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Sample records for alloy satellite boxes

  1. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate strength while minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    This report provides strategies for minimizing machining distortion in future designs of aluminum alloy satellite boxes, based in part on key findings from this investigation. The report outlines types of aluminum alloys and how they are heat treated, how residual stresses develop during heat treatment of age hardening alloys, ways residual stresses can be minimized, and the design of machining approaches to minimize distortion in parts that contain residual stresses. Specific recommendations are made regarding alloy selection, heat treatment, stress relieving, and machining procedures for boxes requiring various strength levels with emphasis on 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys.

  2. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Mandy S.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall

    2007-11-01

    Distortion frequently occurs during machining of age hardening aluminum alloys due to residual stresses introduced during the quenching step in the heat treatment process. This report quantifies, compares, and discusses the effectiveness of several methods for minimizing residual stresses and machining distortion in aluminum alloys 7075 and 6061.

  3. Effect of polymer coatings on fatigue strength of aluminum alloy 2024 box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordmark, G. E.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that polymer coatings raise the fatigue strength of metals tested in air to about the same level as that of uncoated specimens tested in vacuum. The results are given of tests to determine if a polymer coating would improve the fatigue strength of built-up aluminum alloy members simulating aircraft construction. Aluminum alloy 2024-T4 riveted box beams were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue tests in air as well as in salt water fog. The coating did not improve the fatigue strength of beams tested in either environment. This is believed to result from the fact that most failures originated at rivet holes, which were isolated from both the coating and the environment.

  4. The influence of polarization on box air mass factors for UV/vis nadir satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric abundances of pollutant trace gases like, e.g., NO2, are often derived by applying the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) method to space-borne measurements of back-scattered and reflected solar radiation. The resulting quantity, the slant column density (SCD), subsequently has to be converted to more easily interpretable vertical column densities by means of the so-called box air mass factor (BAMF). The BAMF describes the ratio of SCD and VCD within one atmospheric layer and is calculated by a radiative transfer model. Current operational and scientific data products of satellite-derived trace gas VCDs do not include the effect of polarization in their radiative transfer models. However, the various scattering processes in the atmosphere do lead to a distinctive polarization pattern of the observed Earthshine spectra. This study investigates the influence of these polarization patterns on box air mass factors for satellite nadir DOAS measurements of NO2 in the UV/vis wavelength region. NO2 BAMFs have been simulated for a multitude of viewing geometries, surface albedos, and surface altitudes, using the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN. The results show a potentially large influence of polarization on the BAMF, which can reach 10% and more close to the surface. A simple correction for this effect seems not to be feasible, as it strongly depends on the specific measurement scenario and can lead to both high and low biases of the resulting NO2 VCD. We therefore conclude that all data products of NO2 VCDs derived from space-borne DOAS measurements should include polarization effects in their radiative transfer model calculations, or at least include the errors introduced by using linear models in their uncertainty estimates.

  5. A Shape Memory Alloy Actuated Satellite Isolation Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J.; Mignon, A.; Promper, C.; Stalmans, R.; Lanfranconi, R.

    2004-10-01

    Pyrotechnic actuated valves are currently used extensively in satellite chemical propulsion systems. These valves serve as isolation valves. They are single- use, of very high reliability, and used to initiate a propulsion system at the start of its propulsion mission or to "safe" it at the end of its mission life. A new type of valve is currently in its initial stages of development which aims to replace the pyro with a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator. This valve would give the same isolation performance, would work at high temperature up to 100°C, could be much slower limiting mechanical shocks, and be interchangeable with pyro-valves making substitution simple. This paper outlines the scope of this work.

  6. Development and field-testing of the BENTO box: A new satellite-linked data collection system for volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Fouch, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Currently it is impossible to monitor all of Earth's hazardous volcanoes for precursory eruption signals, and it is particularly difficult to monitor volcanoes in remote regions. The primary constraint is the high cost of deploying monitoring instrumentation (e.g., seismometers, gas sensors), which includes the cost of reliable, high-resolution sensors, the cost of maintenance (including periodic travel to remote areas), and the cost/difficulty of developing remote data telemetry. We are developing an integrated monitoring system, the BENTO (Behar's ENvironmental Telemetry and Observation) box that will allow identification of restless volcanoes through widespread deployment of robust, lightweight, low-cost, easily deployable monitoring/telemetry systems. Ultimately, we expect that this strategy will lead to more efficient allocation of instrumentation and associated costs. BENTO boxes are portable, autonomous, self-contained data collection systems are designed for long-term operation (up to ~12 months) in remote environments. They use low-cost two-way communication through the commercial Iridium satellite network, and, depending on data types, can pre-process raw data onboard to obtain useful summary statistics for transmission through Iridium. BENTO boxes also have the ability to receive commands through Iridium, allowing, for example, remote adjustment of sampling rates, or requests for segments of raw data in cases where only summary statistics are routinely transmitted. Currently, BENTO boxes can measure weather parameters (e.g., windspeed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, atmospheric pressure), volcanic gas (CO2, SO2, and halogens) concentrations, and seismicity. In the future, we plan to interface BENTO boxes with additional sensors such as atmospheric pressure/infrasound, tilt, GPS and temperature. We are currently field-testing 'BENTO 1' boxes equipped with gas and meteorological sensors ('BENTO 1') at Telica Volcano, Nicaragua; Kilauea Volcano, Hawai

  7. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Community Observer Program including the Science Enhancement Option Box (SEO Box) - 12 TB On-board Flash Memory for Serendipitous Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schingler, Robert; Villasenor, J. N.; Ricker, G. R.; Latham, D. W.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Ennico, K. A.; Lewis, B. S.; Bakos, G.; Brown, T. M.; Burgasser, A. J.; Charbonneau, D.; Clampin, M.; Deming, L. D.; Doty, J. P.; Dunham, E. W.; Elliot, J. L.; Holman, M. J.; Ida, S.; Jenkins, J. M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Kawai, N.; Laughlin, G. P.; Lissauer, J. J.; Martel, F.; Sasselov, D. D.; Seager, S.; Torres, G.; Udry, S.; Winn, J. N.; Worden, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will perform an all-sky survey in a low-inclination, low-Earth orbit. TESS's 144 GB of raw data collected each orbit will be stacked, cleaned, cut, compressed and downloaded. The Community Observer Program is a Science Enhancement Option (SEO) that takes advantage of the low-radiation environment, technology advances in flash memory, and the vast amount of astronomical data collected by TESS. The Community Observer Program requires the addition of a 12 TB "SEO Box” inside the TESS Bus. The hardware can be built using low-cost Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components and fits within TESS's margins while accommodating GSFC gold rules. The SEO Box collects and stores a duplicate of the TESS camera data at a "raw” stage ( 4.3 GB/orbit, after stacking and cleaning) and makes them available for on-board processing. The sheer amount of onboard storage provided by the SEO Box allows the stacking and storing of several months of data, allowing the investigator to probe deeper in time prior to a given event. Additionally, with computation power and data in standard formats, investigators can utilize data-mining techniques to investigate serendipitous phenomenon, including pulsating stars, eclipsing binaries, supernovae or other transient phenomena. The Community Observer Program enables ad-hoc teams of citizen scientists to propose, test, refine and rank algorithms for on-board analysis to support serendipitous science. Combining "best practices” of online collaboration, with careful moderation and community management, enables this `crowd sourced’ participatory exploration with a minimal risk and impact on the core TESS Team. This system provides a powerful and independent tool opening a wide range of opportunity for science enhancement and secondary science. Support for this work has been provided by NASA, the Kavli Foundation, Google, and the Smithsonian Institution.

  8. Magical Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Students get excited when they realize that they can transform a flat sheet of paper into a box. By using different sizes of paper, they can make different sizes of boxes and put a box inside a box, inside a box. These magical boxes within boxes can contain unwanted emotions or special treasures. The project described in this article incorporates…

  9. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  10. Jeweled Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    While an empty cardboard box from a ream of copy paper may be the most coveted box among teachers in the author's school, for other people, brass boxes from India, Khokhlova lacquer boxes from Russia, and puzzle boxes from Japan are more the type that are collected and admired. Whether it is used for storage or decoration, a box can evoke a sense…

  11. Use of a Variety of Aerosols Transported off the US Northeast Coast in ICARTT 2004 for Multi-Grid-Box Validation of Satellite Optical Depth Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Ramirez, S.; Eilers, J.; Pilewskie, P.; Chu, A.; Kahn, R.; Quinn, P.; Howell, S.; Ferrare, R.; Browell, E.

    2005-12-01

    Transport of a variety of aerosol types off the US Northeast coast during INTEX/ITCT/ICARTT in Summer 2004 produced a wide range of aerosol optical depth (AOD) values, as well as many cases of horizontal gradients in AOD over the Gulf of Maine. The aerosol types included biomass smoke transported from wildfires in Alaska and Western Canada as well as particles in urban and power plant plumes transported from nearby sources on the New England coast and more distant sources in the Ohio River Valley. In these conditions we flew a sunphotometer on a Jetstream 31 (J31) aircraft across many adjacent aerosol retrieval grid boxes of the satellite radiometers MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR, in order to test and inter-compare their AOD retrievals, including their ability to capture the AOD gradients. Characterization of the retrieval environment was aided by using spectral flux radiometers on the J31, to measure water surface albedo spectra (which can contribute the largest uncertainty to satellite aerosol retrievals when AOD is small). Additional characterization came from vertical profiles by the J31 (showing aerosol vertical structure) and, on occasion, shipboard measurements of AOD, scattering, and absorption, and DC-8 measurements of aerosol scattering, absorption, size, composition, and lidar backscatter. The J31 sunphotometer was the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), which provides AOD at thirteen discrete wavelengths, 354-2138 nm, spanning the range of aerosol retrieval wavelengths for MODIS over ocean (470-2130 nm) and MISR (446-866 nm). The J31 flux radiometers were the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), which provide spectra of upwelling and downwelling irradiance at resolution 8-12 nm from 350 to 1670 nm. We show results from 11 J31 flights made 12 July-8 August 2004. These include comparisons of AATS AOD spectra to spaceborne retrievals for more than 88 grid boxes of MODIS-Terra, MODIS-Aqua, and MISR that were either along

  12. Bento Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  13. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  14. A one piece wall box for space electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, W.H.

    1995-05-01

    In extraterrestrial applications, satellite payloads have printed circuit modules that are housed in boxes or chassis. The box may be a one piece wall or a segmented wall. These two wall options are compared for function and cost.

  15. Boxing clever.

    PubMed

    Toon, P D

    1988-06-01

    This is the first contribution to a new JME column, "At the coalface," to which readers are invited to relate ethical problems they have encountered in their work. An adolescent patient requested that the author, a general practitioner, certify that he was medically fit to box. Toon attempted to dissuade him from boxing by explaining its dangers. When the boy persisted, the physician rapidly considered the ethical principles involved in the encounter and decided to "wash his hands" by telling his patient that if "he insisted on damaging his, or someone else's brain, then he must find another medical accomplice." PMID:3392720

  16. Exploding Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney; Jan

    2011-01-01

    How do you teach the "same old, same old" in an interesting and inexpensive way? Art teachers are forever looking for new angles on the good-old elements and principles. And, as budgets tighten, they are trying to be as frugal as possible while still holding their students' attention. Enter exploding boxes! In conceptualizing the three types of…

  17. A novel tape spring hinge mechanism for quasi-static deployment of a satellite deployable using shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ju Won; Yoo, Young Ik; Shin, Dong Kil; Lim, Jae Hyuk; Kim, Kyung Won; Lee, Jung Ju

    2014-02-01

    A tape spring hinge (TSH) is a typical flexible deployment device for a satellite and becomes frequently used due to its simplicity, lightweight, low cost, and high deployment reliability. However, the performance of a TSH is quite limited due to trade-offs among deployed stiffness, deployment torque, and latch-up shock despite its many advantages. In this study, a novel conceptual design that circumvents the trade-offs among functional requirements (FRs) is proposed. The trade-offs are obviated by a newly proposed shape memory alloy damper that converts the deployment behavior of a conventional TSH from unstable dynamic to stable quasi-static. This makes it possible to maximize the deployment stiffness and deployment torque of a conventional TSH, which are larger-the-better FR, without any increase in the latch-up shock. Therefore, in view of conceptual design, it is possible to design a highly improved TSH that has much higher deployed stiffness and deployment torque compared to a conventional TSH while minimizing latch-up shock and deployment unstableness. Detailed design was performed through response surface method and finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was manufactured and tested in order to verify its performance (four point, deployment torque, and latch-up shock tests). The test results confirm the feasibility of the proposed TSH mechanism.

  18. The BENTO Box: Development and field-testing of a new satellite-linked data collection system for multiparameter volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting volcanic activity requires continuous monitoring for signals of magmatic unrest in harsh, often remote environments. BENTO is a next-generation monitoring system, currently in prototype testing, that is highly portable, low-cost, rapidly deployable, and entirely autonomous. Such a system could be used to provide critical monitoring and data collection capabilities during rapid-onset eruptions, or to provide a crude baseline monitor at large numbers of remote volcanoes to 'flag' the onset of unrest so that costlier resources such as specialized instrumentation can be deployed in the appropriate place at the appropriate time. The BENTO 1 (low-rate data) prototype currently comprises off-the-shelf volcanic gas sensors (SO2, CO2, Fl, Cl, and Br), a weather station (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, pressure), and telemetry via Iridium modem. In baseline mode, BENTO 1 takes a measurement from all of its sensors every two hours and automatically sends the measurements through Iridium to a server that posts them to a dedicated and customizable web page. The measurement interval and other sensor parameters (pumping time, sensor constants) can be adjusted directly or remotely (through the Iridium network) as needed. Currently, BENTO 1 is deployed at Mt. Etna, Italy; Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, Hengill Volcano, Iceland; and Hekla Volcano, Iceland. The BENTO 2 (high-rate) system is motivated by a need to avoid having to telemeter raw seismic data, which at 20-100 Hz/channel is far too voluminous for cost- and power-effective transmission through satellite networks such as Iridium. Our solution is to regularly transmit only state-of-health information and descriptions of the seismic data (e.g., 'triggered' seismic event rates and amplitudes), rather than the data itself. The latter can be accomplished through on-board data analysis and reduction at the installation site. Currently, it is possible to request specific time segments of raw

  19. Dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes based on FerryBox measurements and satellite-based prediction of pCO2 in the Western English Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, Pierre; Thierry, Cariou; Eric, Mace; Pascal, Morin; Marc, Vernet; Yann, Bozec

    2014-05-01

    Since April 2012, we installed an autonomous FerryBox system on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crosses the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff and Plymouth on a daily basis. High-frequency data of sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), fluorescence, dissolved oxygen (DO) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were recorded for two years across the all-year mixed southern WEC (sWEC) and the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC). These contrasting hydrographical provinces strongly influenced the spatio-temporal distributions of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes. During the productive period (from May to September), the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of -5.6 mmolC m-2 d-1 and -4.6 mmolC m-2 d-1, in 2012 and 2013, respectively. During the same period, the sWEC showed significant inter-annual variability degassing CO2 to the atmosphere in 2012 (1.4 mmolC m-2 d-1) and absorbing atmospheric CO2 in 2013 (-1.6 mmolC m-2 d-1). In 2012, high-frequency data revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer phytoplankton bloom in the nWEC contributed to 31% of the total CO2 drawdown during the productive period, highlighting the necessity of pCO2 high-frequency measurements in coastal ecosystems. Based on this multi-annual dataset, we developed pCO2 algorithms using multiple linear regression (MLR) based on SST, SSS, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, time, latitude and mixed layer depth to predict pCO2 in the two hydrographical provinces of the WEC. MLR were performed based on more than 200,000 underway observations spanning the range from 150 to 480 µatm. The root mean square errors (RMSE) of the MLR fit to the data were 17.2 µatm and 21.5 µatm for the s WEC and the nWEC with correlation coefficient (r²) of 0.71 and 0.79, respectively. We applied these algorithms to satellite SST and Chl-a products and to modeled SSS estimates in the entire WEC. Based on these high-frequency and satellite approaches, we will discuss the main

  20. An Improved Box Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Michael E.

    2011-09-01

    While designing an optics lab for a conceptual physics course, I came across a "box theater" activity. The box theater is a pinhole camera obscura made from a box that students put over their heads and shoulders. I use the activity as a capstone experience to explain optical systems. (Classroom demonstrations of the camera obscura have been described by others.2) First, the students build and experiment with a camera obscura made from a plastic cup and a convex lens with a focal length of 7.5 cm, and then "wear" the box theater. The difficulty with the box theater is the dimness of the image. A cloth drape has to be hung from the bottom of the box around the shoulders of the students to prevent light leakage, and the students have to wait a few minutes for their eyes to adjust to the darkness.

  1. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  2. Thinking outside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanshawe, Simon; Sriskandarajah, Dhananjayan

    2010-01-01

    Britain is not only more diverse than ever before, but that diversity itself is growing more diverse. Britain's simplistic "tick-box" approach to identity is in danger of inhibiting the very equality it seeks to promote. To question the tick-box is not to accuse local authorities of "political correctness gone mad". The notion of political…

  3. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  4. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. 4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW (SIDE A) OF HANDMADE STEEL BOX ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEPLETED URANIUM ALLOY DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENT FABRICATION PROCESS. THE BOX WAS USED TO TRANSFER HEATED BLOCKS OF METAL (SHOWN IN THE OPENED DOOR) FROM THE MOLTEN SALT BATH TO THE ROLLER LINES. (4/28/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  7. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  8. Changes In Mechanical Properties Of Heat Resisting Alloy For A Satellite Propulsion System After A Nitriding Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Hideshi; Fujii, Go; Kajiwara, Kenichi; Kuroda, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takuya; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Murakami, Hideyuki; Ono, Yoshinori

    2012-07-01

    Haynes25 (L-605) is a common heat resistant alloy used in mono-propellant structures and screen materials for catalyst beds. The lifetime requirements for thrusters have expanded dramatically after studies conducted in the 1970s on mono-propellant materials used to extend the service life. The material design had long remained unchanged, and the L-605 was still used as thruster material due to its good heritage. However, some important incidents involving degradation were found during the test-unit break-up inspection following the thruster life tests. The Japanese research team focused on the L-605 degradations found on the catalyst bed screen mesh used for mono-propellant thruster and analysed the surface of the wire material and the cross- section of the wire screen mesh used in the life tests. The investigation showed that the degradation was caused by nitriding L-605 component elements. The team suggested that the brittle fracture was attributable to tungsten (W) carbides, which formed primarily in the grain boundaries, and chromium (Cr) nitride, which formed mainly in the parts in contact with the hot firing gas. The team also suggested the installation of a platinum coating on the material surface as a countermeasure L-605 nitric degradation. Inconel 625 is now selected as a mono-propellant structure material due to its marginal raw material characters and cost. The team believes that Inconel 625 does not form W carbides since it contains no tungsten component, but does contain Cr and Fe, which form nitrides easily. Therefore, the team agreed that for the Inconel 625, there was a need to evaluate changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties following exposure to hot nitrogen gases. This paper will describe these changes of Inconel 625.

  9. Climate in a Box

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Climate in a Box Project is exploring the utility of supercomputers in providing a complete, pre-packaged, ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products and on-demand access to a high-pe...

  10. Boxing with Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dj; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model-independent ``box'' parameterization of neutrino oscillations. Oscillation probabilities are linear in these new parameters, so measurements can straighforwardly determine the box parameters which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. We will present these new parameters and examine the effects of unitarity which reduce the number of independent parameters to the minimum set. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n >= 3 flavors.

  11. Automatic box loader

    DOEpatents

    Eldridge, Harry H.; Jones, Robert A.; Lindner, Gordon M.; Hight, Paul H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for repetitively forming an assembly consisting of a single layer of tubes and a row of ferromagnetic armatures underlying the same, electromagnetically conveying the resulting assembly to a position overlying a storage box, and depositing the assembly in the box. The system includes means for simultaneously depositing a row of the armatures on the inclined surface of a tube retainer. Tubes then are rolled down the surface to form a single tube layer bridging the armatures. A magnet assembly carrying electromagnets respectively aligned with the armatures is advanced close to the tube layer, and in the course of this advance is angularly displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into parallelism with the tube layer. The magnets then are energized to pick up the assembly. The loaded magnet assembly is retracted to a position overlying the box, and during this retraction is again displaced to bring the pole pieces of the electromagnets into a horizontal plane. Means are provided for inserting the loaded electromagnets in the box and then de-energizing the electromagnets to deposit the assembly therein. The system accomplishes the boxing of fragile tubes at relatively high rates. Because the tubes are boxed as separated uniform layers, subsequent unloading operations are facilitated.

  12. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  13. 18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A FIRE THAT OCCURRED ON MAY 11, 1969. THE FIRE OCCURRED FROM THE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF A BRIQUETTE OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM ALLOY METAL. (5/18/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  15. Drawing inside the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ranella

    2007-01-01

    When working with very young children and/or students with special needs, it is beneficial for teachers to think "outside the box" in order to preserve and enhance a child's natural curiosity. In an effort to teach young children to control their drawing tools, they are often presented with coloring book-type pages and instructed to "stay inside…

  16. Cereal Box Totems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  17. Shoe Box Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandifer, Cody

    2009-01-01

    Students' eyes grow wide with wonder as they get a motor to work or make a bulb light for the first time. As these daunting feats of electrical engineering remind us, teaching electricity is invariably rewarding and worthwhile. In this inquiry-based science project, elementary students work in pairs to design and wire a shoe box "room" that meets…

  18. "Can" the Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestingi, Francis S.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of the "Arcane (mysterious) Can" which is a "tin" can which is permanently sealed, both air- and water-tight, by means of a home canning device. The canning procedure permits the use of a large variety of materials which can not be utilized in the ordinary mystery box. This Can activity is valuable for illustrating in an…

  19. Thinking "Inside" the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffries, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a test to determine whether they could incorporate a discovery box into a preschool setting was successful. It stimulated the students' natural inquiry processes while promoting understanding of healthy foods and allowing for practice of fine-motor skills. It was easily incorporated into the curriculum and classroom space.…

  20. Teaching with Box Tops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  1. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  2. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  3. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Hermit Points on a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  5. Multicultural and Nonsexist Prop Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutte, Gloria S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how prop boxes enhance learning and are resources in multicultural and nonsexist primary education, focusing on play, experimentation, and cooperation. Examines integration of prop boxes into the curricula and activities, and presents examples of generic and specific multicultural prop boxes that incorporate art, music, foods,…

  6. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  7. Learning with box kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  8. Learning with Box Kernels.

    PubMed

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-04-12

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, since the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given which dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:23589591

  9. Profiles in garbage: Corrugated boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-12-01

    Corrugated boxes (also known as old corrugated containers, or OCC) are used to ship products to factories, warehouses, retail stores, offices, and homes. The primary market for OCC is the paperboard industry, which uses OCC for corrugated medium, linerboard, recycled paperboard, and other paper products. In addition, 2.6 million tons of OCC were exported in 1996. OCC provided 37% of the scrap paper that was exported in 1996. Some corrugated boxes can be reused before recycling. Corrugated boxes are easily and highly recyclable. Large producers such as grocery store warehouses and factories have recycled their corrugated boxes for some time. If shredded properly, uncoated corrugated boxes are easily compostable.

  10. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  11. Black box multigrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dendy, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The black box multigrid (BOXMG) code, which only needs specification of the matrix problem for application in the multigrid method was investigated. It is contended that a major problem with the multigrid method is that each new grid configuration requires a major programming effort to develop a code that specifically handles that grid configuration. The SOR and ICCG methods only specify the matrix problem, no matter what the grid configuration. It is concluded that the BOXMG does everything else necessary to set up the auxiliary coarser problems to achieve a multigrid solution.

  12. Projection optics box

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  13. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  14. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  15. 2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPPER NOTTINGHAM MINE, WOODEN BOXES. BOXES ARE LOCATED APPROXIMATELY 10 YARDS TO THE RIGHT AND DOWNSLOPE OF THE ADIT IN ID-31-F-1. CAMERA IS POINTED EAST-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. ACYSYS in a box

    SciTech Connect

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  17. Impedance Measurement Box

    ScienceCinema

    Christophersen, Jon

    2013-05-28

    Energy storage devices, primarily batteries, are now more important to consumers, industries and the military. With increasing technical complexity and higher user expectations, there is also a demand for highly accurate state-of-health battery assessment techniques. IMB incorporates patented, proprietary, and tested capabilities using control software and hardware that can be part of an embedded monitoring system. IMB directly measures the wideband impedance spectrum in seconds during battery operation with no significant impact on service life. It also can be applied to batteries prior to installation, confirming health before entering active service, as well as during regular maintenance. For more information about this project, visit http://www.inl.gov/rd100/2011/impedance-measurement-box/

  18. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  19. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  20. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  1. What Makes a Better Box?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Every morning, many Americans start their day with a bowl of cereal. Some spend time while they eat breakfast reading the back of the cereal box, but few consider its size, shape, and construction, or realize that it was designed by an engineer. This article describes a lesson in which students design, build, and critique cereal boxes. The lesson…

  2. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  3. Electrolytic glove-box decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.; Lugo, J.; Nelson, T.

    1997-12-01

    Programmatic requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require the decommissioning of obsolete glove boxes contaminated interiorly with high levels of transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes. At least 300 glove boxes will be decommissioned in the next 5 yr and more over the long term. Most of these glove boxes are located at the two facilities that handle plutonium, the plutonium facility at technical area 55 (TA-55) and the chemistry and metallurgy research (CMR) facility at technical area. In addition to these active LANL glove boxes, which are in need of decommissioning, there are also on the order of 200 {open_quotes}legacy{close_quotes} TRU categorized glove boxes in storage at technical area 54.

  4. Thinking Inside the Box

    SciTech Connect

    Boeheim, Charles T.; /SLAC

    2007-11-16

    In early 2007, SLAC was faced with a shortage of both electrical power and cooling in the main computer building, at the same time that the BaBar collaboration needed a new cluster of 250 batch machines installed. A number of different options were explored for the expansion. Provision of additional electrical power to the building was estimated to take one to two years, and cost several million dollars; additional cooling was even worse. Space in a Silicon Valley co-location facilities was reasonable on a one-year timescale, but broke even in costs by the end of three years, and were more expensive after that. There were also unresolved questions about the affects of additional latency from an offsite compute cluster to the onsite disk servers. The option of converting existing experimental hall space into computer space was estimated at one year, with uncertain availability. An option to aggressively replace several existing clusters with more power-efficient equipment was studied closely, but was disruptive to continued operations, expensive, and didn't provide any additional headroom. Finally, the installation of a Sun Project Blackbox (PBB) unit was selected as providing the capacity on a timescale of six months for a reasonable cost with minimal disruption to service. SLAC obtained and installed a beta unit and have been running it in production since September 2007. The experiences described are with the Early Access version of the PBB. The production version of the box has engineering changes based in part on our experiences.

  5. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip A.

    A review of the economic and technological status of the satellite communications industry is presented. The history of satellite communications is outlined, focusing on the launching of Syncom III in 1963. The basic operation of communication satellites is explained. The differences between C and Ku frequency bands are examined. Economic issues related to satellite communications are discussed in detail.

  6. Satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, M. K.

    1982-11-01

    The paper describes the basic principles and the historial development of satellite communications. Various satellite systems for global communications are discused and compared. Some typical operational communication satellite systems summary including geostationary systems are presented. Considerations leading to the system design including the link design for various multiple access techniques and the future trends in satellite communications systems are also discussed.

  7. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Sudjito, Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-01

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  8. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:23856377

  9. Breaking out of Our Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, William

    2003-01-01

    Argues that educators must "think outside the box" to improve school performance. Suggests several areas for expanded thought, including school size, curriculum coverage, grading practices, use of time, organization of students, time management, and belief statement. (PKP)

  10. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    PubMed

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  11. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  12. SATELLITE Capabilities and Limitations for the ACPC Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    This presentation was given at the Aerosol-Clouds-Precipitation-Climate (ACPC) Workshop held at NASA GISS in April 2015. The organizers of the meeting plan to post the presentations to a public website maintained by the University of Leipzig.

  13. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  14. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  15. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    DOEpatents

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  16. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  17. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  18. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  19. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  20. 46 CFR 111.81-1 - Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... standards, all of which are incorporated by reference (see 46 CFR 110.10-1): Article 314 of NFPA NEC 2002... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Outlet boxes and junction boxes; general. 111.81-1... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-1 Outlet boxes and...

  1. Box graphs and resolutions I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  2. Estimating on-orbit optical properties for GNSS satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Solano, M. Sc. Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Steigenberger, Peter

    One of the major uncertainty sources affecting GNSS satellite orbits is the direct solar radiation pressure. Other important though smaller effects are caused by deviations of the satellite from nominal attitude, Earth radiation pressure and thermal re-radiation forces. To compensate such effects, the IGS Analysis Centers usually estimate empirical parameters which fit best the tracking data obtained from a global network of GNSS ground stations to compute orbits at an accuracy level of 2.5 cm for GPS and of 5 cm for GLONASS. On the other hand, there are also accurate physical models for the above mentioned non-conservative forces affecting the GNSS satellites such as the ROCK models for GPS satellites. However, current models fail to predict the real orbit behaviour with sufficient accuracy, mainly due to deviations from nominal attitude, from inaccurately known optical properties, or from aging of the satellite surfaces. In this context an analytical box-wing model has been derived based on the physical interaction between the direct solar radiation and a satellite consisting of a bus (box shape) and solar panels. Furthermore some of the parameters of the box-wing model can be adjusted to fit the GNSS tracking data, namely the fraction of reflected photons of the corresponding satellite surfaces. For this study GNSS orbits are generated based on one year of tracking data from the global IGS network and involving the box-wing model implemented into the Bernese GPS Software. The processing scheme was derived from the one used at the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The resulting satellite orbits are compared with CODE Final Orbits and validated using SLR (Satellite Laser Ranging) tracking data. Additionally, in the case of GPS satellites, the box-wing model and the obtained optical properties are compared directly with a priori models (e.g. ROCK), which deal with the direct solar radiation impacting the satellites.

  3. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  4. Satellite situation report, volume 31, number 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Data computed at GSFC, NORAD, or provided by satellite owners is reported. A space objects box score is presented of objects in orbit and decayed objects. Data of objects in orbit is presented in tabular form and the table headings include name of the object, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee KM., perigee KM., and transmitting frequency.

  5. Satellite RNAs and Satellite Viruses.

    PubMed

    Palukaitis, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Satellite RNAs and satellite viruses are extraviral components that can affect either the pathogenicity, the accumulation, or both of their associated viruses while themselves being dependent on the associated viruses as helper viruses for their infection. Most of these satellite RNAs are noncoding RNAs, and in many cases, have been shown to alter the interaction of their helper viruses with their hosts. In only a few cases have the functions of these satellite RNAs in such interactions been studied in detail. In particular, work on the satellite RNAs of Cucumber mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus have provided novel insights into RNAs functioning as noncoding RNAs. These effects are described and potential roles for satellite RNAs in the processes involved in symptom intensification or attenuation are discussed. In most cases, models describing these roles involve some aspect of RNA silencing or its suppression, either directly or indirectly involving the particular satellite RNA. PMID:26551994

  6. Black Boxes in Workplace Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Wake, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    We ground Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) in studies of workplace practices from a mathematical point of view. We draw on multiple case study visits by college students and teacher-researchers to workplaces. By asking questions that "open boxes", we "outsiders and boundary-crossers" sought to expose contradictions between College and…

  7. The Cereal Box Problem Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the cereal box problem using both an experimental and theoretical framework, and Monte Carlo methods. Using empirical data, students can discover patterns and relationships that help them understand the origin of the theoretical solution to the problem. Contains 17 references. (Author/ASK)

  8. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  9. NETL's JIC in a box

    ScienceCinema

    David Anna

    2010-01-08

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  10. The Bird Box Survey Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  11. NETL's JIC in a box

    SciTech Connect

    David Anna

    2009-06-03

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory developed the idea of a portable joint information center AKA JIC in-a-box. This video discribes some of the equipment in the portable JIC as well as some of the methodology that NETL developed as a result of this portable JIC concept.

  12. CENP-B box, a nucleotide motif involved in centromere formation, occurs in a New World monkey.

    PubMed

    Suntronpong, Aorarat; Kugou, Kazuto; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    Centromere protein B (CENP-B) is one of the major proteins involved in centromere formation, binding to centromeric repetitive DNA by recognizing a 17 bp motif called the CENP-B box. Hominids (humans and great apes) carry large numbers of CENP-B boxes in alpha satellite DNA (AS, the major centromeric repetitive DNA of simian primates). Only negative results have been reported regarding the presence of the CENP-B box in other primate taxa. Consequently, it is widely believed that the CENP-B box is confined, within primates, to the hominids. We report here that the common marmoset, a New World monkey, contains an abundance of CENP-B boxes in its AS. First, in a long contig sequence we constructed and analysed, we identified the motif in 17 of the 38 alpha satellite repeat units. We then sequenced terminal regions of additional clones and found the motif in many of them. Immunostaining of marmoset cells demonstrated that CENP-B binds to DNA in the centromeric regions of chromosomes. Therefore, functional CENP-B boxes are not confined to hominids. Our results indicate that the efficiency of identification of the CENP-B box may depend largely on the sequencing methods used, and that the CENP-B box in centromeric repetitive DNA may be more common than researchers previously thought. PMID:27029836

  13. The Guide to the Ecology Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.

    Cooperating with the Canadian Commission for UNESCO, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education has prepared boxes of experimental curriculum materials on the subject of ecology. This guide summarizes the design and contents of the boxes and provides instructions for those using the boxes--principals, teachers, parents, librarians, and…

  14. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  15. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  16. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  17. Illumination box and camera system

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  18. Operation and modeling of the FORTE trigger box

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.

    1996-06-01

    The fast on-orbit recording of transient events satellite (FORTE) will carry a multiple-narrow-band trigger designed to detect impulsive VHF signals embedded in a high-noise background. The FORTE trigger boxes consist of eight VHF channels spaced across twenty MHz of bandwidth. A trigger is generated when a sufficiently bright signal is seen in a user-defined number of these channels within a specified coincidence window. In addition, the trigger circuitry incorporates a feature to reject events caused by the actuation of narrow-band carriers. This report describes the trigger`s operating principles and their implementation in the satellite hardware. We then discuss a computer model which can be used to simulate the performance of the trigger circuit.

  19. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a continuing research project to acquire a fundamental understanding of the metallurgical processes in the welding of vanadium alloys. It also has the goal of developing techniques for welding structural vanadium alloys. The alloy V-4Cr-4Ti is used as a representative alloy of the group; it is also the prime candidate vanadium alloy for the U.S. Fusion Program at the present time. However, other alloys of this class were used in the research as necessary. The present work focuses on recent findings of hydrogen embrittlement found in vanadium alloy welds. It was concluded that the atmosphere in the inert gas glove box was insufficient for welding 6mm thick vanadium alloy plates.

  20. Satellite Videoconferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is helping thousands of teachers to learn more about aerospace matters, improve their classroom skills, and expand significantly the content of their aerospace education curricula by means of live educational satellite videoconferences. The 1 1/2 hour 'Update for Teachers' programs originate at Oklahoma State University (OSU) Telecommunications Center. The television signals are transmitted to the WESTAR IV communications satellite, which remits them to participating schools across the U.S. and in parts of Mexico and Canada. The schools are equipped with small home style satellite reception dishes. Education Satellite Videoconference programs are conducted four times yearly, covering a variety of aerospace subjects. Teachers can call toll-free and have questions answered after the speaker's presentations. Information about NASA educational resources and how to obtain them will be provided.

  1. Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-05-01

    In 1982 and 1983, six scientific satellites were operated successfully. Two of them, JIKIKEN and ISS-b, performed observations of the Earth's plasma environment. HINOTORI, the solar maximum satellite, observed a number of solar flares. HAKUCHO and newly launched TENMA conducted various observations of cosmic X-ray sources. HIMAWARI-2 is a meteorological satellite but its payload includes a solar particle monitor. EXOS-C was successfully launched in February, 1983, and participants in the MAP (Middle Atmosphere Program). Following these missions, the PLANET-A project comprising two missions, MS-T5 and PLANET-A, is under preparation for the participation in the international cooperative exploration of Comet P/Halley. The third X-ray astronomy satellite ASTRO-C is currently scheduled for 1987 launch.

  2. Satellite myths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Roger L.; Hall, David

    2008-01-01

    Richard Corfield's article “Sputnik's legacy” (October 2007 pp23-27) states that the satellite on board the US Vanguard rocket, which exploded during launch on 6 December 1957 two months after Sputnik's successful take-off, was “a hastily put together contraption of wires and circuitry designed only to send a radio signal back to Earth”. In fact, the Vanguard satellite was developed over a period of several years and put together carefully using the best techniques and equipment available at the time - such as transistors from Bell Laboratories/Western Electric. The satellite contained not one but two transmitters, in which the crystal-controlled oscillators had been designed to measure both the temperature of the satellite shell and of the internal package.

  3. New hot box solar cooker

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping; Hou Shuqin; Sha Yongling; Liu Zude

    1992-12-31

    At present, over 100,000 solar cookers are in service in China. Most of these are concentrating cookers, making use of reflectors to concentrate sunlight at the cooking area. These cookers offer higher efficiency, more power and shorter cooking times. Since 1975 the authors have researched solar energy applications and, specifically, solar cookers. The major work has been the development of design calculations, selection of structure and materials, and performance testing. This paper describes the testing of several collection surface structures and box structures.

  4. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  6. Centriolar Satellites

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Akiharu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Yuba-Kubo, Akiko; Tsukita, Shoichiro; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    1999-01-01

    We identified Xenopus pericentriolar material-1 (PCM-1), which had been reported to constitute pericentriolar material, cloned its cDNA, and generated a specific pAb against this molecule. Immunolabeling revealed that PCM-1 was not a pericentriolar material protein, but a specific component of centriolar satellites, morphologically characterized as electron-dense granules, ∼70–100 nm in diameter, scattered around centrosomes. Using a GFP fusion protein with PCM-1, we found that PCM-1–containing centriolar satellites moved along microtubules toward their minus ends, i.e., toward centrosomes, in live cells, as well as in vitro reconstituted asters. These findings defined centriolar satellites at the molecular level, and explained their pericentriolar localization. Next, to understand the relationship between centriolar satellites and centriolar replication, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of PCM-1 in ciliated epithelial cells during ciliogenesis. When ciliogenesis was induced in mouse nasal respiratory epithelial cells, PCM-1 immunofluorescence was markedly elevated at the apical cytoplasm. At the electron microscopic level, anti–PCM-1 pAb exclusively labeled fibrous granules, but not deuterosomes, both of which have been suggested to play central roles in centriolar replication in ciliogenesis. These findings suggested that centriolar satellites and fibrous granules are identical novel nonmembranous organelles containing PCM-1, which may play some important role(s) in centriolar replication. PMID:10579718

  7. Design procedures for fiber composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1989-01-01

    Step-by-step procedures are described which can be used for the preliminary design of fiber composite box beams subjected to combined loadings. These procedures include a collection of approximate closed-form equations so that all the required calculations can be performed using pocket calculators. Included is an illustrative example of a tapered cantilever box beam subjected to combined loads. The box beam is designed to satisfy strength, displacement, buckling, and frequency requirements.

  8. WHITE BOX: LOW COST BOX FOR LAPAROSCOPIC TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    MARTINS, João Maximiliano Pedron; RIBEIRO, Roberto Vanin Pinto; CAVAZZOLA, Leandro Totti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic surgery is a reality in almost all surgical centers. Although with initial greater technical difficulty for surgeons, the rapid return to activities, less postoperative pain and higher quality aesthetic stimulates surgeons to evolve technically in this area. However, unlike open surgery where learning opportunities are more accessible, the laparoscopic training represents a challenge in surgeon formation. Aim: To present a low cost model for laparoscopic training box. Methods: This model is based in easily accessible materials; the equipment can be easily found based on chrome mini jet and passes rubber thread and a webcam attached to an aluminum handle. Results: It can be finalized in two days costing R$ 280,00 (US$ 90). Conclusion: It is possible to stimulate a larger number of surgeons to have self training in laparoscopy at low cost seeking to improve their surgical skills outside the operating room. PMID:26537148

  9. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  10. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  11. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    PubMed

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training. PMID:21217532

  12. Satellite broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, D.; Rainger, P.; Harvey, R. V.; Jennings, A.

    Questions related to direct broadcasting satellites are addressed with attention given to celestial mechanics, synchronous orbits, propagation, international plans, domestic installation, related laws and system costs. The role of the World Administrative Planning Conference (WARC) organization is discussed and contrasted with that of the regional administrative radio conference. Topics related to the field of law include coverage and overspill, regulation and control, copyrights and international organizations. Alternative ways of estimating direct broadcasting system costs are presented with consideration given to satellite costs as a function of mass, launch costs and system costs as a function of power.

  13. Some background about satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  14. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  15. Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui

    2016-07-01

    For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.

  16. Satellite description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillett, F. C.; Clegg, P. E.; Neugebauer, G.; Langford, D.; Pouw, A.; Irace, W.; Houck, J.

    The onboard computers and their associated software, the attitude control system, and data recording and the communication links of the infrared astronomy satellite (TRAS) are discussed. The IRAS telescope system is considered in detail. Attention is directed towards the cryogenics, thermal control, optics, focal plane assembly, and electronics associated with the telescope system.

  17. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  18. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes cereal box design, an interdisciplinary graphics activity. The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. It lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in…

  19. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  20. BLS: Box-fitting Least Squares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.; Zucker, S.; Mazeh, T.

    2016-07-01

    BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares) is a box-fitting algorithm that analyzes stellar photometric time series to search for periodic transits of extrasolar planets. It searches for signals characterized by a periodic alternation between two discrete levels, with much less time spent at the lower level.

  1. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  2. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  3. North American box turtles: A natural history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  4. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  5. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  6. Virtual Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammrs, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Satellite (VirtualSat) is a computer program that creates an environment that facilitates the development, verification, and validation of flight software for a single spacecraft or for multiple spacecraft flying in formation. In this environment, enhanced functionality and autonomy of navigation, guidance, and control systems of a spacecraft are provided by a virtual satellite that is, a computational model that simulates the dynamic behavior of the spacecraft. Within this environment, it is possible to execute any associated software, the development of which could benefit from knowledge of, and possible interaction (typically, exchange of data) with, the virtual satellite. Examples of associated software include programs for simulating spacecraft power and thermal- management systems. This environment is independent of the flight hardware that will eventually host the flight software, making it possible to develop the software simultaneously with, or even before, the hardware is delivered. Optionally, by use of interfaces included in VirtualSat, hardware can be used instead of simulated. The flight software, coded in the C or C++ programming language, is compilable and loadable into VirtualSat without any special modifications. Thus, VirtualSat can serve as a relatively inexpensive software test-bed for development test, integration, and post-launch maintenance of spacecraft flight software.

  7. 77 FR 46778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... their customer orders for execution on BOX, will aid BOX in recovering some of its costs incurred in... sent to BOX each month execute on BOX. Executions on BOX would include orders executing on the BOX Book... to provide an incentive to BOX Participants to submit orders for execution on BOX, to aid BOX...

  8. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. Environmental Monitoring in a Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrenetxea, G.; Couach, O.; Ingelrest, F.; Krichane, M.; Parlange, M.; Vetterli, M.

    2007-12-01

    Current data collection techniques are rather limited and make use of very expensive sensing stations, leading to a lack of appropriate environmental observations. We present SensorScope, a collaborative project between environmental and network researchers, that aims at providing an efficient and cheap out-of-the-box monitoring system. Sensorscope is based on a self-organized multi-hop wireless network, composed of a large number of solar powered sensing stations deployed over an area of interest. These sensing stations gather various information about their environment, such as air temperature and humidity, skin temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and direcction, precipitation, soil moisture, and soir watter content. SensorScope falls into the category of time-driven networks, as the stations intermittently transmit environmental data to a sink. The latter, in turn, is able to relay this information to a database server which makes all data publicly available in real-time by means of a Goggle Maps-based web interface. The main objective of the SensorScope project is to provide a low-cost and reliable WSN-based system for environmental monitoring to a wide community. It improves present data collection techniques with the latest technology, while exceeding the requirements of most environmental research. The Sensorscope system has already been sucessfully used in three different measurement campaigns: a glacier deployment at Plain Morte (Valais, Switzerland), a wetland monitoring program (Neuchatel, Switzerland), and an alpine deployment to study rock avalanches (Valais, Switzerland)

  10. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    SciTech Connect

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  11. Open Space Box: communication to support Big Data in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Communication to and from a small spacecraft can be at an extremely slow Baud rate, means both sending and receiving any communication will take some time. Extract, Transform and Load tools designed to transmit and receive data needs to have a flexible protocol. The Open Space Box model provides this base for smaller spacecraft to provide users data in a fashion that is pervasive within satellites as well as the ground stations. It also autonomically distinguishes data streams and disseminates relevant information to the related end users. Streaming Data can also be considered the generation of Big Data. At a ground station, the receiving of data can create the problem of Big Data and its management. Messages are sent in batch mode and communications are done using MapReduce.

  12. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  13. One experienced engineer`s approach to better/cheaper/faster satellite testing (philosophies and lessons learned)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, the author recalls hardware failures observed on satellites over the years; makes some observations about today`s environment of trying to build and test satellites; and makes specific recommendations concerning testing in general, as well as specifically addressing box-, payload-, spacecraft-, and full up satellite-level testing. The recommendations are intended to provide insight into how to produce satellites better, cheaper, and faster.

  14. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  15. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  16. Small Aperture Telescope Observations of Co-located Geostationary Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, R.; Wallace, B.

    As geostationary orbit (GEO) continues to be populated, satellite operators are increasing usage of co-location techniques to maximize usage of fewer GEO longitude slots. Co-location is an orbital formation strategy where two or more geostationary satellites reside within one GEO stationkeeping box. The separation strategy used to prevent collision between the co-located satellites generally uses eccentricity (radial separation) and inclination (latitude separation) vector offsets. This causes the satellites to move in relative motion ellipses about each other as the relative longitude drift between the satellites is near zero. Typical separations between the satellites varies from 1 to 100 kilometers. When co-located satellites are observed by optical ground based space surveillance sensors the participants appear to be separated by a few minutes of arc or less in angular extent. Under certain viewing geometries, these satellites appear to visually conjunct even though the satellites are, in fact, well separated spatially. In situations where one of the co-located satellites is more optically reflective than the other, the reflected sunglint from the more reflective satellite can overwhelm the other. This less frequently encountered issue causes the less reflective satellite to be glint masked in the glare of the other. This paper focuses on space surveillance observations on co-located Canadian satellites using a small optical telescope operated by Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa. The two above mentioned problems (cross tagging and glint masking) are investigated and we quantify the results for Canadian operated geostationary satellites. The performance of two line element sets when making in-frame CCD image correlation between the co-located satellites is also examined. Relative visual magnitudes between the co-located members are also inspected and quantified to determine the susceptibility of automated telescopes to glint masking of co-located satellite members.

  17. Box-wing model approach for solar radiation pressure modelling in a multi-GNSS scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, Guillermo; Jesús García, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The solar radiation pressure force is the largest orbital perturbation after the gravitational effects and the major error source affecting GNSS satellites. A wide range of approaches have been developed over the years for the modelling of this non gravitational effect as part of the orbit determination process. These approaches are commonly divided into empirical, semi-analytical and analytical, where their main difference relies on the amount of knowledge of a-priori physical information about the properties of the satellites (materials and geometry) and their attitude. It has been shown in the past that the pre-launch analytical models fail to achieve the desired accuracy mainly due to difficulties in the extrapolation of the in-orbit optical and thermic properties, the perturbations in the nominal attitude law and the aging of the satellite's surfaces, whereas empirical models' accuracies strongly depend on the amount of tracking data used for deriving the models, and whose performances are reduced as the area to mass ratio of the GNSS satellites increases, as it happens for the upcoming constellations such as BeiDou and Galileo. This paper proposes to use basic box-wing model for Galileo complemented with empirical parameters, based on the limited available information about the Galileo satellite's geometry. The satellite is modelled as a box, representing the satellite bus, and a wing representing the solar panel. The performance of the model will be assessed for GPS, GLONASS and Galileo constellations. The results of the proposed approach have been analyzed over a one year period. In order to assess the results two different SRP models have been used. Firstly, the proposed box-wing model and secondly, the new CODE empirical model, ECOM2. The orbit performances of both models are assessed using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements, together with the evaluation of the orbit prediction accuracy. This comparison shows the advantages and disadvantages of

  18. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  19. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn Against Taking Part in Growing Surgery ... members of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons, who specialize in foot surgery, are taking ...

  20. Black Box Theatres: Cheyenne Mountain High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the academic arts building at Cheyenne Mountain High School in Colorado Springs, Colorado, including its black box theater, art classroom, computer graphics lab, gallery, video production area, and chorus classroom. (EV)

  1. Integrated tools for teleoperated satellite repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, H.; Fiorini, P.

    1993-01-01

    Tools and tool handling techniques designed for demonstrating the use of the Advanced Teleoperation System at JPL in satellite repair operations are described in this paper. Our model for the repair demonstration is the Main Electronics Box (MEB) replacement on the Solar Maximum Satellite Repair (SMSR) procedure developed by NASA and successfully performed by the crew of Space Shuttle STS-13 in 1984. A summary of the repair procedure consists of uncovering thermal protection blankets on the satellite, removing screws from the MEB panel, opening the panel and clamping it in place, then removing electrical connectors from their sockets, cutting cords that hold electrical cables to the MEB panel, replacing the panel, and finally reversing the previous procedures. Methods for handling tools used in our SMSR procedure, along with details of the tool designs are discussed in this paper.

  2. Enhanced Stuffing Box Rubbers Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, J.

    2002-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Scott's Oil Field Service tested an enhanced stuffing box rubber at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. The enhanced stuffing box rubbers have saved money from not having to replace packing as often and not spilling valuable oil on the ground. A reduction in environmental hazards and the cost of cleaning up spilled oil have also been a benefit.

  3. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  4. End-crop box counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.

    1983-06-01

    The end-crop box counter was designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for assaying filled shipping boxes of end crops from the fuel-extrusion process used in fuel-rod fabrication at United Nuclear Corporation. This manual details the measurement technique and the hardware, software, and calibration. It also provides instructions for operation and troubleshooting. The section on operation can be used as a separate operations manual by the routine user.

  5. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  6. Satellite Bioclimatology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    1989-07-01

    Satellite-acquired, remotely sensed observations of the earth's land areas are substatially advancing knowledge of global vegetation patterns. Recognition that combined visible/near infrared spectral reflectance observations are a general indicator of the presence, condition and magnitude of vegetation foliage provides a basis for explanation. This information is of considerable value in climatic research because of the links between climate variables and vegetation foliage. Presence of vegetation foliage is predominantly determined by a combination of local beat and moisture conditions. In turn, foliar presence determines local rates of photosynthesis, affects surface albedo, and influences local rates of evapotranspiration as well as other elements of surface energy/mass balance. Availability of these remotely sensed data provides, for the first time, a consistent, global means to directly study interactions between climate and vegetation. This understanding is now being incorporated in climatological research and should improve understanding of macroscale bioclimatology. Remote sensing technology and understanding of this technology are continuing to develop rapidly and further major advances in this new field of `satellite bioclimatology' can be expected in the near future.

  7. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  8. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    SciTech Connect

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  9. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, S; Herrera, C D

    1999-12-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. PMID:10597855

  10. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program. PMID:25358529

  11. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  12. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  13. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  14. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  15. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  16. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  17. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable...

  18. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  19. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  20. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  1. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  2. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  3. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  4. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  5. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  6. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  7. Satellite altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheney, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Since altimetry data are not really old enough to use the term data archaeology, Mr. Cheney referred to the stewardship of these data. He noted that it is very important to document the basis for an altimetry data set as the algorithms and corrections used to arrive at the Geophysical Data Record (GDR) have been improving and are continuing to improve the precision of sea level data derived from altimetry. He noted that the GEOSAT Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) data set has recently been reprocessed by his organization in the National Ocean Service of NOAA and made available to the scientific community on CD/ROM disks by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the U.S. (NODC). The new data set contains a satellite orbit more precise by an order of magnitude together with an improved water vapor correction. A new, comprehensive GDR Handbook has also been prepared.

  8. Satellites in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1988-01-01

    Describes the methods and materials used to obtain satellite pictures from weather satellites. Discusses possible physics lessons which can be done using this equipment including orbital mechanics, and how the satellite works. (CW)

  9. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  10. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  11. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  12. BMI Sandwich Wing Box Analysis and Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, Tod; Mahler, Mary; Shah, Chandu; Rouse, Marshall; Bush, Harold; Wu, Chauncey; Small, William J.

    2000-01-01

    A composite sandwich single bay wing box test article was developed by Northrop Grumman and tested recently at NASA Langley Research Center. The objectives for the wing box development effort were to provide a demonstration article for manufacturing scale up of structural concepts related to a high speed transport wing, and to validate the structural performance of the design. The box concept consisted of highly loaded composite sandwich wing skins, with moderately loaded composite sandwich spars. The dimensions of the box were chosen to represent a single bay of the main wing box, with a spar spacing of 30 inches, height of 20 inches constant depth, and length of 64 inches. The bismaleimide facesheet laminates and titanium honeycomb core chosen for this task are high temperature materials able to sustain a 300F service temperature. The completed test article is shown in Figure 1. The tests at NASA Langley demonstrated the structures ability to sustain axial tension and compression loads in excess of 20,000 lb/in, and to maintain integrity in the thermal environment. Test procedures, analysis failure predictions, and test results are presented.

  13. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    PubMed Central

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  14. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  15. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session was tasked to design a satellite to orbit in an elliptical lunar polar orbit to provide relay communications between lunar South Pole assets and the Earth. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The LRS is a half-TDRSS sized box spacecraft, which provides communications and navigation relay between lunar outposts (via Lunar Communications Terminals (LCT)) or Sortie parties (with user radios) and large ground antennas on Earth. The LRS consists of a spacecraft containing all the communications and avionics equipment designed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory s (JPL) Team X to perform the relay between lunar-based assets and the Earth. The satellite design is a standard box truss spacecraft design with a thermal control system, 1.7 m solar arrays for 1 kWe power, a 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the LCT, and a Q-band dish for communications to/from the Earth based assets. While JPL's Team X and Goddard Space Flight Center s (GSFC) I M Design Center (IMDC) have completed two other LRS designs, this NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) COMPASS LRS design sits between them in terms of physical size and capabilities.

  16. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  17. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  18. Promotion of solar box cooker technology

    SciTech Connect

    Stibravy, R.

    1992-09-01

    Over 1.5 billion people are affected by fuel wood shortage, according to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization. Meanwhile solar cookers are under-exploited. The author presents one version of this technology and discusses how it may be promoted world-wide. The increased use of non fossil fuel energy is essential world-wide in combating global warming trends, preserving the environment, conserving resources and achieving sustainable development. The Solar Box Cooker (SBC) - a box within a box - uses an easily available source of such energy that is also renewable (in contrast to energy that, once used, is not, such as oil, coal, gas, wood). It is also readily available for the developing world, and for much of the developed world too.

  19. Deep shadows in a shallow box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiang; Mohan, Ankit; Tumblin, Jack

    2008-02-01

    We present a fast, low-cost technique to gather high-contrast 'relightable' photographs of desktop-sized objects. Instead of an elaborate light stage, we follow Mohan et al.; we place the object and a digitally steered spotlight inside a white cardboard box, aim the spotlight at the box interior, and move the spot to light the object from N repeatable lighting directions. However, strong ambient lighting from box interreflections causes 'shallow' shadows and reduces contrasts in all basis images. We show how to remove this ambient lighting computationally from the N images, by measuring an N ×N matrix of coupling factors between lighting directions using a mirrorsphere light probe. This linear method, suitable for any light stage, creates physically accurate 'deep shadow' basis images, yet imposes only a modest noise penalty, and does not require external light metering or illumination angle measurements. Results from our demonstration system support these claims.

  20. Box truss development and its application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyner, J. V.

    1985-01-01

    Since 1977, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace has aggressively pursued development of deployable structural systems applicable to a wide variety of Shuttle-transportable large space system requirements. This effort has focused on the deployable box truss, mechanisms and materials development, mesh reflector design and fabrication, gate frame truss design and fabrication, and offset-fed antenna design and analysis. The activities discussed are: box truss design; metal matrix composites; precision joints; enhanced passive damping design; mesh reflector development; gate frame truss for solar arrays; 15-meter spinning radio meter; and 60 x 120 meter push broom antenna.

  1. FRAC-IN-THE-BOX utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, D.G.; West, J.T.

    1989-06-01

    FRAC-IN-THE-BOX is a computer code developed to calculate the fractions of rectangular parallelepiped mesh cell volumes that are intersected by combinatorial geometry type zones. The geometry description used in the code is a subset of the combinatorial geometry used in SABRINA. The input file may be read into SABRINA and three dimensional plots made of the input geometry. The volume fractions for those portions of the geometry that are too complicated to describe with the geometry routines provided in FRAC-IN-THE-BOX may be calculated in SABRINA and merged with the volume fractions computed for the remainder of the geometry. 21 figs., 1 tab.

  2. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    PubMed

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  3. Use of satellite precipitation data in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesi, A. P.; Adelugba, T.; Salami, T.

    2009-04-01

    The use of satellite precipitation data for forecast in Nigeria is greatly advancing, this is due to the availability of satellite imagery and measured real time rainfall data that can be used to validating the estimated amount of rainfall been derived from imagery captured by satellite of an area. Rainfall data from rain gauge measurements have been used to validate the data of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMM PR) and the data of two other satellite algorithms namely 3B43 and TMPI for 36 months (Jan1998-Dec2000) at 1.00∘×1.00∘ latitude/longitude grid boxes over Nigeria. Between 1998 and 2000 we studied the interconnection between precipitation imageries captured over Nigeria and the amount of Rainfall measured. We noted that there is critical connection between the Thermodynamic properties over the surface, the estimated amount of rainfall from a particular captured imagery and measured rainfall data. Therefore proper understanding of the satellite precipitation imagery will enable forecasters in Nigeria to forecast the amount of precipitation from a particular type of imagery for flood and disaster monitoring. More practical issues will be presented. Flood disaster related event has claimed million of lives, make thousand homeless and devastated more million arable land in Africa.

  4. Projected Applications of a "Weather in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT)'s new "Weather in a Box" resources will provide weather research and forecast modeling capabilities for real-time application. Model output will provide additional forecast guidance and research into the impacts of new NASA satellite data sets and software capabilities. By combining several research tools and satellite products, SPoRT can generate model guidance that is strongly influenced by unique NASA contributions.

  5. Iodine Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  6. Satellite situation report, volume 31, no. 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of data computed at the U.S. Space Command, GSFC, or provided by satellite owners. A space objects box score table is presented with data under the following headings: source/organization, objects in orbit, and decayed objects. The objects in orbit and decayed objects headings have payload, debris, and total as subheadings. The bulk of the document is objects-in-orbit tables with data under the following headings: international designation, name, catalog number, source, launch date, period minutes, inclination, apogee (km), perigee (km), and notes.

  7. Elevated temperature aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meschter, Peter (Inventor); Lederich, Richard J. (Inventor); O'Neal, James E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Three aluminum-lithium alloys are provided for high performance aircraft structures and engines. All three alloys contain 3 wt % copper, 2 wt % lithium, 1 wt % magnesium, and 0.2 wt % zirconium. Alloy 1 has no further alloying elements. Alloy 2 has the addition of 1 wt % iron and 1 wt % nickel. Alloy 3 has the addition of 1.6 wt % chromium to the shared alloy composition of the three alloys. The balance of the three alloys, except for incidentql impurities, is aluminum. These alloys have low densities and improved strengths at temperatures up to 260.degree. C. for long periods of time.

  8. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles, W.P.; Roberts, R.J.; Jasen, W.G.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described.

  9. Reading for the Able: The Think Box.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack

    1983-01-01

    A Think Box is a collection of independent activities based on one theme and housed in an easily transportable container. It is intended to be used as enrichment for students who have already completed their assigned work. The activities are designed to develop higher level skills such as critical thinking or creative reading. They can be part of…

  10. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  11. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  12. The "Build-the-Box" Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a "build-the-box" lesson to develop a better understanding of writing useful and effective instructions. Considers how the lack of instruction with this assignment compels students to think creatively to complete the project. Concludes that many students realize the difficulty in creating easy-to-understand instructions. Enhances the…

  13. On the Strength of Box Type Fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathar, J

    1929-01-01

    The present investigation relates to a box-type fuselage with sides consisting of thin smooth sheet metal, stiffened by longitudinal members riveted to the flanged channel-section bulkheads or transverse frames and to the semicircular corrugated corner stiffenings. The results obtained in this particular case can be applied to a great number of similar structures.

  14. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity §...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity...

  19. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  20. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  1. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  2. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary reason…

  3. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  4. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  5. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  6. Asteroid Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merline, W. J.

    2001-11-01

    Discovery and study of small satellites of asteroids or double asteroids can yield valuable information about the intrinsic properties of asteroids themselves and about their history and evolution. Determination of the orbits of these moons can provide precise masses of the primaries, and hence reliable estimates of the fundamental property of bulk density. This reveals much about the composition and structure of the primary and will allow us to make comparisons between, for example, asteroid taxonomic type and our inventory of meteorites. The nature and prevalence of these systems will also give clues as to the collisional environment in which they formed, and have further implications for the role of collisions in shaping our solar system. A decade ago, binary asteroids were more of a theoretical curiosity. In 1993, the Galileo spacecraft allowed the first undeniable detection of an asteroid moon, with the discovery of Dactyl, a small moon of Ida. Since that time, and particularly in the last year, the number of known binaries has risen dramatically. Previously odd-shaped and lobate near-Earth asteroids, observed by radar, have given way to signatures indicating, almost certainly, that at least four NEAs are binary systems. The tell-tale lightcurves of several other NEAs reveal a high likelihood of being double. Indications are that among the NEAs, there may be a binary frequency of several tens of percent. Among the main-belt asteroids, we now know of 6 confirmed binary systems, although their overall frequency is likely to be low, perhaps a few percent. The detections have largely come about because of significant advances in adaptive optics systems on large telescopes, which can now reduce the blurring of the Earth's atmosphere to compete with the spatial resolution of space-based imaging (which itself, via HST, is now contributing valuable observations). Most of these binary systems have similarities, but there are important exceptions. Searches among other

  7. Outer planet satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent findings on the outer-planet satellites are presented, with special consideration given to data on the rheologic properties of ice on icy satellites, the satellite surfaces and exogenic processes, cratering on dead cratered satellites, volcanism, and the interiors of outer-planet satellites. Particular attention is given to the state of Titan's surface and the properties of Triton, Pluto, and Charon. 210 refs.

  8. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  9. Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes): synthesis, stability and chemical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, W. L.; Pyne-Geithman, G. J.; Peat, I. R.; Clark, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bilirubin oxidation products (BOXes) have been a subject of interest in neurosurgery because they are purported to be involved in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced cerebral vasospasm. There is a growing body of information concerning their putative role in vasospasm; however, there is a dearth of information concerning the chemical and biochemical characteristics of BOXes. A clearer understanding of the synthesis, stability and characteristics of BOXes will be important for a better understanding of the role of BOXes post subarachnoid hemorrhage. We used hydrogen peroxide to oxidize bilirubin and produce BOXes. BOXes were extracted and analyzed using conventional methods such as HPLC and mass spectrometry. Characterization of the stability BOXes demonstrates that light can photodegrade BOXes with a t1/2 of up to 10 h depending upon conditions. Mixed isomers of BOXes have an apparent extinction coefficient of ε = 6985, and a λmax of 310 nm. BOXes are produced by the oxidation of bilirubin, yielding a mixture of isomers: 4-methyl-5-oxo-3-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX A) and 3-methyl-5-oxo-4-vinyl-(1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ylidene)acetamide (BOX B). The BOXes are photodegraded by ambient light and can be analyzed spectrophotometrically with their extinction coefficient as well as with HPLC or mass spectrometry. Their small molecular weight and photodegradation may have made them difficult to characterize in previous studies. PMID:18456996

  10. Upstream box/TATA box order is the major determinant of the direction of transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L C; Thali, M; Schaffner, W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian gene promoters for transcription by RNA polymerase II are typically organized in the following order: upstream sequence motif(s)/TATA box/initiation site. Here we report studies in which the order, orientation and DNA sequences of these three elements are varied to determine how these affect polarity of transcription. We have constructed promoters with an 'octamer' upstream sequence ATTTGCAT (or its complement ATGCAAAT) in combination with several different TATA boxes and initiation (cap) sites, and tested these promoters in transfection experiments with cultured cells. TATA boxes derived from the adenovirus major late promoter (TATAAAA), immunoglobulin kappa light chain (TTATATA) and heavy chain (TAAATATA) promoter functioned equally well or even better when inverted. Only the beta-globin TATA box (CATAAAA) was poorly active when inverted. In addition, a symmetrical TATA box (TATATATA) derived from a casein gene was very active. Our results suggest that the asymmetry of most TATA boxes (consensus TATAAAA) is not a primary determinant of the polarity of transcription. We also found that the initiation (cap) site, which usually consists of an adenine embedded in a pyrimidine-rich region (PyPyCAPyPyPyPyPy), was permissive towards sequence alterations; even a randomly composed sequence worked well. However, an inverted, hence purine-rich, cap site reduced transcript levels to 1/7th, as did an oligo G sequence. Irrespective of the presence of a cap site, the configuration: 'TATA box/octamer' yielded a strong leftward, rather than rightward transcription. From this, we conclude that the polarity of transcription is primarily determined by the linear order of an upstream sequence relative to a TATA box, rather than by the individual orientations of either of these two elements. Images PMID:1762900

  11. 22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Steering gear box and wheel from starboard side. Mizzen boom has been removed for repairs (note boom cradle just forward of steering gear box). - Schooner C.A. THAYER, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. The Box Turtle: Room with a View on Species Decline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Steisslinger, Mary Beth

    1999-01-01

    Surveys salient aspects of eastern box-turtle natural history. Explores the societal and ecological factors that have contributed to the decline of the box-turtle population. Contains 18 references. (WRM)

  13. Roles of F-box proteins in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Pengda; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    F-box proteins, which are the substrate-recognition subunits of SKP1–cullin 1–F-box protein (SCF) E3 ligase complexes, have pivotal roles in multiple cellular processes through ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation of target proteins. Dysregulation of F-box protein-mediated proteolysis leads to human malignancies. Notably, inhibitors that target F-box proteins have shown promising therapeutic potential, urging us to review the current understanding of how F-box proteins contribute to tumorigenesis. As the physiological functions for many of the 69 putative F-box proteins remain elusive, additional genetic and mechanistic studies will help to define the role of each F-box protein in tumorigenesis, thereby paving the road for the rational design of F-box protein-targeted anticancer therapies. PMID:24658274

  14. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Emplacement no. 1, view to southwest in terminal box room, showing terminal box; largest of the cables extends to gun platform - Fort Wadsworth Battery Romeyn B. Ayers, South side of Ayers Road, Staten Island, Rosebank, Richmond County, NY

  16. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  17. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  18. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  20. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  1. 30 CFR 57.12007 - Junction box connection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Junction box connection procedures. 57.12007... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12007 Junction box connection procedures. Trailing cable and power-cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  2. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  3. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  4. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  5. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  6. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18... Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement of cables or machine components shall be explosion-proof. Portable-cable terminals on cable...

  7. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  8. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  9. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  10. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  11. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.515 Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1002 - Box cuts; spoil material placement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Box cuts; spoil material placement. 77.1002 Section 77.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Ground Control § 77.1002 Box cuts; spoil material placement. When box cuts are...

  14. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  15. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  16. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  17. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  18. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  19. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  20. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  1. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  2. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  3. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  4. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  5. Clocks, Cameras, and Chatter, Chatter, Chatter: Activity Boxes as Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskind, Diane; Kittel, Jeanie

    1989-01-01

    Describes activity boxes which can be used in early childhood classrooms to further curriculum and development goals. Activity boxes are containers filled with related objects categorized by color, shape, or material which encourage children to explore, sort, and manipulate real things. Discusses goals and lists contents for 24 activity boxes.…

  6. 46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. DETAIL VIEW OF THE MORTAR BOXES, STAMP BATTERIES AND AMALGAMATION TABLES. NOTE FULTON IRON WORKS, SAM FRANCISCO 1908 STAMPED INTO THE MORTAR BOX. ALSO NOTE THE DIES RESTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX BY THE SECOND STAMP BATTERY FROM THE CAMERA POSITION. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  7. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The... plastic material of the box. Other closing devices at least equally effective may be used. (4) For solid... contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment...

  8. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  9. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  10. Eliminating Noise at the Box-fitting Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boufleur, Rodrigo Carlos; Emilio, Marcelo; Pacheco, Eduardo Janot; de La Reza, Jorge Ramiro; da Rocha, José Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Non gaussian sources of erros need to be taken into consideration when searching for planetary transits. Such phenomena are mostly caused by the impact of high energetic particles on the detector (Pinheiro da Silva et al. 2008). The detection efficiency of transits, therefor, depend significantly on the data quality and the algorithms utilized to deal with these errors sources. In this work we show that a modified detrend algorithm CDA (CoRoT Detrend Algorithm; Mislis et al. 2010) using a robust statistics and an empirical fit, instead of a polynomial one, can eliminate more efficiently gaps in the data and other long-term trends from the light-curve. Using this algorithm enables us to obtain a reconstructed light-curve with better signal-to-noise ratio that allows to improve the detection of exoplanet transits, although long term signals are destroyed. The results show that these modifications lead to an improved BLS (Box-fitting Least Squares; Kovács, Zucker & Mazeh 2002) algorithm spectrum. At the end we have compared our planetary search results with CoRoT (Convection, Rotation and planetary Transits) satellite chromatic light-curves available in the literature.

  11. Flutter analysis of composite box beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Greenman, Matthew

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic aeroelastic instability of flutter is an important factor in the design of modern high-speed, flexible aircraft. The current trend is toward the creative use of composites to delay flutter. To obtain an optimum design, we need an accurate as well as efficient model. As a first step towards this goal, flutter analysis is carried out for an unswept composite box beam using a linear structural model and Theodorsen's unsteady aerodynamic theory. Structurally, the wing was modeled as a thin-walled box-beam of rectangular cross section. Theodorsen's theory was used to get 2-D unsteady aerodynamic forces, which were integrated over the span. A free-vibration analysis is carried out. These fundamental modes are used to get the flutter solution using the V-g method. Future work is intended to build on this foundation.

  12. Beyond the Black Box Approach to Ethics!

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the editorial published in this journal, Daniels and colleagues argue that his and Sabin’s accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework should be used to handle ethical issues in the health technology assessment (HTA)-process, especially concerning fairness. In contrast to this suggestion, it is argued that such an approach risks suffering from the irrrelevance or insufficiency they warn against. This is for a number of reasons: lack of comprehensiveness, lack of guidance for how to assess ethical issues within the "black box" of A4R as to issues covered, competence and legitimate arguments and finally seemingly accepting consensus as the final verdict on ethical issues. We argue that the HTA community is already in a position to move beyond this black box approach PMID:27285520

  13. Magnons in a box: Condensation and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Olf, Ryan; Wu, Shun; Kadau, Holger; Marti, G. Edward; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold gases offer us a remarkable window into the quantum world, allowing direct access to a wide range of manybody and condensed matter phenomena at convenient macroscopic length and time scales. However, producing ultracold gases at ever lower entropy, and measuring statistical properties such as temperature in these low entropy regimes, is a persistent challenge. Magnons, gapless spin excitations of spinor Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC), are expected to behave like free particles. We show that magnons can be used to cool BEC in a deep trap and serve as a thermometer to measure temperatures at extremely low entropy-per-particle. Unlike atoms trapped in a harmonic trap, trapped magnons experience a box potential due to near exact cancellation of the trapping potential by the mean-field interaction within the condensate. We observe the quasi-condensation of magnon excitations within this nature-made box.

  14. Analysis of micrometeorite material captured by the solar max satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, L. S.; Mckay, D. S.; Zook, H. A.; Robinson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    A Solar Maximum satellite was retrieved and repaired after being subjected for four years and 55 days to impacts by micrometeorites and Earth-orbiting space debris. The chemical variety and physical condition of particles associated with two particular impact structures in the insulation blanket of the main electronics box are studied. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X ray analyzer was used to determine morphology and chemistry of impacted areas and associated particles. Some details are discussed.

  15. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  16. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  17. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  18. Flying the TRMM Satellite in a GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Xin; Fowler, Laura D.; Randall, David A.

    2001-01-01

    By incorporating the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite orbital information into the Colorado State University General Circulation Model (CSU GCM), we are able to 'fly' a satellite in the GCM, and sample the simulated atmosphere in the same way as the TRMM sensors sample the real atmosphere. The TRMM-sampled statistics for precipitation and radiative fluxes at annual, intraseasonal, monthly-mean and seasonal-mean diurnal time scales are evaluated by comparing the satellite-sampled against fully-sampled simulated atmospheres. The sampling rates of the TRMM sensors are significantly affected by the sensors' swath widths. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sample each 2.25 x 2.25 degree grid box in the Tropics and subtropics about once per day, but at a different local time every day, while the Precipitation Radar (PR) and the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor visit each grid box about once every three days and twice per day, respectively. Besides inadequate samplings resulting from sensors' swath widths, there is a large, systematic diurnal undersampling associated with TRMM's orbital geometry for grid boxes away from the Equator. When only one month of TRMM data are used, this diurnal undersampling can lead to more daytime samples relative to nighttime samples in one hemisphere, and more nighttime samples relative to daytime samples in the other hemisphere. The resulting sampling biases (3-6 W m(exp-2)) are very pronounced in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) over the subtropical land masses. The sampling errors in OLR monthly- and seasonal-means are less than 8 W m(exp-2) (5%) for each 2.25 x 2.25 degree grid box. The OLR monthly- and seasonal-means are not sensitive to diurnal undersamplings associated with the TRMM orbits and sensors' swath widths. However, this is not the case for total precipitation. Diurnal undersampling could produce errors as large as 20% in the Tropics and 40

  19. The Unintended Effects of a Boxed Warning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenthal, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate a real-life correlation that after the US Food and Drug Administration introduced a boxed warning concerning malignancies to the labeling for topical calcineurin inhibitors, reluctance to use topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to their substitution with other therapies that have their own risks. Participants: An anonymous survey of attendees of the 2007 Fall Clinical Dermatology conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, from October 17–19, 2007. More than 95 percent of attendees were dermatologists; a small number of mid-level practitioners attended as well. Of nearly 700 attendees, the first 504 who agreed to complete the survey were included. Results: More than 40 percent of dermatologists surveyed claimed that more than 20 percent of their atopic dermatitis patients are not adequately controlled since the introduction of the boxed warning. Forty-eight percent claim that more than 20 percent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors as part of their regimens. Eighty percent of dermatologists surveyed agree that more than 10 precent of those patients were adequately controlled with topical calcineurin inhibitors in their regimens. Conclusion: While caution is usually prudent, the introduction of a boxed warning in the case of topical calcineurin inhibitors has led to the use of treatments that often have greater risks than the topical calcineurin inhibitors that they replaced. PMID:20729957

  20. Box modeling of the Eastern Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stone, Peter H.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2012-02-01

    In ˜1990 a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1 Sv, three times larger than the Adriatic source. We develop a simple three-box model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The three boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian seas. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We conjecture that the change in the deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean sea is attributed to a switch between the different states on the thermohaline circulation; this switch may result from decreased temperature and/or increased salinity over the Aegean sea.

  1. Satellite broadcasting in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1984-05-01

    Three main communications services are recognized by the International Telecommunications Union: the Fixed Service, the Mobile Service and the Broadcasting Service. In Europe, EUTELSAT has just begun to exploit the first ECS satellite. The ESA-launched satellite was originally designed to provide an international public telecommunication service, however, the satellite will be used now almost exclusively for TV program distribution, while a second ECS satellite will be used for telephony. Despite plans for the launch of a third, countries in Europe are looking to other organizations such as INTELSAT for greater satellite capacity. Other organizations include Unisat, DFS/Copernicus, GDL, and Videosat. Both satellite and cable networks will increase the program-viewing audience, thus encouraging plans for a pan-European television service intended for an international audience. Although the combination of cable networks and distribution satellites looks promising, high-power broadcasting satellites will play an important role because of flexibility and additional program distribution.

  2. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  3. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  4. An Enhanced Box-Wing Solar Radiation pressure model for BDS and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qunhe; Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Guo, Rui; Shang, Lin; Tang, Chengpan; Shao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    Solar radiation pressure forces are the largest non-gravitational perturbations acting on GNSS satellites, which is difficult to be accurately modeled due to the complicated and changing satellite attitude and unknown surface material characteristics. By the end of 2015, there are more than 50 stations of the Multi-GNSS Experiment(MGEX) set-up by the IGS. The simple box-plate model relies on coarse assumptions about the dimensions and optical properties of the satellite due to lack of more detailed information. So, a physical model based on BOX-WING model is developed, which is more sophisticated and more detailed physical structure has been taken into account, then calculating pressure forces according to the geometric relations between light rays and surfaces. All the MGEX stations and IGS core stations had been processed for precise orbit determination tests with GPS and BDS observations. Calculation range covers all the two kinds of Eclipsing and non-eclipsing periods in 2015, and we adopted the un-differential observation mode and more accurate values of satellite phase centers. At first, we tried nine parameters model, and then eliminated the parameters with strong correlation between them, came into being five parameters of the model. Five parameters were estimated, such as solar scale, y-bias, three material coefficients of solar panel, x-axis and z-axis panels. Initial results showed that, in the period of yaw-steering mode, use of Enhanced ADBOXW model results in small improvement for IGSO and MEO satellites, and the Root-Mean-Square(RMS) error value of one-day arc orbit decreased by about 10%~30% except for C08 and C14. The new model mainly improved the along track acceleration, up to 30% while in the radial track was not obvious. The Satellite Laser Ranging(SLR) validation showed, however, that this model had higher prediction accuracy in the period of orbit-normal mode, compared to GFZ multi-GNSS orbit products, as well with relative post

  5. Magnetospheres: Jupiter, Satellite Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, F.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Most of the satellites of Jupiter, notably the large Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (see JUPITER: SATELLITES), orbit deep inside the magnetosphere of Jupiter (see JUPITER: MAGNETOSPHERE) and are therefore immersed in the flow of magnetospheric plasma (made of a mixture of electrons and ions) and subjected to an interaction with the strong Jovian magnetic field. These intera...

  6. [Theme Issue: Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    One section of this journal is devoted to issues involving broadcast satellites. Separate articles discuss the need for international planning of satellite broadcasting, decisions made at the 1971 World Administrative Radio Conference for Space Telecommunications, potential problems in satellite broadcasting, a series of proposals drawn up by the…

  7. Survey: National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The national Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) receives data at periodic intervals from satellites of the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite/Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite series and from the Improved TIROS (Television Infrared Observational Satellite) Operational Satellite. Within the conterminous United States, direct readout and processed products are distributed to users over facsimile networks from a central processing and data distribution facility. In addition, the NESS Satellite Field Stations analyze, interpret, and distribute processed geostationary satellite products to regional weather service activities.

  8. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  9. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  10. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes..., aluminum or other metal boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; (2) 4B for an aluminum box; and (3) 4N for an other metal box....

  11. Digital satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, T. T.

    1986-06-01

    The use of satellite communications in point-to-multipoint transmission of data is studied. The theory, systems, and equipment for satellite communications are described. The topics of satellite orbits, satellite construction, earth station equipment, and the analysis of the satellite link are discussed. Different types of digital modulation for carrier transmission, and techniques for enhancing the transmission capacity, such as digital speech interpolation and demand assignment, are examined. Techniques and equipment for performing the multiple access-broadcasting functions including FDMA, TDMA, DAMA, CDMA, and random access are considered.

  12. Fundamentals of satellite navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, A. H.

    The basic operating principles and capabilities of conventional and satellite-based navigation systems for air, sea, and land vehicles are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams. Consideration is given to autonomous onboard systems; systems based on visible or radio beacons; the Transit, Cicada, Navstar-GPS, and Glonass satellite systems; the physical laws and parameters of satellite motion; the definition of time in satellite systems; and the content of the demodulated GPS data signal. The GPS and Glonass data format frames are presented graphically, and tables listing the GPS and Glonass satellites, their technical characteristics, and the (past or scheduled) launch dates are provided.

  13. TSS Satellite Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manarini, G.

    1985-01-01

    The responsibilities of NASA and PSN/CNR in the tethered satellite system cooperative program are listed and PSN/CNR-AIT system support and technologies studies are summarized. Results are given for investigations of active vs. passive satellite trade offs; analysis of alternative maneuvers; satellite attitude and position determination analysis failure modes analysis; moveable boom dynamic analysis; double tethered satellite system; and thermo/dynamic analysis for 100 km to 120 km altitude range. Objectives for the space plasma science mission and its applications are outlined and the TSS satellite configuration is highlighted. Programmatic aspects are included.

  14. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties are discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite. GEOS-C will be tracked by a number of the conventional satellite tracking systems, as well as by two advanced systems; a satellite-to-satellite tracking system and lasers capable of decimeter accuracies which are being developed in connection with the Goddard Earth and Ocean Dynamics Applications program. The discussion is organized in terms of a specific type of GEOS-C orbit which would satisfy a number of scientific objectives including the study of the gravitational field by means of both the altimeter and the satellite-to-satellite tracking system, studies of tides, and the Gulf Stream meanders.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  16. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  17. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  18. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  19. "Out of the box" professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-04-01

    At a recent AAPT meeting, I was part of a conversation about professional development that focused on conferences. We discussed the current meeting structure used by AAPT and some alternative formats. This discussion added greatly to my own understanding of new ways for teachers to receive their professional development. This conversation also began my friendship with Kelly O'Shea, a physics teacher from New York. She is also a blogger (check her out at https://kellyoshea.wordpress.com) and an innovative educator. Through my relationship with Kelly, I have grown in my own knowledge of two "out of the box" ways teachers are getting their professional development.

  20. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2013-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies. PMID:24415794

  1. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  2. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  3. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  4. Historical Thinking inside the Box: Preservice Elementary Teachers Use Journey Boxes to Craft Counter Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alarcon, Jeannette; Holmes, Kathlene; Bybee, Eric

    2015-01-01

    This article details the "journey box" project process enacted by two elementary preservice teacher cohorts. Engaging in activities and projects that promote a sense of investment in not only consuming but producing historical narratives, preservice teachers potentially become interested in sharing this type of learning with their…

  5. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury. PMID:25376728

  6. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  7. Conformal coating value/risk assessment for Sandia satellite programs.

    SciTech Connect

    Russick, Edward Mark; Thayer, Gayle Echo

    2008-03-01

    Conformal coatings are used in space applications on printed circuit board (PCB) assemblies primarily as a protective barrier against environmental contaminants. Such coatings have been used at Sandia for decades in satellite applications including the GPS satellite program. Recently, the value of conformal coating has been questioned because it is time consuming (requiring a 5-6 week schedule allowance) and delays due to difficulty of repairs and rework performed afterward are troublesome. In an effort to find opportunities where assembly time can be reduced, a review of the literature as well as discussions with satellite engineers both within and external to Sandia regarding the value of conformal coating was performed. Several sources on the value of conformal coating, the functions it performs, and on whether coatings are necessary and should be used at all were found, though nearly all were based on anecdotal information. The first section of this report, titled 'Conformal Coating for Space Applications', summarizes the results of an initial risk-value assessment of the conformal coating process for Sandia satellite programs based on information gathered. In the process of collecting information to perform the assessment, it was necessary to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the entire satellite box assembly process. A production time-line was constructed and is presented in the second section of this report, titled 'Satellite Box Assembly', specifically to identify potential sources of time delays, manufacturing issues, and component failures related to the conformal coating process in relation to the box assembly. The time-line also allows for identification of production issues that were anecdotally attributed to the conformal coating but actually were associated with other production steps in the box assembly process. It was constructed largely in consultation with GPS program engineers with empirical knowledge of times required to complete the

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  9. CDL description of the CDC 6600 stunt box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzog, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    The CDC 6600 central memory control (stunt box) is described utilizing CDL (Computer Design Language), block diagrams, and text. The stunt box is a clearing house for all central memory references from the 6600 central and peripheral processors. Since memory requests can be issued simultaneously, the stunt box must be capable of assigning priorities to requests, of labeling requests so that the data will be distributed correctly, and of remembering rejected addresses due to memory conflicts.

  10. Removal of lithium antimonide from a radioactive glove box.

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, L.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Graczyk, D. G.; Smith, F. P.

    2000-10-01

    A sample of lithium antimonide (L{sub 3}3Sb) was prepared in a radioactive helium-atmosphere glove box, some of which spread throughout the box. Because of the potential for stibine generation should the Li{sub 3}Sb contact water, some effort was devoted to assessing the extent of possible stibine formation and methods for removing the Li{sub 3}Sb from the box. This note summarizes our findings and the waste disposal procedures used.

  11. Communication satellite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  12. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rad/s (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a 'Frisbee' spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  13. Deployment Mechanism for the Space Technology 5 Micro Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossoni, Peter; Cooperrider, Caner; Durback, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    Space Technology 5 (ST5) is a technology mission that will send three spin-stabilized, 25-kg satellites into a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Each of these satellites must be deployed separately from the same launch vehicle with a spin rate of 3.4 rads (32.4 rpm). Because of the satellite's small size and the requirement to achieve its mission spin rate on deploy, typical spin table, pyrotechnic deployment devices or spin up thrusters could not be used. Instead, this new mechanism design employs a "Frisbee" spin up strategy with a shape memory alloy actuated Pinpuller to deploy each satellite. The mechanism has undergone several design and test iterations and has been successfully qualified for flight.

  14. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    SciTech Connect

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  15. An Efficient Implementation of the Gliding Box Lacunarity Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle,; Timothy R. McJunkin; David J. Gorsich

    2008-03-01

    Lacunarity is a measure of how data fills space. It complements fractal dimension, which measures how much space is filled. Currently, many researchers use the gliding box algorithm for calculating lacunarity. This paper introduces a fast algorithm for making this calculation. The algorithm presented is akin to fast box counting algorithms used by some researchers in estimating fractal dimension. A simplified gliding box measure equation along with key pseudo code implementations for the algorithm are presented. Applications for the gliding box lacunarity measure have included subjects that range from biological community modeling to target detection.

  16. Satellite services system overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  17. Satellite networks for education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite based educational networking is discussed with particular attention given to the potential uses of communications satellites to help meet educational needs in the United states. Four major subject areas were covered; (1) characteristics and structure of networks, (2) definition of pressures within educational establishment that provide motivation for various types of networks, (3) examination of current educational networking status for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intra-state educational communication networks, computer networks, and cable television for education, and (4) identification of possible satellite based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems.

  18. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  19. Satellite Antenna Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Through the Technology Affiliates Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the ACTS antenna system was transferred from experimental testing status to commercial development with KVH Industries, Inc. The ACTS design enables mobile satellite antennas to remain pointed at the satellite, regardless of the motion or vibration on which it is mounted. KVH's first product based on the ACTS design is a land-mobile satellite antenna system that will enable direct broadcast satellite television aboard moving trucks, recreational vehicles, trains, and buses. Future products could include use in broadcasting, emergency medical and military vehicles.

  20. Methods of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical basis for remote sensing measurements of climate and ocean dynamics is examined. Consideration is given to: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the atmosphere; scattering in the atmosphere; and satellite observations using visible light. Consideration is also given to: the theory of radio scatter from the sea; scatter of centimeter waves from the sea; and the theory of operation of synthetic aperture radars. Additional topics include: the coordinate systems of satellite orbits for oceanographic remote sensing applications; the operating features of the major U.S. satellite systems for viewing the ocean; and satellite altimetry.

  1. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  2. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, D. R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, Randall C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. As part of the Advanced Composite Technology (ACT) program to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures, the design and fabrication of the technology integration box beam (TIBB) was completed. The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the Lockheed C-130 aircraft. The TIBB was tested for downbending, upbending, torsion, and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. Current analytical and experimental results are described for a study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data. An analytical study was conducted of the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB.

  3. Environmental effects on a single electron box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. Y.; O'Connell, R. F.

    1995-02-01

    Lafarge et al. (Zeitschrift für Physik B 85 (1991) 327) have measured the average junction charge in a single electron box. Their results are in agreement with theoretical predictions at temperatures T above 100 mK but not at lower T values. We explain the lower T experimental results by incorporating quantum charge fluctuations due to the environment by use of a quantum Langevin equation model. It is shown that, at T = 0, the sawtooth shape of the junction charge, as predicted by existing theories, is rounded off by the quantum fluctuation effects. At finite temperature, the theory is compared with the experiments of Lafarge et al., nd a good fit is obtained at all the relevant temperatures.

  4. Thermohaline circulation and its box models simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyura, Kateryna; Polonsky, Alexander; Sannikov, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Ocean Thermochaline circulation (THC) is the part of large-scale World Ocean circulation and one of the main climate system components. It is generated by global meridional density gradients, which are controlled by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. THC regulates climate variability on different timescales (from decades to thousands years) [Stocker (2000), Clark (2002)]. Study of paleoclimatic evidences of abrupt and dramatic changes in ocean-atmosphere system in the past (such as, Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events or Younger Dryas, see e.g., [Rahmstorf (2002), Alley & Clark(1999)]) shows that these events are connected with THC regimes. At different times during last 120,000 years, three THC modes have prevailed in the Atlantic. They can be labeled as stadial, interstadial and Heinrich modes or as cold, warm and off mode. THC collapse (or thermohaline catastrophe) can be one of the consequences of global warming (including modern anthropogenic climate changes occurring at the moment). The ideas underlying different box-model studies, possibility of thermochaline catastrophe in present and past are discussed in this presentation. Response of generalized four box model of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation [developing the model of Griffies & Tzippermann (1995)] on periodic, stochastic and linear forcing is studied in details. To estimate climatic parameters of the box model we used monthly salinity and temperature data of ECMWF operational Ocean Reanalysis System 3 (ORA-S3) and data from atmospheric NCEP/NCAR reanalysis on precipitation, and heat fluxes for 1959-2011. Mean values, amplitude of seasonal cycle, amplitudes and periods of typical interdecadal oscillations, white noise level, linear trend coefficients and their significance level were estimated for every hydrophysical parameter. In response to intense freshwater or heat forcing, THC regime can change resulting in thermohaline catastrophe. We analyze relevant thresholds of external forcing in

  5. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  6. Breakthrough thinking from inside the box.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Kevin P; Clifford, Patricia Gorman; Dye, Renée

    2007-12-01

    Companies often begin their search for great ideas either by encouraging wild, outside-the-box thinking or by conducting quantitative analysis of existing market and financial data and customer opinions. Those approaches can produce middling ideas at best, say Coyne, founder of an executive-counseling firm in Atlanta, and Clifford and Dye, strategy experts at McKinsey. The problem with the first method is that few people are very good at unstructured, abstract brainstorming. The problems with the second are that databases are usually compiled to describe current--not future--offerings, and customers rarely can tell you whether they need or want a product if they've never seen it. The secret to getting your organization to regularly generate lots of good ideas, and occasionally some great ones, is deceptively simple: First, create new boxes for people to think within so that they don't get lost in the cosmos and they have a basis for offering ideas and knowing whether they're making progress in the brainstorming session. Second, redesign ideation processes to remove obstacles that interfere with the flow of ideas--such as most people's aversion to speaking in groups larger than ten. This article offers a tested approach that poses concrete questions. For example, what do Rollerblades, Häagen-Dazs ice cream, and Spider-Man movies have in common? The answer: Each is something that adults loved as children and that was reproduced in an expensive form for grown-ups. Asking brainstorming participants to ponder how their childhood passions could be recast as adult offerings might generate some fabulous ideas for new products or services. PMID:18283917

  7. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  8. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  9. Processing of satellite imagery at the National Environmental Satellite Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, M.

    1977-01-01

    The National Environmental Satellite Service (NESS) image product processing system is described. Other topics discussed include: (1) image processing of polar-orbiter satellite data; (2) image processing of geostationary satellite data; and (3) quality assurance and product monitoring.

  10. Communication satellite technology trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, Louis

    1986-01-01

    A chronology of space-Earth interconnectivity is presented. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) system, Land Mobile Satellite, space-Earth antennas, impact of antenna size on coverage, intersatellite links are outlined. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts only.

  11. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  12. Amateur Radio Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, David P.

    The Amateur Radio Satellite Communications project had, as its goal, the assembly of an amateur radio satellite station in a high school physics classroom. Specific objectives were to provide: (1) a special source of interest as a motivator for attracting students and building public relations; (2) a center of interest as a motivator for the study…

  13. Satellite Teleconference Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgin Community Coll., IL.

    The vocational education satellite teleconference project accomplished two goals: (1) identified, acquired, copied, and distributed to the Illinois Vocational Curriculum Center 100 marketing or training videotapes for staff development and classroom use; and (2) provided from 15-25 variable time (1- to 3-hour) satellite teleconferences in four…

  14. Audio direct broadcast satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Satellite sound broadcasting is, as the name implies, the use of satellite techniques and technology to broadcast directly from space to low-cost, consumer-quality receivers the types of sound programs commonly received in the AM and FM broadcast bands. It would be a ubiquitous service available to the general public in the home, in the car, and out in the open.

  15. Advanced communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The increase in demand for satellite communications services brought about shortages in available transponder capacity, especially at C-band. Interest shifted to the Ku-band frequency and currently carriers are rapidly moving to secure orbital slots for future satellite development. Projections of communications service demands over the next decade indiate growth in voice, data, and video services such that saturation of both C-band and Ku-band will occur by 1990. Emphasis must and will shift to Ka-band (20/30 GHz) frequency for fixed-satellite service. Advanced technologies such as multibeam antennas coupled with on-board satellite switching to allow implementation in this band of very high capacity satellite systems will be applied to meet the demand. Satellite system concepts that are likely in the 1990's and are likely to bring a new dimension to satellite delivered communication service are presented. The NASA 30/20 GHz communications satellite system demonstration program is discussed with emphasis on the related technology development.

  16. Laser Geodynamics Satellite I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The LAGEOS I (Laser Geodynamics Satellite) was developed and launched by the Marshall Space Flight Center on May 4, 1976 from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California . The two-foot diameter satellite orbited the Earth from pole to pole and measured the movements of the Earth's surface.

  17. Telecommunications satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramat, Pierre

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the telecommunications satellite field is presented. After a review of the historical and regulatory background, the main technical features of satellite networks are analyzed, and existing international and national systems are considered. Particular attention is given to Intelsat, Inmarsat, Eutelsat, and Telecom 1 and 2. Future technical and economic trends are then projected.

  18. Satellites in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, C. I.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of satellite data in physics classrooms. Describes the apparatus that can be used to collect and analyze data. Provides examples of how telemetry data transmitted by the satellite UoSAT-2 can be used not only in teaching physics, but also in geography, mathematics, and information technology. (TW)

  19. Outer planets satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation takes into account the published literature on outer planet satellites for 1979-1982. It is pointed out that all but three (the moon and the two Martian satellites) of the known planetary satellites are found in the outer solar system. Most of these are associated with the three regular satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. The largest satellites are Titan in the Saturn system and Ganymede and Callisto in the Jupiter system. Intermediate in size between Mercury and Mars, each has a diameter of about 5000 km. Presumably each has an internal composition about 60 percent rock and 40 ice, and each is differentiated with a dense core extending out about 75 percent of the distance to the surface, with a mantle of high-pressure ice and a crust of ordinary ice perhaps 100 km thick. Attention is also given to Io, Europa, the icy satellites of Saturn, the satellites of Uranus, the small satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, Triton and the Pluto system, and plans for future studies.

  20. Signals from Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect for relative motion between a source of waves and an observer and the orbital dynamics of communications satellites. Presents preliminary calculations of the satellite's altitude and linear velocity using only the concepts of the Doppler shift and the mechanics of motion in a circular path. (JRH)

  1. A New Bessel-Box Energy Analyzer for Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shimizu, Ryuichi

    1990-02-01

    A new type energy analyzer with an electron impact ionizer for sputtered neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS), which is compact enough to be mounted in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments, has been developed. The compact energy analyzer, called a modified Bessel-Box, enables energy distribution of slow charged particles with different energy resolutions to be obtained by changing the ratio of voltages applied to the analyzer. Applying this system for SNMS of Al-Mg alloy under different partial pressures of oxygen, it has been confirmed that SNMS is free from oxygen enhancement, allowing the quantification of matrix elements with considerable accuracy. It has also been revealed that the space-charge effect caused by bombarding electrons becomes fairly marked, resulting in the deformation and shift of energy distributions of the postionized particles.

  2. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise. PMID:26197251

  3. 9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS IN ROOM 149. THE GLOVE BOXES ON THE LEFT CONTAIN MIXER STIRRERS THAT AID IN THE DISSOLUTION PROCESS THAT OCCURRED PRIOR TO ANION EXCHANGE. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. Radiographic examination of prestressed concrete box girder bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Srvinivasan, S.; Saravanan, K.; Kapali, V.; Nayak, N.U.; Suresh Bapu, R.H.; Kalyanasundaram, R.M.; Madhavamayandi, A.; Mahadeva Iyer, Y.; Rengaswamy, N.S.

    1996-10-01

    Application of high energy x-radiography, using Betatron equipment to the box girders of prestressed concrete bridges, was conducted for the first time in India. The web thickness of the concrete box girders varied from 300 to 450 mm. Stringent safety measures were observed. The study gave information on the quality of the concrete, grout, and tensioned and untensioned steels.

  5. 27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAEMPE AUTOMATED COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINES IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY USED PRESSURE TO SET RESINS IN CORE SAND. THE ONLY EFFORT REQUIRED OF WORKERS IS TO CHANGE CORE BOXES AND REMOVE HARDENED CORE. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  7. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  8. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  9. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  10. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  11. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view...

  14. A PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL FOR URBAN AIR QUALITY SIMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple 'box-approach' to air quality simulation modeling has been developed in conjunction with a newly formulated photochemical kinetic mechanism to produce an easily applied Photochemical Box Model (PBM). This approach represents an urban area as a single cell 20 km in both l...

  15. Creative Underachievers: Children Who Are Too out of the Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Educators in the field of gifted education attempt to not only accelerate curriculum for their students, but also to encourage and expand their critical and creative thinking. They often explain this creative approach to students as "out-of-the-box" thinking. "The box" is an effective analogy to help children understand how to…

  16. Boxing It Up-a Cross-curricular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Till, Wesley

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a class project that examined the manufacture of boxes and packaging to teach about design and technology. The class discovered basic manufacturing techniques by examining and disassembling cereal boxes. Field trips to stores provided more examples. Appraises the children's final projects and discusses acquiring materials. (MJP)

  17. Band-in-a-Box for the General Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Suggests ways to use the Band-in-a-Box (BIAB) software created by PG Music in the general music classroom. Benefits of the program to music teachers; Key features of BIAB; Basic steps in making an accompaniment in BIAB; Tips on putting in chords; National standards for music education. INSET: Band-in-a-Box Interface.

  18. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  19. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily.

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D; Clevers, H

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known HMG boxes defined an unusually loose consensus sequence. We constructed phylogenetic trees connecting the members of the HMG box superfamily in order to understand their evolution. This analysis led us to distinguish two subfamilies: one comprising proteins with a single sequence-specific HMG box, the other encompassing relatively non sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins with multiple HMG boxes. By studying the extent of diversification of the superfamily, we found that the speed of evolution was very different within the various groups of HMG-box containing factors. Comparison of the evolution of the two boxes of ABF2 and of mtTF1 implied different diversification models for these two proteins. Finally, we provide a tree for the highly complex group of SRY-like ('Sox' genes), clustering at least 40 different loci that rapidly diverged in various animal lineages. PMID:8506143

  20. 77 FR 36585 - Post Office Box Service Enhancements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Post Office Box service. Id. at 14. The Commission ordered that the Complaint be held in abeyance until... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Post Office Box Service Enhancements AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  1. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call box operations. 90.241 Section 90.241 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.241 Radio call box operations. (a) The frequencies in the 72-76...

  2. 49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BOX STAMPING MACHINE Located in room above warehouse. The power unit is missing, but the drive belt is seen hanging from the overhead. Printing plate of desired labeling would be attached to the lower half drum. Upon rotation, labeling would be transferred to a cardboard box which was being held around the upper drum. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  3. The Lock Box: Evaluating Mental Organization in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan F.

    A unique psychometric device, The "Lock Box," has been developed to measure the ability of preschool children to structure a novel problematic situation. The primary purpose of the box is to identify those preschoolers with mental ages ranging from 2 1/2 to 6 years who have difficulty imposing an orderly plan on their explorations and whose…

  4. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  5. Boxing Up a Mini Herd: Art Put to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Midge

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art project for high school students that was inspired by the 1999 "Cows on Parade" exhibition in Chicago (Illinois). Explains that students used old Gateway computer boxes to create their own cows using the box, scissors, and a hot-glue gun. (CMK)

  6. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  7. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  8. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  9. DreamBox Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  10. Perfect mirrors and the self-accelerating box paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2002-11-01

    We consider the question raised by Unruh and Wald of whether mirrored boxes can self-accelerate in flat spacetime (the ``self-accelerating box paradox''). From the point of view of the box, which perceives the acceleration as an impressed gravitational field, this is equivalent to asking whether the box can be supported by the buoyant force arising from its immersion in a perceived bath of thermal (Unruh) radiation. The perfect mirrors we study are of the type that rely on light internal degrees of freedom which adjust to and reflect impinging radiation. We suggest that a minimum of one internal mirror degree of freedom is required for each bulk field degree of freedom reflected. A short calculation then shows that such mirrors necessarily absorb enough heat from the thermal bath that their increased mass prevents them from floating on the thermal radiation. For this type of mirror the paradox is therefore resolved. We also observe that this failure of boxes to ``float'' invalidates one of the assumptions going into the Unruh-Wald analysis of entropy balances involving boxes lowered adiabatically toward black holes. Nevertheless, their broad argument can be maintained until the box reaches a new regime in which box-antibox pairs dominate over massless fields as contributions to thermal radiation.

  11. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  13. 24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF BOXES CONTAINING SOLENOIDS AND HYDRAULIC PUMP CONTRACTORS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS AND BREAKERS FOR RECEPTACLES ON SEVERAL STATIONS. BOXES LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W MST STATION 63. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL WAS A SAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE BETWEEN INTERCONNECTED GLOVE BOXES. PLUTONIUM IS PYROPHORIC, AND MAY IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (5/8/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. The Satellite Situation Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Sawyer, D. M.; Vette, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Considerations related to the early planning for the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) took into account the desirability of an establishment of specific entities for generating and disseminating coordination information for both retrospective and predictive periods. The organizations established include the IMS/Satellite Situation Center (IMS/SSC) operated by NASA. The activities of the SSC are related to the preparation of reports on predicted and actually achieved satellite positions, the response to inquiries, the compilation of information on satellite experiments, and the issue of periodic status summaries. Attention is given to high-altitude satellite services, other correlative satellite services, non-IMS activities of the SSC, a summary of the SSC request activity, and post-IMS and future activities.

  16. Satellite networks for education.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. P.; Morgan, R. P.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of satellite-based educational networking. The characteristics and structure of networks are reviewed, and pressures within the educational establishment that are providing motivation for various types of networks are discussed. A number of studies are cited in which networking needs for educational sectors and services are defined. The current status of educational networking for educational radio and television, instructional television fixed services, inter- and intrastate educational communication networks, computer networks, cable television for education, and continuing and proposed educational experiments using NASA's Applications Technology Satellites is reviewed. Possible satellite-based educational telecommunication services and three alternatives for implementing educational satellite systems are described. Some remarks are made concerning public policy aspects of future educational satellite system development.

  17. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  18. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-01-01

    A full scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite-epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 pct. of design limit load during the combined unbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  19. Structural testing of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1992-09-01

    A full-scale section of a transport aircraft wing box was designed, analyzed, fabricated, and tested. The wing box section, which was called the technology integration box beam, contained blade stiffened covers and T-stiffened channel spars constructed using graphite/epoxy materials. Covers, spars, and the aluminum ribs were assembled using mechanical fasteners. The box beam was statically tested for several loading conditions to verify the stiffness and strength characteristics of the composite wing design. Failure of the box beam occurred at 125 percent of design limit load during the combined upbending and torsion ultimate design load test. It appears that the failure initiated at a stiffener runout location in the upper cover which resulted in rupture of the upper cover and portions of both spars.

  20. Rescaled box counting for the topological analysis of spatial data

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1994-04-01

    Topological analysis of surfaces of natural objects can provide information about surface features (ridges, fragmentation, dendritic patterns) and surface roughness. Box counting is a general method useful for such surfaces, but it is currently limited to cases where the x, y, and z directions are all in the same metric. A method, rescaled box counting, is presented for overcoming these limitations. The local first omnidirectional semivariance (lag 1) is calculated for boxes of different sizes. If the semivariance is not small for small box sizes, then the z data need to be scaled up to allow detection of a difference between patches that are significantly different This rescaling converts the z metric into a distance equivalent (z units are converted into distances based on the horizontal distance over which a significant change in z is found to occur). Once rescaling is done, box counting can be used to quantify surface topology.

  1. Glove-box shielding analysis for sampling radioactive precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper addresses a radiation transport analysis for as-built dose rates near a nitrite analyzer glove box. The glove box will be utilized in a laboratory serving the Late Wash Facility (LWF) at Savannah River site (SRS). The LWF will reduce the concentration of nitrite in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) radioactive aqueous precipitate feed stream to levels acceptable for the DWPF process. A laboratory serving the LWF incorporates nitrite and benzene analyzer glove boxes. The glove boxes will handle radioactive filtrate from the LWF filter and incorporate shielding for the protection of laboratory technicians. The analysis objective is to predict dose rates around the nitrite glove box subsequent to introduction of filtrate.

  2. Mechanical retention versus bonding of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Staninec, M; Yip, R L; Chavez, M A

    1994-10-01

    The retention of amalgam and gallium alloy restorations in proximal box forms was measured in vitro, and three different adhesives to conventional undercuts were compared. For control, restorations were placed without undercuts or adhesives. No significant difference was found between amalgam and gallium alloys with each of the five methods of retention used. Alloys placed without retention or adhesives were significantly less retentive than all other groups. When Tytin alloy was used, no difference was found in retention among the restorations retained with Panavia or All-Bond adhesive or an occlusal dovetail and retention grooves, but Amalgambond adhesive was less retentive than all three of these methods. When gallium alloy was used, both Panavia and All-Bond adhesive were more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was more retentive than undercuts, but the effect of Amalgambond adhesive was comparable to that of undercuts. The results of this study indicate that adhesives could be used in place of traditional undercuts to retain amalgam and gallium alloys, thus saving a considerable amount of tooth structure. PMID:7990038

  3. Satellite Services Workshop, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Key issues associated with the orbital servicing of satellites are examined including servicing spacecraft and equipment, servicing operations, economics, satellite design, docking and berthing, and fluid management.

  4. Turbine Blade Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacKay, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The High Speed Research Airfoil Alloy Program developed a fourth-generation alloy with up to an +85 F increase in creep rupture capability over current production airfoil alloys. Since improved strength is typically obtained when the limits of microstructural stability are exceeded slightly, it is not surprising that this alloy has a tendency to exhibit microstructural instabilities after high temperature exposures. This presentation will discuss recent results obtained on coated fourth-generation alloys for subsonic turbine blade applications under the NASA Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program. Progress made in reducing microstructural instabilities in these alloys will be presented. In addition, plans will be presented for advanced alloy development and for computational modeling, which will aid future alloy development efforts.

  5. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  6. Land mobile communications satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.

    1986-09-01

    The economic value and salient technical and operational characteristics of a European Land Mobile Communication Satellite (LMCS) to complement and supplement the demand for mobile services of Western European countries in the 1995 to 2005 time frames were assessed. A significant future expansion of demand for LCMS services on the part of the public is anticipated. Important augmentations of current service capabilities could be achieved by a satellite service, improving the overall system performances and/or assisting the PTT's in containing their investments in the required infrastructure. The satellite service itself could represent a profitable revenue producer.

  7. Advanced communications satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    There is a rapidly growing demand for satellite circuits, particularly for domestic service within the U.S. NASA's current program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced satellite communications technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future satellite communications systems. Attention is given to aspects of traffic distribution and service scenario, problems related to effects of rain attenuation, details regarding system configuration, a 30/20 GHz technology development approach, an experimental flight system, the communications payload for the experimental flight system, a typical experiment flight system coverage, and a typical three axis stabilized flight spacecraft.

  8. Satellite Breakup Risk Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leleux, Darrin P.; Smith, Jason T.

    2006-01-01

    Many satellite breakups occur as a result of an explosion of stored energy on-board spacecraft or rocket-bodies. These breakups generate a cloud of tens or possibly hundreds of thousands of debris fragments which may pose a transient elevated threat to spaceflight crews and vehicles. Satellite breakups pose a unique threat because the majority of the debris fragments are too small to be tracked from the ground. The United States Human Spaceflight Program is currently implementing a risk mitigation strategy that includes modeling breakup events, establishing action thresholds, and prescribing corresponding mitigation actions in response to satellite breakups.

  9. Satellites save lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulloch, Chris

    The use of satellites, in particular weather satellites, to detect emergency transmitter signals for search and rescue (SAR) operations is studied. The benefits provided to SAR operations by the Doppler processing of signals and the assignment of the 100-kHz band, 406.0-406.1 MHz in UHF region for satellite SAR services are discussed. The capabilities of Argos, a data collection system, and its function in SAR operations are described. Future developments for the COSPAS-SARSAT system are considered.

  10. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  11. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  12. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  13. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  14. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  15. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, Mark J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe current results from an on-going study of the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. Experimental and analytical results are presented. Experimental results include load, strain, and deflection data for the TIBB (Technology Integration Box Beam). An analytical investigation was conducted to compliment the experimental investigation and to gain additional insight into the TIBB structural response. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from a global analysis of the TIBB. A local analysis of the failure region is being completed. These analytical results are validated through comparisons with the experimental results from the TIBB tests. The experimental and analytical results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that may have resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Typical analytical results are presented for a stiffener runout specimen that is being defined to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms. The results of this study are anticipated to provide better understanding of potential failure mechanisms in composite aircraft structures, to lead to future design improvements, and to identify needed analytical tools for design and analysis.

  16. Technology integration box beam failure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  17. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  18. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century. PMID:10842787

  19. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  20. Overview of commercial satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    A brief history of communications satellites is presented, taking into account the launching of Sputnik 1 in October 1957, the Explorer 1 in January of 1958, the launch of the Score as the world's first active communications satellite in December 1958, the Communications Satellite Act in 1962, and the launch of 'Early Bird' in 1964. The Intelsat satellites are considered along with maritime satellite communications, the U.S. domestic satellite systems, Alaskan satellite communications, cable television, broadcast TV stations, print media, the hotel/motel industry as a large market for satellite communications terminals, the opening of a minicable and satellite master antenna TV market for TV receive-only systems, and business telecommunications earth terminals. Attention is also given to future directions regarding satellite positions, the concept of 'video-plus', and direct broadcast satellites.

  1. Radiation effects on selected electronics parts from the solar max satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Uy, O. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Satellite was launched on February 14, 1980. Problems with the Main Electronics Box (MEB) were experienced in the period July 10 to September 30, 1980. Failure occurred in the October to November time frame. Replacement of the Main Electronic Box (MEB) was performed in April 1984. The failed original MEB was returned to Earth and offered an opportunity to study some electronic parts which had spent 50 months in the natural radiation environment of a low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. Spare parts were annealed at ambient temperatures on the ground. Dose rate effects between the flight and laboratory environments were compared.

  2. Early evolution of the T-box transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Ariza-Cosano, Ana; Weirauch, Matthew T; Leininger, Sven; Yang, Ally; Torruella, Guifré; Adamski, Marcin; Adamska, Maja; Hughes, Timothy R; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2013-10-01

    Developmental transcription factors are key players in animal multicellularity, being members of the T-box family that are among the most important. Until recently, T-box transcription factors were thought to be exclusively present in metazoans. Here, we report the presence of T-box genes in several nonmetazoan lineages, including ichthyosporeans, filastereans, and fungi. Our data confirm that Brachyury is the most ancient member of the T-box family and establish that the T-box family diversified at the onset of Metazoa. Moreover, we demonstrate functional conservation of a homolog of Brachyury of the protist Capsaspora owczarzaki in Xenopus laevis. By comparing the molecular phenotype of C. owczarzaki Brachyury with that of homologs of early branching metazoans, we define a clear difference between unicellular holozoan and metazoan Brachyury homologs, suggesting that the specificity of Brachyury emerged at the origin of Metazoa. Experimental determination of the binding preferences of the C. owczarzaki Brachyury results in a similar motif to that of metazoan Brachyury and other T-box classes. This finding suggests that functional specificity between different T-box classes is likely achieved by interaction with alternative cofactors, as opposed to differences in binding specificity. PMID:24043797

  3. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  4. Compact and Secure Design of Masked AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Babak; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud; Moradi, Amir; Tabandeh, Mahmoud; Shalmani, Mohammad T. Manzuri

    Composite field arithmetic is known as an alternative method for lookup tables in implementation of S-box block of AES algorithm. The idea is to breakdown the computations to lower order fields and compute the inverse there. Recently this idea have been used both for reducing the area in implementation of S-boxes and masking implementations of AES algorithm. The most compact design using this technique is presented by Canright using only 92 gates for an S-box block. In another approach, IAIK laboratory has presented a masked implementation of AES algorithm with higher security comparing common masking methods using Composite field arithmetic. Our work in this paper is to use basic ideas of the two approaches above to get a compact masked S-box. We shall use the idea of masking inversion of IAIK's masked S-box but we will rewrite the equations using normal basis. We arrange the terms in these equations in a way that the optimized functions in Canright's compact S-box can be used for our design. An implementation of IAIK's masked S-box is also presented using Canright's polynomial functions to have a fair comparison between our design and IAIK's design. Moreover, we show that this design which uses two special normal basis for GF(16) and GF(4) is the smallest. We shall also prove the security of this design using some lemmas.

  5. Planetary science experiments flying as hosted payloads on commercial satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Olkin, Cathy B.; Kalmanson, Phillip M.; Mellon, Russell; Young, Malcolm

    2009-08-01

    There has been a recent surge in interest in hosted and rideshare payloads that would launch aboard commercial communications satellites. Much of this interest originates with the satellite customers themselves as a way to sell excess mass and power margins that exist at launch. In 2008, NASA selected GOLD (Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk) as a mission of opportunity to fly as its first hosted payload experiment on a geosynchronous commercial communications satellite, a STAR-2 bus satellite built by Orbital Sciences. CHIRP (Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload), a hosted payload to test infrared sensors for the Air Force, is also being developed for a STAR-2 bus communications satellite. The mass limitation on a STAR-2 bus hosted payload is roughly 50 - 60 kg and the volume is roughly constrained to a 25" x 30" x 28" box on the nadir deck. Telescope apertures are therefore limited is size to about 50 cm in diameter. The diffraction limit for visible (much less IR) imaging missions barely improves upon ground-based image performance, but UV missions can achieve better than 0.1" resolution. There is at least one family of optical designs that (a) provide the necessary focal length and (b) are light and compact enough to fit within the STAR-2 bus mass and volume constraints. These designs also afford opportunities to maintain 0.05" pointing accuracy through a combination of a fine steering mirror and an orthogonal transfer CCD.

  6. Making Satellite Precipitation Data Work for the Developing World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebregiorgis, A. S.; Hossain, F.

    2013-12-01

    The traditional approach to measuring precipitation by placing a probe on the ground will likely never be adequate or affordable in most parts of the world. Fortunately, satellites today provide a continuous global bird's-eye view (above ground) at any given location.However, the usefulness of such precipitation products for hydrological applications depends on their error characteristics and how intelligently we can harness the implications of uncertainty for surface hydrology. Satellite precipitation data is most useful where there exists little to none conventional measurements. As a result, the conventional method of comparing satellite estimate against in-situ records to 'harness' the uncertainty is unrealistic and impractical. As a community tasked with the job of making satellite precipitation 'work' for applications in most parts of the world, there is now a need think outside the box. The manuscript aims to describe a method that will 'truly' work in the developing world. The proposed manuscript aims to provide a broad view summary of our work on making hydrologically merged precipitation data work in the Middle East, Europe, Asia and Mediterranean regions. The aim will be to appeal to a broad range of water managers, climate decision makers and policy and planners in the developing world. The merged precipitation data has already been created for 2002-2010 and will be made freely available to BAMS readers through our ftp site. Globally selected study regions for developing and validating error variance regression model and satellite rainfall products merging scheme

  7. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  8. AUSSAT mobile satellite services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowland, Wayne L.; Wagg, Michael; Simpson, Daniel

    1988-01-01

    An overview of AUSSAT's planned mobile satellite system is given. The development program which is being undertaken to achieve the 1992 service date is described. Both business and technical aspects of the development program are addressed.

  9. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  10. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  11. Aiming a Satellite Dish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebrowski, Ernest, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Develops a pair of equations for calculating the elevation and azimuth angles for the various satellites. Uses 3-dimensional vector difference calculations. Provides a practical example, figures, and table. (YP)

  12. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  13. Weather, land satellite sale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan announced on March 8 plans to sell to private industry the nation's land and meteorological remote-sensing satellites, including the responsibility for any future ocean-observing systems. According to the plan, the private firm successful in its bid to buy the five satellites would sell back to the government the data received by the satellites. The Reagan administration says the sale will save money and will put activities appropriate for commercial ventures into the commercial sector. Response to the announcement from scientists and congressmen has been anything but dulcet; one senator, in fact, charges that the Commerce Department and the corporation most likely to purchase the satellites are engaged in a ‘sweetheart deal.’

  14. Measuring Phytoplankton From Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Present and future methods examined. Report reviews methods of calculating concentration of phytoplankton from satellite measurements of color of ocean and using such calculations to estimate productivity of phytoplankton.

  15. Orbit determination accuracies using satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Argentiero, P. D.; Schmid, P. E.

    1977-01-01

    The uncertainty in relay satellite sate is a significant error source which cannot be ignored in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data. Based on simulations and real data reductions, it is numerically impractical to use simultaneous unconstrained solutions to determine both relay and user satellite epoch states. A Bayesian or least squares estimation technique with an a priori procedure is presented which permits the adjustment of relay satellite epoch state in the reduction of satellite-to-satellite tracking data without the numerical difficulties introduced by an ill-conditioned normal matrix.

  16. Handling and analysis of ices in cryostats and glove boxes in view of cometary samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roessler, K.; Eich, G.; Heyl, M.; Kochan, H.; Oehler, A.; Patnaik, A.; Schlosser, W.; Schulz, R.

    1989-01-01

    Comet nucleus sample return mission and other return missions from planets and satellites need equipment for handling and analysis of icy samples at low temperatures under vacuum or protective gas. Two methods are reported which were developed for analysis of small icy samples and which are modified for larger samples in cometary matter simulation experiments (KOSI). A conventional optical cryostat system was modified to allow for transport of samples at 5 K, ion beam irradiation, and measurement in an off-line optical spectrophotometer. The new system consists of a removable window plug containing nozzles for condensation of water and volatiles onto a cold finger. This plug can be removed in a vacuum system, changed against another plug (e.g., with other windows (IR, VIS, VUV) or other nozzles). While open, the samples can be treated under vacuum with cooling by manipulators (cut, removal, sample taking, irradiation with light, photons, or ions). After bringing the plug back, the samples can be moved to another site of analysis. For handling the 30 cm diameter mineral-ice samples from the KOSI experiments an 80x80x80 cm glove box made out of plexiglass was used. The samples were kept in a liquid nitrogen bath, which was filled from the outside. A stream a dry N2 and evaporating gas from the bath purified the glove box from impurity gases and, in particular, H2O, which otherwise would condense onto the samples.

  17. Epos TCS Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; Mandea, Mioara; Fernández-Turiel, José Luis; Stramondo, Salvatore; Wright, Tim; Walter, Thomas; Bally, Philippe; Casu, Francesco; Zeni, Giovanni; Buonanno, Sabatino; Zinno, Ivana; Tizzani, Pietro; Castaldo, Raffaele; Ostanciaux, Emilie; Diament, Michel; Hooper, Andy; Maccaferri, Francesco; Lanari, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    TCS Satellite Data is devoted to provide Earth Observation (EO) services, transversal with respect to the large EPOS community, suitable to be used in several application scenarios. In particular, the main goal is to contribute with mature services that have already well demonstrated their effectiveness and relevance in investigating the physical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and unrest episodes as well as those driving tectonics and Earth surface dynamics. The TCS Satellite Data will provide two kinds of services: satellite products/services, and Value-added satellite products/services. The satellite products/services are composed of three (EPOSAR, GDM and COMET) well-identified and partly already operational elements for delivering Level 1 products. Such services will be devoted to the generation of SAR interferograms, DTM and ground displacement maps through the exploitation of different advanced EO techniques for InSAR and optical data analysis. The Value-added satellite products/services are composed of 4 elements (EPOSAR, 3D-Def, Mod and COMET) of Level 2 and 3 products. Such services integrate satellite and in situ measurements and observations to retrieve information on source mechanism, such as the geometry (spatial location, depth, volume changes) and the physical parameters of the deformation sources, through the exploitation of modelling approaches. The TCS Satellite Data will provide products in two different processing and delivery modes: 1- surveillance mode - routinely product generation; 2- on demand mode - product generation performed on demand by the user. Concerning the surveillance mode, the goal is providing continuous satellite measurements in areas of particular interest from a geophysical perspective (supersites). The objective is the detection of displacement patterns changing along time and their geophysical explanation. This is a valid approach for inter-seismic movements and volcanic unrest, post-seismic and post

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of a turbogenerator terminal box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amitabh

    1987-04-01

    This paper presents a method of analyzing magnetic fields in and around turbogenerator terminal boxes in three dimensions. The magnetic field is modelled in terms of a magnetic scalar potential under the assumption that the depth of penetration of the field is very small such that eddy currents are restricted to surface currents. The potential formulation and the associated boundary conditions are discussed. A box model which has been analyzed using the present formulation is given along with plot of equipotentials on a box wall.

  19. A new box system for a high pressure tritium pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, S.W.; Borree, R.J.; Chambers, D.I.; Souers, P.C.; Merrill, J.T.; Wiggins, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 200 MPa (30 kpsi) high pressure tritium pump inside a box system is described. This system is currently under construction but all representative mechanical parts have been fabricated and tested. The pump is a conventional mechanical-plus-cryostaged system, so that most of the interesting features are in the box. The system contains nine separate sections, with automatic pressure balancing and venting systems. Five sections are hood-to-box convertible enclosures with inflatable door seals. The procedure of cryostaging with liquid argon is described. Special detail is given to valves and motor shaft seals. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  1. Solar Power Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, C. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A satellite based energy concept is described, including the advantages of the basic concept, system characteristics, cost, and environmental considerations. An outline of a plan for the further evaluation and implementation of the system is given. It is concluded that the satellite concept is competitive with other advanced power generation systems when a variety of factors are considered, including technical feasibility, cost, safety, natural resources, environment, baseload capability, location flexibility, land use, and existing industrial base for implementation.

  2. High strength alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  3. High strength alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  4. The Perseus Flasher and satellite glints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Barber, Michael; Brooks, John J.; Deforrest, Allen; Malley, Paul D.

    1987-01-01

    The Perseus Flasher (PF) is claimed to be an astrophysical source which frequently emits bright optical flashes (Katz et al. 1986). These flashes have all been detected by the naked eye, with the exception of one photographed flash for which an accurate position is measured. Notable properties of the PF are its large amplitude (greater than 19 mag), short duration (about 1 s), and frequent occurrence (a flash every 12 hr). Here, evidence is presented that the PF is not an astrophysical source but is merely the observation of glints of reflected sunlight from artificial earth satellites. This conclusion is supported by the following facts: (1) a total of 3400 hr of photographic, video, and CCD observations have detected no flashes in or near the small PF error box, despite the claim of one bright flash every 12 hr; (2) thirteen of the 26 flashes are shown to be nonastrophysical in origin; and (3) both the observational and theoretical glint rates indicate that most, if not all, PF observations are caused by satellite glints.

  5. Satellite Applications for Public Service: Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauffer, Sandra; And Others

    Summaries of 18 different projects involving the use of satellite communications are presented in this report, including PEACESAT Education and Communication Experiments, USP Network Satellite Communication Project, Project Satellite, Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE), Appalachian Education Satellite Program, Alaska Education…

  6. Direct Broadcasting Satellites in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Jiro

    The development and use of broadcasting satellites in Japan are discussed in this paper. The paper describes the medium-scale experimental broadcasting satellite, YURI, launched by NASA in 1978, and reports that experiments with YURI in the areas of basic technologies in the broadcasting satellite system, experiments on satellite control…

  7. Satellite Technologies in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portz, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on ways of using satellite imagery obtained from the Internet, to enhance classroom learning. Discusses satellite deployment; classroom applications, including infrared imagery, high-resolution photography, and global positioning satellites; and use of satellite data for hands-on activities, including cartography, city and community…

  8. Shuttle orbiter - IUS/DSP satellite interface contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R. O.; Strange, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a contamination analysis on the Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite during launch and deployment by the Space Transportation System (STS) are presented. Predicted contaminant deposition was also included on critical DSP surfaces during the period soon after launch when the DSP is in the shuttle orbiter bay with the doors closed, the bay doors open, and during initial deployment. Additionally, a six sided box was placed at the spacecraft position to obtain directional contaminant flux information for a general payload while in the bay and during deployment. The analysis included contamination sources from the shuttle orbiter, IUS and cradle, the DSP sensor and the DSP support package.

  9. Spark alloying of an AL9 alloy by hard alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuptsov, S. G.; Fominykh, M. V.; Mukhinov, D. V.; Magomedova, R. S.; Nikonenko, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The phase compositions of spark coatings of Kh12M steel with a VT1-0 (titanium) alloy and T15K6 and T30K4 hard alloys are studied. It is shown that the TiC titanium carbide forms in all cases and tungsten carbide decomposes with the formation of tungsten in a coating. These processes are intensified by increasing time, capacitance, and frequency. The surface hardness, the sample weight, and the white layer thickness increase monotonically.

  10. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  11. The AirQuality SenseBox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  12. GREEN SUPERCOMPUTING IN A DESKTOP BOX

    SciTech Connect

    HSU, CHUNG-HSING; FENG, WU-CHUN; CHING, AVERY

    2007-01-17

    The computer workstation, introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1982, was the tool of choice for scientists and engineers as an interactive computing environment for the development of scientific codes. However, by the mid-1990s, the performance of workstations began to lag behind high-end commodity PCs. This, coupled with the disappearance of BSD-based operating systems in workstations and the emergence of Linux as an open-source operating system for PCs, arguably led to the demise of the workstation as we knew it. Around the same time, computational scientists started to leverage PCs running Linux to create a commodity-based (Beowulf) cluster that provided dedicated computer cycles, i.e., supercomputing for the rest of us, as a cost-effective alternative to large supercomputers, i.e., supercomputing for the few. However, as the cluster movement has matured, with respect to cluster hardware and open-source software, these clusters have become much more like their large-scale supercomputing brethren - a shared (and power-hungry) datacenter resource that must reside in a machine-cooled room in order to operate properly. Consequently, the above observations, when coupled with the ever-increasing performance gap between the PC and cluster supercomputer, provide the motivation for a 'green' desktop supercomputer - a turnkey solution that provides an interactive and parallel computing environment with the approximate form factor of a Sun SPARCstation 1 'pizza box' workstation. In this paper, they present the hardware and software architecture of such a solution as well as its prowess as a developmental platform for parallel codes. In short, imagine a 12-node personal desktop supercomputer that achieves 14 Gflops on Linpack but sips only 185 watts of power at load, resulting in a performance-power ratio that is over 300% better than their reference SMP platform.

  13. Satellite Communications for ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  14. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  15. 46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VIEW OF ELECTRIC OUTLET BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTHWEST Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. VIEW OF CONTROL BOX AT 'CATFISH' SILO, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455678-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. SECONDARY MILL AND CLASSIFIER FROM NORTHWEST. WOOD FEED BOX BEHIND MILL, BARREN SOLUTION TANK BEHIND TRAVELING CRANE TRUSS AND ABOVE MILL. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. 11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. REMNANTS OF FLUME BOX WITHIN CANAL. NOTE THE UPRIGHT SIDE POSTS BOLTED TO BASE STRINGER AND HORIZONTAL BOARD SIDE WALLS. VIEW IS TO THE SOUTHEAST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  20. 9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLUME BOX Y, LOOKING SOUTH. CANAL IN FOREGROUND FOLLOWS HILLSIDE INTO DRAINAGE; FLUME HEADING TO RIGHT CROSSED GULCH ON A TRESTLE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  1. Inside the "Black Box" of Classroom Language Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    2000-01-01

    Reports five studies that provide initial insight into the black box of classroom testing. The studies investigate various aspects of perceptions and practices of assessment in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  2. INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, PREPARING LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA. WORKERS JUST FILLED THE FLASK WITH SAND FROM A HIGH VELOCITY MECHANICAL SAND THRUSTER. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  3. 11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF CIRCULAR CAR SHOP OVER TOPS OF BOX CARS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. 10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BOILER SHOP FROM TOP OF BOX CAR WITH CIRCULAR CAR SHOP IN BACKGROUND LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL JUNCTION BOX ON SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W UMBLICAL MAST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST SIDE OF THE TACKLE BOX, LOOKING NORTHEAST, WITH THE REFRIGERATOR ROOM IN FOREGROUND - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  7. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  8. 32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 48' MILL STEAM ENGINE ADMISSION BOX (?), STEAM VALVE, AND REVERSING MECHANISM LIFTING CYLINDER. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  9. NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SIDE FACING TRACK, SHOWING ELECTRICAL BOX AND CONCRETE VAULT - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Electrical Distribution Station, South side of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CORE SET IN MOLD HALF IN BOX FLOOR AREA. AWAITING OTHER MOLD HALF TO BE PLACED ON TOP. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PNEUMATICALLY CLEANING TOP HALF OF LARGE MOLD IN BOX FLOOR AREA TO REMOVE ANY EXCESS OR LOOSE SAND. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Ductile Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    El Tovar steam tunnel breaker box in foreground. Note El Tovar stone vault in alignment with tunnel. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  13. 17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. GEAR BOXES, BUFFALO IRONWORKER (PUNCH AND SHEAR ON LEFT), IN COVERED AREA BETWEEN WAREHOUSES A AND B, LOOKING EAST - Hillman Barge & Construction Company, Paul Thomas Boulevard, Brownsville, Fayette County, PA

  14. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE TRANSFORMERS (THREE IDENTICAL BOXES, RIGHT CENTER) AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ON WEST WALL OF TRANSFORMER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Enloe Dam, Power House, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA

  16. 24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. WEST CONFEDERATE AVENUE, DOUBLE CULVERT APPEARS TO BE "BOX", BUT IS PIPE WITH SQUARE HEAD WALL OPENING. NOTE ARCHED TOP STYLE USED BY CCC. VIEW SE. - Gettysburg National Military Park Tour Roads, Gettysburg, Adams County, PA

  17. 129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Astronaut Richard Covey with control box for bicycle ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Richard O. Covey, mission commander, is seen with the control box for bicycle ergometer on Endeavour. During the eleven-day STS-61 mission, crew members not performing spacewalks found the ergometer to provide much needed exercise.

  19. 111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    111. RELAY BOX AND SWITCHES AT SOUTH END OF HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL, UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (109), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. 22. Photocopy of April 30, 1904 photograph. Glass Negative Box ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of April 30, 1904 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. 'TULIPS IN THE MAIN GARDEN' VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM CENTRAL GARDEN - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  1. 26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  2. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  3. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  4. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  5. 42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View forward on afterdeck, showing steering gear box in foreground, aft elevation of cabin beyond; weather canopy overhead is not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  6. 7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view of electrical box and gear mechanism - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  7. North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, showing modern switch boxes and in fill panel at the east end (series 4 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  8. 2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ELEVATOR DRIVE, CABLE MOTOR, CIRCUIT BOX, - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  9. 2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PLANK WALKWAY ATOP PIPE, ALSO SHOWING OVERFLOW CONTROL BOX AT JUNCTION OF PIPE WITH CONCRETE CHANNEL TO FISH SCREEN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Pipeline to Fish Screen, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. VIEW OF TWO READY AMMUNITION BOXES WITH TWO UNATTACHED STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO READY AMMUNITION BOXES WITH TWO UNATTACHED STEEL DOORS - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF THREE DOORS FOR READY AMMUNITION BOXES (IN FOREGROUND). NOTE THE STEEL PLATES IN THE BACKGROUND - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. DETAIL OF A READY AMMUNITION BOX SHOWING THE INTERNAL SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF A READY AMMUNITION BOX SHOWING THE INTERNAL SUPPORT BRACKETS - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  14. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  15. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  16. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  17. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components... service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  18. Design, analysis, and fabrication of the technology integration box beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.; Meade, L. E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated analytically and empirically for the covers and spars of a transport wing box. This information was applied to the design, analysis, and fabrication of a full-scale section of a transport wing box. A blade-stiffened design was selected for the upper and lower covers of the box. These covers have been constructed using three styles of AS4/974 prepreg fabrics. The front and rear T-stiffened channel spars were filament wound using AS4/1806 towpreg. Covers, ribs, and spars were assembled using mechanical fasteners. When they are completed later this year, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  19. 8. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ICE BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW, LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING ICE BOX AT REAR OF CARGO SPACE Susan Kardas, photographer, December 1984 - Shooters Island, Ships Graveyard, Vessel No. 37, Newark Bay, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  20. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  1. 25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF SOLENOID BOX FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS ON NORTH SIDE OF SLC-3W MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Analytical modeling of concrete box beams reinforced by GFRP rebars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Pang, S.S.

    1998-12-31

    An FRP rebar reinforced concrete box beam has been studied in this paper. Static analysis has been performed on the beams subjected to tension, bending, and torsion, based on a conceptual box beam structure. Linear vibration analysis has been conducted to predict the natural frequencies of the structures. Three dimensional finite element analysis has also been carried out to predict the stress, strain, deflection, and natural frequencies of the box beam structures. The results show that an FRP rebar deforms more compatibly with surrounding concrete than a steel rebar does. The results suggest that the concrete beams with FRP reinforcement are much more likely to be subject to compression failure (breakage of concrete on compression side) when compared to the box beams reinforced with steel rebars under the same loading conditions.

  3. A Golden Oldie--A Black Box Circuit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clifton; Wang, Yimin

    1994-01-01

    Provides a schematic to build a black box experiment that uses light bulbs of various intensities. The students are to determine the complex circuit by unscrewing the bulbs and noting what happens. (MVL)

  4. Stark effect of hydrogenic impurities in a quantum box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Castillo-Mussot, Marcelo; Vazquez, Gerardo J.; Mendoza, Carlos I.; Spector, Harold N.

    2004-03-01

    We extend the model of a cubic quantum box proposed by Ribeiro and Latge to carry out a variational calculation of the bindingenergy of impurities in such a structure as function of anelectric field.The binding energy of the impurities increases with the electric field. In addition, the electric field splits the energy of impurities on the faces of the box which are equivalent in the absence of the electric field.

  5. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  6. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Deng, Hui; Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven

    2015-02-02

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations.

  7. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    PubMed Central

    Tepic, Jovan; Doroslovacki, Rade

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012) for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM) and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions. PMID:24741350

  8. The Confinement and Sheath Within a Glass Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    The confinement structure provided by a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode of a GEC rf Reference Cell is proving to be ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures which are often difficult to obtain under other types of confinement. A glass box also provides a mechanism for controlling the number of dust particles comprising a particular dust structure as well as their size and symmetry. However, given the small volume of the glass box and the fact that each of the glass panes comprising the box develop a new sheath within the plasma environment, the structure of the overall sheath inside is quite different from that produced by the lower electrode alone. Since both the confinement and sheath structure are vital for producing ordered dust particle structures, a better understanding of the underlying physics is sorely needed. In this experiment, the trajectories of dust particles acting as probes while falling through the glass box under various plasma environments are tracked and analyzed. It will be shown that the resulting data provides a map of both the confining force and the structure of the sheath inside the glass box. Support from the NSF and the DOE (award numbers PHY-1262031 and PHY-1414523) is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  10. Spacecraft design project: High temperature superconducting infrared imaging satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The High Temperature Superconductor Infrared Imaging Satellite (HTSCIRIS) is designed to perform the space based infrared imaging and surveillance mission. The design of the satellite follows the black box approach. The payload is a stand alone unit, with the spacecraft bus designed to meet the requirements of the payload as listed in the statement of work. Specifications influencing the design of the spacecraft bus were originated by the Naval Research Lab. A description of the following systems is included: spacecraft configuration, orbital dynamics, radio frequency communication subsystem, electrical power system, propulsion, attitude control system, thermal control, and structural design. The issues of testing and cost analysis are also addressed. This design project was part of the course Advanced Spacecraft Design taught at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  11. Modeling radiation forces acting on satellites for precision orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, J. A.; Antreasian, P. G.; Rosborough, G. W.; Putney, B. H.

    1992-01-01

    Models of the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft are developed by means of finite-element analyses for use in generating acceleration histories for various orbit orientations which account for nonconservative radiation forces. The acceleration profiles are developed with an analysis based on the use of the 'box-wing' model in which the satellite is modeled as a combination of flat plates. The models account for the effects of solar, earth-albedo, earth-IR, and spacecraft-thermal radiation. The finite-element analysis gives the total force and induced accelerations acting on the satellite. The plate types used in the analysis have parameters that can be adjusted to optimize model performance according to the micromodel analysis and tracking observations. Acceleration related to solar radiation pressure is modeled effectively, and the techniques are shown to be useful for the precise orbit determinations required for spacecraft such as the TOPEX/Poseidon.

  12. International communications via satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLucas, J. L.

    The evolution of communications satellite systems is traced in terms of technical capabilities and technological advances. The Communications Act of 1962 led to the establishment of INTELSAT on an international basis in 1964. The original 19 signatory nations has grown to over 100, and over 800 ground relay stations have been built. The INTELSAT system comprises spacecraft over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and handles 2/3 of the world's international electronic communications and all transoceanic television. The 1965 Early Bird satellite had a 240 two-way telephone link capacity and weighed 38 kg, while the Intelsat V satellites, of which there will be nine, have increased the capacity to 20,000 voice circuits and Intelsat VI will double the number by 1993. Increasing demand for satellite communications links is driving the design and development of space platforms for multiple missions of communications, meteorological studies, and on-board switching and data processing in excess of current multiple satellite systems.

  13. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  14. The five-box method: The “four-box method” for the Catholic physician

    PubMed Central

    Marugg, Lindsey; Atkinson, Marie-Noelle; Fernandes, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background/Hypothesis The traditional ethical model of the “Four-Box Method” can be adapted to integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician. In an increasingly secularist environment, medical students and physicians are often asked to “leave religious beliefs at the door” and not consider the care and stewardship of our own morality and involvement as a provider. We reject this view. A patient's own religious and moral beliefs should be respected to the extent that they do not destroy our own; for us, the Catholic viewpoint can shine a light into dark corners and aid us in translating true things to patients of any religion. Methods We analyzed a sample case in five different categories: medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life, contextual features, and the Catholic context. We explored how to methodically integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician into the analysis of this case to make the best decision for the patients. Results/Discussion We felt that we were successfully able to integrate this perspective and create a “fifth box” based on the principles of Catholic social teaching. There were also points during the analysis that the perspective of the Catholic physician was integrated into the discussion of medical indications, proving to us that the “Catholic perspective” cannot be just put in one box either. Lay Summary The traditional ethical model of the “four-box method” can be adapted to integrate the perspective of a Catholic physician. In an increasingly secularist environment, medical students and physicians are often asked to “leave religious beliefs at the door” and not consider the care and stewardship of our own morality and involvement as a provider. We reject this view. A patient's own religious and moral beliefs should be respected to the extent that they do not destroy our own; for us, the Catholic viewpoint can shine a light into dark corners and aid us in translating true things to patients

  15. Small satellites - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. K.

    The present review of small satellites examines spacecraft activities in the U.K. and compiles a checklist of advantages and applications for the class. These advantages are illustrated with references to recent small satellite missions and technologies developed to facilitate such launches and projects. Specific programs examined include AMPTE-UKS, Viking, and the UoSAT program, and information is given regarding the Small Explorer program, the RAE Space Technology Research Vehicle, the AEA Argos Program, and space research programs in both Japan and India. Low-cost launches are shown to be available in the form of the Ariane Structure for Auxiliary Payloads, the Pegasus and Delta vehicles, and with the Shuttle Free-flying Getaway Special. Small-satellite technologies that play key roles in their effective implementation are: structure/thermal advances, attitude control systems, on-board communications, and power and data-handling systems.

  16. Brazilian Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Himilcon

    Brazilian experience with micro scientific satellites began in 1995 with the SACI project that comprised 2 scientific satellites that carried onboard experiments from Brazil, Japan and US. The first one failed after launch (1998) and the second was lost during the second launch attempt of the Brazilian national launcher, VLS, in1999. Started by 1997, the French-Brazilian Microsatellite Project comprised a set of 9 experiments from French and Brazilian scientists. The project was terminated by the French side in 2002. Currently, there are two ongoing science projects, MIRAX (devoted to X-Ray astronomy) and EQUARS (to study the higher atmosphere). These projects include experiments from US, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, and Brazil, with launch scheduled to 2011 or 2012. This paper presents a brief summary of the history of the development of these satellites along with some highlights on the Brazilian Space Program.

  17. Uranus satellites - Surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Brown, R. H.; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1991-01-01

    The post-Voyager knowledge of the photometric, colorimetric, spectral, and thermal properties of the Uranian satellites is reviewed, focusing on such fundamental physical properties as albedo, color, and surface texture. While albedo variations of at least a factor of 2 exist, color differences are almost absent (Miranda) or subdued (Oberon). In the case of Titania, the strong opposition effect reported by ground-based observers was confirmed by Voyager. Voyager did not observe the opposition parts of the phase curves of the other satellites. Voyager thermal observations of Ariel and Miranda suggest that both have highly porous regoliths, thermophysically similar to those of Jupiter's icy satellites. At the time of the flyby (south pole facing the sun), maximum surface temperatures reached or exceeded 85 K, but nighttime polar temperatures are predicted to drop to 20 to 30 K because each pole spends about 40 yr in darkness. Ground-based spectroscopy identified water ice as an important surface constituent.

  18. Satellite failures revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  19. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  20. Satellite sale update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A senior Department of Commerce official whose connections with the Communications Satellite Corp. (Comsat) regarding the proposed sale of the weather and land satellites (Eos, March 22, 1983, p. 113) have been the subject of congressional inquiry has resigned. Comsat is considered the frontrunner of those looking to purchase the satellites.Guy W. Fiske, Deputy Secretary of Commerce, submitted his letter of resignation on May 10; the resignation became effective May 14. He had been scheduled to testify to two House Science and Technology subcommittees this month on the nature, extent, and propriety of his relationship with Comsat. As Eos went to press, it was unclear whether Fiske would still be asked to testify.

  1. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  2. W-box and G-box elements play important roles in early senescence of rice flag leaf

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Xu, Wei; Hu, Xuesong; Liu, Haoju; Lin, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Plant cis-elements play important roles in global regulation of gene expression. Based on microarray data from rice flag leaves during early senescence, we identified W-box and G-box cis-elements as positive regulators of senescence in the important rice variety Minghui 63. Both cis-elements were bound by leaf senescence-specific proteins in vitro and influenced senescence in vivo. Furthermore, combination of the two elements drove enhanced expression during leaf senescence, and copy numbers of the cis-elements significantly affected the levels of expression. The W-box is the cognate cis-element for WRKY proteins, while the G-box is the cognate cis-element for bZIP, bHLH and NAC proteins. Consistent with this, WRKY, bZIP, bHLH and NAC family members were overrepresented among transcription factor genes up-regulated according during senescence. Crosstalk between ABA, CTK, BR, auxin, GA and JA during senescence was uncovered by comparing expression patterns of senescence up-regulated transcription factors. Together, our results indicate that hormone-mediated signaling could converge on leaf senescence at the transcriptional level through W-box and G-box elements. Considering that there are very few documented early senescence-related cis-elements, our results significantly contribute to understanding the regulation of flag leaf senescence and provide prioritized targets for stay-green trait improvement. PMID:26864250

  3. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  4. Satellites For Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'For Sale' sign refering to the two satellites, Palapa B-2 and Westar 6 that they retrieved from orbit after their Payload Assist Modules (PAM) failed to fire. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen IV, who also participated in the two EVAs, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar 6 nearer Discovery's aft.

  5. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  6. Mexico's first domestic satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, M. E.; Elbert, B. R.

    The principal features of the Morelos communications satellite program, providing Mexico with C-band and Ku-band TV and telephone services beginning in 1985, are reviewed. Two satellites, modified versions of the Hughes HS-376 dual-spin bus, will be launched by STS and controlled from a tracking, telemetery, and command station near Mexico City; the 184-station ground network currently operating with Intelsat-IV will be expanded to about 1000 C-band stations (plus numerous small Ku-band receivers) by 1990. The spacecraft design, communications-subsystem performance, repeater equipment, antennas, and coverage pattern are presented in tables, drawings, diagrams, photographs and maps and discussed.

  7. Satellite Laser Ranging operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) is currently providing precision orbit determination for measurements of: 1) Ocean surface topography from satellite borne radar altimetry, 2) Spatial and temporal variations of the gravity field, 3) Earth and ocean tides, 4) Plate tectonic and regional deformation, 5) Post-glacial uplift and subsidence, 6) Variations in the Earth's center-of-mass, and 7) Variations in Earth rotation. SLR also supports specialized programs in time transfer and classical geodetic positioning, and will soon provide precision ranging to support experiments in relativity.

  8. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  9. Oceanography from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. S.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that oceanographers have benefited from the space program mainly through the increased efficiency it has brought to ship operations. For example, the Transit navigation system has enabled oceanographers to compile detailed maps of sea-floor properties and to more accurately locate moored subsurface instrumentation. General descriptions are given of instruments used in satellite observations (altimeter, color scanner, infrared radiometer, microwave radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar). It is pointed out that because of the large volume of data that satellite instruments generate, the development of algorithms for converting the data into a form expressed in geophysical units has become especially important.

  10. Declassified intelligence satellite photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    Recently declassified photographs from spy satellites are an important addition to the record of the Earth?s land surface held by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). More than 800,000 high-resolution photos taken between 1959 through 1972 were made available by Executive Order of the President. The collection is held at the USGS EROS Data Center, near Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and are offered for public sale. For some purposes in earth science studies, these photos extend the record of changes in the land surface another decade back in time from the advent of the Landsat earth-observing satellite program.

  11. Public service satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the high effective isotropic radiated power provided by high-power satellite transmitters and high-gain antennas could be used in conjunction with economical ground receivers to furnish public services in remote areas of the U.S. Applications to health care, education and public safety are mentioned. A system concept involving a communications satellite operating in the Ku-band (12-GHz down, 14-GHz up) and either 100/30 watt stationary earth terminals with 1-1.8 m antennas or mobile terminals with omnidirectional antennas is presented.

  12. Satellite altitude determination uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Satellite altitude determination uncertainties will be discussed from the standpoint of the GEOS-C satellite, from the longer range viewpoint afforded by the Geopause concept. Data are focused on methods for short-arc tracking which are essentially geometric in nature. One uses combinations of lasers and collocated cameras. The other method relies only on lasers, using three or more to obtain the position fix. Two typical locales are looked at, the Caribbean area, and a region associated with tracking sites at Goddard, Bermuda and Canada which encompasses a portion of the Gulf Stream in which meanders develop.

  13. Numerical simulation of satellite-ring interactions - Resonances and satellite-ring torques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Esposito, Larry W.; Stewart, Glen R.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    The Krook kinetic equation for planetary rings is numerically solved in two spatial dimensions and in time, with (1) interparticle collisions and (2) satellite-forcing, but (3) without self-gravity, for the case of a flattened planetary ring that undergoes gravitational perturbation by a nearby satellite. It is noted that the amplitude of wakes is limited by purely kinematic effects, even in the absence of collisions. Attention is given to the results of a simulation of an inner Lindblad-resonance location, as the distribution approaches steady state; these simulations do not show an increase in velocity dispersion in the resonance zone, obviating a net torque.

  14. Tracking the GLOMR satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith W.; Oneil, Jason C.

    1987-01-01

    The task of day-to-day low orbiting satellite tracking utilizing the NAVSPASUR orbital elements is discussed and methods for improving pass time predictions are presented. Estimates are needed for preprogramming of satellite-initiated communications scheduling which requires an accuracy of approximately 30 seconds. This can be achieved by removing the variance associated with the NAVSPASUR D sub 2 (decay) term. Finally, the shock evidenced in GLOMR's orbit on February 7, 1986 is documented and attributed to a severe solar storm with immediately enhanced drag. GLOMR's life expectancy in orbit is now estimated to have dropped approximately 17% by the end of orbit in early February, 1987.

  15. Active damping and compensation of satellite appendages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, W.; Baier, H.

    1993-10-01

    Future space missions will employ large and, for lightweight reasons, extremely flexible structures with very high performance requirements such as high pointing accuracy and stability, and high shape precision. This requires actively damping out vibrations induced by spacecraft maneuvers. The damping of the solar array vibrations is a characteristic task for such active interface devices. The example of an active interface for damping the bending vibrations of large conventional solar arrays is addressed. Other typical active components are active tube sections for damping the vibrations of large booms, and interfaces between satellite and vibrating large masts carrying high precision reflectors or measurement systems. The mechanical properties of the interfaces and the technological requirements related to their development are determined. New 'smart' materials are prominent among current concerns. Piezoelectric polymer foils bonded to structural shell surfaces, embedded thin piezoceramics plates, and embedded fiber optics sensors, as well as the implementation of materials such as memory alloys, are here addressed.

  16. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.512 Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box;...

  17. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.512 Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box;...

  18. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  19. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  20. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.