinal layers within eight predefined regions using the mean and SD of the differences in retinal thickness measured in the repeat scans, the coefficient of variation (CV) and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC; with 95% confidence intervals [CIs]). Results The overall mean unsigned border position error for the 10 surfaces computed over 97 B-scans (10 scans, 10 normal mice) was 3.16 ± 0.91 ?m. The overall mean differences in retinal thicknesses computed from the normal and diabetic mice were 1.86 ± 0.95 and 2.15 ± 0.86 ?m, respectively. The CV of the retinal thicknesses for all the measured layers ranged from 1.04% to 5%. The ICCs for the total retinal thickness in the normal and diabetic mice were 0.78 [0.10, 0.92] and 0.83 [0.31, 0.96], respectively. Conclusion The presented method (publicly available as part of the Iowa Reference Algorithms) has acceptable accuracy and reproducibility and is expected to be useful in the quantitative study of intraretinal layers in mice. Translational Relevance The presented method, initially developed for human OCT, has been adapted for mice, with the potential to be adapted for other animals as well. Quantitative in vivo assessment of the retina in mice allows changes to be measured longitudinally, decreasing the need for them. PMID:25346873

  4. 1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits glucose absorption and accelerates glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, You-Gui; Ji, Dong-Feng; Zhong, Shi; Lin, Tian-Bao; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Gui-Yan; Wang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on glucose absorption and metabolism in normal and diabetic mice. Oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and labeled (13)C6-glucose uptake assays suggested that DNJ inhibited intestinal glucose absorption in intestine. We also showed that DNJ down-regulated intestinal SGLT1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATP and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression. Pretreatment with DNJ (50?mg/kg) increased the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic glycolysis enzymes (GK, PFK, PK, PDE1) and decreased the expression of gluconeogenesis enzymes (PEPCK, G-6-Pase). Assays of protein expression in hepatic cells and in vitro tests with purified enzymes indicated that the increased activity of glucose glycolysis enzymes was resulted from the relative increase in protein expression, rather than from direct enzyme activation. These results suggest that DNJ inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and accelerates hepatic glucose metabolism by directly regulating the expression of proteins involved in glucose transport systems, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis enzymes. PMID:23536174

  5. Ganglioside GM3 depletion reverses impaired wound healing in diabetic mice by activating IGF-1 and insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qi; Lee, Sarah; Wilson, Heather; Seeger, Mark; Iordanov, Hristo; Gatla, Nandita; Whittington, Adam; Bach, Daniel; Lu, Jian-yun; Paller, Amy S

    2014-05-01

    Ganglioside GM3 mediates adipocyte insulin resistance, but the role of GM3 in diabetic wound healing, a major cause of morbidity, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GM3 depletion promotes diabetic wound healing and directly activates keratinocyte (KC) insulin pathway signaling. GM3 synthase (GM3S) expression is increased in human diabetic foot skin, ob/ob and diet-induced obese diabetic mouse skin, and in mouse KCs exposed to increased glucose. GM3S knockout in diet-induced obese mice prevents the diabetic wound-healing defect. KC proliferation, migration, and activation of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) are suppressed by excess glucose in wild-type cells, but increased in GM3S (-/-) KCs with supplemental glucose. Co-immunoprecipitation of IR, IR substrate 1 (IRS-1), and IGF-1R, and increased IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation accompany receptor activation. GM3 supplementation or inhibition of IGF-1R or PI3K reverses the increased migration of GM3S(-/-) KCs, whereas IR knockdown only partially suppresses migration. PMID:24326453

  6. Peritoneal cavity is a route for gut-derived microbial signals to promote autoimmunity in non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Emani, R; Alam, C; Pekkala, S; Zafar, S; Emani, M R; Hänninen, A

    2015-02-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in innate immune reactions, and peritoneal macrophages (PMs) guard the sterility of this compartment mainly against microbial threat from the gut. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which gut microbiota and gut immune system appear to contribute to disease pathogenesis. We have recently reported elevated free radical production and increased permeability of gut epithelium in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Impaired barrier function could lead to bacterial leakage to the peritoneal cavity. To explore the consequences of impaired gut barrier function on extra-intestinal immune regulation, we characterized peritoneal lavage cells from young newly weaned NOD mice. We detected a rapid increase in the number of macrophages 1-2 weeks after weaning in NOD mice compared to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Interestingly, this increase in macrophages was abrogated in NOD mice that were fed an antidiabetogenic diet (ProSobee), which improves gut barrier function. Macrophages in young (5-week-old) NOD mice displayed a poor TNF-? cytokine response to LPS stimulation and high expression of interleukin-1receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M), indicating prior in vivo exposure to TLR-4 ligand(s). Furthermore, injection of LPS intraperitoneally increased T cell CD69 expression in pancreatic lymph node (PaLN), suggestive of T cell activation. Leakage of bacterial components such as endotoxins into the peritoneal cavity may contribute to auto-reactive T cell activation in the PaLN. PMID:25410403

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Mice by Reducing Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Enhancing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wu, Guodong; Wang, Lujing; Peng, Yahui; Dong, Xingli; Huang, Hui; Si, Lining; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jihong; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Lingyun; Gao, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy associated with heart failure, and atherosclerosis, in addition to its recognized role in metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Numerous studies have presented contradictory findings about the role of HO-1 in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, we explored the role of HO-1 in myocardial dysfunction, myofibril structure, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model in mice systemically overexpressing HO-1 (Tg-HO-1) or mutant HO-1 (Tg-mutHO-1). The diabetic mouse model was induced by multiple peritoneal injections of STZ. Two months after injection, left ventricular (LV) function was measured by echocardiography. In addition, molecular biomarkers related to oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated using classical molecular biological/biochemical techniques. Mice with DCM exhibited severe LV dysfunction, myofibril structure disarray, aberrant cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy and increased levels of HO-1. In addition, we determined that systemic overexpression of HO-1 ameliorated left ventricular dysfunction, myofibril structure disarray, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and autophagy in DCM mice. Furthermore, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase (Akt) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation is normally inhibited in DCM, but overexpression of the HO-1 gene restored the phosphorylation of these kinases to normal levels. In contrast, the functions of HO-1 in DCM were significantly reversed by overexpression of mutant HO-1. This study underlines the unique roles of HO-1, including the inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis and the enhancement of autophagy, in the pathogenesis of DCM. PMID:24086665

  8. Olive leaf down-regulates the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hye; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an endocrinologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled glucose regulation and oxidative stress. Olive leaves have been studied extensively for their antioxidant activity and capacity to improve immune function. We hypothesized that olive leaf powder supplementation will be effective in inhibiting the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mice were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: control (C), STZ-induced diabetes (D), and STZ-induced diabetes supplemented with very low dose (VLOL), low dose (LOL), or high dose of olive leaf powder (HOL). Blood glucose in the VLOL and LOL groups was lower than that in the D group (P < .05). Insulin levels were increased in all experimental groups in comparison with that in the D group, (P < .05). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were shown to decrease in the D group, whereas these were increased in the VLOL and LOL groups. Nitric oxide levels decreased in the VLOL and LOL groups, as compared with the D group. The messenger RNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups, and interferon-? levels were significantly decreased in the liver of the VLOL, LOL, and HOL groups compared with the levels in the D group. Interleukin-17 levels were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups. Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels were increased in the D group but decreased in all the experimental groups. Th2 cytokine levels were increased in all olive leaf-supplemented groups compared with those in the D group. These results indicate a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that olive leaves have the potential to provide therapeutic inhibition of diabetic complications. PMID:24176234

  9. The variance of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice after bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Lv, Chenglan; Xie, Ting; Ouyang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the host immune disorder, which elicits the selective destruction of insulin-producing s in the pancreatic islets. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been reported to treat T1D in numerous studies, and has been proved to be effective in treating T1D based on immune ablation and regeneration. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the curative effect of syngeneic bone marrow transplantation (syn-BMT) and to analyze peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice after syn-BMT, and further to reveal possible mechanisms of syn-BMT involved in normalization of blood glucose. After multiple injections of low-dose STZ, most male C57BL/6J inbred mice got hyperglycemia, and then underwent syn-BMT. Fasting blood glucose was detected every 10 days after syn-BMT. The hemocytes count was evaluated every 3 days after syn-BMT in mice. Before syn-BMT, and on days 30, 60, and 90 after syn-BMT, we examined proportion of peripheral blood T lymphocytes, CD19+ B lymphocytes, and NK cells by flow cytometry. Our data showed that hyperglycemia could be reversed and normal blood glucose level could be maintained in the whole observation period after syn-BMT. The peripheral blood elevated CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio, CD19+ B lymphocyte proportion and NK cell proportion in diabetic mice significantly decreased after syn-BMT. This study indicated that syn-BMT could reverse hyperglycemia and revealed immune ablation and immune system regeneration might be a possible mechanism of syn-BMT involved in normalization of blood glucose.

  10. Morphological analysis of the pancreas and liver in diabetic KK-A(y) mice treated with zinc and oxovanadium complexes.

    PubMed

    Moroki, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Tsubura, Airo; Yasui, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between biometals, such as zinc (Zn(2+)), vanadium, copper, cobalt, and magnesium ions, and diabetes therapy has been recognized for several years. In particular, the antidiabetic activities of Zn(2+) and oxovanadium (VO(2+)) complexes have been measured using biochemical approaches. In the present study, diabetic KK-A(y) mice were treated with bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)Zn(2+) (Zn(opt)2) and bis(1-oxy-2-pyridine-thiolato)VO(2+) (VO(opt)2) for 4 weeks, and the antidiabetic activities of these metal complexes were evaluated using biochemical and morphological methods. Additionally, zinc gluconate (Zn(glc)2) and bis(ethylmaltolato)VO(2+) (VO(emal)2) were used as reference compounds. Pancreatic islet cells were smaller, and there was a tendency towards a lower islet cell area ratio in Zn(opt)2-treated mice compared with nontreated KK-A(y) mice. Furthermore, plasma insulin concentrations were significantly reduced to 27.2% of insulin concentrations in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. These results suggest that Zn(opt)2 administration provides morphological and biochemical improvements in hyperinsulinaemia. In contrast, in mice that received Zn(glc)2 and VO(2+) complexes, the islet cell size and islet cell area ratio did not differ from those in nontreated controls. Zn(opt)2- and VO(opt)2-treated mice exhibited significantly lower fat deposition and fat deposition area ratio in the liver (63.6% and 65.8% of nontreated KK-A(y) mice, respectively) compared to those observed in nontreated KK-A(y) mice. The differences in morphological improvements of the pancreas and liver owing to Zn(opt)2 or VO(opt)2 treatment may be explained by differences in the sites of actions of Zn(2+) and VO(2+) complexes in different organs in KK-A(y) mice. In conclusion, Zn(opt)2 exhibited superior antidiabetic effects over those of VO(opt)2, and this was owing to greater amelioration of the morphological parameters of the liver and pancreas. PMID:24905743

  11. Systemic alterations in the metabolome of diabetic NOD mice delineate increased oxidative stress accompanied by reduced inflammation and hypertriglyceremia.

    PubMed

    Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Bell, Graeme I; Hara, Manami

    2015-06-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are a commonly used model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals will develop overt diabetes despite undergoing similar autoimmune insult. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic approach, consisting of gas chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass quadruple time-of-flight (UHPLC-qTOF) MS and targeted UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based methodologies, was used to capture metabolic alterations in the metabolome and lipidome of plasma from NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Using this multi-platform approach, we identified >1,000 circulating lipids and metabolites in male and female progressor and nonprogressor animals (n = 71). Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age- and sex-independent metabolic markers, which best differentiated metabolic profiles of progressors and nonprogressors. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with 1) increases in oxidation products glucono-?-lactone and galactonic acid and reductions in cysteine, methionine and threonic acid, suggesting increased oxidative stress; 2) reductions in circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid signaling mediators, most notably arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-derived eicosanoids, implying impaired states of systemic inflammation; 3) elevations in circulating triacylglyercides reflective of hypertriglyceridemia; and 4) reductions in major structural lipids, most notably lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Taken together, our results highlight the systemic perturbations that accompany a loss of glycemic control and development of overt T1D. PMID:25852003

  12. siRNA-based spherical nucleic acids reverse impaired wound healing in diabetic mice by ganglioside GM3 synthase knockdown.

    PubMed

    Randeria, Pratik S; Seeger, Mark A; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Wilson, Heather; Shipp, Desmond; Mirkin, Chad A; Paller, Amy S

    2015-05-01

    Spherical nucleic acid (SNA) gold nanoparticle conjugates (13-nm-diameter gold cores functionalized with densely packed and highly oriented nucleic acids) dispersed in Aquaphor have been shown to penetrate the epidermal barrier of both intact mouse and human skin, enter keratinocytes, and efficiently down-regulate gene targets. ganglioside-monosialic acid 3 synthase (GM3S) is a known target that is overexpressed in diabetic mice and responsible for causing insulin resistance and impeding wound healing. GM3S SNAs increase keratinocyte migration and proliferation as well as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) receptor activation under both normo- and hyperglycemic conditions. The topical application of GM3S SNAs (50 nM) to splinted 6-mm-diameter full-thickness wounds in diet-induced obese diabetic mice decreases local GM3S expression by >80% at the wound edge through an siRNA pathway and fully heals wounds clinically and histologically within 12 d, whereas control-treated wounds are only 50% closed. Granulation tissue area, vascularity, and IGF1 and EGF receptor phosphorylation are increased in GM3S SNA-treated wounds. These data capitalize on the unique ability of SNAs to naturally penetrate the skin and enter keratinocytes without the need for transfection agents. Moreover, the data further validate GM3 as a mediator of the delayed wound healing in type 2 diabetes and support regional GM3 depletion as a promising therapeutic direction. PMID:25902507

  13. L-Arginine ameliorates cardiac left ventricular oxidative stress by upregulating eNOS and Nrf2 target genes in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Hamenth Kumar, Palani; Syed Mohamed Puhari, Shanavas; Senthil Murugan, Ponniah; Vasudevan, Varadaraj [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)] [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India); Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam, E-mail: drselvamgsbiochem@rediffmail.com [Molecular Cardiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antioxidant marker proteins were found high in myocardium by L-arginine treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated antioxidant status, mediates the reduced TBA-reactivity in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L-Arginine treatment enhanced the Nrf2 and eNOS signaling in left ventricle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved cell survival signaling by arginine, offers a novel tactic for targeting. -- Abstract: Hyperglycemia is independently related with excessive morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disorders. L-Arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway and the involvement of NO in modulating nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling were well established. In the present study we investigated, whether L-arginine supplementation would improve the myocardial antioxidant defense under hyperglycemia through activation of Nrf2 signaling. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate (90 mg kg{sup -1} body weight) in rats. Both non-diabetic and diabetic group of rats were divided into three subgroups and they were administered either with L-arginine (2.25%) or L-NAME (0.01%) in drinking water for 12 days. Results showed that L-arginine treatment reduced the metabolic disturbances in diabetic rats. Antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels were found to be increased in heart left ventricles, thereby reduction of lipid peroxidation by L-arginine treatment. Heart histopathological analysis further validates the reversal of typical diabetic characteristics consisting of alterations in myofibers and myofibrillary degeneration. qRT-PCR studies revealed that L-arginine treatment upregulated the transcription of Akt and downregulated NF-{kappa}B. Notably, transcription of eNOS and Nrf2 target genes was also upregulated, which were accompanied by enhanced expression of Nrf2 in left ventricular tissue from diabetic and control rats. Under these findings, we suggest that targeting of eNOS and Nrf2 signaling by L-arginine supplementation could be used as a potential treatment method to alleviate the late diabetic complications.

  14. Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Stanely Mainzen Prince, P; Kamalakkannan, N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2003-02-01

    Syzigium cumini commonly known as Jamun, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous Jamun seed extract (JSEt) for 6 weeks caused a significant decrease in lipids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase in the brain of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of an alcoholic JSEt for 6 weeks brought back all the parameters to near normal. The effect of alcoholic JSEt (100 mg/kg) was better than aqueous JSEt (5 g/kg). The effect of both these extracts was better than glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). Thus, our study shows that S. cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain. PMID:12648817

  15. Effect of Gymnema montanum Leaves on Serum and Tissue Lipids in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latha, M.; Ramkumar, K. M.; Pari, L.; Baskar, C.; Bai, V. Narmatha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally active agent for future therapy. PMID:15061646

  16. Silk fibroin hydrolysate exerts an anti-diabetic effect by increasing pancreatic ? cell mass in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Sun-Gil; Park, Jun-Hong; Nam, Hajin; Kim, Jin-Bong; Lee, Jae-Yong; Oh, Yang-Seok; Suh, Jun-Gyo

    2012-12-01

    Components of silk including silk fibroin have long been used as anti-diabetic remedies in oriental medicine. However, detailed mechanisms underlying these antidiabetic effects remain unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-diabetic activity of silk fibroin hydrolysate (SFH) in C57BL/KsJ db/db (db/db) mice, a well-known animal model of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. When the db/db mice were administered SFH in drinking water for 6 weeks, hyperglycemia in the animals gradually disappeared and the level of glycosylated hemoglobin decreased, indicating that SFH plays important role in reducing the symptoms of diabetes. In addition, SFH-treated db/db mice exhibited improved glucose tolerance with increased plasma insulin levels. Immunohistochemical and morphological analyses showed that SFH up-regulated insulin production by increasing pancreatic ? cell mass in the mice. In summary, our results suggest that SFH exerts anti-diabetic effects by increasing pancreatic ? cell mass in a non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus mouse model. PMID:23271174

  17. The Extract of Litsea japonica Reduced the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy via the Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products Accumulation in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Lee, Yun Mi; Jo, Kyuhyung; Shin, So Dam; Kim, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of L. japonica extract (LJE) against renal damage in the db/db mouse. LJE (100 or 250?mg/kg per day) was given to diabetic mice for 12 weeks. Body weight, blood glucose levels, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and proteinuria were examined. In in vitro assay of the inhibition of AGE formation, immunohistochemical analysis of podocyte loss and AGE accumulations were performed. In 20-week-old db/db mice, severe hyperglycemia developed, and proteinuria was significantly increased. Diabetes induced markedly morphological alterations to the renal glomerular cells. AGE accumulations and podocyte loss were detected in renal glomeruli. LJE treatment significantly reduced proteinuria and AGE accumulations in diabetic mice. Moreover, the loss of nephrin, an important slit diaphragm component in the kidneys, was restored by LJE treatment. Our studies suggest that LJE might be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. The ability of LJE to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte dysfunction may be mediated by the inhibition of AGE accumulation in the context of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice. PMID:23781268

  18. Cross-talks between microRNAs and mRNAs in pancreatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, CAIMING; OUYANG, XIAOXI; LV, QING; ZHANG, YAOU; XIE, WEIDONG

    2015-01-01

    Network cross-talks between microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs may be useful to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of pancreatic islet cells in diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cross-talks between miRNAs and mRNAs in pancreatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice through microarray and bioinformatic methods. Based on the miRNA microarray, 64 upregulated and 72 downregulated miRNAs were observed in pancreatic tissues in diabetic mice compared to the normal controls. Based on the mRNA microarrray, 507 upregulated mRNAs and 570 downregulated mRNAs were identified in pancreatic tissues in diabetic mice compared to the normal controls. Notably, there were 246 binding points between upregulated miRNA and downregulated mRNAs; simultaneously, there were 583 binding points between downregulated miRNA and upregulated mRNAs. These changed mRNA may potentially involve the following signaling pathways: Insulin secretion, pancreatic secretion, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway, forkhead box O signaling pathway and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B signaling. The fluctuating effects of miRNAs and matched mRNAs indicated that miRNAs may have wide cross-talks with mRNAs in pancreatic tissues of type 1 diabetic mice. The cross-talks may play important roles in contributing to impaired islet functions and the development of diabetes. However, further functional validation should be conducted in the future.

  19. Effects of the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies and an Obesogenic Environment on Resistance Artery Function and Diabetes Biomarkers in Mice Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I.; Schenewerk, Angela L.; Coffman, Katy L.; Foote, Christopher; Ji, Tieming; Rivera, Rocio M.; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity affects the incidence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in offspring. Also the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been associated with cardiovascular deficiencies in offspring. Obese women often suffer from infertility and use ART to achieve a pregnancy, but the combined effects of maternal obesity and ART on cardiovascular health and incidence of diabetes in the offspring is not known. Here, we report the effects of the use of ART within an obesogenic environment, consisting of feeding a western diet (WD) to dams and offspring, on resistance artery function and presence of diabetes biomarkers in juvenile mice offspring. Our results indicate that WD and ART interacted to induce endothelial dysfunction in mesenteric resistance arteries isolated from 7-week-old mice offspring. This was determined by presence of a reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation compared to controls. The arteries from these WD-ART mice also had greater wall cross-sectional areas and wall to lumen ratios indicative of vascular hypertrophic remodeling. Of the diabetes biomarkers measured, only resistin was affected by a WD×ART interaction. Serum resistin was significantly greater in WD-ART offspring compared to controls. Diet and sex effects were observed in other diabetes biomarkers. Our conclusion is that in mice the use of ART within an obesogenic environment interacts to favor the development of endothelial dysfunction in the resistance arteries of juvenile offspring, while having marginal effects on diabetes biomarkers. PMID:25386661

  20. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Toda, Takahiro; Okaniwa, Takehiro; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Acacia polyphenol (AP) extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii) is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPAR?, PPAR?, CPT1, ACO and UCP3) was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS) in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-? in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome. PMID:21799697

  1. Bis(?-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) exerts durable antidiabetic effects and suppresses matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in spontaneous type 2 diabetic KKAy mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Linyi; Gao, Lihui; Liu, Shuainan; Liu, Quan; Sun, Sujuan; Huan, Yi; Li, Caina; Peng, Jun; Hou, Guojiang; Li, Ling; Liu, Weiping; Shen, Zhufang

    2013-06-01

    Vanadium compounds maintain euglycemic effects in diabetic rats long after drug withdrawal and bis(?-furancarboxylato)oxovanadium(IV) (BFOV) possesses potent antidiabetic effects in diabetic rats. Here, we investigated the treatment and posttreatment effects of BFOV in diabetic Kuo Kondo [1, 2] with Ay gene (KKAy) mice, and whether these effects were associated with changes in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). KKAy mice received normal saline or BFOV initially at 70 ?mol/kg/day for 1 month, which was tapered to 17 ?mol/kg/day in the next 2 months and discontinued thereafter. Compared to diabetic controls, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was reduced by 46 and 19 % in KKAy mice after 70 ?mol/kg BFOV for 1 month and 3 months after BFOV withdrawal, respectively. OGTT and ITT showed improved glucose tolerance and a better response of FPG to insulin with a significant decrease in HOMA-IR and a marked rise in the insulin sensitivity index after 70 ?mol/kg BFOV for 1 month and 4 months after BFOV withdrawal (P <0.05 in all vs. diabetic controls). BFOV treatment resulted in a moderate but significant reduction in body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 1 month of treatment and 4 months following BFOV withdrawal (P <0.05 in all vs. diabetic controls). Gelatin zymography showed that serum MMP2 activity was significantly reduced and immunoblotting assays further showed that MMP2 expression was markedly downregulated in the liver after 1 month of treatment with 70 ?mol/kg and 4 months after BFOV withdrawal (P <0.05 in all vs. diabetic controls). These results suggested that BFOV possessed potent treatment and posttreatment effects in KKAy mice with improved metabolic profile and reduced body weight and SBP. Furthermore, these effects were associated with decreased MMP2 expression and activity in diabetic KKAy mice. PMID:23649370

  2. Sodium fusidate ameliorates the course of diabetes induced in mice by multiple low doses of streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, F; Di Marco, R; Conget, I; Gomis, R; Edwards, C; Papaccio, G; Bendtzen, K; Sandler, S

    2000-12-01

    We studied the effects of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on murine immunoinflammatory diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (SZ). Fusidin was given by gavage to three strains of mice (C57KsJ, C57BL/6, CD1) at doses 10 or 100 mg/kg body weight every other day. The drug was administered as an early or late prophylactic regime starting either 1 day prior to the first or after the fifth and last injection of SZ. In both situations the largest dose of fusidin successfully reduced the clinical, chemical and histological signs of DM, the treated mice having significantly lower glycaemic values and milder (often absent) insulitis compared with sham-treated animals or controls given SZ alone. The antidiabetogenic effect was long-lasting as it was maintained up to 1 month after cessation of therapy. In contrast, fusidin prophylaxis failed to prevent development of hyperglycaemia acutely induced by one single and high (160 mg/kg) dose of SZ, which is a model of DM primarily due to the toxic action of SZ on the beta cells and does not involve immunopathogenetic mechanisms. On day 14 after SZ, fusidin markedly altered the circulating cytokine profile induced in vivo by ConA, reducing the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-2 and TNF-alpha and augmenting the level of IL-6. However, only the inhibitory effect of the drug on the synthesis/release of IFN-gamma seemed to be causally related to its capacity to counteract the SZ-induced DM. In fact, the disease was prevented by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) against IFN-gamma, but not by anti-IL-2 receptor mAb, a soluble form of TNF-receptor type 1 or recombinant human IL-6. The prevention of disease by fusidin was also partly reversed by exogenously administered recombinant mouse IFN-gamma. The data provide further in-vivo evidence for the anti-diabetogenic and immunomodulatory properties of fusidin and indicate that this drug could have a role in prevention and treatment of human type 1 DM. PMID:11090238

  3. Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Y; Nojima, H; Matsuda, H; Murakami, T; Yoshikawa, M; Kimura, I

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the antihyperglycemic action of a crude saponin fraction and five triterpene glycosides (gymnemic acids I-IV and gymnemasaponin V) derived from the methanol extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. The saponin fraction (60mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels 2 4h after the intraperitoneal administration. Gymnemic acid IV, not the other 4 glycosides at doses of 3.4-13.4mg/kg reduced the blood glucose levels by 13.5-60.0% 6h after the administration comparable to the potency of glibenclamide, and did not change the blood glucose levels of normal mice. Gymnemic acid IV at 13.4 mg/kg increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice. Gymnemic acid IV (1 mg/mL) did not inhibit alpha-glycosidase activity in the brush border membrane vesicles of normal rat small intestines. These results indicate that insulin-releasing action of gymnemic acid IV may contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect by the leaves of G. sylvestre. Gymnemic acid IV may be an anti-obese and antihyperglycemic pro-drug. PMID:11249615

  4. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojung [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of) [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This pharmacological action is associated with PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  5. Essential role for interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 in autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes in NOD/Wehi mice.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, I L; Kay, T W; Oxbrow, L; Harrison, L C

    1991-01-01

    Experimental studies in vitro suggest that cytokines are important mediators in the pathogenesis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). However, there is little evidence for the role of cytokines in vivo, either in humans or in the spontaneous animal models of IDDM such as the NOD mouse or BB rat. To address this question, we used the model of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced autoimmune diabetes in the NOD/Wehi mouse to examine for (a) the production of IFN-gamma and IL-6 from isolated islets, and (b) the effect of anti IFN-gamma or anti IL-6 monoclonal antibodies on the development of diabetes. After cyclophosphamide, the majority of these mice develop of mononuclear cell infiltrate (insulitis) which by 10-14 d is associated with beta cell destruction. IFN-gamma activity at low levels (2.7 +/- 0.3 U/ml) could be detected only in culture supernatants from islets isolated at day 7 post-cyclophosphamide. In contrast, IL-6 activity progressively increased from 457 +/- 44 U/ml at day 0 to 6,020 +/- 777 U/ml at day 10. Culture of islets with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody resulted in a significant increase in IFN-gamma activity from 41 +/- 7 U/ml at day 0 to 812 +/- 156 U/ml at day 10. Mice given either anti-IFN-gamma or anti-IL-6 antibody had a significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) incidence of diabetes and especially with IFN-gamma, decreased severity of insulitis. We conclude that IFN-gamma and IL-6 have essential roles in the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet beta cell destruction in this model. PMID:1899431

  6. Modulation of hyperglycemia and TNF?-mediated inflammation by helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in diabetic db/db mice.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Aumueller, Eva; Milagro, Fermín I; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    Type-2 diabetes is associated with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation accompanied by an increased production of adipokines/cytokines by obese adipose tissue. The search for new antidiabetic drugs with different mechanisms of action, such as insulin sensitizers, insulin secretagogues and ?-glucosidase inhibitors, has directed the focus on the potential use of flavonoids in the management of type-2 diabetes. Thirty six diabetic male C57BL/6J db/db mice were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned into four experimental groups: non-treated control, (n = 8); acarbose (5 mg per kg bw, n = 8); helichrysum (1 g per kg bw, n = 10) and grapefruit (0.5 g per kg bw, n = 10) for 6 weeks. The mRNA expression in pancreas, liver and epididymal adipose tissue was determined by RT-PCR. DNA methylation was quantified in epididymal fat using pyrosequencing. Mice supplemented with helichrysum and grapefruit extracts showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose levels (p < 0.05). A possible mechanism of action could be the up-regulation of liver glucokinase (p < 0.05). The antihyperglycemic effect of both extracts was accompanied by decreased mRNA expression of some proinflammatory genes (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-?, cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor-kappaB) in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. The CpG3 site of TNF?, located 5 bp downstream of the transcription start site, showed increased DNA methylation in the grapefruit group compared with the non-treated group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improved hyperglycemia through the regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver and reduction of the expression of proinflammatory genes in the liver and visceral fat. The hypermethylation of TNF? in adipose tissue may contribute to reduce the inflammation associated with diabetes and obesity. PMID:25003704

  7. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Willecke, Florian; Yuan, Chujun; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence; Hu, Yunying; Barnhart, Shelley; Bornfeldt, Karin E.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD) containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/-) mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd) carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR). After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD), showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states. PMID:26046657

  8. [Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Egli, M; Ruiz, J

    2010-01-20

    In 2009 a novel screening strategy for diabetes based on the level of glycated hemoglobin has been proposed by the main international organizations, with a diagnostic threshold of 6.5%. The preventive efficacy of multiple risk factor control in type 2 diabetes reflected by the low rate of cardiac events in the DIAD 2 study calls for a revision of the current recommendations for coronary disease screening. In gestational diabetes, the linear correlation between degree of hyperglycemia and risk of associated complications in the HAPO study strenghtens the therapeutic targets for this frequent condition, which identifies women at high future risk of diabetes. No conclusive evidence for an increased risk of cancer associated with insulin glargin remains when taking into account all the data currently available on this topic. PMID:20170025

  9. Preventive Effect of Pine Bark Extract (Flavangenol) on Metabolic Disease in Western Diet-Loaded Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Tsubata, Masahito; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Sameshima, Mayu; Nagamine, Rika; Takagaki, Kinya; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the metabolic syndrome has a multi-factorial basis involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. In this study, Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a mouse model of multi-factorial, hereditary, obese type II diabetes, were given a Western diet (WTD) as an environmental factor to prepare a disease model (TSOD-WTD) and to investigate the preventive effects of Pine bark extract (Flavangenol) against obesity and various features of metabolic disease appearing in this animal model. In contrast to control Tsumura Suzuki Non-obesity (TSNO) mice, TSOD mice were obese and suffered from other metabolic complications. WTD-fed TSOD mice developed additional features such as hyperinsulinemia, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and fatty liver. The treatment with Flavangenol had a suppressive effect on increase in body weight and accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also showed preventive effects on symptoms related to insulin resistance, abnormal glucose/lipid metabolism and hypertension. Flavangenol also increased the plasma concentration of adiponectin and decreased the plasma concentration of TNF-?. We next investigated the effect of Flavangenol on absorption of meal-derived lipids. Flavangenol suppressed absorption of neutral fat in an olive-oil-loading test (in vivo) and showed an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase (in vitro). The above results suggest that Flavangenol has a preventive effect on severe metabolic disease due to multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. The mechanism of action might involve a partial suppressive effect of meal-derived lipids on absorption. PMID:21607011

  10. Efficacy of azelaic acid on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-06-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 linear ?,?-dicarboxylic acid, is found in whole grains namely wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum. The study was performed to investigate whether AzA exerts beneficial effect on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of various doses (20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg/kg BW) of AzA daily for the subsequent 5 weeks. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as reference drug. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, blood haemoglobin (Hb), blood glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes(glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase), liver glycogen, plasma and liver triglycerides were examined in mice fed with normal standard diet (NC), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with AzA (HFD + AzA) and HFD with rosiglitazone (HFD + RSG). Among the three doses, 80 mg/kg BW of AzA was able to positively regulate plasma glucose, insulin, blood HbA1c and haemoglobin levels by significantly increasing the activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and significantly decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase thereby increasing the glycogen content in the liver. From this study, we put forward that AzA could significantly restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, Hb, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes to near normal in diabetic mice and hence, AzA may be useful as a biomaterial in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat diet induced T2DM. PMID:23402910

  11. Cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica regulates the diabetic and hyperlipidemic signs of high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Ciou, Jiun-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin; Ho, Hui-Ya

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism in high-fat (HF)-fed mice of cell suspension culture of Eriobotrya japonica (TA), which contains a great number of pentacyclic terpenoids. Firstly, C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet (n = 9), whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% HF diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was orally given TA or rosiglitazone or not for 4 weeks. Blood and visceral adipose tissue, liver tissue and skeletal muscle were examined. Treatment with TA reduced body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT) (including epididymal, perirenal, mesenteric WAT and visceral fat), and hepatic triacylglycerol content significantly without affecting food intake in diet-induced diabetic mice. TA effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, leptin and HOMA-IR index (p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively) and attenuated insulin resistance. Treatment with TA, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TA effectively significantly increased the protein contents of phosphorylation of AMPK-? (Thr172) both in liver and adipose tissue. It is shown that TA exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by decreasing gene expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of triglycerides, and antidiabetic properties occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) down- regulation, improved insulin sensitization and TA (at 1.0 g/kg dose) decreased expression of hepatic and adipose 11-?-hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11?-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Futhermore, TA at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg had serum lipid-lowering action characterized by the inhibition of DGAT 1 expression. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TA in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of PEPCK, DGAT2 and AMPK phosphorylation. PMID:23455665

  12. Evidence for shared recognition of a peptide ligand by a diverse panel of non-obese diabetic mice-derived, islet-specific, diabetogenic T cell clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Yoshida; Tracy Martin; Ken Yamamoto; Cathleen Dobbs; Christian Munz; Nobuhiro Kamikawaji; Naoko Nakano; Hans-Georg Rammensee; Takehiko Sasazuki; Kathryn Haskins; Hitoshi Kikutani

    2002-01-01

    MHC class II-restricted autoreactive T cells play a major role in the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus in both human and mouse. Two of our groups previously established panels of islet-reactive CD4+ T cell clones from prediabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. These clones express distinct sets of TCR Va ,V b ,J a and Jb, and also differ in the

  13. Reno-protection of G004, a novel anti-diabetic sulfonylurea in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaohui; Ma, Haijian; Amadi, Sarah Wambui; Ma, Lingman; Wu, Guanzhong

    2015-08-01

    1-[4-[2-(4-Bromobenzene-sulfonamino)ethyl]phenylsulfonyl]-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl) urea (G004, CAS865483-06-3) is a synthetic sulfonylurea, incorporating the hypoglycemic active structure of glimepiride (CAS 93479-97-1) and anti-TXA2 receptor (TP) active structure of BM-531(CAS 284464-46-6). In this study, we evaluated the effect of G004 on hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia as well as diabetic nephropathy (DN) in db/db mice by gavage over 90 consecutive days of treatment. The fasting blood glucose (FBG), glucose, and insulin tolerance as well as dyslipidemia were effectively ameliorated in db/db mice treated with G004. Interestingly, renal histological results of db/db mice revealed that G004 markedly reversed the expansion of mesangial extracellular matrix (ECM), the early hallmark of DN. Indeed, G004 treatment downregulated the renal expressions of type 4 collagen (Col IV) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) in db/db mice. In addition, imbalance in expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its tissue inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in db/db mice kidneys was observed. However, G004 increased and decreased the expressions of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, respectively. It is well known that TGF-? pathway signaling plays an essential role in hyperglycemia-induced cell protein synthesis. On the other hand, MMP/TIMP system is responsible for the breakdown and turnover of ECM. Thus, we speculate that G004 possibly attenuated ECM accumulation via remodeling the synthesis and degradation of ECM component Col IV through modulation in TGF-?1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 expressions in kidneys of db/db mice. Results from this study provide a strong rationale for G004 to be an efficient glucose-controlling agent with significant reno-protective properties. PMID:25943026

  14. Effect of Dietary Soybean Protein Isolate on Oxidation of Dietary Carbohydrate and Diabetic Disorders in Diabetic Obese Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kengo ISHIHARA; Wataru MIZUNOYA; Tomono UCHIDA; Tetsuro SHIBAKUSA; Yukiko MITA; Tohru FUSHIKI; Kyoden YASUMOTO

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic feeding dietary protein on glucose tolerance during weight gain induced by high fat diet in IRC mice. Protein sources of high fat diets were casein, soy protein isolate (SPI), egg white (EGW) and collagen hydrolysate (CLP). Oral glucose tolerance test showed that the serum glucose concentration in SPI

  15. Effect of Holostemma annularis on the progression of diabetes induced by a high fructose diet in rats and in diabetic C57BL/6J ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, DS; Muchandi, IS; Srinivasa, RA; Pradeep, HA; RaviKumar, K; Rao, MS; Ibrahim, M

    2010-01-01

    The roots of Holostemma annularis K. Schum (Asclepiadacae) are used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. This medicinal plant, widely used in more than 34 ayurvedic preparations, was evaluated in a high fructose diet in induced insulin resistance and in C57BL/6J ob/ob diabetic mice for its antidiabetic activity. Graded doses of both chloroform and methanolic extracts of the roots of H. annularis were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol levels and total protein in urine were analyzed. Significant results were observed in the estimated parameters. These data justify the use of the plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and is a potential source for the isolation of new active agents for diabetes mellitus. PMID:21437079

  16. Activating Brown Adipose Tissue for Weight Loss and Lowering of Blood Glucose Levels: A MicroPET Study Using Obese and Diabetic Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenxi; Cheng, Wuying; Sun, Yi; Dang, Yonghong; Gong, Fengying; Zhu, Huijuan; Li, Naishi; Li, Fang; Zhu, Zhaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aims at using 18F-FDG microPET to monitor the brown adipose tissue (BAT) glucose metabolism in obese and diabetic mouse models under different interventions, and study the therapeutic potential of BAT activation for weight loss and lowering of blood glucose in these models. Methods Obese mice were established by a high-fat diet for eight weeks, and diabetes mellitus(DM) models were induced with Streptozocin in obese mice. 18F-FDG microPET was used to monitor BAT function during obese and DM modeling, and also after BRL37344 (a ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist) or levothyroxine treatment. The BAT function was correlated with the body weight and blood glucose levels. Results Compared with the controls, the obese mice and DM mice showed successively lower 18F-FDG uptake in the interscapular BAT (P?=?0.036 and <0.001, respectively). After two-week BRL37344 treatment, the BAT uptake was significantly elevated in both obese mice (P?=?0.010) and DM mice (P?=?0.004), accompanied with significantly decreased blood glucose levels (P?=?0.023 and 0.036, respectively). The BAT uptake was negatively correlated with the blood glucose levels in both obese mice (r?=??0.71, P?=?0.003) and DM mice (r?=??0.74, P?=?0.010). BRL37344 treatment also caused significant weight loss in the obese mice (P?=?0.001). Levothyroxine treatment increased the BAT uptake in the control mice (P?=?0.025) and obese mice (P?=?0.013), but not in the DM mice (P?=?0.45). Conclusion The inhibited BAT function in obese and DM mice can be re-activated by ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist or thyroid hormone, and effective BAT activation may lead to weight loss and blood glucose lowering. Activating BAT can provide a new treatment strategy for obesity and DM. PMID:25462854

  17. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert In Vitro Immunomodulatory and Beta Cell Protective Functions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahavi, Hossein; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud; Soleimani, Masoud; Mohammadi, Jamal; Tajik, Nader

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative and immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) might be applied for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) treatment. Thus, we proposed in vitro assessment of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) immunomodulation on autoimmune response along with beta cell protection in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice model. MSCs were extracted from abdominal adipose tissue of normal mice and cultured to proliferate. Diabetic mice were prepared by administration of multiple low-doses of streptozotocin. Pancreatic islets were isolated from normal mice and splenocytes prepared from normal and diabetic mice. Proliferation, cytokine production, and insulin secretion assays were performed in coculture experiments. AT-MSCs inhibited splenocytes proliferative response to specific (islet lysate) and nonspecific (PHA) triggers in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-?, IL-2, and IL-17, and increased secretion of regulatory cytokines such as TGF-?, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by stimulated splenocytes were also shown in response to islet lysate or PHA stimulants (P < 0.05). Finally, we demonstrated that AT-MSCs could effectively sustain viability as well as insulin secretion potential of pancreatic islets in the presence of reactive splenocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it seems that MSCs may provide a new horizon for T1DM cell therapy and islet transplantation in the future. PMID:25893202

  18. Molecular pathway alterations in CD4 T-cells of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in the preinsulitis phase of autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kakoola, Dorothy N.; Curcio-Brint, Anita; Lenchik, Nataliya I.; Gerling, Ivan C.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multigenic disease caused by T-cell mediated destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic islet ß-cells. The earliest sign of islet autoimmunity in NOD mice, islet leukocytic infiltration or insulitis, is obvious at around 5 weeks of age. The molecular alterations that occur in T cells prior to insulitis and that may contribute to T1D development are poorly understood. Since CD4 T-cells are essential to T1D development, we tested the hypothesis that multiple genes/molecular pathways are altered in these cells prior to insulitis. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome and pathway analysis of whole, untreated CD4 T-cells from 2, 3, and 4 week-old NOD mice in comparison to two control strains (NOR and C57BL/6). We identified many differentially expressed genes in the NOD mice at each time point. Many of these genes (herein referred to as NOD altered genes) lie within known diabetes susceptibility (insulin-dependent diabetes, Idd) regions, e.g. two diabetes resistant loci, Idd27 (tripartite motif-containing family genes) and Idd13 (several genes), and the CD4 T-cell diabetogenic activity locus, Idd9/11 (2 genes, KH domain containing, RNA binding, signal transduction associated 1 and protein tyrosine phosphatase 4a2). The biological processes associated with these altered genes included, apoptosis/cell proliferation and metabolic pathways (predominant at 2 weeks); inflammation and cell signaling/activation (predominant at 3 weeks); and innate and adaptive immune responses (predominant at 4 weeks). Pathway analysis identified several factors that may regulate these abnormalities: eight, common to all 3 ages (interferon regulatory factor 1, hepatic nuclear factor 4, alpha, transformation related protein 53, BCL2-like 1 (lies within Idd13), interferon gamma, interleukin 4, interleukin 15, and prostaglandin E2); and two each, common to 2 and 4 weeks (androgen receptor and interleukin 6); and to 3 and 4 weeks (interferon alpha and interferon regulatory factor 7). Others were unique to the various ages, e.g. myelocytomatosis oncogene, jun oncogene, and amyloid beta (A4) to 2 weeks; tumor necrosis factor, transforming growth factor, beta 1, NF?B, ERK, and p38MAPK to 3 weeks; and interleukin 12 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 to 4 weeks. Thus, our study demonstrated that expression of many genes that lie within several Idds (e.g. Idd27, Idd13 and Idd9/11) was altered in CD4 T-cells in the early induction phase of autoimmune diabetes and identified their associated molecular pathways. These data offer the opportunity to test hypotheses on the roles played by the altered genes/molecular pathways, to understand better the mechanisms of CD4 T-cell diabetogenesis, and to develop new therapeutic strategies for T1D. PMID:24918037

  19. Evaluation of Effects of Chinese Prescription Kangen-karyu on Diabetes-Induced Alterations such as Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in the Liver of Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Hum; Noh, Jeong Sook; Okamoto, Takuya; Park, Jong Cheol; Yokozawa, Takako

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether Kangen-karyu has an ameliorative effect on diabetes-induced alterations such as oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver of type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Kangen-karyu (100 or 200?mg/kg body weight/day, p.o.) was administered every day for 18 weeks to db/db mice and its effect was compared with vehicle-treated db/db and m/m mice. The administration of Kangen-karyu decreased the elevated serum glucose and leptin concentrations in db/db mice, and reduced the increased oxidative biomarkers including the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in the liver. The db/db mice exhibited the upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, NF-E2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels in the liver; however, Kangen-karyu treatment significantly reduced those expressions. Moreover, the augmented expressions of apoptosis-related proteins, Bax, cytochrome c, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphor-JNK, AP-1, and caspase-3, were downregulated by Kangen-karyu administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the increased hepatocellular damage in the liver of db/db mice improved by Kangen-karyu administration. Our findings support the therapeutic evidence for Kangen-karyu ameliorating the development of diabetic hepatic complications via regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22969821

  20. Diet Is Critical for Prolonged Glycemic Control after Short-Term Insulin Treatment in High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aili; Daniels, Nigel A.; Thuma, Jean; McCall, Kelly D.; Malgor, Ramiro; Schwartz, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical studies suggest that short-term insulin treatment in new-onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can promote prolonged glycemic control. The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model to examine such a “legacy” effect of early insulin therapy (EIT) in long-term glycemic control in new-onset T2DM. The objective of the study was to investigate the role of diet following onset of diabetes in the favorable outcomes of EIT. Methodology As such, C57BL6/J male mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 21 weeks to induce diabetes and then received 4 weeks of daily insulin glargine or sham subcutaneous injections. Subsequently, mice were either kept on the HFD or switched to a low-fat diet (LFD) for 4 additional weeks. Principal Findings Mice fed a HFD gained significant fat mass and displayed increased leptin levels, increasing insulin resistance (poor HOMA-IR) and worse glucose tolerance test (GTT) performance in comparison to mice fed a LFD, as expected. Insulin-treated diabetic mice but maintained on the HFD demonstrated even greater weight gain and insulin resistance compared to sham-treated mice. However, insulin-treated mice switched to the LFD exhibited a better HOMA-IR compared to those mice left on a HFD. Further, between the insulin-treated and sham control mice, in spite of similar HOMA-IR values, the insulin-treated mice switched to a LFD following insulin therapy did demonstrate significantly better HOMA-B% values than sham control and insulin-treated HFD mice. Conclusion/Interpretation Early insulin treatment in HFD-induced T2DM in C57BL6/J mice was only beneficial in animals that were switched to a LFD after insulin treatment which may explain why a similar legacy effect in humans is achieved clinically in only a portion of cases studied, emphasizing a vital role for diet adherence in diabetes control. PMID:25633992

  1. Pentoxifylline aggravates fatty liver in obese and diabetic ob/ob mice by increasing intestinal glucose absorption and activating hepatic lipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Massart, J; Robin, MA; Noury, F; Fautrel, A; Lettéron, P; Bado, A; Eliat, PA; Fromenty, B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pentoxifylline is in clinical trials for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and diabetic nephropathy. Metabolic and hepatic effects of pentoxifylline were assessed in a murine model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pentoxifylline (100 mg·kg?1·day?1) was administered for 4 days or 3 weeks in lean and obese/diabetic ob/ob mice. Plasma lipids, glucose, other metabolites and relevant enzymes were measured by standard assays. Hepatic lipids in vivo were assessed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and by histology. Hepatic extracts were also analysed with RT-PCR and Western blotting. KEY RESULTS Four days of pentoxifylline treatment slightly increased liver lipids in ob/ob mice. After 3 weeks, pentoxifylline exacerbated fatty liver and plasma transaminases in ob/ob mice but did not induce liver steatosis in lean mice. Plasma glucose was highest in fed, but not fasted, ob/ob mice treated with pentoxifylline. During the first 10 min of an oral glucose tolerance test, blood glucose increased more rapidly in pentoxifylline-treated mice. Jejunal expression of glucose transporter 2 isoform was increased in pentoxifylline-treated obese mice. Hepatic activity of carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) increased after pentoxifylline in ob/ob, but not lean, mice. Hepatic expression of lipogenic enzymes was highest in pentoxifylline-treated ob/ob mice. However, pentoxifylline reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in ob/ob liver. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Pentoxifylline exacerbated fatty liver in ob/ob mice through enhanced intestinal glucose absorption, increased postprandial glycaemia and activation of hepatic lipogenesis. Long-term treatment with pentoxifylline could worsen fatty liver in some patients with pre-existing hyperglycaemia. PMID:21740407

  2. Zinc supplementation prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis and congenital heart defects in embryos of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Vijaya, Murugaiyan; Samy, Ramar Perumal; Dheen, S Thameem; Ren, Minqin; Watt, Frank; Kang, Y James; Bay, Boon-Huat; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2012-10-15

    Oxidative stress induced by maternal diabetes plays an important role in the development of cardiac malformations. Zinc (Zn) supplementation of animals and humans has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress induced by diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the role of Zn in the prevention of oxidative stress induced by diabetic cardiac embryopathy remains unknown. We analyzed the preventive role of Zn in diabetic cardiac embryopathy by both in vivo and in vitro studies. In vivo study revealed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, superoxide ions, and oxidized glutathione and an increase in reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and superoxide dismutase in the developing heart at embryonic days (E) 13.5 and 15.5 in the Zn-supplemented diabetic group when compared to the diabetic group. In addition, significantly down-regulated protein and mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT) in the developing heart of embryos from diabetic group was rescued by Zn supplement. Further, the nuclear microscopy results showed that trace elements such as phosphorus, calcium, and Zn levels were significantly increased (P<0.001), whereas the iron level was significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the developing heart of embryos from the Zn-supplemented diabetic group. In vitro study showed a significant increase in cellular apoptosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H9c2 (rat embryonic cardiomyoblast) cells exposed to high glucose concentrations. Supplementation with Zn significantly decreased apoptosis and reduced the levels of ROS. In summary, oxidative stress induced by maternal diabetes could play a role in the development and progression of cardiac embryopathy, and Zn supplementation could be a potential therapy for diabetic cardiac embryopathy. PMID:22819979

  3. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate ?-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, A Bakrudeen Ali; Rao, A S; Rao, M V

    2010-11-01

    A methanol extract of Gymnema sylvestre leaf and callus showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating ?-cells. Optimum callus was developed under stress conditions of blue light with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/l) and KN (0.5 mg/l), which induced maximum biomass of green compact callus at 45 days, as determined by growth curve analysis. Leaf and optimum callus extracts contains gymnemic acid, which was analyzed using TLC, HPTLC and HPLC methods. The research reported here deals with leaf and callus extracts of G. sylvestre, which significantly increase the weight of the whole body, liver, pancreas and liver glycogen content in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (Wistar rats). The gymnemic acid of leaf and callus extracts significantly increases the regeneration of ?-cells in treated rats, when compared with the standard diabetic rats. It could have potential as a pharmaceutical drug for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). PMID:20537514

  4. Effect of long-term treatment with vanadate in drinking water on KK mice with genetic non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjun Ding; Tatsuya Hasegawa; Hitomi Hosaka; Duan Peng; Koji Takahashi; Yoshiyuki Seko

    2001-01-01

    The glucose-lowering effect of vanadate, ammonium metavanadate (AMV), on diabetic KK mice was examined. Five-week-old male\\u000a KK mice were administrated with a solution of AMV via drinking water at concentrations of vanadium (V) with 0.1, 1.0, 10 and\\u000a 100 µg\\/mL for a period of 10 wk, respectively. Body weight, consumption of food and water, and blood glucose levels was measured

  5. Synaptic ultrastructural alterations anticipate the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy in sympathetic ganglia of aged and diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Parvin, Curtis A; Green, Karen G

    2008-12-01

    Neuroaxonal dystrophy, a distinctive axonopathy characterized by marked enlargement of distal axons, is the hallmark pathologic alteration in aged and diabetic human prevertebral sympathetic ganglia and in corresponding rodent models. Neuroaxonal dystrophy is thought to represent the abnormal outcome of cycles of synaptic degeneration and regeneration; a systematic study of identified axon terminals in aged and diabetic prevertebral ganglia, however, has not previously been performed. We examined the initial changes that develop in presynaptic and postsynaptic elements in sympathetic ganglia of aged and diabetic mice and found numerous synaptic changes involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic elements. Early alterations in presynaptic axon terminal size, vesicle content, and morphology culminate in the development of anastomosing membranous tubulovesicular aggregates, accumulation of autophagosomes, and amorphous debris that form a continuum with progressively larger classically dystrophic swellings. Dendritic changes consist of the development of swellings composed of delicate tubulovesicular elements and mitochondriopathy characterized by increased numbers of small mitochondria and, exclusively in aged ganglia, megamitochondria. These results support the hypothesis that neuroaxonal dystrophy results from progressive changes in presynaptic axon terminals that likely involve membrane dynamics and which are accompanied by distinctive changes in postsynaptic dendritic elements. PMID:19018240

  6. Psoralea corylifolia L. seed extract ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice by inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunhui; Lee, Eun-Kyu; Lee, Cheol Soon; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Young; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS) extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins), but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes. PMID:24803987

  7. Oral insulin treatment suppresses virus-induced antigen-specific destruction of beta cells and prevents autoimmune diabetes in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    von Herrath, M G; Dyrberg, T; Oldstone, M B

    1996-01-01

    Oral administration of self-antigens has been proposed as a therapy to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. Here we report that oral treatment with insulin prevents virus-induced insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in a transgenic (tg) mouse model. Such mice express the viral nucleoprotein (NP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) under control of the rat insulin promoter in their pancreatic beta cells and < 2% spontaneously develop diabetes. However, 2 mo after challenge with LCMV, IDDM occurs in > 95% of tg mice but not in controls. Oral treatment with 1 mg of insulin twice per week for 2 mo starting either 1 wk before or 10 d after initiating LCMV infection prevents IDDM in > 50% of the tg mice (observation time 8 mo). Thus, insulin therapy is effective in preventing progression to overt IDDM in prediabetic tg mice with ongoing islet infiltration. Oral administration of insulin does not affect the generation of LCMV-NP-specific anti-self cytotoxic T lymphocytes nor the infiltration of lymphocytes into the pancreas. However, less beta cells are destroyed in insulin-treated mice, upregulation of MHC class I and II molecules does not occur, and antiviral (self) cytotoxic T lymphocytes are not found in the islets, events present in tg mice developing IDDM. The majority of lymphocytes in the islets of insulin-treated tg mice without IDDM produces IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta. In contrast, lymphocytes from islets of tg mice developing IDDM mainly make gamma-IFN. PMID:8823297

  8. Far infra-red therapy promotes ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice and restores high glucose-suppressed endothelial progenitor cell functions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Far infra-red (IFR) therapy was shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular system, but effects of IFR on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and EPC-related vasculogenesis remain unclear. We hypothesized that IFR radiation can restore blood flow recovery in ischemic hindlimb in diabetic mice by enhancement of EPCs functions and homing process. Materials and methods Starting at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes, unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, which were divided into control and IFR therapy groups (n?=?6 per group). The latter mice were placed in an IFR dry sauna at 34°C for 30 min once per day for 5 weeks. Results Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio in the thermal therapy group was significantly increased beyond that in controls, and significantly greater capillary density was seen in the IFR therapy group. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired EPCs (Sca-1+/Flk-1+) mobilization after ischemia surgery in diabetic mice with or without IFR therapy (n?=?6 per group). However, as compared to those in the control group, bone marrow-derived EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells defined as GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells were significantly increased in ischemic tissue around the vessels in diabetic mice that received IFR radiation. In in-vitro studies, cultured EPCs treated with IFR radiation markedly augmented high glucose-impaired EPC functions, inhibited high glucose-induced EPC senescence and reduced H2O2 production. Nude mice received human EPCs treated with IFR in high glucose medium showed a significant improvement in blood flow recovery in ischemic limb compared to those without IFR therapy. IFR therapy promoted blood flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Conclusions Administration of IFR therapy promoted collateral flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice, and these beneficial effects may derive from enhancement of EPC functions and homing process. PMID:22894755

  9. Ameliorative Effect of Hexane Extract of Phalaris canariensis on High Fat Diet-Induced Obese and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Horcacita